Updated: 1/14/2017
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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Index to Sets

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   


ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    

*-a₁   PAN *-a₁, imperative suffix. Formosan WMP OC

*-a₃   PAN *-a₃, subjunctive suffix. Formosan WMP

*a₁   PMP *a₁, article. WMP OC

*a₂   PMP *a₂, conjunction: and. WMP OC

*-a₂   PMP *-a₂, 3sg. object. WMP OC;  PAN *ni-á, 3sg. agent/possessor. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *-ña, 3sg. possessor of inalienable possessed nouns. OC

*a₃   PMP *a₃, exclamation, interjection. WMP CMP OC

*a₄   PAN *a₄, hesitation particle. Formosan WMP CMP OC

*a₅   PAN *a₅, ligature. Formosan WMP OC

*abá   PWMP *abá, exclamation: ah!, oh!, alas!. WMP

*aba₁   PAN *aba₁, father. Formosan WMP CMP

*aba₂   PPh *aba₂, carry pick-a-back. WMP

*abag   PPh *abag, join forces, cooperate in working. WMP

*abaká   PPh *abaká, Manila hemp: Musa textilis. WMP

*abal abal   PPh *abal abal, beetle sp.. WMP

*abaŋ₁   PMP *abaŋ₁, ambush, block the way; obstacle, hindrance. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-abaŋ, to block the way, ambush someone. WMP

*abaŋ₂   PWMP *abaŋ₂, ditch. WMP;  PWMP *ŋ-abaŋ, make a gutter, ditch, or channel. WMP

*abaŋ₃   PPh *abaŋ₃, rent. WMP

*abat₁   PWMP *abat₁, support. WMP

*abat₂   PPh *abat₂, spirit that causes sickness. WMP

*abat₃   PCEMP *abat₃, wound, to wound. CMP SHWNG

*abaw   PMP *abaw, high, lofty. WMP OC

*abay   PWMP *abay, side by side. WMP

*a(m)bek   PWMP *a(m)bek, mat. WMP

*abi   POC *abi, take hold of, grasp. OC

*abij   PPh *abij, copulate. WMP

*abijay   PPh *abijay, sling over the shoulder. WMP

*abit   PWMP *abit₁, climb. WMP

*abu abu   PWMP *abu abu, fish sp.. WMP

*abuat   PWMP *abuat, long (of objects). WMP

*abun   PWMP *abun, collect, gather. WMP

*abuqaŋ   PMP *abuqaŋ, beetle. WMP CMP

*abuR   PWMP *abuR, dust. WMP

*ábuR   PPh *ábuR, chase, drive away. WMP

*abus   PMP *abus, ash. WMP CMP

*abut   PMP *abut, pull up, root up. WMP OC


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*acaŋ   PWMP *acaŋ, dove, pigeon. WMP


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*aCab   PAN *aCab, a cover. Formosan WMP

*aCas   PAN *aCas, high, tall. Formosan;  PMP *atas, high, tall. WMP CMP OC;  PAN *i aCas, above, on top. Formosan;  PMP *i-atas, above, on top. WMP;  PWMP *ma-atas, tall, high. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-atas, lift or raise up. WMP;  POC *atas-ña, its top. OC

