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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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P

(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)


Paama
Paamese
Padoe
Pahang Malay
Paitan
Paiwan
Paiwan (Butanglu)
Paiwan (Makazayazaya)
Paiwan (Northeastern)
Paiwan (Southern)
Paiwan (Tjuabu)
Paiwan (Western)
Pak
Paku
Pala
Palauan
Palawan Batak
Palawano

Palin Maloh
Paluan
Palu'e
Panatinani
Panay Bisayan
Panayati
Pangasinan
Pango
Papar Murut
Papitalai
Papora
Papuma
Patep
Patpatar
Pattani Malay
Paulohi
Pazeh
Pazeh (Kahabu)

Pelipowai
Penan
Penan (Long Labid)
Penan (Long Lamai)
Penan (Long Merigam)
Penang Malay
Penchal
Pendau
Penudjaq
Perak Malay
Petapa Taje
Petats
Peterara
Peterara
Piamatsina
Piching
Pinan Puyuma
Pohnpeian

Pom
Ponosakan
Popalia
Poro
Port Sandwich
Proto-Western Micronesian
Provincial Malagasy
Puluwat
Puluwatese
Punan Busang
Punan Kelai
Puyuma
Puyuma (Chihpen)
Puyuma (Nanwang)
Puyuma (Pinan)
Puyuma (Rikavong)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw)
Pwele

Paama (36) OC. see: Paamese

507. Paamese (36) OC (Crowley 1992) [pma] (Paama) Vanuatu [aka: Paama, Lironesa]

ahinwoman; female (POC: *papine) *bahi

ahin-alisister (male speaker) (POC: *papine) *bahi

a-nammosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

a-sioHalcyon chloris (PMP: *sikek)

asoo-spouse (PAN: *qasawa)

a-tehsugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

e-hishow many?; however many; an unknown number; how much? what price? what time? (POC: *pica) *pija

e-hishow many? (POC: *pica) *pija

e-inhouse, home (PAN: *Rumaq)

e-lutwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

e-lu-a-luin pairs, two by two (POC: *rua rua₁) *duSa

e-telthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

fito-navel (POC: *bito)

gileleducate; knowledgeable; clever (PAN: *kilala)

huŋe-flower; tiny immature fruit on plants with no flowers (POC: *puŋa₁) *buŋa

i-nauI, me, 1sg. (PMP: *ni aku) *aku

kaand (PAN: *ka₁)

-ku1sg possessive suffix: my (directly attached to some relationship terms but to ‘possessive nominals’ aa- ‘edible possession, mo- ‘potable possession’, so- ‘possession according to traditional law’, ono- ‘general manipulative possession’ for non-intimate possession) (POC: *-gu) *-ku

loŋehear; listen to; feel; pay attention to (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋ-loŋaware; wise (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

Paamese (20 / 36)

loŋ-loŋ-iennews (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋ-loŋo-niget to hear about, become aware of (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

loŋ selūsienobey (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

lum-lummoss; slime; seaweed; itchy fur on bamboo (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

matilto sleep (POC: *matiruR) *tiduR

mete-neye; lens of camera; head of boil; small stick stuck into yam mound to show where yam has been planted; lid, stopper, bottletop; operculum of shellfish; of the three holes in the top of a coconut, the one which can be opened easily; the chaser in a game of chasey; leaves to cover up top of breadfruit pit; something really tremendous (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mete-n āiprow of canoe; stern of canoe (POC: *mata ni kayu) *maCa

mete-n ōnurethral opening in penis (‘eye of penis’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mete-tānanus (‘eye of feces’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

salītrim leaves from cane (POC: *sali)

sau-saukind of banana (southern dialect) (POC: *saku₃)

sou-soukind of banana (POC: *saku₃)

sum(u)sumkind of fish (POC: *sumu)

ta-excrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tārotaro (POC: *talos) *tales

uītoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

508. Padoe (5) WMP [pdo] Indonesia (Sulawesi)

hiloʔolouse egg (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

moŋ-gaato eat (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

mo-teahard (PMP: *ma-teRas) *teRas

ŋilupainful, hurting (PAN: *ŋilu)

ulutuknee (PMP: *qulu tuhud₁) *tuduS

Pahang Malay (1) WMP. see: Malay (Pahang)

509. Paitan (3) WMP [txa] (Tombonuo) Malaysia (Sabah)

aponrod-and-line (PMP: *hapen)

tinaistomach (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

wogokdomesticated pig (PAN: *beRek)

510. Paiwan (933) Form. (Ferrell 1982) [pwn] Taiwan (dialects: Northeastern 1, Butanglu 1, Tjuabu 1, Makazayazaya 1, Southern 7, Western 41)

aequational construction marker for noun phrase (PAN: *a₅)

-apluralizer with personal nouns and pronominal articles (NOISE)

aiexclamation: alas! oh my! (PAN: *ai₂)

a-i-tsuthis, this one (PAN: *i-Cu) *-Cu

alaptake, pick up (PAN: *alap)

alaythread (PAN: *walay)

alimforget something/someone (PAN: *alim)

aɬuhoney; candy; sweets (PAN: *waNu)

alu, valueight (PAN: *walu)

alʸakchild; interest on deposit (PAN: *aNak) Western

alʸistooth, fang, tusk (PAN: *waNiS)

amafather! (PAN: *ama)

aminfinished; there is no more, there is no other than (PAN: *am(e)ʔin)

-anspecific location in time or space; specific one/type: kan-an 'eating place' (kan 'eat') (PAN: *-an)

a-nemawhat? what thing? (PAN: *nema)

a-nema-tsuwhat is this? (PAN: *nema)

apubetelnut quid (PAN: *apuR)

arilet's go! (PAN: *aRi)

ari ariyou go on ahead! (PAN: *aRi)

asawleaf (PAN: *waSaw)

Paiwan (20 / 933)

atukto boil (NOISE)

a-zuathat, those (PAN: *dua)

balatsukFormosan barbet: Megalaema oorti muchalis (PAN: *balalaCuk)

b-alʸ-akbakdrumming sound, as of many stones falling or tumbling, horse's hooves, drumming on table with hands (PAN: *bakbak₂)

b-alʸ-aŋbaŋhave sound as of rain falling on roof, or beating on tin can (PAN: *baŋbaŋ₆)

b-alʸ-ekbek(onom.) make intermittent sound, as three-wheeled truck, or chatter of gunfire in war (PAN: *bekbek₂)

b-ar-eŋbeŋmake buzzing noise, as bee or automobile engine (PAN: *b<aR>eŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₂

beriq(onom.) make sound as of excreting when one has diarrhea; to squeak (PAN: *beriq)

biasroe, fish eggs, crab eggs (PAN: *biRaS)

biritssplit, tear (PAN: *biriC)

b-n-alʸitsremove tree bark or old thatch (PAN: *baNiC)

b-n-u-lʸa-lʸitsto skin an animal (PAN: *baNiC)

b-n-uresspew water (not sputum) from the mouth (PAN: *buReS)

b-n-utsaqput suds on something (PAN: *buCaq)

buexclamation of surprise (NOISE)

bua-buayflower (PAN: *buRay) Southern

bulʸuqthrow something with the object of hitting something else (PAN: *buNuq) *buNuq₂

bureswater squirter of bamboo (child's toy) (PAN: *buReS)

butsaqfoam, lather, suds (PAN: *buCaq)

clisaciissomething rubbed against (tree, where wild pig scratches) (NOISE)

Paiwan (40 / 933)

cu-a-lʸivplace where there are many caves (or rock overhangs) (PAN: *Nihib)

ḍakescamphor laurel: CinnamomumJaponicum, Cinnamomum camphora (PAN: *dakeS)

deruŋthunder (PAN: *deruŋ)

đikitjshort (PAN: *dikit)

dja-djalancompanion on road (PAN: *za-zalan) *zalan

djakutsgrab, take in hand (noncylindrical objects) (PAN: *dakuC)

djakutsgrab, take in hand (non-cylindrical object) (PAN: *za(ŋ)kuC)

djala-djalansmall path (PAN: *zalan-zalan) *zalan

djalanroad, trail, path (PAN: *zalan)

djalayapCitrus depressa (tree and fruit) (PAN: *dalayap)

djami-arice straw (PAN: *zaRami)

djamuqblood (PAN: *damuq)

djanawlake without outlets; estuary (PAN: *danaw) Western

djapalʸthigh (person); hind leg (animal) (PAN: *dapaN)

djaqmenstrual blood (PAN: *daRaq₁) *daRaq

djaqisforehead (PAN: *daqiS)

djaumneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

djeketsovercooked rice, used as paste (PAN: *dekeC)

djerenawdissolve, melt (listed under renaw) (ROOT)

djilaqto lick (PAN: *dilaq₁)

Paiwan (60 / 933)

djilʸaŋrust, corrosion (PAN: *diNaŋ)

dj<m>aumto use a needle (PAN: *zaRum)

dj<m>ilaqto lick (PAN: *d<um>ilaq) *dilaq₁

dj<m>ilʸaŋto cause to rust (PAN: *diNaŋ)

djuithorn (PAN: *duRi₁) *duRi

dukuŋa bend, crook (PAN: *du(ŋ)kuŋ)

ḍusatwo (PAN: *duSa)

enemsix (PAN: *enem)

eremto dye (PAN: *edem₂)

etaone (PAN: *esa)

g-alʸ-eritssound of ripping cloth or paper (PAN: *geriC)

gaŋcrab (PAN: *gaRaŋ)

garaŋpower, influence (PAN: *garaŋ₁)

garutsa comb (PAN: *garuC)

gatselto itch, be itchy (PAN: *gaCel)

gayaŋhunting spear with detachable harpoon-like barbed iron point (PAN: *gayaŋ)

g<em>etselto pinch (PAN: *geCel)

gəmgəmfist (PAN: *gemgem)

getselpincers (of crab) (PAN: *geCel)

giriŋa growl (PAN: *giRiŋ)

Paiwan (80 / 933)

giriŋa growl (NEAR)

g<m>arutsto comb (PAN: *g<um>aruC) *garuC

g<m>əmgəmgrasp object in hand (PAN: *gemgem)

g<m>iriŋto growl (NEAR)

g-m-urugur (medial -u- unexplained)to bark (dog's loud, ordinary bark) (PAN: *gurgur₁)

guŋguŋhave a banging noise (PAN: *guŋguŋ)

guritsto squeal (pig) (ROOT)

guritsasquid, octopus (PAN: *guRiCa) Southern

gutsgutsto weed a paddy field (PAN: *guCguC)

iinterjection of wonder or amazement (PAN: *i₁)

ibe at, be in (PAN: *i₂)

iappositional particle for personal names and pronouns (PAN: *i₃)

i ca i vukidon higher (rainy) slopes (PAN: *bukij)

i-gergertremble (PAN: *gerger₁)

ikutail (of animal, bird) (PAN: *ikuR)

i-likuzbehind (when stationary) (PAN: *likud)

imawho? (restricted use) (PAN: *ima)

(-)in-past tense; action has already begun or been done (PAN: *<in>) *-in-

inamother! (vocative) (PAN: *ina)

in-alapsomething which has been taken; one's catch (hunting) (PAN: *in-alap) *alap

Paiwan (100 / 933)

i-navalʸtoward the upper reaches of river (thus "south" if the river runs from south to north) (PAN: *wanaN)

ininot do something; no! (PAN: *ini)

inuwhere? (PAN: *inu)

inuwhere? (PAN: *i-nu) *-nu

isiqurine (PAN: *iSiq)

itaone (PAN: *isa₁)

ita-ŋathere is one left (PAN: *isa-ŋa) *isa₁

itjenwe, us, our (PAN: *iten₁)

itjuloquat, fruit of Eriobotrya deflexa (PAN: *Ritu)

i tsasawbe outdoors (PAN: *CaSaw)

i vavawupon (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

i-zayato be higher up (as on a mountain) (PAN: *daya)

i zuathere, over there (PAN: *dua)

i-zuathere is, there exists (PAN: *dua)

ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-sulem-an ‘be caught by darkness’ (cp.sulem ‘darkness, twilight’) (PAN: *ka- -an₁)

ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-ki-tjalav-an ‘athletic field’ (cp. ki-tjala-tjalaw ‘fight over something; to contest’); ka-tsasav-an ‘courtyard in front of house’ (cp. tsasaw ‘outdoors, outside’) (PAN: *ka- -an₂)

ka- -anformative for abstract nouns; ka-vavaian-an ‘womanhood, femininity, value as a woman’ (cp. vavaian ‘woman, female person’ (PAN: *ka- -an₃) Western

ka-djalan-anmountain trail (PAN: *ka-zalan-an) *zalan

ka-gaŋ-anred crab sp. (PAN: *gaRaŋ)

kailanguage, speech, words (PAN: *kaRi)

Paiwan (120 / 933)

kakasibling, first cousin; term of address for siblings or cousins of either sex (or for any young man of Ego’s generation, whether kin or not) (PAN: *kaka₂)

ka-kan-andining room (PAN: *ka-kaen-an) *kaen

ka-kudá-ncustom, law (PAN: *kuja₁) *kuja

kala-kalawbird sp. (PAN: *kalaw)

kalia hole that has been dug (PAN: *kalih)

k-al-iŋkiŋhave a ringing sound (PAN: *kiŋkiŋ₁)

kalʸa-qudjalʸ-anrainy season (PAN: *quzaN)

kalyedjipto blink (PAN: *kedip)

k-alʸ-eŋkeŋhave ringing in the ears (PAN: *keŋkeŋ₁)

k<alʸ>uskus-anfingernail, toenail, claw (PAN: *k<aN>uSkuS) *kuSkuS₁

kamayamango: Diospyros discolor (PAN: *kamaya) Western

kanto eat (PAN: *kaen)

ka na i-kaif not ... then (PAN: *ka₂)

kan-anplace where one eats (PAN: *kanan)

kan-anplace where one eats (PAN: *kaen-an) *kaen

ka-navalʸright (hand, side, direction) (PAN: *ka-wanaN) *wanaN

kan-enfood (PAN: *-en)

kan-enfood (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

kan-ilet’s eat! (PAN: *kaen-i) *kaen

ka-ŋidawhen (past)? (PAN: *ka-₁)

Paiwan (140 / 933)

kaŋkaŋa plow (Min?) (LOAN)

ka-pitju-ana July typhoon (very destructive) (PAN: *ka-pitu-an) *pitu

k<ar>a-kalito dig everywhere, dig indiscriminately (PAN: *kalih)

k<ar>a-kudawork, labor (LOAN)

k<ar>iskisto make noise by scraping fingernail on blackboard (PAN: *kiSkiS)

k<ar>uskusto have sound of scraping (PAN: *k<ar>uSkuS) *kuSkuS₂

karutrake (PAN: *kaRus)

karutrake (PAN: *karut₁)

ka-sawniearlier today; a little while ago (today) (PAN: *Sauni)

ka-si-to originate from, come from (PAN: *Si-₂)

kasi-kasiv-enforest (PAN: *kaSiw-en) *kaSiw

kasi-kasiwwoodlands (as opposed to grasslands; emphasis on land use) (PAN: *kaSi-kaSiw) *kaSiw

kasiwtree, wood (PAN: *kaSiw)

ka-tiawyesterday (PAN: *ka-₁)

katsbite (PAN: *kaRaC)

ka-tsasav-ancourtyard (in front of house) (PAN: *ka-CaSaw-an) *CaSaw

ka-tsau-anthe world (of living beings); what is actual, existent, not dead (PAN: *ka-Cau-an) *Cau

katsucarry (PAN: *kaCu)

kausscoop-net (for fishing or catching butterflies) (PAN: *kahuS)

kavaclothing (PAN: *kabaR)

Paiwan (160 / 933)

kavasnake slough (PAN: *kabaR) Western

kavayanthorny bamboo (Ho 1978:609) (PAN: *kawayan)

ka-virileft (hand) (PAN: *ka-wiRi) *wiRi

kawkawsickle (PAN: *kawkaw₁) Western

ka-zatja-nlevel land, plain (PAN: *ka-dataR-an) *dataR

ka-zatja-zatjato be level (PAN: *dataR)

keḍibe small, little, few (PAN: *kedi)

keḍibe small; little, few (NEAR)

kedjipeyelash (PAN: *kedip)

keretreap with a small knife (PAN: *keRet)

ki-to get, obtain a thing (vaqu ‘millet’, ki-vaqu ‘to get or harvest millet’, paisu ‘money’, ki-paisu ‘to get or seek money’) (PAN: *ki-)

ki-alap(bride) go to groom's house (PAN: *alap)

kiawbullfrog (PAN: *kiaw)

ki-djilaqto lick oneself (as a cat) (PAN: *dilaq₁)

ki-getselto pinch oneself (PAN: *geCel)

ki-kasiwto gather or cut wood (PAN: *kaSiw)

ki-likuzto slip away by back way (PAN: *likud)

ki-lʸatseŋto pick plants for vegetables; to buy vegetables (PAN: *NaCeŋ)

kimsearch for (PAN: *kiRim)

k<in>ali-anplace where a hole has been dug (PAN: *k<in>alih-an) *kalih

Paiwan (180 / 933)

k<in>a-tsau-tsau-ancharacter; humanity; body (PAN: *k<in>a-Cau-an) *Cau

k<in>atsusomething which has been carried (PAN: *k<in>aCu) *kaCu

ki-nemnemthink, cogitate, pay close attention to (PAN: *nemnem)

ki-paizto fan oneself, to have oneself fanned (PAN: *paid)

ki-pa-talawto sit under falling water (PAN: *salaw)

ki-pa-va-vaibeg (PAN: *beRay₁) *beRay

ki-piliqbe “choosy,” pick out best bits (PAN: *piliq)

ki-qilusclean oneself after excreting (PAN: *qiluS)

ki-quluto headhunt, take heads (PAN: *quluh)

ki-sevalʸask to be carried on someone's back; copulate (animals) (PAN: *SebaN)

ki-sulidshare someone's bed (PAN: *Sulij)

ki-suputo read (PAN: *SipuR)

ki-tja-vililʸto follow after (PAN: *biliN)

ki-tjukezto rest one’s head or arm on something (PAN: *tuked)

ki-tsaqu-anto practice, learn skill (PAN: *Caqu)

ki-tsevuŋgo to meet someone; to fete someone returning home (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

kitsiŋwrist joint (PAN: *kiCiŋ)

ki-tsulʸuburn oneself; join in a sacrificial feast (PAN: *ki-CuNuh) *CuNuh

ki-vadaqinquire, request (PAN: *bajaq₁) *bajaq

ki-vutubecome the enemy of (PAN: *busuR₁)

Paiwan (200 / 933)

k<m>alito dig a hole (PAN: *k<um>ali) *kalih

k<m>anto eat (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

k<m>aŋkaŋto plow (LOAN)

k<m>asiwto use wood; put boards on (PAN: *k<um>aSiw) *kaSiw

k<m>atsto bite (PAN: *k<um>aRaC) *kaRaC

k<m>atsuto carry (PAN: *k<um>aCu) *kaCu

k<m>avato put on or wear clothing (PAN: *kabaR)

k<m>a-zatja-nto level ground (PAN: *ka-dataR-an) *dataR

k<m>eretjreap with a small knife (hemp or any other plant) (PAN: *k<um>eRet) *keRet

k<m>imto search for (PAN: *k<um>iRim) *kiRim

k<m>udawhy? to do what? what is wrong? (PAN: *k<um>uja) *kuja

k<m>uskusto scratch, scrape; remove hair from pig with bamboo knife (PAN: *k<um>uSkuS) *kuSkuS₂

k<m>utsuto delouse (PAN: *k<um>uCu) *kuCu

k<m>uyato damage (PAN: *kuya₁) *kuya

ku-I, my (PAN: *-ku)

kuaucrow, kite (bird) (PAN: *kuaw)

ku-kakamy younger siblings (reference) (PAN: *kaka₂) Western

kukuŋtype of tiny bird with loud call of "kung", "kung", "kung" (PAN: *ku(ŋ)kuŋ)

kukuŋtiny bird sp. (call is loud “kung” “kung” “kung”) (PAN: *kukuŋ₁)

ku-lava-lavav-enlarge number of rats (be overrun by rats?) (PAN: *labaw)

Paiwan (220 / 933)

ku-lavawrat, mouse (PAN: *labaw)

kulʸkulʸsmall bird sp. (PAN: *kuNkuN)

kura-kurapwhite, soft tree fungus (PAN: *kurap)

kurapscabies, scaly skin disease (PAN: *kurap)

kurisitching sores which leave dark spots on body (PAN: *kuris₁)

kuskusa scraper (PAN: *kuSkuS₂)

kutjivulva (PAN: *kuti)

kutsulouse (of head) (PAN: *kuCu)

kuyadefect; rip, tear (PAN: *kuya₁) *kuya

kuzkuz-anheel (PAN: *kudkud)

la-deŋa ~ la-ŋedato hear (PAN: *deŋeR)

lakupa covering (as new bark which grows over scar on tree) (PAN: *lakup)

lakupcovering (as new bark which grows over scar on tree) (ROOT)

la-lapita bat (animal; Western dialect) (PAN: *lapis)

la-layaa flag, banner (PAN: *layaR)

lamlamprecipitate, impetuous (PAN: *lamlam)

laŋaw ~ la-laŋawa fly (insect) (PAN: *laŋaw₁) *laŋaw

ɬaŋuyto swim; to immerse one’s body in water (as to bathe) (PAN: *Naŋuy)

laplaploose skin on baby after birth (PAN: *laplap)

lauzseaward, downslope, toward lower reaches of river (PAN: *lahud)

Paiwan (240 / 933)

lavaflying squirrel (PAN: *lawaR)

layapto fly (PAN: *layap)

ledepdive, plunge (PAN: *lezep)

liku-likuzthe back of the skull (PAN: *liku-likud) *likud

liku-likuz-anthe backmost (PAN: *liku-likud-an) *likud Western

likuzbehind, in back of (PAN: *likud)

lilʸuŋbe non-moving, collected (water) (PAN: *liNuŋ)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

lipetja hem (PAN: *lipet)

liqeneck (PAN: *liqeR) Western

liquneck, throat (in some dialects = ‘neck of animals only’ (PAN: *liqeR)

liseqesnit, louse-egg (PAN: *liseqeS)

l<m>akupto cover over (as with roof-shaped cover); to twine around (as vine) (PAN: *lakup)

ɬ<m>aŋuyto swim, bathe (PAN: *N<um>aŋuy) *Naŋuy

ƚ<m>e-ḍusato do two things (Western dialect) (PAN: *duSa)

l-m-upasspit something out (PAN: *lupaS)

l<m>uvaŋto place in a pit (PAN: *l<um>ubaŋ) *lubaŋ₁

lukutsparasitic long-leafed plant with edible fruit -- grows on trees: Asplenium nidus (PAN: *lukuC)

lumripe (PAN: *lum)

lupassomething (solid) which is spat out (PAN: *lupaS)

Paiwan (260 / 933)

ƚusepitthin (as paper), thin, as person (ROOT) Western

luseqtears (PAN: *luSeq)

lutjukrabbit, hare (PAN: *lutuk)

luvaŋa grave, grave-pit; a covered pit trap (PAN: *lubaŋ₁) Western

lʸa-lʸaqedi-anboundary between fields (PAN: *Naqeji) Southern

lʸatseŋvegetables, non-staple vegetal foods (cultigens or wild) (PAN: *NaCeŋ)

lʸa-vaŋasthistle plant, Bidens pilosa (PAN: *baŋaS)

lʸaveksea, ocean (PAN: *Nabek)

lʸa-vela-velaqa tree: Cyperus cyperinus (NOISE)

lʸe-lauzto go downhill (PAN: *lahud)

lʸ-em-eŋlʸeŋto see (PAN: *NeŋNeŋ)

lʸeŋlook at (PAN: *Neŋ)

lʸia-zaya(go) high upland (PAN: *daya)

lʸimatjekmountain leech (PAN: *qaNi-matek) *-matek

lʸitjeqsap (PAN: *Niteq)

lʸivcavern, cave, den (PAN: *Nihib)

lʸivshelter under overhanging rock (PAN: *Nihib) Western

lʸivuden or nest of rat or wild pig (PAN: *Nibu)

lʸ<m>a-inito refuse, say “no” (Western dialect) (PAN: *ini)

lʸ<m>atseŋto prepare vegetable foods (PAN: *NaCeŋ)

Paiwan (280 / 933)

lʸ-m-atuto boil (meat) (PAN: *Nasu)

lʸuaŋcattle (PAN: *qaNuaŋ)

lʸupetjplug, stopper (ROOT)

lʸuqesbone marrow (PAN: *NuqeS)

-m-marker of actor focus (PAN: *<um>₁) *-um-

ma-stative prefix (PAN: *ma-₁)

ma-alapbe taken; able to be reached; become convinced, have mind changed; be enticed, led astray (PAN: *ma-alap) *alap

ma-alimbe forgotten; be caused to forget (PAN: *alim)

ma-alʸakbe disturbed by (too many) children (PAN: *ma-anak) *aNak

ma-buressprayed or spewed upon (PAN: *buReS)

ma-butsaqfoam-covered (PAN: *buCaq)

ma-djaqto menstruate (PAN: *ma-daRaq) *daRaq

ma-djilaqbe licked (PAN: *dilaq₁)

ma-djilʸaŋbecome rusty (PAN: *diNaŋ)

ma-garaŋbe angry; to scold, upbraid (PAN: *garaŋ₁)

ma-getselto be pinched (PAN: *geCel)

ma-ita itaone by one, one after the other (PAN: *isa isa) *isa₁

ma-kaliearth to be dug or disturbed (PAN: *kalih)

maka-lima-lʸfive (days, times) (PAN: *maka-lima) *lima

ma-kánbe eaten (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

Paiwan (300 / 933)

maka-nem-elʸsix times (days, occasions) (PAN: *maka-enem) *enem

maka-pida-lʸhow many days? (PAN: *maka-pija) *pija

maka-sim-atj-elʸfour times (PAN: *maka-Sepat) *Sepat

ma-ka-tjelu-lʸthree (times, days, occasions) (PAN: *telu)

ma-katsbe(come) bitten (PAN: *ma-kaRaC) *kaRaC

maka-walu-lʸeight (times, days) (PAN: *maka-walu) *walu

ma-kudahow is it? what’s happening? (PAN: *ma-kuja) *kuja

ma-kuda-kudahow much? (PAN: *kuja₁) *kuja Western

ma-kurapto have scabies (PAN: *kurap)

ma-kuristo have kuris (PAN: *kuris₁)

ma-kutsuto be deloused (PAN: *ma-kuCu) *kuCu

maɬe-sivanine (persons) (PAN: *Siwa)

m-alimforget (object/person) (PAN: *alim)

ma-lupasbe spat upon (PAN: *lupaS)

ma-lʸatubecome boiled (meat) (PAN: *Nasu)

malʸe-kuyain disorder, broken; bad weather (PAN: *kuya₁) *kuya

ma-ma-tsaqu-anto be very skilled (PAN: *ma-Caqu) *Caqu

ma-ŋiluto have teeth on edge (as from sour pineapple); to ache, sting (PAN: *ma-ŋilu) *ŋilu

ma-pa-dja-djeketsto press two things together (as one’s hands) (PAN: *dekeC)

mapa-tja-ḍusadivided into two groups (Western dialect) (PAN: *duSa)

Paiwan (320 / 933)

ma-pa-tsa-tsugtsugto bump together (as two persons’ heads) (PAN: *CugCug₂)

ma-peteqbecome broken (PAN: *peceq₁) *peceq

ma-pidahow many persons? (PAN: *pija)

ma-pu-kuyaritually impure (PAN: *kuya₁) *kuya

ma-qadawthe sun appears; be burned by sun (PAN: *ma-qajaw) *qajaw

maqawan alder, Alnus japonica (PAN: *maqaw)

ma-qemubecome pulverized (PAN: *qemu)

ma-qipiŋhave one's head inclined to one side (PAN: *qipiŋ)

ma-qudjalʸbe rained upon (PAN: *ma-quzaN) *quzaN

ma-qusawbe thirsty (PAN: *ma-quSaw) *quSaw

mare-alʸakparent and child (PAN: *maRe-anak) *aNak

mare-ka-alʸakchildren of the same parents (PAN: *maRe-anak) *aNak

ma-reŋetsjealous (PAN: *reŋeC)

ma-reŋetsjealous (PAN: *ReŋeC)

m-ariask someone to accompany oneself (PAN: *um-aRi) *aRi

maru-vilʸuaqPawlonia fortunei tree sp.: Homalanthus; forest tree with green fruit: Macaranga tanarius Linn.; tree with greenish flower and very sticky sap used as paste: Hernandia ovigera Linn. tree sp. (NOISE)

ma-sakutsbe moved (PAN: *SakuC)

ma-semutjto be smothered (PAN: *Semut)

ma-sepatjfour (persons) (PAN: *ma-Sepat) *Sepat

ma-siaqshy, polite, embarrassed (PAN: *ma-Seyaq) *Seyaq

Paiwan (340 / 933)

ma-sulendarkness falls; to be twilight (PAN: *ma-Sulem) *Sulem

ma-sulidsleep together (PAN: *Sulij)

ma-susuqenter a small hole or crack (PAN: *SuSuq)

ma-susuqenter a small hole and fall; to leak down (PAN: *SuSuq) Western

ma-tja-kaito take one’s turn speaking (PAN: *kaRi)

ma-tja-tja-vililʸgoing along in file (PAN: *biliN) Western

ma-tja-tjeŋtjeŋto whisper together (two persons) (NEAR)

ma-tjeluthree persons (PAN: *ma-telu) *telu

ma-tjelʸevto flood (ROOT)

ma-tjuqtjuqbe hammered, crushed (PAN: *tuqtuq)

matsaeye (PAN: *maCa)

ma-tsabtsabbe beaten repeatedly with open hand (person, wall, etc.) (PAN: *CabCab)

ma-tsakawbe or become stolen (PAN: *ma-Cakaw) *Cakaw

ma-tsaquto be able to; capable, skilled, knowledgeable (PAN: *ma-Caqu) *Caqu

ma-tsevulʸbothered by smoke, smoke-filled (PAN: *CebuN)

ma-tsiŋashave food particles between teeth (PAN: *ma-CiŋaS) *CiŋaS

ma-tsugtsugbe hit (as on the head) by something (PAN: *CugCug₁)

ma-tsugtsugto be hit (as on head) by something (PAN: *CugCug₂)

ma-tsulʸuto be hot (PAN: *ma-CuNuh) *CuNuh

ma-ulawevade, get out of sight; lose way (PAN: *ma-ulaw) *ulaw

Paiwan (360 / 933)

ma-vakaŋto walk bowlegged or with feet splayed outwards (PAN: *bakaŋ)

ma-valiwind-blown (PAN: *ma-bali₁) *bali₃

ma-vanawtake a bath (PAN: *ma-bañaw₁) *bañaw

ma-vekutsbe bent down (as by over-heavy burden, or pressure) (PAN: *bekuC)

ma-velaqbe(come) split (PAN: *ma-belaq) *belaq

ma-velʸutsbe pulled out (grass) (PAN: *beNuC)

ma-vetusatiated, to have eaten one's fill (PAN: *ma-besuR) *besuR

ma-vukrotten (of meat); leprous; dead (conscience) (PMP: *ma-buRuk) *buRuk

ma-vutsahave bad eyesight (PAN: *ma-buCa) *buCa

ma-vutube at enmity (PAN: *busuR₁)

me-gatselbegin to itch (PAN: *gaCel)

me-lawawide (PAN: *lawa₁)

me-ŋiluto cause to smart (PAN: *ŋilu)

mere-ka-kan-enlarge edible thing (as sweet potato); (metaphorically) penis (“eaten” by vagina) (PAN: *ka-kaen-en) *kaen

me-suawto yawn (PAN: *ma-Suaw) *Suaw

me-tsevuŋto meet (as two persons, or two ends of necklace) (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

mi-kedutsto jump from shock or sudden pain (PAN: *kezuC)

m<in>atsaopen-eyed (PAN: *m<in>aCa) *maCa

mi-sepito dream (PAN: *Sepi)

mudiŋ-anface (a person’s) (PAN: *mujiŋ-an) *mujiŋ

Paiwan (380 / 933)

mu-laviqoverflow (PAN: *labi)

mu-laviqto overflow (PAN: *labiq)

m-ulawlose sight of (PAN: *ulaw)

m-umalʸdo again (PAN: *uman) *umaN

m-utjaqto vomit (PAN: *um-utaq) *utaq

nagenitive case marker for common nouns (PAN: *na₃)

na-kuyabad, defective, dangerous (as a person) (PAN: *kuya₁) *kuya

na-kuya-ndisability (PAN: *kuya₁) *kuya Western

na ma-vutsablind (PAN: *ma-buCa) *buCa

na ma-zatjato be level (PAN: *dataR)

na-nema-nema-ŋaeverything, all sorts of things (PAN: *nema)

