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Updated: 7/13/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Formosan

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*C   

Ce    Cu    

29953

*Cabu to wrap

6635

PAN     *Cabu to wrap

Formosan
Saisiyat sabowrap
Kavalan tabuwrapping, binding (as on a wound)
  sa-tabu-ancloth to wrap with
Paiwan tsavua wrapping; fingerless gloves for work in fields
Amis tafoto wrap up, to make a bundle

6636

PAN     *C<um>abu to wrap

Formosan
Proto-Atayalic *c<um>abuto wrap
Saisiyat s<um>aboto wrap
Kavalan t<m>abuto wrap, dress a wound
Paiwan t<m>avuto package, wrap

29941

*Cali cultivated taro: Colocasia esculenta

6621

PAN     *Cali cultivated taro: Colocasia esculenta

Formosan
Seediq salitaro (edible)
Thao lharitaro: Colocasia esculenta
Bunun taitaro
Amis talitaro

Note:   Also Rukai (Tona) tai ‘taro’ (probably a loan from Bunun ). PAn *Cali was replaced by PMP *tales. This comparison was first noted by Li (1994).

29897

*Capuh sweep

6562

PAN     *Capuh sweep

Formosan
Saisiyat sapœhsweep

6563

PAN     *Ca-Capuh broom

Formosan
Atayal (Mayrinax) ca-capuhbroom (women’s speech)
Pazeh sa-sapuhbroom
Thao ca-capubroom made of bamboo

9609

PAN     *C<um>apu to sweep

Formosan
Atayal (Mayrinax) c<um>apuhto sweep (women’s speech)
Pazeh mu-sapuhsweep
Thao c<m>apusweep

Note:   Strikingly similar forms like SANG ma-napu ‘sweep’ : sa-sapu ‘brush, broom’ in Malayo-Polynesian languages appear to be distinct, since they cannot be reconciled with Formosan forms that uniformly point to initial *C.

29898

*CawiN year

6564

PAN     *CawiN year

Formosan
Bunun ka-tavinlast year
Kanakanabu cain-án-ayear
Saaroa cailhiyear
Proto-Rukai *caviliyear
Siraya tawilyear
Paiwan tsavilʸyear

Note:   This comparison was first noted by Tsuchida (1976:145).

TOP      Ce    Cu    

Ce

29954

*CebuN smoke

6637

PAN     *CebuN smoke

Formosan
Saisiyat ka-sbolsmoke
Paiwan tsevulʸsmoke
  ts<m>evulʸbe smoky; perform type of ritual action
  ma-tsevulʸbothered by smoke, smoke-filled

30243

*Cebuŋ to meet, come together

7116

PAN     *Cebuŋ to meet, come together

Formosan
Saisiyat sa-seboŋmeet
Tsou tro-cfuŋ-aconfluence of rivers
Kanakanabu cuvúŋ-unuconfluence of rivers
Saaroa taru-cuvuŋu-aconfluence of rivers
  taru-a-cuvuŋuto meet
Puyuma a-Tebuŋto find
  ki-Tebuŋto meet; to welcome
  kir-Tebuŋto meet with one person
  mar-Tebuŋtwo people meet
  mar-Tebuŋ-anmeetings
  mar-Tebuŋ-Tebuŋseveral people meet
  p<in>ar-Tebuŋbe reunited
Paiwan tsevuŋto meet; something held in common (as field jointly owned)
  ki-tsevuŋgo to meet someone; to fete someone returning home
  me-tsevuŋto meet (as two persons, or two ends of necklace)

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Tsuchida (1976:215) who, however, attributed it to ‘Proto-Southern Formosan’ despite including the Saisiyat form.

33187

*Ceked to rest, take a break from work or other activity

11688

PAN     *Ceked to rest, take a break from work or other activity

Formosan
Kavalan tqezto stop, to rest for awhile when walking
Pazeh mu-seketto rest, to stop
  seked-iTake a rest!
Pazeh (Kahabu) mə-səkədto rest
  sə-səkədto be resting

29942

*CekeS kind of very slender bamboo

6622

PAN     *CekeS kind of very slender bamboo

Formosan
Thao shkishthe slenderest type of bamboo, sometimes used as a buffalo whip, or with hook attached as a fruiting pole
Rukai (Mantauran) cekeʔethin bamboo sp.
Amis tkessmall species of bamboo
Paiwan tsekesthin bamboo (used for pipe stems, arrow shafts); a pipestem

Note:   As noted in Blust (1995) Thao shkish is one of a number of forms that show ‘sibilant assimilation’.

29899

*Cemel grass, herbs; medicine

6565

PAN     *Cemel grass, herbs; medicine

Formosan
Pazeh semergrass (just beginning to grow)
Thao lhmirgrass, weeds, herbs; medicine
Paiwan tsemelplants (generic, excluding trees); medicine (including now pills and injections)
  pu-tsemeltreat with medicine; a doctor

6566

PAN     *Ceme-Cemel uncultivated land

Formosan
Pazeh seme-semergrassland
Paiwan tseme-tsemeluncultivated land
Paiwan (Western) tse-tsemela grass field

TOP      Ce    Cu    

Cu

29900

*Cumay Formosan black bear

6567

PAN     *Cumay Formosan black bear

Formosan
Seediq sumaythe Formosan black bear
Saisiyat somaythe Formosan black bear
Thao cumaythe Formosan black bear: Selenarctos thibetanus formosanus (Swinhoe)
Bunun tumazthe Formosan black bear
Tsou cmoithe Formosan black bear
Kanakanabu cumáithe Formosan black bear
Saaroa cumiʔithe Formosan black bear
Proto-Rukai comaythe Formosan black bear
Favorlang/Babuza chomathe Formosan black bear
Amis tomaythe Formosan black bear; be fierce, violent
Siraya tumeythe Formosan black bear
Puyuma Tumaythe Formosan black bear
Paiwan tsumaythe Formosan black bear

Note:   Also Seediq kumay ‘the Formosan black bear’. This word is almost universal among the Formosan languages, being absent only from Atayal (ŋarux), Pazeh (taŋadex) and Taokas (gussin, ŋalo). There can be little doubt that *Cumay was found in PAn, but it was lost when Austronesian speakers moved into the Philippines, which has no bears. Centuries later on reaching Borneo they encountered the Malayan sun bear (Ursus malayanus) and innovated a new term, *baRuaŋ/biRuaŋ for this closely related but distinct animal. The history of Atayal ŋarux, Taokas ŋalo, which appear to be related, is unclear.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 7/13/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Formosan-Index-C