*aCay   PAN *aCay, death. Formosan;  PMP *atay, death. WMP;  PAN *ka-aCay, kill (?). Formosan WMP CMP;  PAN *ka-aCay-an, lose someone through death (?). Formosan WMP;  PAN *ma-aCay, die; dead; eclipse of sun or moon. Formosan;  PMP *m-atay, die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love. WMP;  PCEMP *matay₁, die; dead. CMP SHWNG;  POC *mate, die; dead. OC;  POC *mate-a, kill. OC;  PMP *m-atay-an, lose someone through death. WMP;  POC *mate-an, death. OC;  POC *mate-qaŋa, death. OC;  POC *mate-na, dead. OC;  PMP *pa(ka)-m-atay, kill; commit suicide (?). WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *paka-mate, kill; commit suicide. OC;  POC *paka-mate-ia, kill. OC;  PWMP *paŋ-m-atay, kill. WMP;  PWMP *ka-m-atay, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *ka-m-atay-an, be affected by a death. WMP;  PWMP *m-atay anak, spirit dangerous to children. WMP;  PWMP *m-atay uRat, paralyzed. WMP;  PPh *na-aCay, dead. WMP;  PAN *pa-aCay, kill. Formosan;  PMP *p-atay, kill. WMP;  PWMP *ka-p-atay, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *ka-p-atay-an, end or death of something (?). WMP;  PWMP *ka-p-atay-en, death. WMP;  PWMP *p<in>atay, kill. WMP;  PAN *p-aCay-en, kill. Formosan WMP;  PAN *pa-p-aCay, kill. Formosan;  PMP *pa-p-atay, kill. WMP;  PWMP *pa-p-atay-an, kill. WMP;  PMP *in-atay, dead. WMP CMP;  PAN *m<in>aCay, burial ground (?). Formosan WMP;  POC *m<in>ate, die. OC;  PMP *ma-m-atay, as if dead?. WMP CMP;  POC *ma-mate, (gloss uncertain). OC;  PMP *m-atay m-atay, die in throngs; be on the verge of death. WMP CMP SHWNG OC


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*adaduq   PWMP *adaduq, long (of objects). WMP

*adamay   PMP *adamay, a plant: Pipturus argenteus. WMP CMP

*adani   PWMP *adani, near. WMP CMP

*adaS   PAN *adaS, bring, take along. Formosan;  PAN *um-adaS, bring. Formosan

*adawiN   PAN *adawiN, far. Formosan

*adep   PWMP *adep, chest. WMP

*adi   PAN *adi, no, not. Formosan WMP

*adu   PWMP *adu, compete, confront in a contest. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-adu, compete, confront in a contest. WMP

*aduq   PMP *aduq, exclamation of pain, distress, etc.. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-aduq, to exclaim in pain, distress, etc.. WMP

*a(n)duq   PWMP *a(n)duq, long, of objects. WMP


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*agam   PWMP *agam, consider, think. WMP

*agas   PWMP *agas, a tree: Aporosa spp.. WMP

*agem₁   PWMP *agem₁, hold, grip. WMP

*agem₂   PWMP *agem₂, use, get use from. WMP

*agem₃   PWMP *agem₃, overcast. WMP

*agu   PMP *agu, and, also. WMP CMP


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*ai₁   POC *ai₁, anaphoric or relative particle: there, previously mentioned place. OC

*ai₂   PAN *ai₂, interjection, exclamation of surprise, incredulity, etc.. WMP WMP CMP OC

*ai₃   PAN *ai₃, come. WMP;  PAN *um-ai, to come. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG;  POC *mai, come; toward the speaker. OC

*ait   POC *ait, copulate; copulation, sexual intercourse. OC


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*ajan   PMP *ajan, name. WMP OC;  PMP *pa(ka)-ajan, to name, give a name to. WMP OC

*ajem   PAN *ajem, heart; mind. Formosan

*ajiq   PWMP *ajiq, exclamation of pain or surprise. WMP


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*aka   PWMP *aka, elder sibling. WMP;  PWMP *aka-ŋ, elder sibling (vocative?). WMP;  PWMP *aka-q, elder sibling (vocative?). WMP