-navalʸright (-hand), on the right (PAN: *wanaN)

nema-ŋaa thing (PAN: *nema)

niof, by, belonging to (with personal name) (PAN: *ni)

n-ima ~ ni-imawhose? (PAN: *ni-ima) *ima

ni-tjenours (incl.) (PAN: *iten₃) *ita₁

nuif, when (PAN: *nu₁)

nu-ŋidawhen (future)? (PAN: *ka-₁)

nu-sawniin a little while, later today (PAN: *Sauni)

nu-si-ka-tjeluday after tomorrow (PAN: *Sika-telu) *telu

Paiwan (400 / 933)

nu-tiawtomorrow (PAN: *ka-₁)

ŋadána name (PAN: *ŋajan)

ŋ<al>asŋasto pant (NOISE)

ŋilupain, tartness (PAN: *ŋilu)

ŋisŋisbeard (PAN: *ŋiSŋiS)

ŋusulʸblood from the nose; nosebleed (PAN: *ŋuSuN)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

padayrice (plant, grain): Oryza sativa (PAN: *pajay)

pa-djeketsto paste (PAN: *pa-dekeC) *dekeC

pa-djuluprepare something in advance (PAN: *zuluʔ)

pa-gəmgəmcrush or grasp forcefully in hand (PAN: *gemgem)

pa-geritsto scream (in fright) (PAN: *geriC)

paka-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-ka-) *pa-₂

paka-ḍusasecond wife (PAN: *paka-duSa) *duSa Western

pa-kánto feed (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pa-katsucause something to be carried (PAN: *pa-kaCu) *kaCu

paka-ulawfail to recognize (someone whom one knows) (PAN: *ulaw)

pa-kavato clothe (PAN: *kabaR)

pa-ki-tsaqu-anto cause to learn skill (PAN: *Caqu)

pa-ɬaŋuyto cause swimming or immersion (PAN: *Naŋuy)

Paiwan (420 / 933)

pa-li-gəmgəmto make a fist (PAN: *gemgem)

pa-likuzto look back (PAN: *pa-likud) *likud

pa-likuzto turn one’s back to (PAN: *pa-likud) *likud Western

palisirite, ceremony; tabu; "superstition" (PAN: *paliSi)

palisi-anprivate parts of human body (PAN: *paliSi)

p<aɬ>ukpukto throb, pulsate (as heart) (PAN: *pukpuk)

palʸiŋdoor (PAN: *paNiŋ)

panbait (for fishhook or trap) (PAN: *paen)

panaqarrow (PAN: *panaq)

paŋudalʸpandanus; pineapple; Pandanus odoratissimus var. sinensis (PAN: *paŋudaN)

pa-pa-piliqto sort out, divide (PAN: *piliq)

pa-pe-qetseŋelto blacken (PAN: *qeCeŋeN)

pa-pu-laviqto fill something to overflowing (PAN: *labiq)

pa-puzuɬ-ana spool (PAN: *puduN)

pa-qadawput in the sun (to dry); use a burning-glass (PAN: *qajaw)

pa-qetjutjto break wind (PAN: *pa-qetut) *qetut

pa-qudjalʸcause rain, give rain to (PAN: *pa-quzaN) *quzaN

pa-qulʸato make light (ROOT)

pa-qulʸa-qulʸatorch (ROOT)

pa-quzipraise an animal (PAN: *pa-qudip) *qudip

Paiwan (440 / 933)

pariukwok, large, round-bottomed metal pan for cooking (PAN: *pariuk)

pa-sakutscause things to be moved (PAN: *SakuC)

pa-sakuts-anplace to which things will be moved (PAN: *SakuC)

pa-sapitjput between others (as papers); put in a book (PAN: *Sapit)

pa-satjezcause something to be returned (PAN: *pa-SateD) *SateD

pa-sedjamto lend, loan (PAN: *pa-hinzam) *hinzam

pa-sedjamto lend, loan (PAN: *pa-Sezam) *Sezam

pa-sekezto cause to stop (as automobile); to cause to rest (PAN: *Seked) Western

pa-talawput out a container in order to catch falling water (PAN: *salaw)

patsaknewly born calf or deer (PAN: *paCak)

pa-tsegtsegnail something onto something else (PAN: *CegCeg)

pa-tututo suckle (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁ Western

pa-utjaqcause vomiting (PAN: *pa-utaq) *utaq

pa-vaito give (PAN: *pa-beRay) *beRay

pa-vunavunto plant seedlings (PAN: *bunabun)

pa-zalʸumto irrigate (PAN: *pa-daNum) *daNum

pe-djamuqbleed (PAN: *damuq)

pe-luseqto shed tears (PAN: *luSeq)

pe-ŋusulʸhave a nosebleed (PAN: *ŋuSuN)

pe-quḍasto become white-haired (PAN: *qudaS)

Paiwan (460 / 933)

peteqa break, split (in glass, pottery) (PAN: *peceq₁) *peceq

petsiksnap the fingers (PAN: *peCik)

piaḍplate, dish (PAN: *piad) Southern

pidahow much?, how many? (PAN: *pija)

pi-natukto boil (PAN: *nasuk)

pitjuseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

piukdimple; dent in something soft (PAN: *piuk)

pi-zu ato put there (PAN: *dua)

p<n>aizto fan something (PAN: *paid)

p<n>anaqto shoot, using bow and arrow (PAN: *p<in>anaq) *panaq

p<n>e-ḍusato split into two (PAN: *duSa)

p<n>e-tseviqdivide something; break in pieces (PAN: *Cebiq)

p<n>iliqto choose, sort out (PAN: *p<um>iliq) *piliq

p<n>uzuɬto spin a cocoon; to wrap cord around something (PAN: *puduN)

pu-amincomplete, terminate, leave (PAN: *am(e)ʔin)

pu-amin a t<m>ututo wean (amin = finished) (PAN: *s<um>usu) *susu₁

pudeknavel; umbilical cord (PAN: *pujek)

pu-djalanto have a road; make a road (PAN: *zalan)

pu-garaŋbe vigorous, (back) in good health (PAN: *garaŋ₁)

pu-kasi-kasiv-anplace for storing firewood (PAN: *kaSiw)

Paiwan (480 / 933)

pu-la-layato raise a flag, fly a banner (PAN: *layaR)

puluhandle (as of a hoe) (PAN: *pulu₁) *pulu

puluqgroup of ten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

pu-luvaŋ-ancemetery (PAN: *lubaŋ₁) Western

pu-matsato have good eyesight (PAN: *maCa)

punaypigeon, dove (PAN: *punay)

punuqbrain; (in Western dialect: bone marrow) (PAN: *punuq₁) *punuq

pu-ŋadánto have a name (PAN: *pu-ŋajan) *ŋajan

p-uŋay-anmonkey’s lair (PAN: *uŋay)

pu-panto bait a hook or trap (PAN: *paen)

pu-savikiengaged to be married, betrothed (Western dialect) (PAN: *Sawiki)

pu-tjezaleave over, save (esp. food) (PAN: *tedaʔ)

putsaqfoam (W) (PAN: *puCaq)

pu-tsemeltreat with medicine; a doctor (PAN: *Cemel)

pu-zalʸumto put water in or on (PAN: *pu-daNum) *daNum

puzuɬcocoon; spool; stick on which cord is wound (PAN: *puduN)

qacaŋpigpen (NOISE)

qadawsun; day; clock, watch (PAN: *qajaw)

qaḍislarge white hawk, Eastern marsh harrier: Circus aeruginosus spilonotus (PAN: *qadiS)

qalifriend (when both friends are male) (NEAR)

Paiwan (500 / 933)

qalʸaenemy, stranger (PAN: *qaNa)

qalʸa-qalʸaoutsiders, guests from other villages (PAN: *qaNa)

qalʸi-anspindle and whorl (for weaving) (PAN: *qaNi)

qalʸitsskin, pod, shell (PAN: *qaNiC)

qalʸudjto lose, throw away (PAN: *qañud)

qalʸupto hunt (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup

qampangolin, anteater (PAN: *qaRem)

qamisnorth (PAN: *qamiS) Northeastern

qanivuŋPhoenix hanceana var. formosana (bush and fruit) (PAN: *qanibuŋ)

qaŋelitsbe scorched (rice or millet) (PAN: *qaŋeliC)

qaŋeruodor of rotted crab (PAN: *qaŋeRu)

qapedugall bladder; bile (PAN: *qapeju)

qapizsomething braided in six strands (as jewelry) (PAN: *qapid)

qa-qalʸup-anhunting territory (PAN: *qaNup-an) *qaNup

qa-qalʸup-enwild game (object of hunting) (PAN: *qaNup-en) *qaNup

qa-qelʸev-anprison (PAN: *qeNeb₁)

qarizaŋstring beans (PAN: *qaRidaŋ)

qaselupestle (PAN: *qaSelu)

qatiasalt (PAN: *qasiRa)

qatsayliver (PAN: *qaCay)

Paiwan (520 / 933)

qaubamboo (generic) (PAN: *qauR₁) *qauR

qauŋto weep; grief, sorrow (PAN: *qauŋ)

qava-nshoulder (PAN: *qabaRa-an) *qabaRa₁

qavasa blaze (mark cut on tree to show ownership) (PAN: *qabaS)

qavuashes; betel lime (PAN: *qabu₁) *qabu

qavu-qavu-anstove, three-stone fireplace for cooking (PAN: *qabu-an) *qabu

qawqawshout loudly (PAN: *qawqaw)

qayamomen bird (PAN: *qayam₁)

qeletsa joint in bamboo (PAN: *qeleC)

qeluzmain house pillar (which supports ridge pole) (PAN: *qelud)

qelʸevdiaphragm (anat.) (PAN: *qeNeb₁)

qelʸuanimal trail, small path made by animals (PAN: *qeNuR)

qemqemhave mouth full; to muzzle (PAN: *qemqem)

qemusomething that has been beaten in a mortar, as millet into flour (PAN: *qemu)

qesir(onom.) have a deadened sound (as bells falling to the ground) (PAN: *qesir)

qesirto have a deadened sound (as if bells fell to the ground) (ROOT)

qetepto swallow liquid while masticating something solid (as sugarcane) (PAN: *qesep)

qetjutjfart, flatulence (PAN: *qetut₁) *qetut

qetseŋbarrier, fence, enclosure; a "no entry" sign to humans or evil spirits (e.g. a stick left in certain position in front of house) (PAN: *qeCeŋ)

qetseŋelblack (PAN: *qeCeŋeN)

Paiwan (540 / 933)

qetsiluegg (of bird, snake) (PAN: *qiCeluR)

qevutjextinguish a fire (NOISE)

qezetja weight, pressure from above (PAN: *qedet)

qiawfrog (PAN: *qiaw)

qilusbits of faeces left around anus (PAN: *qiluS)

qilʸasmoon, month (PAN: *qiNaS)

qilʸas-anmoonlight (PAN: *qiNaS)

q<in>alʸá-nvillage (PAN: *qaNa)

q-in-am-anpangolin's hole or den (PAN: *qaRem)

q-in-atia-nsomething which has been salted (PAN: *qasiRa-en) *qasiRa

q<in>emuflour (PAN: *qemu)

q-in-uma-ncrops (PAN: *q<in>umah) *qumah

qisushark (PAN: *qiSu)

qiuŋsound of a pig squealing (PAN: *qiuŋ₁) *qiuŋ

q-m-adawthe sun shines (PAN: *q<um>ajaw) *qajaw

q-m-alitsto skin (animal) (PAN: *q<um>aNiC) *qaNiC

q<m>alʸa-qalʸato entertain guests (PAN: *qaNa) Western

q-m-alʸupto hunt (wild game) (PAN: *q<um>aNup) *qaNup

q-m-elʸevto shut something (PAN: *qeNeb₁)

q-m-etepto "eat" the liquid portion of something (as sugarcane) (PAN: *q<um>esep) *qesep

Paiwan (560 / 933)

q-m-etjutjto break wind (PAN: *q<um>etut) *qetut

q-m-ezetjpress down (as a lid); to oppress (people) (PAN: *qedet)

q-m-ilusclean a child after bowel movement (PAN: *qiluS)

q-m-ipiŋincline one's head to one side (PAN: *qipiŋ)

q-m-udjalʸto rain (PAN: *q<um>uzaN) *quzaN

q-m-uzi-quzipanimal (PAN: *qudip₁) *qudip

quayrattan: Calamus margaritae (PAN: *quay)

quḍaswhite hair (PAN: *qudaS)

qudjalʸrain (PAN: *quzaN)

quluhead (PAN: *quluh)

qulu-quluhead end (as of bed) (PAN: *qulu qulu) *quluh

qumacultivated field (PAN: *qumah)

qumuwater held in the mouth (not saliva) (PAN: *qumuR)

quŋtsuytobacco-pipe (Min) (LOAN)

qupuŋa swarm of honeybees (PAN: *qupuŋ)

quriawnoise of many people shouting loudly (PAN: *quriaw)

qusav-anthirst (PAN: *quSaw-an) *quSaw

qusawthirst (PAN: *quSaw)

qutsa-qutsalʸfallow land, land formerly used for cultivation but now reverted to wilderness (PAN: *quCaN)

quvalʸhair of head; animal's hair (PAN: *qubaN)

Paiwan (580 / 933)

quvispubic hair, axillary hair (PAN: *qubiS)

quzaŋshrimp, lobster (PAN: *qudaŋ)

quze-quzemdull (PAN: *qudem)

r<m>a-kudá-nwhen? at what time (to go somewhere)? (PAN: *kuja₁) *kuja

r-m-autsto split wood (PAN: *rauC) Western

r-m-awrawto rinse (clothing) (PAN: *rawraw)

ru-kai-kaito chatter, be a chatterbox (PAN: *kaRi)

ruvua nest (PAN: *Rubu) Tjuabu

ruvu-ruvunest; prison (PAN: *Rubu) Western

saclause-linking particle: and, and then (PAN: *Sa₁)

sakutsroute over which things are moved (PAN: *SakuC)

sa-kuyabad-tasting (PAN: *kuya₁) *kuya

s-alimbusy, preoccupied (PAN: *alim)

samaqan herb: Lactuca indica (PAN: *Samaq)

sametsia plant: Solanum nigrum (PMP: *SameCi)

sanaqotter (PAN: *Sanaq)

sapediqbe tender-footed; feet hurt (cited as sa-pediq) (PAN: *Sapejiq)

sapitjbook (PAN: *Sapit)

sapuya fire; artificial light (PAN: *Sapuy)

sa-sayalʸtermite (PAN: *SayaN)

Paiwan (600 / 933)

sa-sekez-ana resting place beside a trail (PAN: *Seked)

sa-sipetjworm sp. found in millet beer (NOISE)

sa-surur-anpulley (PAN: *SuluR)

satjezreturn something; object which is being returned (PAN: *SateD)

savatspiles of firewood (NOISE)

savidthings without exception, identical (as children born at the same time and all of same sex) (PAN: *Sabij)

savikiAreca catechu (tree and nut) (PAN: *Sawiki)

sawnia short while (PAN: *Sauni)

sa-zua-indestination (PAN: *dua) Western

sedjamsomething borrowed (PAN: *Sezam)

se-djeketsto adhere to, stick (PAN: *dekeC)

selemthe dark, the World of the Dead (ROOT)

selutstie in a knot (NOISE)

sematongue (PAN: *Sema)

s<em>enaysing (LOAN)

semutjsmothering, choking (PAN: *Semut)

se-nemabelonging to what place (village, nation)? (PAN: *nema)

seŋatsone who characteristically dislikes things (ROOT)

se-pa-lyatuto be boiled accidentally along with meat (PAN: *Nasu)

sepatjfour (PAN: *Sepat)

Paiwan (620 / 933)

sepidream (ROOT)

se-qalʸato be shy (PAN: *qaNa) Western

se-qalʸudjbe lost (object); die (person); be carried away by current (PAN: *qañud)

setimeat (PAN: *Sesi)

se-tsugtsugto bump one’s head against something (PAN: *CugCug₂)

sevalʸcarry someone on the back (PAN: *SebaN)

sevusto hiss (as water on fire) (PAN: *sebuS)

sevutsremove grain stalks from field after harvest (PAN: *SebuC)

si-be the instrument or cause of (PAN: *Si-₁)

sibelonging to a certain time in the past (NOISE)

siaqshyness, embarrassment (PAN: *Seyaq)

si-ka-prefix for ordinal numbers (PAN: *Sika-)

sika-ḍusasecond (PAN: *Sika-duSa) *duSa

sika-limafifth (ordinal numeral) (PAN: *Sika-lima) *lima

si-káneating implement; reason for eating (PAN: *Si-kaen) *kaen

sika-puluqthe tenth (PAN: *Sika-puluq) *puluq

si-ka-ta-qalʸá-none’s own villagers (PAN: *qaNa)

si-ka-tjeluthird (PAN: *Sika-telu) *telu

simaraw animal fat (after cooking or rendering into oil it is qalev) (PAN: *SimaR)

s-in-evalʸsomeone carried on someone else's back (PAN: *S<in>ebaN) *SebaN

Paiwan (640 / 933)

siŋusto sniff (PAN: *Siŋus)

si-paiz-ana fan (PAN: *paid)

si-qelʸev-anwindow, sliding door (PAN: *qeNeb₁)

sisilʸGould’s Quaker-Thrush, Alcippe brunnea brunnea Gould; an important omen bird. Flying from right to left means taboo; heard with tjiḍir [small brown omen bird] it means ‘you will eat pork’. (PAN: *SiSiN) Western

si-tiav-anyesterday (NOISE)

siupsuck in air (PAN: *Seyup)

sivanine (PAN: *Siwa)

si-vetsikwriting or drawing implement (PAN: *beCik)

sizinative wild goat, the Formosan serow: Capricornis crispus swinhoei Gray (PAN: *Sidi)

s-m-akutsmove objects from one place to another; move objects over same route more than one trip (PAN: *SakuC)

s-m-apaspread out (on ground); put pad of leaves between burden and one's back (PAN: *SapaR)

s-m-apaspread out (on ground); put pad of leaves between burden and one's back (PAN: *S<um>apaR) *SapaR

s-m-apitjput in a pile (papers, etc.) (PAN: *Sapit)

s-m-apuycarry a torch or light (PAN: *S<um>apuy) *Sapuy

s-m-atjezreturn something; send off a visitor (PAN: *S<um>ateD) *SateD

s<m>a-zuago there (PAN: *dua)

s<m>ekezto stop, rest (PAN: *Seked)

s<m>emastick out the tongue (Western dialect) (PAN: *Sema)

s<m>emutjto smother someone (PAN: *Semut)

s<m>u-kasiwto remove branches (as when tree is too large to be felled) (PAN: *kaSiw)

Paiwan (660 / 933)

s<m>u-kavato take off clothes (PAN: *kabaR)

s<m>u-luseqto wipe away tears (PAN: *luSeq)

s<m>ulʸato freeze; to snow (PAN: *SuReNa)

s<m>uputo count, reckon (PAN: *SipuR)

s-m-u-vutsacure blindness (PAN: *buCa)

suyou, your (sg.) (PAN: *Suʔu)

suawyawn (PAN: *Suaw)

sulemdarkness; twilight (PAN: *Sulem)

sulemdarkness, twilight (ROOT)

sulʸaice, snow (PAN: *SuReNa)

sulʸamekpowder (ROOT)

sunatpaper (LOAN) Makazayazaya

supiqlongest leaf-shoot of taro (edible) (PAN: *Supiq)

supusum, amount, number (PAN: *SipuR)

surura taut-stretched line (PAN: *SuluR)

ta-one (PAN: *esa)

ta-one (PAN: *sa₃)

ta-alay-ana single thread (PAN: *sa₃)

ta-djalansame, same kind of (“one road”) (PAN: *zalan)

ta-djalan a tsautsausame kind of people (PAN: *zalan)

Paiwan (680 / 933)

ta-idayone hundred (PAN: *sa₃)

taketsmuntjac, pygmy deer (PAN: *sakeC)

talawfalling water (PAN: *salaw)

taleŋpine tree, evergreen (generic); Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana (PAN: *saleŋ)

taɬiwsmall (pocket-sized) whetstone (PAN: *saNiw)

tamaqa fraction (of thing, number) (PAN: *samaq)

tamaqa fraction (of thing, number) (NOISE)

tapawhouse in fields (PAN: *sapaw)

ta-puluqten (PAN: *sa-puluq) *puluq

taqtaqsplit bamboo (PAN: *saqsaq)

taqtaqsplit bamboo (NOISE)

ta-si-ka-tjeluday before yesterday (PAN: *Sika-telu) *telu

ta-tamekgnat (LOAN)

ta-tamekgnat (NEAR)

ta-tapav-antrace or ruin of where a single house formerly stood (PAN: *sapaw)

tataq-anlarge whetstone (PAN: *Sasaq-an) *Sasaq

ta veŋinone night (PAN: *beRŋi-n) *beRŋi

ta-vuled-anone single mountain (PAN: *buled₁)

tedepenter (house) (PAN: *sejep)

telʸarbrightness; light (natural) (ROOT)

Paiwan (700 / 933)

teptepsuck (PAN: *sepsep)

tequŋhorn (PAN: *sequŋ)

tevua skin bag (made from animal’s bladder) (PAN: *sebu)

tezuhiccup (PAN: *sedu)

tiparticle used before personal name or independent pronoun (PAN: *si₁)

ti-akenI (PAN: *aken)

ti-akenI (PAN: *amen)

ti-akenI (PAN: *iten₂)

tiawday before or after today (PAN: *ka-₁)

ti-kakamy older siblings (reference) (PAN: *kaka₂) Western

tikaymaggot (PAN: *sihikay)

t-imawho? (from ti-ima) (PAN: *si-ima) *ima

t-ima-imawho? (several persons) (PAN: *si-ima) *ima

t<in>alawwater which has fallen (PAN: *salaw)

ti-tjenwe (incl.), independent form (PAN: *iten₃) *ita₁

ti vuvu i imawhich grandparent? (‘grandparent who?’) (PAN: *ima)

tja-inaM (affectionate term, most frequently used in speaking to children) (PAN: *ta-ina) *ina

tja-i-vililʸbehind; afterwards (PAN: *biliN)

tjakitlarge knife, sword; sickle (Western dialect) (PAN: *takis)

tj-alʸ-amtjamsmack one's lips (PAN: *tamtam)

Paiwan (720 / 933)

tjalʸekto cook food in advance (as for journey) (PAN: *taNek)

tjamafather (familiar, usually in questions to child) (PAN: *ta-ama) *ama

tjanaqAralia decaisneana (PAN: *tanaq)

tjanu-akenme (PAN: *aken)

tjanu-akenme (PAN: *amen)

tjanu-akenme (PAN: *iten₂)

tjanu-itjenus (incl.) (PAN: *iten₃) *ita₁

tjara-ḍusaeach one (gets) two (PAN: *duSa)

tja-tjenun-enthreads already placed on the loom (PAN: *tenun)

tjeguŋmake noise (ROOT)

tjeguŋto make noise (PAN: *teguŋ) Western

tjeluthree (PAN: *telu)

tjelʸevheavy, flooding rain (ROOT)

tj-em-eŋtjeŋto whisper (PAN: *teŋteŋ)

tj<em>ukezto prop something up (PAN: *tuked)

tjenunto weave (PAN: *tenun)

tjenun-anloom (PAN: *tenun-an) *tenun

tjeŋitsgrimace at pain (PAN: *teŋiC) Western

tjevasto cut, prune, clear (vegetation) (PAN: *tebaS)

tjevussugarcane: Saccharum officinarum (PAN: *tebuS)

Paiwan (740 / 933)

tjezasomething saved, left over; a remainder (PAN: *tedaʔ)

tjialʸbelly (PAN: *tiaN)

tji-kezemhave the eyes closed (PAN: *kezem)

tjimizchin, mandible, jaw (PAN: *timij)

tj<in>alʸekprepared food (especially taken along for journey); cooked food in general (PMP: *t<in>anek) *taNek Western

tj<in>uzuq-ana drop of water that has fallen (PAN: *tuduq)

tj<m>enunto weave (cloth) (PAN: *t<um>enun) *tenun

tj<m>eŋtjeŋto whisper (NEAR)

tj<m>ialʸhave a large belly (PAN: *tiaN)

tj-m-uktjukto peck; to strike (as a snake) (PAN: *tuktuk₁)

tj-m-uqtjuqto hammer (PAN: *tuqtuq)

tj<m>uzuqto drip (PAN: *tuduq)

tjuiqbird sp. (PAN: *tuiq)

tjukeza prop (PAN: *tuked)

tjuktjukbeak (of bird) (PAN: *tuktuk₁)

tjuɬaeel; penis (jokingly) (PAN: *tuNa)

tju-qalʸaother villages (PAN: *qaNa) Western

tjuqezlow tree-stump (PAN: *tuqed)

tjuqtjuqblacksmith's hammer (PAN: *tuqtuq)

tjurtjurdove, pigeon (PAN: *tuRtuR)

Paiwan (760 / 933)

tjuzuqa drop (of water) (PAN: *tuduq)

t<m>alawto catch falling water in a container (PAN: *salaw)

t<m>aɬiwto hone, to whet (as knife) (PAN: *saNiw)

t-m-aqtaqto split bamboo (PAN: *saqsaq)

t-m-ataqto whet (on large stone) (PAN: *Sasaq)

t<m>avuto package, wrap (PAN: *Cabu)

t<m>eptepto suck (as water off skin, or blood from wound) (PAN: *s<um>epsep) *sepsep

t<m>equŋto use horns (as buffalo when fighting) (PAN: *sequŋ)

t<m>ulʸarbe bright, shining (PAN: *suNaR) Southern

t<m>ulʸarbe bright, shining (PAN: *s<um>uNaR) *suNaR Southern

t<m>ututo suckle (PAN: *s<um>usu) *susu₁

tsakawsteal; do secretly (PAN: *Cakaw)

tsaliŋaear (PAN: *Caliŋa)

tsaliŋa-liŋaColeus scutellarioides; Iresine herbstii (PAN: *Caliŋa)

tsaliŋa nua djaumeye of a needle (PAN: *Caliŋa)

tsalisa hemp cord (PAN: *CaliS)

ts-alʸ-ebakmake the sound of one object falling (as stone, book) (PAN: *Cebak)

tsalʸumto carry water (PAN: *CaNum) Western

tsapadried meat or fish (PAN: *Capa)

tsapela cloth patch (-m-, -in-, -an) (PAN: *Capel)

Paiwan (780 / 933)

tsaqiexcrement, feces (PAN: *Caqi)

tsaqismake clothes by sewing; sew (-en) (PAN: *CaqiS)

tsaquto be able to (PAN: *Caqu)

tsaqu-anskill (PAN: *Caqu-an) *Caqu Western

tsasawoutdoors, outside (PAN: *CaSaw)

tsa-tsaqis-enclothes being made by sewing (PAN: *Ca-CaqiS) *CaqiS

tsau tsauperson, human being; (in some contexts) living being (as embryo found in egg, or bee as opposed to the nest) (mu-, -m-, -in-, k-in-a- -an, ka- -an, ru-, pu- -an) (PAN: *Cau Cau) *Cau

tsavilʸyear (PAN: *CawiN)

tsavua wrapping; fingerless gloves for work in fields (PAN: *Cabu)

tsebukmake a "bong" sound (PAN: *Cebuk)

tsegtsega nail (PAN: *CegCeg)

tsekesthin bamboo (used for pipe stems, arrow shafts); a pipestem (PAN: *CekeS)

tsektseka stake, pointed stick (PAN: *CekCek)

tselaqa crack or split (e.g., in wood, foot, fruit) (PAN: *Celaq)

tselaqcrack or split (ROOT)

tseltselpound in a nail (PAN: *CelCel)

tsemelplants (generic, excluding trees); medicine (including now pills and injections) (PAN: *Cemel)

tseme-tsemeluncultivated land (PAN: *Ceme-Cemel) *Cemel

tsetekhave an injection (PAN: *Cesek)

tse-tsemela grass field (PAN: *Ceme-Cemel) *Cemel Western

Paiwan (800 / 933)

tseviqa portion of something left after shares have been taken (PAN: *Cebiq)

tsevudspring-water; water from a natural source (PAN: *Cebuj)

tsevulʸsmoke (PAN: *CebuN)

tsevuŋto meet; something held in common (as field jointly owned) (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

tsikel-ucome back! (PAN: *Cikel)

ts-in-akawstolen objects (PAN: *C<in>akaw) *Cakaw

ts-in-aqis-ansewn seam (PAN: *CaqiS-an) *CaqiS

ts-in-ulʸube burnt, slaughtered (PAN: *C<in>uNuh) *CuNuh

tsiŋasfood particles between teeth (PAN: *CiŋaS)

tsiqawfish (generic) (PAN: *Ciqaw)

tsirularge dipper (PAN: *Cidu)

ts-m-abtsabclap hands (PAN: *CabCab)

ts-m-alisto manufacture hemp cord (PAN: *C<um>aliS) *CaliS

ts<m>aŋitjto wail (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis Western

ts-m-aqissew, make clothes by sewing (PAN: *C<um>aqiS) *CaqiS

ts-m-egtsegdrive a nail into something (PAN: *CegCeg)

ts<m>evulʸbe smoky; perform type of ritual action (PAN: *CebuN)

ts-m-ikelto return (somewhere) (PAN: *Cikel)

ts-m-ugtsughit something against something else (PAN: *CugCug₁)

ts<m>ugtsugto hit something against something else; to knock on (door) (PAN: *C<um>ugCug) *CugCug₂

Paiwan (820 / 933)

ts-m-ulʸuto roast meat; burn something or someone; kill a pig or chicken (PAN: *C<um>uNuh) *CuNuh

ts-m-uqelalʸbe bony, have prominent bones (PAN: *CuqelaN)

ts-m-usuto string (beads) (PAN: *C<um>uSuR) *CuSuR

ts-m-uvuqto sprout (PAN: *C<um>ubuq) *Cubuq

tsukevcover (ROOT)

tsulʸuto roast something (PAN: *CuNuh)

tsulʸu-anheat (PAN: *CuNuh-an) *CuNuh

tsumaythe Formosan black bear (PAN: *Cumay)

tsupukhit with a club (ROOT)

tsuqelalʸbone (PAN: *CuqelaN)

tsuqelalʸ nua kasiwheartwood (PAN: *CuqelaN)

tsurisa scratch, gash (wound); a line (-m-, ma-) (PAN: *Curis)

tsusua cord for stringing something on (as beads, millet) (PAN: *CuSuR)

tsuvuqa free-standing sprout; bamboo sprout (PAN: *Cubuq)

tu-aoblique case marker for common nouns (PAN: *su)

tukuz-anstaff, cane, walking stick (PAN: *sukud)

tulʸarbrightness, light (PAN: *suNaR) Southern

tuqulʸcarry on the head (PAN: *suquN)

tuqulʸa tree: Acacia confusa (PAN: *tuquN)

tu-tsunow (PAN: *-Cu)

