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Blust's
Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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K

(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)


Kadazan
Kadazan (Kimanis)
Kadazan (Labuk-Kinabatangan)
Kadazan (Membakut)
Kadazan (Papar)
Kahabu Pazeh
Kahua
Kaidipang
Kairiru
Kaitetu
Kaiwa
Kajaman
Kakas Tondano
Kakiduge:n Ilongot
Kalabakan Murut
Kalagan
Kalamansig Cotabato Manobo
Kalamian Tagbanwa
Kaliai-Kove
Kalinga
Kalinga (Guinaang)
Kallahan
Kallahan (Kayapa)
Kallahan (Keleyqiq)
Kamarian
Kambera
Kambera (Mangili)
Kanakanabu
Kaniet

Kankanaey
Kanowit
Kantu'
Kapampangan
Kapingamarangi
Kapuas
Karo Batak
Karo Batak (Kembaren)
Katingan
Kaulong
Kavalan
Kayan
Kayan (Baram)
Kayan (Busang)
Kayan (Long Atip)
Kayan (Uma Bawang)
Kayan (Uma Juman)
Kayapa Kallahan
Kayeli
Kayupulau
Kedah Malay
Kédang
Keherara
Kei
Kejaman
Kelabit
Kelabit (Bario)
Kelabit (Long Napir)
Kelantan Malay

Kele
Keleyqiq Kallahan
Kemak
Kembaren Karo Batak
Kembayan
Kenyah
Kenyah (Lebu’ Kulit)
Kenyah (Lepo’ Tau)
Kenyah (Lepu Anan)
Kenyah (Lepu Tau)
Kenyah (Long Anap)
Kenyah (Long Atun)
Kenyah (Long Dunin)
Kenyah (Long Ikang)
Kenyah (Long Jeeh)
Kenyah (Long Nawang)
Kenyah (Long San)
Kenyah (Long Selaaʻn)
Kenyah (Long Wat)
Kenyah (Òma Lóngh)
Keo
Ketagalan
Kilenge
Kilivila
Kilokaka
Kinabatangan
Kinaray’a
Kiput
Kiribati

Kis
Kisar
Kiwit Amis
Kmagha
Kodi
Koiwai
Kokota
Kola
Kolod
Kolod Murut
Komodo
Koro
Koronadal Bilaan
Koroni
Kosraean
Kove
Kowiai
Kujau
Kulawi
Kulisusu
Kurudu
Kuruti
Kuyonon
Kwaio
Kwamera
Kwara'ae

230. Kadazan (572) WMP (Antonissen 1958) [kzj] (Kadazan, Coastal) Malaysia (Sabah) (dialects: Labuk-Kinabatangan 1, Membakut 1, Kimanis 2, Papar 3)

a-adjectival prefix (PWMP: *ha-)

abufloat, swim (LOAN)

agaŋto blush, redden (NOISE)

agat-aito tighten (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

a-gazobig, great, large, chief, main, principal (PAN: *Raya)

ahaʔdefeat, overcome, conquer (PWMP: *alaq₂)

ahaʔbe overcome, defeated (PWMP: *alaq₂)

a-kanto eat, consume, wear away; (in such games as chess) take a piece, destroy (as if by eating) (PAN: *kaen)

a-kan-on(to be) eaten, destroyed (as if by eating) (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

amafather (addr.) (PAN: *ama)

ambittake with the hands (PMP: *ambit)

ambittake with the hand (Also Tiruray abit 'beckon') (ROOT)

ampunpardon, forgive, condone, remit, excuse, absolve (PMP: *ampun)

ampuŋfloat, swim (PMP: *apuŋ)

anakchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak-onbe born, of children (PWMP: *anak-en) *aNak

anawpaddyfield, wet ricefield (ROOT)

anitskin, peel (PMP: *qanit) *qaNiC

ansakcook, ripen (intr.) (PMP: *hasak) *Sasak

ansauroam about, go astray (PWMP: *ansaw)

Kadazan (20 / 572)

antastake a shortcut (PWMP: *qantas)

antawaeither (LOAN)

aŋaŋgrowling, snarling (PAN: *qaŋqaŋ)

asawhetting, sharpening (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asaŋdove, pigeon (PWMP: *acaŋ)

asaŋ-anthe fish from which the gill is being taken out (PWMP: *hasaŋ-an) *hasaŋ

asa-onbe sharpened (PWMP: *hasaq-en) *Sasaq

a-sapucan be wiped (PMP: *sapu)

asi-an-anhave compassion for, have pity on (PMP: *qasiq)

asiz-anthe one for whom one makes rice beer (PWMP: *asiʔ)

avidwindle away, finish (PWMP: *qabiq)

avospinning, weaving (PPh: *habél)

azouto plunder (PWMP: *ayaw₂)

aʔano (PWMP: *aqa)

babaksmash, crush, bread to pieces (PAN: *bakbak₂)

babocarry on the back (PMP: *baba₇) *baba₁

bahatuŋbean (PPh: *balatuŋ)

bahucanopy over the dead (PMP: *baluq)

balatakbasket (NOISE)

balikbackside; turn oneself round, come back (PMP: *balik₂)

Kadazan (40 / 572)

baŋkaycorpse, carcass, dead body, skeleton, cadaver (PWMP: *baŋkay)

bavaŋriver (PWMP: *bawaŋ)

biavakvery large lizard (PWMP: *bayawak)

biŋkucoil up (PMP: *biŋku)

biŋkucoil up (ROOT)

bo-bohizanpriestess (PWMP: *balian)

bogokdomesticated pig (Ray 1913) (PAN: *beRek)

bohibuy, purchase (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

bohotcatch fish in an enclosure of bamboo sticks (PWMP: *belet)

bosito row, to paddle (PMP: *beRsay)

bouvaŋ (from earlier **bauwaŋ)bear (PWMP: *baRuaŋ)

bubuspour out (PMP: *busbus)

bubus-onbe poured out (PWMP: *busbus-en) *busbus

buhavangold dust (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

buntakto throw with mud (PWMP: *butak)

buntakthrow with mud (ROOT)

dadaŋput something near a fire for drying; heat from a fire or rays (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₂) *daŋdaŋ

dadaŋ-onto be dried near a fire or by the sun (PWMP: *daŋdaŋ-en) *daŋdaŋ

ḏahanway (PMP: *zalan₂) *zalan

dahidbuttress root (PMP: *dalij)

Kadazan (60 / 572)

dakitto dock, berth, come alongside (PMP: *dakit)

dampotto reach (PMP: *dapet)

danawpaddyfield, wet ricefield (PAN: *danaw)

dapitto cross (PWMP: *dapit)

dioblique case marker for singular personal names (PAN: *di) Papar

dihaʔtongue (PMP: *dilaq₂) *dilaq₁

dipisthin (ROOT)

dooblique case marker for plural personal names (PMP: *daₐ) *da Kimanis

dooblique case marker for common nouns and plural personal names (PMP: *daₐ) *da Membakut

dokotattach, stick to, bind together (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

dopit-onplace where one crosses, docks (PWMP: *dapit)

duha-anto spit (PMP: *dulaq)

duhaʔsaliva (PMP: *dulaq)

d<um>apitto land (PWMP: *dapit)

d<um><in>okotstuck (PPH: *d<um>eket) *dekeC

duu-duvothe two of them (PMP: *du-duha) *duSa

duvotwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duvo-duvoboth (PMP: *duha duha₁) *duSa

duvo ŋo-opodtwenty (PMP: *ŋa)

duzuŋmermaid (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

Kadazan (80 / 572)

gahuŋembrace (PWMP: *galuŋ)

gahusloosen and slide off (ROOT)

gakitraft, ferry (PMP: *Rakit)

gakomcatch, capture, seize, arrest (ROOT)

galaŋfierce (as a person’s temperament) (PAN: *garaŋ₁)

gamutroot (PMP: *Ramut)

ganti-ancolored thread (LOAN)

gatarubber, rubber tree (PWMP: *gateq)

gavunmist, fog, (white) cloud (PWMP: *Rabun)

gazaŋa long parang, about two and one half feet in length (PAN: *gayaŋ)

gazobig (PAN: *Raya)

giliŋto grind, mill (PMP: *giliŋ)

giliŋ-anto grind, mill for someone (PWMP: *giliŋ-an) *giliŋ

gimattalisman or charm that gives strength, power (LOAN)

g<in>alaŋfierceness (PAN: *garaŋ₁)

g-inavoheart, mind, intellect, mood, feelings (seat of affections) (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

g<in>azosize, magnitude (PAN: *Raya)

g<in>onopfullness, perfection (PWMP: *genep)

gizakscream, shout, shriek (PWMP: *giak)

gizak-anto be shouted at (PWMP: *giak)

Kadazan (100 / 572)

gohoŋbracelet, arm-ring (PWMP: *geleŋ)

gokit-anto build or to place a raft (PWMP: *Rakit-an) *Rakit

gonop(to become) perfect; (be) complete (PWMP: *genep)

g<um>-inavoto love, be fond of (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

g<um>izakto cry, shout, scream, shriek (PWMP: *giak)

g<um>onop(to become) perfect, complete (PWMP: *g<um>enep) *genep

guntiŋscissors (LOAN)

guntiŋ-anto cut (for someone) (LOAN)

guntiŋ-onto have cut something (LOAN)

hamaslippery (PWMP: *lamaR, lamas)

hanatstretch (ROOT)

hanuttough, pliant (PWMP: *lañut)

haŋkabcome off, come loose (as skin, something pasted on) (ROOT)

haŋkavitclaw, talon (ROOT)

hapakcrack, split (ROOT)

hapuspierce, get through (PWMP: *la(m)pus₂)

hasaʔmistake, error, fault, blunder, crime (PMP: *salaq₁)

hasoŋdammar, resinous pitch (PAN: *saleŋ)

haughowl (PWMP: *rauŋ)

hazagsail (PAN: *layaR)

Kadazan (120 / 572)

hazoginger (PMP: *laqia)

hikobto fold (ROOT)

hikoucoil (PAN: *likaw)

hikuto bend (a branch) (PWMP: *likuq)

hikudthe back (PAN: *likud)

hiku-onto be bent (PWMP: *likuq)

himatokjungle leech (PWMP: *qali-matek) *-matek

him-bukonhill-pigeon (PWMP: *buken₂) *buken (X + buken)

himofive (PAN: *lima)

himpakto split (intr.) (ROOT)

h-in-amumixture (of food) (PMP: *lamug)

hinḏuŋsmall freshwater eel (LOAN)

h-in-osogthe speed of flowing or streaming water; the stream of water, the current (PWMP: *seleg)

h-in-upihem (PWMP: *lu(m)pi, lupiq)

h-in-upihem . (ROOT)

hogoŋmake a booming sound (PMP: *re(ŋ)geŋ)

ho-hotuŋ-ongong (ROOT)

hokopto cover (ROOT)

hontogto shake (of floor); tap, knock, rap (ROOT)

hoŋkivitpull down with the hand (ROOT)

Kadazan (140 / 572)

hoŋkuas(a type of) root, rhizome like a ginger (PWMP: *laŋkuas)

hoŋonarm, hand, forearm (PMP: *leŋen)

h<um>asaʔto make a mistake; to break the law (PWMP: *s<um>alaq) *salaq₁

huniŋvarnish (ROOT)

hunokfat (PWMP: *lunek)

huŋkabto open, peel off (by itself) (PWMP: *ruŋkáb)

huŋkab-onto be opened, peeled off (PWMP: *ruŋkáb)

huombecome dim, become cloudy (PWMP: *ludem)

huvawloose (PMP: *luqaR)

ibutdraught, breeze, air (PWMP: *ibut₂)

ibut topuodstorm, gale (PWMP: *ibut₂)

ihobvomit (NOISE)

ikod-onto cough (PWMP: *ikej)

inaM (addr) (PMP: *ina₂) *ina

ina-onpassive of monoŋ-ina, to say "mother" (PWMP: *ina-en) *ina

in-ḏahan-anplace to walk (PMP: *zalan₂) *zalan

in-duvotwice, two times (PWMP: *in-duha) *duSa

insanonce (PWMP: *insan)

insan-iat once, forthwith (PWMP: *insan)

insud-onthe place to which one moves (PMP: *icud)

Kadazan (160 / 572)

insud-onthe place to which one moves (PMP: *isud)

in-tohuthree times (PWMP: *in-telu) *telu

intonŋstare at, observe (ROOT)

inumto drink non-strong drinks (PMP: *inum)

inum-onto drink (passive) (PWMP: *inum-en) *inum

inutdo something slowly (PPh: *qínut)

in-vahueight times (PWMP: *in-walu) *walu

iŋattake care, look out, heed, bear in mind, pay attention, be careful, beware (PMP: *iŋat)

iŋg-apatfour times (PWMP: *iŋg-epat) *Sepat

iŋg-onomsix times (PWMP: *iŋg-enem) *enem

iŋ-himofive times (PWMP: *iŋ-lima) *lima

ipidream (PMP: *hipi) *Sipi

isoone (PAN: *isa₁)

isopsink into (as water into soil) (PMP: *qisep)

isurub with something, as for instance in washing (PMP: *hisuq)

itomblack (PMP: *qitem)

ituŋ-onbe thought (PWMP: *qituŋ)

ivodbecome round (holes, eyes) (NOISE)

izan-andomicile, living place, place of residence (PWMP: *ian-an) *ian₂

izutact of having sexual intercourse, copulation (PAN: *qiut)

Kadazan (180 / 572)

ka-ahabe able to overcome, beat or conquer (PWMP: *ka-alaq) *alaq₂

ka-dapitcan land, cross (PWMP: *dapit)

ka-ganap-anact of completing; completion (to celebrate completion of son’s first year) (PWMP: *ka-genep-an) *genep

ka-gaza-anact of growing; greatness, hugeness; desire, wish (PAN: *Raya)

ka-hasa-an(act of making a) mistake; (act of committing a) sin (PWMP: *ka-salaq-an) *salaq₁

ka-hasaʔcan be wrong, mistaken (PWMP: *ka-salaq) *salaq₁

kahuŋdeformed (foot, hand) (PWMP: *kaluŋ)

kakomgrasp (ROOT)

kam-anak-onstepchild, nephew (PWMP: *kam-anak-en) *aNak

ka-ŋaancan name; can be reputed (PWMP: *ka-ŋajan(-an)) *ŋajan

ka-pasaŋsuitable as a pair (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

ka-pukot(can) catch fish with a dragnet (PWMP: *ka-puket) *puket₁

ka-sakit(can make) sick, ill (PWMP: *ka-sakit) *sakit

ka-sasap-anact of sucking (PAN: *sepsep)

ka-savitcan hang, hook onto, entangle (PWMP: *saqebit)

kasawa lath, stripping stick laid across purlins for thatching roof of a traditional house (PMP: *kasaw₁)

ka-tamaʔdare, bold, brave (PMP: *tamaq₂)

ka-tanam-anact of planting (PAN: *ka-tanem-an) *CaNem

ka-vahueighth (PMP: *ika-walu) *walu

kavithook (PAN: *kawit)

Kadazan (200 / 572)

kavit-onbe hooked, plucked with a hook (PWMP: *kawit-en) *kawit

kazutree; wood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

ka-ʔapatfourth (PMP: *ka-epat) *Sepat

kibitbear or carry a baby in one's arm (ROOT)

kihapflash, sparkle (PMP: *kilap)

ki-kizopfan (PWMP: *kiap)

kimo(a kind of) big oyster (PMP: *kima)

k<in>o-tuhuŋ-anact of having helped; assistance (PWMP: *ka-tuluŋ-an) *tuluŋ

k<in>uowhat has been done? (PAN: *k<in>uja) *kuja

kiŋkigfile, fish skin (Goossens) (PAN: *kiRkiR)

kiŋkiŋhopping (PWMP: *kiŋkiŋ₂)

kitowe (dual incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

kitosee, find, observe, discover, show (PAN: *kita₂)

koboŋmake a banging noise (ROOT)

ko-duvothe second (PMP: *ika-duha) *duSa

ko-g-inava-anlove, affection (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

ko-gomut-an(act of) producing roots; rooting (PMP: *Ramut)

ko-himofifth (ordinal numeral) (PMP: *ika-lima) *lima

koiŋto dry (in the sun) (PWMP: *keRiŋ)

koiŋ-onto be dried (PWMP: *keRiŋ)

Kadazan (220 / 572)

ko-isafirst (PWMP: *ika-isa) *isa₁

koitikto rap, to knock (ROOT)

kokotto bite (ROOT)

ko-kovit-anact of hooking, plucking with a hook (PWMP: *kawit-an) *kawit

ko-kozuv-anforest area or jungle (PWMP: *ka-kahiw-an) *kaSiw

ko-niabyesterday (PWMP: *niRab)

koniapyesterday (PAN: *ka-)

ko-pihi-an(act of) choosing; election; selection (PAN: *ka-piliq-an) *piliq

ko-pihiʔcan choose, elect, select (PWMP: *ka-píliq) *piliq

ko-piowhich?, what? (PWMP: *ka-pija) *pija

ko-ponu-anact of filling (PWMP: *ka-penuq-an) *penuq

ko-sikucan knock with the elbow (PWMP: *ka-siku) *siku₁

ko-susu(can) suck milk, nurse (PWMP: *ka-susu) *susu₁

ko-tohu(the) third (PMP: *ika-telu) *telu

ko-tuba-anact of poisoning with tubo (PAN: *tuba)

ko-tudu-anact of having pointed with one’s finger, touching (PWMP: *ka-tuzuq-an) *tuzuq

ko-tukad-anact of supporting or propping; act of putting up a ladder (PWMP: *tu(ŋ)kad)

ko-votu-hanplace where there are plenty of stones (PWMP: *ka-batu-an) *batu₁

ko-ʔonomsixth (PWMP: *ika-enem) *enem

-ku1sg non-focus actor and possessor (PAN: *-ku)

Kadazan (240 / 572)

kuamsickness of the tongue of buffalo calf (medical name is “stomatitis or thrush”, in humans the condition is known as sovohok) (PMP: *guham) *guSam

kuhatmushroom (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

kumba(dry) sago branches (PMP: *kumbal)

k<um>ihapto produce flashes of light, sparkle (PMP: *kilap)

kumo-himothe fifth (PWMP: *kuma-lima) *lima

kuowhat for? why? (PMP: *kuja₂) *kuja

kuonearthenware pot (PAN: *kuden)

kuo-z-onwhat to do? (PMP: *kuja₂) *kuja

kutulouse, lice (PMP: *kutu) *kuCu

kutuv-onto have lice (PWMP: *kutu-en) *kuCu

kuvoa circumlocution for someone or something which is not verbalized purposely, or because the name is forgotten; so and so, such and such (PWMP: *kua₂) *kua₁

kuza-onto be chewed (PWMP: *ŋuyaq)

kuzaʔto chew, masticate (PWMP: *ŋuyaq)

mag-ambittake with the hands (PWMP: *maR-ambit) *ambit

mag-anakbear children, bring forth children, generate, give birth (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

mag-avito finish completely, consume, use up, exhaust, spend (PWMP: *qabiq)

ma-kanto eat (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

mama-gakitusing a raft (PMP: *Rakit)

ma-manashoot with a bow (PWMP: *ma-manaq) *panaq

mama-vakasstrengthen, make strong, invigorate (PMP: *bakas)

Kadazan (260 / 572)

ma-nahito make string (PWMP: *ma-nalih) *CaliS

ma-nanomto plant (PWMP: *ma-nanem) *CaNem

man-avu-nspread ashes in the nursery (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

manukhen, cock, fowl (PMP: *manuk)

manuk tahunwild fowl (PMP: *manuk)

maŋ-ahadefeat, overcome (PWMP: *maŋ-alaq₂) *alaq₂

maŋ-alakto distill arrack, to make arrack (LOAN)

maŋ-ambittake with the hands (PWMP: *maŋ-ambit) *ambit

maŋ-ampunpardon, forgive, condone, remit, excuse, absolve (PWMP: *maŋ-ampun) *ampun

maŋ-anitto skin, to peel, to strip the skin off (PMP: *qanit) *qaNiC

maŋ-apidmarry two wives (PMP: *apij)

maŋ-apuito spark, to sparkle (PWMP: *maŋ-hapuy) *Sapuy

maŋ-asasharpen, whet (PWMP: *maŋ-hasaq) *Sasaq

maŋ-asito make rice beer (PPh: *maŋ-asiʔ) *asiʔ

maŋ-asokmake holes for seeds in the nursery (PWMP: *maŋ-hasek₁) *hasek₁

maŋ-atulaim with a gun; put in order, arrange; legislate (LOAN)

maŋ-avitto pluck with a hook (PAN: *kawit)

maŋ-avoto spin, to weave (PPh: *maŋ-habel) *habél

maŋ-ogiktread out corn from the ears (PWMP: *maŋ-Riqek) *Riqek

mataydie, expire, breathe one's last (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

Kadazan (280 / 572)

mi-duvo ginavoto hesitate; undecided (‘be of two minds’) (PMP: *duha) *duSa

mimaŋ voŋito smell (PMP: *beŋi)

mog-iŋattake care, look out, heed, bear in mind, pay attention, be careful, beware (PWMP: *maR-iŋat) *iŋat

mog-ukasdrive away the soul of a dead person on the seventh day after his death (PWMP: *maR-hukas) *hukas

mo-mihiʔto elect, choose, select, appoint (PWMP: *ma-miliq) *piliq

momo-duhaʔto spit (PMP: *dulaq)

mo-monuʔto fill (PWMP: *maŋ-penuq) *penuq

mo-moŋkostie into a bundle (of firewood) (PWMP: *maŋ-beRkes) *beRkes

mo-mubusto pour out (PMP: *busbus)

mo-muhutto tap rubber tree (PMP: *pulut)

mo-mukotto fish with a dragnet (PWMP: *ma-muket) *puket₁

mon-isopto absorb moisture (of tobacco and clothing) (PWMP: *maŋ-qisep) *qisep

monon-dihaʔto stick out the tongue (PMP: *dilaq₂) *dilaq₁

mo-nosopto suck (PWMP: *ma-ñepsep) *sepsep

mo-nuboto poison with tubo (PWMP: *ma-nuba) *tuba

mo-nuduʔto point out, touch (PWMP: *ma-nuzuq) *tuzuq

mo-nukodto support, prop up (as a house) (PWMP: *ma-nuked) *tuked

mo-nusuto suck (PWMP: *ma-ñusu) *susu₁

moŋ-imattake care of (LOAN)

moŋ-im-pusodto cut the umbilical cord, help the mother deliver the baby (PMP: *pusej)

Kadazan (300 / 572)

moŋ-insoktrample down (PWMP: *isek)

moŋ-inumto drink non-strong drinks (PMP: *maŋ-inum) *inum

moŋ-itomblacken, make black (PWMP: *maŋ-qitem) *qitem

moŋ-ituŋto think (PWMP: *qituŋ)

moŋ-izutto have sexual intercourse or copulation (PAN: *qiut)

moŋ-ogotto tighten, hold it firmly (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

moŋ-ogottie up tightly (PWMP: *maŋ-heRet) *SeReC

moŋ-ondomreflect, meditate, think about, remember, ponder over (PWMP: *qendem)

moŋ-onsomto make sour, to pickle; (PWMP: *esem)

moŋ-on-tizanpregnant (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

moŋ-uhinto steer (PWMP: *maŋ-qulin) *qulin

moŋ-unito make music, to sound, to produce sound, to chirp, to bleat, to neigh, to strike (of clock) (PMP: *huni) *Suni

mo-ŋuogoing where? (PMP: *kuja₂) *kuja

moŋ-upato bribe (PWMP: *maŋ-upaq) *upaq

moŋ-utaŋto borrow (PWMP: *maŋ-qutaŋ) *qutaŋ

moŋ-uuseat sugarcane (PWMP: *maŋ-ququs) *ququs

mo-ŋuzaʔto masticate, chew (PWMP: *ŋuyaq)

m-uhigo home, return home (PMP: *um-uliq) *uliq₁

muta putafoaming (PAN: *puCaq)

naka-gamuthas rooted, settled down (PMP: *Ramut)

Kadazan (320 / 572)

nanamtaste; good taste (PAN: *ñamñam)

nanaʔpus, matter (as in a wound or boil) (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

n-asinative beer made from rice (PWMP: *in-asi) *asiʔ

natadcourtyard, house compound (PMP: *natad) *NataD

nimarker of the genitive case of singular personal names (PAN: *ni) Papar

noalready, grammatical particle (PAN: *na₄)

nogenitive of personal names (plural) (PAN: *na₃) Kimanis

-noalready, no longer, not anymore, now (particle with negatives) (PAN: *na₄) Labuk-Kinabatangan

no-kuowhat is the matter? what is wrong? (PMP: *kuja₂) *kuja

no-pihiʔ(has been) chosen, elected, selected (PWMP: *na-piliq) *piliq

ŋaanname; reputation (PMP: *ŋajan₁) *ŋajan

ŋaan-anto be named (PWMP: *ŋajan-an) *ŋajan

ŋa-aviall, every, everything (PWMP: *qabiq)

odopsleep, snooze (PWMP: *qezep)

ogiktread out corn from the ears (PAN: *Riqek)

ogottight, firmly held together (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

ogot-onbe tied up tightly (PWMP: *heRet-en) *SeReC

o-hunokthick flesh (as of fruit, particularly durian) (PWMP: *lunek)

omissweet (PMP: *hemis)

ompuscontinue, complete (PMP: *epus)

Kadazan (340 / 572)

-onpassive marker; e.g. oŋgom-on be held in the fist (PAN: *-en)

onit-anto skin, to peel, strip the skin off (PPh: *qanit-an) *qaNiC

onomsix (PAN: *enem)

onsomsour (PWMP: *esem)

opodismarting (of pain) (PMP: *hapediq) *Sapejiq

opodossmarting (of pain); pungent; poisonous (of snakes, etc.) (PMP: *hapejes)

ovicarry, convey, bear, bring, take along (NOISE)

ovitcarry, convey, bear, bring, take along (ROOT)

ovoh-onwhat is spun or woven (PPh: *habel-en) *habél

paaipaddy (PAN: *pajay)

pa-a-kan-onto cause or allow to be fed (PAN: *pa-kaen-en) *kaen

padauboat, canoe, rowing boat, sailing boat (PWMP: *padaw)

pahadpalm, handpalm (PMP: *palaj₁)

pa-hasa-onto be blamed (PWMP: *pa-salaq-en) *salaq₁

paka-hasaʔto say that someone is wrong, to blame (PMP: *pa(ka)-salaq) *salaq₁

pampaŋrock, big stone (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ)

panabow (PAN: *panaq)

panaka-anthe place where one steals (PWMP: *paŋ-takaw-an) *Cakaw

panaka-onbe stolen (PWMP: *paŋ-takaw-en) *Cakaw

panakausteal (PMP: *paŋ-takaw) *Cakaw

Kadazan (360 / 572)

panauwalk, march (PMP: *panaw₂) *paNaw

paŋ-avitthe thing one uses for hooking, or a hook to be used for plucking (PWMP: *pa-ŋawit) *kawit

paŋgisummon, call for something important; convoke (LOAN)

paŋikind of fruit the seeds of which are added to salted fish (PMP: *paŋi)

paŋotributary or side road; branch off (river, road) (PAN: *paŋa₁) *paŋa

papa-gamutto cause or allow to root (PMP: *Ramut)

pa-pa-savogive in marriage; make or let marry (of boy) (PMP: *pa-qasawa) *qasawa

pasaŋpair (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

pihatscar (PMP: *pilaq, pi(R)lat)

pihatscar (PWMP: *pilat)

pihi-on(to be) chosen, elected, selected (PWMP: *piliq-en) *piliq

pihiʔto choose, elect (PAN: *piliq)

pii-piofew, some (PWMP: *ka-pija) *pija

pikohfold (PMP: *pikel)

p<in>ihiʔ(the thing) chosen, selected; choice (PWMP: *p<in>iliq) *piliq

p<in>onuʔfilled (PWMP: *p<in>enuq) *penuq

p<in>ukotcaught fish with a dragnet (PWMP: *p<in>uket) *puket₁

piohow many? (PAN: *pija)

pi--pasaŋ-onto be put into pairs (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

pisukinside angle (PWMP: *picuk)

Kadazan (380 / 572)

pogrammatical particle: yet (PWMP: *pa)

po-dokot-oncause or allow to attach, stick to (PMP: *pa-deket) *dekeC

pog-nominal affix: mog-odu 'to rebuke', pog-odu 'a rebuke' (PWMP: *paR-) *paR-₁

po-gomut-onallowed to root (PMP: *Ramut)

pog-on-tizan-onfetus (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

poko-vusuŋcurse someone (PWMP: *busuŋ)

po-muhutthing one uses for tapping rubber (PMP: *pulut)

po-muhut-anthe place where one taps rubber (PMP: *pulut)

po-nikuto knock with elbow (PWMP: *pa-ñiku) *siku₁

po-nuba-an(place where to) poison fish with tubo (PAN: *tuba)

ponu-onto be filled (PWMP: *penuq-en) *penuq

ponuʔto fill; to be full (PAN: *penuq)

po-po-uhibring home, let one go home (PMP: *pa-uliq) *uliq₁

po-susuv-onto nurse, breastfeed a child (PAN: *pa-susu-en) *susu₁

puhaŋpolish, make shiny (ROOT)

puhutsap of trees (PMP: *pulut)

pukotdragnet (PMP: *puket₁)

pukot-onto be caught with a dragnet (PPH: *puket-en) *puket₁

pulut-antree with fruit similar to the jackfruit (PAN: *puluC)

punaifruit-eating pigeon (PAN: *punay)

Kadazan (400 / 572)

pu-ŋaan-anto name (PAN: *pu-ŋajan) *ŋajan

pusodnavel, belly button (PMP: *pusej)

putafoam, lather, froth (PAN: *puCaq)

putulto perforate (PMP: *putul) *putun

putusdecide (PWMP: *putus)

puunstalk, trunk, stem; source, root; foot of a hill (PMP: *puqun)

puun-ansip a little bit; start (PWMP: *puqun-an) *puqun

puun-onreason for starting (PWMP: *puʔun-en) *puqun

sakitsick, ill (PMP: *sakit)

sa-pasaŋone pair (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

sapsap-onto be cut off (of tree bark) (PWMP: *sapsap-en) *sapsap₁

saputo wipe (PMP: *sapu)

sasapto chip off, scrape off bit by bit (as with a knife (PWMP: *sapsap₁)

saukto scoop (PWMP: *sanduk)

savithook onto, entangle (PWMP: *saqebit)

savohusband, wife; better half (PAN: *qasawa)

savuanchor (PWMP: *sabuq)

sikoksob (ROOT)

sikuelbow (PAN: *siku₁)

sikuvanspindle, needle for making nets (holds the thread) (PWMP: *sikuqan)

Kadazan (420 / 572)

sikuv-onto be knocked with an elbow (PWMP: *siku-en) *siku₁

s<in>aŋ-kazumade or carved from one tree (PWMP: *sa-ŋ-kahiw) *kaSiw

s<in>ikube knocked with an elbow (PWMP: *s<in>iku) *siku₁

sokotpasting, gumming, sticking (ROOT)

sonodto sink (ROOT)

son-tounone year (PMP: *taqun)

soŋiŋtinkle (ROOT)

soŋ-kuohow much/how many? (PWMP: *saŋ-kuja) *kuja

soŋotangry (ROOT)

sopuv-onto be wiped out (opponents) (PMP: *sapu)

sosopto suck (PAN: *sepsep)

sosop-onto be sucked (PAN: *sepsep-en) *sepsep

sukudrod, walking stick (PAN: *sukud)

s<um>akitfall sick, become ill (PPH: *s<um>akit) *sakit

s<um>avitto get entangled; to hang, hook onto (PWMP: *s<um>abit) *saqebit

s<um><in>osopsucked (PAN: *s<um>epsep) *sepsep

s<um>usuto suck the breast, nurse at the breast (PAN: *s<um>usu) *susu₁

susubreasts, paps, udder; milk (PAN: *susu₁)

taagkosband, girdle (ROOT)

tadausun, day, weather (PAN: *qajaw)

Kadazan (440 / 572)

tadau tadauevery day, daily, day by day (PMP: *qalejaw-qalejaw) *qalejaw

t-adiyounger sibling (PMP: *ta-huaji) *Suaji

tagkosto girdle (PAN: *ta(R)kes)

tahirope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tahunjungle, wilderness (PMP: *talun) *Calun

taidung (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

ta-kavitwhat can be hooked (PAN: *kawit)

t-alakarrack (LOAN)

tamafather (ref.) (PMP: *t-ama) *ama

tamaʔbrave, bold (PMP: *tamaq₂)

t-ambaŋfare (on bus, etc.); freight, freightage, passage money (PPh: *abaŋ₃)

tam-paŋiankle (PWMP: *paŋil)

tanam-anto plant (PAN: *tanem-an) *CaNem

t-anaywhite ant (PAN: *aNay)

tanaʔsoil, land, earth, ground (PMP: *taneq)

tanomplant, crop (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

taŋkasunbolt, loosen things, fittings (PWMP: *taŋkas) *taŋkas₂

t-apidtwins; concubine of a married man (PMP: *apij)

t-apinswaddling clothes (PMP: *hapin)

t-aponfishing-angle, fishhook (PMP: *hapen)

Kadazan (460 / 572)

t-apuchalk, lime (PAN: *qapuR)

t-apuyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

t-asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

ta-tanomdibble for planting (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

t-avakwaist, hips, loins (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

t-avansky, firmament, heavens, expanse (PWMP: *hawan)

t-avuash (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

t-azamtame animals (PWMP: *qayam₂)

titikstrike a match (ROOT)

tizanabdomen, belly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tobusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

to-dokot(what can be) stuck on (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

togokto cluck (as a hen) (Also Kayan tegek 'knock, tap, bump', manukṭ 'woodpecker') (ROOT)

to-hikudto turn backwards; to turn one’s back to (PMP: *ta-likud) *likud

to-hikud-anto turn one’s back on (PMP: *ta-likud) *likud

tohiŋoear (PMP: *taliŋa₁) *Caliŋa

tohiz-onbe made into string (PPh: *talih-en) *CaliS

tohuthree (PAN: *telu)

to-hunoksomething that is fat, fleshy (PWMP: *lunek)

to-isa isaone by one, one at a time (PAN: *isa isa) *isa₁

Kadazan (480 / 572)

tokuu-kuowhich one? what kind? (PMP: *kuja₂) *kuja

tonom-onto be planted (PAN: *CaNem-en) *CaNem

toŋo-duvoonly two (PMP: *duha) *duSa

to-onom-onomsix by six, six at a time (PMP: *enem enem) *enem

tounyear (PMP: *taqun)

toun-tounevery year (PMP: *taqun)

t-uatsinew (PMP: *uRat₁) *huRaC

t-uat do zaaartery, vein (PWMP: *uRat i daRaq) *huRaC

t-ubatdrug, medicine, remedy (LOAN)

t-ubat do kupigunpowder (LOAN)

t-ubat do pinuluammunition (LOAN)

tubothe root of a poisonous creeper (used for poisoning fish) (PAN: *tuba)

tubo-onbe poisoned with tubo (PPH: *tuba-en) *tuba

t-udiponslave (PWMP: *qudipen)

tuduʔto point at, touch (PAN: *tuzuq)

tuhaŋbone, skeleton (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

t-uhinrudder (PMP: *qulin)

t-uhuhead, handle (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

t-uhunman, person (PMP: *qulun₁)

t-uhun-ancushion, pillow (PMP: *qulun-an) *qulun₂

Kadazan (500 / 572)

tuhuŋto help (PMP: *tuluŋ)

tukadladder, staircase (PWMP: *tukad)

tukodto prop, support (PAN: *tuked)

tukod-onto be supported, propped (PWMP: *tuked-en) *tuked

t-um-ahoubecome a coward (PAN: *talaw)

t-umpuwealthy man (any of the nobility) (PMP: *ta-umpu) *umpu

t-unisound; bleating, neighing, etc. (PMP: *huni) *Suni

tuŋkakubtrap for birds (ROOT)

tuoŋuspig's snout, elephant's trunk (ROOT)

t-upanbait (PMP: *qumpan)

tupofowl of medium age (PMP: *qupa)

t-utaŋdebt; loan (PMP: *qutaŋ)

t-utokmarrow; brain (PMP: *hutek)

t-uuthirst (PAN: *quSaw)

t-uuv-anget thirsty, be thirsty (PAN: *quSaw-an) *quSaw

tuuʔseven (PAN: *tuzuq)

t-uvaithin rattan, cane (PAN: *quay)

t-uvangrey (of hair) (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

udokstamp with the foot (ROOT)

uhaubecome mad (PAN: *ulaw)

Kadazan (520 / 572)

uhigo home (PMP: *uliq₁)

uhi-ongo home, return home (PPh: *uliq-en) *uliq₁

uhusto glide down (PWMP: *hurus)

uhusglide down (PPh: *ulus)

ukabto open (of boxes), to uncover (PWMP: *hu(ŋ)kab)

ukab-onwas opened by (PWMP: *hukab-en) *hu(ŋ)kab

ukasdrive away the soul of a dead person on the seventh day after his death (PWMP: *hukas)

ukas-onbe driven away, of the soul of a dead person on the seventh day after his death (PWMP: *hukas-en) *hukas

ukumpunishment, penalty, sentence (LOAN)

ukum-enbe punished (LOAN)

-um-verbal infix used with intransitive bases and to form inchoatives (PMP: *<um>₂) *-um-

um-aŋaŋto growl, to snarl (PAN: *q<um>aŋqaŋ) *qaŋqaŋ

um-onsomto become sour (PWMP: *esem)

umpoŋusto snort (ROOT)

umulage (LOAN)

undaŋ-undaŋrule, law (LOAN)

undulgo backwards, retreat, retire, recoil, recede (PWMP: *undur)

untuŋgain, profit (LOAN)

upato bribe (PMP: *upaq)

upasto peel betel nut (ROOT)

Kadazan (540 / 572)

upaʔ-anbe bribed by (PWMP: *upaq-an) *upaq

utalaNorth (LOAN)

utaŋ-onbe borrowed (PWMP: *qutaŋ-en) *qutaŋ

uuseat sugarcane (PMP: *ququs)

uus-onbe eaten, of sugarcane (PWMP: *ququs-en) *ququs

uvabyawn (PMP: *huab₂) *Suab

uzogto shake (PWMP: *uyeg)

vagunew, again, anew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

vaigwater (PMP: *wahiR)

vakasstrong (PMP: *bakas)

vakauclimbing plants (tough), twiners, lianas (PWMP: *bakehaw)

vananright hand (PMP: *wanan) *wanaN, waNan

vaŋuncome about, get existence (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

vataŋlog (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

vatuplait, weave (PMP: *batuR₁)

vatustone (PMP: *batu₁)

viaksplit by itself (of long things) (PMP: *biqak)

vivikwhistle; to whistle (PWMP: *wikwik)

vogokpig, swine, pork (PAN: *beRek)

voŋiodor, smell, scent (PMP: *beŋi)

Kadazan (560 / 572)

voŋkosbundle (of firewood) (PMP: *beRkes)

votikcolor; to carve, engrave (PMP: *betik₂) *beCik

vuhanmoon, month; calendar (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

vuhan-vuhanmonthly (PMP: *bulan-bulan₂) *bulaN

vuhuhair on the body, down, fluff (PMP: *bulu₁)

vukufinger joint; node in bamboo (PMP: *buku₁) *buku

vusakmarrow in wood (NOISE)

vutusto pluck up (ROOT)

vuvudshake something out of a pot, etc. (PWMP: *bubud)

zimarker of the nominative case of singular personal names (PAN: *si) Papar

Kadazan (Kimanis) (2) WMP

dooblique case marker for plural personal names (PMP: *daₐ) *da

nogenitive of personal names (plural) (PAN: *na₃)

Kadazan (Labuk-Kinabatangan) (1) WMP

-noalready, no longer, not anymore, now (particle with negatives) (PAN: *na₄)

Kadazan (Membakut) (1) WMP

dooblique case marker for common nouns and plural personal names (PMP: *daₐ) *da

Kadazan (Papar) (3) WMP

dioblique case marker for singular personal names (PAN: *di)

nimarker of the genitive case of singular personal names (PAN: *ni)

zimarker of the nominative case of singular personal names (PAN: *si)

Kahabu Pazeh (3) Form.. see: Pazeh

231. Kahua (2) OC [agw] Solomon Islands

rahuashes (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR

waga-naroot (PMP: *wakaR)

232. Kaidipang (8) WMP [kzp] Indonesia (Sulawesi)

anakochild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

a-nu-kowhat? (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

gusukorib, ribs (PAN: *Rusuk)

ka-anu-kowhere? (PMP: *ka-nu₂) *-nu

lu-montikoant sp. (PMP: *me(n)tik) *me(n)tik (X + me(n)tik)