*akak   PMP *akak, cackling laughter. WMP CMP

*akaŋ   PWMP *akaŋ, take a long step, step over something. WMP

*akaR   PMP *akaR, root. WMP CMP OC

*ake   POC *ake, tree sp.. OC

*aken   PAN *aken, 1sg oblique. Formosan WMP

*akeq   PPH *akeq, 1sg oblique. WMP

*akerahaq   PMP *akerahaq, cry of a monkey. WMP CMP

*aki   PAN *aki, grandfather, ancestor. Formosan

*a(ŋ)kit   PMP *a(ŋ)kit, bite. WMP CMP;  PMP *um-a(ŋ)kit, to bite. WMP CMP

*aku   PAN *aku, 1sg nominative; I. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *aku-en, acknowledge; receive, accept. WMP;  PAN *k-aku, 1sg oblique: to me, for me. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-aku, admit, confess. WMP;  PMP *ni aku, 1sg. agent. WMP CMP OC;  POC *ŋau₂, 1sg.: I. OC


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*ala   PAN *ala, take, get, fetch, obtain; marry. Formosan WMP CMP OC;  PAN *ma-ala, take. Formosan WMP;  PAN *um-ala, to fetch, get, take. Formosan WMP;  PAN *ala-en, take. Formosan WMP

*alali   POC *alali, halibut, sole, flounder. OC

*alaŋ-alaŋ   PWMP *alaŋ-alaŋ, insufficient, half-heartedly. WMP

*alap   PAN *alap, fetch, get, take. Formosan WMP OC;  PWMP *ka-alap, fetch. WMP;  PWMP *ka-alap-an, fetch. WMP;  PAN *ma-alap, take. Formosan WMP;  PPh *maka-alap, able to fetch, get, take, reach. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-alap, fetch, get, take. WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-alap, means or instrument for catching. WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-alap-an, fetch. WMP;  PAN *in-alap, take. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *um-alap, fetch, get, take. WMP;  PWMP *alap-an, take. WMP;  PPH *alap-en, fetch, get, take. WMP

*alaq₁   PAN *alaq₁, fetch, get, take. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *ma-alaq, fetch. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-alaq₁, fetch, get, take. WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-alaq, get. WMP;  PAN *um-alaq, fetch, get, take. Formosan WMP;  PAN *alaq-en, take. Formosan WMP

*alaq₂   PWMP *alaq₂, defeat. WMP;  PWMP *ka-alaq, defeat. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-alaq₂, defeat, overcome. WMP

*alaq₃   PWMP *alaq₃, resemble. WMP

*alawid   PWMP *alawid, far. WMP

*alim   PAN *alim, forget. Formosan

*alinaw   PPh *alinaw, shadow. WMP

*aliq   PMP *aliq, move, change place. WMP OC

*aliten   PWMP *aliten, fire brand; unconsumed wood in a fire; charred wood. WMP

*alub   PWMP *alub, put in or over a fire. WMP

*alud   PWMP *alud, type of canoe. WMP

*aluja   PAN *aluja, to paddle. Formosan WMP OC;  PAN *pa-aluja, to paddle. Formosan WMP;  POC *paluca, to paddle. OC

*alujah   PAN *alujah, ant sp.. Formosan

*aluŋ   PMP *aluŋ, shade, shadow. WMP CMP OC

*aluten   PMP *aluten, burning brand; charred or smoldering wood. WMP CMP SHWNG


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*ama   PAN *ama, father. Formosan WMP CMP;  PAN *da-ama, father. Formosan WMP;  PAN *maR-ama, to be father and child. Formosan WMP;  PAN *si ama, father (ref.). Formosan WMP;  PAN *ta-ama, father (ref.). Formosan;  PMP *t-ama, father. WMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *ka-ama-en, father. WMP;  PWMP *kam-ama-an, father's brother. WMP;  PMP *pa(ka)-ama, treat like a father. WMP OC;  PWMP *paR-ama-en, relationship of father and child. WMP;  PWMP *paRi-ama, relationship of father and children. WMP;  POC *paRi-tama, relationship of father and children. OC;  PPh *ama-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *ama-en, uncle. WMP;  PMP *amá-ŋ, father (voc.). WMP CMP;  PAN *ama-ʔ, father (voc.). Formosan WMP CMP;  PMP *ama-i, father (voc.). WMP CMP;  PWMP *ama ama, step father. WMP