Paiwan (840 / 933)

tutubreasts (PAN: *susu₁)

uaexclamation of pain or surprise (PAN: *ua)

uatsvein, blood vessel; sinew (PAN: *huRaC)

u kaif ... were to (PAN: *ka₂)

ulawcountless; a boundless number (PAN: *ulaw)

ulʸaysomething broken off inside something else (as thorn in flesh) (PAN: *uNay)

umaqhouse; (Western Paiwan) grave (PAN: *Rumaq)

uqalʸaymale (PAN: *RuqaNay)

utjaqvomit (PAN: *utaq)

vadiwedible mushroom sp. (PAN: *bajiw)

vaigive (PAN: *beRay₁) *beRay

vaidaweaver's sword (for loom) (PAN: *baRija)

valeŋpickled meat (preserved with salt, water, and millet-beer dregs) (LOAN)

valetoppose someone, talk or strike back; do in return; trade places with; return a visit; oppose, take revenge (PAN: *bales₁)

valiwind, air (PAN: *bali₃)

valiwind (LOAN)

validthick (forest), dense, closely planted (NOISE)

valʸaa plant: Smilax bracteata, S. china (PAN: *baNaR)

valʸasmale, of animal (somewhat obscene) (PAN: *baNaS)

valʸiboard, wooden plank (NOISE)

Paiwan (860 / 933)

valʸitjuqshiny metal object; lead; bullet; money (LOAN)

vaŋasa tree: Melia azedarach (PAN: *baŋaS)

vaŋ-vaŋchest cavity (anatomical) (PAN: *baRaŋ)

vaqesiŋa sneeze (PAN: *baqeSiŋ)

vaqu-annew (PAN: *baqeRuh)

v-ar-eŋveŋblazing, of fire (PAN: *b<aR>eŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₂ Western

vatseed, kernel, grain; testicles (PAN: *beRas₁) *beRas

vatsalʸa deep pool; lake (Western Paiwan) (PAN: *waCaN)

vatsa-vatsalʸsmall pond (PAN: *waCa-waCaN) *waCaN Western

va-vai-anwoman, female person (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

vavawup, above (PAN: *babaw₃)

vavuywild pig: Sus taivanus (PAN: *babuy₃)

velakaa split in wood (ROOT)

velaqa slit, rip; vulva (PAN: *belaq)

velibuy, sell (PAN: *beli₁) *beli

velʸelemcloud shadows; overcast (ROOT)

velʸvelʸbanana (PAN: *beNbeN)

venandeer (gen.); Cervus unicolor swinhoei (PAN: *benan)

veŋinnight (as occurrence) (PAN: *beRŋi-n) *beRŋi

veŋveŋwind-screen, shelter (PAN: *beŋbeŋ₁)

Paiwan (880 / 933)

vereŋetswrinkled; scowling (face) (ROOT)

vetsikwriting; tattoo; design (carved, beadwork, etc.) (PAN: *beCik)

vetsucallus (PAN: *beCuʔ)

viaqleaf used in rites (may be of various plants) (PAN: *biRaq₁)

vigeŋnitsto make faces (ROOT)

vililʸbe behind (when moving) (PAN: *biliN)

vilʸuaqOreopanax formosanus, Hibiscus mutabilis (NOISE)

vilʸvilʸpull towards oneself (as one's hand) (NOISE)

v-in-etsik-ansomething which has been written or drawn (PAN: *b<in>eCik) *beCik

viqi-viqirlopsided, off-center (PAN: *biqiR)

vireŋitsgrimace at pain (ROOT)

vi-reŋitsto grimace (at pain) (PAN: *reŋiC) Western

virileft (direction) (PAN: *wiRi)

virvirlips (PAN: *biRbiR)

vitjivitjwave; wag back and forth; dart back and forth (PAN: *witiwit)

vitsukastomach (PAN: *biCuka)

v-n-aito give (PAN: *beRay₁) *beRay

v<n>akaŋto walk bowlegged (intentionally) (PAN: *bakaŋ)

v<n>aŋasto thunder in winter (? a sign that vaŋas are budding) (PAN: *baŋaS) Western

v<n>aqesiŋto sneeze (when one sneezes he should say ‘palisi’ [taboo] and if going somewhere he should return home) (PAN: *baqeSiŋ)

Paiwan (900 / 933)

v<n>ay-vaydry something in the sun (by hanging it up) (PAN: *waRi₁)

v-n-ekutspull something down (as branch of tree); pull trigger (PAN: *bekuC)

v-n-elaqsplit a long object; split with one blow (PAN: *b<in>elaq) *belaq

v-n-elʸutspull up or out (grass, plants) (PAN: *beNuC)

v-n-etsubecome calloused (PAN: *beCuʔ)

v-n-etu(of food) to cause to be satiated (PAN: *besuR)

v-n-iqircause to be lopsided (PAN: *biqiR)

v-n-tsikto write; to design (PAN: *b<in>eCik) *beCik

v-n-uklet something rot (PAN: *b<in>uRuk) *buRuk

vuakto hatch (NOISE)

vuaqDioscorea alata (wild); Dioscorea esculenta var. spinosa (cultigen) (PAN: *buaq)

vukrotten meat (PMP: *buRuk)

vukidforest; forested inland mountain areas; continuous forest (PAN: *bukij)

vuki-vukideyebrow; woods on foothills (said to be inhabited by ancestors and evil spirits) (PAN: *bukij)

vuleda single mountain (PAN: *buled₁)

vulilʸawlʸawwhirlwind (PAN: *buli-)

vulʸawloach (fish sp.) (NOISE)

vunavunseedlings of grains or grasses (PAN: *bunabun)

vuŋuMeliosma rhoifolia (young leaves fried and added to soup) (PAN: *buŋuR)

vusRhus semialata var. roxburghiana (leaves used as soap) (PAN: *beRus₁)

Paiwan (920 / 933)

vuteŋutsmake a wry face (ROOT)

vutjsquirrel (PAN: *buhet)

vutuenemy (PAN: *busuR₁)

vuvugrandparents/grandchildren (PAN: *bubu₆)

zalʸumwater (PAN: *daNum)

zaqusoapberry (PAN: *daqu₂) Butanglu

zayaupland; upriver (PAN: *daya)

zeletbowstring (PAN: *deles)

zepuŋcobra: Naja naja (PAN: *depuŋ)

z-m-aiŋmake noise, shout (PAN: *daRiŋ)

zua-zua-infurthest (PAN: *dua) Western

zuŋdistant rolling thunder (PAN: *deRuŋ₁)

Paiwan (Butanglu) (1) Form.

zaqusoapberry (PAN: *daqu₂)

Paiwan (Makazayazaya) (1) Form.

sunatpaper (LOAN)

Paiwan (Northeastern) (1) Form.

qamisnorth (PAN: *qamiS)

Paiwan (Southern) (7) Form.

bua-buayflower (PAN: *buRay)

guritsasquid, octopus (PAN: *guRiCa)

lʸa-lʸaqedi-anboundary between fields (PAN: *Naqeji)

piaḍplate, dish (PAN: *piad)

t<m>ulʸarbe bright, shining (PAN: *suNaR)

t<m>ulʸarbe bright, shining (PAN: *s<um>uNaR) *suNaR

tulʸarbrightness, light (PAN: *suNaR)

Paiwan (Tjuabu) (1) Form.

ruvua nest (PAN: *Rubu)

Paiwan (Western) (41) Form.

alʸakchild; interest on deposit (PAN: *aNak)

djanawlake without outlets; estuary (PAN: *danaw)

ka- -anformative for abstract nouns; ka-vavaian-an ‘womanhood, femininity, value as a woman’ (cp. vavaian ‘woman, female person’ (PAN: *ka- -an₃)

kamayamango: Diospyros discolor (PAN: *kamaya)

kavasnake slough (PAN: *kabaR)

kawkawsickle (PAN: *kawkaw₁)

ku-kakamy younger siblings (reference) (PAN: *kaka₂)

liku-likuz-anthe backmost (PAN: *liku-likud-an) *likud

liqeneck (PAN: *liqeR)

ƚusepitthin (as paper), thin, as person (ROOT)

luvaŋa grave, grave-pit; a covered pit trap (PAN: *lubaŋ₁)

lʸivshelter under overhanging rock (PAN: *Nihib)

ma-kuda-kudahow much? (PAN: *kuja₁) *kuja

ma-susuqenter a small hole and fall; to leak down (PAN: *SuSuq)

ma-tja-tja-vililʸgoing along in file (PAN: *biliN)

na-kuya-ndisability (PAN: *kuya₁) *kuya

paka-ḍusasecond wife (PAN: *paka-duSa) *duSa

pa-likuzto turn one’s back to (PAN: *pa-likud) *likud

pa-sekezto cause to stop (as automobile); to cause to rest (PAN: *Seked)

pa-tututo suckle (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁

Paiwan (Western) (20 / 41)

pu-luvaŋ-ancemetery (PAN: *lubaŋ₁)

q<m>alʸa-qalʸato entertain guests (PAN: *qaNa)

r-m-autsto split wood (PAN: *rauC)

ruvu-ruvunest; prison (PAN: *Rubu)

sa-zua-indestination (PAN: *dua)

se-qalʸato be shy (PAN: *qaNa)

sisilʸGould’s Quaker-Thrush, Alcippe brunnea brunnea Gould; an important omen bird. Flying from right to left means taboo; heard with tjiḍir [small brown omen bird] it means ‘you will eat pork’. (PAN: *SiSiN)

ti-kakamy older siblings (reference) (PAN: *kaka₂)

tjeguŋto make noise (PAN: *teguŋ)

tjeŋitsgrimace at pain (PAN: *teŋiC)

tj<in>alʸekprepared food (especially taken along for journey); cooked food in general (PMP: *t<in>anek) *taNek

tju-qalʸaother villages (PAN: *qaNa)

tsalʸumto carry water (PAN: *CaNum)

tsaqu-anskill (PAN: *Caqu-an) *Caqu

tse-tsemela grass field (PAN: *Ceme-Cemel) *Cemel

ts<m>aŋitjto wail (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis

v-ar-eŋveŋblazing, of fire (PAN: *b<aR>eŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₂

vatsa-vatsalʸsmall pond (PAN: *waCa-waCaN) *waCaN

vi-reŋitsto grimace (at pain) (PAN: *reŋiC)

v<n>aŋasto thunder in winter (? a sign that vaŋas are budding) (PAN: *baŋaS)

Paiwan (Western) (40 / 41)

zua-zua-infurthest (PAN: *dua)

511. Pak (32) OC (Blust n.d. (1975)) [pkg] (Pak-Tong) Papua New Guinea

antermite, white ant (POC: *ane) *aNay

asa-ninner gills (PEMP: *asaŋ₂) *hasaŋ

defeces, excrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

dohuconch shell trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

ehirthe putty nut: Parinarium laurinum (POC: *qarita)

haŋto feed (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

hayblood (POC: *daRaq₂) *daRaq

hohdark (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

-k1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

kal-moŋmangrove crab (PMP: *qali-maŋu)

kanfood (POC: *kani) *kaen

kanuhsaliva (PEMP: *kanus-i) *kanus

kanuhsaliva; to spit (PEMP: *kanisu)

kayatoutrigger boom (POC: *kayajo)

kehersago grub (PMP: *qabatiR)

kophermit crab (POC: *koba)

kuŋkind of four-cornered fish (POC: *koŋa)

lum-lummoss (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

mimi-eurine (PMP: *miqmiq)

mi-mimurinate (PMP: *miqmiq)

Pak (20 / 32)

mok-opu-grandchild (POC: *mokobu) *empu

osugall, gall bladder (< A) (POC: *qasu₂)

ouhwind (generic) (POC: *aura)

pa-maruncooked, raw (POC: *mataq) *hataq

penitgrass (POC: *palisi₂) *balizi

pi-ñawwidow (POC: *ñaRo) *ñao

pomkind of seaweed used to scrub pots (POC: *poma)

punbanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

so-ŋ-ohten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

talsea urchin (POC: *salaŋ)

tuŋhungry (POC: *soŋe)

wihidolphin (POC: *kuriap)

512. Paku (8) WMP [pku] Indonesia (Kalimantan)

ka-reŋeyto hear (PMP: *deŋeR)

kikitto bite (PWMP: *kitkit)

kiteto see (PAN: *kita₂)

loŋunhand (PMP: *leŋen)

ŋ-anupto hunt (PWMP: *maŋ-qanup) *qaNup

oroʔfar (PMP: *zauq)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

toluthree (PAN: *telu)

513. Pala (2) OC

matuamother’s brother (Milke 1958) (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

sa-ŋa-hulten (PMP: *ŋa)

514. Palauan (353) WMP (McManus and Josephs 1977) [pau] Palau

aarticle (PMP: *a₁)

aligature, linking particle (PAN: *a₅)

aieight (PAN: *walu)

babarea or space above; top; surface (PAN: *babaw₃)

babílfemale (PMP: *ba-b<in>ahi) *bahi

badstone, rock, coral; crossbeams supporting floor of house; asleep (PMP: *batu₁)

baivillage meeting-house; guest-house; community house (PMP: *balay)

báilclothing; wrapping material; to wrap (present, package) (PMP: *balun₅) *baluN

baŋʔto bite (PWMP: *baŋiq)

basembers; burned pieces of wood (PMP: *baRah)

báusmell, odor, scent (PMP: *bahu)

beábrodent; rat, mouse (PMP: *balabaw)

bedík-lany trap used to catch animals on land; snare (< *bitik-an) (PMP: *bitik)

bekát-elis to be unwrapped, unravelled, etc. (PMP: *beŋkas) *beŋkas₄

beke-báu(cooked meat, or fish, cooking pot, etc.), foul-smelling (PMP: *bahu)

be-llaʔ-elpurulent, festering (PWMP: *nanaq-en) *naNaq

belúucountry, village, place (PMP: *banua)

be-rálmwatery; flat-tasting (e.g. not sweet or salty enough) (PMP: *danum) *daNum

beríuscurrent (in ocean, river, etc.) (ROOT)

besébesbark of tree used for tying; rope; cord (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

Palauan (20 / 353)

besósoar; paddle; propeller; war spear; small paddle-shaped fish which swims vertically (PMP: *beRsay)

beʔésnew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

bil-élmonth of pregnancy (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bíseʔwild taro (makes mouth itchy); fish with black and yellow stripes (makes mouth itchy); easily aroused sexually (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

btáʔesAlexandrian laurel tree; kamani (wood used for canoes; nuts used as marbles): Calophyllum inophyllum L. (PMP: *bitaquR)

btuʔstar; starfish; military star (on hat or clothing) (PAN: *bituqen)

bubtrap (usually for fish) (PAN: *bubu₂)

búdeʔyellow-cheeked tuskfish: Choerodon Anchorago (PWMP: *butaq₁)

búilmonth, moon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

búiʔcowrie shell: Cypraea mauritiana (PMP: *buliq₁)

buklhill, mound of earth (PAN: *bukij)

bu-lits smell, its odor (PMP: *bahu)

bulsthe moonfish: Platax orbicularis (PMP: *bunaR)

bulsthe moonfish: Platax orbicularis (PWMP: *bunuR₂)

buŋflower; green coconut sheath protecting developing coconuts (later becomes chesechosu); type of trepang (shaped like a flower) (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

búuʔbetel nut (PMP: *buaq)

chelébedwhip; club; bat; anything to hit with (ROOT)

chiráŋylang-ylang tree: Cananga odorata (LOAN)

dáittaro (plant) (PMP: *tales)

dáktfear, awe (PAN: *takut)

Palauan (40 / 353)

dáŋeblid, cover (PMP: *taŋeb)

dáobsea, ocean, saltwater (PWMP: *taeb)

darthundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

daʔexcrement, shit; residue; secretion (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

debsugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

debuseʔconch shell; sound of conch shell; horn (PMP: *tabuRiq)

dékelpole for boat, canoe, raft, etc; spare motor (for boat) (PMP: *teken)

dekel-élfriend, mainstay in times of need (PWMP: *teken-en) *teken

d<el>álemplanted (PWMP: *t<in>anem) *CaNem

d<el>áseʔthing carved (PWMP: *t<in>aRaq) *taRaq

delaʔintestines, bowels (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

deleʔi-lhis/her intestines (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

d<el>óremsharpened (PWMP: *t<in>azem) *Cazem

d<əl>úbwas bombed, was dynamited (PWMP: *t<in>uba) *tuba

demá-paternal GP (PMP: *t-ama) *ama

dəŋáraʔlying face up; place rightside up (PWMP: *tiŋadaq)

dəŋərəʔ-ál-lstate of looking up (PWMP: *tiŋadaq-an) *tiŋadaq

déŋesoriental mangrove: Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam. (PMP: *teŋeR)

derúdmporcupine fish (PMP: *taRutum)

desáʔelspiny squirrelfish: Holocentrus spinifer (PMP: *taRaqan)

Palauan (60 / 353)

desáʔ-elthing being carved/thing to be carved (PWMP: *taRaq-en) *taRaq

deʔá-lits ripeness, its maturity (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

dəʔóylspine; backbone (PMP: *tuqelan) *CuqelaN

didbridge (PMP: *titey)

didbridge (PMP: *taytay)

didí-l a ʔarmbeams/rafters at ends and sides of house (on which rats often run) (PMP: *taytay)

dilúlbe roasted by someone (PMP: *t<in>unuh) *CuNuh

dímessouth, south wind (PMP: *timuR)

diylabdomen; womb (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

d<m>áseʔto chop, whittle, carve (log for canoe); build (house); (cat) claw at (PAN: *t<um>aRaq) *taRaq

d-m-ulto broil, to roast (PMP: *t<um>unuh) *CuNuh

dortironwood tree: Intsia bijuga (PMP: *teRas)

dubbomb; dynamite; tree in legume family whose leaves and roots are used as poison to catch fish; vine in Legume family (whose roots are used as poison to catch fish) (PAN: *tuba)

dubeʔcoconut sprouting on ground (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

dúreʔleaking water; leak (PAN: *tuduq)

dursaction of sleeping (PAN: *tuduR)

dus-al-lplace for sleeping, bed (PAN: *tuduR)

dúʔstate of ripeness or maturity (of a fruit) (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

e-deythree (PAN: *telu)

e-ímfive (units of time) (PAN: *lima)

Palauan (80 / 353)

e-lísebyesterday (PWMP: *niRab)

e-l-olmsix (PAN: *enem)

e-rú-ŋtwo (units of time); a few (esp. when referring to small catch of fish (PMP: *duha) *duSa

iámlgrass in snapdragon family that grows in swampy areas: Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr. (PMP: *lamun)

iásdolphinfish (PMP: *lajih)

iásmilky mangrove tree; a river poison tree (Excoecaria agallocha L.) (PMP: *laji₁)

iélebflood (of major proportions) (PWMP: *leñeb)

ieŋ-élits cave, his/her cave (PMP: *liaŋ)

íicave (PMP: *liaŋ)

ilúm-eldrink, beverage (PWMP: *inum-an) *inum

ióbeʔravine, valley (PWMP: *le(m)baq)

i-tíwnine (units of time) (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

i-tíwnine (when counting in sequence) (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

-k1sg possessive suffix: my (PAN: *-ku)

kallfood (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

-kau2nd person sg. pronominal object: you (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

káu2nd person sg. emphatic: you (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

kauddam; end of menstruation (PMP: *ka(m)pet)

káuddam; end of menstruation (ROOT)

ke-dáktbe afraid of each other (PMP: *ka-takut) *takut

Palauan (100 / 353)

kedáolsquirrel-fish (PMP: *katawan)

kə-dəŋáraʔlie together face up (PWMP: *tiŋadaq)

ke-dóremsharp (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

ke-dúlburn each other (PAN: *ki-tunuh) *CuNuh

kədu-lhis/her louse (PMP: *kutu) *kuCu

ke-dúrssleep together (PWMP: *ka-tuduR) *tuduR

kəku-lhis/her fingernail (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

kelátkind of fish (PAN: *kaNasay)

keláugeiger tree: Cordia sebestena L. (PMP: *kanawa)

kəmám1pl. excl. emphatic pronoun, we, us (PMP: *kam-ami) *ami

kəmiu2pl. emphatic, you all (PMP: *kamu-yu) *amu

ke-reméremperiod when moon is waning (PAN: *demdem₂)

ker-rásemcold, chills (PAN: *dajem)

kerrekártree; wood; log; board (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kesákoland crab (PMP: *kaRakap)

ketútfull-breasted (PWMP: *ka-susu) *susu₁

kid1st person plural inclusive, emphatic: we/us (PAN: *kita₁)

kimtype of large clam (PMP: *kima)

kisemclamshell axe (PMP: *kiRam)

klou a delelhave a pot belly; have a large belly (e.g., when pregnant) (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

Palauan (120 / 353)

kl-tíwnine (animals, things) (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

ksawflower cod; carpet cod (type of grouper): Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (PMP: *kuRapu)

ku-preverbal subject pronoun (‘hypothetical pronoun’) (PAN: *-ku)

kuáta tree in the coffee family, good for roofing: Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. f. (NEAR)

kudlouse (PMP: *kutu) *kuCu

kukfingernail, toenail, claw (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

kuld-pinch mark on body (PMP: *kunut)

-l3sg. suffix of inalienable possession, used with body parts, kinship relations, and the relationship of part to whole (PAN: *ni-á) *-a₂

labbush in cocoa family (bark used for cord): Abroma augusta L. (PWMP: *anabu)

lábektime of large ocean swells and strong current; large ocean swells accompanied by strong current (PAN: *Nabek)

láleʔpus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

lasa timber tree: Pterocarpus indicus (L.) (PMP: *naRa)

lemáusmall, deep spot within shallow area inside reef (PMP: *namaw)

leʔúlscar; shadow (PMP: *qanunu₁) *qanunu

líuscoconut (tree) (PMP: *niuR)

lúseʔluck (PMP: *nuRuq)

maddie; (electricity, etc.) go out; go numb (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

madeye; face; point; edge; front; area/space (directly) in front of (PMP: *mata) *maCa

malkchicken; person who reaches sexual climax rapidly (PMP: *manuk)

mamlwrasse (fish): Cheilinus undulatus (PMP: *mamin)

Palauan (140 / 353)

márekripe (i.e. ready to eat); cooked (PMP: *ma-esak) *esak

márekripe (i.e. ready to eat); cooked (PMP: *ma-qesak) *qesak

márekripe (i.e. ready to eat); cooked (PAN: *ma-Sasak) *Sasak

meand (PMP: *mai)

me-dáktto fear, be afraid of (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

medúʔstrong, durable (of wood, metal); half-ripe (i.e., ready to pick) (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

meduʔ el buuʔkidney (PMP: *buaq)

me-iúsrow, paddle; stir (PAN: *aluja)

meke-mádwar (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

me-lálemto plant (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

m<el>ámeʔto chew betel nut; to smoke tobacco (< *m>in>amaq) (PMP: *mamaq)

me-láseʔto chop, whittle, carve (log for canoe); build (house); (cat) claw at (PWMP: *ma-naRaq) *taRaq

me-laʔel (deʔal-l)set a trap (PAN: *taqan)

me-lélebcover, submerge; flood over; cover (person) with blanket, etc. (PWMP: *leñeb)

me-lídto cross over (log/stones being used as a bridge) (PWMP: *ma-naytay) *taytay

mə-lilíutthin and flat; slender (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

mə-límətbail; scoop dirt out of (PAN: *nimas)

mə-lubto bomb, bombard, dynamite (PWMP: *ma-nuba) *tuba

melúbssprinkle, spray, throw water on (ROOT)

me-lúiʔto shine, reflect light on, illuminate; go night fishing with torch or lamp (PWMP: *me-ñuluq) *suluq

Palauan (160 / 353)

me-lúlto broil, roast; get oneself sunburned (PMP: *maŋ-tunuh) *CuNuh

me-lúl a ʔadcremate (PMP: *maŋ-tunuh) *CuNuh

me-lúl a ʔausmake lime from coral (PMP: *maŋ-tunuh) *CuNuh

me-lúseʔalways lucky (PMP: *ma-nuRuq) *nuRuq

me-lúʔelcarry on the head (PAN: *suquN)

me-lúʔesto prop open; to open (umbrella) (PWMP: *ma-nuked) *tuked

meŋ-ábput ashes on, get ashes in (PWMP: *maŋ-qabu) *qabu

meŋ-ablcarry under the arm (PWMP: *meŋ-qabin) *qabin

meŋ-ádespave with stones; pile up stones when building (jetty, grave, etc.) (PWMP: *maŋ-qatuR) *qatuR

meŋáisurgeonfish (PWMP: *maŋali)

meŋátsmoke (fish, etc.); dry (wrapped tapioca); give (someone) steam bath (so as to regain strength, esp. after childbirth); smoke out (mosquitoes, etc.) (PMP: *qasu₃)

meŋ-áussprinkle lime on (PWMP: *maŋ-qapuR) *qapuR

meŋ-órt, k-m-ortscrape (road, etc.) (PWMP: *kerus₁)

me-ŋuldpinch with fingernails (PMP: *kunut)

meŋ-úmbake (food) in a hole in the ground (PMP: *qumun)

meŋ-úʔetchew or munch on (sugarcane, etc.) (PWMP: *maŋ-ququs) *ququs

meŋ-ʔádoto roof (a house) (PWMP: *maŋ-qatep) *qatep

meŋ-ʔatgive off smoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

merádersend/see person off; return; send back; bring (bride) to prospective husband's family (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

me- ráelgo; walk; travel; leave; (water) flow/move (in pipe); (blood) flow out (PWMP: *z<um>alan) *zalan

Palauan (180 / 353)

me-ráktlook as if one is very sick (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

me-rasmto sew (cloth or thatching) (PAN: *zaRum)

me-ráudto close (a fishnet) (PMP: *dapet)

merekerékedsticky (ROOT)

me-sáktmake (raft); tie side by side; crowd out (as weeds in crowding out other plants); change (subject of conversation) (PMP: *Rakit)

me-súldwipe off (mouth, nose, private parts, etc.) (PMP: *Runut)

me-ʔab(atmostphere, view) dim/blurred; grayish (PWMP: *ma-qabu) *qabu

me-ʔedshallow; (tide) low (PMP: *ma-qeti) *qeti₁

mi-reméremdark (at night) (PAN: *demdem₂)

mireméremdark (at night) (ROOT)

misksound of sucking teeth or clicking lips (to show disapproval) (PMP: *misik)

muddamsel fish (PMP: *mutu₁)

ŋádergift of food accompanying bride when she is brought to prospective husband's family (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

ŋak1sg. emphatic subject and object pronoun: I, me (PAN: *aku)

ŋaklname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋaltermite; termite-ridden (PAN: *aNay)

ŋálekpinkie; small finger (PMP: *anak i lima) *aNak

ŋálekchild; baby; anyone younger than speaker; sweetheart; fiance(e) (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ŋálek er a oreomelraelbastard (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ŋasironwood (PMP: *aRuhu)

Palauan (200 / 353)

ŋáufire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

ŋebárdwest, west wind (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

ŋebok-ldrooling (PWMP: *ibeR-en) *ibeR

ŋíbesdrooling saliva (PMP: *ibeR)

ŋid1st person plural inclusive; us (PAN: *ita₁)

ŋídeʔclimbing fern: Lygodium circinatum (Burm.f.); large food basket made from ŋídech plant (PWMP: *ituq)

ŋíi3sg. (emphatic) (PAN: *ia₁)

ŋíkelfish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

ŋikel el bubfish caught with a trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

ŋirtmucus (from nose only) (PMP: *idus)

ŋ klou a ʔedeŋal el ʔad(lit. 'the man has a big liver') He's a brave man (PMP: *X₁ + qatay) *qaCay

ŋ-u-íbeshave desires for, lust after (PMP: *ibeR)

ŋuí-llabor pains (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

ŋuisPalau tree snake: Dendrelaphis lineolatus (PMP: *hulaR) *SulaR

ŋurdvein, artery (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

oameko-ádkill; extinguish; put out (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

oáʔfoot; leg; back paws (of animal) (PAN: *waqay)

odi-bsebs-állis to be filled to overflowing, is to be poured out (PWMP: *bujbuj)

odi-bsóbsfill with (liquid) to overflowing; pour out (large quantity of liquid) (PWMP: *bujbuj)

o-ímfive (used when counting in sequence) (PAN: *lima)

Palauan (220 / 353)

ok-e-deythirty (PMP: *paka-telu) *telu

olab rekt-elpregnant (PMP: *sakit)

o-láseʔtool for carving/chopping (< *pa-naRaq) (PAN: *taRaq)

ole-ŋíbestempt, tease, seduce (PMP: *ibeR)

olíkfruit bat (PMP: *paniki)

olíkcrossbeam at ends of village meeting house above the door (NOISE)

o-límətinstrument for bailing (PAN: *nimas)

ol-sébekmake (something) fly (PMP: *Rebek)

olsírslean against, lean (ROOT)

omek-sébekmake (something) fly (PMP: *Rebek)

omeŋ-edfishing; someone's characteristic way of fishing (cited under ched 'low tide') (PMP: *qeti₂)

omerékedpaste, glue (ROOT)

omesébestie (basket) closed by pulling string through open edges; tie up; tie (box) all over (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

omóketunwrap, unravel; unwind; comb out or undo (hair) with hands; break (hold); lift (magic spell) (PMP: *beŋkas) *beŋkas₄

om-rálmrinse clothes (PMP: *danum) *daNum

o-múbcatch fish with a trap; go out to check fishtrap (PAN: *bubu₂)

o-múkedcatch (fish) by casting net (PWMP: *pa-muket) *puket₁

omúŋbloom, blossom, flower (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

oŋ-áleknuclear family (PWMP: *paŋ-anak) *aNak

oŋórPandanus aimiriikensis Mart. (PMP: *paŋdan) *paŋudaN

Palauan (240 / 353)

or-ráellead (animal, etc.); drive (boat, car, etc.); start (engine) (PWMP: *pa-zalan) *zalan

or-réŋeshear; listen to; obey (PMP: *deŋeR)

ou-ráktto be sick, suffer chronically from (PMP: *sakit)

ou-ʔármkeep (animal) as a pet; raise (animal) (PWMP: *qayam₂)

oʔi-lfoot or leg of (PAN: *waqay)

ráelroad; path; way; connection (between families, etc.) (PMP: *zalan)

ráisroot (PMP: *dalij)

raktsickness, disease (PMP: *sakit)

ralmfresh water (PMP: *danum) *daNum

ráseʔblood (PAN: *daRaq₁) *daRaq

rasmneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

ráudclosing (PMP: *dapet)

ráʔelbranch, bough; branch of government (PMP: *daqan)

rekerékedsucker fish (ROOT)

rekt-el a redilmenstruation (PMP: *sakit)

ris-élit’s root (PMP: *dalij)

róroIndian coral tree: Erythrina variegata L. (PMP: *dapdap₁)

saktstring, cord, wire used for making raft (PMP: *Rakit)

saŋspider conch: Lambis lambis (PMP: *Raŋa) *Raŋa₂

seʔálmale (PAN: *RuqaNay)

Palauan (260 / 353)

silssun; day (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sisti-plant, Cordyline (PMP: *siRi)

skorscane, crutches, walking stick (ROOT)

s-u-ébekto fly (out from) (PMP: *Rebek)

suldcoconut fiber used for cord (originally used for wiping) (PMP: *Runut)

táodthree-pronged fish spear (PMP: *saet)

táoʔ(man-made) mangrove channel (PMP: *sawaq₁)

tekrársailfish (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

teŋetáŋstarfish (PMP: *saŋa-saŋa) *saŋa₁

te-tíwnine (people) (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

tir3rd person plural emphatic: they, them (PMP: *si ida) *ida

t<m>utsuck on (breast, thumb, candy); to suck milk (PAN: *s<um>usu) *susu₁

tomátotomato (< English) (LOAN)

tubspittle, saliva (PMP: *suba)

túiʔtorch, lamp (especially for night fishing) (PMP: *suluq)

tutbreast, baby bottle (PAN: *susu₁)

ua-dámold man (term of reference for older male in-law) (PMP: *t-ama) *ama

uáuʔtree in periwinkle family: Ochrosia oppositifolia (PMP: *pauq)

Ɂuðəljobfish: Aprion virescens (PMP: *qutun)

uíijackfish, Gnathodon sp. (POC: *pilu)