ṛoo-nuwhen? (PAN: *-nu)

tubokind of plant used to poison fish (PAN: *tuba)

utavegetables in general (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

233. Kairiru (37) OC [kxa] Papua New Guinea

asa-name (PMP: *ajan)

ate-heart (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ayouficus tree (PEMP: *qayawan)

i-saufar away (POC: *sauq₁) *zauq

isu-nose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

iuspear (POC: *iu₂)

-k1sg inalienable possessive pronoun; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

(k)atolegg (POC: *qatoluR) *qateluR

leiginger (PMP: *laqia)

limfive (as a bound element in the numerals 6-9) (PAN: *lima)

limbailer, used for bailing out canoes (PMP: *limas)

limbailer (used for bailing out canoes) (POC: *nima) *nimas

mam(my) father (POC: *mamaₐ) *mamah

-myaicome; motion towards the speaker (POC: *mai) *ai₃

myalloincloth; traditionally used in times of war, now replaced by the laplap (PCEMP: *malaw)

myatdie; dead, deceased (POC: *mate) *aCay

niucoconut (PMP: *niuR)

niu rryancoconut milk (= water) (POC: *ranum) *daNum

punpigeon (POC: *bune) *punay

qVnsspit out at (PEMP: *kanisu)

Kairiru (20 / 37)

rapisago palm (POC: *Rabia) *Rambia

rryanwater, drink (POC: *ranum) *daNum

samoutrigger float (POC: *saman) *saReman

ta-we (plural incl.), subject prefix (PAN: *ita₁)

taŋirmackerel (two types) (PMP: *taŋiRi)

tiye-belly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tourconch shell (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

tunfreshwater eel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

tuolthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tyenpregnant (PMP: *tian-an) *tiaN

umu-icook in an earth oven (POC: *qumun-i) *qumun

wurrbanana (generic) (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

yassharpen something (PEMP: *asaq) *Sasaq

yavarwind type (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

yinrecline, lie down, settle (residentially) (PAN: *qinep)

-ʔan-to eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

ʔanaʔfood (POC: *kana) *kaen

234. Kaitetu (1) CMP [hik] (Seit-Kaitetu) Indonesia (Maluku)

maniwathin (PMP: *ma-niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

235. Kaiwa (1) OC

tavulkTriton shell (Ross 1988:147) (POC: *tapuRiq) *tabuRiq

Kajaman (8) WMP. see: Kejaman

Kakas Tondano (1) WMP. see: Tondano

236. Kakiduge:n Ilongot (5) WMP (Reid 1971) [ilk] (Ilongot) Philippines

alik-abukdust (PPh: *alik-qabuk) *qabuk

bebuydomesticated pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

ŋi-taiwsell (PAN: *saliw)

taiwbuy (PAN: *saliw)

upitbark of tree; skin; shell; outer surface of fruits, etc. (PWMP: *upis)

Kalabakan Murut (2) WMP. see: Murut

237. Kalagan (17) WMP [kqe] Philippines

gusukrib (PAN: *Rusuk)

inithis, here (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

inɨmto drink (PWMP: *inem)

ka:nto eat (PAN: *kaen)

ka-nuwhen? (PMP: *ka-nu₂) *-nu

ka-tulugto sleep (PWMP: *ka-tuduR) *tuduR

kinu-nuwhen? (future) (PMP: *ka-nu₂) *-nu

kitaʔto see (PAN: *kita₂)

-ku1sg postnominal possessive pronoun (PAN: *-ku)

lawódbetel leaf (PWMP: *Rawed)

lum-túnonto swallow (PWMP: *tuñen)

ma-pulaʔred (PMP: *pulaq)

nya-biagfull after eating (PPh: *biaR₂)

saŋaa tree: Prunus marsupialis (PWMP: *saŋa₂)

silataneast (PWMP: *silatan)

ulatscar (PWMP: *ulat)

unawwash the hands (PWMP: *huñaw)

Kalamansig Cotabato Manobo (17) WMP. see: Manobo

238. Kalamian Tagbanwa (147) WMP (Reid 1971, Ruch n.d.) [tbk] (Tagbanwa, Calamian) Philippines

abwatlong (PWMP: *abuat)

alawidfar (PWMP: *alawid)

amaʔfather (PAN: *ama-ʔ) *ama

ambunground fog, mist (PWMP: *ambun)

apukdust (PWMP: *apuk)

aranname (PMP: *ajan)

ariʔyounger sibling (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji

batakpull up (e.g. anchor) (PWMP: *batak)

bawaŋriver (PWMP: *bawaŋ)

bayawbrother-in-law (m.s.) (PWMP: *bayaw)

begkesbind together (PMP: *beRkes)

bekasput tension on the spear of a pig trap or a spear gun so that it is ready to be released (PAN: *bekas₁)

bekladto spread out flat (PMP: *bekelaj)

belkaŋmolar tooth (PAN: *beReqaŋ)

bialfull after eating (PPh: *biaR₂)

biŋkitlying side by side in close proximity (PPh: *biŋkit)

bitukunstar (PAN: *bituqen)

bukalto boil (PMP: *bukal₁) *bukal

bukayacrocodile (PWMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

bukayacrocodile (PWMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

Kalamian Tagbanwa (20 / 147)

bukidmountain (PAN: *bukij)

bukliʔtell a lie (PWMP: *buqeli)

buktuthunchbacked, bent over (PPh: *buktút)

bulalakawshooting star (PPh: *bulalákaw₂)

dɨŋɨlto hear (PMP: *deŋeRₐ) *deŋeR

duldulthunder (PWMP: *duRduR)

dulibone (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

du-rua-ŋ-puluktwenty (PMP: *ŋa)

elatwait (LOAN)

eleksleep (PPh: *helek)

enemsix (PAN: *enem)

epatfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

ine-yMZ, FZ; stepmother (PMP: *iná-i) *ina

isitooth (PWMP: *isi₁)

isiflesh, meat; tuber (PAN: *isiʔ)

itawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

itakgroin (PPh: *hitaq)

itaʔto see (PAN: *kita₂)

ɨyakashamed (PAN: *Seyaq)

ɨyɨpto blow (PMP: *heyup) *Seyup

Kalamian Tagbanwa (40 / 147)

kaaphusk of rice (PMP: *qapaʔ)

kabalaupper arm (PMP: *qabaRa₃) *qabaRa₁

kabuash (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

kabutarrive (PPh: *qabut)

kagiŋthoroughly dry (PWMP: *kaRiŋ)

kakayfoot (PAN: *qaqay)

kalawsnatch away (PAN: *qaRaw)

kalimaŋumangrove crab (PMP: *qali-maŋu)

kalimaʔhand (PAN: *qa-lima) *lima

kalsemsour (PAN: *qaRsem)

kalupestle (PAN: *qaSelu)

kalugditch (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

kamiannortheast prevailing wind (PMP: *qamihan) *qamiS

kanibuŋkind of hard palm used for bows (PMP: *qanibuŋ)

kaniƀuŋtype of hard palm formerly used for bows (PMP: *qanibuŋ)

kaninawsee something indistinctly, but partially recognizable (PPh: *qaninaw)

kanitremove hide (PMP: *qanit) *qaNiC

kanitusupernatural power belonging to familiar spirits, evil spirits, and shamans by virtue of their relationship to spirits (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

kanuphunt with dogs (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup

kaŋitgood/bad body odor (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

Kalamian Tagbanwa (60 / 147)

kaŋkaŋhowling cry of a dog when he has flushed a wild pig (PAN: *qaŋqaŋ)

kasawaspouse (PAN: *qasawa)

kasinsalt (PAN: *qasiN)

kaswalpry up with a heavy stick (PWMP: *qasual)

kataŋgrip between the teeth (NOISE)

kateproof; nipa palm (PMP: *qatep)

kayamto play, relax (PWMP: *qayam₃)

keladleaf, sheet of paper (PPh: *qelad₁)

kemelcongealed together, closely packed (PPh: *qemel)

kenaysand (PAN: *qenay)

keparice bran (PWMP: *qepah)

keparice husk; winnow rice (PWMP: *qepah)

kepesdeflated (PPh: *qepés)

kerepfade from sight, e.g. sun to set (PWMP: *qezep)

kibawtype of clam (PMP: *qibaw₁)

kiklug (< D)egg (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

kilawintense brightness (PMP: *qilaw)

kiluwhat is used to wipe the anus clean (PAN: *qiluS)

kimunto manifest sexual jealousy (PPh: *qimún)

kinitheat (PWMP: *qinit)

Kalamian Tagbanwa (80 / 147)

Kinut {k ??}to conserve resources; stunted growth (PPh: *qínut)

kipilhardwood tree used for houseposts (PMP: *qipil)

kiti-kitiʔtickle someone (PWMP: *qitik qitik) *qitik₂

kuawfeel thirsty (PAN: *quSaw)

kuayrattan (PAN: *quay)

kuayrice panicle (PPh: *quhay)

kubangray hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

kubiyam (PMP: *qubi)

kubudtender, edible shoot of coconut tree; inner core of banana trunk (PMP: *qubud)

ku-kulun-anpillow (PMP: *qulun-an) *qulun₂

kulitwhite (PPh: *quRis)

kuluhead (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

kuludearthworm (PMP: *qulej₂) *qulej

kulunlay the head upon (PMP: *qulun₂)

kumaswidden (PMP: *quma) *qumah

kumaŋhermit crab; be emptied of contents (PAN: *qumaŋ)

kunultrails used by wild animals, especially wild pigs (PMP: *qenuR) *qeNuR

kuŋalsad cry of a dog left behind (PMP: *quŋal)

kupahen (PMP: *qupa)

kuranrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

Kalamian Tagbanwa (100 / 147)

kuriŋcharcoal (PAN: *qujiŋ)

kuritdraw a straight line with something that leaves a surface mark rather than an indentation (PMP: *qurit)

kutinpenis (PMP: *qutin) *qutiN

kututbreak wind (PMP: *qutut)

kututfart (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

kuutsheaf to which rice grains are attached before threshing (PPh: *quhut)

lakubhalf coconut shell; to cover with a half coconut shell (PPH: *lakub)

laŋuʔmedium degree of dryness (PMP: *Raŋuʔ)

lawakspider (PMP: *lawaq₂ₐ) *lawaq₂

lɨbɨkpound rice; wreck, demolish (PPh: *lebék)

lusuŋmortar (PMP: *lusuŋ)

ma-kinithot (PPh: *ma-qinit) *qinit

mamakchewed betel nut (PMP: *mamaq)

ma-nipisthin (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

ma-pulaʔred (PMP: *pulaq)

ma-puŋawlonely (PWMP: *puŋaw)

nutnutsucking without use of teeth (breast, finger, shellfish, but not sugarcane) (PWMP: *ñutñut)

pakitbitter (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

pa-ŋanto eat (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen) *kaen

pataydead (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

Kalamian Tagbanwa (120 / 147)

patay-enkill (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

puntiʔbanana (PAN: *punti₁)

sa-nu pawhen? (PAN: *-nu)

takkiʔintestines, guts (PMP: *taki) *Caki

talakinīpdream (PPh: *taRa-qinep) *qinep

talíŋaear (PMP: *taliŋa₁) *Caliŋa

tanɨkearth (ground) (PMP: *taneq)

taŋitcry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taoperson, human being (PMP: *tau) *Cau

taremsharp (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

tianbelly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

ti-nu pawho? (PAN: *-nu)

tumaʔclothes louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

tuuright hand (PWMP: *tuqu)

-u1sg postnominal possessive pronoun (PAN: *-ku)

ukabbecome detached from (PWMP: *hu(ŋ)kab)

ukasremove a cover (PWMP: *hukas)

ulatscar (PWMP: *ulat)

ulatsmall root; vein (PMP: *uRat₁) *huRaC

ulatscar (ROOT)

Kalamian Tagbanwa (140 / 147)

ulikreturn home; return to normal (PMP: *uliq₁)

úloŋshade, shadow (PMP: *uduŋ)

umpukto pile up (PWMP: *umpuk)

unumstationary cloud on horizon (PWMP: *kunem)

urilate, behind time (PMP: *udehi)

uruŋnose (PAN: *ujuŋ)

utukbrain (PMP: *hutek)

Kaliai-Kove (38) OC. see: Lusi

239. Kalinga (13) WMP (dialects: Guinaang [knb] 3)

amaʔ-onuncle, great uncle (PWMP: *ama-en) *ama

bolókpig (PAN: *beRek)

dawakgeneral term for curing rite in which the medium's spirit helpers are named and invoked, and in which possession takes place (PWMP: *dawak)

do:yanhammock (PPH: *dúyan)

na-ʔapgissting pain (McFarland 1977) (PMP: *hapejis)

-nu2sg possessor and non-subject agent (PWMP: *-nu)

sapɁúy-anto blow (as on a fire) (PWMP: *sap(e)quy) Guinaang

si-adithat (3p) (PMP: *a-di) *-di

s-idithere (3p) (PMP: *i-di) *-di

siːgomant (McFarland 1977) (PWMP: *sijem)

si-nuwho? (PPh: *si-nu) *-nu Guinaang

tulyʔaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

uŋótstrong anger (PWMP: *uŋet) Guinaang

Kalinga (Guinaang) (3) WMP [knb] (Kalinga, Lubuagan) Philippines

sapɁúy-anto blow (as on a fire) (PWMP: *sap(e)quy)

si-nuwho? (PPh: *si-nu) *-nu

uŋótstrong anger (PWMP: *uŋet)

240. Kallahan (12) WMP [ify] (Kallahan, Keley-i) Philippines (dialects: Keleyqiq [ify] 4, Kayapa [kak] 8)

agibrother, sister, cousin (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji Keleyqiq

al-liduŋshadow (PAN: *liduŋ) Keleyqiq

buŋutmouth (PWMP: *buŋut) Kayapa

hagucomb (PMP: *saRu₁) Kayapa

huyaʔthis (NOISE) Kayapa

inatpull a rope (PWMP: *iñat) Kayapa

kimkimeyelash (NEAR) Keleyqiq

laʔlurice pestle (PWMP: *laq(e)lu) Kayapa

mimiʔurine (PMP: *miqmiq) Keleyqiq

p-iganwhen? (PMP: *p-ijan) *ijan Kayapa

ubɨtbuttocks (PMP: *ubet) Kayapa

upakbark of tree (PWMP: *upak₁) Kayapa

Kallahan (Kayapa) (8) WMP [kak] (Kallahan, Kayapa) Philippines

buŋutmouth (PWMP: *buŋut)

hagucomb (PMP: *saRu₁)

huyaʔthis (NOISE)

inatpull a rope (PWMP: *iñat)

laʔlurice pestle (PWMP: *laq(e)lu)

p-iganwhen? (PMP: *p-ijan) *ijan

ubɨtbuttocks (PMP: *ubet)

upakbark of tree (PWMP: *upak₁)

Kallahan (Keleyqiq) (4) WMP [ify] (Kallahan, Keley-i) Philippines

agibrother, sister, cousin (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji

al-liduŋshadow (PAN: *liduŋ)

kimkimeyelash (NEAR)

mimiʔurine (PMP: *miqmiq)

241. Kamarian (92) CMP (Ekris 1864-65) [kzx] Indonesia (Maluku)

aato eat (PAN: *kaen)

aiwood; tree (PCEMP: *kayu₁) *kaSiw

alachin (PMP: *qazay)

asagills (PMP: *hasaŋ)

asuto ladle, scoop, fetch (of water) (PMP: *qasu₁)

ataslave (PMP: *qaRta)

atuatcontainer woven of coconut leaves in which one cooks rice to a firm mass (LOAN)

elanladder (PMP: *ezan)

elanladder (PMP: *haRezan)

enuneck (NOISE)

epiburnt food which adheres to the pot (PMP: *epiq)

epitburnt food which adheres to the pot (PMP: *epit₁)

erilong grass: Imperata cylindrica L. (PAN: *eRiq)

erishave, scrape off (PCEMP: *erit)

esunmortar for pounding rice (PMP: *esuŋ)

etepiece, lump (PMP: *hetek) *Setek

etutbreak wind; fart (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

halarice (in general) (PAN: *pajay)

halatwest (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

hari-turn around, turn back, invert (PMP: *paliŋ)

Kamarian (20 / 92)

harurice pestle (PMP: *balu₂)

hatustone (PMP: *batu₁)

herito lie, tell a lie (PMP: *beliq₁)

heruto bend, curve (PMP: *beluk)

hesuputting on (of clothes) (ROOT)

hetuwake up; stand up (PMP: *betu)

hiisnap lice between the fingernails (PCMP: *biqit)

hitacut, hew, beat (as sago) (PMP: *bitak₁)

holasplit in two (coconuts) (PAN: *belaq)

hoturise to the surface (in water) (PMP: *betu)

huabetel nut; fruit; the heart (PMP: *buaq₂) *buaq

huathrow out money (as a wager) in a top-spinning competition (PMP: *buhat₂)

huaload a boat; lift anchor (PMP: *buhat₃)

huaycrocodile (PCEMP: *buqaya₃) *buqaya

huhufish trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

huhurdust from decayed wood (PMP: *buRbuR₂)

hun-enthatch which covers the ridge of the roof (PMP: *bubuŋ-en) *bubuŋ₁

huraspit something (such as medicine) over something else (PMP: *buRah) *buReS

huranmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

huribunch or cluster of fruit (PMP: *buliR)

Kamarian (40 / 92)

hurufeathers, body hair (PCEMP: *bulu₃) *bulu₁

husedrive off, drive away (PMP: *busay)

husurhunting bow (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

hutagrass, rubbish, weeds (NOISE)

hutuflock (of birds) (PCEMP: *butu₂) *butu

huuthusk of a coconut (PMP: *buʔut)

i3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

ikaraw pounded fish with vegetables (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

imiyou (pl.) (PCEMP: *imi) *Simu

isaone (PAN: *isa₁)

kinaglitter, sparkle, shine (ROOT)

lai-adirty, filthy (PMP: *daki₂) *daki

lalablood (PAN: *daRaq₁) *daRaq

lalanpath, road (PMP: *zalan₂) *zalan

latarflat land (PAN: *dataR)

laufar (PMP: *zauq)

maihither, toward the speaker (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

makerbandicoot (PCEMP: *mansər) *mansar

manufloat, drift, be adrift (PAN: *ma-qañud) *qañud

manubird, chicken (PMP: *manuk)

Kamarian (60 / 92)

manu apawild duck (PMP: *manuk)

masa-ecooked, ripe (PMP: *ma-esak) *esak

masa-ecooked, ripe (PAN: *ma-Sasak) *Sasak

matadead (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

nalaname (PMP: *ŋajan₁) *ŋajan

nitughost, spirit (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

palutouch lightly (PMP: *palu₄) *palu₃

panato shine, of the sun (PMP: *banaqaR)

penusea turtle (PMP: *peñuₐ) *peñu

putiwhite (PMP: *putiq)

reafathom (PMP: *depa)

rihu-nithousand (PMP: *Ribu)

rimafive (PAN: *lima)

rusurib (PAN: *Rusuk)

sesepress with the thumb (PAN: *seksek)

siwanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

surabamboo trail spikes (PMP: *suja)

tahuritrumpet shell (PMP: *tabuRi)

taneto plant (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

Kamarian (80 / 92)

tasisalt (PMP: *tasik)

tehusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

teruthree (PAN: *telu)

teteto cut (PAN: *tektek₁)

tia-belly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tiharnative drum (PCMP: *tibal)

turuto descend, come down (PMP: *tuRun₁)

uivagina (PAN: *puki)

urenearthenware cooking pot (PAN: *kuden)

waarroot (PMP: *wakaR)

wae hua-icalf of the leg (PMP: *buaq ni bities) *buaq

waretrope (PMP: *waRej)

242. Kambera (442) CMP (Onvlee 1984) [xbr] Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara) (dialects: Mangili [xbr] 1)

áinterjection of surprise or terror (PMP: *a₃)

ahagrind (rice) (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

ahisneeze (NOISE)

áhisneeze (NOISE)

ahudog (PAN: *asu₁)

ahu awaŋuwitch ( = heavenly dog) (PAN: *asu₁)

aiexclamation (PAN: *ai₂)

aiwood (PCEMP: *kayu₁) *kaSiw

àkastutter (onom.) (PMP: *e(ŋ)kak)

àkastutter (onom.) (PMP: *qekak)

àkakua stutterer (PMP: *e(ŋ)kak)

àkakua stutterer (PMP: *qekak)

ákidig, dig up (NOISE)

alahudark woods (PMP: *halas) *Salas

alu(rice) pestle (PAN: *qaSelu)

alu bàhiiron pestle (for crushing areca nut) (PAN: *qaSelu)

amafather, FB (PAN: *ama)

ámahumetal; gold or silver ornament; money (LOAN)

ambacheck, stop, hold back (as a horse); to hinder (PMP: *abaŋ₁)

ambacheck, stop, hold back (as a horse); obstruct the way (PMP: *qambat)

Kambera (20 / 442)

amuroot; cause (PMP: *Ramut)

anachild; young; small (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ana ka-muriyoungest child (PMP: *kama-udehi) *udehi

ana miniB (w.s.) (PMP: *anak ma-Ruqanay, anak (la)laki) *aNak

ana nduatwin (PMP: *anak apij) *aNak

ana ndua halafalse twins (of opposite sex) (PMP: *salaq₁)

ana puhusmall packet of steamed rice (PMP: *pusuq₂)

ana rarasuckling, infant (lit. 'red child') (PMP: *anak a ma-iRaq) *aNak

ana tausomeone else's child (PMP: *anak i tau) *aNak

ana tau wihicalf of the leg (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ana tuaolder child, older brother or sister (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

ana tuhaŋueldest child (PMP: *anak a qulu) *aNak

ana winiZ (m.s.) (PMP: *anak bahi, anak babahi, anak binahi) *aNak

àŋgufirst sounds of a small child learning to talk (PMP: *eŋkut)

àŋuhowl, bark (PMP: *eŋut)

àpugrandmother (FM, MM) (PMP: *empu)

apuŋufloat, bob on the surface (PMP: *apuŋ)

arakuhard liquor (LOAN)

arakustrong drink (LOAN)

arúexclamation of pain, disappointment, astonishment (PMP: *aduq)

Kambera (40 / 442)

aruŋucharcoal (PMP: *qajeŋ)

atalong, tall; high (PMP: *atas) *aCas

ataservant, slave (PMP: *qaRta)

auhearth; ash; ash-colored, gray (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

aukind of think bamboo: Dendrocalamus strichus (PMP: *qauR₂) *qauR

awakind of fish: the milkfish, Chanos chanos (PMP: *qawa₁)

awaŋuatmosphere, firmament, sky (PMP: *awaŋ)

ayáexclamation of astonishment (PAN: *aya₁)

ayaelder sibling (PMP: *aya₂ₐ) *aya₂

báhiiron (LOAN)

bakubent, curved (PMP: *ba(ŋ)kuq)

balahuretribution, retaliation; compensation; result (PAN: *bales₁)

balahu, mbalahuretaliation, compensation (LOAN)

bandagoods, property (LOAN)

banda wíligoods that make up the brideprice (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

bándiluweapon, rifle (LOAN)

bàŋguwith bowed head; ashamed (PMP: *beŋkuq)

bàŋguwith bowed head; ashamed (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

bàrisound of tearing (PAN: *beriq)

bidakuto wink (PMP: *bidak)

Kambera (60 / 442)

bikasplit in two (PMP: *bikaq₂)

bikucurve, bend, twist (as in a road) (PMP: *bikuq)

bikubend, coil (PMP: *biŋku)

biku-bakufull of twists and turns (PMP: *bikuq)

bilakind of fruit tree the sap of which is used as an adhesive: Aegle marmelos (PMP: *bila)

bilavalue, worth (as of a horse for sale) (PAN: *bilaŋ)

bilikuroom; family, household (PMP: *bilik)

bilikuto turn (as a horse to the left or right), bend around (as a branch to break it off) (NOISE)

bilikuŋubend, twist, distort (PMP: *bilikuŋ)

bindikuspring up, as one end of a plank when the other end is stepped on (PMP: *bitik)

binitupull on, pull out, extract (PMP: *binit₁) *biNiC

bíŋgubent, curved (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

bokulu eti(lit. 'big liver') pleased, satisfied; proud, arrogant, haughty (PMP: *X₁ + qatay) *qaCay

boŋaopen (as the mouth) (PMP: *beŋaq)

botahubreak off, interrupt, cut off (PMP: *be(R)tas)

bubururice porridge; cook porridge (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

buduto ferment, pickle (LOAN)

bukahuopen, opened; visible (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

bulu mataeyelash; eyebrow (PMP: *bulu ni mata) *bulu₁

bumburuwell up (as water from a spring), arise, appear (NOISE)

Kambera (80 / 442)

bumburu-bumburu-na na wai la mata-nathe water wells up from a spring (NOISE)

búndukuelevated ground, hill (PMP: *bunduk)

buŋadesign, decoration on a skirt or betel bag; kind of courtyard tree: Plumeria acuminata (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

buŋgahuto open (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

buŋgahu kareukureveal the contents of a confidential conversation (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

buŋgihuBuginese (LOAN)

buŋgubent with age (PMP: *bukut)

buŋgubent with age (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kuq)

buŋgulushort and thick in build; a wad or plug (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

buŋgutusit wrapped in a cloth (PMP: *bukut)

da-duatwo, as in counting children (PAN: *a-enem) *enem

da-duatwo, as in counting children (PAN: *wa-walu) *walu

d-ihaone (PAN: *isa₁)

dindiŋuwall, walling; screening off (PCMP: *dindiŋ) *diŋdiŋ

doi buna-kinterest on a loan (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

epifire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

eriyounger sibling of the same sex (PCEMP: *waji) *Suaji

etiliver, inner self, seat of the emotions, heart (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

eti-ŋuhave concern for, intend to (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ha-prefix for measure words and numerals, used to express unity (PAN: *esa)

Kambera (100 / 442)

hàbuimmerse, plunge in; sound of plopping when something falls into the water (PMP: *sebuh) *sebuS

halaincorrect, mistaken; fault, mistake (PMP: *salaq₁)

ha-liŋaleaning to one side (of a boat, pregnant woman, etc.) (PMP: *liŋak)

hàndisupport, point of support, fulcrum (PWMP: *sendiR)

ha-ŋa-huhundred (PMP: *ŋa)

haŋgápitutongs (ROOT)

haŋgukuindividual movement of swallowing (ROOT)

ha-witilua pinch, as of tobacco pa-witilu 'pinch one another' (PCMP: *bitil₂)

hídu eti(lit. 'sick/painful liver') heartsick, offended, hurt; disgruntled (PMP: *X₄ + qatay) *qaCay

hilato glow, gleam, flame (PMP: *silak)

hiŋgaprop, support (ROOT)

hipitupinch between two fingers (as in pinching someone’s cheek (PAN: *sipit)

hiuelbow; bend, curve (PAN: *siku₁)

huhubreast; suck at the breast (PAN: *susu₁)

huhu liaŋustalactites (PMP: *liaŋ)

hulutorch (PMP: *suluq)

hupuend, finish (ROOT)

huruspoon, ladle; scoop out with a ladle (PMP: *sudu, suduʔ, suduk)

ishriek of pain (PAN: *i₁)

ipersonal article, used with proper names or words that function as proper names (PAN: *i₃)

Kambera (120 / 442)

ia budusalted fish (LOAN)

ihaalone, separate (PAN: *isa₁)

ihicontents (PAN: *isiʔ)

ihubathe (PMP: *hisuq)

ilaŋudisappeared, gone, destroyed (as belongings when one's house has burned down) (PMP: *qilaŋ)

inaM (PCEMP: *ina₃) *ina

ina-amatitle of authority; also: title of wife-givers (PMP: *ina ama) *ina

iŋusound of sighing or moaning; to pant or groan from burdens of pain (PMP: *iŋus)

ipahupaid off (debt) (PMP: *qimpas)

irikind of thornless pandanus; the leaves are used for finely plaited mats (PMP: *kiRay)

irihucut into strips (PMP: *qiris)

itumarine fish with poisonous fins (PMP: *hituq)

iushark (PAN: *qiSu)

jilakuglitter, sparkle, flicker (ROOT)

júmbitupinch (ROOT)

ka-bàrikutorn, ripped (PAN: *beriq)

kahambikind of ironwood tree: Schleichera oleosa (PMP: *kasambiʔ) Mangili

ka-hila-kuto blaze up brightly (PMP: *silak)

kalikaŋunumb, stiff (as limbs) (ROOT)

kambíhu wihicalf of the leg (PMP: *bities)

Kambera (140 / 442)

kam-urirear part; stern of a boat, rudder; lag behind, come later (PMP: *kama-udehi) *udehi

ka-nabuto fall (PMP: *nabuq)

ka-ninube reflected in (PMP: *qaninu) *qaNiŋu

kaŋaburumix (ROOT)

ka-pídugall that lies on the lobe of the liver (favorable sign in searching for omens) (PAN: *qapeju)

kapihakumud, muddy (ROOT)

kapíhuflatus; break wind (ROOT)

kàrituscratch, carve (PMP: *kerit)

ka-tanaask about, inquire (PMP: *utaña)

katarucaterpillar; snake (PMP: *katadu)

katikurap, tap, knock (ROOT)

ka-wanaright side (PAN: *ka-wanaN, ka-waNan) *wanaN, waNan

kawa-raŋunot entirely dry; still somewhat moist (PMP: *Raŋuʔ)

ka-winiwoman (PCEMP: *b<in>ai) *bahi

kikutail (PAN: *kikuR)

kikuahu('dog's tail') kind of vegetation (PMP: *ikuR ikuR ni asu) *ikuR

kímakind of large bivalve; also a symbol of the female genitalia (PMP: *kima)

kúbu liaŋumouth of a cave, tunnel near a cave (PMP: *liaŋ)

kulukind of breadfruit, the seeds of which are eaten, Artocarpus communis (PMP: *kuluR)

kumaŋuhermit crab (PMP: *kumaŋ)

Kambera (160 / 442)

kumihumoustache (PMP: *kumis)

kuta wuasirih, which bears fruit, also sirih as fruit as distinct from the leaf (PMP: *buaq₂) *buaq

laito run (only in the expression njara lai 'a racing horse') (PAN: *laRiw)

lakuto walk, go, leave (PMP: *lakaw)

lalakuoily, shiny (ROOT)

lamakatuleech (PMP: *qala-matek) *-matek

lamakatu karambuabuffalo leech, Hirudinea (PMP: *qala-matek) *-matek

larikind of tree generally found in the estuaries of rivers (PMP: *laji₁)

laurasea; downstream, at a lower elevation (PCEMP: *laur₁) *lahud

lawaŋuspiderweb (PMP: *lawan)

layiaginger (PMP: *laqia)

lebiabundant, more than usual, royal, excessive (PAN: *labiq)

lisound, word, story; happen (PMP: *liŋ₂)

liaŋuhole; cave, grotto (PMP: *liaŋ)

liaŋu tanahole in the ground (PMP: *liaŋ)

lilakuflash, shine (ROOT)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

lima pa-wuluhairy hands (PCEMP: *bulu₃) *bulu₁

líndibridge (PCMP: *letay₂)

líndibridge (ROOT)

Kambera (180 / 442)

lírusail; banner (PAN: *layaR)

loduday (PMP: *qalejaw)

lulakushine, glitter (ROOT)

lumutumoss, duckweed, seaweed (PMP: *lumut)

luruhustraight, true (PMP: *lurus)

maito come (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

ma-nahuto cook, boil (meat, rice, lontar sap) (PMP: *nasu) *Nasu

man-dàpaa fathom long, said of the horns of buffalos (PMP: *depa)

mandautato fear, be afraid of (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

ma-nipihufine, of plaitwork (as a mat) (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

maŋ-unuŋudrenched, saturated (PMP: *maŋ-inum) *inum

maŋ-unuŋudrenched, saturated (PCEMP: *unum)

ma-patufour (stative; cf. tau ma-patu 'the four men') (PMP: *ma-epat) *Sepat

màpihuthin, fine (PMP: *mepis)

màrahu etisad, sorrowful ( = 'small liver') (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

màrahu eti(lit. 'small liver') afraid; sad, sorrowful (PMP: *X₅ + qatay) *qaCay

marapu mameticorpse, cadaver (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

marapu ratuoldest, now deified ancestors from whom superior lineages trace their ancestry (PMP: *datu)

ma-raufar, at a great distance (PMP: *ma-zauq) *zauq

mataraw, unripe (rice, maize, etc.) (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

Kambera (200 / 442)

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata bulakind of mollusc (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata epihearth for the cooking fire (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata jalamesh of a net (< Malay) (PWMP: *mata nu puket) *maCa

mata kalílianus (‘eye of buttocks’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata lodusun (‘eye of the day’) (PMP: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

mata manuthe white spot in an egg yolk (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata meublue eyes (‘cat eyes’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata mítiŋufavorite, ‘apple of the eye’ (‘black eye’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata waispring, source (PMP: *mata nu wahiR) *maCa

ma-tuaold; grown up, adult; what follows the rule or is the norm; venerable, holy or sacred (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

ma-yílusour, tart, as a mango (also of painful feeling or discomfort in the body) (PMP: *ñilu)

mbahawet, damp (PMP: *ma-baseq) *baseq

mbaispoiled, musty (as rice) (PCEMP: *baRi) *baRiw

mbanahot, warm; hot-tempered (PMP: *panas₁)

mbanahuwarm (as land) (PMP: *panas₁)

mbana lodusolar heat, the heat of the day (PMP: *qalejaw)

mbàru paitabitter salty, too salty, of food (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

mbenibrave, courageous, dare to do something; angry, malicious (PMP: *baRani)

mbínufull, as a house full of people, a village full of graves, a boat full of water (PMP: *ma-penuq) *penuq

Kambera (220 / 442)

mbuluten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

mehisalt (PCEMP: *maqasin) *qasiN

metidie; dead; go out (fire); be eclipsed (sun) (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

meti mariŋudie a cool (natural) death (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

meti mbanahudie a hot (unnatural) death (as when dying in an accident) (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

miñakusoft, pleasant; tasty, delicious (PMP: *miñak)

mutato vomit (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

nadefinite article (na uma ‘the house’) (PMP: *na₁)

na alahu kapàtaŋuimpenetrable forest (lit. 'dark forest') (PMP: *halas + "dark") *Salas

na ana-na panaarrow (PMP: *anak i panaq) *aNak

na-bunato bloom, blossom (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

na ma-wuŋathe first (PMP: *buŋas)

na- -na3sg. pronoun; as a prefix na- signals the actor: na-laku 'he is going'; as a suffix -na marks a) possession: na ama-na 'his father', b) the agent in substantive constructions: mbàda laku-na-ka 'he has gone already', c) reference to past time: la nomu wula-na 'six months ago' (PAN: *ni-á) *-a₂

natarufront yard of a house, village square (PMP: *natad) *NataD

ndaparticle of negation (PMP: *edaʔ)

ndau humbaSumbanese year, of six months (PMP: *taqun)

ndau jawanon-Sumbanese year, of twelve months (PMP: *taqun)

ndauŋuyear, annual (PMP: *taqun)

ndianot (PMP: *dian)

ndurusound of thunder or of the hooves of galloping horses (PMP: *enduR)

Kambera (240 / 442)

ninushadow, shadow-image; reflection (as in water) (PMP: *qaninu) *qaNiŋu

njarahorse (LOAN)

nuhaland, island (PMP: *nusa₁)

nuhukuenter (< *-sek?) (ROOT)

nula katikuwooden headrest; pillow (PMP: *qalunan)

nulaŋuprop, support (PMP: *qalunan)

nutukuknock, tap, rap, tick (ROOT)

nútukuknock, beat, tap on (ROOT)

ŋaŋaopening of the mouth; also: mouth (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

ŋápituto clip, pinch (ROOT)

ŋaru ŋaŋawide open mouth (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

ŋenito swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

-ŋgu1sg possessive suffix: my (PAN: *-ku)

ŋgutiŋuscissors; to cut the hair (LOAN)

ŋirihusound of scratching, as of a file on something (ROOT)

ŋ-unuŋuto drink (PMP: *maŋ-inum) *inum

ŋ-unuŋuto drink (PCEMP: *unum)

pa-biku-ŋuwinding, curving, not straight (PMP: *bikuq)

pa-budustew until ripe (as bananas) (LOAN)

pa-halapayment made for a transgression (PMP: *pa(ka)-salaq) *salaq₁

Kambera (260 / 442)

pahaŋupair; form a pair; agree or fit with one another (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

paitabitter (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

pa-lairun, run away, flee (PMP: *pa-laRiw) *laRiw

pa-lima-ŋufive times (PMP: *pa-lima) *lima

palitalamp (LOAN)

paluhit, strike; thing used to hit or strike (PMP: *palu₅) *paluʔ

paluto beat, strike; anything used to hit or strike (PMP: *palu₄) *palu₃

palu ahustick used to cudgel a dog (PMP: *palu₄) *palu₃

pambeni βuŋgihuŋubad-tempered as a Buginese, irascible (LOAN)

pa-metikill, bring to an end (PMP: *pa(ka)-m-atay) *aCay

panato heat (as coffee) (PMP: *panas₁)

panabow; shoot with bow and arrow (PAN: *panaq)

panahuwarm up; insist on, coerce (PMP: *panas₁)

pànifeed chickens or pigs (PCEMP: *paniŋ)

pàniŋubait for fishing (PCEMP: *paniŋ)

paniʔflying fox (PMP: *paniki)

pa-nomu-ŋusix times (PMP: *pa-enem) *enem

panukind of skin disease coupled with spots on the skin (PMP: *panaw₁) *panaw

pa- (numeral)divide into (numeral) (PMP: *pa-)

paŋ-unuŋuto water animals (PMP: *paŋ-inum) *inum

Kambera (280 / 442)

pa-patuby fours, in groups of four (PMP: *epat epat) *Sepat

paristingray (PCEMP: *paRi₁) *paRiS

paririce plant (PAN: *pajay)

patufour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

pa-tuwato stun fish with a pounded extract from the roots of Derris elliptica (PMP: *pa-tuba) *tuba

pa-unuŋuwhat is drunk: a drink, beverage; give someone something to drink (PMP: *pa-inum) *inum

pa-wiwimake the edge or rim of (a pot, etc.) (PMP: *birbir₁)

pa-wuluhaving hair, hairy (PCEMP: *bulu₃) *bulu₁

pínuto fill (PAN: *penuq)

pipithe cheeks (PMP: *pipi₁)

pirahow much?, how many? (PAN: *pija)

piranwhen? (PCMP: *pijan) *ijan

pola pumother’s brother (pola = ‘trunk, stem’) (Fox 1980:14) (PMP: *puqun)

puhunavel (PMP: *pusej)

puhuheart (as of pig or chicken) (PMP: *pusuq₁)

puhukuenter (< *-sek?) (ROOT)

puŋguhack, chop down (PMP: *puŋgul)

puŋupost, tree trunk; classifier for long objects; upper arm, hand (PMP: *puqun)

putarurotate, turn (PMP: *putaR)

ràpafathom (PMP: *depa)

Kambera (300 / 442)

rarared, brown (PMP: *rara)

ratuleader in religious ritual; priest (PMP: *datu)

rauleaf; hair (PCEMP: *daun) *dahun

rékikucough, clear one's throat (ROOT)

riŋudugong: Halicore dugong (PCEMP: *ruyuŋ₂) *duyuŋ₂

rí pakufern (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

ripitutake between the fingers; pinch, pluck (PMP: *Ri(m)pit)

ripitutake between the fingers, pinch, pluck (ROOT)

ri ruasecond wife, co-wife (PMP: *duha) *duSa

rokututo stick, adhere to something; to paste or glue to something (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

ruatwo; companion; half (PMP: *duha) *duSa

rú hululeaf (lontar palm, coconut) used for a torch (PMP: *suluq)

runduŋudark; night (PAN: *demdem₂)

taifeces, excrement, filth; accretion (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tai bàhirust (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tàkato arrive, come; therefore; next, afterwards (PMP: *teka₁)

taleliflute; to play a flute (PMP: *tulali) *tulani

talipars pudenda mulieris (also used of animals) (PMP: *teli)

talukikind of silk used as a veil (PMP: *taluki)

tamiaŋukind of thin bamboo: Schistostachyum blumei, used for spears, trail or pitfall spikes, and plaited to make walling (PMP: *tamiaŋ)

Kambera (320 / 442)

tanaland, district, territory (PMP: *taneq)

tana dítauplands, east Sumba; the visible world (PMP: *taneq)

tana Humbathe island of Sumba (PMP: *taneq)

tanaiintestines (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

tana mehisaly-laden earth (usually by river mouths) (PCEMP: *maqasin) *qasiN

tana wàlowlands, west Sumba; the unseen world (PMP: *taneq)

taniŋuto bury (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

taŋalid, cover (PMP: *taŋeb)

taŋirikind of large sea fish: Scomberomorus Cybium (PMP: *taŋiRi)

tau daŋu etiman with much heart: wise man, man with much insight (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

tau pa-meti taukiller, murderer (PMP: *pa(ka)-m-atay) *aCay

tau pa-wihi ruhaŋusomeone with legs like a deer, with spindly legs (PMP: *bities)

tehikusea (PMP: *tasik)

tehiku kawini‘female’ sea: area on both sides of a river’s debouchment into the sea, that is dry at ebbtide (PMP: *tasik)

tehiku míni‘male’ sea: shoreline that is not dry even in ebbtide, where a river exits into the sea (PMP: *tasik)

temiŋushield (PMP: *tamiŋ)

tíbusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tíbu halafalse sugarcane (resembles it, but is different) (PMP: *salaq₁)

tiduŋucarry on the head (as a water pot) (PMP: *teduŋ)

tikuticking sound (as of a watch) (PMP: *tiŋkuq)