*amak   PWMP *amak, mat. WMP

*amaŋ amaŋ   PWMP *amaŋ amaŋ, dare to do something. WMP

*amaq   PWMP *amaq, to eat. WMP;  PWMP *amaq-an, eat. WMP

*amaRa   PWMP *amaRa, tree sp.. WMP

*amatu   POC *amatu, double-headed parrotfish. OC

*ambak   PMP *ambak, stamp or smack against. WMP CMP

*ambay   PWMP *ambay, wave back and forth. WMP

*amben   PWMP *amben, belly strap. WMP

*ambet   PWMP *ambet, strap; something wrapped around. WMP

*ambiq   PWMP *ambiq, extension to house. WMP

*ambit   PMP *ambit, seize with the hands. WMP CMP;  POC *abit₂, hold, get, take. OC;  PWMP *maŋ-ambit, take with the hands. WMP;  PWMP *maR-ambit, take with the hands. WMP

*ambun   PWMP *ambun, dew, mist, fog. WMP

*ambuŋ   PWMP *ambuŋ, proud, haughty. WMP

*ambuq   PWMP *ambuq, high, lofty. WMP

*amen   PAN *amen, 1pl ex oblique. Formosan WMP

*ameq   PWMP *ameq, 1pl ex oblique. WMP

*am(e)ʔin   PAN *am(e)ʔin, all; finished. Formosan WMP

*ami   PAN *ami, 1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we ( exclusive). Formosan WMP CMP;  PAN *i-ami, 1pl. excl. nominative, we. Formosan WMP;  PMP *kam-ami, 1pl. excl., we. WMP OC;  PAN *k-ami, 1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we ( exclusive). Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PMP *m-ami, 1pl. excl. genitive, our. WMP OC;  PAN *n-ami, 1pl. excl. genitive, our. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG

*amiaŋ   PWMP *amiaŋ, any plant with hairs that sting or cause itchiness. WMP

*ampal   PWMP *ampal, beetle sp.. WMP

*ampaw   PMP *ampaw, empty husk (of rice, etc.). WMP CMP

*ampeRij   PWMP *ampeRij, type of finch, rice bird. WMP

*ampet   PWMP *ampet, stanch the flow, as of blood. WMP

*ampias   PWMP *ampias, wind-driven rain. WMP

*ampik   PWMP *ampik, pat, clap. WMP

*ampin   PWMP *ampin, roll of leaves or cloth. WMP

*ampuk   PWMP *ampuk, scatter, disperse. WMP

*ampun   PMP *ampun, pardon, forgiveness. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-ampun, pardon, forgive. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-ampun-i, pardon, forgive. WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-ampun-an, forgiveness (?). WMP;  PWMP *ampun-an, pardon, forgiveness. WMP

*amu   PAN *amu, 2pl. nominative pronoun. Formosan WMP;  PAN *k-amu, 2pl. nominative, you all. Formosan;  PMP *kamu₂, 2pl. nominative, you all. WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PAN *n-amu, 2pl. genitive, your, by you. Formosan WMP;  PAN *kamu-yu, 2pl. nominative, you all. Formosan;  PMP *kamu-yu, 2pl. nominative and genitive; you all, your. WMP CMP OC


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*-an   PAN *-an, verbal suffix marking locative focus; nominal suffix marking location. Formosan WMP OC

*anabu   PWMP *anabu, shrub or small tree: Abroma augusta L.. WMP

*anaduq   PMP *anaduq, long (of objects). WMP CMP

*anaŋ   PWMP *anaŋ, dehortatory exclamation. WMP

*anapiŋ   PWMP *anapiŋ, cheek. WMP

*andap   PWMP *andap, phosphorescent centipede (?). WMP

*andiʔ   PWMP *um-andiʔ, to bathe (oneself). WMP;  PWMP *pa-andiʔ, to bathe (someone). WMP