Palauan (280 / 353)

ukád-elcaught, trapped in a net (PPH: *puket-en) *puket₁

ukí-lher vagina (PAN: *puki)

uleko-áddead, extinguished, paralyzed (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

u<l>úkedcaught, trapped in a net (PWMP: *p<in>uket) *puket₁

uʔáuʔcrotch (PWMP: *apaqpaq)

uʔel-élbeginning, start, origin; ancestors (PMP: *puqun)

uʔúlbase (of tree); reason; cause; basis (PMP: *puqun)

uʔúl a kerrekarbase of tree; butt end of log (PMP: *puqun nu kahiw) *puqun

uʔúl a yaŋdhorizon (PMP: *puqun)

uʔúl a yaŋdhorizon (PMP: *puqun nu laŋit) *puqun

uʔutchew or munch on (sugarcane, etc.) (PMP: *ququs)

welsea turtle (PMP: *peñu)

wiðseven (used when counting in sequence) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

wiŋəltooth (PAN: *ŋipen)

wlawlfloor (< *panpan) (PMP: *papan)

wúdesnavel (PMP: *pusej)

wukvagina (PAN: *puki)

wukedfish or mosquito net (PMP: *puket₁)

yáŋdsky; weather (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

yarssail (PAN: *layaR)

Palauan (300 / 353)

yáyeshousefly (PMP: *lalej)

yumdalgae (PMP: *lumut)

ʔabashes; fireplace; hearth (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

ʔadliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ʔadman; person; human being; living being; someone; somebody; anyone; anybody (PMP: *qaRta)

ʔad er a uʔúl a yaŋdforeigner (PMP: *puqun nu laŋit) *puqun

ʔádesroad (orig. paved with stones) (PMP: *qatuR₁) *qatuR

ʔádoroof (PMP: *qatep)

ʔáipestle (PAN: *qaSelu)

ʔáibarracuda (PMP: *qalu)

ʔáolfish sp.: the tarpon (Chanos chanos) (PMP: *qawan)

ʔarmanimal (PWMP: *qayam₂)

ʔat-to praise (PWMP: *qasi₁) *qasi

ʔatsmoke; steam (PMP: *qasu₃)

ʔáuslime for betel nut (PAN: *qapuR)

ʔa-ʔabl(mother and child) walk together, with child carried under mother's arm (PMP: *qabin)

ʔebál-lgray or white hair; gray-haired, white-haired (PWMP: *quban-en) *qubaN

ʔebe-ʔabdust (especially under house) (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

ʔebú-lits ashes (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

ʔedlow tide (PMP: *qeti₁)

Palauan (320 / 353)

ʔeda-lperson of (PMP: *qaRta)

ʔe-dámfather (addr.) (PMP: *t-ama) *ama

ʔe-dilM (addr.) (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

ʔe-dílmother (address); uh-oh (exclamation uttered when accident occurs) (PMP: *qina)

ʔedi-lits low tide (PMP: *qeti₁)

ʔedó-olbe thatched (PWMP: *qatep-an) *qatep

ʔedúia fish, the blue-lined sea bream: Symphorus spilurus (Günther) (PMP: *qatulay)

ʔedúk-lpaved; piled up, of stones when building something (PWMP: *qatuR-an) *qatuR

ʔedu-lreligion, belief (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

ʔ-el-abhad ashes put on (PWMP: *q<in>abu) *qabu

ʔ-el-ádocondition of being thatched (PWMP: *q<in>atep) *qatep

ʔele-ʔólbeach; sand (PMP: *qenay qenay) *qenay

ʔelídgod; deity; spirit; sacred object (about which some prohibition is made); center (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

ʔemádeʔunripe/green; (food) raw/uncooked (PAN: *qamataq)

ʔemáŋlarge sea crab (PMP: *qali-maŋu)

ʔeóssun (PMP: *qalejaw)

ʔetu-lits smoke, its steam (PMP: *qasu₃)

ʔeʔút-elbe chewed or munched on (as sugarcane) (PWMP: *ququs-en) *ququs

ʔ-il-ablcarried under the arm (PMP: *qabin)

ʔimhand; arm; front paws (of animal) (PAN: *qa-lima) *lima

Palauan (340 / 353)

ʔimá-lhis/her hand or arm, its paws (PAN: *qa-lima) *lima

ʔirtlarge spoon (PAN: *qidus)

ʔíulpoisonous centipede (PMP: *qalu-hipan) *qalu-Sipan

ʔiullpillow (PMP: *qalunan)

ʔoldfart (< *qentut) (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

ʔólofish scale; money (PMP: *quhenap) *quSeNap

ʔúdelgrass, grassy (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

ʔúisworm, maggot (PMP: *qulej)

ʔullrain; rainy season (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

ʔumlong-snouted unicorn fish: Naso unicornis (PMP: *qumay)

ʔumtype of snail; hermit crab (PAN: *qumaŋ)

ʔumlong-shouted unicorn fish: Naso unicornis (PMP: *qumi)

ʔumhole in the ground for baking (PMP: *qumun)

515. Palawan Batak (160) WMP (Warren 1959, Reid p.c.) [bya] (Batak) Philippines

ba-báʔiwoman, female (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

bálaygrandparent-in-law (sex undifferentiated) (PPh: *balaqih)

baláyhouse, dwelling (PMP: *balay)

baribáriiron, metal (NOISE)

batáŋlog (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

batékcarved designs on wooden handles of tools; design on bark cloth (PMP: *batek)

batórock, stone, flint, pebble (PMP: *batu₁)

bayóʔoturtle (NEAR)

baʔágloincloth, breechclout made from bark cloth (PWMP: *bahaR)

baʔgonew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

baʔí-ʔfemale grandparents and their female siblings (PAN: *baqi)

bédbedwrapping, winding (of string) (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

bəgáshusked rice (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

béŋeldeaf (PMP: *beŋel)

beŋétbeard, moustache; corn silk (PPh: *beŋet₂)

bibíglower lip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bilógbody; container; whole, entire (LOAN)

biʔbitcarry (PMP: *bitbit₂) *bitbit

búdbudwrapping of string to hold projectile point on weapon (NOISE)

bukídmountain (PAN: *bukij)

Palawan Batak (20 / 160)

bulalakawnature spirit, deity; spirit of shooting star (PPh: *bulalákaw₂)

bulánmoon (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulawángold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

búlbulhair in nose; hair; fuzz on plant stem; feather; down (PPh: *bulbul₁)

bulíʔbutt, end; buttocks (PMP: *buliq₂)

buliʔbutt, end; buttock (NOISE)

bulúdmountain (PMP: *bulud₃) *buled₁

buludmountain (PWMP: *bulud₂)

bunótcoconut husk (PMP: *bunut₁)

búŋabetel nut (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

buŋáfruit, berry (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

buŋá taróŋturtle eggs (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

busóghunting bow (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

buyókstench (PPh: *buyúk)

dakə́lmany (PPH: *dakél)

daʔonleaf (PMP: *dahun)

dɨkɨtburn (Reid 1971) (PMP: *zeket)

dɨkɨtto burn (Reid 1971) (PWMP: *deket₂) *deket

dilaʔtongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dudúʔbreast, teat (PWMP: *duduq)

Palawan Batak (40 / 160)

dugíthorn (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

duwátwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

gamótroot (PMP: *Ramut)

gimbálskin-covered drum musical instrument (PWMP: *gimbal)

kami1pl. excl. nominative, we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kamu2pl. nominative, you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

karatrusty (PWMP: *karat)

kasílieel (PWMP: *kasuli)

katélto itch (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

kayówood; tree; stick (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kayo ʔápoyfirewood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

ka-ʔwawthirst (PAN: *quSaw)

kilalato recognize a person (PAN: *kilala)

kitawe (dual incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

kita-miwe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

-ku1sg postnominal possessive pronoun (PAN: *-ku)

kudláplightning (ROOT)

lalakiman, human male (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

laŋítsky, heavens (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

láwaʔspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

Palawan Batak (60 / 160)

lɨbɨkpound rice (PPh: *lebék)

límafive (PAN: *lima)

linógearthquake (PAN: *linuR)

liʔəgneck (PAN: *liqeR)

luwáʔteardrop (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

ma-labegwide (PMP: *labeR)

ma-nipísthin (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

man-manókbird (PMP: *manu(k)-manuk) *manuk

manókchicken, fowl (PMP: *manuk)

mapáʔitbitter (PWMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

ma-puŋawlonely (PWMP: *puŋaw)

mátaeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-ʔudumrain cloud (Reid 1971) (PWMP: *ma-edem) *edem₁

munóŋupper lip (PWMP: *munuŋ)

namókmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

niguwinnowing basket (PMP: *niRu) *Rinu

nipɨntooth (PAN: *nipen)

niyógcoconut, coconut tree (PMP: *niuR)

padɨkhusk of rice (PWMP: *padek)

panáwwalk (PMP: *panaw₂) *paNaw

Palawan Batak (80 / 160)

paŋi-paŋilankle (Reid 1971) (PWMP: *paŋil)

pataydead, lifeless (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

piláta scar (PWMP: *pilat)

pirahow many? (PAN: *pija)

pítoseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

púntibanana (Musa sapientum) (PAN: *punti₁)

pusúdnavel (PMP: *pusej)

sáŋabranch of a tree or bush (PMP: *saŋa₁)

sa-ŋ-púlokten (PMP: *ŋa)

saʔ-nuwhen? (PAN: *-nu)

sekáa species of rattan; waistband worn by women (PWMP: *seka)

seká (*g > k unexplained)a species of rattan; waistband worn by women (material) (PWMP: *segaʔ)

sepsepsuck (Reid 1971) (PAN: *sepsep)

sikoelbow (PAN: *siku₁)

tälästaro (Revel-Macdonald 1979:53) (PMP: *tales)

talíŋaear (PMP: *taliŋa₁) *Caliŋa

tálonwoods, forest (PMP: *talun) *Calun

t<an>oldoʔ ~ t<un>ulduʔfinger (PPh: *tulduq)

taŋíscry, shout, moan, cry out (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

táoperson (PMP: *tau) *Cau

Palawan Batak (100 / 160)

tapus-ánend (PWMP: *tapus₂) *tapus

taw-anto know (PMP: *taqu-an) *Caqu

táʔebsea, ocean; flood, high tide (PWMP: *taeb)

taʔónyear (PMP: *taqun)

tináʔibelly, intestines, stomach (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

tuʔláŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

ʔabagáshoulder (PMP: *qabaRa₃) *qabaRa₁

ʔabélclothing, garments (PPh: *habél)

ʔáboashes (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

ʔabwátlarge; long (PWMP: *abuat)

ʔagsemsour (Reid 1971) (PAN: *qaRsem)

ʔakóI (pronoun) (PAN: *aku)

ʔáladfence (PAN: *qalad)

ʔaláwidfar (PWMP: *alawid)

ʔaldáwsun; day (opposite of night, rather than time measure) (PMP: *qalejaw)

ʔalímaarm; hand (PAN: *qa-lima) *lima

ʔamāy-anFB (PPh: *ama-an) *ama

ʔamay-anFB (PMP: *ama-i) *ama

ʔamáʔfather (particularly in the nominative) (PAN: *ama-ʔ) *ama

ʔanákchild, young person; offspring, i.e., son or daughter (PMP: *anak) *aNak

Palawan Batak (120 / 160)

ʔanák ka babáygirl, young female (not daughter) (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ʔanák ka lalákiboy, young male (not son) (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ʔaníbuŋtree sp.; tree shoots or suckers (PMP: *qanibuŋ)

ʔanínuŋshadow (PWMP: *qaninuŋ)

ʔápidtwin (PMP: *apij)

ʔapókdust, soot (PWMP: *apuk)

ʔapónyesterday (PPh: *hapun₂)

ʔapóyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

ʔapó-ʔfather's father; mother's father; male grandparents and their male siblings; son's son, daughter's son (PPh: *apu-ʔ) *apu

ʔari-ʔyounger sibling (PMP: *huaji-q) *Suaji

ʔasáwaspouse: husband or wife (PAN: *qasawa)

ʔasínsalt (PAN: *qasiN)

ʔatáyliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ʔáteproof (PMP: *qatep)

ʔáyepinsect; animal (PPh: *hayep)

ʔaʔayfoot, leg (Reid 1971) (PAN: *qaqay)

ʔéladwing (PMP: *qelad₂)

ʔéleksleepy (PPh: *helek)

ʔenáystream, brook; streambed (PAN: *qenay)

ʔenemsix (PAN: *enem)

Palawan Batak (140 / 160)

ʔepatfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

ʔesáone (PAN: *esa)

ʔeʔeyes (PMP: *heqe)

ʔiof (preposition) (PMP: *qi₂)

ʔiánthere (2p.) (PWMP: *ian₃)

ʔikamɨnmat (PPh: *ikamen)

ʔi-kaw2sg., you/thou (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

ʔikógtail (PAN: *ikuR)

ʔilógriver (PAN: *iluR₂)

ʔina-ʔM (PAN: *iná-q) *ina

ʔinihere (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

ʔisdáʔfish (PPh: *sidáq)

ʔisímeat, flesh (PAN: *isiʔ)

ʔitithere (3p) (PAN: *-i-ti) *-ti

ʔituhere (PAN: *i-Cu) *-Cu

ʔɨyaʔashamed (PAN: *Seyaq)

ʔuip-anto blow, as a fire (Reid 1971) (PMP: *heyup-an) *Seyup

ʔu-nuwhat? (PAN: *-nu)

ʔuripenslave (PWMP: *qudipen)

ʔuruŋnose (PAN: *ujuŋ)

516. Palawano (3) WMP

kiattributive/benefactive particle for personal names (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

sä-ŋ-ribu1,000 (PMP: *ŋa)

Palin Maloh (1) WMP. see: Maloh (Palin)

Paluan (5) WMP. see: Murut (Paluan)

517. Palu'e (28) CMP [ple] (Palu’e) Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara)

ata lakiman, male (PMP: *laki)

(ata) waifemale; woman (PCEMP: *bai₂) *bahi

haiwho? (PMP: *sai)

hiwanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

kalito dig (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

kau2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

kayutree (PCEMP: *kayu₁) *kaSiw

keasmall turtle on reef (PCEMP: *keRa)

kuawork (PAN: *kuSa)

lalea fly (PMP: *lalej)

lawalong (PAN: *lawa₁)

misweet (PMP: *emis₁) *emis

misweet (PMP: *hemis)

naŋuto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy Palu'e

ŋaraname (PMP: *ŋajan)

paluto hit, strike (PMP: *palu₄) *palu₃

panago (PMP: *panaw₂) *paNaw

ruatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

tahisea (PMP: *tasik)

tanaask (PMP: *utaña)

Palu'e (20 / 28)

tawato laugh (PMP: *tawa) *Cawa

tuknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

tulito sleep (PMP: *tiduR)

tuʔaold (PMP: *tuqah) *tuqaS

wakaroot (PMP: *wakaR)

wayacrocodile (PCEMP: *buqaya)

wenato sneeze (PMP: *beñan)

wewamouth (PMP: *beqbeq)

518. Panatinani (1) OC [nmw] (Nimoa) Papua New Guinea

waiinewoman (POC: *pai-p<in>ai) *bahi

Panay Bisayan (1) WMP. see: Bisayan (Panay)

519. Panayati (3) OC

manawind (POC: *mana₂)

umunoven (PMP: *qumun)

varirabefore (in time) (POC: *waRi(n)sa)

520. Pangasinan (686) WMP (Benton 1971) [pag] Philippines

ainterjection marking hesitation, agreement, disagreement, etc. (PAN: *a₄)

alinking particle, uniting adjectives or descriptive phrases with verbs and nouns, relative sentences to main sentences, etc. (PAN: *a₅)

alinking particle, uniting adjectives or descriptive phrases with verbs and nouns, relative sentences to main sentences, etc. (PMP: *ha₂) *Sa₁

abaláshoulder (PMP: *qabaRa₃) *qabaRa₁

ábaŋrent, interest (PPh: *abaŋ₃)

ábayside, proximity; to approach, go near person or object close by; put beside (PWMP: *abay)

abélcloth (PPh: *habél)

a-bisógbloated, puffed up (PAN: *bisuR)

ábotcatch up (with) (PPh: *qabut)

a-buékdrunk (PMP: *ma-buhek₁) *buSek

ágewday; sun; be light, sunny (PPh: *qalejaw-an) *qalejaw

ágew-ágewdaily, every day (PMP: *qalejaw-qalejaw) *qalejaw

agíouch! (PWMP: *ajiq)

agíyounger sibling or other person of same generation (PMP: *huaji) *Suaji

ákdotremove, pluck out (ROOT)

ákopget with both hands (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

ákotwasp (PWMP: *hakut hakut)

aláget, take (PAN: *alaq₁)

aláget, take (PAN: *ala)

ala-ánsource of something (PAN: *alaq₁)

Pangasinan (20 / 686)

ala-ánsource of something (PAN: *ala)

álakliquor (LOAN)

álakliquor (LOAN)

alamásmall crabs (PWMP: *qaRama)

alárfence; to fence (PAN: *qalad)

álopestle (PAN: *qaSelu)

amáfather (PAN: *ama)

ambelátheavy (PMP: *beReqat)

am-belátheavy (PMP: *ma-beReqat) *beReqat

amínall (PAN: *am(e)ʔin)

am-paítbitter (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

amparnear, beside; compare (NOISE)

am-putíwhite, fair, light colored (PMP: *ma-putiq) *putiq

anákchild, offspring (PMP: *anak) *aNak

andapto flicker (PWMP: *andap)

andóyanhammock, cradle; be in a hammock, etc. (PPH: *dúyan)

ánito harvest (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

anínoshadow (PMP: *qaninu) *qaNiŋu

anopto hunt with dogs (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup

anórto drift (PAN: *qañud)

Pangasinan (40 / 686)

an-sakkétstick rice (PMP: *ca(ŋ)ket)

ansakkétsticky rice (ROOT)

ansipatype of river turtle (Tsuchida1976:291) (PWMP: *qantipa) *qaCipa

antábayto guide, assist in learning a skill (PPh: *antábay)

an-takotshy, timid (PAN: *takut)

áŋanbelieved, thought by (LOAN)

aŋkátbuy wholesale (PWMP: *aŋkat)

aŋlóodor or taste of sour milk or spoiled meat (PAN: *qaŋeRu)

a-pátfour (PMP: *a-epat) *Sepat

ápgessmarting pain (PMP: *hapejes)

apgóbile, gall (PAN: *qapeju)

ápoterm of respect used especially when addressing a priest (PMP: *ampu) *apu

apógrandchild, great-nephew, great-niece (PMP: *ampu) *apu

apóyfire; start a fire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

a-ralémdeep; become deep (PMP: *dalem)

ásaásasmall herringlike salt water fish (NOISE)

asáŋgills (PMP: *hasaŋ)

asawáspouse; marry (PAN: *qasawa)

asínsalt (PAN: *qasiN)

asódog (PAN: *asu₁)

Pangasinan (60 / 686)

a-sugáthurt (PWMP: *suRat)

átaŋoffering composed of coconut, cake, etc. for the purpose of placating malevolent spirits, usually made before sunset; to make such an offering (PPh: *átaŋ₄) *átaŋ

atéproof (PMP: *qatep)

átistree with sweet, light yellowish-green fruit similar in shape to a pinecone and about the size of a large apple, sometimes known as sugar apple (LOAN)

áwakwaist (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

awáŋextent, spaciousness (PMP: *awaŋ)

áweyI don't know! (said by speaker of himself; may be followed by pronoun or phrase marked for topic) (PWMP: *away₃)

ayinterjection expressing hesitation, surprise, or consternation (PAN: *ai₂)

áyepanimal (PPh: *hayep)

báawcooked rice (PMP: *bahaw) *baSaw

bagátell, say, invite or ask by word of mouth (PMP: *bajaq₂) *bajaq

bágiostorm, bad weather (PAN: *baRiuS)

báigrandmother; woman of grandparent’s generation (add. or ref.) (PAN: *baqi)

bakbákto whip (PAN: *bakbak₂)

balálung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

balánito attract (LOAN)

balatóŋmung beans (PPh: *balatuŋ)

balésretribution, vengeance, price (of action, etc.) (PAN: *bales₁)

bálilie (PMP: *bali₄)

balíntawaktype of dress for women consisting of a gown with butterfly sleeves, shawl, and overskirt (LOAN)

Pangasinan (80 / 686)

balisóŋhunting knife (LOAN)

balitókgold (LOAN)

baliw-anblack clothing worn by a person in mourning; to wear such clothing (PMP: *baliw₃) *baliw₁

balkésbelt (PAN: *bakes)

bálonew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

balólaŋbasket for chickens to nest in (PPh: *balúlaŋ)

banawaŋcanal, ditch, trench (PWMP: *banawaŋ)

banélto crush (PPh: *baneR)

banuítfish with a rod; fishhook (PPh: *banuit)

banwásun (PMP: *banua)

báŋkaycorpse (PWMP: *baŋkay)

baŋónarise, wake, get up from bed (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

basáwet (PMP: *baseq₂) *baseq

basíliquor made from fermented sugarcane (PPH: *bási)

batékspackling and dappling, of colors; spot; color of paper, fabric, etc., dye (PMP: *batek)

batóstone (PMP: *batu₁)

báyarto pay (PMP: *bayaD)

bayar-ánpayment (PMP: *bayaD)

baybáysea, seaside (PPh: *baybáy)

bayo-énto pound (PAN: *bayu)

Pangasinan (100 / 686)

begnáwrinse (ROOT)

beláspolished rice; to polish, mill rice (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

belátweight, heaviness (PMP: *beReqat)

belékpiglet, suckling pig (PAN: *beRek)

betákto split (PMP: *betak₂) *betak

bibíllip; lower lip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bi-bíŋkarice-cake, usually topped with red sugar (LOAN)

bigaówinnowing basket; also shallow basket used as a container for vegetables (PPh: *bijaw)

bigáowinnowing basket, also shallow basket used as container for vegetables (NOISE)

bigláabrupt, sudden; do abruptly, suddenly (PPh: *bigláq)

bilá-biláyeveryday life (PWMP: *bihaR)

biláŋto count; to care about (PAN: *bilaŋ)

biláylife; to live (PWMP: *bihaR)

bilíprice, value, expense (PMP: *bili)

bilíneducation, advice, counsel; to advise, counsel (PWMP: *bilin)

biníseeds saved for sprouting; seedlings (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

bisíbissprinkle water by hand (PPh: *bisíbis)

bisógbloat (PAN: *bisuR)

bisokof1snail (ROOT)

bítayhang, execute by hanging (PPh: *bítay)

Pangasinan (120 / 686)

bitéwenstar (PAN: *bituqen)

bobónwell (for water) (PMP: *bubun₁) *bubun

bógbogwelt resulting from a beating (PWMP: *bugbug)

bokélbean, grain, seed, clove (of garlic) (PWMP: *bukel)

bokígeast, eastern section of town or province (PAN: *bukij)

bókolswelling caused by a blow (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

bólaball (LOAN)

bolánmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bolbólthin porridge of boiled rice; to boil rice thus (PMP: *buRbuR₁)

bólikspeckling of black and white (e.g. in the feathers of a chicken) (PWMP: *burik)

bolílitsmall person, dwarf (PPh: *bulilít)

bolókrotten, gone to waste (of fish, meat, produce) (PMP: *buRuk)

bolóŋleaf (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

bombápump (LOAN)

bontónheap, pile; gather up, pile up (LOAN)

boŋáfruit; bear fruit (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

bóŋboŋcontainer made from a hollow bamboo tube two or three nodes in length, used for storing salt, etc. (PWMP: *buŋbuŋ₁)

bosínahorn (of automobile) (LOAN)

bosólenmity (PAN: *busuR₁)

bosónmailbox (LOAN)

Pangasinan (140 / 686)

bótovote; to vote is (LOAN)

botónpush button (LOAN)

buáltear out, break off (as a branch from a tree) (PPh: *buál)

buásmorrow (PPh: *buás)

buátstart; to start (PMP: *buhat₃)

buáyacrocodile (PWMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

buékdrink excessively (PMP: *buhek₂) *buSek

buékhair (PMP: *buhek₁) *bukeS

buístax (PPh: *buhís)

bukásprout, shoot (of plants); to sprout (PMP: *buka)

búknolknot; to knot (PPh: *buknul)

bukótbent over, hunched, stooped (esp. of elderly people) (PMP: *bukut)

bulágblind (PPh: *bulág)

búlaŋcockfight; attend a cockfight (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

búlsapacket (LOAN)

bunyágbaptism; to baptize (PPh: *buniag)

buŋisharelip (McFarland 1977) (ROOT)

dáanold (i.e., not new) (PAN: *daqaN)

dabókdust (PPH: *dabuk₂)

dakélmuch, many; often (PPH: *dakél)

Pangasinan (160 / 686)

dake-rakélabundant (PPH: *dakél)

daláblood (PAN: *daRaq₁) *daRaq

dalágmudfish (PPH: *dalág)

dalánroad, way, street, path (PMP: *zalan)

dálawto pay a visit (PPH: *dálaw)

dalayáplime (fruit or tree) (PAN: *dalayap)

daléminside (a pile, etc.); depth (PMP: *dalem)

dalikanstove (trivet) (PMP: *dalikan)

danúmwater; become wet, watery (PMP: *danum) *daNum

dáŋdaŋheat; to heat (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₂) *daŋdaŋ

daŋólto bark (ROOT)

dapánsole of the foot (PMP: *dapan) *dapaN

dapítin the direction of, towards (the east, etc.) (PWMP: *dapit)

dápolash; reduce to ashes (PMP: *dapuR)

datálwooden or bamboo floor (PAN: *dataR)

dátuleader of a tribal group, chief (PMP: *datu)

dawárice grain (in relation to remainder of rice plant) (PAN: *zawa₂)

deŋélto hear (PMP: *deŋeR)

dilátongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dilátstick out the tongue (PWMP: *dilat)

Pangasinan (180 / 686)

d<in>ala-ánpork, etc. cooked in pig’s blood (PAN: *daRaq₁) *daRaq

díŋdiŋwall; to wall a house (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

ditávenom, poison secreted by snakes and other animals; to smear poison on an arrowhead, etc. (PWMP: *ziteq)

duátwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duá-ratwo individuals (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dua-rúafickle mind; doubts (PMP: *duha duha₂) *duSa

du-duá-ratwo only (PMP: *duha) *duSa

dumádifferent, be different (PAN: *duma)

durónwinged stage of locust or grasshopper (PPh: *dúdun)

ebákto peel (a fruit, etc.) (NOISE)

egábyawn (NOISE)

elétrigor, firmness (PWMP: *elet₂)

elétrigor, firmness (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

-enpassive, e.g. bása-en will be read ... -en is also often used in sentences with imperative force, e.g. Tawag-en moy Pedro (will-be-called by-you + subject marker Pedro = ) (You) call Pedro (Benton 1971a:130) (PAN: *-en)

epárice husk (PWMP: *qepah)

épasalight from a vehicle (PWMP: *qempas)

etáraw, uncooked or undercooked (PAN: *qetaq)

etélconstipation; difficulty or hardness in bowel movements (PMP: *etel)

gánasappetite (PMP: *ganas)

gatélitching, scratchy; become itchy (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

Pangasinan (200 / 686)

gétgetfold in skin on arms, legs, etc. of young child (PPH: *getget₂)

íbacompanion; accompany; help (PMP: *ibah) *ibaS

ibégcovet, desire, fall in love with (loanword) (PMP: *ibeR)

igáteel (PPh: *ígat)

igpíttighten something (PPh: *higpít)

i-kan-áingredients (PMP: *hi-kaen) *kaen

ikétnet (PMP: *hiket) *Siket

ikóltail (PAN: *ikuR)

ilíkunhusked rice (PAN: *iRik)

ilítto confiscate (LOAN)

íliwhomesickness; be homesick (PPh: *íliw)

ílogriver (PAN: *iluR₂)

ilópto sip (PMP: *hiRup) *SiRup

ilótmassage or rub gently (PPh: *hílut)

imatónobserve, see, witness, test with the senses (PPh: *himatún)

ímpisthin (inanimate objects only) (PAN: *iŋepis)

ináM (PMP: *ina)

inámcrave for food, drink, clothing, etc. (PPh: *hínam)

inómto drink (PMP: *inum)

inótdo slowly or by degrees; consume something slowly (PPh: *qínut)

Pangasinan (220 / 686)

intsíkChinese (LOAN)

iŋálnoise, shouting, altercation; make noise, shout (PMP: *iŋaR₁) *iŋaR

iŋóŋotannoyance (ROOT)

ípagsister-in-law (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

ipéttightness; become tight (PWMP: *hiqepet)

ipílshrubby variety of acacia (PMP: *qipil)

ipónvery small fish often made into inasin (a relish made from salting fish or shrimp and leaving to age) (PMP: *hipun₁)

íraphardships, torment; be difficult; suffer (PWMP: *hidap)

íraphardships, torment; be difficult, suffer (NOISE)

isáone (PAN: *isa₁)

ísipmind; to think (PPh: *ísip)

isísto scour (NOISE)

itágo ahead of someone, invite to follow (PWMP: *itaq)

(i)táwe (dual) topic pronoun; form used when the preceding word ends in a consonant (PAN: *ita₁)

itágo ahead of someone, invite to follow (PWMP: *ita₂)

ítiknative duck (PWMP: *itik₂)

ítosmall catfish (PMP: *hituq)

itosmall catfish (PMP: *hitu)

i-tolákto push (PMP: *tulak)

i-toróto point out, indicate with the finger (PWMP: *i-tuzuq) *tuzuq

Pangasinan (240 / 686)

íwasshift one's position, shift something, but not away from the general area in which it is situated (PPh: *iwas)

ka-person or thing proximate to oneself: ka-aráp ‘one who is in front’ (cp. aráp ‘front’) (PPH: *ka-₄)

kayou, sg., familiar, topic pronoun (PMP: *ka₄)

ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-aboŋ-an ‘houses, group of houses’ (cp. aboŋ ‘house’) (PAN: *ka- -an₂)

kaa-ralémdepth (PMP: *dalem)

kabána trunk for storing clothes, etc. (PPH: *kaban₂)

kabáncavan, a dry measure approximately equivalent to a bushel (LOAN)

ka-bilaŋ-áncaring about (PWMP: *ka-bilaŋ-an) *bilaŋ

kabítattach; joint; share a part (PAN: *kabit₁)

káblitto touch lightly (PPH: *kablit)

ka-bosólenemy, foe; be enemies (PAN: *busuR₁)

ka-buas-ánmorning (PPh: *buás)

ka-buékdrunkenness (PMP: *buhek₂) *buSek

ka-daan-ánold, ancient (PAN: *daqaN)

ka-ísip-ánvoice, opinion (PPh: *ka-ísip-an) *ísip

ka-kan-enthings to eat (PAN: *ka-kaen-en) *kaen

kálabahoneycomb; similar nest of insect (PPH: *kalába)

ka-labi-ánlast night, the previous night (PAN: *ka-Rabi-an) *Rabiqi

kalígold mine (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

kamaré-ruasoul (PMP: *duha) *duSa

Pangasinan (260 / 686)

kamátistomato (LOAN)

kandíŋgoat (PWMP: *kandiŋ)

kán-enfood (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

k-ápatthat which makes four, fourth (PMP: *ka-epat) *Sepat

kapáymake a stroke in swimming (PMP: *kapay)

kapéscotton (LOAN)

kap-igánwhen? (PAN: *ijan)

kapkápto feel, touch with the palm of the hand (PAN: *kapkap)

kapótto close (PMP: *kaput₁) *kaput

kápoyweakness, debility (PPH: *kápuy)

káraŋshelter made of nipa and placed on boat or carabao cart (PMP: *kazaŋ₂)

ka-sulat-ánthings one likes to write; persons one likes to write to (LOAN)

kátilow tide; go out, of the tide (PWMP: *ka-qati) *qaCi

ka-toloŋ-ánally (PWMP: *ka-tuluŋ-an) *tuluŋ

kawayábamboo (PAN: *kawayan)

kawíllarge fishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

kawíŋlink in a chain; to link with chain or cord (PWMP: *kawiŋ)

kayaadvantage, ability to do something (PWMP: *kaya)

kayásto clean a cane or reed by scraping it with a knife (PPH: *káyas)

keláwsurprise, astonish, amaze (PWMP: *kelaw)