Kambera (340 / 442)

tíloegg (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

tíluegg; lay and egg; testicle (because of this meaning the word tílu 'three' is replaced by tailu or dua haàta in counting persons, and by dàmba hau in counting things) (PMP: *qateluR)

tílu ~ tailuthree (PAN: *telu)

tílu manuchicken egg (PMP: *qateluR)

tílu mbua umathree houses (PMP: *buaq₂) *buaq

tínuŋuto weave (PAN: *tenun)

tiŋilisten (PMP: *tiŋi)

tuaold, older (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tujito point out, indicate (PMP: *tusiq) *dusiq

tulakuto prop, support; give a push or shove, push off (PMP: *tulak)

tumbakustrike, knock against (as a buffalo butting with its horns against a fence) (PMP: *tu(m)bak)

tumbakustrike, knock against (as a buffalo butting with its horns against a fence) (ROOT)

tunaeel, sp. of Anguilla (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

tunuset on fire (as a house); burn (as lime), roast, bake (as a chicken or young corn (PMP: *tunu₁) *CuNuh

tuwacreeper with poisonous roots used to stun fish (Derris elliptica); to stun fish with this poison (several types) (PAN: *tuba)

uyes -- expression of confirmation or agreement (PMP: *qu₁)

uasound of retching when vomiting (PMP: *uak₂)

ukurumeasure, measure out (LOAN)

ulaŋurepeat (PAN: *ulaŋ)

ularusnake (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

Kambera (360 / 442)

uliŋrudder; steer with a rudder (PMP: *qulin)

uliŋrudder; steer with a rudder (PMP: *quliŋ)

uluhaft, handle (as of a knife, axe, etc.) (PCEMP: *quluₐ) *quluh

umahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

umbuSir, lord, title of address for a man of high origin; grandfather (PMP: *umpu)

umimarine fish with horn on the head, unicorn fish: Siganus javus (PMP: *qumi)

unuinterior, pith (PMP: *qunej)

upahupoison, venom of a snake (PMP: *upas)

uralines in the palm of the hand; lot, fate, destiny (PMP: *uRat₁) *huRaC

uratulines in the palm of the hand; read the palm to foretell one's future (PMP: *uRat₁) *huRaC

urunose (PAN: *ujuŋ)

utachaff (PCMP: *uta)

utaŋuforest, woods (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

uturow, string; to string beads (PCMP: *utuR)

utuŋuadvantage, profit, gain (LOAN)

uwaŋugray (of hair) (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

waiwater (PCEMP: *waiR₁) *wahiR

wai layiaginger water, infusion of ginger used as a stimulant (PMP: *laqia)

wai lukuriver water (PCEMP: *waiR₁) *wahiR

wai ma-wurafoaming water (PMP: *ma-bujeq) *bujeq

Kambera (380 / 442)

wai pa-unuŋudrinking water (PMP: *pa-inum) *inum

wai riablood (PAN: *daRaq₁) *daRaq

wai tehikuseawater (PCEMP: *waiR₁) *wahiR

wai tehikusaltwater, seawater (PMP: *tasik)

wàkacracked, torn, split (PMP: *bekaq)

wàkahuloosen, undo (as the tie of a basket) (PMP: *beŋkas) *beŋkas₄

wàkarubreak, fall to pieces (as cornflour dough that has been kneaded together) (PMP: *be(ŋ)kaR)

wàka tanacracks in dry ground (PMP: *bekaq)

wàlaruto open (as the hand), spread out (as a mat) (PMP: *bekelaj)

walueight (PAN: *walu)

wàlukubend around (as in coiling rattan); break (PMP: *beluk)

waluŋubind together, bundle (PCEMP: *balun₃) *baluN

waŋgamake an opening, take apart (PMP: *bakas)

waŋgihutwist, wind around; belt; rope that is tied around the loincloth (PAN: *bakes)

wàŋguto bend, bow, curve (PMP: *beŋkuq)

wàŋgubend, duck, bow to, curve, bent downward (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

warahuclean, clear, smooth (NOISE)

waratuwest, west wind (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

warukind of hibiscus (PMP: *baRu)

watarumaize (PMP: *batad)

Kambera (400 / 442)

wàtikusound of dripping water (PAN: *betik₁) *betik

wauodor, stench; to smell, to stink (PMP: *bahu)

wau katipenetrating, of an odor (PMP: *bahu)

wawabeneath; west (PMP: *babaq₁)

wawaŋugroup, collection of things that belong together (PMP: *baban)

welireturn, turn back (PMP: *balik₂)

welireturn, turn back (PMP: *bali₅)

wihileg, foot (PMP: *bities)

wihikuto peel, shell, skin, remove the rind, peeling or skin (PCEMP: *bisik₁)

wilakushine, gleam, glitter (PMP: *bilak₁)

wíliprice, value; brideprice (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

winiseed, grains for dibbling (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

wiŋgituto bite (ROOT)

witiluto pinch (PCMP: *bitil₂)

witusword grass: Imperata cylindrica (PCEMP: *bitu)

wiwilip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

wiwiside, edge, border (PMP: *birbir₁)

wuafruit, seed, grain; numeral classifier for fruits, houses, months, villages, gardens, etc. (PMP: *buaq₂) *buaq

wua aifruit of a tree (PMP: *buaq ni kahiw) *buaq

wua kadalukidneys; testicles (PMP: *buaq₂) *buaq

Kambera (420 / 442)

wua limafinger (PMP: *buaq ni lima) *buaq

wua matapupil of the eye; to bear fruit (PMP: *buaq₂) *buaq

wula ka-metidark moon, time of the new moon (PMP: *bulan matay) *bulaN

wulaŋumoon; month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

wulubody hair, feathers (PCEMP: *bulu₃) *bulu₁

wulu manuchicken feathers (PMP: *bulu ni manuk) *bulu₁

wunduinflated, swollen (as the belly after eating something) (PMP: *buntuʔ)

wuŋafirst (as a first child), earlier (PMP: *buŋas)

wuŋurustling or whizzing sound produced by sudden movement (PMP: *buŋ)

wurableached, whitened, as a piece of material that has lost its color (PMP: *budaq₃)

wurafoam, froth, bubbles, scum; to foam, to froth, to bubble (PCEMP: *budaq₄) *budaq₁

wurafoam, froth, bubbles, scum; to foam, to froth, to bubble (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

wura waifoam on the surface of water (PMP: *bujeq ni wahiR) *bujeq

wuru bàhiiron pot (PAN: *kuden)

wuruŋupot, vessel (PAN: *kuden)

wuru tanaearthenware pot (native) (PAN: *kuden)

wutuflea, louse (PMP: *kutu) *kuCu

wutu ahudog louse (PMP: *kutu) *kuCu

wutu taulouse on a person (PMP: *kutu) *kuCu

wutu uraŋusmall insects that fly about in the evening during the rainy season (‘rain lice’) (PMP: *kutu) *kuCu

Kambera (440 / 442)

yílusour (both taste and feeling of unease in body) (PMP: *ñilu)

Kambera (Mangili) (1) CMP [xbr] (Kambera) Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara)

kahambikind of ironwood tree: Schleichera oleosa (PMP: *kasambiʔ)

243. Kanakanabu (127) Form. (Tsuchida 1976) [xnb] Taiwan

-aimperative suffix (PAN: *-a₁)

a-álueight (PAN: *walu)

abaŋuboat, canoe (PAN: *qabaŋ₁)

aláyhemp yarn for weaving (PAN: *walay)

aɭə́ŋəpine tree (PAN: *saleŋ)

anánəright (not left) (PAN: *wanaN, waNan)

anísitooth (PAN: *waNiS)

anuhoneybee (PAN: *waNu)

apúlufire (PAN: *Sapuy)

aúnusteam, vapor (PAN: *lahuN)

buŋa-buŋaflower (PAN: *buŋa)

caánəroad, path (PAN: *zalan₁) *zalan

cain-án-ayear (PAN: *CawiN)

cakesecamphor laurel: Cinnamomum camphora (PAN: *dakeS)

canúmuwater (PAN: *daNum)

caraʔəblood (PAN: *daRaq₁) *daRaq

civúkastomach (PAN: *biCuka)

ciʔáukind of tasty river fish (PAN: *Ciqaw)

cu-cumá-iniother people (PAN: *duma)

c<um>á-cunuto roast right on the fire (PAN: *CuNuh)

Kanakanabu (20 / 127)

cumáithe Formosan black bear (PAN: *Cumay)

cuúsatwo (serial counting) (PAN: *duSa)

cuvúŋ-unuconfluence of rivers (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

cuvuʔubamboo shoot (PAN: *Cubuq)

cuʔúanəbone (PAN: *CuqelaN)

ii-kasu2sg., you/thou (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *i-kaSu)

i-írileft (side) (PAN: *wiRi)

íivuurine (PAN: *sibu)

kaənəfood (PAN: *kaen)

ki-gather (as sweet potatoes) (PAN: *ki-)

ku-a-tanáməto taste (PAN: *taNam)

kuculouse (of head) (PAN: *kuCu)

kuícipeelings of fruit and tubers (PAN: *kuliC)

kuláiinsect, worm (PAN: *kulay)

k<um>a-kaənəto eat (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

k<um>irímiseek (PAN: *kiRim)

láaləflying squirrel (PAN: *lawaR)

ma-ima-enfifty (PAN: *ma-lima-N) *lima

m-aka-naŋúluto swim (PAN: *Naŋuy)

ma-nípithin (of materials) (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

Kanakanabu (40 / 127)

ma-paʔícisour (PAN: *ma-paqiC) *paqiC

ma-páʔicisour (PAN: *paqiC)

m-ari-itíitito wave (in general) (PAN: *witiwit)

m-ari-sináuwash utensils (PAN: *Siñaw)

mia-pacáikill (PAN: *pa-aCay) *aCay

mii-saúnia little while ago (PAN: *Sauni)

mu-a-panaʔəshoot with a bow (PAN: *p<um>anaq) *panaq

m-u-a-sipárəwalk across the river (PAN: *SipaR)

na-nuwhere? (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *na-nu) *-nu

natə́ŋəvegetables (PAN: *NaCeŋ)

na-vuŋuhead (NOISE)

niməcaʔəpaddy leech (PAN: *meCaq) *meCaq (X + meCaq)

nuu-saúniin a little while (PAN: *Sauni)

ŋisaabreath (PAN: *NiSawa)

páalibile, gall bladder (PAN: *paliq₁)

pa-áridry in the sun (PAN: *waRi₁)

paláyglutinous rice (PAN: *pajay)

pari-vii-viínito follow (PAN: *biliN)

páʔicimillet or rice beer (PAN: *paqiC)

pi-ʔə'nəvəto close, shut (PAN: *qeNeb₁)

Kanakanabu (60 / 127)

pucaʔfoam (PAN: *puCaq)

raa-paʔi-paʔícaacid fluid which comes up from the stomach (PAN: *paqiC)

rə'əʔəsword grass: Imperata cylindrica (PAN: *Riaq)

rimafive (PAN: *lima)

rítuloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa (PAN: *Ritu)

r<um>a-ráapəto sow (PAN: *R<um>ahap) *Rahap

samaʔəplant sp.: Lactuca indica (PAN: *Samaq)

saː-nathere (yonder) (PAN: *-na)

sa-supatefour (humans) (PAN: *Sa-Sepat) *Sepat

saúnitoday (PAN: *Sauni)

sikáməmat woven with wild ginger leaves (PAN: *Sikam)

sinúʔunecklace (PAN: *SiNuq)

su-anominative and oblique case marker for common nouns (PAN: *su)

taa-valáʔəknow, understand; can (PAN: *bajaq₁) *bajaq

ta-bunəbunəbanana (PAN: *beNbeN)

talísirope (PAN: *CaliS)

tanaʔea plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance) (PAN: *tanaq)

taníucumulberry tree and fruit (PAN: *taNiud)

ta-ʔəvə'ŋ-apigpen, pigsty (NOISE)

ta-ʔi-nuáŋəfemale pygmy deer (PAN: *qiNuaŋ)

Kanakanabu (80 / 127)

tənəməsea (PAN: *tenem)

t<um>-á-taŋito cry, weep (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis

t<um>á-tarato ambush (PAN: *t<um>aRah) *taRah

-um-marker of actor focus (PAN: *<um>₁) *-um-

um-á-alato take (PAN: *um-alaq) *alaq₁

um-á-alato take (PAN: *um-ala) *ala

um-a-iríkithresh by scraping with the soles of one's feet (PAN: *iRik)

u-nə'məsix (PAN: *enem)

urácəblood vessel (PAN: *huRaC)

u-síanine (PAN: *u-Siwa) *Siwa

u-túluthree (PAN: *telu)

vaaraembers (PAN: *baRah)

váatustone (PAN: *batu₄) *batu₁

vanárəa plant: Smilax china (PAN: *baNaR)

vanítukumoney (LOAN)

vaŋasa tree: Melia azedarach (PAN: *baŋaS)

varaʔlung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

vavúlupig (PAN: *babuy₃)

vaʔúrunew (PAN: *baqeRuh)

və'ərahusked rice (PAN: *beRas₁) *beRas

Kanakanabu (100 / 127)

viʔíligoiter (NOISE)

vuánemoon, month (PAN: *bulaN)

vuaʔeorange (PAN: *buaq₁) *buaq

vuútusquirrel (PAN: *buhet)

ʔacáŋəstone walls (NOISE)

ʔa-ísiexist (PAN: *isiʔ)

ʔaƚimətək-apaddy leech (PAN: *qaNi-)

ʔama-laúcudownhill (PAN: *lahud)

ʔamís-anəwinter (PAN: *qamiS-an) *qamiS

ʔanimətək-acreek leech (PAN: *qaNi-matek) *-matek

ʔapúrulime (PAN: *qapuR)

ʔaricaŋpigeon peas (PAN: *qaRidaŋ)

ʔáurutype of bamboo (PAN: *qauR₁) *qauR

ʔə`əvəsmoke (PAN: *qebel)

ʔənáiearth, soil (PAN: *qenay)

ʔicúuruegg (PAN: *qiCeluR)

ʔinúaŋəfemale deer (PAN: *qiNuaŋ)

ʔuáirattan (PAN: *quay)

ʔucánərain (PAN: *quzaN)

ʔ-um-á-ʔacidam up a side stream to catch fish (PAN: *qaCi)

Kanakanabu (120 / 127)

ʔ-um-a-ʔanúputo hunt (PAN: *q<um>aNup) *qaNup

ʔ-um-a-ʔuci-ʔucípialive (of animals) (PAN: *qudip₁) *qudip

ʔunúnaŋəa tree: Cordia sp. (PAN: *qaNuNaŋ)

ʔunúnaŋetree with sticky fruits: Cordia myxa (PAN: *quNuNaŋ)

ʔusásəgray hair (PAN: *qudaS)

ʔutínipenis (PAN: *qutiN)

ʔu-umafarm (PAN: *qumah)

244. Kaniet (3) OC [ktk] Papua New Guinea

ñamumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

saospear (Dempwolff (1905:207) (POC: *jaot) *saet

umun-icook in an earth oven (POC: *qumun-i) *qumun

245. Kankanaey (795) WMP (Vanoverbergh 1933) [kne] Philippines

abácarry on the back (children are ordinarily carried in that way) (PPh: *aba₂)

abágput their money together; enter, get into partnership with somebody (PPh: *abag)

abága-nshoulder (used only in tales) (PAN: *qabaRa-an) *qabaRa₁

ábatmeet, meet with, fall in with, find, encounter (NOISE)

ábayto use like a friend; be the companion of; be friendly to; take a liking to; make very much of (PWMP: *abay)

abebékthump, bump (of something heavy that strikes the water) (ROOT)

abebékthump, bump, plunge. Sound of something heavy that strikes the water (NOISE)

ábekmat (mostly used to sleep on) (NOISE)

abódust (used instead of abé in mourning songs) (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

ábudrive away, turn out, expel (PPh: *ábuR)

abʔabbéŋkind of large, edible, whitish-gray cockchafer or June bug (NOISE)

a-dáemdeep, profound (PMP: *dalem₂) *dalem

adi k-atéynot to die (PAN: *ka-aCay) *aCay

adúmany; much; a great many; a great deal; plenty of; numerous (PMP: *hadu) *Sadu

ágewsun, day, daytime, daylight, light, sweat, perspiration (PMP: *qalejaw)

agpítcarry under (one's arm, etc.) (ROOT)

akaŋ-káŋto spread one’s legs; to straddle (PWMP: *akaŋ)

ákupone (great) handful; one (small) armful. A quantity that can be taken up with both hands (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

álakwine, gin, whisky; alcohol (LOAN)

álakwine; gin; whisky; alcohol (LOAN)

Kankanaey (20 / 795)

alimaoŋcivet, civet cat (PWMP: *qari-maquŋ)

alípitcarry under (one's arm, etc.) (ROOT)

ali-wadáŋrib (used only in tales) (PAN: *wadaŋ)

aliwadáŋ (< *qali-wadaŋ)rib (used only in tales) (PWMP: *qali-wadaŋ, kali-wadaŋ)

alʔópestle, stamper (PAN: *qaSelu)

amáfather; parent; sire (PAN: *ama)

ámamy father (PAN: *ama)

ampíkpat, tap lightly (PWMP: *ampik)

amtínightshade: Solanum nigrum Linn.; a common solanaceous weed with white flowers and small black berries (PMP: *SameCi)

am-ʔamáold man (PWMP: *ama ama) *ama

amʔínall, whole, each, any, every; everyone, everything, wholly, entirely, quite, completely, thoroughly (PAN: *am(e)ʔin)

anákchild, infant, offspring; son, daughter; boy, lad, girl, lass; young, whelp, pup, cub; shoot, sprout, young plant (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ánito harvest; to reap; to crop, to pick (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

aníbuŋtinder. The name is also applied to many plants which provide it, as the Asclepiadaceae, cat-tail or mace reed, etc. (PMP: *qanibuŋ)

aní-ento harvest; to reap; to crop; to pick (PPh: *qanih-en) *qaniS

ánitbark; skin (of ánes, a kind of bamboo much used in basket-making (PMP: *qanit) *qaNiC

anítospirit, either good or evil (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

antapkind of round tall basket, used to hold pared (NOISE)

ànudbe carried away, swept away (by the current) (PAN: *qañud)

anúphound (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup

Kankanaey (40 / 795)

aŋáŋto call; to invite people from other towns to the bayás sacrifice; used only in tales (PAN: *qaŋqaŋ)

aŋgístink, smell bad; fetid, rank; stench, as of anything stale (PAN: *qaŋeRiS)

áŋitprovoke; be provoking; to challenge; defy; bid defiance to one (PMP: *haŋit)

aŋkátthe place from where it is fetched, taken, brought (money, camotes, wood, etc.) (PWMP: *aŋkat)

aŋségto stink, smell bad, have a suffocating smell. For instance, the armpit (PWMP: *qaŋesej)

aŋsóstink; smell bad (as cooked camote leaves) (PPh: *qaŋesu)

aŋtégrancid. For instance, raw beans, raw cabbage, green chili pepper, butter, etc. (PPh: *qaŋetej)

ap-apóforefathers, ancestors (PPh: *ampu ampu) *apu

apídplait, form into tresses, braid (PAN: *qapid)

apílswing together, be two on the swing (PMP: *hampil)

ápinpad, as a leaf spread inside the pot in which rice is boiled, straw spread in openwork basket used for nests, etc. (PMP: *hapin)

apípislessen, reduce, diminish (ROOT)

apógrandfather, grandmother, grandchild (PMP: *ampu) *apu

apókspread; scatter; dissipate; expand (PWMP: *ampuk)

appásFicus cumingii Miq., Ficus validicaudata Merr., and similar species. Shrubs with fig-shaped fruits and rough leaves; family Moraceae (PWMP: *qampelas)

appásFicus cumingii. Miq., F. validicaudata Merr., and similar species. Shrubs with fig-shaped fruits and rough leaves, family Moraceae (PMP: *qa(m)pelas) *qapelas

appédrough, harsh (to the taste) (PMP: *apeled)

ápuglime, limestone (PAN: *qapuR)

asáwahusband, bridegroom, spouse, wife, bride; mate, counterpart, pendant, fellow, equal, like, match (PAN: *qasawa)

(a)siverbal prefix indicating simulation, or an action done by many (PWMP: *asih)

Kankanaey (60 / 795)

asínsalt (PAN: *qasiN)

ásodog, bitch (PAN: *asu₁)

átagreen; raw; not mature; not dry (PWMP: *hataq)

átaŋpole, stick, shank of the gimáta (two baskets, round at the brim and square at the base, joined together with a pole, which also runs over them; it is much used by men to carry loads) (PWMP: *ataŋ₂)

ataŋŋékresound loudly, ring (ROOT)

atatádobluish white caterpillar living on the taro plant (PWMP: *qantatadu)

átebrat trap; mouse trap (consisting of a log, lifted on one side and attached so as to come down and crush the animal when it gnaws the bait) (PAN: *qaCeb)

atéproof, top; roofing (PMP: *qatep)

áteyliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

atim-bayuŋanbumblebee (PAN: *qaCi-)

ati-ŋayáwanlarge dark brown ant (PAN: *qaCi-)

atíp-ana piece of wood to which the warp is attached at its inferior part (PAN: *qatip-an) *qatip₁

aunístay! hold! wait! (PAN: *Sauni)

auní auní etindicates the future with verbs (PAN: *Sauni)

auní si maauauníby and by; soon; anon; ere long; in a moment; in a minute (PAN: *Sauni)

awyes; yea; aye. Often added to other words, mostly conjunctions (PAN: *auʔ)

áwakbody (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

áwelbuzz, roar, hum, whirr (stones thrown with force, spinning tops, etc.) (PWMP: *awer)

áyatto set (two roosters) fighting (PWMP: *ayat)

ayáwgo away; depart; leave; quit; run away; scamper away (PPh: *ayaw₁)

Kankanaey (80 / 795)

ay-áyamtoy with, play with, trifle with (PWMP: *qayam₃)

ay-ayam-énamuse, divert, entertain (PWMP: *qayam₃)

áyotsemen, sperm; humor. Applied to the male fecundating fluid and the humor from the vulvo-vaginal glands (PWMP: *ayut)

ayyáwpursue; hunt; take in; chase; catch (PWMP: *ayaw₂)

ay-ʔayah! ho! what a pickle you are in! Interjection denoting wonder or surprise (PAN: *ai₂)

baáya strong pilose vine; the inner part of its bark is used for strings (PMP: *bahay) *baSay

ba-báiwoman; female; hen (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

baflasweak, feeble, faint; slow, tardy (NOISE)

baga-anask for, claim the payment of a debt (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

bagbagundo, unstitch, unsew; demolish (PWMP: *bajbaj)

b-ag-eŋbeŋkind of instrument imitating the violin (PAN: *b<aR>eŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₂

bágoHibiscus tiliaceus (PMP: *baRu)

báifemale; hen (not used for persons) (PMP: *bahi₂) *bahi

baí ~ bai-éna henlike cock (PMP: *bahi₂) *bahi

bakbákfrog (PAN: *bakbak₂)

bakúghunchbacked (ROOT)

balabágto lay, etc. askew, obliquely, across, awry (PPh: *bala(R)baR)

bálaŋprovided; it is to be seen if, we will see if, it is to be hoped that, we will hope that (used only in tales) (PMP: *baraŋ₁) *baraŋ

baláwcontradict, gainsay (PPh: *baláw)

baláyaŋa variety of much esteemed, thick-skinned, small yellow banana (PPh: *baláyaŋ)

Kankanaey (100 / 795)

bal-balóhandsome; beautiful young man (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

balídeceived, cheated, deluded, beguiled, taken in (PMP: *bali₄)

bálityphoon, storm (LOAN)

balídclose-woven (NOISE)

balíkesone of the most ordinary kinds of woven belts, yellow and red (PPh: *balíkes)

balíkeskind of woven belt (ROOT)

balíkidcome to life again, be resuscitated, rise from the dead (PPh: *balikid)

balisósokingfisher (PPh: *balisúsu)

balitókgold (LOAN)

balóyoung man; lad; youngster; youth; bachelor (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

baluŋábiŋcrest, comb (of a cock or hen) (NOISE)

bánawto dip, soak, steep, drench, wet (as a kettle with adherent dirt) (PMP: *bañaw₂) *bañaw

banbánscraped rattan; cleaned bamboo (PWMP: *banban)

banógkind of kite with gray and white plumage (PPh: *banúg)

banuáykind of tree (PWMP: *banuay)

báŋittease, plague, trouble, vex, annoy (ROOT)

basácontinually humid; always watery (of soil) (PMP: *baseq₂) *baseq

bátaŋpine tree; tree (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bat- bátaŋbranch, bough (of a tree still alive) (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bátektattooing (mostly on the forearm of women) (PMP: *batek)

Kankanaey (120 / 795)

batikúgcurved; bent; bowed; inclined (ROOT)

batóstone (PMP: *batu₁)

batúŋegdull of hearing; deaf (ROOT)

báyadfine, penalty; forfeit (PMP: *bayaD)

bayád-ento fine (PMP: *bayaD)

baybáysea, ocean (PPh: *baybáy)

bayó-ento pound rice (this word-base is exceptionally used in the sense of “pestle” (PAN: *bayu)

bedbédheadband; a piece of cloth, etc. folded up and worn around the head by men (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

beflaspounded white, pounded thoroughly (NOISE)

begásrice, pounded rice; fruit (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

begnátcome back, applied to sickness when one falls ill again (PPh: *beRnát)

bekásbegin singing, commence the singing (when the people use the kind of singing called daiŋ in sacrifices); setting in, of rainy season, etc. (PWMP: *belekas)

bekbékto beat; to break; to cut to pieces (something more or less hard) (PMP: *bekbek₁)

bekbékbeat, break, cut to pieces -- something more or less hard (PAN: *bekbek₂)

belbélflutter, flap (PMP: *berber₁)

beltákto hit a top with a top (PPh: *beRták)

beltákto hit a top with a top (ROOT)

béŋareported; told; related; announced; declared; proclaimed; published; promulgated; made known; heralded (NOISE)

beŋáegstink, smell bad (NOISE)

béŋegto buzz, to hum (PWMP: *beŋeR)

Kankanaey (140 / 795)

besáttorn, rent for the first time; it begins to tear, to be torn, to be rent, to wear out, to be worn out (applied to clothes) (PMP: *be(R)tas)

betákcleave, split, rive, crack, rend, rip; break, burst (of wood, etc.) (PMP: *betak₂) *betak

betbetcleave, split, rive, crack, cut open, rend, rip, chap; to cut, to hew, to chop, to carve (with a sharp instrument) (PMP: *betbet)

betékone bundle, one sheaf (of palay, beans, etc.) (PPh: *betek₁)

betk-énbind into bundles, sheaves (PPh: *betek₁)

biayáabundant, plentiful, high (applied to water) (LOAN)

bibíllips of the vulva: labia majora (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bigíto shoot, to sprout. For instance, mature palay, after having fallen into the water on the field, or when getting wet in the granary (NOISE)

bikbíkslap, tap, rap, pat with the open hand (PWMP: *bikbik)

bila-bílaelephant ear: Alocasia sp. Araceous herbs with very large sagittate leaves (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

bilágunfold; unfurl; unroll; set out; display; to open; to stretch; to spread; to show (PMP: *bilaj)

bilákglitter, shine (for instance, gold) (PMP: *bilak₁)

bílaŋcount; compute; reckon; to calculate; to number (PAN: *bilaŋ)

biláŋ-ento count; to reckon; to number; to calculate; to include (PPh: *bilaŋ-en) *bilaŋ

bilaŋláŋglitter; glisten; glister; flash (as fire) (ROOT)

bilínbe separated, set apart, put aside (PWMP: *bilin)

bíloblackened, grown black (applied to nails, shells, etc.) (PPh: *bilu₁)

b<in>abáiwomanish, effeminate; weak man (PPh: *b<in>a-bahi) *bahi

b<in>átaŋhouse made of pine timber; ordinary houses (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bíŋit-anto tease; to plague; to trouble; to vex; to annoy; to pester (PMP: *biŋit)

Kankanaey (160 / 795)

bissátto crack, as when tearing up cloth (PMP: *bitas)

bitílstarveling, starving, famishing (caused by famine) (PMP: *bitil₁)

bítopit; shaft (PPh: *bítu)

boágrain, berry, bead; grape, fruit; drupe; seed; stone; kernel, pip. In general, all that is small and round (PMP: *buaq₂) *buaq

bogkind of edible grayish-white mushroom (NOISE)

boŋtótlet us see who broke wind! Pronouncing those words children twirl round a crooked blade of grass or something similar between their fingers (PPh: *buŋtút)

boŋtótbreak wind (ROOT)

boókhair, wool. Of the head of persons and of animals (PMP: *buhek₁) *bukeS

bósoenemy, foe; war, warfare, battle, fight, engagement, combat, contest (PAN: *busuR₁)

bóʔotmouldiness; mustiness; lichen. White or grey lichens growing on stones, etc., for instance Anaptychia sp. (NOISE)

buágto fall uprooted; fall down rooted out; to tumble rooted up (PPh: *buág)

búanmoon, moonlight; month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

buásmorning (used only in tales) (PPh: *buás)

búatbeginning, for instance of a certain period (PMP: *buhat₃)

buát-ento help up, help down; assist a person lifting a load to his shoulder, or putting one down (PMP: *buhat₃)

buát-encarry, bear on the shoulder (PWMP: *buhat-en) *buhat₃

buáyacrocodile (PWMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

bubúnwell, hole for water (PMP: *bubun₁) *bubun

bubúŋridge of the roof (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

budákto pop, to broil (of corn, etc.) (PWMP: *bundak)

Kankanaey (180 / 795)

budsékblind, sightless (ROOT)

búetcarnivorous animal resembling a polecat (PAN: *buhet)

bugákind of red earth resembling the puá, but less hard (PPh: *búgaq)

búgawto cry, cry out; halloo; shout; ball; scream; shriek; clamor; cheer; roar (PAN: *buRaw)

bugnáykind of euphorbiaceous shrub found in the vicinity of towns: Antidesma bunius Spreng. (PWMP: *buRnay)

buíscontribution, tribute, tax, assessment, impost, toll, duty; poll-tax (PPh: *buhís)

bukʔóŋcurved; bent; crooked (applied to the back of old persons) (PWMP: *buqekuŋ)

búlak, ma-bulák-anseparated, severed, parted (NOISE)

bulalákawkind of animal (?); supposed to be an old eel, to fly and to be luminous. Many stories are told about it (PPh: *bulalákaw₂)

buláŋitto tease; to plague; to trouble; to vex; to annoy; to pester (used only in tales) (ROOT)

buláwangold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

buldíŋone-eyed; blind, of one eye (PPh: *buldíŋ)

búligbunch of bananas (PMP: *buliR)

buligawgáwdull; dim; myope; nearsighted (PAN: *buli-)

búlikspotted; speckled (mostly applied to cocks) (PWMP: *burik)

bulúŋcabbage, cole, colewort, kale (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

bulúŋankind of edible white mushroom (NOISE)

búlusflow out steadily, unremittedly, continuously, constantly (PWMP: *bulus)

b-um-úŋetbe angry, get into a passion; be offended, irritated, exasperated, excited, indignant, enraged, furious (PWMP: *buŋet)

búnugkind of edible white mushroom (PPh: *bunuj)

Kankanaey (200 / 795)

bunútbramble, brier (Rubus moluccanus Linn.) (PWMP: *bunut₂)

búŋayoung pine tree, sapling; man. In the last meaning used only in tales (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

buŋét-ancholeric; passionate; hasty; irascible (PWMP: *buŋet)

buŋgéksnore (ROOT)

búsagpith; marrow; quintessence (NOISE)

búsag di káiwheart of a tree (NOISE)

busáliinfected wound, suppurating sore (NOISE)

buséygoiter (NOISE)

busíketclay; the thick, gluey black earth of rice fields (ROOT)

búsugkind of small bow with rattan string, used in fluffing cotton (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

busúg, ma-bsúgsatiated, sated (PWMP: *busuR₃)

bútamote in the eye (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

but-butíkspotted; speckled hen (PPh: *butik)

butbutíkspotted; speckled hen (ROOT)

búteŋdrunk, inebriated, intoxicated, tipsy (PMP: *buteŋ)

bútisated, satiated (PPh: *bútil)

bútigwart (larger than the sídiŋ) (PMP: *buteliR)

camotes(sweet potatoes) (NOISE)

dákisoiled, dirty (applied to cups, etc.) (PMP: *daki₂) *daki

dalikánhearth. Pots and jars are placed on three stones; there is no chimney (PMP: *dalikan)

Kankanaey (220 / 795)

danúmwater; liquid; sap, juice (PMP: *danum) *daNum

daŋgékhoarse; to sound harshly, as the throat when one coughs (ROOT)

dapánsole of the foot (PMP: *dapan) *dapaN

dapdáp-anto cut away chips of, to cut off small parts of, to lop, to clean, to smooth (wood) (PPH: *dapdáp)

datéŋto come home; to return home; to go arrive (PWMP: *dateŋ)

datŋ-ento arrive at; to attain; to reach; to meet; to find; to light on; to come across (PWMP: *dateŋ-en) *dateŋ

dáyaheavens; firmament; sky (PAN: *daya)

dekáksqueak, scream, shriek, screech (PWMP: *dekak)

deképLatin: habere copulam (PWMP: *dekep)

dekétcrust of rice which forms at the bottom of the pot (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

desdesto trample on; to tread upon; to trample underfoot, as rice straw when harvesting, or the body of a fallen enemy (PPH: *desdes₁)

dílatongue (PMP: *dilaq₂) *dilaq₁

dila-énto mock, to deride, to ridicule (PMP: *dilaq₂) *dilaq₁

d<in>iŋdíŋhouse whose walls are made of boards arranged side by side (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

dinsékthick, close together, as plants sown thick (ROOT)

diŋdíŋwall of a house (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

dokpúsfinish, complete, terminate, end; to perfect (ROOT)

duátwo; both (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dua-duáto doubt, to hesitate (PMP: *duha duha₂) *duSa

duldúl-anto dun; to beset for payment (PPH: *duldúl)

Kankanaey (240 / 795)

d<um>a-dapánshallow, not deep (PMP: *dapan) *dapaN

d<um>apányoung girl, little girl; young man, little boy (PMP: *dapan) *dapaN

d<um>atéŋto come home; to return home; to go arrive (PWMP: *d<um>ateŋ) *dateŋ

d<um>ílato tell a story, a fib, a hoax; to speak ill, to backbite (PMP: *d<um>ilaq₂) *dilaq₁

dumlítto lime, cement, putty with; to stick, cause to cleave, adhere (ROOT)

duŋgéksnore (ROOT)

dúunlocust (PPh: *dúdun)

ebánblanket used to carry children on the back (PMP: *heban) *SebaN

ebékcry and gibber; weep and jabber; weep and grumble (PWMP: *he(m)bek)

edégback (used only in tales) (PPh: *edeg)

edépto close, shut (applied to the eyes) (PWMP: *qezep)

edétthick, close, closely set, crowded (ROOT)

ekébinclosed, covered, hidden (applied to the gall bladder when completely inclosed in the liver, which is considered as a good omen) (PMP: *e(ŋ)keb)

élak-endivide between two (PMP: *elak)

eléksleep with somebody (PPh: *helek)

emʔémhalf-choked, suffocated, stifled (PAN: *qemqem)

enébto shut, to close (PMP: *qeneb₁) *qeNeb₁

enémsix (PAN: *enem)

enéŋquiet, still, tranquil; to stop, cease (romping, etc.) (PMP: *qeneŋ)

nose (NOISE)

Kankanaey (260 / 795)

epásalight, descend, come down; let down, set down, put down (PWMP: *qempas)

epenpad, for instance a leaf spread inside the pot in which rice is boiled, anything spread in a basket to stop a gap, etc. (NOISE)

eppásdrop, let fall (PWMP: *qempas)

esáone; a, an (PAN: *esa)

etánot husked grain, kernel of rice found in rice that has been pounded (PMP: *qeta) *qeCah

gabʔúnfill up (with earth, etc.), to earth up, to cover (PWMP: *Rab(e)qun)

g-al-ikgíkto neigh (PMP: *gikgik)

gálitstriped; streaked (PMP: *garit)

gamáone handful (PWMP: *gamaʔ)

gáŋitprovoke, challenge, defy (ROOT)

gebékrotten; with rotten haulm, stalk, culm (ROOT)

géŋetcholeric, angry, easily irritated (PAN: *reŋeC, ReŋeC)

getgrate, creak, gnash (doors, teeth, etc.) (ROOT)

gíak ~ me-ŋíakto bark, to bay (PWMP: *giak)

giáwshout, clamor, cry, squall, bawl (PWMP: *Riaw)

gíkenringlike pad made of grasses and sedges, and placed on the head by women when carrying loads (PWMP: *Riken)

gíliŋto grind; to mill (PMP: *giliŋ)

gíliŋ-anto grind; to mill (PWMP: *giliŋ-an) *giliŋ

gipákto clack, clap, crack (PWMP: *ri(m)pak, Ri(m)pak)

gipítgap; breach; hiatus; pass; interstice; chink; crevice; cleft; fissure; crack (PMP: *gipit)

Kankanaey (280 / 795)

gisgístear, rend (PWMP: *gisgis₂)

gisíbreak, burst, crack, split (PMP: *Risi, Risiq)

gitgítresent; be offended; get angry (ROOT)

gítikto tickle; to titillate (PWMP: *gitik)

gitík-ento tickle; to titillate (PWMP: *gitik)

g<um>iáwto shout; to clamor; to cry; to squall; to bawl (PPH: *giaw)

guyud-ana round board dragged along the ground and used for transporting earth from one place to another (PWMP: *guyud)

guyud-ento draw; to pull along; to drag; to trail; to haul (PWMP: *guyud)

hitilift up, raise (PMP: *bintiŋ)

i-prefix with a few adverbs of time, and with names of towns or countries to indicate the people whose town or country of origin they are (PMP: *hi-) *Si-₂

íastrue? yes? indeed? sure? An interjection used when doubting (PMP: *ias₁)

íbaominous, portentous, forboding evil; bad, ill (PPh: *iba₂)

i-bagáask, inquire after (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

i-dáitto add; to put, to join something to (PMP: *zaqit)

i-daŋdáŋto heat; to warm, putting it close to the fire (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₂) *daŋdaŋ

ídu.ŋto shelter (ROOT)

íduŋto shelter, take shelter (NOISE)

íduswooden spoon (PAN: *qidus)

ígakbreak out into laughter (ROOT)

igókto swallow (PPh: *iŋguk)

Kankanaey (300 / 795)

ígupsuck in, drink, absorb (PMP: *hiRup) *SiRup

no! nonsense! interjection of disbelief (PMP: *iqi)

iitto file (PPh: *iit)

ika-a prefix added to cardinal numbers to form ordinal ones (PAN: *Sika-)

ikánfish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

ikémto close; to shut up; to close up (PWMP: *iŋkem)

iketfasten a rope to, attach a cord to, fasten a line to; to strap, to leash (PMP: *hiket) *Siket

ikt-énbe fastened or attached to (PWMP: *hiket-en) *Siket

ílalook at, look on, behold, see, observe, view, inspect; know well, foresee (applied to any knowledge of hidden things or facts); curious, inquisitive (PWMP: *ila₂) *ila

ilapsharpen to a point (NOISE)

ílitown, city, village, hamlet, borough; country, fatherland, any person living outside of one's village (PPh: *híli)

ilíkto shell (rice) with the feet (PAN: *iRik)

ilítoutside of the town; fields; out of the group of houses, but still on the grounds of the town (PPh: *hilít)

íloclean oneself with toilet paper (PAN: *qiluS)

ílutto rub, apply massage to any injured part of the body (PPh: *hílut)

ílut-enapply massage (PPh: *hílut-en) *hílut

ímahand, arm (cp. limá 'five') (PMP: *ima₁)

imátonfind out about; notice; discern; know; recognize; distinguish (PPh: *himatún)

immiteat, take, etc. by little bits (PWMP: *imit)

imókcovet, lust; desire eagerly -- applied to concupiscence and greediness (NOISE)

Kankanaey (320 / 795)

in-a prefix; the past form of the suffix -en and of the prefix -i- (PAN: *<in>) *-in-