*anduŋ   PMP *anduŋ, ancestors. WMP CMP

*aniŋal   PMP *aniŋal, echo. WMP CMP

*anipa   PMP *anipa, large snake sp.. WMP CMP

*ansaw   PWMP *ansaw, roam about. WMP

*antábay   PPh *antábay, stay with, accompany. WMP

*antad   PWMP *antad, open, spacious. WMP

*antap   PPh *antap, guess, suspect. WMP

*anteŋ   PWMP *anteŋ, still, calm, quiet. WMP

*ántiŋ   PPh *ántiŋ, hear at a distance. WMP

*anuliŋ   PMP *anuliŋ, a fruit-bearing plant: Pisonia umbellifera. WMP CMP OC

*anuqus   PWMP *anuqus, smoke. WMP

*anzak   PWMP *anzak, stamp the feet. WMP


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*aNak   PAN *aNak, child, offspring; son, daughter; interest on a loan. Formosan;  PMP *anak, child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan. WMP CMP;  PWMP *a-anak-an, doll. WMP;  PAN *aN-aNak, child. Formosan;  PMP *an-anak, child. WMP CMP;  PWMP *daŋ-sa-anak, relatives. WMP;  PPh *hin-anak-an, child. WMP;  PWMP *i-anak, give birth. WMP;  PMP *ka-anak, have a child. WMP CMP;  PAN *ma-anak, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PMP *ma-anak, child. WMP;  PWMP *maka-anak, consider as one's child. WMP;  PWMP *mampaR-anak aken, give birth to. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-anak, give birth. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-anak-i, child. WMP;  PMP *maR-anak, give birth; have a child. WMP CMP;  PAN *maRe-anak, parent and child. Formosan WMP;  PWMP *pa-anak-an, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-anak, smaller thing of a pair (?). WMP;  PWMP *paR-anak, act of giving birth (?). WMP;  PWMP *paR-anak-an, womb, uterus; birth canal. WMP;  PWMP *sa-anak, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PPh *saŋa-anak, litter, brood. WMP;  PWMP *um-anak, give birth, bear a child. WMP;  PWMP *ka-anak-an, time of birth (?). WMP;  PWMP *kam-anak-en, nephew, niece. WMP;  PWMP *anak-an, give birth. WMP;  PWMP *anak-en, brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking). WMP;  PWMP *anak anak, small child. WMP;  PWMP *anak anak-an, doll (?). WMP;  PMP *anak apij, twin. WMP CMP;  PMP *anak bahi, anak babahi, anak binahi, wife-taking lineage. WMP CMP;  PMP *anak buaq, relative (?). WMP CMP;  PWMP *anak daRa, maiden, virgin, girl of marriageable age. WMP;  PMP *anak ma-Ruqanay, anak (la)laki, wife-giving lineage. WMP CMP;  PMP *anak a ma-iRaq, neonate (lit. 'red child'). WMP CMP;  PMP *anak a qulu, first-born, eldest child (lit. 'head child'). WMP CMP;  PMP *anak i banua, fellow villager, fellow community-member. WMP CMP;  PMP *anak i batu, small stones, gravel. WMP CMP;  PWMP *anak i hapuy, sparks of fire. WMP;  PWMP *anak i haRezan, step or rung of a ladder. WMP;  PMP *anak i kahiw, young tree, sprout. WMP CMP;  PMP *anak i lesuŋ, rice pestle. WMP CMP;  PMP *anak i lima, little finger, pinkie. WMP CMP;  PMP *anak i manuk, chick, baby chicken. WMP CMP;  PMP *anak i mata, pupil of the eye. WMP CMP;  PMP *anak i panaq, arrow. WMP CMP;  PMP *anak i qaRta, slave (?). WMP CMP;  PMP *anak i sumpit, blowpipe dart. WMP CMP;  PMP *anak i tau, someone else's child. WMP CMP;  PPH *taR-anak, child. WMP

