Introduction      Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Subgroups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References+      Roots      Loans      Near      Noise      Formosan      
Updated: 4/20/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Formosan

 a    b    C    d    g    i    k    l    m    n    N    ŋ    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w   

*n   

ne    

29961

*nay deictic particle: this

6644

PAN     *nay deictic particle: this

Formosan
Thao i-nayhere, this, these
  ki-naynext to, by; stay by
  mu-naycome
Kavalan naythat

TOP      ne    

ne

30340

*nema what thing?

7324

PAN     *nema what thing?

Formosan
Thao numawhat? why?
  ma-i-numafor what reason?
  malhka-ka-numado what? perform what?
  ma-numa-numasomething, anything
  min-numabecome what?
Favorlang/Babuza nummawhat?
  naan o nummawhat name?
  ta o nummawhat country?
  nummawhat?
Rukai ma-nəmawhat? (Ferrell 1969)
Puyuma ma-nəmawhat? (Ferrell 1969)
Paiwan a-nemawhat? what thing?
  nema-ŋaa thing
  a-nema-tsuwhat is this?
  se-nemabelonging to what place (village, nation)?
  na-nema-nema-ŋaeverything, all sorts of things

Note:   The PAn interrogative system does not appear to have had a one-to-one correspondence with that of English. The interrogative morpheme *-nu combined with *a- in *anu to form the indefinite or reflexive interrogative ‘what-cha-ma-callit’ (in which the speaker, in effect, asks in soliloquy what it is he is trying to recall), with *i- ‘locative’ in *inu to form ‘where?’, and in individual languages with other elements to form various interrogative expressions, as with Atayal (Squliq) nanu ‘what?’, Siraya manno ‘when?’ or Yami sinu ‘who?’. The word reconstructed here differs from these in lacking *-nu, and possibly in referring only to nouns (cp. the ‘thing’ sense in Thao ma-numa-numa and various of the Paiwan derivatives). The change *e > u/__m is recurrent in both Thao and Favorlang/Babuza/BABZ, as *lemlem ‘dark’ > Thao ma-rumrum ‘dim, unlit’, and *dalem > Favorlang/Babuza/BABZ lallum (/lalum/) ‘inside’.

 a    b    C    d    g    i    k    l    m    n    N    ŋ    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w   


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 4/20/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Formosan-Index-n