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Updated: 4/20/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Formosan

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*q   

qe    qi    qu    

30406

*qa₂ interrogative particle

7526

PAN     *qa₂ interrogative particle

Formosan
Thao qainterrogative particle, as in ma-cuaw ihu ma-ania qa (very-2s-intelligent-ip) ‘Are you really so smart?’
Kavalan iinterrogative particle, as in q<m>am ti isu i (eat.av-pm-2s-ip) ‘Have you eaten yet?’

Note:   Given the brevity of this form and the fact that the comparison is currently confined to just two languages the similarity between Thao qa and Kavalan i may be due to chance. However, the sound correspondences are regular, the meaning and distribution are identical, and there is no other competitor that has been reconstructed in this meaning or function.

30250

*qadiS hawk sp. (harrier?)

7125

PAN     *qadiS hawk sp. (harrier?)

Formosan
Saisiyat ʔæriʃsmall hawk
Paiwan qaḍislarge white hawk, Eastern marsh harrier: Circus aeruginosus spilonotus

Note:   Also Kavalan Rzis ‘crested goshawk’. This term clearly referred to some type of hawk, but the exact referent remains uncertain. PAn *kuaw may also have designated a kind of hawk, so it is very likely that lexical distinctions existed for at least two types of hawk in PAn. Unlike the description given for Paiwan qaḍis, most harriers are small to middle-sized birds of prey, which would fit the description of Saisiyat ʔæris, although no further information is given about its meaning.

30226

*qanus₁ a plant: Begonia aptera (Hay)

7084

PAN     *qanus₁ a plant: Begonia aptera (Hay)

Formosan
Atayal (Mayrinax) qa-qnusa plant: Begonia aptera
Bunun (Takituduh) qanusa plant: Begonia aptera

Note:   Also Kavalan ʔenus ‘a plant: Begonia aptera’. This comparison was noted by Li (1994).

30251

*qaNa stranger; enemy

7126

PAN     *qaNa stranger; enemy

Formosan
Saisiyat ʔælaenemy
Amis ʔadaenemy
  misa-ʔadado evil against; make a person out to be bad
Puyuma ʔala-ʔalastranger to the group (other Austronesians); enemy
  pi-ʔalabecome an enemy
Paiwan qalʸaenemy, stranger
  qalʸa-qalʸaoutsiders, guests from other villages
  q<in>alʸá-nvillage
  si-ka-ta-qalʸá-none’s own villagers
Paiwan (Western) q<m>alʸa-qalʸato entertain guests
  se-qalʸato be shy
  tju-qalʸaother villages

Note:   Because PAn *pajiS ‘enemy’ can be reconstructed on the basis of Formosan-only data, and none of the glosses in published sources mention ‘stranger’, I assume that *qaNa and *pajiS differed in meaning, the former meaning essentially ‘stranger, someone not from our group’, and the latter ‘enemy’. Given the insecure conditions in which tribal societies often lived it is hardly surprising that the notion ‘stranger’ would easily include that of ‘enemy’, and the delicate ambivalence between guest and enemy (the positive reception of the outsider vs. the negative reception of the outsider) that is so penetratingly discussed in the Indo-European context by Benveniste (1973:71-83) is also reflected in various forms of this term, which include ‘enemy’, ‘stranger’, ‘guest’ and ‘one’s own villagers’.

29964

*qaRidaŋ bean, pea (generic)

6648

PAN     *qaRidaŋ bean, pea (generic)

Formosan
Atayal (Mayrinax) qagiraŋbean, pea
Pazeh xaidaŋ <Mbeans
  maxa-xaidaŋto have smallpox
Bunun qalidaŋpigeon peas
Tsou recŋipigeon peas
Kanakanabu ʔaricaŋpigeon peas
Saaroa ʔarisaŋpigeon peas
Siraya agisaŋbroad beans
Paiwan qarizaŋstring beans

Note:   Also Amis kalitaŋ ‘string beans, green beans’. This comparison was first noted by Li (1994).

29965

*qaRiw dry

6649

PAN     *qaRiw dry

Formosan
Saisiyat ʔæL-ʔæLiwdry
Thao qalhiwdryness
  ma-qalhiwdry (as clothes that have been washed, a riverbed, etc.)
  miŋ-qalhiwbecome dry, dry up
Bunun ma-qalivdry, as a riverbed or fish that have been dried for preservation

Note:   Based on its limited geographical spread this may be a loan distribution, but there is nothing in the sound correspondences that would lead us to this conclusion.