*aNay   PAN *aNay, insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *ane, insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant. OC;  PPh *ma-anay, termite-infested. WMP;  PWMP *anay-en, eaten by termites, damaged by termites. WMP


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    

*añam   PMP *añam, plait (mats, baskets, etc.). WMP CMP SHWNG OC;  PWMP *ma-añam, plait, weave (mats, baskets). WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-añam, plait, weave (mats, baskets). WMP;  PWMP *añam-en, plait. WMP

*añem   PMP *añem, plait, braid. WMP CMP


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    

*áŋal   PPh *áŋal, groan, cry of pain. WMP

*aŋaq   PMP *aŋaq, open the mouth wide. WMP CMP

*aŋat   PWMP *aŋat, to challenge, confront. WMP

*aŋay   PAN *aŋay, departure (?). Formosan WMP;  PAN *um-aŋay, to leave, depart (?). Formosan WMP

*aŋ(e)cej   PWMP *aŋ(e)cej, stench of sweaty armpits. WMP

*aŋ(e)ceŋ   PWMP *aŋ(e)ceŋ, stench of sweaty armpits. WMP

*aŋ(e)lem   PMP *aŋ(e)lem, stench. WMP OC

*aŋəhud   PWMP *aŋəhud, young. WMP

*aŋ(ə)tad   PPH *aŋ(ə)tad, in the line of sight, clearly visible. WMP

*aŋi   PWMP *aŋi, aroma. WMP

*aŋkat   PWMP *aŋkat, lift, raise, pick up. WMP;  PWMP *ka-aŋkat, moveable (?). WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-aŋkat, lift, raise, carry. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-aŋkat-aŋkat, lift, elevate. WMP;  PWMP *maR-aŋkat, lift, raise, pick up. WMP;  PWMP *pa-aŋkat, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PWMP *paŋ-aŋkat, lift. WMP;  PWMP *taR-aŋkat, lift, raise, pick up. WMP;  PWMP *aŋkat-an, lift, raise up. WMP;  PWMP *aŋkat aŋkat, hold up, keep aloft. WMP

*aŋkeb   PWMP *aŋkeb, cover. WMP

*aŋkub   PMP *aŋkub, cover. WMP;  POC *aŋkup₂, cover. OC

*aŋkup   PWMP *aŋkup₁, scoop up with both hands; a double handful. WMP

*aŋo   POC *aŋo, turmeric: Curcuma longa. OC;  POC *aŋo-aŋo-ana, yellow. OC

*aŋu aŋu   PWMP *aŋu aŋu, silly, senile, doting. WMP

*aŋusu   POC *aŋusu, to spit; spittle. OC


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*apa₁   PMP *apa₁, what?. WMP CMP;  PWMP *maŋ-apa, why?. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-apa-i, do something to someone. WMP;  PMP *apa-i, what? which?. WMP CMP;  PMP *apa apa, something; anything; everything. WMP CMP OC;  PWMP *NEG + apa apa, nothing. WMP

*apa₂   PAN *apa₂, carry on the back. Formosan

*apaqpaq   PWMP *apaqpaq, armpit, crotch. WMP

*aped   PWMP *aped, hindrance, obstacle. WMP

*apeled   PMP *apeled, taste of unripe banana; slightly bitter or astringent taste. WMP CMP