ínamy mother (PMP: *ina₂) *ina

inámother, parent (PMP: *ina₂) *ina

ínampalatable; tasteful; savory (PPh: *hínam)

in-anak-ánhaving young ones, having a child. Applied to animals and to unmarried women who have a natural child (PPh: *hin-anak-an) *aNak

in-apóson-in-law; daughter-in-law (PPh: *in-ampu) *apu

ínatto stretch, lengthen, extend (PWMP: *iñat)

inát-enbe stretched by (PPh: *iñát-en) *iñat

in-ínatelastic; rubber, gutta percha (PWMP: *iñat)

ínitto heat, to warm (water, cooked vegetables) (PWMP: *qinit)

in-íwit-anhind part of a G-string (PPh: *íwit)

in-pi-duáchild begotten after a second marriage, fruit of a second marriage (PMP: *duha) *duSa

inúmto drink, to tipple (PMP: *inum)

ínut(to take, to do, etc.) little by little, by degrees, at intervals, one by one (PPh: *qínut)

íñampalatable, savory (ROOT)

íŋetterrible, fearful, dreadful, terrific, horrible, awful, shocking (PMP: *qiŋet)

iŋíiŋroar, rumble, bellow, bawl, hum noisily (PPh: *iŋqiiŋ)

ipa-prefix equivalent to pa-: 1. used with verbs to express an order, 2. with adjectives to form the absolute superlative, 3. with numbers to express the worth of something, 4. with the suffix -an to form a kind of substantive indicating location or place (PPh: *ipa-)

ipa-dkétto attach; to fix; to stick; to paste (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

ipa-útaŋto lend, to loan (PPh: *ipa-qútaŋ) *qutaŋ

Kankanaey (340 / 795)

i-payápayto beckon, to call beckoning with the hand (PPH: *payapay)

ipéttight, taut (PWMP: *hiqepet)

ípidthatch wall (ROOT)

ipíŋrest, lay, lean (one's head). For instance, upon the shoulder of the person who carries one on the back (PAN: *qipiŋ)

ípitpinch; hold fast; press, squeeze, clasp; tighten, confine (PMP: *qipit₂) *qipit

ípona variety of dark-colored palay (rice) with awns (PPh: *ípun₃) *ípun

i-seksékto copulate (PPH: *i-seksek) *seksek

ísikcruel, merciless, hardhearted, ruthless, pitiless (NOISE)

i-síkadto set one’s foot against a point of support, as in order to pull or lift up something (PPH: *sikad)

ísipthink, deem, be of opinion (PPh: *ísip)

isíp-enthink, deem, be of opinion (PPh: *isip-en) *ísip

i-sóokto go out for the first time (after a time of sacrifice, during which it was forbidden) (PPH: *suquk)

itílLatin: Muliebria, verenda feminae (PWMP: *itil)

itlógegg (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

ítoLygodium sp. Twining ferns used in the manufacturing of hats, etc. (PWMP: *ituq)

iwiŋ-énto incline; to bend; to lean (one’s head) sideways (LOAN)

ka-agáw-annoon, noontide, noonday, midday, daytime (PPh: *ka-qalejaw-an) *qalejaw

ka-apo-ángreat grandfather; great grandsire; great grandmother (PPh: *ka-ampu-an) *apu

ka-bi-bíŋitfrightful; dreadful; horrid; horrible (PMP: *biŋit)

kábitto hook (PAN: *kabit₁)

Kankanaey (360 / 795)

ka-buni-ánname of the Igorot God, one in nature, much less cared for and feared than the anitos or spirits; his name is often added to that of the different periods of a day (PWMP: *buni₂) *buni

kaénto eat, to eat up (PAN: *kaen)

káiwwood; timber; tree, shrub (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kakshriek, screech, scream, as chickens do when startled (PMP: *kak)

kákakchatter, babble, as hens do (PMP: *kakakₐ) *kakak

kalálatscarred (ROOT)

kamáligkind of box or case found under houses, used for a sleeping place, mostly in the daytime, for a playroom of little children, etc. (PMP: *kamaliR)

kámaŋcrawl on all fours (PWMP: *kamaŋ)

kan-kan-énbread; cake; bonbon; sweetmeat; pastry (probably < Ilokano) (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

kaŋclang, clank, clink (PMP: *kaŋ)

kaŋkáŋto ring; to cause to sound; to clank; to clang; striking a sonorous body (PAN: *kaŋkaŋ₂)

kásawbarrier, bar (PMP: *kasaw₁)

káwitto hook; to catch with a hook (PAN: *kawit)

kegáŋdrained; dried up (applied to rivers, ricefields, etc.) (PAN: *keRaŋ₃)

kekshriek, screech, scream (PMP: *kek)

kékekto chirp, pip, peep, cheep, pule (PMP: *ke(k)kek)

kemkémsqueeze, press in one's hand, knead (PWMP: *kemkem)

ken-énto catch; to entrap; to trap; to ensnare; to hit (PMP: *kena₁)

keŋkéŋkind of big-bellied frog; sound of an axe hitting wood (PAN: *keŋkeŋ₁)

kepés, k-um-pésbecome less swollen; shrink; contract; go down; be reduced; subside (PWMP: *ke(m)pes)

Kankanaey (380 / 795)

kibbákto clap, clash (as parts of banana stems against each other) (ROOT)

kígooŋrattle, clash, bang, bounce (ROOT)

kíguŋclink, ring, clang, clank (ROOT)

kikclick, tick, pip, cheep, chirp, peep, pule (PMP: *kik)

kiláyloose, ample, wide; to shake (as shoes, teeth, doors, etc.) (PWMP: *kilay)

k<in>unig-anyellow-dyed cotton yarn (PWMP: *k<in>uñij-an) *kunij

kiŋring, tinkle, jingle; rattle, warble; trill (alarmclock, the ear, warblers, etc.) (PMP: *kiŋ)

kiŋétcholeric, irascible (ROOT)

kiŋíkoŋtortuous, winding (ROOT)

kiŋkiŋ-enring, clang, clank (PAN: *kiŋkiŋ₁)

kíokpip, pule, peep, chirp, cheep (PMP: *kiuk)

kipákclap, clash (PWMP: *kipak)

kippéksnap, clack (as a cane that breaks) (ROOT)

kippíkto snap, crack (as a breaking twig) (ROOT)

kippúsbreak wind noiselessly (ROOT)

kipúsquickly exhausted; up in a short time (ROOT)

kísatsound of tearing up cloth (ROOT)

-komy, I; 1sg postnominal possessive pronoun (PAN: *-ku)

kokshriek, screech, scream (PMP: *kuk)

kokónail, claw (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

Kankanaey (400 / 795)

koŋkóŋring, cause to sound, clank, clang; strike a sonorous body (PAN: *ku(ŋ)kuŋ)

koŋkóŋto ring; to cause to sound; to clank; to clang (striking a sonorous body) (PAN: *kuŋkuŋ₁)

kuáthing; property, estate, fortune; pudenda, secret parts, secrets, genital organs (PWMP: *kua₂) *kua₁

kuáogreat yellow passerine bird with black wings (PAN: *kuaw)

kudpúsup; consumed, wasted, finished (ROOT)

kúgis-ento line, mark with a line; draw a line on with a pencil, one's nail, etc. (PWMP: *kuRis)

kúkaŋcry out, scream, screech (ROOT)

kulátSchizophyllum commune, a small white kudí abundant on wood (kudí = Polyporaceae, a group of fungi living mostly on trees, and often more or less tongue-shaped or fan shaped (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

kúnigCurcuma zedoaria Rosc. A broad-leaved zingerberaceous herb, whose bulbs yield a yellow dye (PMP: *kunij)

kusíkusroll up (ROOT)

kuynútflexible, pliable, pliant (ROOT)

labínight, nighttime, evening (PMP: *Rabiqiₐ) *Rabiqi

labsíkoverflow, flow over (ROOT)

lákimale; cock, he (applied only to animals) (PMP: *laki)

laklák-anto flay, to skin; to gall, to peel; to bark, to strip; to rub off the bark, to tear off the skin (PWMP: *laklak)

laklak-ídandruff (PWMP: *laklak)

lalákiman, male; cock, he (applied to men and animals) (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

lamótroot (PMP: *Ramut)

laŋéntwo big pieces of greenwood on which the hogs that are to be sacrificed at home are stretched out (PMP: *laŋen)

láŋewa very small winged insect, mostly found around slops, wine, etc. (PMP: *laŋaw₂) *laŋaw

Kankanaey (420 / 795)

láotscraped rattan; scraped bamboo (PAN: *rauC)

lápusgone, vanished, disappeared, out of sight (PWMP: *la(m)pus₁)

layáginger (PMP: *laqia)

lekébto patch; to piece; to botch; to clout (PWMP: *lekeb)

leslésto turn up; to tuck up; to cock; to tie up (PPH: *lesles)

letlétturn round, wind, wind round, roll, roll up (PWMP: *letlet)

liáŋcave, cavern, grotto (PMP: *liaŋ)

lidémblack (applied to hogs, carabaos, etc.) (PWMP: *li(n)dem, li(ŋ)jem)

lídemblack, applied to hogs, carabaos, etc. (PWMP: *lidem)

lidis-éncrush, squash (PWMP: *li(n)dis)

líkenroll oneself up, coil, curl (PWMP: *riken)

likéŋcurved; bent; crooked; tortuous; winding (used only in tales) (PWMP: *li(ŋ)keŋ)

lilínkind of black wax used to coat basketwork to make it water-tight (PMP: *lilin)

limáfive (PAN: *lima)

liŋéetgrate, produce a harsh sound (ROOT)

líoforgotten, neglected (PWMP: *liqu)

lipáakclash, clang, crash (Also Pangasinan lipák 'sound produced when the hands are clapped', Ilokano lipák 'sound of spittle falling, of a slap with the hand, etc.') (ROOT)

lipéekcrack, snap (Also Casiguran Dumagat lipək-lipək 'sound of rain hitting the ground, feet of galloping horse') (ROOT)

lipíikto crack (ROOT)

lísatto crack, as when tearing up cloth (ROOT)

Kankanaey (440 / 795)

litáaŋclang, clank, ring, clink (ROOT)

litíikto crack, snap (PMP: *li(n)tik)

litíkclick, tick (PMP: *li(n)tik)

litíkclick, tick (ROOT)

litílittwist, wring ( < *litlit?) (ROOT)

litókto crack, snap (as finger joints) (Also Kankanaey litóok idem) (ROOT)

litókto crack, snap (as finger joints) (also Kankanaey litóok idem) (ROOT)

litóoŋbounce, bang, knock loudly (ROOT)

lokgáŋdry; empty; drained (ROOT)

lokpífold, fold up (ROOT)

ludsékstick in, fix in, thrust in; insert penis in vagina (Also Pangasinan losefk 'post, pillar') (ROOT)

lukáblift up; heave up; raise up; pull up; turn up; take up. For instance, cloth, hair, etc. (PWMP: *lukab)

lukábto lift up (PWMP: *ruŋkáb)

lulúnto roll, roll up (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

lulun-énto roll, roll up (PWMP: *lulun-en) *luluN

lúmutmoss (PMP: *lumut)

luŋpúsfinished, completed, ended, finished off; perfected (ROOT)

lupsútslip out (ROOT)

lutó-anlarge >wd>báŋa (rice cooking pot) (PWMP: *lutuq)

ma-ánudbe carried away, swept away (by the current) (PAN: *ma-qañud) *qañud

Kankanaey (460 / 795)

ma-báugrotten within, applied to trees (PPH: *baqug)

ma-bíkaslaborious; industrious; hard-working; assiduous; diligent; sedulous (PWMP: *ma-bikas) *bikas

ma-blínbe separated, set apart, put aside (PPh: *ma-bílin) *bilin

ma-bugtóŋto carry, etc. alone, by oneself (PPh: *bugtúŋ)

ma-búnugto fall, fall out (applied to hair) (NOISE)

ma-gidgídto be mangy, scabby; to have mange, scab (PPH: *gidgíd)

mai-pa-kánto be given to eat; woof, weft (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

mai-pa-ŋánviand; food; all that is edible and is eaten with rice (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen) *kaen

ma-káncooked rice; in tales, however, it may mean any rice (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

ma-lakéygo grow old, of age (PWMP: *lakay)

man-apiʔsaid of rice when the grains have spoiled and become white like lime (Bergaño 1860) (PAN: *qapuR)

manókchicken (PMP: *manuk)

maŋ-ágewthe sun shines (PWMP: *maŋ-qalejaw) *qalejaw

ma-ŋánto eat; to take one’s meals; to feed (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

maŋ-anítokind of big pink gusí (imported Chinese jar); it is supposed to throw out others of its kind that stand too near, whence its name (PMP: *maŋ-qanitu) *qaNiCu

maŋ-anupto hound, to hunt, to course (with dogs) (PWMP: *maŋ-qanup) *qaNup

maŋ-in-adúrain heavily, pour with rain (used only in tales) (PMP: *hadu) *Sadu

maŋ-ud-udí-dilast, hindmost (PMP: *udehi)

mátaeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mátekleech (PAN: *-matek)

Kankanaey (480 / 795)

matéydie, depart this life, decease, expire, go out (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

ma-úlawdizzy, giddy, vertiginous (PAN: *ma-ulaw) *ulaw

mayekmékfine, pulverized (< *mekmek?) (ROOT)

may-kenato hit on exactly, precisely; to be dead on, “nail it” (PMP: *kena₁)

m-a-ʔacúnuadrift (PAN: *ma-qañud) *qañud

mekmékin pieces, fine; chopped (PMP: *mekmek)

men-ayámamuse one's self; to play, to toy, to frolic; to lounge, to saunter, to stroll (PWMP: *qayam₃)

men-bíkasstrong, stout, sturdy, robust, lusty, hardy, able-bodied, vigorous, able; powerful, potent, mighty, violent (PWMP: *bikas)

men-boáswell up, get round (applied to the breasts of women) (PMP: *buaq₂) *buaq

men-daképcopulate (PAN: *dakep)

men-dápatto copulate (PPH: *dápat)

men-gakgákto croak (PWMP: *gakgak)

men-kilátwhite, hoar, clean; silvery, silver, snowy, argentine, gray; light-colored, light, lightsome (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

men-laŋóyto float; to waft (PWMP: *laŋuy)

men-lemlémrain continuously, drizzle the whole day (PAN: *lemlem)

men-ŋetŋétto grind, to grate, to gnash (PAN: *ŋeCŋeC)

men-paítbitter (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

men-sabsábto gulp down; to eat greedily; to swallow gluttonously; applied to pigs and dogs (PAN: *sabsab)

men-sádagto lean one’s back against; to set one’s back against something (PWMP: *sandaR)

men-sakítto be sick, ill, diseased, unwell, indisposed; to ail; to be sore, tender, painful, smarting; to ache, to hurt; to swoon, to faint away (PMP: *sakit)

Kankanaey (500 / 795)

men-salidsídto turn around the man; to sidle around the hen (the woman around the man in dances; the cock around the hen) (PPH: *sarijsij)

men-sa-saŋáto lean, to rest one’s head on one’s hand; to hold one’s head in one’s hands (through laziness, fatigue, etc.) (PMP: *saŋa₁)

men-sókudto lean; to lean upon (a staff, a cane, a support, etc.) (PAN: *sukud)

men-tadémsharp; cutting; edged (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

men-tákaŋto gape, to be open (applied to either earth or persons) (PPH: *tákaŋ)

men-tektékto clack the tongue against the palate (PWMP: *ma-nektek) *tektek₁

men-tiŋáŋato be open at night; to be left open all night (PWMP: *tiŋaqŋaq)

men-tódoto gutter; to leak; to rain through (applied to rain passing through the roof) (PAN: *tuduq)

men-yútcopulate (PAN: *qiut)

mesékladen with fruit, grain; fruitful (ROOT)

mesméspress, squeeze (as clothes, cotton) (PMP: *mesmes)

m<in>atáa kind of tissue with eyelike designs (PMP: *m<in>ata) *maCa

miŋítgabble, jabber, chatter, as when slightly angry (ROOT)

músaŋkind of carnivorous animal resembling a cat (PWMP: *musaŋ)

na-boót-anmouldy; musty (NOISE)

na-btákcleft, split, cloven, cracked, open, gaping (of wood, soil, etc.) (PMP: *betak₂) *betak

na-búlagblind, extinct (applied to the eyes) (PAN: *bulaR₁)

na-buŋá-anpregnant, with child (used only in tales) (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

na-dápugdusty; ashy (PMP: *dapuR)

na-detdétthick; close-woven; compact; tight (PWMP: *detdet)

Kankanaey (520 / 795)

na-kiŋkiŋlimping, halt, hobbling; lame of one foot (PWMP: *kiŋkiŋ₂)

na-knácaught in a trap; fallen into a snare; entrapped; trapped; ensnared; caught; hit (applied to birds, etc., to spinning tops hit by the top of an opponent, etc.) (PMP: *kena₁)

na-knacaught in a trap (PMP: *kena₁)

na-líkawtortuous; winding; bending in and out; sinuous; meandering (PAN: *likaw)

naŋketglutinous, sticky, limy, gluey (PMP: *ña(ŋ)ket)

na-sulítdifficult; hard (PWMP: *sulit₁)

n-atéydied, departed, deceased, expired, gone out (PMP: *in-atay) *aCay

nemnémintellect, intelligence, reason; thought, idea, mind; memory, imagination (PAN: *nemnem)

níketresin (PMP: *niket)

níketresin (ROOT)

noŋnóŋsee; look at; behold; observe; view (PWMP: *nuŋnuŋ)

nuáŋcarabao, water buffalo (PMP: *qanuaŋ) *qaNuaŋ

ŋabŋábbite from, take a bite from (PAN: *ŋabŋab)

ŋádanname; appelation, denomination, title (PMP: *ŋajan₁) *ŋajan

ŋakscreech, shriek, scream (PMP: *ŋak)

ŋakŋákhowl, yell, as dogs do (PMP: *ŋakŋak)

ŋækŋékto bubble, as boiling rice (ROOT)

ŋalutúŋutmurmur, grumble, mutter (ROOT)

ŋaŋto gnarl, snarl, growl (PMP: *ŋaŋ)

ŋáŋakcry, weep (used only in tales) (ROOT)

Kankanaey (540 / 795)

ŋaŋáŋpronouncing inarticulate sounds, as mute persons (PMP: *ŋa(ŋ)ŋaŋ)

ŋaŋŋétchide, scold, rebuke, speak harshly to (ROOT)

ŋasŋásto crunch, craunch; sound produced by chewing half-cooked camotes, etc. (PMP: *ŋasŋas)

ŋekto grunt, as a hog when hungry (PMP: *ŋek)

ŋekŋékto resound, clatter, rattle, bang, as when many people cleave wood (PMP: *ŋekŋek)

ŋeŋhum noisily (PMP: *ŋeŋ)

ŋeŋéŋtalk through the nose (PMP: *ŋeŋeŋ)

ŋíakcry, weep loudly (PWMP: *ŋiak)

ŋikto grunt, as young pigs do (PMP: *ŋik)

ŋikŋíkto chirp, screech, shriek, scream, squeal, squeak; creak (PMP: *ŋikŋik)

ŋokŋókto bay, bark, of many dogs together (PMP: *ŋukŋuk)

ŋokŋókto bay, to bark (many dogs together) (ROOT)

ŋóŋokto grunt (ROOT)

ŋopúsbrand; piece of wood whose largest part has been burnt (ROOT)

okábskinned; flayed; barked; peeled (PWMP: *hu(ŋ)kab)

on-onáfirst; precede, go before (PPh: *unah-unah) *unah

óoŋkind of large, edible, white mushroom, much sought after (PAN: *quSuŋ)

opékhusk (of corn) (PWMP: *upek)

pa-bikás-enfortify, strengthen, invigorate (PWMP: *bikas)

padsékstick in, fix in, thrust in (ROOT)

Kankanaey (560 / 795)

pagádahandle (of an ax) (PMP: *paRada)

pagáekhoarse (PMP: *paRaek)

págeyrice on the stalk, unhusked rice (PAN: *pajay)

pakákcackle (ROOT)

pa-kan-anwoof, weft (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pakpák-ento slap in the face, to box the ears of (PAN: *pakpak)

paliáMomordica balsamina L. A slender vine with yellow flowers and rough, elongated, bitter edible fruits (PWMP: *pariaʔ)

paliókiron pan with rounded bottom and short round handle (PAN: *pariuk)

páliskind of sacrifice which takes place in the evening and in which a dog is killed (PPh: *palis₃)

palsíkhit, struck by a piece of wood, stone, etc. when someone is cleaving wood, etc. (ROOT)

p-alʔi-ento send; to send down; to send up; to drive forward; to let come (PAN: *aRi)

panníkilarge bat (PMP: *paniki)

pantékspotted, speckled; marked with spots; stained (PWMP: *pantek)

paŋábranch, bough, twig (PAN: *paŋa₁) *paŋa

paŋdánananas, pineapple (PMP: *paŋdan) *paŋudaN

paŋkétsticking, adhering, cleaving (ROOT)

pá-panbait (PAN: *paen)

pasekwedge (PAN: *pacek)

pásekwedge (PAN: *pasek)

pásoŋupper jawbone (PMP: *pasuŋ)

Kankanaey (580 / 795)

pátakto begin raining; the rain comes down in thick drops (ROOT)

pegésacute, sharp, violent (PMP: *hapejes)

pegs-énto make an effort, to exert one’s self, to strain, to strive; (to work, etc.) hard (PMP: *hapejes)

pekpékfill, swarm in, overrun (PWMP: *pekpek₂)

pespéspress, squeeze in the hand, grasp, wring, knead, apply massage (PMP: *pespes₂) *pespes

pidítcrush, squash, press, squeeze (PWMP: *pi(n)zit)

pi-dua-ento do a second time, to do again (PMP: *duha) *duSa

pikíkchirp, as some birds do (PMP: *pikik)

pikíkto chirp, as some birds do (ROOT)

pikípikto drop, trickle, leak, drip, dribble (ROOT)

pikpíkpat, tap lightly (PAN: *pikpik)

pili-ento choose, to pick out; to single out (PWMP: *piliq-en) *piliq

pílitto force; to compel; to constrain; to impel; to use forcible means (PPH: *pílit) *pílit₁

pilit-ento force; to compel; to constrain; to impel; to use forcible means (PPH: *pilit-en) *pílit₁

p<in>itpítrice cooked with camotes (sweet potatoes) (PAN: *pitpit₂)

pin-tulóthree, one of the numbers used by children (PWMP: *pin-telu) *telu

piŋsáttear, rend, lacerate, rip up (ROOT)

pióksmall dale, depression (PAN: *piuk)

pishiss, as spouting water (PWMP: *pis)

pisíkto cleave, split, slit, burst, crack, chink; to rive (a board, etc.) (PWMP: *pisik₁) *pisik

Kankanaey (600 / 795)

pitto sound slightly, peep (PWMP: *pit)

pitáksplit, cleave (a cane, etc.) (PMP: *pi(n)tak)

pitákto split, cleave (a cane, etc.) (ROOT)

pítekdirt; mire; mud; slime (PPh: *pitek)

pitóseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pitpít-ento tread, to trample on (ground recently dug) (PAN: *pitpit-en) *pitpit₂

pódonwind thread into balls (PMP: *pudun) *puduN

pulpúl-anto break off; to nip off; to tear off (wing of a bird, camote leaves, etc.) (PWMP: *pulpul)

pum-bayu-antrough in which rice is pounded (PAN: *bayu)

pusbreak wind noiselessly (PMP: *pus)

púsegumbilicus, navel, umbilical cord (PMP: *pusej)

púsoheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

púso-n di baátheart of banana; flower bud of the banana tree; the young inclosed flowers are edible when the pistil has been torn out (PMP: *pusuq₁)

sabáliall right; it is well; fine; very well (PPH: *sabáliq)

sabit-ánto hook with a fishhook (PPH: *saqebit-án) *saqebit

sadág-anerect stone (PWMP: *sandaR-an) *sandaR

saindékto sob (ROOT)

sakgaŋábranched horns (of deer) (ROOT)

saklót-anto carry in a piece of cloth, one’s apron, one’s skirt; to bear in one’s blanket (PPH: *sak(e)lut-en) *sak(e)lút

sakuíthang, hang upon, hook, catch, catch in (ROOT)

Kankanaey (620 / 795)

salaksáka variety of very dark-colored Italian millet, and a kind of middle-sized black gusí (jar used mostly for storing rice wine) (PPH: *salaksak)

sáleŋresinous pine; pitch pine (PAN: *saleŋ)

salikubkúbsurround, encircle, inclose (ROOT)

sampatíkwith scattered speckles (ROOT)

sánathat; there, thither. What is near the person one speaks to; demonstrative and adverb of place (PWMP: *sa-na) *-na

sánathat, there, thither (PWMP: *sana)

s-ánakhave many children, young shoots, sprouts; have numerous offspring (PWMP: *sa-anak) *aNak

saŋíŋitresent, be offended, get angry (ROOT)

sápadhand of bananas --- a part of the whole bunch, about twelve bananas (cf. búlig) (PPH: *sápad)

sa-sabáli-kait does not concern you; it is none of your business (PPH: *sabáliq)

sáwaexcess (PPh: *sáwaq) *sawaq₂

sáwa s’ esáeleven; that is, one over ten (PPh: *sáwaq) *sawaq₂

sáwia species of bird of prey, a kind of kite, smaller than the labáan (buzzard) (PWMP: *cawi)

sedémevening, fall of day; getting dark, sundown (PWMP: *sedem)

segékto obstruct one's throat, as when something enters the windpipe or larynx (ROOT)

segepenter, come in, go in (PAN: *sejep)

segtákknock out, collide with, dash against, strike against (as two spinning tops) (ROOT)

seksek-ánto fill; to fill up (PAN: *seksek)

seksek-énto shuffle cards (PAN: *seksek)

seŋáŋstartled very much, struck exceedingly; amazed very much (PWMP: *seŋaŋ)

Kankanaey (640 / 795)

sinominative and accusative singular of the article, before proper names (PAN: *si)

siá3sg. (PAN: *si ia₁) *ia₁

sibékto sob (mostly broken sobs, after crying) (ROOT)

sibítthorn, prickle; bramble, briar (PWMP: *cibít)

síbokto clack, clap (ROOT)

sibug-ánto water; to irrigate; to besprinkle; to wet; to bedew; to soak (PMP: *simbuR)

sígito separate (husked rice) from ashes, unhusked rice, etc., shaking the van (PWMP: *siji)

sikád-anpoint of support for the feet (PPH: *sikad)

sikífoot; leg; paw; claw; talon (PPH: *sikí)

sikíone, one of the numbers used by children (NOISE)

síkoelbow (PAN: *siku₁)

siksik-anto delouse; to catch lice (PWMP: *siksik₁)

sikuánshuttle, netting needle (PWMP: *sikuqan)

sílato grow, turn yellow (PMP: *siRa, siRaq)

silákscattered, strewn about, thrown here and there (PWMP: *sirak₂)

siléttighten, draw tighter (PWMP: *silet)

simtíksmack lightly; smacking of tongue and lips (PWMP: *simetik)

simtíksmack lightly; smacking of tongue and lips (ROOT)

sindéksob, mostly broken sobs after crying (PWMP: *si(n)dek)

sin-depáone fathom, about six feet (PMP: *depa)

Kankanaey (660 / 795)

sin-gasútone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

sinka-búligone bunch of bananas; the whole bunch (PMP: *buliR)

sinka-salúpone ganta (three liters); a measure for rice, beans, etc.; there are 25 salúp in one kabán (PPH: *salúp)

sin-labíone night (PMP: *Rabiqiₐ) *Rabiqi

si-nówho?, which?, what? (PPh: *si-nu) *-nu

siŋgítto tease, to plague; to trouble, to vex; to annoy, to pester (PWMP: *siŋgit)

siŋgíttease, plague; trouble, vex (ROOT)

siŋítharsh, violent (applied to speech) (PWMP: *siŋit)

siŋ-ka-kaénone meal, one repast (PAN: *kaen)

siŋkulparalytical; palsied. Applied to the limbs (PMP: *siŋkul)

sípitpliers, pincers, nippers, tongs, tweezers; cloven stick (PAN: *sipit)

sipít-ento pinch, to nip with a sípit (PPH: *sipít-en) *sipit

sipsípsuck in (PAN: *sipsip)

sitcrackle, sputter (PMP: *sit)

sitíkchirp, chirrup (ROOT)

sitsíttorn, rent, ragged, tattered, worn out (PWMP: *sitsit) *sitsit₂

sokláwithang (blanket, etc.) on something more or less pointed (ROOT)

sókubto sit, etc. in a ring (ROOT)

sokúdlean upon (a staff, cane or support) (ROOT)

sóokenter, penetrate (ROOT)

Kankanaey (680 / 795)

súanone of the most used agricultural implements, consisting of a wooden stick and an iron blade, forming a straight tool, and used instead of a spade or hoe (used only in tales, and now replaced by saŋgáp in everyday speech) (PMP: *suqan)

súbillip, brim (PWMP: *su(m)bir)

sudpákslap in the face; box the ears (ROOT)

sudsúdtell a story, relate a tale, narrate. When telling a story the teller usually sings in a very monotonous way (PWMP: *sudsud₁)

sugpúnput their money together; enter, get into partnership with somebody (ROOT)

súgudsmall-toothed comb (PWMP: *sujud)

súkupshutter; cover (of a basket) (PWMP: *cu(ŋ)kup)

s<um>akdóto fetch water, to go for water (PPH: *sakedú)

s<um>áwato be left, to remain, to be superfluous, to exceed, to go beyond, to overflow, to run over; over, to spare too much, more than is wanted, more than is needed (PPH: *s<um>áwaʔ) *sawaq₂

s<um>óokto enter; to penetrate (a place densely covered with bushes, grass, clothes, etc.) (PPH: *suquk)

súyukcorner; angle; nook (PWMP: *suyuk)

tadláŋrib (PAN: *tageRaŋ)

tagákcackle (ROOT)

táistool relief of the bowels; excrement; feces; dung; crotel; treadle; rust, rustiness (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tái di gáyaŋa variety of taro with dark-colored shoots (lit. ‘crow feces’) (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

takdegstand, stand up (ROOT)

takkístool; relief of the bowels; excrement; feces; dung (PMP: *taki) *Caki

talbékbeaten, etc. to pieces, pulverized (ROOT)

talícord; rope; line (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

tampákslap in the face; box the ears (PWMP: *ta(m)pak)

Kankanaey (700 / 795)

tampákslap in the face; box the ears (ROOT)

tampókclap one's hands, applaud (PWMP: *tampuk)

taŋébto cover (PMP: *taŋeb)

taónchronology; calculation of time (PMP: *taqun)

tapa-ánan arrangement consisting of canes of bamboo grass interwoven with rattan; used to store up palay, etc.; it covers the hearth and the sóba, below the ceiling (PWMP: *tapa-an) *Capa

tébacut down, as a bunch of bananas (PAN: *tebaS)

tebékto bore; to drill; to perforate; to pierce; to run through (with a spear, sharp stick, etc.) (PAN: *tebek)

tebk-énbored, drilled, perforated (PWMP: *tebek-en) *tebek

tebtébto fell, cut down, hew down, cut off (PWMP: *tebteb)

tegteg-énto chop, chop up, hew, cut to pieces; break to pieces; crush; beat to pieces; bruise; squash (PMP: *tegteg) *CegCeg

tektek-énto pound slightly (PAN: *tektek-en) *tektek₁

teltélchop, chop up, hew, cut to pieces, beat to pieces, bruise (PAN: *CelCel)

tibákto clap (PWMP: *ti(m)bak)

tibkúŋcause anything to bulge out; swell out (in the center) (ROOT)

tikúbhedge in, fence in, encircle, inclose (ROOT)

tilémblack pig, hog, swine (PWMP: *tilem)

tipákslap in the face, box the ears of (PWMP: *tipak)

tipókto clap, clack (PWMP: *ti(m)puk)

toékbow the head (PWMP: *tuek)

toŋpúsfinished, completed, terminated, ended, concluded (ROOT)

Kankanaey (720 / 795)

tuáwlarge bird, so called for its cry (PWMP: *tuqaw)

túbaa name applied to several plants used to poison fish (PAN: *tuba)

túbidplait, braid, twist (ROOT)

túboleaf (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

tubónhigh, heaped up; piled up (PWMP: *tumbun)

tubónhigh; heaped up; piled up; in a high pile (ROOT)

tugtúghit, run, knocked, struck against; run afoul of; come into collision (PMP: *tugtug₂) *CugCug₁

tukábto open, set open, uncover, unmuffle (PWMP: *tu(ŋ)kab)

tukábto open (PPH: *tu(ŋ)káb)

tukab-ánto open; to set open; to uncover; to unmuffle (PPH: *tu(ŋ)kab-án) *tu(ŋ)káb

túkudpillar; post on which the houses rest (PAN: *tukud)

tulóthree (PAN: *telu)

tuló-ganthree, one of the numbers used by children (PPH: *telu-gan) *telu

túmabody louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

tumék(be pounded, etc.) to pieces, fine; crushed, pulverized (PAN: *Cumek)

t-um-úboto shoot, to spring up, to sprout, sprout forth, to bud, grow (PMP: *t<um>ubuq) *Cubuq

tuŋʔabone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

uábyawn (PMP: *huab₂) *Suab

uágakto low, moo (ROOT)

uákisto line, mark, groove (ROOT)

Kankanaey (740 / 795)

úaswash, clean, cleanse, rinse (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

uátvein, artery; nerve, sinew, tendon (PMP: *uRat₁) *huRaC

úbadunravel, untwist, untwine, disentangle, separate, unfold, open, untie, unfurl, unbind, loosen (PPh: *hubád)

ubád-enbe unravelled (PPh: *hubád-en) *hubád

úbangray, applied to hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

úbetextremity of the rectum (PMP: *ubet)

úbiyam, Indian potato, Dioscorea sp. (PMP: *qubi)

ubónassemble, gather together, congregate, meet, collect (PMP: *hubun₂)

ubtútstink, smell badly (ROOT)

udánrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

udáŋprawn, shrimp, crawfish, crayfish (PAN: *qudaŋ)

udí-dihind leg (PMP: *udehi)

uéyrattan (PAN: *quay)

ugálisstriped, streaked (ROOT)

ugsádeer (PWMP: *u(R)sah)

úlawdizzy, giddy, vertiginous (PAN: *ulaw)

umáfield; patch; plot; piece of ground planted with camotes, beans, etc. (PMP: *quma) *qumah

um-álicome, come along, arrive (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

um-inúmto drink; to tipple (PMP: *um-inum) *inum

um-neŋquiet, still, tranquil; to stop, cease (PWMP: *q<um>eneŋ) *qeneŋ

Kankanaey (760 / 795)

umúgpulverized, brayed; ground, pounded, beaten, rubbed fine; reduced to ashes, dust (NOISE)

úpapullet; young hen (PMP: *qupa)

úpontogether (PMP: *upun₁) *upun

upúsup; spent; consumed; empty; finished (PMP: *upus)

úsilpursue unremittingly; hunt incessantly; chase unceasingly (PAN: *qusiR)

útavomit, throw up (PAN: *utaq)

útaŋto lend; a loan, to borrow (PMP: *qutaŋ)

utáŋ-anborrow, receive as a loan (PWMP: *qutaŋ-an) *qutaŋ

útekbrain (PMP: *hutek)

utútbreak wind; wind or flatulence from the bowels (PMP: *qutut)

uyho! hoa! whoa! Interjection used for calling (PMP: *huy)

uyágakcry, shout, scream; to low, moo (for pain) (ROOT)

úyonband, anything used to bind a load of wood (PWMP: *uyun)

wádathere is, there was; to be; be present; exist (PWMP: *wada-q) *wada

wákatscattered, spread, strewed about, thrown here and there; fall on the ground, sprawl (PPh: *wákat)

wakwákcroak, caw (PAN: *wakwak)

walákscattered; spread; strewed about; thrown here and there (PPh: *warák)

wálasdistribute to; deal out to; portion out to; serve out to (used only in songs) (PPh: *wáras)

waóeight (PAN: *walu)

wásayax (PWMP: *wasay)

Kankanaey (780 / 795)

wáwabank, margin (of a river, etc.) (PPh: *wáwaq)

wikwíkto chirp (PWMP: *wikwik)

wiŋáwiŋswing; sway; wag; shake. Caused by wind; for instance, trees, reed, etc. (PAN: *wiŋawiŋ)

witíwitwag one's tail (PAN: *witiwit)

wiwʔíto open, widen (PPh: *wíqwiq)

yákughunchbacked (ROOT)

y-álito bring; to bring forward; to bring in; to adduce; to let come (PAN: *aRi)

yoyour, you, ye (PMP: *iu₃) *iSu

ʔabétmeet with; fall in with; find; encounter (NOISE)

ʔabilátbrother-in-law, sister-in-law. Applied to persons who have married brothers or sisters (NOISE)

ʔáwidto exorcise; to conjure (NOISE)

ʔi-sabʔítto hang up, to hang upon, to hock; to catch, to catch in (PPH: *i-saqebít) *saqebit

246. Kanowit (10) WMP (Ray 1913) [kxn] (Melanau, Kanowit-Tanjong) Malaysia (Sarawak)

anussmoke (Ray 1913) (PWMP: *anuqus)

apoyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

bahmouth (PMP: *bahaq₁) *bahaq

danomwater (PMP: *danum) *daNum

jiakgood (NOISE)

miaʔashamed (PMP: *ma-heyaq) *Seyaq

pekapart, separate (Roth 1896) (PMP: *peka)

pə-lakawto walk (PWMP: *pa-lakaw) *lakaw

pə-lujaʔto spit (PWMP: *luzaq)

taʔəwright side (PAN: *taqu₁) *taqu

247. Kantu' (1) WMP [xdy] (Malayic Dayak) Indonesia (Kalimantan)

sekutnarrow (PWMP: *sekud, sekut)

248. Kapampangan (626) WMP (Forman 1971) [pam] (Pampangan) Philippines

aintroductory exclamation like English Oh or Well (PMP: *a₃)

abakathe abaca plant, fiber, or cloth (PPh: *abaká)

abeaccompany; live together, stay together; friend, companion (used as a term of address) (PWMP: *abay)

absiʔsatisfied (with respect to hunger) (PAN: *besuR)

abúashes (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

ábutreach; hand something to someone; understand (PPh: *qabut)

abw-anscour using ash (PAN: *qabu-an) *qabu

abyáksuckling pig (Bergaño 1860) (PAN: *beRek)

abyásmilled rice (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

a-dwa-ŋ-pulutwenty (PMP: *ŋa)

a-dwa-ʔtwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

akaŋkoŋa plant: Ipomoea aquatic Forssk. Convolvulaceae (LOAN)

aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

álakliquor (LOAN)

álakliquor (LOAN)

aldosun; day (PMP: *qalejaw)

aldosun, day (PPh: *qalejaw-an) *qalejaw

aldo-aldódaily (PMP: *qalejaw-qalejaw) *qalejaw

álopestle (PAN: *qaSelu)

álunwave (PMP: *qalun)

Kapampangan (20 / 626)

alun-ʔalunroller-coaster motion; wavy (hair) (PWMP: *qalun qalun) *qalun

ambaŋ-anobstacle, impediment to passage (PMP: *abaŋ₁)

ambaycouple, pair (Bergaño 1860) (PWMP: *abay)

ambiwing or interior gallery of a house (Bergaño 1860) (PWMP: *ambiq)

ambundew (PWMP: *ambun)

amianwinter, the cold season from October to January (PMP: *qamihan) *qamiS

aminconsume, finish (PAN: *am(e)ʔin)

ampatstanch the flow of blood; stop, detain, check the progress of (Bergaño 1860) (PWMP: *ampet)

anákchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

aːnakchildren (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak anak-anadopted child (PWMP: *anak anak-an) *aNak

anámsix (PAN: *enem)

anátisatis, a kind of fruit (LOAN)

anawkind of wild palm (PWMP: *qanahaw)

andámborrow, lend (PMP: *hezam) *Sezam

ánetermite (PAN: *aNay)

aniboŋwild palm; kind of starch (PMP: *qanibuŋ)

anigguanbee sp. (Bergaño 1860) (PMP: *qani-Ruan)

aninawshadow; reflection (PPh: *qaninaw)

anítospirit (Bergaño 1860) (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

Kapampangan (40 / 626)

antárank, rancid, as butter or pork (PWMP: *qanta)

antíŋ-antíŋtalisman (LOAN)

antipaanimals like turtles, with larger shells, and stronger (PWMP: *qantipa) *qaCipa

añudcarried away on a current (PAN: *qañud)

aŋabhave the mouth open, as a baby bird being fed by its parents, or a baby sucking at the breast (PMP: *qaŋab)

áŋgaup to, until (PWMP: *qeŋgah)

aŋgá-nanboundary (PWMP: *qeŋgah)

aŋsadstench from the armpits (PWMP: *qaŋesej)

áŋuseat by sucking (sugarcane) (PWMP: *haŋus₁)

apábran, esp. rice bran (PWMP: *qepah)

apánbait (NOISE)