TOP      qe    qi    qu    

qe

29943

*qeCeŋeN black

6623

PAN     *qeCeŋeN black

Formosan
Kavalan teŋenblack
Proto-Rukai *mai-ceɭeŋe <Mblack
Paiwan qetseŋelblack
  pa-pe-qetseŋelto blacken

Note:   This comparison is somewhat problematic in that Paiwan has a trisyllabic base corresponding to a disyllable in Kavalan and the Rukai languages. Since the initial CV- in Paiwan qetseŋel cannot be explained as a product of morphology it is assumed that the PAn base was trisyllabic, and that both Kavalan and Proto-Rukai have lost the initial syllable. This would not be surprising, since *q regularly disappeared in both Kavalan and Proto-Rukai, and this change would have left a schwa in prepenultimate initial position, where it would have been exceptionally vulnerable to elision. Because color terms regularly take the stative prefix *ma- it is possible that the Proto-Rukai form should be *ma-iceɭeŋe, and that the *i is an irregular reflex of the prepenultimate schwa.

29966

*qelqel chew, gnaw on

6650

PAN     *qelqel chew, gnaw on

Formosan
Thao qirqirbite; grind the teeth
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) HerHerchew, masticate

29919

*qelud housepost, pillar

6593

PAN     *qelud housepost, pillar

Formosan
Saisiyat (Taai) kæ-ʔLorhousepost
Thao qrushousepost
Paiwan qeluzmain house pillar (which supports ridge pole)
Pazeh urutpillar
Pazeh (Kahabu) urudpillar, post

29994

*qemu sticky rice cake

6686

PAN     *qemu sticky rice cake

Formosan
Thao qmusticky rice; sticky rice cake
Amis ʔəmuNew Year’s cake, made of sweet sticky rice
Puyuma Hemuflour
Paiwan qemusomething that has been beaten in a mortar, as millet into flour
  ma-qemubecome pulverized
  q<in>emuflour

TOP      qe    qi    qu    

qi

29995

*qiNaS moon, month

6687

PAN     *qiNaS moon, month

Formosan
Saisiyat ʔilaʃmoon, month
Pazeh ilasmoon, month
Favorlang/Babuza idasmoon, month
Paiwan qilʸasmoon, month
  qilʸas-anmoonlight

Note:   Possibly a loan, although the chances of this seem slight. This term is in competition with PAn *bulaN for the meaning ‘moon, month’. Since there is no obvious basis for distinguishing the meanings they represent this apparent synonymy remains puzzling. Only *bulan survived in PMP.

TOP      qe    qi    qu    

qu

29967

*qubiS pubic hair

6651

PAN     *qubiS pubic hair

Formosan
Tsou fsi-fsipubic hair
Rukai (Tona) obisipubic hair
Rukai (Maga) ubisipubic hair
Rukai (Mantauran) oviʔipubic hair
Puyuma qubipubic hair
Paiwan quvispubic hair, axillary hair

Note:   This term was replaced in PMP by *bulu.

29968

*qudaS gray hair

6652

PAN     *qudaS gray hair

Formosan
Proto-Atayalic *qudasgray hair
Bunun qudasgrandparent
Kanakanabu ʔusásəgray hair
Saaroa ʔusáəgray hair
Proto-Rukai *ʔoɖasəgray hair
Paiwan quḍaswhite hair
  pe-quḍasto become white-haired

Note:   Also Thao qutash ‘gray hair’, qutash-in ‘to have/get gray hair’, Tsou (Tsuchida 1976:194, fn. 69) ŋtosə ‘gray hair’. Both *qubaN and *qudaS can be reconstructed with the meaning ‘gray hair’ in PAn, and the distinction between them remains to be clarified. This comparison was first recognized in print by Tsuchida (1976:153).

30278

*qulas dewdrop

7189

PAN     *qulas dewdrop

Formosan
Kavalan uRasdew
Puyuma ʔuɭasdewdrop (in ritual the pair is muti-ʔuɭas, muti-auɭas ‘transformed into dew, transformed in the world of the dead)

31102

*quyaS to sing; song, tune, melody

9074

PAN     *quyaS to sing; song, tune, melody

Formosan
Atayal quassong
  m-quasto sing
Seediq ma-hoyeshto sing (Ferrell 1969)
Thao ma-qa-quyashto sing
  shan-quyash-inbe chanted over; be cursed through shamanistic chanting
Bunun ka-hoðasto sing (Ferrell 1969)

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 4/20/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Formosan-Index-q