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Updated: 8/10/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Formosan

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*p   

pe    pi    pu    

29945

*pajiS enemy

6625

PAN     *pajiS enemy

Formosan
Atayal parisenemy
Seediq paisenemy, adversary
Thao pazishenemy; one of the names for the Atayal and Seediq
Bunun paisenemy
Favorlang/Babuza mazjiesenmity

Note:   Also Favorlang/Babuza azjies ‘enemy.’

30538

*paNiŋ door

7822

PAN     *paNiŋ door

Formosan
Pazeh paliŋwall
Tsou phi-phiŋidoor
Paiwan palʸiŋdoor

32879

*paqeju gall, gall bladder

11338

PAN     *paqeju gall, gall bladder

Formosan
Saisiyat pæʔzoʔgall, gall bladder
Bunun paqavgall, gall bladder
Tsou paugall, gall bladder
Proto-Rukai *pagogall, gall bladder

Note:   This variant is confined to Formosan languages, but these belong to several geographically separated primary branches of the family, so its antiquity is guaranteed. It appears likely that PAn had both *paqeju and *qapeju, and that only the latter survived in PMP. This comparison was first noted in print by Tsuchida (1976:224).

29917

*pataS tattoo

6590

PAN     *pataS tattoo

Formosan
Atayal patastattoo
Seediq patastattooing (original); book, writing (modern)
Favorlang/Babuza pattasto paint, write
Thao patashwrite, writing
Bunun pataswrite

11005

PAN     *p<um>ataS to tattoo, make designs

Formosan
Atayal matasto tattoo
Seediq matasto write, paint, tattoo
Thao matashto write

11006

PAN     *pataS-an an instrument for tattooing

Formosan
Atayal pətas-anbe tattooed
Seediq pətas-anplace or instrument for writing or studying
Thao patash-anwhat is written: letter, book, word
Bunun patas-anwhat is written down: words

TOP      pe    pi    pu    

pe

30309

*pedel to wring out, as water from wet clothes

7257

PAN     *pedel to wring out, as water from wet clothes

Formosan
Pazeh pee-pederis squeezing (wringing out) clothes
Puyuma pəɖəɭto squeeze, extract from

29946

*peSiq squeeze out juice; squirt out

6626

PAN     *peSiq squeeze out juice; squirt out

Formosan
Thao kum-pshiqsquirt under pressure; splash
  pa-pshiqspray water from mouth; splash water
  pshiq-anbe splashed
Amis psiʔto smash dead, as an insect; to squeeze juice
  ma-psiʔsqueeze out juice, as from a pepper

TOP      pe    pi    pu    

pi

32263

*pi- causative of location

10554

PAN     *pi- causative of location

Formosan
Thao pi-causative of location; pi-nay ‘put something here’, pi-lhilhi ‘help someone who has fallen get up’
Paiwan pi-causative of location; pi-vavaw ‘put on top’, pi-taladj ‘put something inside’

30265

*piad dish, plate

7147

PAN     *piad dish, plate

Formosan
Kavalan piazdish, plate
Puyuma piaɖa shallow wooden plate (obsolete term, undeciphered; used in translating the Gospels)
Paiwan (Southern) piaḍplate, dish

TOP      pe    pi    pu    

pu

32264

*pu- causative of motion

10555

PAN     *pu- causative of motion

Formosan
Thao pu-prefix marking the causative of motion verbs; pu-lhilhi ‘to erect something’, pu-taun ‘put in a house’, pu-caqi ‘to defecate’
Puyuma pu-prefix marking the causative of motion verbs; pu-dare ‘throw or put on the ground’, pu-enai ‘to water, put water on’, pu-Taqi ‘spread manure on the fields’
Paiwan pu-prefix marking the causative of motion verbs; pu-zaLum ‘put water on or in’, pu-tsaqi ‘to defecate’

29947

*puja navel, umbilical cord

6627

PAN     *puja navel, umbilical cord   [doublet: *pujek]