á-patfour (PMP: *a-epat) *Sepat

apiʔlime (calcium oxide); used in making cement, and as a component of the betel chew (PAN: *qapuR)

apsáʔto hatch, of an egg (PMP: *peceq₂) *peceq

ápugrandparent, esp. grandmother. As a term of address, ápu is used for grandfather and grandmother; as a term of reference, usually it is restricted to grandmother, with iŋkoŋ being used for grandfather; also used with saints' names: Apu Lusya 'Saint Lucy' (PMP: *ampu) *apu

apúgrandchild (PMP: *ampu) *apu

a-púluʔten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

ápunyesterday (PPh: *hapun₂)

apuŋ tudgreat grandson (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

áruŋnose (PWMP: *e(ŋ)juŋ)

Kapampangan (60 / 626)

asá-anput hope in someone (LOAN)

asagincite (PWMP: *asag)

ásaŋgills (PMP: *hasaŋ)

asáwaspouse; (metaphor) one of a pair; like mortar and pestle (PAN: *qasawa)

asínsalt; (metaphor) brains, cleverness (PAN: *qasiN)

asin-anto salt something (PWMP: *qasin-an) *qasiN

aslámvinegar (PWMP: *qalesem)

aslám-anadd vinegar to something (PWMP: *qalesem)

aspákcrack (PMP: *sapak)

ásudog (PAN: *asu₁)

asúksmoke (PMP: *asuk)

ásuŋmortar (PMP: *esuŋ)

aswáŋa frightening spirit creature, half-human, half-bird, vampire-like, said to prey on corpses and unborn children (LOAN)

atábtide (PPh: *atáb)

atádescort away from home to another place (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

atáppeak of a roof (PMP: *qatep)

atbúsugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

atcárapickled salad (LOAN)

atciŋsneeze (NOISE)

áteliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

Kapampangan (80 / 626)

atkánpropel a boat with a punting pole (Bergaño 1860) (PMP: *teken)

atlúthree (PAN: *telu)

átuldecision (LOAN)

atyanstomach (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

awák-anwaist (PWMP: *hawak-an) *Sawak

áwaŋwindow (PMP: *awaŋ)

áwekind of rattan (PWMP: *away₄)

ay-asin-anunintentionlly salted (PAN: *qasiN)

ayawscramble for something; rob in such a manner (Bergaño 1860) (PAN: *qaRaw)

aytaNegrito (Garvan 1964:9) (PMP: *qaRta)

ayúnearthquake (PWMP: *hayun)

áyunagree with, go along with (LOAN)

ayutcoitus (PWMP: *ayut)

ba:baywomen (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

ba-báiwoman (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

ba-báyatget heavy (PMP: *beReqat)

babáʔlow place, underneath (PMP: *babaq₁)

báboup, upstairs, above (PAN: *babaw₃)

bágaŋmolar tooth (PMP: *bageqaŋ)

bagáy-anmatch something to something else (PPH: *bagáy-an) *bagay₁

Kapampangan (100 / 626)

bagay-anmatch something to something else (LOAN)

bagáʔlung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

bágematching, compatible (PWMP: *bagay₁)

bágething, object, affair (PPH: *bagay₂)

bágematching, compatible (LOAN)

bage-bágesmall things, details (PPH: *bágay-bágay) *bagay₂

bagukfermented foods (NOISE)

bakálpacked lunch, food carried along when on a trip (PWMP: *bekel)

bakásmark, sign, indication (PMP: *bekas₃)

bakás-anmark something (PWMP: *bekas-an) *bekas₃

bakbákscar, scab, peeling skin (PMP: *bakbak₁)

bakbákscar, scab, peeling skin (ROOT)

baláifather of a married child as he stands related to the father of his child's spouse (PPh: *balaqih)

balakáŋhips (PWMP: *balakaŋ)

bálaŋkind of insect said to be destructive to coconut trees (PWMP: *balalaŋ₁)

balaŋáʔclay pot, used to cook viands (PMP: *balaŋa)

bala-ŋisŋiskind of bat which has protruding teeth (PMP: *ŋisŋis)

balássand (PMP: *badas)

balátoŋmongo bean (PPh: *balatuŋ)

bálaʔresponsibility; warning (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

Kapampangan (120 / 626)

balíkreturn something; return to somewhere (PMP: *balik₂)

balikúkucurved (ROOT)

balisárestless, constantly moving (LOAN)

balítaʔnews; clue (LOAN)

balítiʔsp. of tree, said to be a favored place of spirits (PPh: *balítiq)

balufish sp. (NOISE)

balúktutbent, curled up (LOAN)

baluʔknowledge (NOISE)

banabátree of fine quality (Bergaño 1860) (PPh: *banabá)

baniwell-known tree (NOISE)

banlátpig pen, cage (PWMP: *banelat)

banwáyear; sky, heaven (PMP: *banua)

baŋkécorpse (PWMP: *baŋkay)

báŋkuʔbench (LOAN)

barílgun (LOAN)

basánrag, mop (PWMP: *baseq-an) *baseq

batíkskin blemish (PMP: *betik₂) *beCik

batíkskin blemish (PWMP: *batik₁)

batústone, rock (PMP: *batu₁)

batu-anstone someone (PWMP: *batu-en) *batu₁

Kapampangan (140 / 626)

baúa smell, odor (PMP: *bahu)

bau-ansmell something (PWMP: *bahu-an) *bahu

báyaember (PMP: *baRah)

báyadpayment (PMP: *bayaD)

bayánivaliant, brave, strong (PMP: *baRani)

báyatweight (PMP: *beReqat)

báyunew, newly, before (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

bebéedge, esp. of a body of water (PPh: *baybáy)

bekas-anmark something (PMP: *bekas₃)

béŋinight, evening (PMP: *beRŋi)

beŋi-béŋinightly (PMP: *beRŋi beRŋi) *beRŋi

bibiduck (LOAN)

bi-'biŋkarice cake delicacy of many different varieties (LOAN)

bídafolk tale, story (LOAN)

biélife (PWMP: *bihaR)

bigláʔsuddenly, straightaway (PPh: *bigláq)

biláddry in the sun (clothes, rice, meat, fish, wood) (PMP: *bilaj)

bílaŋcount; sum (PAN: *bilaŋ)

biláŋ-antotal (PWMP: *bilaŋ-an) *bilaŋ

biníʔseed, seedling (fish) (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

Kapampangan (160 / 626)

bintúla net for catching crabs (PWMP: *bintul)

b-in-uyawcry or shout with a threat to kill, as is done by the native people (Bergaño 1860) (PAN: *buRaw)

b-in-wátlifted, carried (PMP: *buhat₃)

bísaʔwant to (LOAN)

bitbitcarry with arm(s) hanging fully extended (PMP: *bitbit₂) *bitbit

bítinpython (PPh: *bítin)

bitísfoot, feet (PMP: *bities)

bitúkaintestines (PMP: *bituka) *biCuka

biyássegment of sugarcane (PWMP: *biqás)

biyása segment of sugarcane (LOAN)

buaŋinvery fine beach sand (Bergaño 1860); kind of soil, mixed clay and sand (PWMP: *buhaŋin)

buátlift, carry (PMP: *buhat₃)

bubuupset a vessel or basket so that what is inside falls out (Bergaño 1860) (PMP: *buqbuq)

bubuupset a vessel or basket so that what is inside falls out (NOISE)

bubudsprinkle with or as with dust, scatter pepper on a meal, rice to chickens, etc. (PWMP: *bubud)

bu-bulúsrush into something (PWMP: *bulus)

bubuŋ-ánroof (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

búgawhite frothy stone (PPh: *búgaq)

bugbúghit loud, hard, vigorously (iron or stone), crush, pound, beat up (Bergaño 1860); bruise, lump (PWMP: *bugbug)

bugbug-ánto bruise someone (PWMP: *bugbug)

Kapampangan (180 / 626)

bukálto boil (PMP: *bukal₁) *bukal

bukal-ángive one a lump (PWMP: *bukel)

bukbúkwood-boring insect (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

bukúnode in sugarcane, knot in wood; joint, knuckle (PMP: *buku₁) *buku

búkullump, swelling, boil (on skin) (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

bulágblind; a blind person (PPh: *bulág)

bulalakawexclamation uttered when seeing a shooting star (PPh: *bulalákaw₂)

bulanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulátiintestinal worm (PMP: *bulati)

bulati-anhave intestinal worms (PMP: *bulati)

búlaʔbubble (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

bulbuldown, small feathers or hair (PPh: *bulbul₁)

bulbul-inhairy (PPh: *bulbul₁)

bulbul kilikilihair in armpits (PPh: *bulbul₁)

bulígmudfish; (metaphor) penis (LOAN)

bulúŋleaf (of book or tree) (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

bulúŋwhisper (LOAN)

buluŋ-anwhisper something (LOAN)

búluʔa wild bamboo used to make sawali walling material (PAN: *buluq₂)

búlyoshout (LOAN)

Kapampangan (200 / 626)

búmbapump; spray (LOAN)

bumbún-anfontanelle (PWMP: *bunbun-an₁) *buNbuN

bunbun-ancrown of the head; fig. brains, intellect (Bergaño 1860) (PWMP: *bunbun-an₁) *buNbuN

búndukmountain (PMP: *bunduk)

bunduk-bundúk-anhilly land (PMP: *bunduk)

búntunpile, stack (LOAN)

búntun árehaystack (LOAN)

bunutcoconut husk used for polishing floors (PMP: *bunut₁)

bunut-anhusk-polish something (PPh: *bunut-an) *bunut₁

bunw-ánsmall fish corral (PWMP: *bunuq-an₂) *buNuq₂

buñicelebrated, acclaimed (PMP: *buñi)

búŋafruit (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

buŋállacking front teeth (LOAN)

busbúshole (PMP: *busbus)

busbushole or perforation; make holes in, perforate (Bergaño 1860) (PMP: *busbus)

busbús-anbore, pole holes in (PWMP: *busbus-en) *busbus

busbús aruŋnostril (PMP: *busbus)

busbús ipancavity (PMP: *busbus)

busoŋinflation of the abdomen caused by breaking a taboo (Bergaño 1860) (PWMP: *busuŋ)

buta butaa tree: Excoecaria agallocha L. (Madulid 1999) (PWMP: *buta buta₂) *buta buta

Kapampangan (220 / 626)

butik-butik-anmottled, multicolored (PPh: *butik)

bútilkernel, grain (PWMP: *butil)

bútilkernel, grain (PWMP: *butir)

butitivenomous fish (PWMP: *butiti)

bútulseed, stone, bone (PMP: *butequl)

butúnisbutton(s) (LOAN)

bútu-ŋ bulúganplow blade (lit. 'penis of a boar') (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

bútuʔpenis (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

buyawscare off birds or animals (PAN: *buRaw)

bwákhair (PMP: *buhek₁) *bukeS

bwak-bwak-anhair on arms or forehead (PWMP: *buhek buhek-an) *bukeS

byása, biyásaknow how (LOAN)

dábuŋshoots, young leaves (PPH: *dabuŋ)

dakálmany, much (PPH: *dakél)

dakp-anbe caught, be apprehended (PAN: *dakep-en) *dakep

dálanroad, way, passage (PMP: *zalan₂) *zalan

dalan-anpass by for someone (PAN: *zalan-an) *zalan

dalígwall, partition (PPH: *dalig)

dálovisitor, especially an unexpected visitor (PPH: *dálaw)

damdam-anhear, listen (PAN: *demdem₁)

Kapampangan (240 / 626)

danúmwater (PMP: *danum) *daNum

danúm-anocean, body of water (PMP: *danum) *daNum

dapdapbalete (banyan) tree, home of diwataʔ (spirits) (PMP: *dapdap₁)

dátaŋarrive, come (PWMP: *dateŋ)

dátu-ʔleader, rarely used except with reference to southern Philippines or to olden days (PMP: *datu)

dawaseed (edible) (PAN: *zawa₂)

dayamirice straw, rice stubble (Bergaño 1860) (PWMP: *zaRamiₐ) *zaRami

dáyatrice fields (PMP: *daRat)

dáyat malatocean, sea (PMP: *daRat)

dáyaʔblood (PAN: *daRaq₁) *daRaq

dilat-anto lick something (PWMP: *dilat)

dílaʔtongue; fangs (?) of snake (PMP: *dilaq₂) *dilaq₁

dindíŋwalls (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

du:yanhammock (McFarland 1977) (PPH: *dúyan)

d<um>áloto pay a visit (PPH: *dálaw)

durúnlocust (PPh: *dúdun)

gabáktear, rip (PWMP: *Rabak)

gágustupid (PWMP: *gagu)

g-al-ikgiksqueak, creak (PMP: *gikgik)

gatálitch (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

Kapampangan (260 / 626)

gi-gigitgnash the teeth (PWMP: *gitgit)

gigítgnash the teeth (PWMP: *gitgit)

gilíŋto grind (PMP: *giliŋ)

gilíŋ-anwheel (mill, potter’s) (PWMP: *giliŋ-an) *giliŋ

gimbaldrum (Bergaño 1860) (PWMP: *gimbal)

giŋgiŋfeel cold in the winter season (Bergaño 1860) (PAN: *giŋgiŋ)

guntíŋscissors (LOAN)

guyúdkind of rope; craving (PWMP: *guyud)

guyur-andrag something (PWMP: *guyud)

halalato slant; oblique (angle) (POC: *(bp)alalan)

haluplane, scrape (POC: *palus)

i-bítinhug, squeeze someone (PPh: *bítin)

i-búmbaspray something for someone (LOAN)

iioh! sound indicating surprise or curiosity (PMP: *ihi)

ikalcurly, crisp, of the hair (like a Negro) (PWMP: *ikel)

íkatbraid (PMP: *hiket) *Siket

ilathey, them (PMP: *ida)

ílitconfiscate property from a debtor (LOAN)

ílugriver (PAN: *iluR₂)

ílut, híluta curer (specialist in massage, sprains, bone setting) (PPh: *hílut)

Kapampangan (280 / 626)

ílut-ancure, massage (PPh: *hílut-en) *hílut

impísthin (PAN: *iŋepis)

imútstingy (PPh: *ímut)

in-apt-anplace of thatching (PWMP: *q<in>atep-an) *qatep

-ináwarest (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

indámborrow, lend (PWMP: *hinzam)

indá-ʔmother (PWMP: *inda₂)

indúmother (PWMP: *indu)

iníthis (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

inúmto drink (PMP: *inum)

inum-anplace to drink; thing to drink (PWMP: *inum-an) *inum

íŋatbeware, watch out for (PMP: *iŋat)

iŋat-anthat which one looks after with care (Bergaño 1860) (PWMP: *iŋat-an) *iŋat

íŋenoise (PMP: *iŋaR₁) *iŋaR

ípantooth (PMP: *ipen)

ípascockroach (PMP: *ipes) *Sipes

ípuʔípuwhirlwind, cyclone (LOAN)

irapeyelash, (PWMP: *qizep)

irap-anwink at (PWMP: *qizep)

ísipthink (PPh: *ísip)

Kapampangan (300 / 626)

isíp-anthink (PPh: *isip-en) *ísip

isísannual, or bi-annual scrubbing of houses (NOISE)

is-náwabreath (Bergaño 1860, Jason Lobel p.c.) (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

i-sumpáʔto curse someone (PPH: *i-sumpaq) *sumpaq

ítuʔcatfish or carp (PMP: *hituq)

urine (PMP: *ihiq) *iSiq

ka-balíkopposite, opponent (PMP: *balik₂)

ka-básaacquaintance (PWMP: *basa)

ka-bilaŋ-antotal (PWMP: *ka-bilaŋ-an) *bilaŋ

ka-bunduk-anmountainous country (Bergaño 1860) (PMP: *bunduk)

ka-ísipone who thinks the same (PPh: *ka-ísip) *ísip

ka-ka-dwa-ʔsecond (PMP: *duha) *duSa

ka-kan-anfood (PAN: *ka-kaen-en) *kaen

kaku1sg. benefactive-dative personal pronoun; to (for) me (Mirikitani 1972:102) (PAN: *k-aku) *aku

k<al>iŋkíŋ-anlittle finger (PWMP: *k<al>iŋkiŋ) *kiŋkiŋ₃

kaliŋwanforget (PWMP: *liŋaw, ka-liŋaw)

kámbaltwin (LOAN)

kan-awrinse; rinsing, washing (Bergan-o) (ROOT)

ka-ŋpossessive (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983) (PAN: *ka₃)

ka-palar-andestiny, fate (PMP: *palaj₁)

Kapampangan (320 / 626)

ka-pampaŋ-anKapampangan ('people of the river banks') (PPh: *ka-paŋpaŋ-an) *paŋpaŋ

kap-ilánwhen? (PAN: *ijan)

kápittogether; type of banana that grows with the fruit bunched together (PMP: *kapit)

kapít-anbe close to someone, especially to one in power (PMP: *kapit)

ka-ráyaʔone with same blood type (PAN: *daRaq₁) *daRaq

ka-ráyumneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

ka-takaw-angreed (PMP: *takaw) *Cakaw

ka-takut-anfear (PWMP: *ka-takut-an) *takut

káti(h)low water-level (PWMP: *keti)

ka-tua-ncharacteristics of old age and of adulthood (PWMP: *ka-tuqah-an) *tuqaS

ka-tulu-anspilling, outpouring (sometimes used as a veiled reference to venereal disease) (PAN: *tuduq)

kauŋbark of a dog (PMP: *kauŋ)

ka-ʔuranrainy season (PWMP: *ka-quzan) *quzaN

keː-béŋi-anbe overtaken by night because of something (PWMP: *ka-beRŋi-an) *beRŋi

kilálabe acquainted (PAN: *kilala)

kíldap(<M) lightning (ROOT)

-kushort form of áku, ‘I’ (PAN: *-ku)

kukútoe and finger nails (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

ku-ŋoblique case marker for common nouns (PAN: *ku)

kúranlarge pot used for cooking rice (PAN: *kuden)

Kapampangan (340 / 626)

kútulouse (PMP: *kutu) *kuCu

la:lákimen, males (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

labi-ŋ-pitóseventeen (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

labíʔexcess, what is left over; survivor (PAN: *labiq)

lákadto walk; gait, pace, course (PMP: *lakaj)

lalákiman, male (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

lañaoil of sesame (Bergaño 1860) (PMP: *laña)

láyaginger (PMP: *laqia)

limáfive (PAN: *lima)

liñosetting teeth on edge (Bergaño 1860) (PMP: *ñilu)

liyassmall lice (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

luáʔtears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

lu-luáʔto weep (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

lulúd ~ me-luludbarked (shins) (PMP: *luluj)

lúlunroll up (mats) (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

lúmutalgae, moss, seaweed (PMP: *lumut)

ma-bantútfoul-smelling (PWMP: *bentut)

ma-básarecognized (PWMP: *basa)

ma-basáʔwet (PMP: *baseq₂) *baseq

ma-baúsmelly (PMP: *ma-bahu) *bahu

Kapampangan (360 / 626)

ma-bayatheavy (PMP: *ma-beReqat) *beReqat

maː-béŋibe overtaken by night (PMP: *beRŋi)

ma-biealive (PPh: *ma-bihaR) *bihaR

ma-bílaŋcount (PPh: *ma-bilaŋ) *bilaŋ

ma-biyásaknowledgeable (LOAN)

ma-buakhave hair on (as after a haircut) (PWMP: *ma-buhek₂) *bukeS

ma-bugbúgbruised (Forman 1971) (PWMP: *bugbug)

ma-bukbúkinfested with wood-boring insects (PPh: *ma-bukbuk) *bukbuk₃

ma-búktutpregnant (PPh: *buktút)

ma-bukul-búkulwith many lumps, lumpy (PPh: *bukul bukul) *buŋkul

ma-bulátiworm-infested (PMP: *bulati)

ma-búlaʔbubbly (PMP: *ma-bujeq) *bujeq

ma-bulbulwith abundant down (PPh: *ma-bulbul) *bulbul₁

ma-búndukmountainous (PMP: *bunduk)

ma-búŋabearing fruit abundantly (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

ma-busuŋswollen, of the abdomen as a supernatural punishment for ingratitude (PWMP: *ma-busuŋ) *busuŋ

ma-damdamsensitive (PAN: *demdem₁)

mag-aníto, maŋ-anítomake offerings to the spirits (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

mag-ápat-a bánwaspend four years (PWMP: *maR-epat) *Sepat

ma-gatálitchy (PMP: *ma-gatel) *gaCel

Kapampangan (380 / 626)

mag-bakálcarry one's lunch (PWMP: *bekel)

mag-bayúpound, grind rice (PAN: *bayu)

mag-bubuŋfix a roof (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

mag-dakápto catch, apprehend (PAN: *dakep)

mag-ka-sakitexperience hardship, difficulty or pain (PMP: *sakit)

mag-lútuʔto cook (PWMP: *lutuq)

mag-pa-béŋistay overnight, do something overnight (PWMP: *pa-beRŋi) *beRŋi

magpaka-lalákiact like a man (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

maka-anakcapable of giving birth (PWMP: *maka-anak) *aNak

maka-bukúout of joint (PMP: *buku₁) *buku

maka-bulátilikely to give worms, e.g. food (PMP: *bulati)

maka-matáapproach from afar; discover by sight (Bergaño) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

maka-tákutfrightening (PAN: *takut)

maki-kilálato recognize (PAN: *kilala)

ma-kuñattough, rubbery, resilient (PWMP: *keñat)

ma-kútulice-infested (PMP: *ma-kutu) *kuCu

ma-lábuŋleafy (PPH: *dabuŋ)

mali-malia plant: Leea aculeata (Madulid 1999) (PMP: *mali-mali) *mali

ma-lútuʔcooked (PWMP: *ma-lutuq) *lutuq

ma-makásmake marks (PMP: *bekas₃)

Kapampangan (400 / 626)

ma-máyadto pay (PMP: *bayaD)

mam-babaypursuing women (PPh: *ma-ba-bahi) *bahi

ma-milaŋto count (PWMP: *maŋ-bilaŋ) *bilaŋ

ma-mitbitcarry with the arms hanging fully extended (PWMP: *maŋ-bitbit) *bitbit

ma-mukpukto hammer (PAN: *pukpuk)

ma-mulmuldefeather (PPh: *bulbul₁)

ma-múmbaspray something (LOAN)

ma-munuthusk-polish something (PPh: *maŋ-bunut) *bunut₁

ma-múŋabear fruit (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

ma-mutulto harvest (PMP: *putul) *putun

mánainherit, inheritance (PWMP: *mana₁)

ma-nahíʔdressmaker (PMP: *tahiq) *CaqiS

man-ampílto stack dishes (PMP: *hampil)

man-áŋgareach as far as, journey to (PWMP: *qeŋgah)

mana-sakitfeel hurt, grudge, be hurt, get hurt, feel pain (PMP: *sakit)

man-atápput on a roof (PWMP: *maŋ-qatep) *qatep

ma-náyawaiting for someone, something (PAN: *ma-naRah) *taRah

man-dilatstick the tongue out (PWMP: *dilat)

mani-mutiʔgrow white, fade (PMP: *ma-putiq) *putiq

manúkchicken (PMP: *manuk)

Kapampangan (420 / 626)

ma-ñamandelicious (PWMP: *ñaman)

ma-ñamsamto abduct, grab, snatch (PPH: *samsám)

m-añudcarried away on a current, adrift (PAN: *ma-qañud) *qañud

ma-ñulúʔlight a candle, join a procession (PWMP: *me-ñuluq) *suluq

ma-ŋanto eat (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

maŋ-anákgive birth (PWMP: *maŋ-anak) *aNak

maŋ-anítomake offerings to the spirits (PMP: *maŋ-qanitu) *qaNiCu

maŋ-asáwa(old) arrange marriage, (new) have sexual intercourse (PWMP: *maŋ-qasawa) *qasawa

maŋ-gigutto chew, break seeds open with teeth (PWMP: *gigut)

ma-ŋukucut one’s fingernails (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

ma-ŋuntiŋto cut with scissors (LOAN)

ma-ŋututo delouse (PWMP: *ma-ŋutu) *kuCu

ma-paʔítbitter (PWMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

ma-putiʔwhite (PMP: *ma-putiq) *putiq

ma-sakíthurts, painful; difficult, hard (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

ma-sákita sick person (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

ma-saŋábranching, full of branches (PMP: *ma-saŋa) *saŋa₁

m-aslámsour (PWMP: *ma-qalesem) *qalesem

ma-suluŋforward, leaning (PWMP: *suruŋ)

matáeye; shoot, sprout (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Kapampangan (440 / 626)

ma-takaw, ma-takogreedy (PMP: *ma-takaw) *Cakaw

ma-tákutafraid (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

matá kwayanthe spots on the top half of a coconut shell (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-tarámsharp (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

m-atédie (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

ma-tuaold, of people (Bergaño) (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

matua dáyaʔa nephew older than his uncle (lit. ‘king blood’) (PAN: *daRaq₁) *daRaq

may-ambunovercast, misty (PWMP: *ambun)

ma-ʔanefull of termites (PPh: *ma-anay) *aNay

ma-ʔípascockroach-infested (PMP: *ipes) *Sipes

me-bubuŋroofed (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

mi-asáwabe married (PWMP: *maR-qasawa) *qasawa

m-ikatto braid (PWMP: *h<um>iket) *Siket

m-inúmto drink (PMP: *um-inum) *inum

mi-pukpukto hit on the head (PAN: *pukpuk)

m-iʔ, mim-iʔurinate (PMP: *ihiq) *iSiq

m-unáfirst, go first (PMP: *um-unah) *unah

m-una m-unafirst, go first (PPh: *unah-unah) *unah

nanow, already (PAN: *na₄)

naː-béŋilast night (PMP: *beRŋi)

Kapampangan (460 / 626)

nabúʔto fall (PMP: *nabuq)

nákosteal (PMP: *nakaw)

nanaʔpus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

nikníka tiny insect (gnat?) (PMP: *niknik, ñikñik)

n-inapdream (PAN: *qinep)

ní-nuwho? (PAN: *-nu)

ŋisŋisshow teeth, especially upper teeth (PMP: *ŋisŋis)

ŋusúʔupper lip (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋusw-ánstick upper lip out at someone (PAN: *ŋusuq)

odoeat raw (POC: *qontaq) *qetaq

pastill, yet (PWMP: *pa)

pa:-pa-kanfeed someone (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pa:-sakitburden; give a burden (PMP: *pa-sakit) *sakit

pa-bakáshave something marked (PWMP: *pa-bekas) *bekas₃

paː-buŋa-nshare-crop (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

pagal, ma-pagaltired (PWMP: *pagel)

paki-kilálato make known, introduce (PAN: *kilala)

pakpakwings (PAN: *pakpak)

páladpalm (of hand) (PMP: *palaj₁)

pa-lakar-anto send on an errand (PMP: *lakaj)

Kapampangan (480 / 626)

pálaŋbolo (LOAN)

palápaʔfiber stripped from banana stalk (PMP: *palaqpaq)

palay-anrice field (PAN: *pajay)

pálerice (growing in the field) (PAN: *pajay)

palísbroom (NOISE)

paltukconk someone on the head, raise a lump (PAN: *paleCuk)

palu-paluʔbeater (used in washing clothes) (PMP: *palu₅) *paluʔ

pa-mepea fan (PPH: *paypáy)

pa-migl-ánabruptly (PPh: *bigláq)

panabow and arrow; shoot with bow and arrow (Bergaño 1860) (PAN: *panaq)

pa-nalíʔsomething to tie with (PWMP: *pa-nalih) *CaliS

pa-namdamfeelings (PAN: *demdem₁)

pan-aslámuse something to sour (PWMP: *qalesem)

pan-atápput on a roof (PWMP: *paŋ-qatep) *qatep

pan-dilat-anstick the tongue out at someone (PWMP: *dilat)

pa-niŋaʔtoothpick (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

paŋájaw (PAN: *paŋa₁) *paŋa

paŋájaw (PMP: *paŋaʔ, paŋaq)

paŋal-adwa-ndo something a second time (PMP: *duha) *duSa

paŋ-asáwa-nrape someone (PPh: *paŋ-qasawa) *qasawa

Kapampangan (500 / 626)

paŋpaŋriver bank (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ)

paŋpaŋ-an, pampaŋ-anKapampangan ('people of the river banks') (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ-an) *paŋpaŋ

pa-pakpakclap the hands, flap the wings (PAN: *pakpak)

pa-pakpak-anclap for someone (PAN: *pakpak)

pa-ranumditch or inlet that directs water to the seed-bed (PMP: *pa-danum) *daNum

paráshot, spicy, sharp-tasting (PMP: *hapejes)

patchisel (for woodworking) (PMP: *paqet)

p-atékill; fight (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

patianakdwarfish ghost or spirit (LOAN)

pay-atápput on a roof (PMP: *qatep)

paʔ-ináwarest (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

paʔítbitter (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

pepemake waving motion, fan oneself (PPH: *paypáy)

pílitto force (PPH: *pílit) *pílit₁

pilit-anto force (PPH: *pilit-en) *pílit₁

pitíktap, make a tapping noise (PMP: *pi(n)tik)

pitú ~ pitóseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pitu-m-puluʔseventy (PMP: *pitu ŋa puluq) *pitu

púkifemale genitals (PAN: *puki)

pulútmolasses (PMP: *pulut)

Kapampangan (520 / 626)

pulut anigguan {one or two g's}honey of this bee (PMP: *qani-Ruan)

puntree trunk; peka-pun source (PMP: *puqun)

puntukGLOSS (ROOT)

púsadnavel (PMP: *pusej)

púsu-ŋ saginbanana heart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

púsuʔheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

sabaa banana type which is used for cooking (PPH: *sab(e)qá)

sábitto hang, dangle; cling (PWMP: *saqebit)

sabósoup (PWMP: *sa(m)baw)

sakal-anchoke, strangle (PMP: *cekel)

sakeride (PMP: *sakay₁)

sake-nvehicle (PMP: *sakay₁)

sakitdisease (PMP: *sakit)

sakít king batúkidney stones (PMP: *batu₁)

saksákto stab, pierce; [metaphor] penetrate sexually (PAN: *seksek)

salakába fish-trap, carried in the hand and plunged into a shallow stream on top of a fish; when thus corraled the fish is removed by hand through a hole in the top (PPH: *salakeb)

salaʔerror, fault, mistake; sin (PMP: *salaq₁)

saludtake a bath (PWMP: *saluD)

samsamabduct, grab, snatch (PPH: *samsám)

saŋábranch (of a tree) (PMP: *saŋa₁)

Kapampangan (540 / 626)

saŋgulbraid, hair bun (PWMP: *saŋgul)

saŋlayto toast (cacao or maize) (Bergaño 1860) (PMP: *saŋelaR)

sapáʔbetel-chew wad (PWMP: *sepaq)

sasánipa palm (PMP: *sasah, sasaq)

sáup, saup-an, sop-anhelp (PWMP: *saqup)

sawáʔtired of something; more than enough of something (as eating too much ice cream) (PPh: *sáwaq) *sawaq₂

sawsáwto dip in liquid (general term); dunk (PPH: *sawsáw)

sawsaw-ánsauce (PPH: *sawsáw)

sigúkhiccough (PPH: *sigúk)

sigúkhiccough (ROOT)

sikadkick with force (PPH: *sikad)

síkoelbow (PAN: *siku₁)

síŋitslip into a narrow crack (PMP: *siŋ(e)qit)

sudsúdan iron bar used for digging in very hard soil (PPH: *sudsud₂)

sulit-anexamine something (PWMP: *sulit₁)

suluŋto develop, move forward (PWMP: *suruŋ)

sulúʔtorch, light (PMP: *suluq)

sumpálblock up a hole; gag someone, fill (cavity) (PWMP: *sumpel)

sumpáʔcurse (a very serious form of parental punishment) (PWMP: *sumpaq)

súsufemale breast; baby bottle (PAN: *susu₁)

Kapampangan (560 / 626)

su-sulúʔdo something with light (PMP: *suluq)

su-susuto nurse, suckle (PAN: *susu₁)

tabtabcutting (sugarcane) (PAN: *CabCab)

tabtab-anchop off (PAN: *CabCab)

tagyáŋrib (PAN: *tageRaŋ)

tahíʔto sew (PMP: *tahiq) *CaqiS

tákutfear (PAN: *takut)

tala-asáwaa married person (PPh: *tala-qasawa) *qasawa

talíʔtie, bind (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

taŋgapreceive, accept (PWMP: *taŋgap)

tapayan suŋsuŋa large clay jar, sometimes glazed -- said to be Chinese (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₁)

ta-tadtadchop up (PPH: *tadtád)

táwadto bargain (PWMP: *tawaD)

tawar-anbargain for something (PWMP: *tawaD)

tayomshrub that provides a blue dye (Bergaño 1860) (PMP: *taRum)

tela-taʔu-ŋ matáiris; the colored part of the eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

tétebridge (PMP: *taytay)

tidtada delicacy made of chopped pig intestines (PPH: *t<in>adtád) *tadtád

tigtigplay a musical instrument (PWMP: *tigtig)

t<in>ulu(ʔ)dripped (PAN: *t<in>uduq) *tuduq

Kapampangan (580 / 626)

tiŋaʔparticles of food which adhere to teeth (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

tiŋgaʔearrings (once a sign of slavery) (PWMP: *tiŋgaʔ)

tuaold age (Bergaño) (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

túbuʔgrow; gain, profit (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

tugákfrog (ROOT)

tuktukbill, beak (of a bird) (PAN: *tuktuk₁)

túlakto push, shove; set out, depart (PMP: *tulak)

tulduʔpoint at, point out, point to, teach (PPh: *tulduq)

tulu(ʔ)drop; flow; spill; pour (PAN: *tuduq)

tumaclothes louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

t-um-úbuʔto grow, to gain (PMP: *t<um>ubuq) *Cubuq

t<um>ulu(ʔ)to drip (PPh: *t<um>uduq) *tuduq

turuʔto teach, educate; index finger (PAN: *tuzuq)

tuʔud ~ tudknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

ubátsulphur (LOAN)

ugáliʔcharacter, habits, custom, demeanor (PWMP: *ugáliq)

úladworm (PMP: *qulej₂) *qulej

úlamviand, vegetable or protein food eaten with rice (side dish) (PWMP: *qulam)

úlasblanket (PMP: *qules₂) *qules

úlitrepeat (PPh: *úlit)

Kapampangan (600 / 626)

uliʔgo home (PMP: *uliq₁)

uln-anpillow, cushion (PMP: *qulun-an) *qulun₂

umpúk-ana talking group (PWMP: *umpuk-an) *umpuk

unafirst, go first, be first (PMP: *unah)

uñatstretch; yawn (PPh: *huñat)

uñatstretch; yawn (PPh: *uñat)

úpafare, rent, compensation (PMP: *upaq)

uránrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

usádeer (PWMP: *u(R)sah)

útakbrains; marrow (PMP: *hutek)

útaŋdebt (PMP: *qutaŋ)

uyábyawn, belch (PMP: *huyeʔab) *Suyeʔab

úyatveins, blood vessels (PMP: *uRat₁) *huRaC

wayes (PAN: *ua)

wagwágvalued variety of rice (PPh: *wagwág₁)

wakatroot of a tree (PMP: *wakat)

walayto separate, as children from their mother (PAN: *waray)

walúeight (PAN: *walu)

wánanright side (PMP: *wanan) *wanaN, waNan

waswásshake a cloth to chase off mosquitoes (PPh: *waswás₁)

Kapampangan (620 / 626)

yamutroot (PMP: *Ramut)

249. Kapingamarangi (188) OC (Lieber and Dikepa 1974) [kpg] Micronesia

-aimperative (transitivizing) suffix (PAN: *-a₁)

-aobject marker for 3sg. pronoun (PMP: *-a₂)

apluralizing prefix (NOISE)

adeliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

adufish sp., bonito (POC: *qatun)

adua conglomerate, group of things of same size (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

adutoward the listener (PMP: *atu)

adu henuagroup of islets of the same size (PCEMP: *qatuR₂) *qatuR

adulefish sp. (PMP: *qatulay)

agaroot (of tree or plant) (PMP: *akaR)

ahifire (POC: *api₂) *Sapuy

aiwho?, whose?, what? (name) (PMP: *sai)

alaresponsibility, be responsible for; row of plaiting on a net (POC: *salan) *zalan

amaoutrigger float (POC: *saman) *saReman

aŋaunit of measure from tip of thumb to tip of little finger (of outstretched hand) (POC: *saŋa₁ₑ) *saŋa₁

aŋi-aŋiwindy (POC: *aŋin-aŋin) *haŋin

aŋi-nablown away; blown in one direction (by wind) (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

aucurrent (PMP: *qaRus)

aupigment of octopus, octopus sepia (POC: *qasu₂)

babalevel, stretcher; board on which women plait mats (POC: *bapan) *papan

Kapingamarangi (20 / 188)

baba halefloor of a house (POC: *bapan) *papan

bilito touch (something with hand) (PMP: *pilit) *pilit₂

bili-bilioctopus (PMP: *pilit) *pilit₂

buaplant sp.: Guettarda speciosa (NOISE)

buguto bulge; a bulge; joints of ankle, wrist, fingers and toes (POC: *buku₃) *buku

bugu-bugubulging; hilly (POC: *buku-buku) *buku

bugu laŋaportion of chant (POC: *buku₃) *buku

bugu madilajoint of bamboo (POC: *buku₃) *buku

bugu waeankle bone (POC: *buku ni waqay) *buku

bulaglow, shine (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

bulabulging eyes ('bug-eyed', as a person who sees a ghost) (POC: *bulat₂) *bulat

bula-bulaphosphorescence; phosphorescent (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

buluportion of coconut husk including the fiber and soft part beneath the fiber; brush (POC: *bulut₂) *bulut

bulu ahinasanitary napkin (POC: *bulut₂) *bulut

bulu-buluto hold in one’s arms; to encircle in one’s arms, to embrace (PMP: *pulut)

buusea-shell (other than bivalves), trumpet (shell); blare of a trumpet (POC: *buu₅) *buu₂

buucorner (POC: *buu₆) *buu₃

dabusacred; restricted; taboo (POC: *tabu) *tambu

dae-daeresidue from coconut oil; soft flesh of coconut husk (under fibers); to defecate (children’s language) (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

da-gu, do-gumy (first person singular, singular goal) (POC: *-gu) *-ku

Kapingamarangi (40 / 188)

dama-nafather, uncle; big, large (singular) (PMP: *t-ama) *ama

danuto bury (POC: *tanom) *CaNem

daŋito cry, to wail; to apologize (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

daŋi-daŋito beg, to ask forgiveness (POC: *taŋi-taŋis) *Caŋis

dapáʔlie flat, with face down (LOAN)

dinaesolar plexus; be pregnant (POC: *tinaqe) *taqay

dinae madaŋistomach distended by gas (POC: *tinaqe) *taqay

dogoto punt (a canoe); punting pole (POC: *tokon) *teken

doluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

duaEast; back (of a person); behind (POC: *tuqa)

duailate, to take a long time (POC: *tuaRi)

duito sew; to patch; pierce with an object; skewer; to spill; to insert an extra leaflet in mat plaiting (POC: *tuRi) *CuSuR

dunucook over an open fire, boil (POC: *tunu₂) *CuNuh

dunu-dunucook over an open fire, boil (POC: *tunu tunu) *CuNuh

duu-daefeces (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

eiduspirit; ghost; monster; ancient deities (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

gaito eat (POC: *kani) *kaen

gai dalatame (POC: *lasa)

gawe bilibilitentacle of octopus (POC: *kawe₂) *kaway₂

gawe bilibilitentacle of octopus (POC: *kawe₁) *gaway

Kapingamarangi (60 / 188)

geehawksbill turtle: Eretmochelys imbricata (PCEMP: *keRa(nŋ))

geewrong; other (PCEMP: *kese)

gee-geedifferent (PCEMP: *kese-kese) *kese

gi-to, toward; by means of (POC: *ki₁)

gito, toward; by means of (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

gideeto see, to notice, be able to see (PAN: *kita₂)

giliskin, outer layer, surface (POC: *kulit₂) *kuliC

gimahorse hoof clam (Hippopus hippopus) (PMP: *kima)

guduhead lice; aphids (PMP: *kutu) *kuCu

gulubreadfruit tree: Artocarpus Altilis (PMP: *kuluR)

haafour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

hadaplatform on outrigger boom; wooden bed (POC: *pataR)

hadustone, rock (POC: *patu₂) *batu₁

hadu-hadurocky, lumpy; limestone strate below soil level (PMP: *batu-batu) *batu₁

hadu hagageiŋaboundary stone (POC: *patu₂) *batu₁

hadu manawaheart (POC: *patu₂) *batu₁

hai-manufish sp.: bar ray (PMP: *paRih manuk) *paRiS

halawrong; crime; blame; guilt, fault (PMP: *salaq₁)

hanago (POC: *pana)

hiamuch, many (question) (POC: *pica) *pija

Kapingamarangi (80 / 188)

hi-ahievening (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

hiduseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

hilito choose, to select; choice (PAN: *piliq)

honuto fill; filled (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

honu tulafull to the brim, brimming (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

huanumeral classifier for breadfruit and fruit; fruit of; scrotum (POC: *puaq) *buaq

huaonly, thats all (POC: *pua) *bua₂

huaarea of (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

huasing, chant (NOISE)

hua-luatwo (breadfruit) (POC: *puaq) *buaq

hud-ito pull (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

hudibanana plant: Musa paradisiaca and Musa nana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

hugeto open (POC: *puke) *buka

huge di imuuncover the ground oven (POC: *puke) *buka

hugito make a small hole in something (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

hugutail; the end (referring to the back of something) (POC: *siku₂)

huiimmerse in water (PCEMP: *buqi₂)

hulito turn, to twist, to change (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

huluhair (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

hulu-huluhairy; first appearance of pubic hair (POC: *pulu pulu) *bulu₁

Kapingamarangi (100 / 188)

hulu madugespines of the slate pencil urchin (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

iioh! sound indicating surprise or curiosity (PMP: *iqi)

inu-miadrink it! (imper.) (POC: *inum-ia) *inum

iwibone; upper ridge pole; crease, sharp edge (POC: *suRi)

laasail (PAN: *layaR)

laa-gautree, stick, pole, log; bush (POC: *raqan kayu) *daqan

laa-gautree; stick, pole; log; bush (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

laa-hiadead branch (POC: *raqan) *daqan

laeforehead (POC: *raqe) *daqiS

lalato heat up (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₂) *daŋdaŋ

lamatorch; dry coconut leaves (POC: *ramaR) *damaR

lamuflies, mosquitoes (PMP: *lamuk₂)

laŋisky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lauleaf; eave of a house; long hair on the temples (former masculine hair style) (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

lau-iga-dagalargest kind of tuna (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

leleto run; to drive; to ride (POC: *rere₂)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

liŋi-liŋito pour (POC: *liŋi-liŋi) *liŋi

l-liŋito pour (PCEMP: *liŋi)

lodoinside, within; spouse (POC: *loto₂)