Pangasinan (280 / 686)

kemélto catch fish with the hands (PMP: *kemel)

kenáto hit a target with a shot, stone, etc. (PMP: *kena₁)

kepésto empty, of a swelling (PWMP: *ke(m)pes)

ketélto shiver from the cold (PWMP: *keter)

kídkidto scrape or sand something, producing fine powder or dust (PMP: *kiDkiD)

kiéwtree, stick, timber (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kílkilfile (tool) (PAN: *kiRkiR)

kimátlightning (PPH: *kimat)

kindátto wink (PWMP: *kindat)

kirémclose the eye (PWMP: *kidem)

kiremclose the eyes (PWMP: *kizem)

kirepeyebrow (PWMP: *ki(n)zep)

kírlapglitter (ROOT)

-kome, my, by me (attributive pronoun; -k when preceding word ends in a vowel) (PAN: *-ku)

kokóclaw; finger- or toenail (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

kolaay punas-ánplace where towels are kept (PMP: *punas)

kolóbto cover; cover; bamboo used to cover ridge of roof (PWMP: *kulub₁)

kólotcurl, kinky or curly hair (PPH: *kulut-én) *kulut

koma-duásecond in order (PMP: *duha) *duSa

k<om>a-pitóseventh in order (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

Pangasinan (300 / 686)

k-om-a-walóeighth (PMP: *ika-walu) *walu

kopítto close mouth, eyes, book, etc. (PAN: *kupit)

koskósto grate in shreds (PWMP: *kuskus₂)

kotíŋkitten (PPH: *kutíŋ)

kotkótto dig, inter (PWMP: *kutkut₁)

kotóhead louse (PMP: *kutu) *kuCu

kuánsaid, though (followed by attributive particle or pronoun) (PWMP: *kua-n) *kua₁

kuma-limafifth in order (PWMP: *kuma-lima) *lima

kuma-pigáwhich in order? (PAN: *pija)

lábinight, evening (PMP: *Rabiqiₐ) *Rabiqi

labin-pitóseventeen (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

lagáto weave mats, hats, etc. (PWMP: *laja)

lákigrandfather, granduncle (PWMP: *lakay)

lakímale; boy (PMP: *laki)

lalóŋrooster, cock (PMP: *laluŋ)

lámato age, lose polish, etc. (PAN: *lama)

lamótroot (PMP: *Ramut)

lanáfragrant coconut oil (PMP: *laña)

laŋápforce a dog to eat by holding its mouth open and inserting food (ROOT)

laŋóyto swim (PWMP: *laŋuy)

Pangasinan (320 / 686)

laríssound of whipping or lashing (ROOT)

leé taisle, space between (ROOT)

legáwgo astray, lose one's way (PWMP: *regaw)

lemékbecome soft (PAN: *lemek₁)

lenérdrown (PWMP: *leñej)

letaksplit (PWMP: *letak)

letáwfloat (of an object being cooked) (PWMP: *le(n)taw)

likáwto go around looking without definite purpose, meander (PAN: *likaw)

likáw-líkawto go around looking without definite purpose, meander (PPH: *likáw-likáw) *likaw

líkocorner (PWMP: *likuq)

limáfive (PAN: *lima)

limá-m-plofifty (PMP: *lima ŋa puluq) *lima

li-náwabreath; to breathe (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

lómotenderloin (cut of meat) (PMP: *lumu₂)

lópakbreak off, break up (PWMP: *lu(m)pak)

lorémcloud (PWMP: *ludem)

losókstomach, abdomen (PAN: *Rusuk)

luátears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

luásto go to town (PWMP: *luas)

lukásto open, uncover (PMP: *lu(ŋ)kas)

Pangasinan (340 / 686)

ma-asín(very) salty (PMP: *ma-qasin) *qasiN

ma-awáŋextensive, spacious (PMP: *awaŋ)

ma-baligiven to lying, untruthful (PWMP: *ma-bali₂) *bali₄

ma-biláyalive, living (PPh: *ma-bihaR) *bihaR

ma-boŋábearing fruit, laden (PWMP: *ma-búŋa) *buŋa

ma-etaunripe, green (fruit), uncooked (PAN: *ma-qetaq₁) *qetaq

ma-írapdifficult, hard (emotionally) (PWMP: *hidap)

maka-paka-sawádull, boring (PPh: *sáwaq) *sawaq₂

maka-paka-sawádull, boring (PPH: *saw(e)qa)

maka-pa-keláwstrange, amazing (PWMP: *kelaw)

ma-kápoyweak, ineffectual, inferior, in poor condition (PPH: *ma-kápuy) *kápuy

ma-letstrong, well-founded (PWMP: *elet₂)

ma-létstrong, well founded (PMP: *ma-heRet) *SeReC

mama-írapthe poor (NOISE)

ma-manáshoot an arrow (PWMP: *kelaw)

ma-ma-oránrainy season (PAN: *ma-quzaN) *quzaN

ma-matéybutcher (PMP: *ma-m-atay) *aCay

ma-milíto choose (PWMP: *ma-miliq) *piliq

ma-mílitto force (PPH: *pílit) *pílit₁

mamin-duátwice, two times (PMP: *duha) *duSa

Pangasinan (360 / 686)

ma-mítayto hang (another) (PPh: *maŋ-bítay) *bítay

ma-monásto wipe (PMP: *punas)

manakéwsteal (PWMP: *maŋ-takaw) *Cakaw

mana-mílielector (PAN: *piliq)

man-anákbear a child (PWMP: *maŋ-anak) *aNak

man-andóyanto swing in a hammock, cradle, etc. (PPH: *dúyan)

maN-apoystart a fire (PWMP: *maŋ-hapuy) *Sapuy

man-dáitto sew (PMP: *zaqit)

man-dáŋdaŋto heat (PWMP: *maŋ-daŋdaŋ) *daŋdaŋ

man-depáto spread with outstretched arms (PPH: *man-depa) *depa

man-dumábecome different (PAN: *duma)

man-gíliŋto grind (PMP: *giliŋ)

man-goyórto pull, drag (PWMP: *guyud)

man-kalánsiŋto tinkle (NEAR)

man-kiláwto eat raw meat or fish (PPH: *kilaw)

man-kiskísto shave (oneself) (PAN: *kiskis)

man-kokóto cut one’s nails (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

man-kólotto curl someone’s hair (PPH: *kulut-én) *kulut

man-lotóto cook (PWMP: *lutuq)

man-óabto yawn (PWMP: *maŋ-huab) *Suab

Pangasinan (380 / 686)

manókbird, fowl, chicken (PMP: *manuk)

ma-nopsópto suck, take repeated big sips (PAN: *supsup)

man-osílrun after (PWMP: *maŋ-usiR) *qusiR

man-paypáyto fan (PPH: *paypáy)

man-pokpokto shake off dust (PAN: *pukpuk)

man-sabítto hang clothes, etc. on a peg (PMP: *saqebit)

man-sabítto hang clothes, etc. on a peg (PWMP: *sabit)

man-sábsab(of pigs) to eat, (of people) to eat like a pig, slurping food with smacking lips (PAN: *sabsab)

man-sakémto clasp (PPH: *sakém)

man-sambótto be on time; take advantage of an opportunity to do something (PPH: *sambut₁)

man-saŋsáŋto discuss something, debate, argue (PPH: *saŋsáŋ)

man-seksékfilled, packed tight, stuffed; to stuff fish, etc. (PAN: *seksek₁)

man-silábto burn leaves, papers, etc. (PPH: *siq(e)láb)

man-silípto peep (PPH: *siq(e)rip)

man-silípto peep (NEAR)

man-siráto eat meat or fish (PPH: *siraq₂)

man-solótto wear clothes (PPH: *suq(e)lut)

man-sorsórto plane (wood) (PPH: *sudsud₂)

man-sugátto hurt (PWMP: *suRat)

man-súkayto investigate, search (PPH: *sukáy)

Pangasinan (400 / 686)

man-taídefecate (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

man-taytáycross a bridge (PWMP: *ma-naytay) *taytay

ma-núlatto write (LOAN)

maŋ-ákoaccept, receive (PWMP: *maŋ-aku) *aku

ma-ŋanto eat (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

maŋ-asawáto marry (PWMP: *maŋ-qasawa) *qasawa

ma-ŋiskísto shave (another person) (PAN: *kiskis)

maŋi-tolákto thrust (PMP: *tulak)

ma-rabókdusty, full of dust (PPH: *dabuk₂)

ma-rakélmany (PPH: *ma-dakél) *dakél

ma-snágbright, brilliant (of light, stars, etc.) (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

matáeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-takótafraid (PAN: *ma-takut) *takut

ma-tóloŋhelpful (PWMP: *ma-tuluŋ) *tuluŋ

mi-búlaŋparticipate in cockfighting (by owning a cock, betting, etc.) (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

m-ika-pitóseventh (PMP: *ika-pitu) *pitu

mokomókreduce to powder; gold dust (PWMP: *mumuk)

mokomókreduce to powder; gold dust (ROOT)

molíŋforehead (PAN: *mujiŋ)

molmólkeep (sweet, etc.) in the mouth to dissolve; suck thumb or finger (PMP: *mulmul)

Pangasinan (420 / 686)

na-ániharvested crops (especially rice, corn) (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

na-buástomorrow (PPh: *buás)

na-kánfood (PAN: *kaen)

nan-asáŋgilled, having gills (PMP: *hasaŋ)

na-ŋel-ánwas heard (PMP: *deŋeR)

na-pnófull (PPH: *na-penuq) *penuq

nawáhave sufficient space, time, etc. (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

nawnáwdissolve (ROOT)

neŋneŋlook at, see (PAN: *NeŋNeŋ)

ni-dumáabnormal (PAN: *duma)

niógcoconut (PMP: *niuR)

ni-rumá-rumáunique (PAN: *duma)

nótnótmanner of chewing of small children or older persons without teeth (PWMP: *ñutñut)

ŋalŋálcrush something hard or brittle with the teeth; chew (PAN: *ŋalŋal)

ŋáŋaopen mouth (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

ŋaránname (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋáremafternoon (ROOT)

ŋipéntooth (PAN: *ŋipen)

ŋitŋítannoyance or inconvenience caused by importunity or quarrel; to show such annoyance (e.g. by gnashing the teeth in anger) (PAN: *ŋitŋit₁) *ŋitŋit

ŋitŋítannoyance (ROOT)

Pangasinan (440 / 686)

ŋitŋítannoyance or inconvenience caused by importunity or quarrel; to show such annoyance (e.g. by gnashing the teeth in anger) (PMP: *ŋitŋit₂) *ŋiCŋiC

oábyawn (PMP: *huab₂) *Suab

obákbark or skin of tree (PWMP: *ubak)

obángreyish hair; to have white hairs (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

obóŋnest (of bird); be nesting (NOISE)

ogálicustom; character (of a person) (PWMP: *ugáliq)

ógoŋto thunder (of any noise) (ROOT)

okókcough; to cough (PMP: *ukuk)

okókcough; to cough (ROOT)

olátvein (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

olégsnake (PMP: *qulej)

olésblanket; cover with a blanket (PMP: *qules₂) *qules

olíreturn; become resurrected (PMP: *uliq₁)

olí-olíonce more; mention something repeatedly (PMP: *uliq uliq) *uliq₁

ólitrepeat; again (PPh: *úlit)

olóhead (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

olópaccompany, go together (PWMP: *uRup)

ománchange, repair, repeat (PAN: *quman)

onáfirst, do first (PMP: *unah)

oná-anfirst in order (PPh: *unah-an) *unah

Pangasinan (460 / 686)

onátspread out (a mat); stretch (PPh: *huñat)

onátto spread (e.g. spread out a mat), stretch (PPh: *uñat)

on-lábibecome night (PMP: *Rabiqiₐ) *Rabiqi

on-líkoto turn, veer (PWMP: *likuq)

on-lotóto ripen (PWMP: *lutuq)

on-saŋáto grow branches (PMP: *saŋa₁)

on-sapátto mount a horse (PPH: *sapat₁)

on-sibáto eat a lot, become voracious (PPH: *sibáq)

on-soloŋto go ahead, put into effect (PWMP: *suruŋ)

on-tóloŋto help (PMP: *tuluŋ)

oŋólroar (of sea, wind, water, a crowd); to roar (PMP: *huRuŋ)

óoŋmushroom (PAN: *quSuŋ)

oránrain; to rain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

oráŋshrimp (PAN: *qudaŋ)

oríŋcharcoal; to make charcoal (PAN: *qujiŋ)

osílrun after (PAN: *qusiR)

otávomit (PAN: *utaq)

ótaŋbill, account, debt; to owe (PMP: *qutaŋ)

otékbrain, brains (PMP: *hutek)

owákcrow (bird species) (PMP: *uak₁)

Pangasinan (480 / 686)

oyhey! (exclamation to attract attention of distant person) (PMP: *huy)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

pagéyrice plant; unhusked rice (PAN: *pajay)

paítbitter tasting (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

pa-kánto feed; to serve food (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pakóedible fern (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

pakpákto beat cotton or cloth with a rod (PAN: *pakpak)

pálacoconut pith (PMP: *para)

pálaplace for storing pillows and mats (PAN: *paRa₁)

palakpákapplause (PPH: *p<al>akpak) *pakpak

p<al>akpákapplause (PAN: *pakpak)

palápamidrib of coconut leaf (PMP: *palaqpaq)

pála-pálatemporary shed prepared for a special occasion, esp. a wedding reception (PPh: *pala pala₂)

pálarlines on palm of hand; luck, fortune; be affected by fortune (PMP: *palaj₁)

pálarluck, fortune (PWMP: *palaj₂)

pálispleen (PAN: *paliq₁)

palíkpikfins or dorsal spines of fish (PPh: *p<al>ikpik) *pikpik

palíŋto turn (PMP: *paliŋ)

palíŋturn (ROOT)

palísburn weeds in a seedbed or other piece of land (NOISE)

Pangasinan (500 / 686)

palítbuy new clothes, have new clothes (PPh: *palit)

pálotpull out (PMP: *paRut)

paltík(usually homemade) gun (PWMP: *paletik)

paltík(usually homemade) gun (PWMP: *pale(n)tik)

palyábitter melon (PWMP: *pariaʔ)

panáarrow (PAN: *panaq)

panag-tanémplanting season (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

pan-anáktime or month of delivery (PWMP: *paŋ-anak) *aNak

panaŋ-ániharvest season (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

pa-naónseason, in season (PMP: *taqun)

panikía bat (PMP: *paniki)

pánitto skin (e.g. a frog) (PWMP: *panit)

panóto fill to overflowing (PMP: *penuq)

paŋátto cook fish in vinegar with garlic (LOAN)

paŋpáŋriver bank, riverside, seaside (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ)

paŋ-úlobe a leader; eldest (PWMP: *paŋ-qulu) *quluh

paŋ-ulo-anfirst child (PWMP: *paŋ-qulu) *quluh

pa-olíleave (something) for awhile (PMP: *pa-uliq) *uliq₁

pa-oránbe caught in the rain (PAN: *pa-quzaN) *quzaN

pa-ótaŋto lend (PWMP: *pa-qutaŋ) *qutaŋ

Pangasinan (520 / 686)

pa-ranúmirrigation system (PMP: *pa-danum) *daNum

párawtraditional type of sailboat (PWMP: *padaw)

pa-sosóto give the breast to (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁

patáwbuoy; to float (ROOT)

patéydeath (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

patéy-enkill (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

paypáya fan (PPH: *paypáy)

pespéssqueeze (PMP: *pespes₂) *pespes

pí-duasecond time (PMP: *duha) *duSa

pigáhow much? (PAN: *pija)

pigá-rahow many?, so many (PAN: *pija)

pikítplaster; sticky (PMP: *pikit)

pílitto be obliged, have obligations (PPH: *pílit) *pílit₁

pínatstretch (ROOT)

pitóseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pitó-m-ploseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pokpókshake off dust (ROOT)

polóten (appears only with affixes) (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

ponássponge bath (PMP: *punas)

pósoheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

Pangasinan (540 / 686)

posóheart of a banana fruit (PMP: *pusuq₁)

pospósend, finish, termination (PWMP: *puspus)

potíkto decorate cloth, etc. with braided threads (ROOT)

pótocake made from rice flour (PPH: *putu)

putífairness, beauty (PMP: *putiq)

sabáa variety of cooking banana with large squarish fruits (PWMP: *sabeqa)

sabáŋmouth of a river (PMP: *sabaŋ₁)

sabítthorn, spine, fish bone (PMP: *saqebit)

sablekto want something or somebody badly; covet, desire (PPH: *sab(e)lek)

sabólfountain, spring (of water) (PMP: *saq(e)buR)

sagófine comb (PMP: *saRu₁)

sagóa herbaceous plant the roots of which are cooked and eaten (PMP: *sagu₁)

saíŋto join two objects end to end (PPH: *saiŋ)

saítto sharpen on a stone, etc., whet (PAN: *saqit)

sakáyto navigate (PMP: *sakay₁)

sakay-ánship, vessel (PWMP: *sakay-an) *sakay₁

sakémterritory, jurisdiction; to absorb, acquire (PPH: *sakém)

sakítache, disease, pain, sickness, hurt; become painful (PMP: *sakit)

sakit-anto hurt (PPH: *sakit-an) *sakit

sakóbcover, lid; to cover (PPH: *sakúb)

Pangasinan (560 / 686)

sakóblid, cover (Also Kankanaey sakkúb 'to cover with one's blanket, so as to have one blanket for two persons') (ROOT)

saksákto stab with any pointed object (PAN: *saksak₁)

saláksaka bird with red breast and green feathers, sometimes considered a bird of ill omen (PWMP: *salaksak)

salambáwa specially constructed large fishing net (PWMP: *salambaw)

salásacrossbeam supporting the floor (NOISE)

s<al>áysayto examine, investigate (PPH: *s<al>áysay) *sáysay

salétto put between (PPH: *salét)

salét-salétto intersperse (PPH: *salét-salét) *salét

salínoccupy one’s place against another’s will (PWMP: *salin)

saliŋsíŋto prune the new shoots from a tree (PPH: *saliŋsíŋ)

saloksókto skewer meat; insert stick, etc. into chink or crack (PPH: *saluksuk₂)

salópa ganta (three liters dry measure) (PPH: *salúp)

sa-m-póloten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

samsámsamsám (PPH: *samsám)

sandé-ruatwo by two; two each (PMP: *duha) *duSa

san-pi-pitóseven each (PAN: *pi-pitu) *pitu

saŋábranch of a tree, stalk of a plant, stem (PMP: *saŋa₁)

saŋgáto parry a blow (PWMP: *saŋgaq)

sapáŋtree used in dyeing and staining; dye (PWMP: *sapaŋ)

sapátplace something on top of table, roof, etc. (PPH: *sapat₁)

Pangasinan (580 / 686)

sápinsaddle cloth (PPH: *sapín)

sapínshoes (PPH: *sapín)

sapnótnot slippery, slightly sticky (of a surface) (PPH: *sap(e)nut)

sapókatom; fine dust carried by the wind (PMP: *sapuk)

sapókatom; fine dust carried by the wind (ROOT)

sapótspiderweb (PMP: *saput₁)

sapsápto chip off, rasp; splinter, chip produced by rasping or adzing wood (PWMP: *sapsap₁)

sapsápkind of edible fish with flat, circular body (PPH: *sapsap₂)

sawácloyed, tired of; become tired of, boring (PPh: *sáwaq) *sawaq₂

sawácloyed, tired of; become tired of, boring (PPH: *saw(e)qa)

sawáliflattened bamboo made into mat-like panels serving as walling for traditional-type houses (PWMP: *sawaliq)

sawsáwdip in liquid (general term); dunk (PPH: *sawsáw)

sawsaw-ánsauce (PPH: *sawsáw)

sáyathis (NOISE)

sedsércompact; to compress (PPH: *sedsed₂)

simarker preceding [singular] personal nouns when the latter are subjects of a sentence, in apposition, etc.; also functions as a personal article before such nouns (PAN: *si₁)

sibáinordinate appetite, gluttony, voracity (PPH: *sibáq)

sígaycowrie shell (PWMP: *sígay)

sígiexpression equivalent to ‘O.K.’, ‘go ahead!’, ‘all right’ (LOAN)

siítarrowhead, thorn, spine on fish, etc. (PWMP: *siqit)

Pangasinan (600 / 686)

sikáŋto stretch to the limit, take a very wide stride (PWMP: *sikaŋ)

sikápcunning; to spy on (PPH: *sikap₁)

síkatbrilliance, glitter, splendor (PPH: *sikát)

síkatbrush-like instrument for polishing floors, etc., made from halved coconut husk (PWMP: *sikat)

sikóelbow (PAN: *siku₁)

síloŋunder, underneath, space under house; ground floor; to put under (PPH: *siluŋ)

simótto gather food particles left on one’s plate by scraping plate with finger and eating every morsel; person having barely enough to eat (PPH: *simut)

símsimto try, taste (PPH: *simsím)

sínagsunbeam, moonbeam, glow (of light), to beam (of the sun); to rise (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sinam-púsoheart-shaped (PMP: *pusuq₁)

siŋílto collect a debt (PPH: *siŋir)

siŋítnotch at upper end of pillars or posts (PMP: *siŋ(e)qit)

sipátto aim at something thrown up or flying in the air (PWMP: *sipat)

sipíto break twigs or branches off a tree with the hand (PPH: *sipíq)

sipíŋtwin (PPH: *sípiŋ)

sípitpincers, tongs; pincers of a crab (PAN: *sipit)

sipsípto pluck off feathers; cut grass close to the ground; close shaven (PPH: *sipsíp)

sirafish, food, viand; to eat meat or fish (PPh: *sidáq)

sírato be cracked, split (of objects); wounded (PMP: *siraq₁)

siráfish, food, viand (PPH: *siraq₂)

Pangasinan (620 / 686)

siwáŋcrack, space between (PMP: *siwaŋ)

siwsíwchick (PAN: *siwsíw) *siwsiw

sonominative case marker for common nouns (PAN: *su)

sobóput something into an opening (e.g. food into the mouth, the hand into a hole, etc.) (PPH: *súbuq)

sóbokto test, try, prove for oneself (PPH: *subuk₂)

soksókto sheathe bolo or knife (PAN: *suksuk)

solámbicoquette (PWMP: *surambiq)

soŋóspike-like projection from the head of shrimp (PWMP: *suŋu₁)

soŋótmouth, upper lip (PMP: *suŋut₂)

soŋsóŋto contradict; to go against wind, current or tide (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₁)

sopsópsuck, take repeated big sips (PMP: *cupcup)

sorsórcarpenter’s plane (PPH: *sudsud₂)

sosóbreast; to drink from the breast; to milk (PAN: *susu₁)

suálpole or stake with iron point used for digging (PMP: *sual)

súbato go upstream, against the current (PPH: *súbaq)

subsúbto root with the snout (pig); fall on one’s face (PWMP: *subsub)

sugáprong, spike; to placed spikes on the way (to deter intruders, etc.) (PMP: *suja)

sugátcut, hurt, wound (PWMP: *suRat)

sugígitoothbrush (PWMP: *sugi)

súkatarea, size; to measure, fit (PWMP: *sukat)

Pangasinan (640 / 686)

súkiregular and favored customer; vendor or merchant whom one patronizes regularly (LOAN)

súlatletter (LOAN)

sulítcruelty, perversity, tyranny (PWMP: *sulit₁)

súmandelicacy made from sticky rice, sugar and coconut milk; wrapped and cooked in banana leaf (LOAN)

sumpáamulet, antidote; oppose, resist (PWMP: *sumpaq)

súpotbag, sack (PPH: *súput)

tadtar-énto chop up (PPH: *tadtad-én) *tadtád

taéwmiddle of river; ocean, deep sea (PMP: *tahaw) *CaSaw

tagláŋrib, frame (PAN: *tageRaŋ)

taíexcrement (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

takéwsteal (PMP: *takaw) *Cakaw

takótfear (PAN: *takut)

takot-ento frighten (PWMP: *takut-en) *takut

talóthree (PAN: *telu)

tanémto plant, sow (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

taŋánthumb, big toe (PMP: *taŋan)

táopeople, persons (ka-) (PMP: *tau) *Cau

taólbark (of dog) (PPH: *taqul)

taónage, year (PMP: *taqun)

tarémblade, edge (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

Pangasinan (660 / 686)

taytáybridge (PMP: *taytay)

tegtégsever or divide with a sharp instrument (PMP: *tegteg) *CegCeg

temékto crush (ROOT)

tikléb(<M) be upside-down, lie on one's stomach (ROOT)

timélflea (PWMP: *timel)

timírchin (PMP: *timid) *timij

t<in>aónannual (PMP: *taqun)

t-in-apásmoked fish (PMP: *t<in>apa) *Capa

tobógrowth; to sprout, grow, increase (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

toékbow the head (ROOT)

tógtogplay a musical instrument (PMP: *tugtug₂) *CugCug₁

tóloŋhelp, aid, assistance (PMP: *tuluŋ)

tomábody louse (PMP: *tumah) *CumeS

tóŋkabto force open with any instrument (PWMP: *tu(ŋ)kab)

tóŋkabto force open with any instrument (PPH: *tu(ŋ)káb)

to eject from the mouth; poke out one’s tongue (PMP: *luaq)

ubíyam (PMP: *qubi)

uhácry of newborn baby (PWMP: *uhaq)

únibird song; to sing (birds only) (PMP: *huni) *Suni

wagwágshake out a sack, empty a container (PPh: *wagwág₂)

Pangasinan (680 / 686)

waisíksprinkle (ROOT)

walábeing in existence (often translatable by English 'to have' when referring to possessions, etc.) (PWMP: *wada-q) *wada

walóeight (PAN: *walu)

yakétsap (ROOT)

ʔabétto meet (NOISE)

521. Pango (1) OC

ka-tulthree (POC: *ka-tolu) *telu

522. Papar Murut (3) WMP

daoblique case marker for common nouns (PMP: *daₐ) *da

munuŋbeak (PWMP: *munuŋ)

surudlice comb (PWMP: *sujud)

523. Papitalai (4) OC [pat] Papua New Guinea

asa-ninner gills (red substance) (PEMP: *asaŋ₂) *hasaŋ

asugall, gall bladder (POC: *qasu₂)

cihircockatoo sp. (POC: *sipiri)

kayacoutrigger boom (POC: *kayajo)

524. Papora (8) Form. [ppu] (Papora-Hoanya) Taiwan

yes (PAN: *auʔ)

bulato give (PAN: *bula₂)

huci ~ kucivulva (PAN: *kuti)

ludúhrabbit (PAN: *lutuk)

(me)-siyanine (PAN: *Siwa)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

sulideaf (PAN: *Culi)

timoreast (PAN: *timuR)

525. Papuma (1) WMP

-u1sg possessive suffix: my (PAN: *-ku)

526. Patep (1) OC [ptp] Papua New Guinea

inaplaugh (Hooley 1971) (POC: *inap)

527. Patpatar (5) OC [gfk] Papua New Guinea

amatukind of fish, big and green (LOAN)

kakanew coconut frond that has not opened yet (POC: *kaka₃)

maand (PAN: *maS)

ŋarcanarium almond: Canarium indicum (POC: *kaŋaRi)

sēkcuckoo (POC: *seke)

tatafather (PMP: *tata₁)

Pattani Malay (1) WMP. see: Malay (Pattani)

528. Paulohi (103) CMP (Stresemann 1918) [plh] Indonesia (Maluku)

afa-iwhat? (PMP: *apa-i) *apa₁

afufire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

a-ka-kilawild; shy (of domesticated animals) (PMP: *gila)

alachin, jaw (PMP: *qazay)

amafather (PAN: *ama)

anachild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anato plait, weave (PMP: *añam)

aninewind (PMP: *haŋin)

asa-ewhet, sharpen (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asa-iits gills (PEMP: *asaŋ-i) *hasaŋ

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

asu huru-ifur of a dog (PCEMP: *bulu₃) *bulu₁

ateroof thatch made of palm leaves (PMP: *qatep)

au1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

e-laufar, distant (PMP: *zauq)

fa-matakill (PMP: *pa(ka)-m-atay) *aCay

hahaupper side (PAN: *babaw₃)

hahacarry on the back (PMP: *baba₇) *baba₁

hahupig (PAN: *babuy₃)

hakato open (intr.) (PMP: *bakas)

Paulohi (20 / 103)

haluanswer (PMP: *baliw₄) *baliw₁

halu (< *baluy)answer (PCEMP: *bali₈) *baliw₁

hanuwake up, get up (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

hanu-eawaken someone (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

hariturn over (PMP: *balik₂)

hari-harilie, deceive (PMP: *bali₄)

hari-harilie, deceive (PMP: *baRiq)

hari-hari-neliar (PMP: *bali₄)

hari-hari-neliar (PMP: *baRiq)

haruwidow(er) (PMP: *balu₄)

harua shore tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus (PMP: *baRu)

hatelelarva of the beetle Euchirus longimanus L. which lives in the trunks of sago palms and is eaten as a delicacy (PMP: *qabateR)

hatele ina-isago beetle (PMP: *qabateR)

heri-niits purchase price (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

herubent; to bend (PMP: *beluk)

hihilip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

hisato split in fragments (trans.), of glass, bamboo, etc. (PCEMP: *bisak) *biseqak

hisasplit to pieces (glass, bamboo) (ROOT)

hiticarry a child clutched to the breast; carry off; lift from the ground (PMP: *bintiŋ)

hua-iits fruit; numeral classifier for people, boats, cigarettes, mountains (PMP: *buaq)

Paulohi (40 / 103)

huaycrocodile: Crocodilus porosus Schneid. (PCEMP: *buqaya)

huhufish trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

hulanemoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

hulawanegold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

hun-eneridge of the roof (PMP: *bubuŋ-en) *bubuŋ₁

huri-niits cluster of fruit (used of stalks of bananas) (PMP: *buliR)

huru-iits feathers, its fur, his/her hair (but not as human head hair!) (PCEMP: *bulu₃) *bulu₁

husedrive awat, drive off (an animal) (PMP: *busay)

husulehunting bow (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

hututie the hair into a knot (PMP: *butequl)

hutuaentrails, intestines, used in the sense of Malay hati (seat of the emotions) (PMP: *bituka) *biCuka

hutu-iswarm, troop, abundance (PCEMP: *butu₂) *butu

ikewind a thread on a spool (PMP: *i(ŋ)kes)

imapandanus sp. (PCEMP: *ima₂)

imiyou (pl.) (PCEMP: *imi) *Simu

inaM (PCEMP: *ina)

isi-niflesh; contents (PAN: *isiʔ)

kosashatter (egg) (ROOT)

kurusummon (chickens or the wind) with a clucking sound (PMP: *kuru₁)

laibody dirt (PMP: *daki₂) *daki

Paulohi (60 / 103)

lalablood (PAN: *daRaq₁) *daRaq

latalelevel land, plain (PAN: *dataR)

lauleaf (PCEMP: *daun) *dahun

lautoward the sea (PCEMP: *laur₁) *lahud

lehuto mix, blend (PMP: *rembur)

leteabove (PCMP: *letay₁)

lohonehole in the ground (PAN: *lebeŋ)

maito come; hither (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

ma-ninishudder, shiver (PCEMP: *nini) *ninih

manu-elet something go adrift (as a boat on water) (PAN: *ma-qañud) *qañud

manu-ebird (PMP: *manuk)

manu-e huru-ibird feather (PMP: *bulu ni manuk) *bulu₁

matadead; die (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

mata-edie of something (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

mata-e lalableed to death (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

nalaname (PMP: *ŋajan)

nifasnake (PMP: *nipay)

nifa nitucentipede, millipede (PMP: *nipay)

nituspirit of the dead (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

nuelecoconut palm, Cocos nucifera (PMP: *niuR)