*apid₁   PWMP *apid₁, braid. WMP

*apid₂   PWMP *apid₂, lie in stacks, one on top of the other. WMP

*apij   PMP *apij, twins; double banana. WMP OC

*apiRit   PWMP *apiRit, type of finch, rice bird. WMP

*apis   PWMP *apis, kind of rattan. WMP

*apu   PAN *apu, grandparent/ grandchild (reciprocal). Formosan;  PMP *ampu, grandparent/ grandchild (reciprocal). WMP CMP OC;  PPh *in-ampu, (gloss uncertain). WMP;  PPh *ka-ampu-an, descendants. WMP;  PPh *maŋa-ampu, ancestors. WMP;  PMP *pa-ampu, grandparent, possibly vocative. WMP OC;  PPh *paŋ-ampu, descendants (?). WMP;  PEMP *t-ampu, grandparent/ grandchild (reciprocal). SHWNG;  PPh *ampu-en, regard as a grandparent or grandchild (?). WMP;  PPh *apu-ʔ, grandparent, ancestor, lord, master, owner (voc.). WMP;  PPh *ampu ampu, forefathers, ancestors. WMP

*apuk   PWMP *apuk, dust. WMP

*apuni   PMP *apuni, tree fern. WMP CMP

*apuŋ   PMP *apuŋ, float. WMP CMP;  PMP *apuŋ apuŋ, float. WMP OC

*apuR   PAN *apuR, betel chew. Formosan WMP

*apúy   PPh *apúy, break out in boils. WMP


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*aqa   PWMP *aqa, negative marker: no, not. WMP

*aqedas   PWMP *aqedas, plant with sharp leaves. WMP


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*ari   PWMP *ari, come, toward the speaker. WMP;  PWMP *um-ari, to come. WMP


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*aRak   PMP *aRak, walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other. WMP CMP;  PWMP *in-aRak, one who is led, one who is conducted. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-aRak, walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other. WMP;  PWMP *maR-aRak, line up one behind the other. WMP;  PWMP *aRak-aRak, walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other. WMP

*aRani   PWMP *aRani, harvest; to harvest. WMP

*aResam   PMP *aResam, kind of fern. WMP OC

*aRi   PAN *aRi, come; toward the speaker; let’s go!. Formosan WMP;  PAN *um-aRi, to come. Formosan WMP CMP;  POC *maRi, hither, come hither. OC

*aRud   PWMP *aRud, scrape, shave (as rattan). WMP

*aRuhu   PMP *aRuhu, a shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia. WMP SHWNG;  POC *aRu, a shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia. OC


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*asa   PAN *asa₁, one. Formosan WMP CMP SHWNG

*asag   PWMP *asag, incite, urge on, stir up. WMP

*asaŋ   PWMP *asaŋ₁, mortise and tenon joint. WMP

*asat   PMP *asat, dry out, become dry. WMP CMP

*asep   PWMP *asep, incense, ritual smoke. WMP

*asi₁   PWMP *asi₁, flesh. WMP

*asi₂   PWMP *asi₂, show off. WMP

*asih   PWMP *asih, pretend. WMP;  PWMP *asih asih, pretend. WMP

*asio   POC *asio, sneeze. OC

*asiʔ   PWMP *asiʔ, fermented rice. WMP;  PPh *maŋ-asiʔ, make rice wine (?). WMP;  PWMP *in-asi, cooked rice?. WMP

*asu₁   PAN *asu₁, dog. Formosan WMP CMP;  PPh *ka-asu, canine companion. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-asu, hunt with dogs. WMP;  PPh *paŋ-asu, what is hunted (?). WMP

*asu₂   PMP *asu₂, fetch water, scoop up water. WMP CMP

*asu₃   POC *asu₃, bail out water. OC

*asúd   PPh *asúd, pound rice in tandem. WMP;  PPh *maR-asúd, pound rice in tandem. WMP;  PPh *asud-án, pound together, place of pounding together. WMP

*asug   PWMP *asug, shaman in ritual transvestite attire. WMP

*asuk   PMP *asuk, smoke, soot. WMP CMP

*asuntiŋ   PWMP *asuntiŋ, a plant: Cassia sp.. WMP

*asuŋ   PMP *asuŋ, incite, spur to action. WMP CMP


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*ata₁   PAN *ata₁, 1pl. incl. possessive pronoun: our. Formosan WMP CMP OC