Kapingamarangi (120 / 188)

lodo bagegeweak-minded, weak-willed, cowardly (bagege = ‘weak, powerless’) (POC: *loto₂)

lodo huaidufeel bad (inside oneself); sorrow, sadness; to feel sad (huaidu = ‘bad’) (POC: *loto₂)

loŋonews; to hear (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋo-aato be annoyed or disturbed by noise (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋo dulideaf (lit. ‘hearing deaf’) (POC: *tuli) *Culi

loŋo-noto perceive, to feel, to hear (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

luatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

luahole, cave (PMP: *luaŋ)

lua-ito spit up food (only once, not repeatedly as in vomiting) (PMP: *luaq)

maadoluthick (object); heavy or dense rain (POC: *matolu) *təlu

madaraw, not cooked; ripe (of coconuts) (POC: *mataq) *hataq

madato see, to look (used only in compounds) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mada-a-halethe end of the house (front or back) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mada-a-haŋaentrance funnel of the fish trap (made of peeled coconut root) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mada-ahismall flame (obtained from a fire) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mada-alili-uunipple of breasts (PMP: *mata nu susu) *maCa

mada-a-limafinger (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mada-awasmall channel (POC: *mata ni cawa) *maCa

madagufear, be afraid; be shy; shyness (POC: *matakut) *takut

madagu-dagufear, be afraid (POC: *matakut) *takut

Kapingamarangi (140 / 188)

mada haanaua family; a group of people descended from the same ancestor (often holding land jointly) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-dapáʔlying flat (LOAN)

mada-uaraindrop (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mada-waelerays (of the sun); prongs of the boom (on a canoe) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

madedie; deceased; death; paralyzed (POC: *mate) *aCay

maduaold, mature, ripe (of breadfruit) (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

magibe sick, infirm (POC: *masakit) *sakit

magi ahinamenstruation (lit. ‘woman’s sickness’) (POC: *masakit) *sakit

maitoward speaker; from (place or time) (POC: *mai) *ai₃

ma-lamamoon, month; lantern (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR

malushadow, shade; behind (some protective cover); shelter (PEMP: *maluRu)

mamato chew, to masticate (soft foods); premasticated food (for infants) (PMP: *mamaq)

mana-manawato throb (as pulse or pain) (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

manawaheart; predisposed to; disposition; come up to the surface (from diving) (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

manawa babacalmness, tranquility (of a person); freedom from worry (lit. ‘level heart’) (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

maŋabranch (e.g. of a tree, government) (PMP: *ma-saŋa) *saŋa₁

mataŋiwind, breeze (POC: *mata ni aŋin) *maCa

mmeered (PCEMP: *meRaq meRaq) *iRaq

muli waeheel (POC: *m-uri qaqe, m-uri waqe) *udehi

niucoconut tree, Cocos nucifera (PMP: *niuR)

Kapingamarangi (160 / 188)

niu maaŋalacoconut tree which bears edible husks (PMP: *niuR)

nonuthe Indian mulberry: Morinda citrifolia L. (POC: *ñoñu) *ñəñu

ŋauto chew (POC: *ŋau₁)

ŋolularge wave (POC: *ŋalu)

ŋudumouth (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋudu daalospear foreshaft (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋudu di wagaprow of canoe (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋū-ŋūto mumble, mutter, talk softly (in a low voice) (POC: *ŋuRuR)

odoroof a house by thatching (POC: *qatop) *qatep

ogorafter (POC: *oka₂)

ogo-ogofish sp.: Lethrinus minatus (scavenger fish) (POC: *oka oka)

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

onoa fish, the barracuda (POC: *qono₁)

taisaltwater, salt; lagoon; sea; tide (PMP: *tasik)

tauseason; to perish (PMP: *taqun)

tuluto leak (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

udatoward land; toward center of the land, inland (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

udato transport (cargo) (PMP: *ujan)

udusoak up, draw water (PEMP: *qutub)

udufish sp.: snapper (Aprion virescens) (PMP: *qutud)

Kapingamarangi (180 / 188)

ugafishing line (POC: *uka₂) *uka₁

ulatufted spiny lobster: Panulirus penicillatus (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

uligold-banded fusilier: Caesio coerulaureus (POC: *sulik) *sulig

unascale (of fish, turtle) (POC: *qunap₂) *quSeNap

unah-ito scrape (POC: *qunap-i) *quSeNap

uubreast; to absorb; to suck up (e.g. water) (PAN: *susu₁)

waeleg, foot; wheel (of a vehicle) (PAN: *waqay)

wagacanoe (POC: *waŋka)

250. Kapuas (20) WMP [nij] (Ngaju) Indonesia (Kalimantan)

ak-ensibling's child (PWMP: *kam-anak-en) *aNak

asuʔdog (PAN: *asu₁)

banahusband (PMP: *banah) *baNaS

bekenother, different (PWMP: *beken)

bisaʔwet (PMP: *biseq)

dueʔtwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duhiandurian (PWMP: *duRi-an)

ganda-lawaʔspider (PMP: *lawaq₂ₐ) *lawaq₂

ke-jaufar (PMP: *zauq)

ma-lujaʔto spit (PWMP: *luzaq)

mama-ʔparents’ sister’s husband (PMP: *mama) *mamah

mama-ʔ busuparents’ younger brother (PMP: *mama) *mamah

ma-nugalto dibble (PWMP: *ma-nugal) *tugal

mata-n andawsun (‘eye of the day’) (PMP: *mata nu qalejaw) *maCa

mataʔeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

na-haséŋbreathe (PWMP: *qaseŋ)

na-ñilaʔsplit (PMP: *silaq)

sawa-wife (PAN: *qasawa)

tasiksea, ocean (PMP: *tasik)

uruʔgrass (PAN: *udu)

251. Karo Batak (962) WMP (Neumann 1951) [btx] (Batak Karo) Indonesia (Sumatra) (dialects: Kembaren [btx] 1)

abaŋ-abaŋtree with large leguminous fruits that produce very light, winged seeds (PWMP: *qabaŋ qabaŋ) *qabaŋ₂

abaŋ abaŋtree with large leguminous fruits which contain very light winged seeds (NOISE)

abathindrance (PMP: *qambat)

abinhold in the lap, hold or carry against the bosom (PMP: *qabin)

abin-abin-enthe lap (PMP: *qabin)

abitthe long cloth that is fixed under the armpits by women (PMP: *habit) *Sabit

abuash, dust (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

acemanything used to increase the sourness of desserts, as the fruit of the cekala (Zingiberacea), gelugur, etc. (PWMP: *qalesem)

acem-acemsmall sour-tasting plant with clover-like leaves (PWMP: *qalesem qalesem) *qalesem

aducomplain (PMP: *aduq)

aducompetition, rivalry (PWMP: *adu)

agakopinion, guess (LOAN)

agas-agasvery small mosquito (LOAN)

agemdull (of color, sound); not entirely clear, of the light (PWMP: *agem₃)

ageŋcharcoal (PMP: *qajeŋ)

agiyounger sibling; placenta (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji

ajakspur on, incite, urge on (PWMP: *azak) Kembaren

akarvery young jungle (must have earlier referred to creepers) (PMP: *akaR)

aku1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me (PAN: *aku)

alaŋ-alaŋmediocre; in-between; insufficient; for one purpose too large, for another too small (PWMP: *alaŋ-alaŋ)

Karo Batak (20 / 962)

alaŋ-alaŋ-enlacking the courage to do something; indecisive, wavering (PWMP: *alaŋ-alaŋ)

alurbelonging to a certain river system (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

ambaŋrestrain or hold back with outstretched arms, as a runaway horse (PMP: *abaŋ₁)

ambathold back, hinder, detain (PMP: *qambat)

ambihmake an extension to a house that is too small (PWMP: *ambiq)

amburspill out, spill over, strew, scatter; cast a net (PWMP: *qambuR)

ampamsmall round cookies/pastries (LOAN)

amparlie on the ground (PMP: *hampaR) *SapaR

ampuhold in the lap (NOISE)

ampuŋ-ampuŋfloat of a fishline or fish net (PMP: *apuŋ apuŋ) *apuŋ

anakchild; BC (m.s.), ZC (w.s.); young of animals; sprout of a plant; descendant; inhabitant; figuratively of things that are small for their kind, in contrast with induŋ for things that are large for their kind (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak anakbrook, tributary stream; children, in contrast with adults (PWMP: *anak anak) *aNak

anak beruZS (m.s.), FZS (m.s.); wife-takers (PMP: *anak bahi, anak babahi, anak binahi) *aNak

anak bulan-enperiodically suffer from fits of temper, as may happen to some otherwise mild tempered persons, esp. at the time of moonrise (PWMP: *bulan-en) *bulaN

anak darathe ring finger (PMP: *daRa₂)

anak-enof a wasp's nest, already containing eggs; of a egg, have the beginnings of an embryo (PWMP: *anak-en) *aNak

ane anewhite ant (PAN: *aNay)

ane-anē-ndamaged by white ants (PWMP: *anay-en) *aNay

anjaktrot (of a horse), hop happily around (of children) (PWMP: *anzak)

antiŋearring (LOAN)

Karo Batak (40 / 962)

a-nuindefinite pronoun, a certain; indicating for a person whose name one doesn't know, or doesn't want to say (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

aŋinwind (PMP: *haŋin)

apawhat? (PMP: *apa₁)

apa-iwhich? (PMP: *apa₁)

apar-apara little mat in a bird cage; an old pad under a new sitting or sleeping mat (PMP: *hampaR) *SapaR

apifire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

api apifirefly (PWMP: *hapuy hapuy₁) *Sapuy

api apitree sp. (PWMP: *hapuy hapuy₂) *Sapuy

apitclip (PMP: *qapit) *qapiC

apitclip; trap (PMP: *hapit) *Sapit

apit-apitthe two lowest laths of the loom, between which the warp is pressed (PWMP: *hapit hapit) *Sapit

arahside (LOAN)

ari kocome here! (PAN: *aRi)

asahwhet, sharpen (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asakjostle, crowd out (PWMP: *qasak)

asakexpand, spread out, seek an exit; penetrate, press on, jostle, crowd out (NOISE)

asalprovided that; origin, village of origin (LOAN)

asekasthma? (PMP: *hasek₂)

asek-enoppressive feeling in the chest, shortness of breath (PMP: *hasek₂)

asukunderstand; enter (PWMP: *hasuk)

Karo Batak (60 / 962)

atahfresh, green, raw, unripe (PWMP: *hataq)

atahfresh, living, green (PAN: *qataq)

ateliver; figuratively, the seat of emotions, will, and desire (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ate-ateout of one's own volition, impulse, or fancy (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

atekpresume, suspect; be of the opinion (NOISE)

aturarrangement, regulation (LOAN)

atur-enregulation (LOAN)

awakloins (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

awan-awanatmosphere, space between earth and sky (PWMP: *hawan hawan) *hawan

awaŋ-awaŋatmosphere, firmament (PMP: *awaŋ)

ayakfollow, walk after someone (PWMP: *ayak₁)

baat, on, upon, to, til (PMP: *ba₃)

bababring something, bring along, carry (PMP: *baba₇) *baba₁

babahmouth, beak, opening (PMP: *baqbaq)

babipig (PAN: *babuy₃)

babibabisowbug (PWMP: *babuy babuy)

babi-babikind of bird that gives notice of coming drought (PWMP: *babuy₁)

badakRhinoceros sumatrensis (LOAN)

bagahoffering to the spirits of the dead so they will desist from pestering one (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

bagethat is how it is; do or make it this way (PWMP: *bagay₁)

Karo Batak (80 / 962)

bagidivide, split, share; portion (PMP: *baqagi)

baksound of clapping, of horses' hooves, etc. (PMP: *bak₁)

bakbakremove the rind (of fruits) (PMP: *bakbak₁)

bakul-bakulfence of stakes with bamboo plaitwork connected together, used at dykes and dams (PWMP: *bakul-bakul) *bakul

balak-balakdirt under foreskin (NOISE)

balaŋlarge four-sided gin bottle (LOAN)

balasrepay, requite (LOAN)

balbalwooden beating stick with which the flower stalk of the areca palm is beaten so as to promote a flow of liquid from the plant; to beat (PAN: *balbal₁)

baleŋborder, partition (PWMP: *balej)

balialike, equal, settled (of a debt) (PMP: *baliw₄) *baliw₁

baliequal, identical; as, like; repaid, of a debt (PWMP: *bali₂)

baliequal, identical; as like; repaid, of a debt (LOAN)

balikinverted, backwards, in error (PMP: *balik₂)

baliŋbamboo scarecrow that turns like a windmill (PWMP: *baliŋ₂)

baliŋ baliŋbamboo scarecrow that turns like a windmill (PWMP: *baliŋ baliŋ) *baliŋ₂

balutwrap something (PWMP: *balut₂)

banbana plant from which strips are cut for use in beautiful plaitwork: Maranta dichotoma (PWMP: *banban)

baŋkecorpse, carcass; carrion (PWMP: *baŋkay)

baŋunthe existence of something, the appearance, the structure of something, the state of a matter (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

bapa ŋudafather’s younger brother (PMP: *ŋuda)

Karo Batak (100 / 962)

bapa tuafather’s older brother (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

barashoulder (PMP: *qabaRa₃) *qabaRa₁

baraŋperhaps; as well as; also used verbally (PMP: *baraŋ₁) *baraŋ

baratwest, western (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

barehabscess, swelling (PAN: *baReq)

barunew; just, just now (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

barukinfertile (NOISE)

barutgoiter (NOISE)

barut-ensuffer from a goiter (NOISE)

basbashit, strike with a bundle of palm leaf fibres to drive out ghosts (PAN: *basbas₁)

basbassprinkle with holy water (PWMP: *basbas₄) *basbas₂

basuhwash rice (in the language of shamans) (PAN: *basuq)

bataŋtree trunk; classifier for long objects (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bataŋ diriself, oneself (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bataŋ kayutree, tree trunk (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

batustone, rock; weights on a casting net, teeth (fig.) (PMP: *batu₁)

batu-batularge wooden blocks used to warm up a woman in childbed (PMP: *batu-batu) *batu₁

batukcough (PMP: *batuk₁)

batuk-batukunwell; also a euphemism for a serious sickness such as cholera (PWMP: *batuk batuk) *batuk₁

baustench; odor; for agreeable odors this is contracted to bo: ntabeh bo-na ‘It smells delicious!’ (PMP: *bahu)

Karo Batak (120 / 962)

bayaŋ bayaŋa sourish vegetable similar to purslane (PWMP: *bayaŋ₁)

bedilweapon (LOAN)

bekonomatopoetic for sound of bubbling up (PWMP: *bek)

bekaburst, split (PMP: *beka)

bekastrace, place where something has been, result of something, conclusion, result, product of some work, proof, evidence (PMP: *bekas₃)

bekucoagulated, of blood; blood clot GLOSS (LOAN)

bekucoagulated, of blood; blood clot GLOSS (NOISE)

belahsplit, cut in half, in two, divided (PAN: *belaq)

belaŋwide, extensive, of a plain (PMP: *bekelaj)

belaŋashallow iron pan in which one cooks sugar, fries meat, etc. (PMP: *balaŋa)

belatdivider, wall, partition used to set a space apart (PMP: *belat₁)

belatkind of trellis-work put in the water to catch fish (PMP: *belat₂)

belbelplugged up, of a water conduit; lie athwart; in breach position (fetus) (PMP: *belbel₁)

belitwinding; to wind, twist, turn (PMP: *belit₂)

belutkind of eel (LOAN)

benathe lower part of a trunk, the beginning or origin of something (PMP: *bena)

bena-nareason, cause, beginning of something (PMP: *bena)

benaŋthread, sewing thread (PWMP: *benaŋ)

benbenplugged up, of a water conduit; lie athwart; in breach position (fetus) (PWMP: *benben₁)

bencahwet, damp (PMP: *besaq)

Karo Batak (140 / 962)

bendulthe rectangular framework with which the plank floor of the sapo GLOSS is fastened (LOAN)

benihseed, particularly seed-rice (PWMP: *benehiq)

bentukbeginning of a drawing, beginning of a curve (PMP: *bentuk)

beŋaŋamazed, astonished, confused; magical means to make ones opponent timid (PMP: *beŋaŋ₂)

beŋaŋ-beŋaŋ-enbe utterly flabbergasted, at the end of one's wits (PMP: *beŋaŋ₂)

beŋbeŋobstruct, be in the way (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ₄) *beŋbeŋ₁

beŋkikfruit bat, flying fox (ROOT)

beŋkuŋbent, curved (PMP: *beŋkuŋ)

berasin general: rice that has already been husked. Also the pit or hard part of a fruit; fig. the milk teeth of a child; also, the testicles (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

beratheavy, of objects; pregnant (in the expressions mberat rumah (lit. "heavy house"), mberat dagiŋ (lit. "heavy flesh"); difficult, of one's lot; figuratively, dead (PMP: *beReqat)

berat rumahpregnant (lit. ‘heavy house’) (PAN: *Rumaq)

berégive; allow, permit; feed animals; make offerings, present gifts (PMP: *beRay₂) *beRay

berkatto bless, say a blessing over something (LOAN)

berkisa bundle, as of firewood, palm fibers, etc.; also a packet of 50 sirih leaves for the betel chew (PWMP: *beRkis)

berŋinight, nightly, as an indicator of time (PMP: *beRŋi)

berŋī-nnight as duration (PAN: *beRŋi-n) *beRŋi

berŋi-nathe following night (PMP: *beRŋi-na) *beRŋi

bersih ukurupright, pure of heart (LOAN)

beruaŋthe Malayan honey bear: Ursus malayanus (PWMP: *baRuaŋ)

beru puhun-nathe ‘true’ wife of someone, namely the mother’s brother’s daughter, in opposition to other wives (PMP: *puqun)

Karo Batak (160 / 962)

bésanthe 'affinal', not true brother or sister; reciprocal term used between the parents of a man and the parents of his wife (PWMP: *baisan)

besarswollen, puffed up; important (only in tuan besar 'important man', from Malay) (NOISE)

besiiron; made of iron (LOAN)

besursatiated, having eaten enough (PAN: *besuR)

betahunhusked rice grains that one finds in the pounded or cooked rice. It is a bad omen if one chews on such a grain when eating (PWMP: *betaq₁)

beteken (usually beteken tān)the lower arm from wrist to elbow (PWMP: *beteken)

be-timpuk-anbutt one another (of goats) (PWMP: *ti(m)puk)

bibitseedling; offspring of animals; vaccine (LOAN)

bicarahabit, custom, usage, customary law; in case, in the event that (LOAN)

bidaŋthe cross-laths of an enclosing fence which are bound to the upright posts (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

bidiŋthe sides, as of a cube (PMP: *bidiŋ)

bilaŋinvocation to the gods, oath sworn to the gods (PAN: *bilaŋ)

bilika space that is partitioned off, apartment, room in a house (PMP: *bilik)

binarsparks produced by striking a fire, or in smithing (PMP: *binaR)

binasabe leveled to the ground (LOAN)

binataŋdisguised speech form for mice that destroy the rice (LOAN)

bintaŋstar; moon (LOAN)

bintaŋ pariamathe Seven Sisters, Pleiades (PWMP: *pariama)

binuaŋkind of large, heavy tree (PWMP: *binuaŋ)

biŋkasfire a weapon without a detonation, due to defective gunpowder (PMP: *biŋkas)

Karo Batak (180 / 962)

biŋkepegs to attach the thongs used to stretch the drumhead; rattan ring around the mouth of a basket trap for fish (PWMP: *biŋkay)

biŋkesa package of salt (ROOT)

birahtype of taro with very large leaves (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

biri-birisheep (LOAN)

biriŋblack, dark blue, of clothing; dark, of skin color; dirty; a stage in the development of yaws (PMP: *biRiŋ₁)

biriŋa stage in the development of yaws (framboesia) (PWMP: *biRiŋ₂)

biru-birukind of palm with large leaves from which a kind of thatch is made for roof covering (PMP: *biRuʔ)

bisapoison, poisonous (as a snake) (LOAN)

bitukaintestines (PMP: *bituka) *biCuka

bituka mbelinstomach (PMP: *bituka) *biCuka

bobothe space above something (PMP: *bawbaw)

buahfruit; seed of a fruit; button of a jacket; blade of a knife; numeral classifier for small objects, grains (PMP: *buaq₂) *buaq

buah ate-kuterm of endearment: dear, beloved (PWMP: *buaq qatay) *buaq

buah bitescalf of the leg (PMP: *buaq ni bities) *buaq

buah buahclitoris (PMP: *buaq buaq) *buaq

buah durindurian (PWMP: *duRi-an)

buaŋ layodefecate (PMP: *buqaŋ)

buaŋ paralongitudinal attic beams resting on the tekaŋ, on which firewood is stored (PMP: *buqaŋ)

buat buat-enland ownership (PWMP: *buhat-en) *buhat₃

buat-enbe able; wealth (PWMP: *buhat-en) *buhat₃

Karo Batak (200 / 962)

buayacrocodile (PWMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

bubua fish trap which is placed with the mouth facing upstream (PAN: *bubu₂)

bubukstrong hairy creeper, found especially in new-growth forests (NOISE)

bubuŋ-enbuŋbuŋ-enridge of the roof (PMP: *bubuŋ-en) *bubuŋ₁

bubuslose blood (PMP: *busbus)

bubutwhat is extracted, what is pulled out (PMP: *butbut₂) *buCbuC

buistug each other back and forth; pull, jerk (PMP: *buis)

bujaŋyoung daughter, unmarried girl, maiden, virgin; in some areas the word also means 'vulva, vagina' (LOAN)

bujuka small fish (PWMP: *buzuk)

bukaopen; opened (PMP: *buka)

bukujoint, articulation; node of bamboo; measure of part in music; main point or essence of a matter; ball of opium (PMP: *buku₁) *buku

buku-bukujoints, articulations; node of bamboo; measure or part in music; main point or essence of a matter (PMP: *buku buku) *buku

bulanmoon, month; (fig.) a girl, as opposed to a boy (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulaŋ-bulaŋheadcloth (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

bulélétrunk of an elephant, proboscis of a beetle or butterfly (LOAN)

buluhbamboo (generic) (PAN: *buluq₂)

buluŋleaf, leaves (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

buluŋ-buluŋall kinds of leaves, specifically leaves with medicinal value (PWMP: *buluŋ buluŋ) *buluŋ₂

bunihidden, concealed, laid away (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

buni buniin secret (PMP: *buni buni) *buNi

Karo Batak (220 / 962)

buntatfrog eggs (NOISE)

buntu-buntuhills (PMP: *buntu buntu) *buntu₂

buntu-buntumounds (PWMP: *bu(n)tu) *bu(n)tu₁

buŋaname of a smaller cotton shrub than the buŋa kembayat; cotton, cotton-wool; blossom, flower; interest on a loan (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

buŋa-buŋathe red flower: Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

buŋbuŋ-en empata roof with four ridgepoles that converge in a point (PMP: *bubuŋ-en) *bubuŋ₁

buŋbuŋ-en limaa roof with one (horizontal) ridgepole supported by four semi-vertical poles (PMP: *bubuŋ-en) *bubuŋ₁

buŋkarpulled down to the ground; uprooted (PMP: *buŋkaR)

buŋkasuprooted, visible; be brought into view, as objects in a display of magic (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

buŋkuspacket, package (PWMP: *buŋkus)

burbartopsy-turvy, helter-skelter, in a jumble (as a heap of stones); confused, run in every direction, as tree roots (NOISE)

burburwood worm (PMP: *buRbuR₂)

burbur-eninfested with wood worms (PMP: *buRbuR₂)

burihto wash, as the hands (PMP: *buRiq)

buruto hunt, force up in hunting (NOISE)

burukrotten, of a dilapidated house, etc.; tattered, of clothing (PMP: *buRuk)

busbus-enbleed profusely from a wound; have a heavy menstrual flow (PWMP: *busbus-en) *busbus

busukabove all in a figurative sense: bad; improper, of conduct; contrary to customary law; immoral (PMP: *busuk)

busuŋ-ensuffer from swelling of the stomach, ascites (PWMP: *busuŋ-en) *busuŋ

buta'black out', as from a blow, vertigo, etc. (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

Karo Batak (240 / 962)

butakmud, mud spots (PWMP: *butak)

buyakbelly, paunch (NOISE)

ce-buniconceal oneself (PMP: *buni₁) *buNi

cekakchoke, as when swallowing (ROOT)

cerlakshine, gleam (ROOT)

ce-r-nemon the point of sinking out of view, of the sun; momentarily submerge, as carabaos in a watering hole (PWMP: *ceñeb)

cernemon the point of setting (of the sun), momentarily submerged, of buffaloes in a watering hole (PWMP: *ce(R)neb)

ci-belahthe part in the hair (PAN: *belaq)

cikephold something in the hand (PMP: *cikep)

cinderstand, stand erect (ROOT)

cinderstand, stand erect (ROOT)

curikcovered with fine speckles (PWMP: *curik)

curikcovered with fine speckles (Also Malay corék 'grain in wood; veining; long parallel lines (broken or otherwise) in cloth patterns') (ROOT)

dalanpath, road; means to achieve something; cause of something; way of doing something (PMP: *zalan₂) *zalan

dalikanthe (five) stones in the hearth which form the two trivets (PMP: *dalikan)

daliŋbuttress root (PWMP: *daliŋ)

damartree resin; resinous torch (PAN: *damaR)

dapurhearth (PMP: *dapuR)

dapur-dapurthe thick side planks around a house above the floor; upper part of the chest, where the nipples are (PWMP: *dapuR dapuR) *dapuR

darat-enland (as opposed to sea or water) (PMP: *daRat)

Karo Batak (260 / 962)

datu-ktitle of the head of the urungs (federations of different villages related through a “mother” village); he is subordinate to the sultan; title of powerful magicians, spirits and deities (PMP: *datu)

dauhfar; other (PMP: *zauq)

dawaa kind of grain (PAN: *zawa₂)

depafathom (PMP: *depa)

depuksnapping, cracking (of the explosion of roasting corn, rice, etc.) (PMP: *depuk)

dilahtongue (PMP: *dilaq₂) *dilaq₁

dilah-dilahkind of cactus with broad stem joints (PWMP: *dilaq-dilaq) *dilaq₁

di-lakimale, masculine; boy, man; husband (PWMP: *di-laki) *laki

dilapshining, sparkling (of black lacquer, etc.) (PMP: *dilap₁)

diŋdiŋwall, walling; shelter, protection (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

diri(rare = iba) self (LOAN)

duatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dua-naboth (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duā-n duā-nwalk with arms around one another’s necks (PMP: *duha) *duSa

du-ŋ-ari du-m-berŋinight and day (PMP: *beRŋi)

durithorn, spike, splinter; fish bone (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

duruhplant sap; milk (PMP: *zuRuq)

ekemwarm something by holding it between the hands, as a cold baby chick (PMP: *qeŋkem)

elaŋpress between something, as in going through a crowd (PMP: *qelaŋ)

elemhate someone (PWMP: *elem₂)

Karo Batak (280 / 962)

elem-elem atéhate (PWMP: *elem₂)

emakiss, embrace (PWMP: *ema₂)

emasgold (LOAN)

embahbring, take, carry (as a letter) (PWMP: *embaq)

embuncloud, dew (PWMP: *qembun)

embusto blow (PMP: *qembus)

embutto pound, of the pulse (PWMP: *embut)

empakwood chips, wood shavings (PWMP: *hepak)

empasfall with a smack on one's posterior (PWMP: *qempas)

empatfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

empat berŋī-nalready four nights old (PAN: *beRŋi-n) *beRŋi

empulord; owner (PMP: *empu)

(em)pu-nalord, master, owner of something (PWMP: *empu-ni-a) *empu

empu-ŋ(vocative of empu?) Great-great-great-grandfather; ancestor of the fifth ascending generation (PWMP: *empú-ŋ) *empu

-enverbal and nominalizing suffix; e.g. gagaŋ-en suffer from eruptions in the mouth; inum-en what is drunk, drink, beverage (PAN: *-en)

endemovercast; clouded over, of the sun or moon (PWMP: *edem₁)

endemovercast; misted over, of the sun or moon (ROOT)

endutelastic, resilient, springing back, of something that has been pressed down (PWMP: *endut)

enemsix (PAN: *enem)

eŋkahbreathe quickly, pant (PWMP: *eŋkaq)

Karo Batak (300 / 962)

eŋkapgasp for air, be at one's last gasp (PMP: *ekap)

eŋkapgasp for air, be at one's last gasp (NOISE)

eŋkeksob heavily (children) (PMP: *e(ŋ)kek)

eŋkersnore (PWMP: *eŋker)

eŋ-kuan atéto take offense (PWMP: *kua-n) *kua₁

eŋkussnort, as a wild buffalo; pant in suffocation or anxiety (PWMP: *eŋkus)

er-bagesort, kind, type (PWMP: *bagay₁)

er-berŋispend the night (PMP: *beRŋi)

er-bintaŋ-bintaŋsinging of girls as they pound rice in concert in a wooden mortar (LOAN)

er-bintih'fight' with one another; wrestle; punch (PMP: *bintiq)

er-buahhave fruit, bear fruit (PAN: *maR-buaq) *buaq

er-buŋabear flowers; yield interest; welding of iron (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

er-buruto hunt, go hunting (LOAN)

er-butakspatter with mud (PWMP: *butak)

er-butak-butakmuddy from top to bottom (PWMP: *butak)

ereŋto bark (PMP: *heReŋ)

er-gasiŋ(gasiŋ)to spin a top (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

er-jujuŋcarry something on the head (PWMP: *zuŋzuŋ)

er-kayugather wood in the forest for house construction (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

er-ke-tuduh-enpoint to something specific; give clear directions (PAN: *tuzuq-en) *tuzuq

Karo Batak (320 / 962)

er-kilat-kilatglittering, sending out sparks (PMP: *kila-kilat) *likaC

er-kuanto speak (PWMP: *kua-n) *kua₁

erlapglitter, as gold, precious stones, etc. (ROOT)

er-lubaŋhave a hole, full of holes (PWMP: *maR-lubaŋ) *lubaŋ₁

er-lugato paddle (Joustra 1912) (PAN: *aluja)

er-mamahto feed, as birds feed their young (PMP: *mamaq)

er-mbuluhave hair, hairy (PMP: *bulu₁)

er-pagi-pagiin the morning (PWMP: *pagi)

er-pala-palado one's utmost (LOAN)

er-sinarto shine, of the sun (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

er-sisikscaled, removed, of the scales (PMP: *siksik₂)

er-sulito sprout (PMP: *suli)

er-tabancapture something or someone, make someone a war captive (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

erta-erta, reta-retatreasured goods, gems (LOAN)

er-taruhto wager, place a bet (PMP: *taRuq)

estaan ell, that is the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger (LOAN)

gaduŋ garaŋyam, sweet potato (PWMP: *gaduŋ)

gaduŋ kayuthe cassava: Manihot utillisima (PWMP: *gaduŋ)

galiŋgaŋa tree: Cassia alata Linn. (PWMP: *galiŋgaŋ)

gamberthe gambir plant, Uncaria gambir Roxb. (LOAN)

Karo Batak (340 / 962)

gaŋgaŋkind of bamboo tube used to cook by a process of smoking (PWMP: *gaŋgaŋ)

gapgapshrill and rapid, of a woman's voice (PMP: *gapgap)

garisscratch, line, stripe, letter (PMP: *garis)

garuthe stirring of indigo dye (PWMP: *garu)

gasiŋspinning top (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

gatelitch, itchy (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

gatel-ensuffer from itchiness; also, nymphomania (PWMP: *gatel-en) *gaCel

gèkgèk (*i > è unexplained)cackling of a hen before laying an egg (PMP: *gikgik)

gembursomewhat turbid, of water, urine, etc. (ROOT)

gemeswant something badly (PWMP: *gemes₂)

gəmgəmhave something under one’s control; guide, direct (PAN: *gemgem)

gempisempty, flat (ROOT)

gənəpeach, every; each in turn (PWMP: *genep)

getahthick plant sap, milky sap, as that of the rambung (Ficus elastica); also blood when eaten as a dessert (PWMP: *geteq)

gila atefurious; utterance of continuing hatred (PMP: *gila)

girgirshiver, tremble (PWMP: *girgir)

guam-enbe delirious with sickness, etc. (PWMP: *guam-en) *guSam

gumismoustache, beard (PWMP: *gumis)

gumpilform a cluster; a swarm of bees, etc. (ROOT)

guŋguŋgrowling, barking of dog (PAN: *guŋguŋ)

Karo Batak (360 / 962)

gupaklarge cleaver with a blunt end (ROOT)

gupukcome to blows (ROOT)

gusgusrub, scrub something (PWMP: *gusgus)

guyuŋtotter, shake (PWMP: *guyeŋ, guyuŋ)

(h)antunature spirit, lord of stream and wood; mountain spirits, in a certain sense the "owners" of their dwelling places (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

(h)ayam-(h)ayamtoy (PWMP: *qayam₃)

henteŋlie athwart, lie across a path (PMP: *qeteŋ) *qeCeŋ

(h)umarice field, generally dry rice field or swidden (PMP: *quma) *qumah

igeneric prefix of location (PAN: *i₂)

igenitive particle (used before personal names) (PMP: *qi₂)

ia3sg. and pl. (PAN: *ia₁)

iaexclamation of joyous surprise (PAN: *qia)

ibaremainder (PMP: *iba iba₁) *iba iba

i-baboup, above, on top of (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

iba-ibawhat is left over, surplus, remainder (PMP: *iba iba₁) *iba iba

i-bilaŋ-icount, reckon, calculate (PAN: *bilaŋ)

ibilaŋ-icount, reckon, calculate (PWMP: *i-bilaŋ) *bilaŋ

ibuksmall owl sp. (onom.) (PMP: *ibuk)

idasa "single strand" of yarn; dua idas-na two strands (PWMP: *idas₂)

idepnot clearly visible, as a small star that now is seen and now is not (PWMP: *izep)

Karo Batak (380 / 962)

iguŋnose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

ijukblack fibres of the sugar palm used as roofing material (PWMP: *izuk)

ikandried or salted fish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

ikettied up, of prisoners (PMP: *hiket) *Siket

ikurtail, esp. of mammals (PAN: *ikuR)

ikur-ikura creeping plant with clover-like flowers, used as medicine for cattle (PMP: *ikuR ikuR ni asu) *ikuR

ikutincluded, counted among (PMP: *ikut)

ilapapparition, shadow, silhouette (of something one perceives only momentarily) (PMP: *ilap₂)

imbaŋalter-ego, competitor, foe (PMP: *imbaŋ)

impungathered together (PMP: *qipun, qimpun)

imputtail end, esp. of a chicken (PWMP: *imput)

incepto drink (of animals); suck, slurp (PAN: *hisep)

incepdrink (of animals), slurp (PMP: *qisep)

indu-ŋmother animal; in general, larger one of the same class (PWMP: *indu-ŋ) *indu

inemto drink (PWMP: *inem)

injamborrow, lend (PWMP: *hinzam)

iŋetremember, bear in mind (PWMP: *iŋet)

iŋkaŋstand up from sitting (PWMP: *iŋkaŋ)

ipentooth (PMP: *ipen)

ipesthe brown cockroach (PMP: *ipes) *Sipes

Karo Batak (400 / 962)

ipuhpoison smeared on points of blowpipe darts, and the tree from which it is obtained (Antiaris toxicaria) (PWMP: *qipuq)

iriŋsloping, inclined, slanted (PWMP: *qiriŋ₂)

isaŋchin (PWMP: *isaŋ)

isicontents; residents of a house, of a village, etc. (PAN: *isiʔ)

itawe (plural incl.); same as kita, but more familiar/intimate (PAN: *ita₁)

itemprepared indigo (PMP: *qitem)

i-ugurshake a tree (PWMP: *gurgur₂)

iuŋshake, undulate, of the ground in an earthquake (PWMP: *iuŋ)

iup-iupbellows (PWMP: *heyup heyup) *Seyup

jahatbad, dangerous, not to be trusted (of animals and people) (PMP: *zaqat)

jarumsewing needle; hand of a clock; compass needle (PAN: *zaRum)

jeliŋcross-eyed (PWMP: *zeliŋ)

jéliŋcross-eyed (ROOT)

jelma buŋar-ensomeone in the prime of life (PWMP: *buŋaR)

jelma buŋar-ensomeone in the prime of life (PWMP: *buŋaR-en) *buŋaR

jemakhold something tightly in the hand (PMP: *zemak)

jeŋaŋamazed, dumbfounded (ROOT)

jeraŋastand apart, as flowers in a bunch (ROOT)

jujuŋ-enwages for something, above all for someone who will join in a fight (PWMP: *zuŋzuŋ)

j-uluupstream (PMP: *di qulu) *quluh

Karo Batak (420 / 962)

juma acema temporary, not well prepared ricefield (PWMP: *qalesem)

kabu-kabukapok tree and fiber (PMP: *kabu-kabu)

kair-kairrake (PWMP: *kahiR)

kakusomeone who answers for another (PAN: *k-aku) *aku

kali-manteksmall jungle leech (PWMP: *kali-matek) *-matek

kalimpetpetfirefly (PWMP: *kalim-petpet)

kalim-piniskind of swallow (PWMP: *pinis)

kaŋkaŋto walk or sit with legs wide apart (PWMP: *kaŋkaŋ₁)

kapalthick, of planks, etc. (PWMP: *ma-kapal) *kaS(e)pal

kasorafter (PMP: *kasaw₁)

kawilsmall fishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

kawithook (PAN: *kawit)

kawit-enring in the ear from which the red bud at the tip of the fruiting body of the banana plant is hung (women’s earrings) (PWMP: *kawit-en) *kawit

kayuwood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kayu-kayua piece of wood; all kinds of wood (PMP: *kahi-kahiw) *kaSiw

ke-berŋin-enno longer good, as of foods that have stood overnight (PAN: *beRŋi-n) *beRŋi

kedikmeagre, miserly (PWMP: *kedik)

keditthrifty, economical (PWMP: *kedit)

ke-dua ~ ki-duasecond wife, co-wife (PMP: *duha) *duSa

keksound of someone who almost chokes in attempting to eat a big piece of something (PMP: *kek)

Karo Batak (440 / 962)

kelemwaning of the moon (PAN: *kelem)

k-empugrandchild (PMP: *maki-empu) *empu

kemutteem, swarm, as ants, fish in the water, etc. (PWMP: *kemut)

kenabe hit, struck, affected by; right, ‘in step’, correct (PMP: *kena₁)

kena embunchildren's illness: rachitis? (PWMP: *qembun)

kena sidiŋcaught in a snare, ensnared in a noose trap (PMP: *kena₁)

keneŋsink, dive into water, submerge (PMP: *keñej)

ken-j-uluupstream region, highlands (PMP: *di qulu) *quluh

keŋstiff, stiffened, as a corpse (PMP: *keŋ₂)

keŋkeŋwith teeth clenched, as in anger (PMP: *keŋkeŋ₂)

keraŋscab, crust on a wound (PAN: *keRaŋ₂)

keskestighten (as a knot) (PWMP: *keskes₂)

ke-susah-enbe in difficult straits; difficulty (LOAN)

ketaduname for green, hairless caterpillars of which some, like the ketadu laŋkam, can sting badly if they are touched (PMP: *katadu)

ke-telū-nthe day after the day after tomorrow, three days hence (PWMP: *ka-telu-en) *telu

keteŋstretched taut, distended, of the belly (PMP: *keteŋ)

ke-tuaold age (PWMP: *ka-tuqah) *tuqaS

ke-tuā-ndecrepit from old age; become old (?) (PWMP: *ka-tuqah-an) *tuqaS

ki-prefix with the meaning ‘go out to collect something’ (ketaŋ ‘rattan’, ki-ketaŋ ‘go to the forest to collect rattan’, rantiŋ ‘firewood’, ki-rantiŋ ‘gather firewood’) (PAN: *ki-)

kiapwave with the hand, with a cloth; beckon to come (PWMP: *kiap)