Paulohi (80 / 103)

rima ina-ithumb (PMP: *ina ni lima) *ina

ririhouse post (PCEMP: *adiRi) *SadiRi

ririfan-ecentipede (PCEMP: *qalipan) *qalu-Sipan

silethey, them (PMP: *si ida) *ida

susufemale breast; suck at the breast (PAN: *susu₁)

susu wair-imilk (breast water) (PAN: *susu₁)

suɁunebreadfruit tree: Artocarpus incisa L. (PMP: *sukun)

ta ~ ta-mano, not (PCMP: *ta)

teruregg (PMP: *qateluR)

tetecut through meat or bone with a cleaver (PAN: *tektek₁)

tetuto peck (PCMP: *tetu)

tia-belly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tihaledrum (PCMP: *tibal)

tihulake (PCMP: *tibu₁) *tibu

tunuroast, burn; shoot with a weapon', tunu 'to burn; to shoot (PMP: *tunu) *CuNuh

turuto descend, go down (PMP: *tuRun₁)

una-irefuse of, scrapings of (PCEMP: *qunap₁) *quSeNap

unuto drink (PCEMP: *unum)

unu-unu-adrink, beverage (PMP: *inum-inum-an) *inum

utanepea, bean (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

Paulohi (100 / 103)

waeleg, foot (PAN: *waqay)

walet-eliana; rope (PMP: *waRej)

wariyounger sibling of the same sex (PCEMP: *waji) *Suaji

529. Pazeh (331) Form. (Ferrell 1968) [uun] (Kulon-Pazeh) Taiwan (dialects: Kahabu 3)

aco-ordinate particle (links head and attribute) (PAN: *a₅)

abaxa-nshoulder (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *qabaRa-an) *qabaRa₁

ai-tuduʔ-anclassroom, place for instruction (PAN: *tuzuq)

alaytermite, white ant (PAN: *aNay)

ami1pl. excl. nominative, we (PAN: *ami)

apuzugall bladder; bile (PAN: *qapeju)

arato take, get, obtain; marry (PAN: *ala)

araʔ-enbe received, accepted (PAN: *alaq-en) *alaq₁

araʔ-itake it! (PAN: *alaq₁)

axempangolin, anteater (PAN: *qaRem)

babaŋutthe whole area around the mouth and the nose (ROOT)

ba-baŋutthe whole area around the mouth and the nose (NOISE)

bahahcharcoal (expected **baxah) (PAN: *baRah)

balasmale, of animals and fowls (PAN: *baNaS)

bariwind (PAN: *bali₃)

bariwind (LOAN)

bariw-ibuy it! (PAN: *baliw) *baliw₃

batustone (PAN: *batu₄) *batu₁

batu lasutesticle (PAN: *batu₄) *batu₁

batu pataruchicken egg (PAN: *batu₄) *batu₁

Pazeh (20 / 331)

baxalung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

baxatcucumber (PAN: *baRat₂)

baza-know, understand (PAN: *bajaq₁) *bajaq

bazuto wash (clothes) (PAN: *basuq)

belebelbanana (PAN: *beNbeN)

benandeer with white spots on the body, (thus the Formosan sika deer: Cervus nippon taiouanus Blyth) (PAN: *benan)

bintunstar (PAN: *bituqen)

buhutsquirrel (PAN: *buhet)

bukatrelease a trap intentionally (PAN: *bukas)

bukul ~ bukunback (anat.) (PAN: *bukuN)

bunatsand (LOAN)

bunuxswell (PAN: *bunuR₁)

buruspecies of slender bamboo (has the tastiest shoots, stems used for smoking pipes, etc.) (PAN: *buluq₂)

buzuxarrow (PAN: *busuR₂)

daa-pia-tudu ~ saa-pia-tuduindex finger (PAN: *tuzuq)

dadadakstep on dung by mistake (ROOT)

dadaŋwarm (body); broil (PAN: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

da-dapalsole of the foot (PAN: *dapaN)

da-diusspoon, ladle (PAN: *qidus)

daisface (PAN: *daqiS)

Pazeh (40 / 331)

dakescamphor laurel: Cinnamomum camphora (PAN: *dakeS)

dakidirt, garbage, waste; dandruff (PAN: *daki₁) *daki

daki-anget dirty (PAN: *daki₁) *daki

dali, dali-anday (PAN: *daqaNi)

dalumwater (PAN: *daNum)

dalum-anpond; well water (PAN: *daNum)

dalum-anpond, well water (PAN: *danum-an) *daNum

damublood (PAN: *damuq)

daranroad, trail (PAN: *zalan)

daxaFormosan maple: Liquidambar formosana (PAN: *daRa₁)

daxamaccustomed to (PAN: *dajam)

daxemneedle (PAN: *zaRum)

dayaeast (PAN: *daya)

demekrotten (as a log) (ROOT)

dilocative or directional case marker (Li 1978:573 (PAN: *di)

diadi-duato move there (PAN: *dua)

di-nihere (PAN: *di-ni) *-ni

duato go; that yonder (PAN: *dua)

du-dusasecond (PAN: *du-duSa) *duSa

dukudukginger: Zingiber officinale (PAN: *dukduk)

Pazeh (60 / 331)

dusatwo (PAN: *duSa)

-ənpassive suffix; e.g. sulih-ən be baked, kan-ən be eaten, ʔutaʔ-ən be vomited, ʔalaw kan-ən inaki lia The fish was already eaten by me; (Li 1978:570) Rubaŋ-en ni saw lia ki wazuʔ The dog was already buried by some person (Li 1978:574) (PAN: *-en)

hapwi, hapuyfire (PAN: *Sapuy)

huhasvein, blood vessel (PAN: *huRaC)

ilasmoon, month (PAN: *qiNaS)

imawho? (PAN: *ima)

im-inithis (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

inamother (PAN: *ina)

inino, not (negator of verbs and adjectives) (PAN: *ini)

in-umaspickled; pickles (PAN: *umaS)

itawe (incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

ita-anwe (incl.), locative (PAN: *ita₁)

ituktop of the head (ROOT)

iʔ-imawho? (plural) (PAN: *ima)

katopic marker (PAN: *ka₃)

ka- -anmarker of the adversative passive; ka-udan-an ‘be soaked with rain, be caught in the rain’ (cf. udan ‘rain’); ka-akux-an ‘heatstroke; be overcome by heat’ (cf. paka-akux ‘to warm up, to heat’); ka-bari-an ‘be blown about by the wind’ (cf. bari ‘wind’) (PAN: *ka- -an₁)

ka-baretto borrow (PAN: *bales₁)

ka-bazato know (PAN: *ka-bajaq) *bajaq

kabithook (PAN: *kabit₁)

kahoy saŋiraspecies of flat, thin, black mushroom (lit. 'wood ear') (PAN: *Caliŋa na kaSiw) *Caliŋa

Pazeh (80 / 331)

kahu-kahuy-anforest (PAN: *kaSi-kaSiw) *kaSiw

kahuytree, wood (PAN: *kaSiw)

kakaka crow (PAN: *kakak)

ka-kan-andining table (PAN: *ka-kaen-an) *kaen

ka-kan-aywill eat, shall eat (PAN: *kaen-ay) *kaen

ka-kan-ento eat (PAN: *ka-kaen-en) *kaen

ka-kapita button (PAN: *kapit)

kakasuspider (PAN: *kakaCu)

ka-kaxawto scratch (PAN: *kaRaw₁)

kalima-kawastalkative (PAN: *kawaS₂)

ka-malaŋsharp (blade) (PAN: *maNaŋ)

kan-ieat (imper.) (PAN: *kaen-i) *kaen

kapuablanket, coverlet, quilt; sleeping mattress; cotton (PAN: *kapua)

kaukupto brood eggs; to cover chicks with its wings (of a hen) (ROOT)

kawasyear; sky, heaven (PAN: *kawaS₁)

kawasword, language; speech (PAN: *kawaS₂)

kaway- ~ ta-kawaya bag (made of string) carried on a man’s back (PAN: *kaway₃)

kaxaŋsmall crab found in streams (PAN: *gaRaŋ)

kemer-enbe held tightly, be squeezed (PAN: *gemel)

kexet-enbe hurt, grazed, abraded (as with miscanthus leaves) (PAN: *keRet-en) *keRet

Pazeh (100 / 331)

k<in>a-mala-malaŋvery sharp (PAN: *maNaŋ)

k<in>an sawwas eaten by a person (someone) (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

k<in>-ulato have had someone lead (PAN: *(q)uNah)

kitaLook! (imperative) (PAN: *kita₂)

kita-anto be seen (PAN: *kita₂)

kita-ʔen-iato have been discovered (PAN: *kita-en) *kita₂

kixiwhemp fiber (PAN: *keRiw)

kizexstep up on (a rock, table, etc.) (ROOT)

kukusa'to work in the field' (not: 'to work in general') (PAN: *kuSa)

kulukunbamboo partridge (PAN: *kuNkuN)

laaziboundary (PAN: *Naqeji)

lalaycicada (LOAN)

lawata step (NEAR)

lizaxsun (PAN: *siNaR)

ma-stative prefix (PAN: *ma-₁)

maa-dusato be forked (bifurcation of a path) (PAN: *duSa)

maaka-kitato meet for the first time (PAN: *kita₂)

maa-kitato look at each other (PAN: *kita₂)

ma-bariblow, of the wind (PAN: *ma-bali₁) *bali₃

ma-bazato know, understand; able, can (PAN: *ma-bajaq) *bajaq

Pazeh (120 / 331)

ma-bunuxto swell; swollen (of a boil or tumor); to boast (PAN: *ma-bunuR) *bunuR₁

ma-busukdrunk (PAN: *ma-buSek) *buSek

ma-kuri-kurisvery skinny (PAN: *ma-kuliC) *kuliC

ma-kurisskinny, lean, thin (PAN: *ma-kuliC) *kuliC

mali-tituto give birth (of animals) (PAN: *titu)

mamaholder brother of a man or woman, wife’s elder brother (PAN: *mamah)

m-apacarry on one’s back (PAN: *apa₂)

ma-paŋabranching (PAN: *paŋa₁) *paŋa

ma-punustupid (PAN: *punuq₁) *punuq

m-arato take (PAN: *um-ala) *ala

ma-raremhave poor sight (because of age, etc.) (ROOT)

ma-raxiwflee, escape, run away (PAN: *ma-laRiw) *laRiw

ma- reberepfoggy, misty; cloudy and misty (PAN: *ma-lebleb) *lebleb

m-arepbeckon (PAN: *qalep)

ma-sakawsteal, rob (PAN: *Cakaw)

ma-sakawto steal (PAN: *ma-Cakaw) *Cakaw

masa-ulahto go first, to leave first; to proceed, go forward (PAN: *(q)uNah)

ma-sikatashamed; shy; reserved, modest (PAN: *ma-Sikad) *Sikad

masi-rukuswear or put on trousers or pants (LOAN)

masi-saikdefecate (PAN: *Caki)

Pazeh (140 / 331)

ma-suawto yawn (PAN: *ma-Suaw) *Suaw

mata-dusasecond time; twice (PAN: *duSa)

ma-taŋato open (a door, case) (PAN: *ma-taŋa) *taŋa

ma-tuduto educate, bring up children, instruct (PAN: *tuzuq)

matu-xumato build a house (PAN: *Rumaq)

ma-udaƚto rain (PAN: *ma-quzaN) *quzaN

ma-umasto pickle; to rub and crumble (PAN: *umaS)

ma-usa-yto go, to leave (PAN: *uSa)

maxa-kitato see each other (PAN: *kita₂)

maxa-reseto shed tears (PAN: *maR-luSeq) *luSeq

maxa-xaidaŋto have smallpox (PAN: *qaRidaŋ)

(maxu)-taxato wait (PAN: *taRah)

me-kemerto hold tightly, squeeze in the hand (PAN: *gemel)

me-kento eat (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

me-pepetto massage, to grasp (PAN: *p<um>espes) *pespes

mə-sənawwash utensils (PAN: *Señaw)

mia-dayatowards the east; go east (PAN: *daya)

mia-duato go over there (far away); that yonder, opposite side of the river or the mountain (PAN: *dua)

mia-dusasecond (PAN: *duSa)

mia-rahutgo west, go downstream (PAN: *lahud)

Pazeh (160 / 331)

mi-kitato see, to look at (PAN: *kita₂)

m-in-a-busukwas drunk (PAN: *ma-buSek) *buSek

mohakemembrace (ROOT)

mo-honito chirp, to crow (roosters) (PAN: *Suni)

mu-bariwto buy (PAN: *b<um>aliw) *baliw₃

mu-bazuto wash (clothes) (PAN: *b<um>asuq) *basuq

mu-bilishold in the hand (PAN: *biNiC)

mu-dakedakremove millet grains by trampling or stamping with the feet (ROOT)

mu-dakisto ascend, to climb up (mountains, trees, slopes, etc.) (PAN: *dakiS)

mu-dakisascend, climb up (mountains, trees, slopes, etc.) (PAN: *d<um>akiS) *dakiS

mu-damubleed (PAN: *damuq)

mu-diusto scoop out with a spoon or ladle (PAN: *qidus)

mu-dusadivide into two (PAN: *duSa)

mu-kabitto hook (PAN: *kabit₁)

mu-kapitto button (PAN: *kapit)

mu-kawasto speak, say, talk (PAN: *kawaS₂)

mu-kaxawto scratch (oneself) (PAN: *k<um>aRaw) *kaRaw₁

mu-kexetto cut (to hurt); cut a piece; cut grass (PAN: *keRet)

muk-usato leave (PAN: *uSa)

mu-kusukusroll up something light or thin such as paper, or sleeves (PAN: *kuCkuC)

Pazeh (180 / 331)

m-ulato lead, to do first (PAN: *(q)<um>uNah) *(q)uNah

mu-laŋuyto swim (PAN: *N<um>aŋuy) *Naŋuy

mu-lezekto plant into ground or something (NEAR)

mu-ŋawŋawto chirp (as a bird, insect) (PAN: *ŋawŋaw)

mu-panathrow at, to hit (as when throwing a stone at a dog to drive it away) (PAN: *p<um>anaq) *panaq

mu-pirito choose (PAN: *p<um>iliq) *piliq

mu-rahutto flow, as water (PAN: *lahud)

mu-rubaŋto bury (in general, including a dead person or animal) (PAN: *l<um>ubaŋ) *lubaŋ₁

mu-saisto sew (PAN: *C<um>aqiS) *CaqiS

mu-sapuhsweep (PAN: *C<um>apu) *Capuh

mu-seketto rest, to stop (PAN: *Seked)

mu-talamto try, taste (PAN: *tañam)

mu-talekto cook (side dishes, meaning anything but rice) (PAN: *t<um>aNek) *taNek

mu-tapesto winnow (PAN: *tapeS)

mu-taxato cut wood or bamboo into small pieces (PAN: *t<um>aRaq) *taRaq

m-utaʔto vomit (PAN: *um-utaq) *utaq

mu-tubato catch fish with Derris poison (PAN: *t<um>uba) *tuba

muxi-bariwto sell (PAN: *baliw) *baliw₃

mu-xuratto open one's eyes (ROOT)

mu-xusuxusto plane (a board) (PAN: *RuSRuS)

Pazeh (200 / 331)

mu-zakayto walk (PAN: *s<um>akay) *sakay₂

mu-zezepto suck (milk, shells, etc.) (PAN: *s<um>epsep) *sepsep

muziŋface (PAN: *mujiŋ)

mu-zupayto whet (a knife), to grate (as a radish) with a grater having sharp notches (PAN: *s<um>upay) *supay

nigenitive marker, possessive marker (appears to be restricted to human referents) (PAN: *ni)

n-imawhose? (PAN: *ni-ima) *ima

n-itaour, ours (PAN: *n-ita) *ita₁

nugenitive marker (rare) (PAN: *nu₃)

núaŋbuffalo (PAN: *qaNuaŋ)

nunuhbreast (of woman); milk (PAN: *nunuh)

ŋawŋawsound of a bird, insect; voice (PAN: *ŋawŋaw)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

pa-baretto answer (PAN: *bales₁)

pa-bazacause to know; teach (PAN: *pa-bajaq) *bajaq

paka-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-ka-) *pa-₂

pa-kanto feed (as a mother feeding her young child) (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pa-kawasSay it! (PAN: *kawaS₂)

pa-kitato show (PAN: *pa-kita) *kita₂

paliŋwall (PAN: *paNiŋ)

paŋabranch (PAN: *paŋa₁) *paŋa

Pazeh (220 / 331)

pa-palitwing (PAN: *paNid)

pa-panashoot with a bow; throw at (with a stone) (PAN: *panaq)

pa-surusurto masturbate (PAN: *SulSul)

pa-taŋato open (a door, case) (PAN: *taŋa)

pa-tumalato make someone listen (PAN: *pa-tumaNa) *tumaNa

pazayglutinous rice (PAN: *pajay)

pee-pederis squeezing (wringing out) clothes (PAN: *pedel)

pepetmassage (PAN: *pespes₁) *pespes

pia-tuduto point at (PAN: *tuzuq)

pii-piribe choosing (as when picking up pebbles from rice grain) (PAN: *piliq)

piri-ʔichoose it! (PAN: *piliq-i) *piliq

pi-sipi, pai-sipidream (PAN: *Sipi)

pukakuruŋto rattle, to clatter (the sound of a cart running) (ROOT)

punuhead (PAN: *punuq₁) *punuq

puzanavel (PAN: *puja)

rahutwest; downstream, lower part of a river (PAN: *lahud)

raŋaraŋclouded leopard (Tsuchida gives this as 'tiger, lynx') (ROOT)

raŋawa fly (big or small) (PAN: *laŋaw₁) *laŋaw

raŋaw nuaŋhorsefly (PAN: *laŋaw₁) *laŋaw

reberepfoggy, misty weather (PAN: *lebleb)

Pazeh (240 / 331)

resetears (PAN: *luSeq)

r<in>ubaŋ a sawgrave, tomb, graveyard (PAN: *lubaŋ₁)

rukuspants, trousers, shorts (LOAN)

saa-kabita hook (PAN: *kabit₁)

saa-karidigging stick (PAN: *kalih)

saa-laŋuybuoy; fins (PAN: *Naŋuy)

saa-pa-taŋaa key (PAN: *taŋa)

saikexcreta (PAN: *Caki)

samaa plant: Sonchus oleraceus Linn. (PAN: *Samaq)

sama binayua plant, Lactuca indica, used to reduce fever (binayu = ‘mountain, forest’) (PAN: *Samaq)

saŋiraear (PAN: *Caŋila)

sarisrope, cord, string; bowstring (PAN: *CaliS)

sa-sapuhbroom (PAN: *Ca-Capuh) *Capuh

sa-sazekto smell, perceive odor (PAN: *Sajek)

sawperson, human being (PAN: *Cau)

semergrass (just beginning to grow) (PAN: *Cemel)

seme-semergrassland (PAN: *Ceme-Cemel) *Cemel

sepatfour (PAN: *Sepat)

si-duato go there (PAN: *dua)

sikatashamed, shy (PAN: *Sikad)

Pazeh (260 / 331)

siŋas-en a lepeŋto get in (of food particles) between the teeth (PAN: *CiŋaS)

sisilomen bird, Gray-eyed Nun Babbler, Alcippe morrisonia (PAN: *SiSiN)

si-sinawwash utensils (PAN: *Siñaw)

suadi, suaziyounger sibling (PAN: *Suaji)

suawyawn (PAN: *Suaw)

sumaycooked rice (PAN: *Semay)

taa-tatakis cutting down tall grass or shrubs with a scythe or a machete by holding in aloft and swinging down (PAN: *tatak)

tadawknife (for fighting, hunting) (PAN: *tadaw)

ta-kan-ilet’s eat! (PAN: *kaen-i) *kaen

takaxaŋribs (PAN: *tageRaŋ)

talamto taste (PAN: *taNam)

talek-ento be cooked; what is cooked (PAN: *taNek-en) *taNek

talek-iCook it! (sweet potatoes, fish, meat, but not rice) (PAN: *taNek)

tanaa plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance) (PAN: *tanaq)

tapes-iwinnow it! (PAN: *tapeS)

ta-sakawthief (PAN: *Cakaw)

ta-seked-i na!Let’s rest (PAN: *Seked)

tatakhoe (PAN: *tatak)

tatakhoe (PAN: *tatak) Kahabu

ta-tubaDerris poison (a type of vine whose roots are beaten and its poisonous sap is let flow in the stream to catch paralyzed fishes) (PAN: *tuba)

Pazeh (280 / 331)

ta-tuduinstruction; finger ring (PAN: *tuzuq)

taxaʔ-iCut it! (PAN: *taRaq-i) *taRaq

taxuanhut, shack, shelter (PAN: *taRuqan)

teketek-to mince, to chop into small pieces (as vegetables) (PAN: *tektek₁)

tialbelly, abdomen (PAN: *tiaN)

tibukulcrooked, curved (*/l/ > /l/ regular?) (ROOT)

tilikattrap, snare in general (ROOT)

titulittle animal (puppy, kitten, piglet, calf, etc.) (PAN: *titu)

tu-baŋerrotten (PAN: *baŋ(e)qeR₁) *baŋ(e)qeR

tubussugarcane (PAN: *tebuS)

tul ~ tunpine tree (PAN: *tuquN)

tulabig eel; bum, idler (PAN: *tuNa)

tumalato hear, to listen (PAN: *tumaNa)

turuthree (PAN: *telu)

ula siwYou first! (PAN: *(q)uNah)

usago! (PAN: *uSa)

usa ulaGo first! (PAN: *(q)uNah)

waliscanine tooth; tusk of animal (PAN: *waNiS)

waluhoneybee (PAN: *waNu)

waraythread, hemp yarn for weaving (PAN: *walay)

Pazeh (300 / 331)

xaidaŋbeans (PAN: *qaRidaŋ)

xamessmall roots (PAN: *RameC)

x<a>usuxusto scrape bamboo knots (PAN: *RuSRuS)

xinua large winnowing basket used for ladling rice (PAN: *Rinu)

xi-talamto taste (PAN: *tañam)

xubunest (of bird); sheath (of sword) (PAN: *Rubu)

xumahouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

y-aku1sg. topic and accusative pronoun: I, me (PAN: *aku)

y-ami1pl. excl. nominative, we (PAN: *i-ami) *ami

zakaywalk (PAN: *sakay₂)

za-zupay-enwhetstone (PAN: *sa-supay-an) *supay

zebezebchest (PAN: *debdeb)

zezeb-enis sucked (PAN: *sepsep-en) *sepsep

zezeb-isuck it! (PAN: *sepsep)

zihikaymaggot (PAN: *sihikay)

zikuelbow (PAN: *siku₁)

z<in>akaybehavior (PAN: *sakay₂)

z<in>akay-anfootprints, traces (PAN: *sakay₂)

zupaywhet (a knife) (PAN: *supay)

ʔa:kúŋgrandfather (Tsuchida 1971) (LOAN)

Pazeh (320 / 331)

ʔabaxaʔshoulder (Ferrell 1968) (PAN: *qabaRa₁)

ʔabuʔashes (PAN: *qabu₁) *qabu

ʔaiambird (PAN: *qayam₁)

ʔaƚebdoor, gate (PAN: *qaNeb)

ʔaƚebdoor, gate (ROOT)

ʔaləbdoor (PAN: *qaNeb) Kahabu

ʔaləb-ənclosed (PAN: *qaNeb) Kahabu

ʔamisannorth; winter (PAN: *qamiS-an) *qamiS

ʔasayliver (PAN: *qaCay)

ʔuayrattan (PAN: *quay)

ʔudaƚrain (PAN: *quzaN)

Pazeh (Kahabu) (3) Form.

tatakhoe (PAN: *tatak)

ʔaləbdoor (PAN: *qaNeb)

ʔaləb-ənclosed (PAN: *qaNeb)

530. Pelipowai (3) OC [rak] (Tulu-Bohuai) Papua New Guinea

alsun (POC: *qalo₁)

-k1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

pukbanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

531. Penan (23) WMP [pez] (Penan, Eastern) Malaysia (Sarawak) (dialects: Long Lamai 1, Long Merigam 3, Long Labid [ttw] 18)

akəuʔ1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me (PAN: *aku) Long Labid

ameɁ tələwwe three, excl. (PAN: *ami) Long Labid

baheʔto swell; swollen (PAN: *baReq) Long Labid

daniʔnear (PWMP: *adani) Long Labid

iap laluŋcock, rooster (PMP: *laluŋ) Long Labid

ibəwthousand (PMP: *Ribu) Long Labid

ita-mwe (plural incl.) (PAN: *ita₁) Long Labid

jəh ibəwone thousand (PMP: *Ribu) Long Labid

juʔfar (PMP: *zauq) Long Labid

kauʔ2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu Long Merigam

kaʔauʔ2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu Long Labid

k-ivanparent-in-law, child-in-law (PWMP: *ka-ibah-an) *ibaS

lakawto walk (PMP: *lakaw) Long Labid

lakaw kakapgrope, feel one’s way along in walking (PAN: *kapkap) Long Labid

meremnight; dark (PWMP: *medem) Long Labid

m-esepdrink (PAN: *q<um>esep) *qesep Long Labid

mətəkto cut, chop (PAN: *t<um>əktək) *tektek₁ Long Merigam

m-osorub, wipe (PMP: *usuq) Long Labid

pə-səreto lean on (PMP: *sendiR) Long Lamai

sanamant (PWMP: *sanam) Long Labid

Penan (20 / 23)

sayawdance (PWMP: *sayaw) Long Labid

sohoɁto order, command (PAN: *suRuq₂) *suRuq Long Labid

tepu-ngrandparent (ref.) (PMP: *t-empu) *empu Long Merigam

Penan (Long Labid) (18) WMP [ttw] (Long Wat) Malaysia (Sarawak)

akəuʔ1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me (PAN: *aku)

ameɁ tələwwe three, excl. (PAN: *ami)

baheʔto swell; swollen (PAN: *baReq)

daniʔnear (PWMP: *adani)

iap laluŋcock, rooster (PMP: *laluŋ)

ibəwthousand (PMP: *Ribu)

ita-mwe (plural incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

jəh ibəwone thousand (PMP: *Ribu)

juʔfar (PMP: *zauq)

kaʔauʔ2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

lakawto walk (PMP: *lakaw)

lakaw kakapgrope, feel one’s way along in walking (PAN: *kapkap)

meremnight; dark (PWMP: *medem)

m-esepdrink (PAN: *q<um>esep) *qesep

m-osorub, wipe (PMP: *usuq)

sanamant (PWMP: *sanam)

sayawdance (PWMP: *sayaw)

sohoɁto order, command (PAN: *suRuq₂) *suRuq

Penan (Long Lamai) (1) WMP

pə-səreto lean on (PMP: *sendiR)

Penan (Long Merigam) (3) WMP

kauʔ2sg., you/thou (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

mətəkto cut, chop (PAN: *t<um>əktək) *tektek₁

tepu-ngrandparent (ref.) (PMP: *t-empu) *empu

Penang Malay (1) WMP. see: Malay (Penang)

532. Penchal (60) OC [pek] Papua New Guinea

alitthe putty nut: Parinarium laurinum (POC: *qarita)

aulwind (generic) (POC: *aura)

cuŋhungry (POC: *soŋe)

elt-ito caulk (POC: *qarita)

haŋínto feed (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

into drink (PMP: *inum)

kahItsago grub (PMP: *qabatiR)

kahu-nstomach of an animal (POC: *kabuŋ) *kampuŋ

kanin kɨwfishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

kare-heart (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

kasugall, gall bladder (POC: *qasu₂)

kasu-nsmoke (POC: *kasu)

kemmɨŋmangrove crab (PMP: *qali-maŋu)

kɨlthick-bodied barracuda sp. (PMP: *qalu)

kɨplime (PAN: *qapuR)

kɨplime for betel chew (PMP: *kapuR)

kotaycuscus, phalanger (POC: *kadoRa) *kandoRa

kulfreshwater shrimp (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

kulbreadfruit (PMP: *kuluR)

kuplong yam, brown on the outside, white on the inside (PMP: *qubi)

Penchal (20 / 60)

kutlouse (PMP: *kutu) *kuCu

kwitoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

laiginger (PMP: *laqia)

lallaŋ (< *laŋlaŋ)housefly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

lamdeep sea beyond the reef (POC: *laman₂) *laman

lotboil, abscess (POC: *loto₁)

loy-loyred tree ant (POC: *loRo)

lullummoss (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

matam-putnavel (POC: *buto)

meto come (POC: *mai) *ai₃

mommonbird (POC: *manu-manuk) *manuk

mwanoyunicorn fish (POC: *monoRe)

-n3sg. possessor (POC: *-ña) *-a₂

ñɨttall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit (PMP: *ñatuq)

pa-leysail (PCEMP: *pa-layaR) *layaR

pati-ñawwidow (POC: *ñaRo) *ñao

pehinwoman; wife (POC: *papine) *bahi

po-ñawwidower (POC: *ñaRo) *ñao

pupbasket trap for fish and eels (POC: *pupu₂) *bubu₂

rahuyconch shell trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

Penchal (40 / 60)

randown (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

rat rapu-ntaboo (POC: *tabu-na) *tambu

reliŋa-ear (PMP: *taliŋa₁) *Caliŋa

ria-nbelly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

rīlstring, rope (POC: *tali) *CaliS

ropunting pole for propelling a canoe (POC: *tokon) *teken

rowa hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga (black inside) (POC: *toRas) *teRas

runfreshwater eel (PMP: *tuna) *tuNa

rupsugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

sa-ŋa-hulten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

sa-ŋa-hulten (PMP: *ŋa)

sa-ŋ-ɨt100 (PMP: *ŋa)

soto shoot (with an arrow) (POC: *soka)

tantan-lawspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

tɨnfresh water (POC: *ranum) *daNum

tɨŋto weep, cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

tui-bone (POC: *ruRi) *duRi

tulu-pthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

wa meCome here! (= ‘you come’) (POC: *mai) *ai₃

1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

533. Pendau (50) WMP (Quick and Quick 2005) [ums] Indonesia (Sulawesi)

Ɂami1pl. excl., we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

bataŋfallen log; corpse (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bataŋ-anbody (PWMP: *bataŋ-an) *bataŋ₁

batustone (PMP: *batu₁)

bayarto pay (PMP: *bayaD)

boostink, smell bad (PMP: *bahu)

bunaground batfish, shaded batfish, tailfin batfish (PMP: *bunaR)

dagatsea (PMP: *daRat)

do-ruotwo (PMP: *da-duha) *duSa

giurpull (something) (PWMP: *guyud)

guntiŋscissors (LOAN)

kabirito castrate (LOAN)

kukus-ansteam (PWMP: *kuskus-an₂) *kuskus₁

lalehousefly (PMP: *lalej)

le-limafive (PAN: *la-lima) *lima

lindugearthquake (PMP: *linduR)

lupiɁto fold (PWMP: *lupiq)

m-ami1pl. excl. genitive, our (PMP: *m-ami) *ami

maŋibanshark (NEAR)

mata nu ogospring (PMP: *mata nu wahiR) *maCa

Pendau (20 / 50)

me-lampato walk (PMP: *lampaq)

nipaa swamp palm: Nipa fruticans (PMP: *nipaq)

niucoconut (PMP: *niuR)

n-tuuŋdescend, go down (PMP: *tuRun₁)

Ɂoo2sg., you (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

pe-pituseven (PAN: *pa-pitu) *pitu

pom-bayupound rice (PAN: *bayu)

ponufull, as a container (PMP: *penuq)

punebuff-bellied fruit dove (PAN: *punay)

ren-daavirgin, young girl (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

sa-gatusone hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

salugcreek, small stream (PWMP: *saluR)

sandegleaning back to rest on something (PWMP: *sandeR)

saputwhite burial cloth used on a corpse (PMP: *saput₁)

se-sionine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

sintaɁto grab, rob (PWMP: *sintak)

so-m-puluten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

soput-anblowgun (PWMP: *seput-an) *seput

soyomkind of small ant (PWMP: *sejem)

taabhigh tide (PWMP: *taeb)

Pendau (40 / 50)

tanoearth, soil (PMP: *taneq)

tantaducaterpillar (moth) (PWMP: *tatadu)

taŋkubto close or cover something (PMP: *takəR)

ter-kaŋkaŋspreading open the legs or feet (PWMP: *kaŋkaŋ₁)

tinte-ana bridge (PWMP: *taytay-an) *taytay

toboŋto fell a tree (PWMP: *tebeŋ)

tu-tuutrue, correct (PMP: *tuqu₂)

tuutto follow, come with (PWMP: *tuRut)

tuʔuknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

ʔayuwood (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

534. Penudjaq (1) WMP

ndéʔno, not (PPh: *hediq)