*ata₂   PPh *ata₂, expression, as of displeasure or surprise. WMP

*atáb   PPh *atáb, flood tide. WMP

*atag   PWMP *atag, persist in an endeavor. WMP

*átaŋ   PPh *átaŋ₄, sacrifice to the spirits. WMP

*átaŋ átaŋ   PPh *átaŋ átaŋ, poisonous arthropod. WMP

*ataŋ₁   PWMP *ataŋ₁, block, obstruct; something which separates one area from another. WMP

*ataŋ₂   PWMP *ataŋ₂, carry on a shoulder pole between two people. WMP

*ataŋ₃   PMP *ataŋ₃, cross. WMP CMP

*ataq   PWMP *ataq, unhusked rice grain left among the husked grains. WMP

*ataR   PWMP *ataR, flat, level. WMP

*atek   PCMP *atek, cover, as with a blanket. CMP

*atel   PMP *atel, itch, itchy. WMP CMP

*ateq   PWMP *ateq, 1pl in oblique. WMP

*ati₁   PMP *ati₁, negative marker. WMP CMP OC

*ati₂   PWMP *ati₂, there (distant). WMP

*atimel   PWMP *atimel, bedbug. WMP

*atiŋ   PMP *atiŋ, sweat, perspiration. WMP CMP

*atip   PMP *atip, pinch together. WMP CMP

*atis   PWMP *atis, provoke a fight. WMP

*atu   PMP *atu, away from speaker. WMP OC

*atúbaŋ   PPh *atúbaŋ, to face, confront. WMP

*atuk   PWMP *atuk, smoke. WMP


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*au   PCEMP *au, dew. CMP OC

*aura   POC *aura, type of wind. OC

*auʔ   PAN *auʔ, yes. Formosan WMP CMP OC


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*awa   POC *awa, exclamation of surprise. OC

*awaŋ   PMP *awaŋ, atmosphere, space between earth and sky. WMP CMP

*awat   PWMP *awat, help, assistance. WMP

*away₁   PMP *away₁, beckon with the hand. WMP CMP;  POC *awe, to wave. OC

*away₂   PWMP *away₂, face. WMP

*away₃   PWMP *away₃, I don't know!. WMP

*away₄   PWMP *away₄, rattan variety. WMP

*awer   PWMP *awer, rushing of water in a river. WMP

*awi   PWMP *awi, cloth cover. WMP


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*aya₁   PAN *aya₁, exclamation of annoyance, surprise, etc.. Formosan WMP CMP OC

*aya₂   PAN *aya₂, (gloss uncertain). Formosan;  PMP *aya₂ₐ, father’s sister, father’s sister’s husband. WMP CMP SHWNG OC

*ayak₁   PWMP *ayak₁, follow, walk after. WMP

*ayak₂   PWMP *ayak₂, sift, separate by sifting. WMP;  PWMP *maŋ-ayak, to sift. WMP;  PWMP *ayak-an, sieve, strainer. WMP

*ayam   PWMP *ayam, plait, weave. WMP

*ayat   PWMP *ayat, threaten, confront violently. WMP

*ayaw₁   PPh *ayaw₁, depart, separate from. WMP

*ayaw₂   PWMP *ayaw₂, raid, go headhunting. WMP

*ayud   PWMP *ayud, copulate, have sexual intercourse. WMP

*ayum   PWMP *ayum, block, hinder, obstruct. WMP

*ayuŋ₁   PWMP *ayuŋ₁, monkey sp.. WMP

*ayuŋ₂   PMP *ayuŋ₂, swing, sway, rock. WMP CMP

*ayut   PWMP *ayut, copulate, have sexual intercourse. WMP


TOP      ab    ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*azak   PWMP *azak, summon others to join an activity. WMP

*azuq   PWMP *azuq, term of address to males. WMP

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 1/14/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)