Karo Batak (460 / 962)

kilaplightning (PMP: *kilap)

kilatglittering, shining (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kitawe (plural incl.); also polite address for 2nd pers. sg. (PAN: *kita₁)

-ku1sg suffixed possessive pronoun: my, mine (after consonant-final bases) (PAN: *-ku)

k-udan-entimid, as goats that run to their stall when the rain begins (PWMP: *ka-quzan-en) *quzaN

kudinricepot, cooking pot (PMP: *kudin)

kudin tanahearthenware cooking pot (PMP: *kudin)

kugahow? what sort of? (PMP: *kuja₂) *kuja

kulitbark of tree; peeling of a fruit (PMP: *kulit₁) *kuliC

kulurbreadfruit tree: Artocarpus incisa (PMP: *kuluR)

kuniŋCurcuma, turmeric (PMP: *kunij)

kuŋonomatopoetic for the sound of the tame quail (PMP: *kuŋ)

kupkupclosed (of a blossom, umbrella, etc.) (PWMP: *kupkup)

kuriŋstriped, as a tiger (PWMP: *kuriŋ)

kurtakmake a clicking sound with the tongue to urge a horse forward (ROOT)

kusik-kusikwhisper (PMP: *kusik)

kutuhead louse (PMP: *kutu) *kuCu

kutu biaŋflea (‘dog louse’) (PMP: *kutu) *kuCu

labo piganot many (PAN: *pija)

ladiŋgeneric for curved knives and swords (PWMP: *ladiŋ)

Karo Batak (480 / 962)

la erpegusaid of people: without substance, senseless, referring both to speech and to actions (lit. 'without gall') (PAN: *qapeju)

laguway of handling, of behaving (PWMP: *lagu)

lakivocative for ‘grandfather’ (PMP: *laki)

laklakrind, peeling; bark of a tree (PWMP: *laklak)

lalurice pestle (PWMP: *laq(e)lu)

lantascross a river (PWMP: *la(n)t(e)qas)

laŋitsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋit-laŋitcanopy; palate (PWMP: *laŋit laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋkahconduct, behavior (PMP: *laŋkaq)

laŋkemlie on the stomach (PWMP: *la(ŋ)keb)

laŋkupcover, wrapping, casing; what covers or surrounds something; a strip of gold or brass that covers the teeth (PAN: *lakup)

lapaŋtrail, path made by animals (PMP: *lampaŋ)

lateŋthe large stinging nettle shrub, of which several varieties are distinguished (PMP: *lateŋ) *laCeŋ

lateŋ manukvariety of stinging nettle (PMP: *lateŋ) *laCeŋ

lawah-lawahspider, spiderweb (PMP: *lawaq-lawaq) *lawaq₂

layakstate, condition; nature of one's mind or heart (PWMP: *layak)

lebeŋhole made with a dibble stick for sowing seed (PAN: *lebeŋ)

lebihmore, in excess, surplus (PWMP: *lebiq)

lemersoak, wet through from the rain (PMP: *lemer)

leŋgurthunder (PMP: *le(ŋ)gur)

Karo Batak (500 / 962)

liaŋhole, cavity (PMP: *liaŋ)

liaŋ-liaŋa niche, a hollow in a cliff face (PMP: *liaŋ)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

limboSiamese monkey (NOISE)

lim-bukendove sp. (PWMP: *buken₂) *buken (X + buken)

lintahlarge water leech (PMP: *qali-metaq) *qaNi-meCaq

lintik, lentiksmall chisel used to knock off bits of tooth in tooth-filing (PMP: *li(n)tik)

linurearthquake (PAN: *linuR)

liŋetime of the day around 2 p.m. (PWMP: *liŋay)

liŋgemshadow (PWMP: *li(n)dem, li(ŋ)jem)

lipancentipede (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

lisanit, egg of a louse (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

litekturbid, muddy, of water (PMP: *litek)

litekturbid, muddy, of water (ROOT)

luamboiling, of water, violently bubbling up; excited, of language; raving, delirious, as in sickness (PMP: *luab)

luaroutside; apart from, except for, exceptional; to come out, of the enemy (in war) (PMP: *luqar)

lubaŋhole, pit; anus; hole in the floor of a house; grave (PMP: *lubaŋ₁ₐ) *lubaŋ₁

lumbarpay out a rope (PWMP: *lu(m)baR)

lumutmoss, seaweed (PMP: *lumut)

lumut-encovered with moss, mossy (PWMP: *lumut-en) *lumut

Karo Batak (520 / 962)

lutuŋkind of long-tailed monkey (PAN: *luCuŋ)

m-acemsour (PWMP: *ma-qalesem) *qalesem

mahatto chisel, work with a chisel (PMP: *paqet)

maluto strike with a stick (PMP: *palu₄) *palu₃

mamamother’s brother, uncle, thus also father-in-law of a man (PMP: *mama) *mamah

mamah-ifeed a young child by premasticating the food and then ejecting it from the mouth into the open lips (PMP: *mamaq)

manukchicken, fowl (PMP: *manuk)

manuk itikduck (PWMP: *itik₂)

manuk-manukbird (generic); the penis of children (PMP: *manu(k)-manuk) *manuk

manuk mbulan, sala-bulanwhite chicken with yellow feet (PMP: *bulan₂)

ma-ŋan-ieat from something; eaten up by animals; consumed by fire (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

m-ariCome here! Come on! Come along! (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

mataeye(s); the dots on dice, eye of a needle, mesh of a net, blade of a knife, point of a spear (PMP: *mata) *maCa

m-atahraw, green, unripe (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

mata kerjathe main day of a feast (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-mataknot in wood; a spy; messenger (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

mata ranānday when a lawsuit will be heard (‘day of talk’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

m-batukto cough (PMP: *batuk₁)

m-bauto stink (PMP: *ma-bahu) *bahu

mbentuksnapped, of (standing) bamboo (PMP: *bentuk)

Karo Batak (540 / 962)

m)betik, bertikpapaya tree and fruit (LOAN)

mbuah pageabundant, fruitful; abundance (of rice in the harvest) (PWMP: *buaq pajay) *buaq

mbulanwhite, pale (PMP: *bulan₂)

mbuluwool, feathers, fur (PMP: *bulu₁)

mbuŋkasloosen by coughing, cough up much phlegm (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

m-buromove house, vacate a village, primarily because of coercion, disagreements, etc. (PAN: *buRaw)

mbut-mbutfontanel (PWMP: *embut-embut) *embut

me-anakbe like one's own child in one's house, said of a non-family member (PMP: *ma-anak₂) *aNak

medilshoot with a weapon (LOAN)

me-gatelto itch, produce itchiness (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

me-gatel atéhave a strong urge to do something (lit. ‘itchy liver’) (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

me-himatcautious, careful (LOAN)

me-kapalthick, of planks, etc. (PWMP: *ma-kapal) *kaS(e)pal

meke-duahateful, envious (PMP: *duha) *duSa

melah-idivide into equal parts, as the yield from a rice paddy that one has worked together with others (PWMP: *maŋ-belaq) *belaq

me-linduŋhidden, concealed; shaded; safe, secure; twilight, as in the forest depths (PAN: *liduŋ)

me-litekturbid, muddy (of water) (PMP: *litek)

mem-buahboast, brag (PWMP: *maŋ-buaq) *buaq

mena-ito start, begin (PMP: *bena)

menci butkind of squirrel (PAN: *buhet)

Karo Batak (560 / 962)

meŋ-apitpinch, clip, squeeze (PMP: *qapit) *qapiC

me-rarared; glowing, of iron (PMP: *ma-rara) *rara

me-ratus-ratushundreds, by the hundreds (PWMP: *ma-Ratus) *RaCus

merégive, allow, permit; feed animals, make offerings, present gifts (PWMP: *maŋ-beRay) *beRay

merehwring something out, squeeze out; milk an animal (PWMP: *ma-meReq) *peReq

m-ereŋto bark (PMP: *heReŋ)

(m)-ereŋto bark (of a dog) (PWMP: *qereŋ)

me-riŋissevere, stern, strict, rigorous (PWMP: *riŋis₂)

merkisterm for marriage with the sister of one's deceased wife (hence: the sororate) (PWMP: *beRkis)

me-rumahlive in a house (as opposed to animals, which live in holes) (PAN: *Rumaq)

me-silosensitive to light, of the eyes (PWMP: *ma-silaw) *silaw

me-tuaold; hard; ripe, of rice in the field; already deceased (said of children); mother-in-law (woman speaking?) (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

milihto choose, select (PWMP: *ma-miliq) *piliq

mirahred (of coloration in fighting cocks) (PMP: *ma-iRaq) *iRaq

mituka-ito gut, eviscerate, clean a fish for cooking (PMP: *bituka) *biCuka

muaŋthrow away something considered worthless or something that is damaged; banish someone (PWMP: *maŋ-buqaŋ) *buqaŋ

muattake something, provide something for someone (PMP: *buhat₃)

mubutto weed, pull up weeds and grass (PWMP: *maŋ-butbut) *buCbuC

m-ugur-ugurshake back and forth, tremble, as a house (PWMP: *gurgur₂)

muka-ito open something (PWMP: *maŋ-buka) *buka

Karo Batak (580 / 962)

mulaŋbind an artificial cockspur to the leg of a fighting cock (PWMP: *maŋ-bulaŋ) *bulaŋ

m-ulihgo homeward, return to her family (term for divorce from the standpoint of the woman) (PMP: *um-uliq) *uliq₁

mumukdecayed, mouldering (wood) (PWMP: *mumuk)

munuhkill, murder (PWMP: *maŋ-bunuq) *buNuq₂

muŋapay interest (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

muŋkus-ito pack or wrap something; wrap a cloth around one's face, to veil (PWMP: *maŋ-buŋkus) *buŋkus

murih-iclean, wash something (as the body, dishes, etc.) (PMP: *buRiq)

muroscare off birds, chase or drive away, as from the gardens and rice fields (PWMP: *maŋ-buRaw) *buRaw

musaŋthe Indian civet cat: Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Schreb. (PWMP: *musaŋ)

musuŋinterrupt a conversation (PWMP: *busuŋ-en) *busuŋ

m-uyuŋ-uyuŋshake strongly, as the ground in a earthquake (PMP: *huyuŋ)

-na3sg/pl. possessor (PAN: *ni-á) *-a₂

nambak-ito dam up by building a dyke (PWMP: *tambak₂)

namodeep place in a river, generally where it makes a bend and the water moves slowly (common in place names) (PMP: *namaw)

nampukfall down, of ripe fruits, as the durian (ROOT)

namuksmall red flying ants or gnats (PMP: *ñamuk)

nanahpus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

nanah-ento suppurate, of a wound (PWMP: *nanaq-en) *naNaq

nanemto plant (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

nanem-kenbury a corpse; plant a tree (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

Karo Batak (600 / 962)

naŋis-iweep for the dead, mourn the dead (PMP: *taŋis-i) *Caŋis

napsap-ito cut short, of the hair; to scrape off, as the galuŋi (dykes or bunds) in a paddy field (PWMP: *ma-ñapsap) *sapsap₁

naputo sweep (PMP: *sapu)

napu-ito sweep something, as a floor (PMP: *sapu)

naruhto guide, escort (PWMP: *ma-naRuq) *taRuq

naruh-ibring something somewhere (as rice from the field to the village); to supply, fetch (as water) (PWMP: *ma-naRuq) *taRuq

nawalife, soul (archaic) (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

nayatcut into something (PWMP: *sayat)

n-dakep-iembrace someone, hold in the arms (PAN: *dakep)

ndakidirt on the teeth, tartar (PMP: *daki₂) *daki

ndakin-ndirty, of the teeth (PMP: *daki₂) *daki

n-dapdapa tree with red blossoms, Erythrina variegata L. (Fam. Leguminosae) (PMP: *dapdap₁)

n-depa-imeasure something in fathoms (PWMP: *depa-i) *depa

nd-iganwhen? (future) (PAN: *ijan)

nd-igan naiwhen? (past) (PAN: *ijan)

n-dilatto lick, give a lick to (PWMP: *dilat)

n-dilat-ilick something off (PWMP: *dilat)

n-diŋdiŋ-iprotect something or someone (fig.) (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

n-dua-iwork two together, as two women pounding rice in tandem in the same mortar (PWMP: *duha-i) *duSa

nigenitive marker, marker of possession (PAN: *ni)

Karo Batak (620 / 962)

nibuŋpalm sp.; from its trunk laths are made that can be used instead of planks in making flooring, etc. (PMP: *qanibuŋ)

nipahkind of palm tree that yields roofing material and the wrapping for nipa cigarettes (PMP: *nipaq)

nipesnake (PMP: *nipay)

nipé sawaaccording to some the python; according to others a large black snake (PWMP: *sawa)

n-ira-isalt something (PWMP: *qasiRa-i) *qasiRa

n-j-ulu-ibathe upstream from someone (considered improper) (PMP: *di qulu) *quluh

numarker of the genitive (PAN: *nu₃)

nuanplanting, of rice, cash crops, trees, etc. (PMP: *suqan)

nuduhto point at, point out, show (PWMP: *ma-nuzuq) *tuzuq

nuduh-ipoint someone out, above all in accusation (PMP: *tuzuq-i) *tuzuq

nuluhto burn (PWMP: *me-ñuluq) *suluq

nuŋnuŋmake an examination, try to find out (PWMP: *nuŋnuŋ)

nuŋtuŋ-ken (< tuŋtuŋ)turn a bamboo container around and knock it on the floor to empty it completely (PWMP: *tuŋtuŋ₁)

nurunbury a corpse (PMP: *tuRun₁)

nusungather one’s property together, pack up; put away, clear away (PMP: *susun) *susuN

nututo pound something, especially rice with the pestle (PMP: *tutu)

ŋ-abinhold or carry in the lap (PWMP: *meŋ-qabin) *qabin

ŋ-acem-imake food sour (PWMP: *qalesem)

ŋ-aducomplain (PWMP: *maŋ-adu) *adu

ŋ-adu-kencomplain about someone (PWMP: *maŋ-aduq) *aduq

Karo Batak (640 / 962)

ŋ-adu-kencomplain about someone (PWMP: *maŋ-adu) *adu

ŋaksmack; make a smacking sound (PMP: *ŋak)

ŋakŋakhowl, set up a wail (PMP: *ŋakŋak)

ŋ-akuadmit, confess (PWMP: *maŋ-aku) *aku

ŋ-ambaŋ-ito restrain or hold back (PWMP: *maŋ-abaŋ) *abaŋ₁

ŋ-ampentie something with a slipknot, as a fishhook to the fishline (PMP: *hapen)

ŋ-anak-iyield interest; play the small gong (peŋ-anak) (PWMP: *maŋ-anak-i) *aNak

ŋaŋawide open, gaping, of a hole or the mouth (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

ŋ-aŋinwinnow rice by pouring it slowly from a height so that the chaff is blown away by the wind (PMP: *haŋin)

ŋ-aŋkatlift up, raise (PWMP: *maŋ-aŋkat) *aŋkat

ŋaŋŋaŋsnarl; have a "big mouth", quarrel (PMP: *ŋa(ŋ)ŋaŋ)

ŋ-apitpinch or squeeze something; lie between (PWMP: *maŋ-hapit) *Sapit

ŋ-arak"accompany" a prince (PWMP: *maŋ-aRak) *aRak

ŋ-arak-kenwalk behind someone (PWMP: *maŋ-aRak) *aRak

ŋ-arak-ŋ-arakfollow, come behind or after someone; drive cattle before one (PWMP: *maŋ-aRak) *aRak

ŋ-asahwhet, sharpen (PWMP: *maŋ-hasaq) *Sasaq

ŋasŋasof goats, nibble all over the bushes (PMP: *ŋasŋas)

ŋ-ataheat raw flesh (PWMP: *maŋ-hataq) *hataq

ŋatŋatto chew, bite (PWMP: *ŋatŋat)

ŋatŋat-ichew on something (PWMP: *ŋatŋat)

Karo Batak (660 / 962)

ŋ-aturregulate something (LOAN)

ŋe-laklak-ito peel; strip bark from a tree (PWMP: *laklak)

ŋe-laŋkah-istep over someone; slip between two people without asking permission (PMP: *laŋkaq)

ŋe-lapar-ito make a child go hungry (as a punishment) (PMP: *lapaR)

ŋe-lebih-igive more than the (standard) measure (PWMP: *lebiq)

ŋe-liaŋ lahat-kenplace a corpse in a coffin (a hollowed-out log), where the lid is sealed shut (PMP: *liaŋ)

ŋ-eriktrample rice ears with the feet (PWMP: *maŋ-Riqek) *Riqek

ŋe-rumah-ito diagnose an illness (PAN: *Rumaq)

ŋetŋetclothes moth; harbor a grudge (PAN: *ŋeCŋeC)

ŋ-gənəp-ito complete something (PWMP: *genep-i) *genep

ŋ-getget-idamage something slightly by scratching, cutting or chopping it (PMP: *getget₁)

ŋ-giliŋrub something fine, as in a mortar; grind up into a fine powder; pulverize medicinal substances (PWMP: *maŋ-giliŋ) *giliŋ

ŋ-gugutto gnaw off, bite off with the front teeth, as ripe, raw rice grains (PMP: *gutgut₂) *gutgut

ŋguntiŋcut the hair with a knife or piece of glass (LOAN)

ŋ-ikettie up, take prisoner (PWMP: *maŋ-hiket) *Siket

ŋ-ikutto follow, accompany, connect oneself with a person or party (PMP: *ikut)

ŋilufeel cold ‘in one’s bones’; on edge, of the teeth, as when coming into contact with something very cold (PAN: *ŋilu)

ŋ-incepto drink (of animals), suck, slurp (PWMP: *maŋ-qisep) *qisep

ŋiŋsound of a mosquito in the ear (PMP: *ŋiŋ)

ŋ-isito fill (PWMP: *maŋ-isiʔ) *isiʔ

Karo Batak (680 / 962)

ŋitŋitmoth (that eats holes in clothing) (PAN: *ŋitŋit₁) *ŋitŋit

ŋ-kalito dig, dig up (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

ŋ-karatto bite (PWMP: *ma-ŋaRat) *kaRaC

ŋ-kawilto fish with hook and line (PAN: *kawil₁)

ŋ-kayo-iattack someone, plunder a conquered village (PMP: *kayaw) *ŋayaw

ŋ-kayu-ibring wood for a house construction party (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

ŋke-matacounting classifier for counting grains of rice (PMP: *mata) *maCa

-ŋku1sg suffixed possessive pronoun: my, mine (after vowel-final bases) (PMP: *ni-ku) *-ku

ŋ-kulit-ito peel a fruit (PMP: *kulit₁) *kuliC

ŋ-kuniŋ-irub turmeric into something (PMP: *kunij)

ŋudatender, young (PMP: *ŋuda)

ŋuŋonomatopoetic for a sound that is deeper and duller than that represented by ŋiŋ (PMP: *ŋuŋ)

ŋutŋutmumble, murmur (PWMP: *ŋutŋut₁)

ŋutŋut apito smoulder, of a fire (PWMP: *ŋutŋut₃)

hey! hey there! (PMP: *huy)

oncakshake, slosh about, as water in a can that someone is carrying (ROOT)

oraŋ putihCaucasians, white people (PMP: *putiq)

pagerice plant, rice in the field, unhusked rice (PAN: *pajay)

pagé mar-isirice variety (PWMP: *maR-isiʔ) *isiʔ

pagifuture, future time (PWMP: *pagi)

Karo Batak (700 / 962)

paguhfirm, steady, solid, of a post; strong, big, robust, of men, trees, and houses (PWMP: *pageq)

pahatchisel (PMP: *paqet)

pajak nasitime to eat (PWMP: *in-asi) *asiʔ

pakuedible fern (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

palanutmeg (LOAN)

paliŋturn something in another direction (PMP: *paliŋ)

palisblown away by the wind (word used in magical formulas) (PWMP: *palis₁)

palis-palisdrizzling rain, misty rain (PWMP: *palis₁)

paluŋ, paluŋ-engutter, drain, funnel (PWMP: *paluŋ, paluŋ-an, paluŋ-en)

palu-palustick, cudgel; stick used to strike a percussion instrument (PMP: *palu₅) *paluʔ

palu-palustick, pole; cudgel; beater for a musical instrument (PAN: *palu-palu) *palu₃

panahbow (no longer used in warfare) (PAN: *panaq)

panassweat panas-en'to sweat' (PMP: *panas₁)

pandanpandanus variety the leaves of which are used in plaiting (PMP: *paŋdan) *paŋudaN

panowhite spots on the skin (PMP: *panaw₁) *panaw

pano-onsuffer from white spots on the skin (PWMP: *panaw-en) *panaw

paŋsoung of a bang (PMP: *paŋ)

pa-ŋānfood, all kinds of food (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen) *kaen

paŋgaŋroast something over a fire; roasted (PWMP: *paŋgaŋ)

paŋgilin an invocation: invoke deities or spirits; summon to justice (in native court) (LOAN)

Karo Batak (720 / 962)

paŋgil-paŋgilplant with red, plume-shaped flower (LOAN)

pa-pagi, pe-pagimorning (PWMP: *pagi)

papanplank, the plank floor; a chessboard (PMP: *papan)

paraname for various racks above the fireplace (where husked rice is kept dry, cooking pots are stored, firewood is kept, etc.) (PAN: *paRa₁)

parascastrate (PWMP: *paras)

parasbeautiful; worthy (LOAN)

para tuhurthe lowest shelf over the hearth fire, where rice is often dried (PMP: *tuquR)

paristingray (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

parikditch, furrow, canal (PWMP: *parij)

parikditch, furrow, canal (PWMP: *parik)

pasaŋa pair; belonging together (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

pasaŋinsert (in a game) (PWMP: *pasaŋ₂)

pe-belaŋwiden, extend, spread out (PMP: *bekelaj)

pe-buroexpel a person from the village, ban, exile, debar, exclude (PAN: *buRaw)

pecahbroken, in pieces; burst out, erupt, of a volcano (PMP: *peceq₂) *peceq

pe-dauh-dauhseparately from one another (PMP: *zauq)

pe-dua-kenthe second (PMP: *duha) *duSa

pegihunenjoyable, as bitter medicine, sour spices (PMP: *hapediq) *Sapejiq

pegih ukurvery painful, suffer agony (PMP: *hapediq) *Sapejiq

pegugall (PAN: *qapeju)

Karo Batak (740 / 962)

pe-kena-kenaput in order, look after someone (PWMP: *pa-kena) *kena₁

pekpekbeat, strike (PAN: *pekpek₁)

pe-lucakhave carabaos trample a paddy field to prepare it for planting (PWMP: *lucak)

pe-mataŋthe most important, preeminent, foundation (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

pem-burih-enwater with which to wash something (PMP: *buRiq)

p<em>ilih-iway of choosing (PAN: *p<um>iliq) *piliq

p<em>ilih-milih-enwhat is left over after the best has been chosen; remnant, residue (PAN: *p<um>iliq) *piliq

pe-nakitsickness; also an expression for intestinal worms (PWMP: *pa-ñakit) *sakit

pe-nikua mini-fathom, from the fingertips of one hand to the elbow of another arm (thus an esta [distance from the tip of the middle finger to the elbow] less than a depa) (PWMP: *pa-ñiku) *siku₁

pe-nusun-endepository, place to store things (PMP: *susun) *susuN

pe-ŋalia stick or other implement used for digging things up (PWMP: *pa-ŋali) *kalih

peŋ-ampenthe separate string with which the fishhook is tied to the fishline (PMP: *hapen)

peŋ-anaksmall gong (PWMP: *paŋ-anak) *aNak

peŋ-aŋkathelp (PWMP: *paŋ-aŋkat) *aŋkat

peŋ-apitbamboo tongs (PMP: *qapit) *qapiC

peŋ-apitbamboo laths between which one presses something (PWMP: *paŋ-hapit) *Sapit

peŋ-giliŋ-enmortar (instrument in which something is ground up or pulverized) (PWMP: *giliŋ-en) *giliŋ

peŋ-gugutthe two middle incisors (PMP: *gutgut₂) *gutgut

peŋ-iriŋfollower of a leader (PWMP: *paŋ-iriŋ) *iriŋ₁

peŋ-kawilfisherman (PWMP: *pa-ŋawil) *kawil₁

Karo Batak (760 / 962)

pe(ŋ)-kepuŋsurround (PWMP: *kepuŋ)

peŋ-uluvillage head (PWMP: *paŋ-qulu) *quluh

pe-piga-kenthe which? (in quantitative sequence) (PAN: *pija)

per-burua hunter (LOAN)

per-duadivide into two (PAN: *paR- X -en) *paR-₂

per-duadivide into two (PMP: *duha) *duSa

perehwring something out, squeeze out; milk an animal (PMP: *peReq)

per-guntiŋknife or glass fragment used to cut hair (LOAN)

per-jumafarmer (PWMP: *paR-quma) *qumah

per-kayuwood that has been prepared for house construction (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

per-palua hammer (PMP: *palu₄) *palu₃

per-tuathe elders of a village (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

pe-rumah-ito use as a house (PAN: *Rumaq)

pe-salin tulan-tulanexcavate the bones of the deceased and transfer them to another place (PWMP: *salin)

pespespinch, squeeze, press out (PMP: *pespes₂) *pespes

pe-talito copulate, of snakes (PWMP: *pa-talih) *CaliS

pe-turutlet something run its course (PWMP: *tuRut)

pigahow much?, how many? (PAN: *pija)

piga bintaŋhow many months? (LOAN)

piga-pigasome; several (PAN: *pija pija) *pija

Karo Batak (780 / 962)

pikpiktap, rap; chisel off something delicate (PAN: *pikpik)

pilih-ensorted out, selected; what is chosen (PWMP: *piliq-en) *piliq

pinter bilaŋ ku Dibatathe gods will decide: an expression used if there is no law to invoke and one wishes to engage in litigation (PAN: *bilaŋ)

pipiuppermost part of the cheeks, the temples (PMP: *pipi₁)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

piukdented (PAN: *piuk)

puaŋtitle given by the Batak of the Dusun areas (Deli, Serdang, Langkat) to the Malay sultans (PMP: *puaŋ)

puaŋ kalimbubumother's brother of a married woman (PMP: *puaŋ)

puaŋ-limacommander, war leader (PMP: *puaŋ)

pulpulplundered, of plants that people have stripped bare (PWMP: *pulpul)

punea green wild dove: Osmotreron (PAN: *punay)

pune taneha steel blue dove with red feathers under the wing (PAN: *punay)

pupuloose, of the teeth, of rice in its panicle, etc. (PMP: *pupu₁) *pupu

pusinterjection used to drive away cats (PMP: *pus)

pusuhthe heart, heart muscle; fig. the mind, feelings, inner being (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pusuŋnavel; umbilical cord (PMP: *pusej)

pusuŋ-nathe real thing, the genuine thing (PMP: *pusej)

putihentirely white, as a chicken or goat (PMP: *putiq)

r-abu-abuplay in the dust (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

raja mer-empatthe four chief princes of the Karo (PWMP: *maR-epat) *Sepat

Karo Batak (800 / 962)

raja per-empatthe four chief princes of the Karo (PWMP: *paR-epat) *Sepat

rakita raft, used to cross a river (PMP: *Rakit)

rakutbind firmly together (PMP: *Rakut)

ramesrub or press out with the fingers (PAN: *Rames)

rampaŋpassionate, hot-tempered, envious of others (PWMP: *Rampaŋ)

rampasseize, appropriate, rob (PWMP: *Rampas)

rampekcrisp, easily breakable (ROOT)

rampisthin, smeared out (PWMP: *Rampis)

r-aŋin-aŋinkind of water beetle (PMP: *haŋin)

r-aŋkatgo out on an expedition or raid (PWMP: *aŋkat)

raraglowing, of a fire (PMP: *rara)

rara-icause something to glow red-hot (PMP: *rara)

ras itathe two of us together (PAN: *ita₁)

ratushundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

ratus-ratus-enhundreds (of people), hundreds upon hundreds (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

rawaŋà jour wickerwork (PWMP: *Rawaŋ)

rayafollowing some nouns this indicates large for its kind (PAN: *Raya)

redansteps, ladder (usually a notched log or pole) (PMP: *haRezan)

resamtough fern which grows on the high plateau (PMP: *qaRsam)

rihlong sharp-edged grass, Imperata cylindrica L. (PAN: *eRiq)

Karo Batak (820 / 962)

rimpit-impitstacked on top of one another (PMP: *qipit₂) *qipit

ruhakspacious, wide, of an opening (PWMP: *ruqag)

rumahhouse, dwelling; the true village, as opposed to what lies outside it (gardens, bathing place, etc.); lineage or family as a segment of the sub-merga (PAN: *Rumaq)

rumbiasago palm (PWMP: *Rumbia)

rumpilromp with one another (ROOT)

rusukrib beams of the roof (PAN: *Rusuk)

sabitkind of large sickle (PWMP: *saqebit)

sabutthe fibrous outer shell of a coconut (PWMP: *sabut)

sagaclimbing plant with small red fruit: Abrus precatorius L. (PWMP: *saga)

sagusago, a flour extracted from certain palms (PWMP: *sagu₁)

sakitpain; sick (PMP: *sakit)

salahfault, error, mistake; transgression; guilt (PMP: *salaq₁)

salinother, another (PWMP: *salin)

samasimilar (PWMP: *sama)

saŋkemearthenware lid of a copper cooking pot (ROOT)

sapo page, sapo rumahrice granary on poles (PAN: *sapaw)

sapo-sapo jumafield hut (PAN: *sapaw)

sapu-sapubroom (PMP: *sapu)

sawitboar's tusk; cockspur (PWMP: *sawit)

sebucover a fire so as to keep it in a smouldering state (PMP: *sebuh) *sebuS

Karo Batak (840 / 962)

selaŋwhile, in the meantime (PWMP: *selaŋ)

selkiŋshout loudly in the ear of a deaf person (ROOT)

sépakkick with the sole of the foot (ROOT)

sepaŋtree from whose wood a red dye is made: Caesalpinia sappan; also, a strong, prickly shrub (PMP: *sepaŋ)

se-puluhten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

seraburdensome, difficult -- of work, a journey; heavy, of one's lot (PWMP: *sera)

serenstinger of bee or wasp; barb of fishhook (PWMP: *seRed)

sidemonstrative pronoun for personal names, geographical features and plant names; in narrative style also used for animals (si Mentji ‘Mouse’, as a character) (PAN: *si)

si anuSo-and-So (PPh: *i-anu, si-anu) *-nu

si-depaone fathom (PMP: *depa)

sigiwinnow rice for the second time (PWMP: *siji)

sikrustling of ripe rice-ears in the wind (PWMP: *cik, sik)

si-kawit-enhooked together; also an kin relationship based on marriage (PAN: *kawit)

sikuprojecting corner, point (PAN: *siku₁)

siku-sikuelbow (PWMP: *siku-siku) *siku₁

silem-silemdo something in a secretive way (PWMP: *silem)

silu-silufingernail, claw (PWMP: *silu₂)

si mbelahhalf of something divided; on one side (PAN: *belaq)

sinar matawarirays of the sun (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sinar-meñinarto keep flashing, as a jeweled ring (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

Karo Batak (860 / 962)

sin-dakepa measurement, as much as a man can enclose with both arms encircling (PAN: *dakep)

s<in>urun-ia gravedigger (PMP: *tuRun₁)

si ŋ-alur Lau Pépéall of the tributary streams of the Lau Pépé (PWMP: *maŋ-qaluR) *qaluR

siŋgekchoke on something (ROOT)

siŋgek-ento choke, swallow the wrong way (PWMP: *sigek)

siŋkatpull the clothes up between the legs (PWMP: *siŋkat)

si pagi-nathe future (PWMP: *pagi)

si-pasaŋ rasforming a set; in agreement with (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

si pem-buahone who makes plentiful or abundant (PWMP: *paŋ-buaq) *buaq

sirasalt (PAN: *qasiRa)

si-ratusone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

sirupsuck something up; slurp up water in drinking (PAN: *siRup)

sisikscales of fish, lizards, etc. (PMP: *siksik₂)

si-uliŋ-uliŋ-ensleep in one another's arms (PMP: *hulij) *Sulij

suan-suan-enplant materials, young plants (PMP: *suqan)

suga (rih)newly-sprouted sword grass (Imperata cylindrica), which is very sharp (PMP: *suja)

suliseed, germ, sprout (PMP: *suli)

suluhto burn (PMP: *suluq)

suŋkuksit somewhat hunched over with the head drooping, as of someone full of cares (PMP: *su(ŋ)kuk)

surambihannex to a large house; extension, gallery (PWMP: *surambiq)

Karo Batak (880 / 962)

suruŋpass or go through, happen, be brought about (PWMP: *suruŋ)

susah ~ suhsahtrouble, worry, difficulty (LOAN)

susun-ena pack, bundle (PMP: *susun) *susuN

taban-enbooty, loot, war captive (PWMP: *taban-en) *tabaN

takasplit, cleave (ROOT)

talirope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

talŋahopen very wide (door) (ROOT)

taluna bit of wilderness where one can secure rights of ownership through cultivation; a place with sugar palms which are tapped for wine (PMP: *talun) *Calun

tambaka dyke, a damming up of water; an artificial pond made by damming (PWMP: *tambak₂)

tanehearth, ground, territory, district (PMP: *taneq)

tanemto bury (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

taŋisto weep, to cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋis-en kaka vine with hard, round, bitter fruits that are used as marbles (lit. ‘wept over by a crow’?) (PWMP: *taŋis-en) *Caŋis

taŋis-taŋisto weep continuously or incessantly (PMP: *taŋis-taŋis) *Caŋis

taŋkosteal; fig. illicit, have clandestine sexual relations (PMP: *takaw) *Cakaw

taruhput down, of a wager (PMP: *taRuq)

tarutuŋkind of durian (PMP: *taRutuŋ)

tebekpointed, sharp, as a dibble stick (PAN: *tebek)

təbusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tegelfirm, unyielding (esp. of thinking, courage) (PMP: *tegel)

Karo Batak (900 / 962)

telivagina (PMP: *teli)

teluthree (PAN: *telu)

telu berŋiin three nights (days) (PMP: *beRŋi)

telu-m-berŋithree nights (days) ago (PMP: *beRŋi)

té-m-besirust (LOAN)

tendaŋcoconut-leaf torch, lamp; to illuminate (ROOT)

teŋ(onom.) flang! (PMP: *teŋ)

tepaforge, mold, make (PWMP: *tepa)

tepukclap the hands (as in a dance or game) (PAN: *tepuk)

ter-bukaopen; opened (PMP: *buka)

ter-dua sa-kalaktwo each (PWMP: *taR-duha) *duSa

ter-sayatcut oneself by accident (PWMP: *sayat)

Tiga binaŋaa place name, market at Kuala (Malay for 'river mouth') (PMP: *binaŋa)

timahlead, bullet (PWMP: *timeRaq)

timpukstrike candle-nuts together (a game) (PWMP: *ti(m)puk)

timurthe east (PMP: *timuR₂) *timuR

t-in-alirope (PMP: *t<in>alih) *CaliS

t-in-ankowhat is stolen, stolen goods (PWMP: *t<in>akaw) *Cakaw

t<in>aruhegg (PWMP: *t<in>aRuq) *taRuq

t<in>utuwhat is pounded; effect, result, consequence of something (PMP: *tutu)

Karo Batak (920 / 962)

tipakkick in an upward direction (PWMP: *tipak)

tirtirshiver with cold (PAN: *tirtir₁)

tuaage; old age; true, genuine, original (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

tuarsmall fish-trap placed with opening stream-upwards (PWMP: *tuaD)

tua-tuaadults, married people; elders (PMP: *tuqah tuqah) *tuqaS

tubaname of various toxin-producing plants yielding fish poison, Xanthoxylum spp, fam. Rutaceae (PAN: *tuba)

tuduhto point out (PAN: *tuzuq)

tuduh-tuduhindex finger (PMP: *tuzu-tuzuq) *tuzuq

tuhurexpose to heat (esp. fire) (PMP: *tuquR)

tukukhornbill (PWMP: *tu(ŋ)kuk)

tulan dadathe cartilege between ribs and breast bone (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS

tultulblunt, of a knife (PMP: *tultul)

tumaclothes louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

tumpuldull, of a knife; witless, mentally slow (PMP: *tumpul)

t<um>urunto descend, of the gods (PWMP: *t<um>uRun) *tuRun₁

turaŋ bésanan affectionate term for the mother of one's children; term used between brother and sister, and also between husband and wife (PWMP: *baisan)

turun(in incantations) descent of the gods (PMP: *tuRun₁)

turutgo along with; give in to one’s passions or desires (PWMP: *tuRut)

ugenitive marker (PWMP: *u₁) *u

uar-uarplant sp. (PMP: *huaR)

Karo Batak (940 / 962)

uasquenching of thirst .. m-uas thirsty (LOAN)

ubangray head hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

uban-enhave gray hair (PWMP: *quban-en) *qubaN

ubatgunpowder (LOAN)

ubuŋlength; extend (LOAN)

udanrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

ugusrub against something (NOISE)

uitstir, move a little (PPh: *uit₁)

ujitest, try (PWMP: *uzi)

ujuŋextremity, top of something (opposed to bena 'base of a tree, beginning of something) (PMP: *quzuŋ)

ukircarve figures and designs in wood (PMP: *ukir)

ulamleaves steamed over the cooking rice and eaten directly (PWMP: *qulam)

ulam-ulama very common weed often used as pig fodder (PWMP: *qulam)

ulihwhat one receives (PWMP: *uliq₂)

ulih-ulihevery time, whenever, repeatedly; to and fro; off and on (PMP: *uliq uliq) *uliq₁

uluorigin, beginning; upper course; first; head (in combination forms) (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

umpildo something together, with concerted action (ROOT)

uŋit-uŋit-ennaughty, mischievous, fond of teasing, unable to keep one's hands off someone else (said of children) (PWMP: *uŋit)

uraspurification (of weapons, etc.) with lemon juice (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

usahrub, rub something in (NOISE)

Karo Batak (960 / 962)

wanilarge bee that nests in the tualaŋ (the honey tree: Koompassia parviflora) (PMP: *wani)

wariday, time from about 6 AM to 6 PM (PAN: *waRi₁)

Karo Batak (Kembaren) (1) WMP [btx] (Batak Karo) Indonesia (Sumatra)

ajakspur on, incite, urge on (PWMP: *azak)

252. Katingan (12) WMP [nij] (Ngaju) Indonesia (Kalimantan)

ahempangolin, anteater (PAN: *qaRem)

alurboat (PWMP: *alud)

ari-ŋyounger sibling (PWMP: *huaji-ŋ) *Suaji

balawaurat (PMP: *balabaw)

daninear (PWMP: *adani)

gan-tauright side (PAN: *taqu₁) *taqu

honjanladder (PMP: *haRezan)

ke-caufar (PMP: *zauq)

laβuʔto fall (PWMP: *labuq)

ŋaranname (PMP: *ŋajan₁) *ŋajan

siluʔfingernail, claw (PWMP: *silu₂)

tiruhto sleep (PMP: *tiduR)

253. Kaulong (1) OC

maand (PAN: *maS)

254. Kavalan (438) Form. (Li and Tsuchida 2006) [ckv] Taiwan

anominative marker or linker between the attribute and head noun of an NP (PAN: *a₅)

a-isu2sg. (PAN: *iSu)

anemheart, mind (PAN: *ajem)

anemheart; mind, conscience (ROOT)

araget it! (PAN: *ala)

azasto bring (people), to take something/someone along (PAN: *adaS)

babawupper surface, upper part, top (PAN: *babaw₃)

babbalhit with the fist (PAN: *balbal₁)

babuydomesticated pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

baigrandmother/granddaughter (add.) (PAN: *baqi)

balateast wind (PAN: *SabaRat)

baliwsell (PAN: *baliw) *baliw₃

banaRplant sp. (Li 1982: 491) (PAN: *baNaR)

banawlake, pond (flowing or stagnant) (PAN: *banaw)

baniwmushroom (generic) (PAN: *bajiw)

banurdove, pigeon (PAN: *baRuj)

baŋasa tree: Melia azedarach (PAN: *baŋaS)

baŋristusk, fang (PAN: *baŋeliS)

baŋsisfragrant (PAN: *baŋ(e)SiS)

baŋunironwood: Casuarina equisetifolia; swamp oak; Japanese cypress: Chamaecyparis obtusa (PAN: *baŋun₁) *baŋun