Perak Malay (2) WMP. see: Malay (Perak)

535. Petapa Taje (4) WMP

puntibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

salag-ito fry (PMP: *saŋelaR)

siɁoo2sg., you (PWMP: *s-ikaw) *kaSu

tasi/tasiksea (PMP: *tasik)

536. Petats (1) OC

537. Peterara (6) OC

manif-nifithin (POC: *manipi-nipis) *Nipis

-ŋgu1sg possessive suffix: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

suluto burn (POC: *sulu₁)

tasisea; salt (PMP: *tasik)

tinae-guts (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

Peterara (19) OC. see: Central Maewo

538. Piamatsina (1) OC

taun-iyear (PMP: *taqun)

539. Piching (1) WMP

bi-doŋoito swim (PWMP: *daŋuy)

Pinan Puyuma (2) Form.. see: Puyuma (Pinan)

540. Pohnpeian (170) OC (Rehg and Sohl 1979) [pon] Micronesia

aconjunction: however, and (PMP: *a₂)

adahdsharpen, put an edge on something (intransitive) (POC: *asaq-i) *Sasaq

ahdname; noun (PMP: *ajan)

ahifire (POC: *api₂) *Sapuy

ahlroad, street, trail, path, line (POC: *salan) *zalan

ahŋair, wind (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

ahumouth (POC: *qawa₂)

aiaubanyan tree: Ficus carolinensis, used in the treatment of tetanus and as a hemostatic in menstruation (PEMP: *qayawan)

amasraw, uncooked (PAN: *qamataq)

aŋiaŋi-hbe angry at, scold (POC: *aŋit) *haŋit

asisneeze (NOISE)

da:interrogative, what? (PMP: *sapa)

da:moutrigger of a canoe (POC: *saman) *saReman

dahkneedlefish (PMP: *saku₂)

dakto rise, of the sun and moon (PMP: *sakay₄)

dakeride in or on a vehicle (PMP: *sakay₁)

dekilahrswordfish, sailfish, blue marlin (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

-didownwards; used with verbs of confining or securing to indicate the action has been carried through to its logical conclusion (POC: *sipo)

dihdibreast, baby bottle; to suckle, to nurse (PAN: *susu₁)

dihldried palm frond, torch (PMP: *suluq)

Pohnpeian (20 / 170)

dipgrain, of wood; chip or slice, as of breadfruit or taro; numeral classifier used in counting chips, slicings, or shavings (POC: *siba)

dipeto slice, as breadfruit or taro (POC: *siba)

dipe-n rasarassawdust (POC: *siba)

doolsmall mountain, hill (POC: *solos)

edegills (PEMP: *asaŋ-i) *hasaŋ

edesharpen, put an edge on something (transitive) (POC: *asaq-i) *Sasaq

edibile, of the liver (POC: *qasu₂)

ehliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

e-isseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

elimoaŋmangrove crab (PMP: *qali-maŋu)

enighost, usually considered malicious (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

eni aramasancestral ghost (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

eŋieŋangry (honorific) (POC: *aŋit) *haŋit

iawhere? what? (POC: *pia) *pia₁

ih3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

ihmwbuilding, house, home, dwelling (PAN: *Rumaq)

ihnmother; any person one's mother or father would call sister (PCEMP: *ina)

ikitail, end, extreme (PAN: *ikuR)

imwe-possessive classifier used for buildings (PAN: *Rumaq)

ir-ihrto fan (intr.) (PMP: *irid₁)

Pohnpeian (40 / 170)

iri-pto fan (tr.) (PMP: *irid₁)

iro-irto look or peer in the distance; to see one’s own reflection; to inspect one’s own appearance; positioned to have a beautiful view (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

isihhiss at (POC: *isi₃)

isihhiss at (NOISE)

isoua shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum (POC: *pitaquR) *bitaquR

ka-mairto put to sleep (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

ka-ria-usecond (POC: *ka-rua) *duSa

kasapfrigate bird (POC: *katapa)

kenemarker of edible possession (POC: *kana-)

kiea possessive classifer for things to sleep on (POC: *kiRe) *kiRay

kihknail, as a finger or toenail (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

kihsoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kihtwe (excl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

-kitus (excl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

kodo-kodto husk with a stick; to gore; to engage in sexual intercourse in a female superior position (POC: *kojom)

kodomto husk with a stick; to gore; to engage in sexual intercourse in a female superior position (POC: *kojom-i) *kojom

komʷyou (honorific) (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

lahdfish sp., jack: Atule mate (POC: *laji₂) *lajih

lahŋsky, heaven; bad weather (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋi-laŋi-hhonorific: to give a title, to crown; to wear a garland (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

Pohnpeian (60 / 170)

liimbailer (PMP: *limas)

lima-five (with attached classifier) (PAN: *lima)

lima-kto bail (something) (PMP: *limas)

lima-limto be bailing (PMP: *limas)

loaldeep (POC: *ralom) *dalem

loal-einside (him, her, it) (POC: *ralom) *dalem

loal-eidmiss a person or place, be homesick (POC: *ralom) *dalem

loal-ekeŋintelligent, smart (POC: *ralom) *dalem

loal-lapdaring, reckless, bold, adventurous (POC: *ralom) *dalem

loal-mwahugood-hearted (POC: *ralom) *dalem

maasface; first (PMP: *mata) *maCa

madreef; large coral head; to be dry (PMP: *ma-maja) *maja

mahnanimal, insect (POC: *manuk)

mantake hold, stick, be effective (POC: *mana₂)

manamanmagical, mysterious, spiritual; official; magic, mysterious or spiritual power; miracle; authority (POC: *mana-mana) *mana₂

masakbe afraid of, to fear (POC: *matakut) *takut

masa-masbeloved, favorite (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

masa-mwahugood-looking, pretty, handsome (PMP: *mata) *maCa

medto be full, after eating (POC: *masuR)

medekto hurt; to be painful; to ache (POC: *masakit) *sakit

Pohnpeian (80 / 170)

memsweet (POC: *mamis) *hemis

mennumeral classifier used in counting animate beings (POC: *manuk)

menipi-nipthin, of flat objects as paper (POC: *manipi-nipis) *Nipis

metik, mitikto kiss (PMP: *misik)

mihksuck; absorb (POC: *misi)

mmwusvomit; to vomit (POC: *mu-mutaq) *utaq

mmʷusto vomit; vomitus (PCEMP: *mutaq) *utaq

mosulthick (POC: *matolu) *təlu

mo-urlife; alive, raw; undried or green, of wood; fresh (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mpwulflame; burn with a flame (POC: *bula₁)

-nconstruct suffix: of; this suffix is written together with the preceding word if that word is one syllable long or ends in a vowel; otherwise, it is written as the separate word en (PAN: *ni)

nahmwdeep place within the barrier reef; lagoon (PMP: *namaw)

nihcoconut palm, Cocos nucifera (PMP: *niuR)

ntablood (POC: *daRaq₂) *daRaq

ŋaapfathom, the distance between outstretched arms, approximately six feet (POC: *ŋapa)

ŋihtooth (POC: *ŋipon) *ŋipen

oahsivory nut palm: Coelococcus amicarum; roof, thatch (POC: *qatop) *qatep

ohdtaro (NOISE)

onemend or repair, used principally with native objects (tran.) (POC: *one-a) *one

onohnbe mended or repaired, used principally with native objects (intr.) (POC: *one one) *one

Pohnpeian (100 / 170)

pasince (contrary to expectations) (POC: *ba₈) *ba₁

pah-four (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

pahnbait, lure (POC: *baniŋ) *paniŋ

pahpafather, any person one's father would call brother (POC: *baba₆) *baba₂

pahrspongy center of a sprouting coconut; par to sprout, of coconuts (PMP: *para)

palapalfish sp., rabbitfish, Siganus punctatus (POC: *(bp)ala(bp)ala)

pehria bamboo: Bambusa vulgaris (PMP: *periŋ)

pekto defecate (POC: *bekas₄)

pelbe in a taboo relationship with someone or something (POC: *pali₂) *paliSi

pihksand (POC: *pika)

pika-piksandy (POC: *pika)

pilto choose, to pick out, to select (PAN: *piliq)

pili-pilto choose, to pick out, to select; election, selection (PMP: *piliq piliq) *piliq

piŋconfused, disordered, messy (LOAN)

piŋconfused, disordered, messy (NOISE)

pirturn, spin, twist (POC: *piri₂)

pitspring back (POC: *pintik) *bitik

pɔdto be planted (POC: *pasok) *pasek

pɔdokto plant (something) (POC: *pasok) *pasek

posexplode (POC: *botu) *betuʔ

Pohnpeian (120 / 170)

pwahlahla fish, the snapper: Lutjanus gibbus (NOISE)

pwilicowrie, any species of sea shell (POC: *buliq₁)

pwohŋnight (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

pwohŋ sili-pwoŋthree nights (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

pwoŋnumeral classifier used in counting nights (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

pwudo-pwudfoam, scum (POC: *pucoq pucoq) *bujeq

pwuhbetel nut, Areca catechu (POC: *buaq)

pwuhnfish sp. (POC: *bunaₐ) *buna

pwuhsnavel (POC: *buto)

pwuupwtrigger fish: Rhinecanthus aculeatus (POC: *bubu₇)

rahnday (PAN: *daqaNi)

ria-two (POC: *rua) *duSa

roahswhale (POC: *rato)

rohtdarkness (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

roŋhear (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

rooŋnews (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

rotdark (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

sahlrope, cord, line, string (POC: *tali) *CaliS

sahmfather, any person one's father would call brother (PMP: *t-ama) *ama

salgather rope, haul in a line (POC: *tali) *CaliS

Pohnpeian (140 / 170)

sarasquirrelfish: Adoryx spinifer (PMP: *taRaqan)

se:docean, sea (PMP: *tasik)

sehusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

seiporcupine fish; soursop, Annona muricata (PMP: *taRutuŋ)

seŋto cry, to weep, to moan (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

sewiconch shell, conch shell trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

sili- ~ silūthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

sisshiver (PAN: *tirtir₁)

suhrto sink in mud; to wade in mud (POC: *tuRu)

suhrebarracuda (Sphyraena sp.) (NOISE)

tehleaf, sheet, page (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

udukmeat, flesh, muscle (POC: *pijiko)

uhmwa traditional Ponapean oven made of loose stones which are heated and placed around the food to be baked (PMP: *qumun)

uhpwdrinking coconut (POC: *ubu) *upu

uhrlobster (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

uhsfloat, as for a fishing net (POC: *uton) *utem

ul-uhlpillow; small hill; use a pillow (POC: *quluŋ-an) *qulun₂

uluŋuse a pillow (trans.) (POC: *quluŋ-an) *qulun₂

umwto bake in an uhmw (intr.) (PMP: *qumun)

umwunbake in an uhmw (trans.) (POC: *qumun-i) *qumun

Pohnpeian (160 / 170)

usustar (POC: *pituqun) *bituqen

ūt ~ uti-banana (many varieties) (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

uufish trap (POC: *pupu₂) *bubu₂

uuknet (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

wato flower, bear fruit (POC: *puaq) *buaq

wacarry (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

wahfruit, flower; offspring; result (POC: *puaq) *buaq

wah-kahkcall or cackle loudly, of a hen (PMP: *kakakₐ) *kakak

wehisea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

541. Pom (1) SHWNG [pmo] Indonesia (Papua)

wa-wariroot (PEMP: *wakaR-i) *wakaR

542. Ponosakan (3) WMP

pastill, more, yet (before doing something else) (PWMP: *pa)

saluhto travel along a river (PWMP: *saluR)

tauʔto put away (PMP: *taRuq)

543. Popalia (3) WMP

hoko-matekill (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

matedie; dead (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

rahablood (PAN: *daRaq₁) *daRaq

544. Poro (2) OC

nap-rafuashes (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR

thiʔa-ñabelly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

545. Port Sandwich (1) OC

na-ranearth (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

Proto-Western Micronesian (1) OC

ka(a)mami1pl. excl., we, us (PMP: *kam-ami) *ami

Provincial Malagasy (8) WMP. see: Malagasy (Provincial)

546. Puluwat (161) OC (Elbert 1972) [puw] (Puluwatese) Micronesia [aka: Puluwatese]

ccablood; red; be bloody (POC: *daRaq₂) *daRaq

fáálto worship (POC: *pali₂) *paliSi

fáán piŋorhard palate (NOISE)

faarpandanus, used for mats and thatch (POC: *padran) *paŋudaN

fáári-yápkind of large but harmless ray fish (POC: *paRi₂) *paRiS

faateyebrow (POC: *paju)

fára-walungs (POC: *paRaq₂) *baRaq₁

fátilgeneral name for grasses (POC: *palisi₁) *baliji

fátilgeneral name for grasses (POC: *palisi₂) *balizi

fáyiray fish (POC: *paRi₂) *paRiS

young as plants; new (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

fili-to choose, select (PAN: *piliq)

fitehow many? (more than ten) (POC: *pica) *pija

fite-fayhow many? (round objects) (POC: *pica) *pija

fite-rayhow many? (animate) (POC: *pica) *pija

fitikflesh of any kind, meat; flesh and blood, blood relative (POC: *pijiko)

fótto plant, insert, pick out, select; to be inserted, selected (POC: *pasok) *pasek

fúústar, point of the compass, canoe course plotted by the stars (POC: *pituqun) *bituqen

fúússeven (sequential) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

háát, heti-nsea, ocean, tide; salt (PMP: *tasik)

Puluwat (20 / 161)

háliŋear, earlobe (PMP: *taliŋa₂) *taliŋa

háliŋá-n hoomátree fungus, mushroom (PMP: *taliŋa₂) *taliŋa

háŋto cry, weep (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

háŋiryellowfin tuna, sometimes more than a fathom in length (PMP: *taŋiRi)

har'akind of red fish (PMP: *taRaqan)

ha-ŕamlight, daylight; to be light (POC: *ramaR) *damaR

hawiconch trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

hiim, himá-nkind of fairly large edible tridacna (PMP: *kima)

hoomághost, bad ghost of the dead; malevolent spirit (feared, as they are believed to devour humans) (PMP: *taliŋa₂) *taliŋa

kiirwe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

kiy-possessive classifer for pandanus mats (POC: *kiRe) *kiRay

kiye-kipandanus mat; to use such (POC: *kiRe) *kiRay

kiye-yto lie on, as a mat (POC: *kiRe) *kiRay

kkúúnails, claws, foot (of chicken), leg (of centipede) (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

kúúh, kúhá-nsquid, octopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kúúwlouse (PMP: *kutu) *kuCu

láŋrain; sky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

láŋi-láŋrain with symbolic portent, as of a canoe coming, death, birth, bad weather; to have portent, of rain (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lima-five (in combination forms) (PAN: *lima)

limo-owfive (general) (PAN: *lima)

Puluwat (40 / 161)

luumwmoss, seaweed (PMP: *lumut)

die, be dead, dying, stricken, paralyzed, very sick; be killed; stop working, as a machine; death (POC: *mate) *aCay

maaheye, face, point, as of a pencil or spear; end, as of a house; the two smallest eyes of a coconut; canoe end-piece; raised outer border of lee planked platform; to wake up, be awake (PMP: *mata) *maCa

maanto drift, as a becalmed canoe; dance with rotating hips (POC: *maqañur) *qañud

maancreature, being, animal, insect, bird, person (POC: *manuk)

mámkind of large fish -- perhaps a wrasse (PMP: *mamin)

manamandivine, supernatural, or miraculous power; to have such (POC: *mana-mana) *mana₂

mánawlife, life span, salvation; to be alive; to function, as a machine; to be saved, cured; to survive, recover, live (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

manawe-táto come to life again, resuscitate; to recover, be cured (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

ma-ŕammonth, moon (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR

matto be full or satisfied after eating (POC: *masuR)

mawúŕto sleep, go to bed; to pass the night, as a ship in the lagoon (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

mefrom (POC: *mai) *ai₃

mepreposition: from, all (with numbers), and (PMP: *mai)

mehak(úw)to be afraid; to be fearsome (POC: *matakut) *takut

mellaugh, giggle a little, smile (PCEMP: *malip)

memsweet (POC: *mamis) *hemis

metákto hurt, pain; pain (POC: *masakit) *sakit

mmwuhto vomit (POC: *mu-mutaq) *utaq

muun, muun-ontwo kinds of caterpillars (POC: *muno)

Puluwat (60 / 161)

niimcanoe bailer (POC: *nima) *nimas

nime-yto bail water out of a canoe (POC: *nima) *nimas

wave, to be many waves, as in a strong sea (PAN: *Nabek)

nóómwmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

ŋaaffathom (POC: *ŋapa)

paapboard, lumber, timber; canoe planks (POC: *bapan) *papan

paar, pera-nhandle, as of knife or saw (POC: *paRara) *paRada

palbe bald (POC: *palala)

páliy, peliyside, as in a game or war; half-section (POC: *bali₇) *baliw₁

pápá-n limwhouse board (POC: *bapan) *papan

paŕ, paŕapaŕred (NOISE)

pírcoconut sponge beginning to form; to form such; growth or lump under the skin; to have such (POC: *piri₁)

piŕ(o)coconut sponge beginning to form; to form such; growth or lump under the skin; to have such (POC: *pira)

puwbetel nut, as on Palau (none on Puluwat) (POC: *buaq)

pwiilcowrie shell scraper, as for green breadfruit (POC: *buliq₁)

pwitto let wind (vulgar) (POC: *pisi₂)

-pwoŋcounting classifier for nights (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

pwooŋnight; day of the month; be night (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

pwukato boil, as bananas (POC: *bukal₂) *bukal

pwuka háátto boil in sea water (POC: *bukal₂) *bukal

Puluwat (80 / 161)

pwúlto burn (POC: *bula₁)

pwupwSouthern Cross (POC: *bubu₁)

pwupwa fish, perhaps a trigger fish (POC: *bubu₇)

raan, liquid of any kind, pond (POC: *ranum) *daNum

ŕawwhale; porpoise (POC: *rato)

rééleaf (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

roŋhear, listen, obey (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

ŕuwoownumeral, two (general) (POC: *rua) *duSa

sɔɔnsurface, ground, floor, bottom; to be lower (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

taakneedlefish (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

taakneedlefish (PMP: *saku₂)

taakúlaar'sailfish, swordfish (PMP: *saku-layaR) *saku₂

taamoutrigger float (POC: *saman) *saReman

táá-táto rise, as star or sun (PMP: *sakay₄)

tááyvehicle, ride in a vehicle (PMP: *sakay₁)

tááye-lóride, as in a canoe or on a horse (PMP: *sakay₁)

teme-noutrigger float (construct form) (POC: *saman) *saReman

tiipto slice, as breadfruit or taro; to cut off leaves, as of pandanus for thatch or mats (POC: *siba)

-tiwdirection suffix: down, west (POC: *sipo)

tool, tolo-ntop section of mast, with holes at the top for insertion of halyard (POC: *solos)

Puluwat (100 / 161)

tównómwmosquito net, formerly of loomed cloth (POC: *tau ñamuk)

ttowto spear (POC: *jaot) *saet

túúl ~ tééltorch (PMP: *suluq)

túútbreast, nipple (PAN: *susu₁)

waacanoe, vehicle of any kind, bicycle, container, people in a canoe; possessive classifier for vehicles (POC: *waŋka)

wene-wendirectly above; straight, direct, honest, exactly, greatly (POC: *wane wane)

woonsix (POC: *onom) *enem

wootColocasia taro (NOISE)

woowsugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

wor-possessive classifier for raw food; raw seafood, meat (cooked or raw), eggs (POC: *qontaq) *qetaq

wow2sg., you (PMP: *kahu) *kaSu

wúlbudding leaf, tree top (POC: *quluₑ) *quluh

wúlú-nfoliage; head hair (POC: *quluₑ) *quluh

wúlúŋpossessive classifier for pillows (POC: *quluŋ-an) *qulun₂

wúlúúlpillow (POC: *quluŋ-an) *qulun₂

wúnhair, feathers, fish scale, fur (POC: *qunap₂) *quSeNap

wúnúm-drink, beverage, smoke; possessive classifier for anything drunk, tobacco smoked, medicine taken; to drink, smoke, take medicine (PCEMP: *unum)

wútrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

wútáncargo, load; to be loaded (PMP: *ujan)

wuufish trap (POC: *pupu₂) *bubu₂

Puluwat (120 / 161)

wuukseine; to seine (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

wuulmaggot (PMP: *qulej)

wuur ~ wurú-nbanana, the tree and fruit (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

wuuwa, wuwá-nfruit, flower, bur; bear fruit, flowers (POC: *puaq) *buaq

wuwahburden, as of breadfruit, copra, boxes, taro; carried object, food package, baggage, canoe load, cargo (POC: *puat-an₁) *buat₁

wuwahburden, as of breadfruit, copra, boxes, taro; carried object, food package, baggage, canoe load, cargo (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

wuwayto carry, transport, take by canoe; to obtain (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

yaalroad, path, street (POC: *salan) *zalan

yááŋwind, air (POC: *aŋin) *haŋin

yáátspleen, gall bladder; formerly the human spleen was cooked and used to poison a foe (POC: *qasu₂)

yaatsmoke, as of a fire; foam, as of the sea (PMP: *qasu₃)

yáátchin, especially its bottom (POC: *qase) *qazay

yáhtall, high, upper, easterly (PMP: *atas) *aCas

yahamdoor, doorway, window (PMP: *kataman)

yamwuŕ-e-ni-pwoŋdew; to fall, of dew (PAN: *ñamuR)

yanúancient god (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

yaŕawaŕawvarious shades of light green (as grass or the wura parrot fish) or of light blue (as European eyes or the sky) (POC: *kara-karawa)

yár'iksmall edible crab (PMP: *kaRuki)

ya-tip(a)to slice, as breadfruit (POC: *siba)

yátú-nsmoke of, foam of (PMP: *qasu₃)

Puluwat (140 / 161)

yátúyátto smoke, as fire; to foam, as the sea (PMP: *qasu qasu) *qasu₃

yawúúlunidentified large fish caught by trolling (PMP: *qatulay)

yayéfar'shoulder, load carried on the shoulder (PMP: *qabaRa₃) *qabaRa₁

yéélthree (sequential) (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

yee-tone (sequential) (PAN: *esa)

yeluuqthree (general) (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

yemahraw, uncooked; raw or uncooked food (PAN: *qamataq)

ye-ŋafone fathom (POC: *ŋapa)

yew-mouth, bill of a bird, largest eye of a coconut (POC: *qawa₂)

yewa-nhis mouth (POC: *qawa₂)

yiimwhouse, building of any kind (PAN: *Rumaq)

yiitname, kind (as of a plant) (POC: *isa₂)

yiiy3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

yiiydemonstrative: this (PMP: *ia₂)

yiiyinterjection: oh, no! don't! (PAN: *qia)

yimwa-nhis/her house (PAN: *Rumaq)

yinathere, that's right, that's okay, fine (PMP: *qina)

yiŕo- ŋiyto look for, at (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

yóóhthatch, thatch panel, roof of any kind (POC: *qatop) *qatep

yóótvertical house rafter (PMP: *kasaw₁)

Puluwatese (161) OC. see: Puluwat

547. Punan Busang (1) WMP (Ellis 1972)

kiawtalking myna (PAN: *kiaw)

548. Punan Kelai (3) WMP

lehjindurian (PWMP: *duRi-an)

lemtaʔriver leech (PMP: *qali-metaq) *qaNi-meCaq

wehguŋbear (PWMP: *baRuaŋ)

549. Puyuma (593) Form. (Cauquelin 1991) [pyu] Taiwan (dialects: Chihpen 1, Rikavong 1, Pinan 2, Tamalakaw (Tsuchida 1980) 211) [aka: Puyuma (Nanwang)]

a-apatfour (humans) (PAN: *Sa-Sepat) *Sepat Tamalakaw

adawilfar (PAN: *adawiN)

a-kan-anfood (PAN: *kaen-an) *kaen

a kaŋkaŋa plough (LOAN)

akuTtransport (PAN: *SakuC)

alakchild, son, daughter (PAN: *aNak) Tamalakaw

a-ɭikuɖ-ana person behind (PAN: *likud)

a-lmeksoft, flexible, as of rice-cake, calf of the leg (PAN: *lemek₁) Tamalakaw

alvukhit with a large stick (ROOT)

amafather, uncle (PAN: *ama) Tamalakaw

apuapgrope (in a bag, or in the dark) (PAN: *SapuSap) Tamalakaw

apuRchew betel nut with lime (PAN: *apuR) Tamalakaw

apuyfire (PAN: *Sapuy) Tamalakaw

ar-arasforest (PAN: *Salas) Tamalakaw

ariHa man’s male friend (NEAR) Tamalakaw

aRlainvite, ask to go out (NEAR) Tamalakaw

a-Tashigh (PAN: *aCas) Tamalakaw

aTava cover (in general) (PAN: *aCab) Tamalakaw

a-Tebuŋto find (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

atez-anescort a sick person or a drunk home (imperative) (PAN: *SateD-an) *SateD Tamalakaw

Puyuma (20 / 593)

avala cover and the belt for carrying a baby on the back (PAN: *SabaN) Tamalakaw

ayantermite (PAN: *SayaN)

a-ydanwhen? (PAN: *ijan) Tamalakaw

aʔ-nemsix (of persons, but not animals or objects) (PAN: *a-enem) *enem Tamalakaw

ba-bay-anwoman (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

baliwsmall mushroom that grows in the fields; Puyuma say that it is delicious (PAN: *bajiw)

belbelbanana (PAN: *beNbeN)

b-en-uaŋmake a hole in (clothing, etc.) (PAN: *buhaŋ)

berayto give (PAN: *beRay₁) *beRay

betuŋkind of large bamboo (PAN: *betuŋ₁)

biniseed of grains (PAN: *bineSiq)

birbirlips (PAN: *biRbiR)

biTukastomach (PAN: *biCuka)

buafruit (PAN: *buaq)

buaŋhole (PAN: *buhaŋ)

buayashark (PAN: *buqaya)

buLanmoon; month (PAN: *bulaN) Tamalakaw

bulbulfontanelle (PAN: *buNbuN)

buƚukind of very slender bamboo: Thyrsostachys siamensis (PAN: *buluq₂)

buluthrow a small object (PAN: *buNuq) *buNuq₂

Puyuma (40 / 593)

bureqfoam, lather; gas (PAN: *bujeq₁) *bujeq

butsquirrel? (PAN: *buhet)

buTutesticles (PAN: *buCuq)

buʔurgoiter (NOISE)

daconstruction marker for common nouns, oblique (PAN: *da)

da-dirus-anwashing water, water to wash with; bathroom (PAN: *diRus)

daHusoapberry tree: Sapindus mukrossi (PAN: *daqu₁) Tamalakaw

daɭanroad (PAN: *zalan)

danawhole filled with water (which will evaporate) (PAN: *danaw)

ɖaŋɖaŋhot; warm (from sun, fire); dry in the sun or by the fire (PAN: *daŋdaŋ₁) *daŋdaŋ

ɖaŋɖaŋ-anWarm it! Dry it by the fire! (PAN: *daŋdaŋ-an) *daŋdaŋ

dapalfoot (PAN: *dapaN)

daRami-anrice straw (PAN: *zaRami) Tamalakaw

darami-enrice straw (PAN: *zaRami)

daReHearth, soil (PAN: *daReq) Tamalakaw

darusslippery because of mud ( < *-lus?) (ROOT)

datarvillage (ritual term) (PAN: *dataR)

dawamillet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. (PAN: *zawa₂)

Daʔusoapberry (PAN: *daqu₂) Pinan

d-em-a-dekiŋ(of deer) to cry "eking, eking" (PAN: *dekiŋ) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (60 / 593)

d-em-a-durempitch-dark (ROOT)

ɖ<əm>ikəTto stick; adhere (PAN: *dikeC)

d<əm>irusto wash oneself (PAN: *diRus)

ɖəŋərname; sound (ritual term) (PAN: *deŋeR)

deruŋthunder (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *deRuŋ₁) Chihpen

ɖikəTstick; adhere (PAN: *dikeC)

ɖikəT-ansticky rice (generic for types of sticky rice) (PAN: *dikeC)

d<in>apal-anfootprints (PAN: *dapaN)

diruswash (PAN: *diRus)

disdiscut many times, giving slight wounds (PAN: *disdis) Tamalakaw

ɖuatwo (PAN: *duSa)

ɖumaother (PAN: *duma)

ɖuma-ɖumaevery (PAN: *duma)

əkaneat (PAN: *kaen)

əkan-ayto eat (locative focus) (PAN: *kaen-ay) *kaen

-em-marker of actor focus (PAN: *<um>₁) *-um- Tamalakaw

enemsix (PAN: *enem) Tamalakaw

əŋadbreathe (PAN: *Seŋad)

garaŋcrab (PAN: *gaRaŋ)

garuTa comb (PAN: *garuC)

Puyuma (80 / 593)

gaTeɭitch (PAN: *gaCel)

g<əm>aruTto comb (PAN: *g<um>aruC) *garuC

g<əm>ətiɭpick off a small piece of meat, as to taste it (PAN: *getil)

gətiɭpinch with one’s nails (only for meat) (PAN: *getil)

gətiɭ-anaybe pinched, as someone’s arm (PAN: *getil)

giŋgiŋtremble, shake (PAN: *giŋgiŋ)

gisgisshave with a razor (PAN: *gisgis₁)

gumulfeather; body hair (PAN: *gumuN)

gutgutincisor teeth (PAN: *gutgut₁) *gutgut

Hali-vaŋbaŋbutterfly, moth (PAN: *baŋbaŋ₂) Tamalakaw

Halivaŋvaŋbutterfly (PAN: *qaNi-) Tamalakaw

Hali-wazaŋ-anclavicle, collarbone (PAN: *wadaŋ) Tamalakaw

Halt'-andoor (ROOT)

HalTuowl (PAN: *qaNiCu) Tamalakaw

Haluphunting ground (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup Tamalakaw

Haminorth; year, age (PAN: *qamiS) Tamalakaw

-Hanito harvest (PAN: *qaniS) Tamalakaw

HaŋHaŋbarking of a dog (PAN: *qaŋqaŋ) Tamalakaw

HaŋRuodor of salted meat and vegetables in ferment (PAN: *qaŋeRu) Tamalakaw

HaŋseRstinking, of urine or fermented eggs (PAN: *qaŋeseR) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (100 / 593)

Hapedugall bladder; bile (PAN: *qapeju) Tamalakaw

HaRaw-isnatch it! (PAN: *qaRaw) Tamalakaw

Harazfence (PAN: *qalad) Tamalakaw

HaRempangolin, anteater (PAN: *qaRem) Tamalakaw

Hari-pudu-anhair whorl (PAN: *qali-puju-an) *qali-puju Tamalakaw

HaRsemsour (PAN: *qaRsem) Tamalakaw

Hasevsmoky (PAN: *qaseb) Tamalakaw

Hasilsalty (PAN: *qasiN) Tamalakaw

Haspaastringent, puckery (the taste of green bananas, the kernel of areca nut, persimmon, etc.) (PAN: *qasepa) Tamalakaw

Hasv-ansmoke (PAN: *qaseb) Tamalakaw

HaTayliver (PAN: *qaCay) Tamalakaw

Hatimraflea (PAN: *qatimela) Tamalakaw

Hati-muRmuRgargle (PAN: *qaCi-) Tamalakaw

Hauthirsty (NOISE)

-Hauŋof a dog, to howl (PAN: *qauŋ) Tamalakaw

Havuashes (PAN: *qabu₁) *qabu Tamalakaw

Havu-anhearth (PAN: *qabu-an) *qabu Tamalakaw

Hayambird (PAN: *qayam₁) Tamalakaw

Hazinot (negating a verb or adjective) (PAN: *qazi) Tamalakaw

Helusheartwood of trees (NOISE)

Puyuma (120 / 593)