Formosan
Proto-Atayalic *pugaʔnavel
Pazeh puzanavel
Taokas putanavel
Thao puzanavel
Amis ponanavel
Papora pudanavel
Basai punanavel

29948

*pujek navel, umbilical cord

6628

PAN     *pujek navel, umbilical cord   [doublet: *puja]

Formosan
Saisiyat pozoknavel
Saaroa pəlhəkənavel
Puyuma pudeknavel; umbilical cord
Paiwan pudeknavel; umbilical cord

Note:   Also Tsou pucku, Bunun pusuq, Proto-Rukai *pəkə, Favorlang/Babuza pollol, Siraya poucol, Kavalan busel ‘navel’. For reasons that remain obscure, there is an extraordinary amount of variation in phonetically similar forms meaning ‘navel’ throughout the AN language family. Both *puja and *pujek can be posited in PAn, but phonologically incompatible forms that begin with *pu- occur in a number of other Formosan languages. This word was replaced in PMP by *pusej.

30405

*pukaw₁ night-blindness, nyctalopia

7524

PAN     *pukaw night-blindness, nyctalopia

Formosan
Kavalan m-puqawblind

7525

PAN     *ma-pukaw dim, of vision

Formosan
Kavalan m-puqawblind
Thao ma-pukawhaving dim vision, especially nyctalopia

29962

*punuq brain, marrow

6645

PAN     *punuq₁ brain, marrow

Formosan
Pazeh punuhead
  ma-punustupid
Thao punuqhead
  pam-punuqput something on the head, as a head decoration
Bunun punuqbrain
Rukai (Budai) ponoforehead
Kavalan punuqscalp infection
Amis ponoʔbrain
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) punuHbrain
Paiwan punuqbrain; (in Western dialect: bone marrow)

Note:   There is a longstanding tradition, going back at least as far as Tsuchida (1976:172), in which this widely-reflected term in Formosan languages is regarded as cognate with Central Philippine forms such as Tagalog púnoʔ ‘chief, leader, head’, the connection being made through the meaning ‘head’. However, the comparative evidence does not support this interpretation at all. First, the meaning ‘head’ in association with Tagalog púnoʔ is found only in a figurative sense, never a literal sense. Tagalog púnoʔ and similar forms in other Central Philippine languages clearly reflect PMP *puqun ‘base of a tree, foundation; beginning, source, origin’, a meaning that is applied to high-status social roles in several parts of the Austronesian world (e.g. the mother’s brother in both northern Sumatra and much of the Lesser Sundas where matrilateral cross cousin marriage is the culturally favored norm, founder of a longhouse among the Iban, spiritual leader among the Badui sect of Sundanese speakers in west Java). That púnoʔ ‘chief, leader, head’ is a metathesized form of *puqun is clear from Tagalog púnoʔ ‘beginning, source, origin; base; tree’.

29993

*puNi whiteness

6684

PAN     *puNi whiteness

Formosan
Thao puziwhiteness
  mim-puzibecome white
Rukai (Budai) po-poliwhite

6685

PAN     *ma-puNi white

Formosan
Thao ma-puziwhite
Saaroa ma-polhiwhite
Rukai (Tona) ma-ʔoliwhite
Rukai (Mantauran) ma-poliwhite
Favorlang/Babuza ma-usiwhite
Siraya ma-pulewhite

Note:   This term was replaced in PMP by *ma-putiq.

29963

*puSaN twice

6646

PAN     *puSaN twice

Formosan
Thao mu-pushaztwice
Tsou eipo-psoh-itwice
  o-psoh-igo twice
Kavalan qi-pusanthe second; twice

6647

PAN     *ma-puSaN twenty

Formosan
Proto-Atayalic *ma-pusaltwenty
Taokas mapusantwenty
Thao ma-pushaztwenty
Bunun ma-pusantwenty
Tsou m-puskutwenty
Rukai (Tona) ma-ʔosaletwenty
Rukai (Budai) ma-posaletwenty

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 8/10/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Formosan-Index-p