Kavalan (20 / 438)

baqigrandfather (add.), grandson (PAN: *baki₂)

bariwind (PAN: *bali₃)

bariwind (LOAN)

basawfever went down, abated; to become cold (PAN: *baSaw)

basaytype of vine (PAN: *baSay)

bassiŋto sneeze (PAN: *baqeSiŋ)

battuthrow a stone (PAN: *batu₃)

beRasrice that has been harvested but not yet cooked (PAN: *beRas₁) *beRas

berawangold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

betiqhit with a slingshot; marbles; to flip (PAN: *betik₁) *betik

betiscalf of the leg (PAN: *beties)

biabasguava (LOAN)

bibitpull someone's ear (PAN: *bitbit₁) *bitbit

biraŋto count (PAN: *bilaŋ)

birbirshiver, tremble (as a person who is cold or afraid); shake off water (of a dog) (PAN: *birbir₂)

bisuRsatiated, full after eating (PAN: *bisuR)

bisuRsatiated, full after eating (PAN: *besuR)

biutbend a stick fixed at one end, as a trap pole (PAN: *biqut)

bluhukgoiter (NOISE)

brinasword of the loom (PAN: *baRija)

Kavalan (40 / 438)

btustone (PAN: *batu₄) *batu₁

bua-buato foam, as breakers on the beach (PAN: *bua₁)

bubuconical bamboo basket trap for fish (PAN: *bubu₂)

buburjellyfish (PAN: *bubuR₁)

bukeshair of the head (PAN: *bukeS)

bunurswell (PAN: *bunuR₁)

burato give; to pay (PAN: *bula₂)

buranmoon, month (PAN: *bulaN)

buRaRhazy or blurred vision (PAN: *bulaR₁)

buRawkick a person out, send someone away; drive off, chase away (PAN: *buRaw)

buResspray water from the mouth (PAN: *buReS)

busuqdrunk, get drunk (PAN: *buSek)

cieReŋroaring (of breakers) (ROOT)

esimeat, flesh (PAN: *Sesi)

əzanold (of things) (PAN: *daqaN)

iinterrogative particle, as in q<m>am ti isu i (eat.av-pm-2s-ip) ‘Have you eaten yet?’ (PAN: *qa₂)

ibuashes (PAN: *qabu₁) *qabu

iku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

impisthin (PAN: *iŋepis)

impisthin (ROOT)

Kavalan (60 / 438)

inebclose; door (PAN: *qiNeb)

inebclose; door (ROOT)

iŋpisthin (of materials) (PAN: *iŋepis)

iŋsuŋmortar (PAN: *iŋsuŋ)

ipitpincer of crustaceans, tongs for picking up hot embers, chopsticks (PAN: *qipit₁) *qipit

irarfence (PAN: *qalad)

iRaw-anbe seized by, taken by force (PAN: *qaRaw)

irempangolin, anteater (PAN: *qaRem)

iRuRsmall stream, creek (PAN: *iluR₂)

iRuRsmall stream, creek, small river (PAN: *qaluR₁) *qaluR

issaone (PAN: *isa₁)

ita ~ a-itawe (incl.), nominative (PAN: *ita₁)

itebdeadfall trap (PAN: *qaCeb)

iuRkind of hard, slender bamboo (PAN: *qauR₁) *qauR

kaand (conjunctive) (PAN: *ka₁)

kapitsew together accidentally, as the two legs of one’s pants (PAN: *kapit)

kasi-anemto think (PAN: *ajem)

kausscoop (PAN: *kahuS)

kawaːnanright side (PAN: *ka-wanaN, ka-waNan) *wanaN, waNan

kawaya men’s carrying bag, net-bag (made from rattan) (PAN: *kaway₃)

Kavalan (80 / 438)

ka-wiri-anleft (side) (PAN: *ka-wiRi) *wiRi

kepitcrowd two things together so that there is not much room between them (PAN: *kepit)

keRaŋscab (Blust, fieldnotes) (PAN: *keRaŋ₂)

ki-kirim-ankeep searching, looking for (PAN: *kiRim)

kin-pituseven (people) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

kin-siwanine (people) (PAN: *Siwa)

kin-turuthree (people) (PAN: *telu)

kiskisto shave (PAN: *kiSkiS)

-kitaours (plural incl.), genitive (only in irrealis; perhaps a loan from Amis) (PAN: *kita₁)

k<m>apkapto touch at random (as a cat’s belly, a woman’s breast); to grope for something in a bag, pocket (PAN: *kapkap)

k<m>austo scoop up earth, grass (PAN: *kahuS)

k<m>austo scoop up earth, grass (PAN: *k<um>ahuS) *kahuS

k<m>irimseek, search, look for (PAN: *k<um>iRim) *kiRim

k<m>u-nanito have pus (PAN: *naNaq)

kpuacotton (PAN: *kapua)

ktu-ktun-anto chop off (PAN: *ketun)

ktunto cut up (as firewood) (PAN: *ketun)

-kumy (singular, genitive); marks possessor and agent of an undergoer verb (PAN: *-ku)

k<um>awayto carry on one’s back (PAN: *kaway₃)

k<um>tunchop wood, chop off (PAN: *k<um>etun) *ketun

Kavalan (100 / 438)

ku-nanipus (PAN: *naNaq)

k-unnato lead to, to do something before someone; to surpass (PAN: *(q)uNah)

la-tbussweet (PAN: *tebuS)

lazuŋshade; take shelter from the rain (ROOT)

linawwash tableware (bowls, cups, etc.) (ROOT)

luslusto plane; to grate; plane (tool) (PAN: *RuSRuS)

ma-in the state of (result of a prior action) (PAN: *ma-₁)

ma-bassiŋto sneeze (PAN: *baqeSiŋ)

ma-bisuRsatiated, full (of the stomach) (PAN: *ma-besuR) *besuR

ma-inəpsleep (PAN: *qinep)

mai tu zumanothing else (PAN: *duma)

ma-kpitpressed in (PAN: *kepit)

manaŋsharp (point, blade) (PAN: *maNaŋ)

mani-razanto take the same way (PAN: *zalan₁) *zalan

m-arato get, take (PAN: *um-ala) *ala

marimforget for a moment, slip one’s mind (PAN: *alim)

mataeye (PAN: *maCa)

matiʔunripe, raw (PAN: *ma-qataq) *qataq

mːaycooked rice (Tsuchida 1971) (PAN: *Semay)

m-azasto bring people, to take something/someone along (PAN: *um-adaS) *adaS

Kavalan (120 / 438)

m-basawbecome cold (as cooked dishes); cool off (as anger) (PAN: *ma-baSaw) *baSaw

m-bunurto swell (body part, other) (PAN: *ma-bunuR) *bunuR₁

mə-rabawfield rat (PAN: *labaw)

metiraw (PAN: *ma-qetaq₁) *qetaq

m-iRawto rob (PAN: *qaRaw)

m-itebto fall into a trap (PAN: *qaCeb)

m-luslusto plane, to grate (PAN: *RuSRuS)

mnani-naŋanperson with the same name (PAN: *ŋajan₂) *ŋajan

m-naŋuyto swim (PAN: *N<um>aŋuy) *Naŋuy

m-ŋizawtoothless due to age (PAN: *ŋidaw)

m-puqawblind (PAN: *pukaw)

m-puqawblind (PAN: *ma-pukaw) *pukaw

m-qawitto knit or weave (PAN: *kawit)

mqi-qututo delouse with one’s fingers (PAN: *kuCu)

m-qitato see; to be able to see; reflected (PAN: *k<um>ita) *kita₂

m-RaRiwrun, run away (PAN: *laRiw)

m-RaRiwrun, run away (PAN: *ma-laRiw) *laRiw

m-rikawto bend, as a wire or stick, crooked, curved (PAN: *likaw)

m-rik-rikawto curve (as a bay); to wind (as river or road); to coil up; bent (PAN: *likaw)

mrim-zusafork, bifurcated (PAN: *duSa)

Kavalan (140 / 438)

m-rumato plant, to grow, to cultivate (PAN: *mula)

m-RuRunto roll up, as a mat (PAN: *luluN)

msa-zaqesmake camphor oil (PAN: *dakeS)

m-sikatpolite; shy (PAN: *ma-Sikad) *Sikad

m-tawato laugh (PAN: *Cawa)

m-taw-tawato laugh repeatedly (PAN: *Cawa)

m-tianpregnant (human) (PAN: *tiaN)

m-umanto repeat (PAN: *uman) *umaN

m-umasto preserve (meat) (PAN: *umaS)

mummumole (animal) (PAN: *mumu)

m-unnato lead to, to do something before someone; to surpass (PAN: *(q)<um>uNah) *(q)uNah

m-utito vomit (PAN: *um-utaq) *utaq

m-zamuto menstruate (PAN: *damuq)

m-zaqis ~ z<m>aqisto climb, ascend (PAN: *d<um>akiS) *dakiS

nagenitive of common nouns (PAN: *na₃)

namatiron; weapon (PAN: *Namat)

nan-razansame way of life (PAN: *zalan₁) *zalan

nan-zusatwo for each person (PAN: *duSa)

naŋanname (PAN: *ŋajan₂) *ŋajan

naŋuyto swim (PAN: *Naŋuy)

Kavalan (160 / 438)

naythat (PAN: *nay)

nipersonal genitive marker (all known examples are with singular referents) (PAN: *ni)

ni-luslus-anplaned board (PAN: *RuSRuS)

niŋushadow, reflection (PAN: *qaNiŋu)

ni-umas-anpickled meat or fish (PAN: *umaS)

n-nimasto clean out (water from a boat), dredge (PAN: *nimas)

nukubto cover (ROOT)

nutuztie two strings together; to connect, join two things to prolong them (bamboo, thread, etc.) (PAN: *Nutud)

ŋaŋŋarmove one’s mouth as one chews (PAN: *ŋalŋal)

pa-burato ask for something (PAN: *bula₂)

paiza fan (PAN: *paid)

pa-kan ~ pa-kannto feed, to make someone eat (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

palunapaddle, oar; to paddle, to row (PAN: *pa-aluja) *aluja

panayrice plant in a dry field (unhusked); said to be a loan from Amis (PAN: *pajay)

panibow (for shooting) (PAN: *panaq)

pannbait (for fishing, or in a trap) (PAN: *paen)

paŋzanpandanus (PAN: *paŋudaN)

pa-qawitto hook; to carry by hanging from the arm (PAN: *kawit)

pa-qitato show (PAN: *pa-kita) *kita₂

paq-sikazcause to be ashamed, shy or bashful (PAN: *Sikad)

Kavalan (180 / 438)

parawhoarse (PAN: *paRaw)

pa-rikawto cause to bend (PAN: *pa-likaw) *likaw

pa-rumato plant, to grow, to cultivate (PAN: *mula)

pa-saqayto send (something), to deliver (PAN: *sakay₂)

pa-si-naŋanto name someone or something, give a name to (PAN: *ŋajan₂) *ŋajan

pas-namat-ansmith (PAN: *Namat)

pataydie, dead (PAN: *pa-aCay) *aCay

pa-tusuzkneel (PAN: *tuduS)

pat-zumato have a change, to make it different (PAN: *duma)

pənusea turtle (generic for all sea turtles, including the hawksbill) (PAN: *peñu)

pespesmassage (PAN: *pespes₁) *pespes

piazdish, plate (PAN: *piad)

pikubend (PAN: *pikuq)

piŋiʔcheek (PAN: *piŋi)

piqpiqto clap one’s hands (PAN: *pikpik)

piqpiq-anbe patted, as on the shoulder (PAN: *pikpik)

piRasroe (as of crabs or shrimp) (PAN: *piRaS)

pitpit-anbe picked by someone (PAN: *pitpit₂)

pituseven (cardinal) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pi-t<um>nun-anloom (PAN: *tenun)

Kavalan (200 / 438)

p<m>aizto fan (PAN: *paid)

p-m-anishoot with an arrow (PAN: *p<um>anaq) *panaq

p<m>aqpaqto flap wings (PAN: *pakpak)

p<m>espesto massage (PAN: *p<um>espes) *pespes

p<m>ikuto bend (PAN: *pikuq)

p<m>iqpiqto flap wings (PAN: *pikpik)

p<m>itpitto pick, pluck off, tear off, as leaves or a fruit (PAN: *pitpit₂)

p<n>a-qanwas fed by someone (PAN: *p<in>a-kaen) *kaen

p<n>a-saqaycontagious disease, epidemic (PAN: *sakay₂)

pRapkapto grope (ROOT)

prisi-ntaboo (PAN: *paliSi-en) *paliSi

punuqscalp infection (PAN: *punuq₁) *punuq

putieye secretion (PAN: *puteq)

pu-zanumto water, as vegetables, to put in water (PAN: *pu-daNum) *daNum

qaneat (PAN: *kaen)

q<an>a-Rayasize (PAN: *Raya)

qann-anbe eaten; food (PAN: *kaen-an) *kaen

qann-ieat (imper.) (PAN: *kaen-i) *kaen

qaq-sikazeasily ashamed, shy or bashful (PAN: *Sikad)

qaRatto bite (PAN: *kaRaC)

Kavalan (220 / 438)

qaRat-ibite (imper.) (PAN: *kaRaC-i) *kaRaC

qaRawto scratch (with fingernails) (PAN: *kaRaw)

qa-Rayato grow (PAN: *Raya)

qa-tanm-angraveyard, cemetery (PAN: *ka-tanem-an) *CaNem

qawasdiscuss (PAN: *kawaS₂)

qa-zaya-nwestern side (PAN: *daya)

qa-zusatwo (PAN: *duSa)

qa-zu-zusatwo at a time (PAN: *duSa)

qebqebfall on one's face (ROOT)

qi-to pluck, pick up, harvest (panay ‘rice’, qi-panay ‘to reap rice’, paRin ‘tree; firewood’, qi-paRin ‘to gather firewood’, tamun ‘vegetables’, qi-tamun ‘to pick vegetables’, wanu ‘honey’, qi-wanu ‘to gather honey’) (PAN: *ki-)

qilatglitter (PAN: *likaC)

qi-pusanthe second; twice (PAN: *puSaN)

qitato see, to be able to see (PAN: *kita₂)

qi-zapantrail; follow the footprints of an animal (PAN: *dapaN)

qlitaoctopus (PAN: *kuRiCa)

q<m>an ~ q<m>annto eat (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

q<m>aRatto bite; to hold between the teeth; acrid, itchy taste of taro (PAN: *k<um>aRaC) *kaRaC

q<m>aRawto scratch (with fingernails) (PAN: *k<um>aRaw) *kaRaw

q<m>awitto knit (PAN: *kawit)

q<n>ann-ansomething eaten (PAN: *k<in>aen-an) *kaen

Kavalan (240 / 438)

q<n>aRat-anthe bite (of a dog, etc.) (PAN: *k<in>aRaC-an) *kaRaC

qna-zpan-anfootprints, tracks (PAN: *dapaN)

qRanscar left after a boil heals; scab (PAN: *keRan)

qRiwstring, thread; hemp plant, ramie/fiber (PAN: *keRiw)

q-turuthree (of days, months) (PAN: *ka-telu) *telu

qulusclothing; upper clothes (LOAN)

ququzanimal calf, lower part of the limb between knee and ankle, including shin and calf (PAN: *kudkud)

qutuhead louse (PAN: *kuCu)

q-zusatwo days (PAN: *duSa)

Rabievening (about 4:00 or 5:00 to 6:00 PM); night (PAN: *Rabiqi)

Rabi-Rabievery night (PAN: *Rabi-Rabi) *Rabiqi

Rabisa pocket knife (PAN: *RabiS)

raŋawfly (insect) (PAN: *laŋaw₁) *laŋaw

rapisflying squirrel (PAN: *lapis)

raraycicada (LOAN)

Ra-Rayahigh officer; coarse (sand); large (mesh); to grow (person) (PAN: *Raya)

rawarflying squirrel (PAN: *lawaR)

Rayabig, large, great; fat (trunk of the body); strong (as wind); large in amount (PAN: *Raya)

RayaRsail of a raft or boat; cloth around a threshing machine (PAN: *layaR)

razanroad; path, trail (PAN: *zalan₁) *zalan

Kavalan (260 / 438)

repawhouse (PAN: *lepaw₁) *lepaw

rikremove grains by treading or kneading with feet (PAN: *Riqek)

rimafive (PAN: *lima)

rim-zusadivide into two (PAN: *duSa)

rinasfeather (long and beautiful) (PAN: *RiNaS)

Risisnit, louse egg (PAN: *liseqeS)

RŋiRŋitgnash the teeth (ROOT)

rubuden, animal lair; beehive, ant nest (PAN: *Rubu)

rupaspeach (PAN: *lupas₁)

ruqnawclouded leopard (PAN: *lukeNaw)

Rusitears (PAN: *luSeq)

Rusipancentipede (PAN: *qalu-Sipan)

RutuŋFormosan rock monkey (PAN: *luCuŋ)

sa-bura-nsomething to be given (PAN: *bula₂)

sa-kaus-ana tool used to scoop up earth or grass (PAN: *kahuS)

samicommon sow thistle: Sonchus oleraceus Linn. (PAN: *Samaq)

samuzsesame: Sesamum indicum (PAN: *Samud)

sa-namat-ansmith (PAN: *Namat)

saniotter (PAN: *Sanaq)

sapa-qawit-ana hook (PAN: *kawit)

Kavalan (280 / 438)

sapungather, collect (ROOT)

saqa-pituthe seventh (PAN: *saka-pitu) *pitu

saqa-rimathe fifth (PAN: *lima)

saqa-turuthird (PAN: *telu)

saqaywalk (PAN: *sakay₂)

saqay-awanjob, work (PAN: *sakay₂)

saqa-zusasecond (PAN: *duSa)

saquttransport something (PAN: *SakuC)

saqutto move something, to carry, to transport (anything) (PAN: *sakut)

saqut-icarry it! (PAN: *sakut)

sa-qututo have head lice (PAN: *kuCu)

sa-Rabisupper (PAN: *Rabiqi)

sa-razanto pass through the bush (PAN: *zalan₁) *zalan

sa-Rusito shed tears (PAN: *luSeq)

sa-tab-Rabibreakfast (PAN: *Rabiqi)

sa-tabu-ancloth to wrap with (PAN: *Cabu)

sa-t<m>a-t<m>atakto pretend to hoe, pretend to work with a hoe (PAN: *tatak)

sa-turiscolorful (PAN: *turis₁) *turis

sa-turiscolorful (PAN: *Curis)

sawaqwaist, back of the waist (PAN: *Sawak)

Kavalan (300 / 438)

sa-zaqihave dirt on one’s skin (PAN: *daki₁) *daki

(sa)-zaqis-anladder (PAN: *d<um>akiS) *dakiS

saʔa-siwaninth (PAN: *Siwa)

sbalateast wind (PAN: *SabaRat)

sebanlong binding cloth for carrying a child on the back (PAN: *SebaN)

s-em-unito chirp (PAN: *Suni)

seŋazto breathe (PAN: *Seŋad)

si-anemto remember (PAN: *ajem)

sikazshy, ashamed (PAN: *Sikad)

sikuelbow (PAN: *siku₁)

simaRfat, grease (PAN: *SimaR)

sim-qawitto join, to link (PAN: *kawit)

simsa-qawasto discuss (PAN: *kawaS₂)

si-naŋanto be named (PAN: *ŋajan₂) *ŋajan

sinapbroom (PAN: *Sijap)

sipescockroach (PAN: *Sipes)

sipitpinch and twist, as someone’s ear (PAN: *sipit)

siqa-pituseven times (PAN: *Sika-pitu) *pitu

siqa-rimafive times (PAN: *Sika-lima) *lima

siqa-turuthree times (PAN: *Sika-telu) *telu

Kavalan (320 / 438)

siqa-zusasecond time (PAN: *Sika-duSa) *duSa

si-qulusto wear clothes; wear an upper garment (LOAN)

siRabyesterday (NOISE)

siRupto eat soup (PAN: *SiRup)

sisinhwamei, bird sp., Garrulax canours (PAN: *SiSiN)

siwanine (PAN: *Siwa)

siwararrow (LOAN)

sizigoat (PAN: *Sidi)

sizuwooden ladle for stirring food in pot (PAN: *sidu)

siʔa-siwanine times (PAN: *Sika-Siwa) *Siwa

s-m-apaRto lay mats (Li 1982:490) (PAN: *SapaR)

s-m-apaRto lay mats (Li 1982b:490) (PAN: *S<um>apaR) *SapaR

s<m>aqayto walk (PAN: *s<um>akay) *sakay₂

s<m>aqutto move something, to carry, to transport (anything) (PAN: *s<um>akut) *sakut

s<m>ikuto push strongly with the elbow (PAN: *s<um>iku) *siku₁

s-m-iupto blow (with breath) (PAN: *Seyup)

s-m-iupto blow (with breath) (PAN: *S<um>eyup) *Seyup

s<m>uksukto lock (PAN: *s<um>uksuk) *suksuk

s-m-unito chirp (PAN: *S<um>uni) *Suni

s<m>upayto sharpen (as a knife) (PAN: *s<um>upay) *supay

Kavalan (340 / 438)

s<m>uRnato snow (PAN: *SuReNa)

s<m>ussurto masturbate (PAN: *SulSul)

s-tian-anhave a stomach ache, abdominal pain (such as diarrhea) (PAN: *tiaN)

suaniyounger sibling (PAN: *Suaji)

sukapgrope for fish, shrimp or crabs under a stone in the water (ROOT)

suksukkey (PMP: *suksuk)

sunisound (as of a clock), chirping (of birds) (PAN: *Suni)

supay-whet, sharpen (PAN: *supay)

supay-anwhetstone (PAN: *sa-supay-an) *supay

suRnasnow, ice, frost (PAN: *SuReNa)

sussurto masturbate (PAN: *SulSul)

ta babawabove (PAN: *babaw₃)

tabanhead trophy (PAN: *tabaN)

tabuwrapping, binding (as on a wound) (PAN: *Cabu)

taissewing (PAN: *CaqiS)

tais-isew it! (PAN: *CaqiS)

tanemgrave (PAN: *CaNem)

tania plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance) (PAN: *tanaq)

tanm-anburied (PAN: *tanem-an) *CaNem

tapafirewood storage shelf (above the hearth) (PAN: *Capa)

Kavalan (360 / 438)

tapeswinnow; winnowing (PAN: *tapeS)

tapuntogether (ROOT)

tatakhoe (PAN: *tatak)

tat-zumadifferent (PAN: *duma)

ta-zusasoul of a living person (PAN: *duSa)

tbaRiʔred (ROOT)

tbeqstab (PAN: *tebek)

təbussugarcane (PAN: *tebuS)

tedemdark; dark place (ROOT)

tekitukmountaintop (ROOT)

telaquqchicken (ROOT)

t-em-aisto sew (PAN: *C<um>aqiS) *CaqiS

t-em-iktiktap or flick the fingers or something else against wood, etc. (PAN: *C<um>ikCik) *CikCik

tenayanbamboo (generic) (PAN: *tanayan)

teŋenblack (PAN: *qeCeŋeN)

tiktiktapping of fingers, flicking of fingers against wood, etc. (PAN: *CikCik)

timmuRto keep something in one’s mouth (as sugar) (PAN: *timuRmuR)

timRaflea (on dog, etc.) (PAN: *qatimela)

timuRsouth wind (PAN: *timuR₁) *timuR

tinaM (ref.) (PAN: *ta-ina) *ina

Kavalan (380 / 438)

t<in>nunhave woven (PAN: *t<in>enun) *tenun

t<in>nun-annative cloth (PAN: *t<in>enun-an) *tenun

tiRuRegg (PAN: *qiCeluR)

ti-saqutto carry with or by (PAN: *sakut)

t<m>abuto wrap, dress a wound (PAN: *C<um>abu) *Cabu

t<m>anemto bury (PAN: *t<um>anem) *CaNem

t<m>arito chop with an axe (PAN: *t<um>aRaq) *taRaq

t<m>atakto hoe, dig earth with a hoe (PAN: *tatak)

t<m>imuRto blow, of the south wind (PAN: *timuR₁) *timuR

t<m>uranito play a nose flute (PAN: *tulani)

t<m>uristo draw (PAN: *Curis)

t-m-usuRto thread beads, etc. (PAN: *C<um>uSuR) *CuSuR

tRi-Rus-Rusito shed tears without control (PAN: *luSeq)

t<um>beqto stab (PAN: *t<um>ebek) *tebek

tumesclothes louse (PAN: *CumeS)

t<um>nunto weave (cloth, a mat) (PAN: *tenun)

turani-annose flute (PAN: *tulani)

turislines; stripes, pattern (PAN: *turis₁) *turis

turisstripes, pattern (Li and Tsuchida 2006); line (that you draw); marks on snake skin; tattoo (Blust, fieldnotes) (PAN: *Curis)

turis na rimalines in the palm of the hand; fortune (PAN: *turis₁) *turis

Kavalan (400 / 438)

turuthree (PAN: *telu)

tusuRthreading of beads, etc. (PAN: *CuSuR)

tusuzknee (PAN: *tuduS)

ubangray hair (PAN: *qubaN)

umanagain; do again; change (PAN: *quman)

umanagain, once more; to repeat (PAN: *uman) *umaN

umaŋkind of hairy hermit crab (PAN: *qumaŋ)

umasto preserve (meat) (PAN: *umaS)

unuŋnose (PAN: *ujuŋ)

u-pituseven (objects) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

u-pitu-btinseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

uRasdew (PAN: *qulas)

uReŋgrowl of a dog in anger (ROOT)

uRuhead (PAN: *quluh)

u-siwanine (things) (PAN: *u-Siwa) *Siwa

u-turuthree (things) (PAN: *telu)

u-zusatwo (things) (PAN: *duSa)

vasvasto water (plants) (PAN: *basbas₂)

waRaythread for sewing (PAN: *walay)

waRiEast (PAN: *waRi₁)

Kavalan (420 / 438)

zaisface (PAN: *daqiS)

zamaRfire (PAN: *damaR)

zamumenstruation (PAN: *damuq)

zanumwater (PAN: *daNum)

zapanleg and foot (PAN: *dapaN)

zaqescamphor (PAN: *dakeS)

zaqidirt on skin (PAN: *daki₁) *daki

zaqisto climb (tree, ladder), to ascend (PAN: *dakiS)

zaszaschest (PAN: *daSdaS)

zayawest; toward the mountains (PAN: *daya)

zazaŋto broil; to dry clothing by a fire (PAN: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

zaʔzekstep on, stamp with foot (ROOT)

zumaother (thing); other people (PAN: *duma)

zusatwo (serial counting) (PAN: *duSa)

ʔetutfart (PAN: *qetut₁) *qetut

ʔu-spatfour (PAN: *Sepat)

ʔuwayrattan (PAN: *quay)

ʔuzanrain (PAN: *quzaN)

255. Kayan (742) WMP (Southwell 1980) (dialects: Baram 1, Long Atip [kys] 5, Uma Bawang 6, Busang [bfg] 23, Uma Juman [ree] 156)

abaŋtrench, ditch, excavation (PWMP: *abaŋ₂)

abeŋlarge wood-boring beetle (NOISE)

akahvines, creepers, exclusive of rattan (PMP: *akaR) Uma Juman

akahvines, creepers, exclusive of rattan (PMP: *wakaR) Uma Juman

akitraft (PMP: *Rakit)

aku-y1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me (PAN: *aku) Uma Juman

alaget, receive, take, find (PMP: *alaq₁)

aluʔpestle (PAN: *qaSelu) Uma Juman

ameifather (vocative); polite address to an older man (PMP: *ama-i) *ama

anakchild; the young of plants, animals, etc. (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak amuŋadopted child (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anak apintwin (PMP: *anak apij) *aNak

anak apuysparks of fire (PWMP: *anak i hapuy) *aNak

anak heduŋstepchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ananthat (PWMP: *a-nan) *-nan Long Atip

a-nanthat (PAN: *qa₁) Uma Juman

an-atstretch (ROOT)

anawpalm sp. (PWMP: *qanahaw)

aneytermites, white ants (PAN: *aNay)

anihthis (PAN: *qani₂) *-ni Uma Juman

Kayan (20 / 742)

ani-hthis (PAN: *qani₁) *qani Uma Juman

anitanimal skin, hide (PMP: *qanit) *qaNiC

anitskin (PMP: *qanit) *qaNiC Uma Juman

a-noʔwhich?; the one that (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

anu-kmine (PMP: *a-nu-ku) *-nu

anu-myours (PMP: *a-nu-mu) *-nu

anu-n naʔhis/hers (PMP: *a-nu-ni a) *-nu

añamweaving; to weave (e.g. baskets); plaits of anything; to plait (PMP: *añam)

añamplait, weave (as mats) (PMP: *añam) Uma Juman

añunset afloat and drift; drifting (PAN: *qañud)

añurcurrent; send adrift on the current (PAN: *qañud) Uma Juman

aŋaŋthe barking of dogs following an animal on scent (PAN: *qaŋqaŋ)

apintwin offspring (PMP: *apij)

apireither of the halves of two things joined (as of two bananas that are fused together) (PWMP: *apid₁) Uma Juman

apireither of the halves of two things joined (PMP: *apij) Uma Juman

apohslaked lime (PAN: *qapuR)

apuyfire, a light (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

araname (PMP: *ajan) Uma Juman

aré-hthat; over there (PWMP: *qadi)

areka kiss, to kiss (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek

Kayan (40 / 742)

arekdistilled rice spirit, strongly alcoholic (LOAN)

arulong (general term) (PWMP: *a(n)duq)

asause a whetstone, sharpen a tool by abrasion (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asaŋa bird of one of the pigeon species (PWMP: *acaŋ)

asaŋmortise and tenon joint (PWMP: *asaŋ₁) *asaŋ

aseinative axe (PWMP: *wasay)

asiassistance, help; compassion, sympathy, mercy; pardon, forgiveness (PMP: *qasiq)

asi-asian expression of sympathy: sorry for you (PMP: *qasiq)

asoʔdog (PAN: *asu₁)

asukpush in, push along, push away (PWMP: *hacuk)

asukpush in, push along, push away (PWMP: *hasuk)

ataunripe, raw (PWMP: *hataq)

ataunripe, raw (PAN: *qataq)

ataraw, unripe (PWMP: *hataq) Uma Juman

ataraw, unripe (PAN: *qataq) Uma Juman

atahplace in position, set down (as food for someone) (NOISE)

ataŋa border board (PWMP: *ataŋ₁)

ataŋ avoʔthe wooden edge to the hearth (PWMP: *ataŋ₁)

ataʔwater (NOISE)

atekmuddy or discolored -- of water, etc. (ROOT)

Kayan (60 / 742)

atenconvey, take to (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

aterconvey, take to a place (PMP: *hateD) *SateD Uma Juman

ateyliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ati, atiʔthird person demonstrative (PWMP: *ati₂) Busang

ati-hthat (distant) (PWMP: *ati₂) Uma Juman

atipnarrow space between objects; small channel in stream at low water (PMP: *qatip₂)

atuhundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus Uma Juman

atuhhundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

avaŋan ambush; to ambush (PMP: *abaŋ₁)

avaʔnotch or partial cut in a tree; a wound (PAN: *qabaS)

avet ayuŋa springing suspended cradle (PMP: *ayuŋ₂)

avoʔfireplace, hearth (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

avuna cloud (PWMP: *Rabun)

avutbuttocks (ROOT)

awaŋopen up (as a window); make a space; opening; clear away undergrowth; navigable channel in a river (PMP: *awaŋ)

ayahexclamation of surprise (NOISE)

ayaklead by the hand (PWMP: *ayak₁)

ayawan enemy in war (PWMP: *ayaw₂)

ayunmate with, copulate (of animals only) (PWMP: *ayud)

bamouth; window or door opening (PMP: *bahaq₁) *bahaq

Kayan (80 / 742)

bawindow or door opening (NOISE)

bahman’s loincloth, made of cotton or bark cloth (PWMP: *bahaR) Busang

bahloincloth (PWMP: *bahaR)

bahahhusked rice (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

bah alanrainbow (lit. ‘loincloth path’) (PWMP: *bahaR) Busang

bahaʔglowing fire embers (PMP: *baRah)

bahuystrong wind, storm (PAN: *baRiuS)

baluncloth, clothing (PMP: *balun₅) *baluN

baluyaltered, changed; to repent (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂

banitexcoriated, skinned (PAN: *baNiC) Busang

banitbe scratched on the skin (as by thorns) (PAN: *baNiC)

bañatstretched; of elastic bodies, expanded (PWMP: *banat, bañat)

baratell, relate, say (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

baraannounce, inform, tell (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq Uma Juman

bareŋequipment, things (LOAN)

basawet (PMP: *baseq₂) *baseq Uma Juman

basuŋtube, pipe (PWMP: *basuŋ) Busang

bataŋlog (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁ Uma Juman

batoʔrock, stone (PMP: *batu₁)

bavuywild pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

Kayan (100 / 742)

bawaŋswamp, pond, lake (PWMP: *bawaŋ) Busang

bawaŋpond, small body of standing water (PWMP: *bawaŋ) Uma Juman

bayen budirepay a kindness (LOAN)

bebaŋansteep riverbank, steep hillside (PWMP: *baŋbaŋan)

bekatuthumpbacked; bow-backed (PWMP: *beketut)

bekaʔbroken open, of anything (wall of a house, etc.); a second-degree burn on the body (PMP: *beka)

bekekdwarf, short (as a short man) (PWMP: *beŋkek)

bekek kenepshort-tempered (PWMP: *beŋkek)

belaneŋstare at; open, opened, of eyes (ROOT)

belasukpush along, push into (ROOT)

belatekbasket with a handle (NOISE)

belatikto flip; to spring back straight, as a bent sapling suddenly springing straight; a pig trap using a spear propelled by a bent sapling (PWMP: *bala(n)tik)

beledibucket (LOAN)

beléʔsell; buy (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

beliliŋround, circular (as a coin) (PWMP: *baliliŋ)

beli-npurchase price, value of (PWMP: *beli-en) *beli

beliraʔflag (LOAN)

beniseed rice reserved for sowing (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

benuaŋsoft light-weight wood, not much used: Octomeles sumatrana (PWMP: *benuaŋ)

benuaŋsoft, light-weight wood, not much used: Octomeles sumatrana (PWMP: *binuaŋ)

Kayan (120 / 742)

beŋaŋcarrying basket with wide mouth (PMP: *beŋaŋ₂)

beŋita cry of fear or alarm (PMP: *beŋit)

beraŋwide, broad; width of, breadth of (PMP: *beraŋ)

beriburst, as an overfilled container (PAN: *beriq) Uma Juman

beritsmall splinter (PWMP: *berit₂) Busang

berukmonkey (generic) (LOAN)

besaraʔcourt, tribunal (LOAN)

beseia paddle (PMP: *beRsay)

besohsatisfied after eating; a good rice harvest (PAN: *besuR)

betihall of the leg below the knee; the muscle of the calf (PAN: *beties)

betuka-nthe stomach organ (in man or animal); the stomach used as tripe (PMP: *bituka) *biCuka

bikaŋkind of cake (LOAN) Busang

bikuŋadze (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

bisinbasin (LOAN)

biteŋfighting, as in warfare (NOISE)

boŋkoupper part, upper surface (ROOT) Uma Juman

busmell, odor (PMP: *bahu) Uma Juman

buafruit (PMP: *buaq₂) *buaq

bua buathe fruits of, the results of (PMP: *buaq buaq) *buaq

bua kaluŋthe spirit of tattooing in old customs (PMP: *buaq₂) *buaq

Kayan (140 / 742)

bua moʔnipples of the human breast (PMP: *buaq₂) *buaq

bua nakansmall jackfruit (LOAN) Uma Juman

bua ñohcoconut (PMP: *niuR)

buaŋthe Malayan honey bear: Helarctus malayanus (PWMP: *baRuaŋ)

buaŋthe Malayan honey bear: Helarctus malayanus (PWMP: *biRuaŋ)

bukhair of the head (PMP: *buhek₁) *bukeS

bukoʔknots tied in rattan or cord -- a Penan means for counting days to an appointed meeting (PMP: *buku₁) *buku

bukoʔ anakfetus, embryo (PMP: *buku₁) *buku

bukuŋknee; knee joint; knots of anything (PWMP: *buqekuŋ)

bulahto fade, as a colored fabric; to run together, of colors in fabrics during washing; pale, of face or appearance (LOAN)

bulahto fade, as a colored fabric; run together, of colors in fabrics during washing; pale, of face or appearance, (NOISE)

bulanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

buloʔthe hair of animals, or of the human body (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulubamboo (generic) (PAN: *buluq₂)

bulu-nfeathers, scales of fish, body hair (PMP: *bulu₁)

bulu-nfeathers, scales of fish, body hair (PMP: *bulu-n) *bulu₁

bulu-n naʔhis/her body hair (PMP: *bulu-n) *bulu₁

bunuenemy, hostile person (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

buŋetangry; to scowl at a person (PWMP: *buŋet)

burahto scatter; scattered; in disorder, untidy (PWMP: *buras)

Kayan (160 / 742)

buriŋstriped (as a tiger) (PWMP: *budiŋ)

buriŋstriped (as a tiger); to make a pattern (as on bamboo) (PWMP: *buriŋ)

busuŋdropsical swelling in the stomach, much feared by the Bahaus (PWMP: *busuŋ) Busang

busuŋword used to curse a person (PWMP: *busuŋ)

butaʔblind (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

butitstomach (PWMP: *buntit)

butuŋputrid, rotten (as boar meat); corpse (NOISE)

buvoʔcircular fish trap with conical entrance (PAN: *bubu₂)

buvuto drip, dripping (water); to swarm out (ants) (PMP: *buqbuq)

buvuʔto drip, dripping (as water from a container); to swarm out, as ants (NOISE)

buʔsmell, odor (PMP: *bahu) Uma Bawang

dalemdeep; thoughtful, peaceful; understanding; intelligent, wise, sensible (PMP: *dalem₂) *dalem

danawmud, muddy (PAN: *danaw)

danomuddy water or soft muddy area in the jungle (PAN: *danaw) Uma Juman

dapitto reach the other side; to go to; to draw alongside of; to come to understand; to have enough rice (PWMP: *dapit)

datahlevel, flat (as farmland) (PAN: *dataR)

dawewire (LOAN) Uma Juman

dayaʔswarming of fish during spawning (PWMP: *daRayaʔ) Uma Juman

daʔanbranch of a tree (PMP: *daqan)

daʔanbranch (PMP: *daqan) Uma Juman

Kayan (180 / 742)

daʔunleaf of a tree or any plant (PMP: *dahun)

daʔunleaf (PMP: *dahun) Uma Juman

(de)baloʔwidow (PMP: *balu₄)

deheŋgruff voice (PMP: *deReŋ)

dəkətsmall tadpole-like fish that clings by oral suction to stones in the river (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC Uma Juman

deŋahnews, report (PMP: *deŋeRₐ) *deŋeR

dəŋahnews (PMP: *deŋeRₐ) *deŋeR Uma Juman

dəpaʔfathom (PMP: *depa) Uma Juman

depuŋa stubby greenish snake about two feet long, with short tail; very poisonous and aggressive (PAN: *depuŋ)

diandurian (PWMP: *duRi-an)

d-ipaheither of the sides of a river, etc. (PWMP: *di hipaR) *SipaR Uma Juman

dipena slave under former Kayan custom (PWMP: *qudipen)

doday, daylight (PMP: *qalejaw) Uma Juman

duaʔtwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duaʔtwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa Uma Juman

gaŋdry branch, dead branch; dryness; be dry (PWMP: *egaŋ)

gaŋdry wood used for firewood (PWMP: *egaŋ) Uma Juman

geka knock, bump, tap (PWMP: *gek)

gemhold tightly (PMP: *gem) Busang

gemhold, take hold of; touch (PMP: *eŋgem)

Kayan (200 / 742)

genshaking or vibration (ROOT)

gimeta pagan protective charm (loanword, Malay) (LOAN)

giwaswaying, waving, wagging (as a squirrel’s tail) (PWMP: *giwaq)

habeifollow a leader in song; chorus (PWMP: *sa(m)bay)

habuŋtemporary protective covering; to cover (PWMP: *sambuŋ)

halitstuck or pasted on (ROOT)

hapauleaf thatch of roof (PAN: *sapaw)

haritcut or scratch (ROOT)

havuncover something; covered, e.g. with earth (PWMP: *Rab(e)qun)

hawa-spouse (PAN: *qasawa)

hawaʔmarriage, a wedding (PAN: *qasawa)

hegemclenched fist (ROOT)

həputblowpipe (PWMP: *seput)

herekswallowing accidentally; gulping down (ROOT)

herutsip (PWMP: *sedut) Uma Juman

hiap kepa brooding hen (PMP: *ekep)

hiaʔsalt (PAN: *qasiRa)

hiaʔ nekfine salt (PAN: *qasiRa)

hiaʔ uŋcoarse salt (PAN: *qasiRa</