H-em-a-Halupto hunt (PAN: *q<um>aNup) *qaNup Tamalakaw

H-em-a-HaRawtake by force, snatch away (PAN: *qaRaw) Tamalakaw

H-em-aminorth wind blows (PAN: *qamiS) Tamalakaw

H-em-aŋHaŋ(of a dog) to bark, as a dog which is kept on a leash or shut up in a room (PAN: *q<um>aŋqaŋ) *qaŋqaŋ Tamalakaw

h-əm-aruŋsnore (Ting 1978) (PAN: *SaRuŋ) Tamalakaw

Hemuflour (PAN: *qemu)

HerHerchew, masticate (PAN: *qelqel) Tamalakaw

Hesepto chew (for the juice, as sugarcane, chewing gum, etc.) (PAN: *qesep) Tamalakaw

HeTarice husk and bran (PAN: *qeCah) Tamalakaw

HeTuRscrotum (PAN: *qeCuR) Tamalakaw

Hevutextinguish a fire (NOISE)

Hiruto wipe (after defecating) (PAN: *qiluS) Tamalakaw

HisaHisof animals, to rub the back (NOISE)

HiTHiTgnaw through meat from a bone, or as a rat gnawing off a pillar or a wooden box (PAN: *qiCqiC) Tamalakaw

Hizusspoon (PAN: *qidus) Tamalakaw

Hudalrain (PAN: *quzaN) Tamalakaw

Humacultivated field (wet or dry) (PAN: *qumah) Tamalakaw

HumuRcram the mouth full with food or water; suckle in the mouth (Also Paiwan qumu 'water held in the mouth (not saliva)') (ROOT)

HumuRcram mouth with food or water (PAN: *qumuR) Tamalakaw

Huŋtuysmoking pipe (from Min hun-chhui) (LOAN)

Puyuma (140 / 593)

Hupizplait rattan or bamboo (Also Amis ʔopir 'braid of hair or rope') (ROOT)

Huredworm, insect (not caterpillar, earthworm, intestinal worm or tapeworm) (PAN: *qulej) Tamalakaw

Hurucut off the head, behead (PAN: *quluh) Tamalakaw

Husigums (PAN: *gusi(ʔ)) Tamalakaw

Hutilpenis (PAN: *qutiN) Tamalakaw

Huvalgray hair (PAN: *qubaN) Tamalakaw

Huwayrattan (PAN: *quay) Tamalakaw

Huz-Huzemblack (PAN: *qudem) Tamalakaw

idapbroom (Ting 1978) (PAN: *Sijap)

ikuRtail (PAN: *ikuR) Tamalakaw

ilibcave (Ting 1978); a cliff notch where human beings can rest (Cauquelin 2011) (PAN: *Nihib)

imaRgrease, fat (PAN: *SimaR) Tamalakaw

inamother, MZ, FZ (ref) (PAN: *ina) Tamalakaw

iŋiŋwhining of a dog (ROOT)

isimeat, flesh (PAN: *isiʔ) Tamalakaw

isiHurine (PAN: *iSiq) Tamalakaw

i-Tasup, above (PAN: *i aCas) *aCas Tamalakaw

iupto blow with breath (PAN: *Seyup) Tamalakaw

ivaelder sibling, elder sibling's spouse, spouse's elder sibling (PAN: *ibaS) Rikavong

iwanine (PAN: *Siwa)

Puyuma (160 / 593)

kabkabscratch, scrape (NEAR)

kabuŋhat (LOAN)

kabusshrrimp (PAN: *kabus₂)

ka-datar-anspirits of the true village in Puyuma (PAN: *dataR)

ka-iwaninth (PAN: *Sika-Siwa) *Siwa

kakakquack of the duck and honk of the goose (PAN: *kakak)

ka-kudawhat? (PAN: *kuja₁) *kuja

ka-kuria rake (PAN: *ka-kuRi) *kuRi

ka-ŋayaw-anheadhunting festival (Cauquelin 2011) (PAN: *ŋayaw)

kaŋkaŋnoisy (PAN: *kaŋkaŋ₂)

ka-pitu-anthe seventh (PAN: *ka-pitu-an) *pitu

kara-iwanine objects each (PAN: *Siwa)

kara-pitu-kar-pitu-pitu-anseven objects per person (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

karaTto nibble, bite (insect) (PAN: *kaRaC)

kaR-Havu-Havuashy (of color) (PAN: *qabu₁) *qabu Tamalakaw

karicanal, an artificial small waterway for irrigation (PAN: *kali₁) *kali Tamalakaw

kar-mi-ɖua-ɖua-yantwo by two (PAN: *duSa duSa) *duSa

kawayangeneric term for bamboo without thorns (PAN: *kawayan)

kawiwood, tree (PAN: *kaSiw)

kawi-kawiforest, a lot of wood (PAN: *kaSi-kaSiw) *kaSiw

Puyuma (180 / 593)

kawiɭfishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

kawkawsickle (PAN: *kawkaw₁)

k<əm>akakto quack (PAN: *kakak)

k<em>a-keRaŋto roast right on the fire, to broil (PAN: *keRaŋ₃) Tamalakaw

k-em-a-kiRus, kiRus-icarve out, as a spoon; scrape out, as rice in the bottom of the pot in a digging motion; to clean out, as a ditch or water-pool (PAN: *kiRus) Tamalakaw

k<əm>aŋkaŋto use a plough (LOAN)

k<əm>araTto bite (as in a dog biting a person) (PAN: *k<um>aRaC) *kaRaC

k<əm>əRaŋto grill quickly directly over the fire (meat, fish, boar skin) (PAN: *keRaŋ₃)

k<əm>ərətcut something into thin slices, as meat (PAN: *k<um>eRet) *keRet

k<əm>iskisto scrape off something hard, such as bark (PAN: *kiSkiS)

k<em>uda-kudahow to do? what do do? what kind of? (PAN: *kuja₁) *kuja Tamalakaw

k<em>uda ziwhy? (PAN: *kuja₁) *kuja Tamalakaw

k<əm>ukuTroll into a ball to sleep (PAN: *kuCkuC)

k<em>urito rake (PAN: *k<um>uRi) *kuRi

kərətcut, as a rope, or the flesh; cut into thin slices (as meat); slash with a small knife (PAN: *keRet)

keripto blink (once) (PAN: *kelip) Tamalakaw

keriwwhite ramie: Boehmeria frustescens. keriw is used in rituals, in particular those dedicated to humans; in effect, ramie is the symbol of life (PAN: *keRiw)

ki-to get, obtain (kuraw ‘fish’, ki-kuraw ‘to fish’, ləŋaw ‘sound’, ki-ləŋaw ‘to hear, listen’, rami ‘root’, ki-rami ‘get a root’, səpad ‘share (of something)’, ki-səpad ‘get a share’). (PAN: *ki-)

ki<a>ŋeRto listen to (PAN: *kiŋeR) Tamalakaw

ki-a-putunget a fracture (PAN: *putun₂) *putun

Puyuma (200 / 593)

ki-n-aTay(imp) die (PAN: *aCay) Tamalakaw

kiŋeRhear, listen (ROOT)

kiŋR-ilisten! (PAN: *kiŋeR) Tamalakaw

kir-Tebuŋto meet with one person (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

kiR-va-vulihide oneself (PAN: *buNi) Tamalakaw

ki-Tebuŋto meet; to welcome (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

ki-tukuɖget something to support (PAN: *tukud)

k<m>uda-kudahow? (PAN: *kuja₁) *kuja

kudado (occupation) (PAN: *kuja₁) *kuja

kukuTroll up, curl up in the fetal position (PAN: *kuCkuC)

ku-ɭabawrat (generic term) (PAN: *labaw)

kuɭaTPolyporus sulfurus, bracket fungus (PAN: *kulaC)

kurapskin illness due to a dry skin (not itching); ringworm, only in the hair (PAN: *kurap)

kurirake (PAN: *kuRi)

kuR-kiŋR-anto be audible (PAN: *kiŋeR) Tamalakaw

kuTemcloud (PAN: *kudem) Tamalakaw

kuTuheadlouse (PAN: *kuCu)

K) vuHeRgoiter (NOISE)

ɭadamfamiliar with, accustomed to (PAN: *lajam)

la-lakplural of alak (PAN: *aNak) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (220 / 593)

ɭaŋiTsky (PAN: *laŋiC)

laŋsistinking, of over-cooked (burnt) rice (PAN: *laŋ(e)si) Tamalakaw

laŋuyswim (according to some informants it is breaststroke) (PAN: *Naŋuy)

ɭəbɭəbvery heavy fog (PAN: *lebleb)

ɭikawcurve, bend, winding (PAN: *likaw)

ɭikuɖbehind (PAN: *likud)

ɭikuɖ-anback (anatomical) (PAN: *likud-an) *likud

ɭimafive (ɭima is only used to refer to the number five; in counting objects or any derivations the base for five is luaʈ) (PAN: *lima)

litaHmud (ROOT)

ɭuɭuncurl up (e.g. a mat) (PAN: *luluN)

ɭupaspeach, apricot (PAN: *lupas₁)

ɭutuŋFormosan rock monkey (PAN: *luCuŋ)

ɭuʔtears (PAN: *luSeq)

-lvit-to whip (ROOT)

ma-stative prefix (PAN: *ma-₁)

ma-a-aRlainvite, ask to go out (NEAR) Tamalakaw

ma a ŋayaw(of many people) to go headhunting (Tsuchida 1982) (PAN: *ŋayaw) Tamalakaw

m-a-Ha-Hiutto have sexual intercourse, of human beings (vulgar) (PAN: *qiut) Tamalakaw

m-a-HaRa-HaRawto fight for (as for the ground) (PAN: *qaRaw) Tamalakaw

ma-huwamto have thrush (disease caused by a parasitic fungus that causes whitish spots and ulcers on the membranes of the mouth, the cavity at the back of the mouth, etc.) (PAN: *guSam)

Puyuma (240 / 593)

m-a-iRik, iRik-uscrape off with feet, thresh with feet (as millet) (PAN: *iRik) Tamalakaw

maka-nm-ensixty (PAN: *maka-enem) *enem Tamalakaw

maka-pt-elforty (PAN: *maka-Sepat) *Sepat Tamalakaw

maka-ptu-lseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Tamalakaw

maka-Tason (PAN: *aCas) Tamalakaw

maka-waru-n80 (PAN: *maka-walu) *walu Tamalakaw

ma-kudawhy? how? (PAN: *ma-kuja) *kuja

ma-kurapget or have ichthyosis (PAN: *kurap)

ma-laŋusurfeit (with food) (PAN: *ma-laŋu) *laŋu Tamalakaw

ma-nadamaccustomed (= tamed) (PAN: *ma-najam) *najam Tamalakaw

ma-nəmawhat? (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *nema)

ma-ŋerŋerto growl, of a dog (PAN: *ŋerŋer)

ma-ŋəsŋəsbe short of breath (PAN: *ŋesŋes)

ma-ŋəsŋəsbe short of breath (NOISE)

ma-piɭukcrippled (as from a twisted foot) (PAN: *piluk₁) *piluk

ma-putunhas a break (PAN: *putun₂) *putun

mar-buasprout or grow naturally (PAN: *maR-buaq) *buaq

maR-Ha-Hanito harvest (PAN: *maR-qani) *qaniS Tamalakaw

ma-riʔipregnant (PAN: *maliqi) Tamalakaw

m-aR-ki-vu-a-li-vuliplay hide-and-seek (PAN: *buNi) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (260 / 593)

mar-kuda-kudadifferent, varied (PAN: *kuja₁) *kuja

mar-sa-suruɁto call one another (PAN: *suRuq₂) *suRuq

mar-siwaɁtwo things split (PAN: *siwaq)

maR-tamafather and child (PAN: *maR-ama) *ama Tamalakaw

maR-taynamother and son or daughter (< ta-yna 'mother, aunt') (PAN: *maR-ina) *ina Tamalakaw

mar-Tebuŋtwo people meet (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

mar-Tebuŋ-anmeetings (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

mar-Tebuŋ-Tebuŋseveral people meet (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

ma-sa-suludpush each other (two people only) (PAN: *sulud₂)

ma-suŋato do the opposite of what you are told to do (PAN: *suŋa)

maTaeyes (PAN: *maCa)

ma-Taŋisto weep (PAN: *ma-Caŋis) *Caŋis

ma-tuku-tukuɖmutual aid (PAN: *tukud)

ma-Tumek(of trees and bamboos) crumbling, falling to pieces (PAN: *Cumek) Tamalakaw

ma-veŋveŋmake a noise, as of fire bursting into flames, of bees or flies buzzing (PAN: *beŋbeŋ₂) Tamalakaw

ma-w-wiRileft-handed (PAN: *wiRi) Tamalakaw

may waʔitharpoon (PAN: *waqit)

ma-ʔatəɖaccompany someone to a destination (as in taking a child to school, or delivering goods) (PAN: *ma-SateD) *SateD

m-a-ʔatezescort a sick person or a drunk home (PAN: *ma-SateD) *SateD Tamalakaw

maʔawan alder, Alnus formosana (PAN: *maqaw) Pinan

Puyuma (280 / 593)

mə-kanto eat (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

mə- laŋuyto swim (PAN: *N<um>aŋuy) *Naŋuy

meLaTiLaTto sparkle, glitter (ROOT)

mə-ɭəbɭəbvery heavy fog (the horizon is completely obscured; the weather is gloomy and promises rain, which will clear the sky and enable good weather to return) (PAN: *ma-lebleb) *lebleb

m-əŋadto breathe (PAN: *S<um>eŋad) *Seŋad

mə-ŋətŋətto nibble (PAN: *ŋetŋet)

me-Ra-Ramesrub and crumble without much force (PAN: *Rames) Tamalakaw

mi-a-daɭanspirits of the road (PAN: *zalan)

mi-a-ɖuatwo people (PAN: *duSa)

mi-a-n-aTaydie (PAN: *aCay) Tamalakaw

mia-pituseven people (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

mi-buLanfor months (PAN: *bulaN) Tamalakaw

mi-ɖa-ɖuatwo people together (PAN: *mi-da-duSa) *duSa

mi-kabuŋto wear a hat (LOAN)

mi-ɭuʔto have tears (PAN: *luSeq)

mi-pakpakto have wings (PAN: *pakpak)

mi-pasekhave a nail in (PAN: *pacek)

mi-pasekhave a nail in (PAN: *pasek)

mi-samaɁto have remnants (PAN: *samaq)

mi-ta-teɭuthree (people) together (PAN: *telu)

Puyuma (300 / 593)

mu-movement prefix (darəʔ ‘earth, soil’, mu-darəʔ ‘go down, descend’, ənay ‘water’, mu-ənay ‘go to the water’, rumaʔ ‘house’, mu-rumaʔ ‘go home (PAN: *mu-)

m-u-a-laHudto flow (of water), be adrift (PAN: *qañud) Tamalakaw

mudiŋ-anface (PAN: *mujiŋ-an) *mujiŋ

mu-liu-liusturn round (thing) (PAN: *liuS) Tamalakaw

mu-liústurn round (person) (PAN: *liuS) Tamalakaw

mu-ɭuɭunto curl (roll) something up (PAN: *luluN)

mu-palTukexplode (ROOT)

mu-palTukexplode (ROOT)

mu-peseʔbe broken, as a bottle or calabash (PAN: *peceq₁) *peceq

muR-TaTaweyeball (PAN: *CaCaw) Tamalakaw

mu-siwaɁto fork, of a road (PAN: *siwaq)

mu-Taʔito defecate (PAN: *C<um>aqi) *Caqi

mutpesdeflated (balloon, belly of dead animal) (ROOT)

naparticle linking nominal heads and attributes (PAN: *na₂)

nan-kumy, mine (PAN: *-ku)

nanumwater (ritual term). Only used by male practitioners, as bru is used by female shamans (cf.ənay ‘water’) (PAN: *daNum)

nigenitive case marker for singular personal nouns (PAN: *ni)

ni-ɭuɭun-ana curly thing (as a pangolin rolled into a ball) (PAN: *luluN)

ŋayawheadhunting (PAN: *ŋayaw)

ŋerŋergrowl of a dog (PAN: *ŋerŋer)

Puyuma (320 / 593)

ŋəsŋəsbreathless; to pant (PAN: *ŋesŋes)

ŋəsŋəsbreathless, pant (NOISE)

ŋətŋətgnash one’s teeth; bite without letting go (PAN: *ŋetŋet)

ŋeTŋeT-ito bite severely (PAN: *ŋeCŋeC) Tamalakaw

ŋisŋisbeard (PAN: *ŋiSŋiS)

ŋitŋitbite slowly with the front teeth; gnaw (as rats do) (PAN: *ŋitŋit₁) *ŋitŋit

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

pa-a-laHudset adrift (PAN: *pa-añud) *qañud Tamalakaw

pa-da-ɖikəTsticky paper (PAN: *dikeC)

pa-ɖikəTstick something on a surface (PAN: *dikeC)

pa-ɖuma-ɖumachange for something else (PAN: *duma)

pa-ka-ɖikəTanchor (PAN: *dikeC)

pa-kanto feed (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

paka-ra-a-ri-keriH(of a monkey) to cry "keriH keriH" (PAN: *keriq) Tamalakaw

pa-kawi-an ~ pu-(a)-kawi-anwoodshed (PAN: *kaSiw)

pakpakwing; flap wings (PAN: *pakpak)

pa-la-laŋuymake something swim, let something swim (PAN: *Naŋuy)

palTukto explode (PAN: *paleCuk) Tamalakaw

paLukapsensitive with the touch; to feel, finger something (ROOT)

panaHshoot with a bow (PAN: *panaq)

Puyuma (340 / 593)

paŋaLudŋutmumble, mutter, grumble (ROOT)

pa-pakpakto make wings flap (as when frightening a chicken) (PAN: *pakpak)

pa-pat-afour (animals and objects) (PAN: *pat-a) *Sepat Tamalakaw

pa-pəspəsto massage (PAN: *pespes₁) *pespes

pa-pituseven (people) (PAN: *pa-pitu) *pitu Tamalakaw

paR-asa-nto do once (PAN: *paR-isa-an) *isa₁ Tamalakaw

parisito pray (PAN: *paliSi) Tamalakaw

par-ka-ɖuain two, half (PAN: *duSa)

paR-nem-endo six times (PAN: *paR-enem-en) *enem Tamalakaw

paR-pat-endo four times (PAN: *paR-Sepat-en) *Sepat Tamalakaw

paR-waru-ndo eight times (PAN: *paR-walu-en) *walu Tamalakaw

paR- X -(en)do X times (X = numeral) (PAN: *paR- X -en) *paR-₂ Tamalakaw

pa-s<al>iwsiwnoise made by cheeping (as by baby chicks looking for their mother) (PAN: *siwsíw) *siwsiw

paseknail; hammer in a nail (PAN: *pacek)

paseknail; hammer in a nail (PAN: *pasek)

pa-ʃuʃuto breast feed (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁

patfour (cardinal) (PAN: *Sepat) Tamalakaw

pa-Taŋisto make someone cry (PAN: *pa-Caŋis) *Caŋis

pa-tuɖuʔto point out, indicate by pointing (PAN: *pa-tuzuq) *tuzuq

pa-va-vekasto run (PAN: *bekas₂) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (360 / 593)

paʔathigh (PAN: *paqa₁)

pa-ʔatəɖto send (as a letter) (PAN: *pa-SateD) *SateD

pa-ʔatezsend (PAN: *pa-SateD) *SateD Tamalakaw

pəɖəɭto squeeze, extract from (PAN: *pedel)

p-en-arisitaboo (PAN: *paliSi) Tamalakaw

p<ən>iɭukto twist, as the ankle (PAN: *piluk₁) *piluk

p<ən>pəspəsto massage (PAN: *pespes₁) *pespes

pənuturtle (Ting 1978) (PAN: *peñu)

p<ən>ukpukwas hit by someone (as a child being beaten) (PAN: *pukpuk)

pərəssqueeze out the contents from (as in squeezing a tube of glue) (PAN: *peRes)

peseʔbreak (PAN: *peceq₁) *peceq

pəspəsmassage (PAN: *pespes₁) *pespes

piaɖa shallow wooden plate (obsolete term, undeciphered; used in translating the Gospels) (PAN: *piad)

pia-ɭikuɖturn one’s back (PAN: *likud)

pi-a-n-aTaykill (PAN: *aCay) Tamalakaw

piɭuktwist and cripple (PAN: *piluk₁) *piluk

p<in>a-kan-anwas fed with something (PAN: *p<in>a-kaen) *kaen

p<in>ar-Tebuŋbe reunited (PAN: *Cebuŋ)

p<in>u-daɭan-anplace where a road has been made (PAN: *zalan)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Tamalakaw

Puyuma (380 / 593)

pitu-aseven (animals/objects) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Tamalakaw

pitu-pitu-aseven things (PAN: *pitu pitu) *pitu

pi-ʔalabecome an enemy (PAN: *qaNa)

pudeknavel; umbilical cord (PAN: *pujek)

pu-ɖəŋərgive a name (PAN: *deŋeR)

puka-ɖa-ɖuasecond (PAN: *duSa)

pu-kawito put wood (on the fire) (PAN: *kaSiw)

pukpukhurt; beat; to shell with a flail (as millet) (PAN: *pukpuk)

pukpuk-anaywill beat (PAN: *pukpuk)

puɭuʔten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

puna-punaygreen dove: Chalcophaps indica? (PAN: *puna-punay) *punay Tamalakaw

punaygreen dove: Chalcophaps indica? (PAN: *punay)

punuHbrain (PAN: *punuq₁) *punuq Tamalakaw

puR-a-uRehto shed tears (PAN: *luSeq) Tamalakaw

puruTa plant: Urena lobata, var. tomentosa (PAN: *puluC) Tamalakaw

putunbreak (body parts) (PAN: *putun₂) *putun

qubipubic hair (PAN: *qubiS)

ra-gumu-gumulhairy, fluffy, furry (PAN: *gumuN)

ra-gumulfur (PAN: *gumuN)

ramisubterranean root (PAN: *RamiS)

Puyuma (400 / 593)

RaRsukposts of a fence (ROOT)

ra-ʃuʃu-anhaving big breasts (PAN: *susu₁)

Rauŋlie in wait for an enemy or animal (PAN: *RaSuŋ) Tamalakaw

RawaRflying squirrel (PAN: *lawaR) Tamalakaw

rawaswide, broad (PAN: *lawas₁) Tamalakaw

Rekenround pad for putting hot cooking pots on, usually made of a plaited hoop of rattan (PAN: *Reken) Tamalakaw

Rekenround pad for putting hot cooking pots on, usually made of a plaited hoop of rattan (PAN: *reken) Tamalakaw

rekepfalcon, hawk (ROOT)

rekestie together (sheaves, bundles, packages) (ROOT)

Resukfix a stick or post in the ground (ROOT)

Rivasdemolish (PAN: *RibaS) Tamalakaw

rubunest (PAN: *Rubu)

rukuTAsplenium nidus (PAN: *lukuC) Tamalakaw

rumaʔhouse (PAN: *Rumaq)

ruvaŋa hole (PAN: *lubaŋ₁) Tamalakaw

sa-clitic form of ‘one’ (PAN: *sa₃)

saɖumany (objects, animals; but not human beings) (PAN: *Sadu)

sa-kawi-anone (a unit for trees) (PAN: *kaSiw)

saksakcut in pieces (as bamboo) (PAN: *saksak₁)

samaɁremnant (as of soil being used for a job, food left for someone) (PAN: *samaq)

Puyuma (420 / 593)

sapayhang astride, across (PAN: *sapay)

sapay-anayto hang, as clothes over a man’s shoulder (PAN: *sapay)

sa-puŋul-anone cluster of areca-nuts (PAN: *puŋuN) Tamalakaw

sapuTto pick up (as chicken feces) (PAN: *saput₂)

sa-sirup-ana straw (for drinking) (PAN: *siRup)

sa-supay-anwhetstone (PAN: *sa-supay-an) *supay

sazumany, much (of non-human) (Tsuchida 1980) (PAN: *Sadu) Tamalakaw

səbuput water on the fire (PAN: *sebuS)

səbubladder (PAN: *sebu)

s<əm>apayto hang, as clothes across a bar (PAN: *sapay)

s<əm>əbuto sprinkle water on fire (PAN: *s<um>ebuS) *sebuS

s<em>enaysing (LOAN)

s<əm>ipsipto suck (as a child sucking his thumb) (PAN: *sipsip)

s<əm>iwaɁto take a fork in the road; to have a slit in a traditional skirt (PAN: *siwaq)

s<əm>uludto push (PAN: *s<um>ulud) *sulud₂

s<əm>upayto sharpen in water (PAN: *s<um>upay) *supay

s<əm>uruɁgo to fetch someone (PAN: *suRuq₂) *suRuq

səpiɁbreak off unnecessary branches; lose a limb (PAN: *sepiq)

si-ɖuma-(y)another people, outsiders (PAN: *duma)

sikuelbow (PAN: *siku₁)

Puyuma (440 / 593)

si-kuda-[y]anmanners, traditions (PAN: *kuja₁) *kuja

silaɁcut in two, tear apart (as cloth) (PAN: *silaq)

s<in>uluda pushed thing (PAN: *sulud₂)

sipsipsuck; lick (PAN: *sipsip)

sirigoat (PAN: *Sidi)

sirupdrink with a straw; suck; sniff (PAN: *siRup)

siwaɁfork; split; slit (PAN: *siwaq)

siwsiwto cheep (PAN: *siwsíw) *siwsiw

siwsiw-anchicks, small birds (PAN: *siwsíw) *siwsiw

ʃ<m>uʃuto suckle, to nurse (of a child) (PAN: *s<um>usu) *susu₁

su<a>ksukkey (PAN: *suksuk)

suHaRthorn (in general) (PAN: *suqaR) Tamalakaw

suksuklock (PAN: *suksuk)

suksuk-ayto lock (as a door) (PAN: *suksuk)

suludpush (PAN: *sulud₂)

sulud-anPush it! (imperative) (PAN: *sulud₂)

suŋaupstream; do wrong (PAN: *suŋa)

supaysharpen in water (PAN: *supay)

ʃuʃubreasts (PAN: *susu₁)

ta-we, 1st person plural incl. nominative bound pronoun (PAN: *ita₁)

Puyuma (460 / 593)

taɖawa large knife, single-edged knife with a wooden handle (PAN: *tadaw)

tageraŋchest (PAN: *tageRaŋ)

tahraŋchest, breast (PAN: *tageRaŋ) Tamalakaw

Takaw-animperative of the instrumental focus: help to steal (PAN: *Cakaw-an) *Cakaw

talamtry; participate; taste in swallowing (PAN: *taNam)

ta-laŋuy-anraft (PAN: *Naŋuy)

Taliline of the gardener (used to measure garden plots) (PAN: *CaliS)

Taƚungrass; waste (PAN: *Calun)

Taƚun i ƚaƚiabanedible seaweed (T) (PAN: *Calun)

Taƚu-Taƚunforest, woods (PAN: *Calun)

Taŋiƚaear (PAN: *Caŋila)

Taŋila-ŋila-yanthe Jew's ear fungus, Auricularia-Auricula Judae (PAN: *Caliŋa)

Taŋiƚa-ŋiƚa-yanJew's ear fungus (PAN: *Caŋila)

Taŋisweep (PAN: *Caŋis)

Taparoast from a distance, roast gently (as meat over a fire) (PAN: *Capa)

Tapaŋpatchwork; to patch up (PAN: *Capaŋ)

Tap-iwinnow (PAN: *CapeS-i) *tapeS

taRa-walanright (side) (PAN: *waNan) Tamalakaw

taRa-wiRileft (side) (PAN: *wiRi) Tamalakaw

ta-tənun-anframe of the weaving loom (PAN: *ta-tenun-an) *tenun

Puyuma (480 / 593)

Tawto be human (PAN: *Cau)

ta-ynaM (ref., respectful) (PAN: *ta-ina) *ina Tamalakaw

Taʔimend, repair, darn, sew (PAN: *CaqiS)

Taʔifeces, excrement (PAN: *Caqi)

taʔurisscratch, leave a scratch mark (ROOT)

təktəkgecko (PAN: *tektek₂)

teɭuthree (PAN: *telu)

T-em-aliprepare a field (by measuring off) (PAN: *C<um>aliS) *CaliS

T-em-ap-ito winnow (PAN: *CapeS-i) *tapeS

T-em-a-Takawsteal (PAN: *Cakaw) Tamalakaw

t<əm>ənunto weave (PAN: *t<um>enun) *tenun

T-em-erabto belch (PAN: *CeRab)

t<em>uɖuʔto point at with the index finger (PAN: *t<um>uzuq) *tuzuq

t<em>ukuɖto strengthen, shore up (as a ruined house) (PAN: *tukud)

tenemexpanse of water (by extension, in the south, where one finds the sea the shamans employ the archaisms bayan, teber (PAN: *tenem)

tenempond, marsh (PAN: *tenem)

tenepsubmerge (PAN: *teñeb) Tamalakaw

tənunweave (PAN: *tenun)

təpukto hit (PAN: *tepuk)

Teraba belch (PAN: *CeRab)

Puyuma (500 / 593)

teRukukchicken (ROOT)

tialbelly (PAN: *tiaN)

tikerbend (PAN: *tikel) Tamalakaw

timizchin (PAN: *timij) Tamalakaw

timuɭsouth, meaning on the side of the sea, the bottom (PAN: *timuR)

TimuRmuRrinse one’s mouth and spit (PAN: *timuRmuR)

T-in-aHi-yana seam (PAN: *C<in>aqiS) *CaqiS Tamalakaw

T-in-apawhat is grilled or roasted; smoked millet (used against hemorrhages for women in childbirth) (PAN: *C<in>apa) *Capa

T-in-a-Taƚun-anluxuriant vegetation (PAN: *Calun)

T<in>aʔiintestines (PAN: *C<in>aqi) *Caqi

t<in>ənun-anwoven material (PAN: *t<in>enun-an) *tenun

t<in>ukuɖ-ana strengthened thing (PAN: *tukud)

T-in-u-Ta-Tawstatue, mannequin, scarecrow (PAN: *Cau)

Tiŋafood particles stuck between teeth (PAN: *CiŋaS)

tu-ɖəŋərsong, as of a bird (PAN: *deŋeR)

tuɖuknee (Katipul dialect, used in ritual context) (PAN: *tuduS)

tuɖuʔto point at with the index finger (PAN: *tuzuq)

tuHezold stump which is getting rotten (PAN: *tuqed) Tamalakaw

tukuɖstrengthen; buttress; support (as a stick in helping someone to walk) (PAN: *tukud)

tulaan eel (PAN: *tuNa)

Puyuma (520 / 593)

Tumaythe Formosan black bear (PAN: *Cumay)

turukukfowl, poultry (PAN: *tuRukuk)

tutuRdove, pigeon (PAN: *tuRtuR) Tamalakaw

Tuwatwo (serial counting) (PAN: *duSa) Tamalakaw

tuzuknee (PAN: *tuduS) Tamalakaw

uago (PAN: *uSa)

uDeDemblack (ROOT)

ulubeads (PAN: *quNuq) Tamalakaw

uŋaythe monkey-friend (the monkey killed at the annual festival maŋayaw is called uŋay. Everyday term is ɭuʈung); cf. Kaʈipul dialect uŋay ‘monkey’ (PAN: *uŋay)

-uRaswash one's hands or feet (PAN: *SuRas) Tamalakaw

uRaTblood vessel, vein (PAN: *huRaC) Tamalakaw

uReHtears (PAN: *luSeq) Tamalakaw

urlasnow (PAN: *SuReNa)

uRlasnow (PAN: *SuReNa) Tamalakaw

-utaHvomit (from the stomach) (PAN: *utaq) Tamalakaw

utaH-anvomit (imperative) (PAN: *utaq-an) *utaq Tamalakaw

-uvuTpull out without much effort one by one, something small and rooted (PAN: *ubuC) Tamalakaw

vaRaglowing embers (PAN: *baRah) Tamalakaw

vaRaHlung (PAN: *baRaq₁) Tamalakaw

vaReHto swell (PAN: *baReq) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (540 / 593)

varesavenge, retaliate (PAN: *bales₁) Tamalakaw

variwind (PAN: *bali₃)

variwind (LOAN)

vari-anbreezy (LOAN)

vaRiwtyphoon (PAN: *baRiuS) Tamalakaw

vavuywild pig (PAN: *babuy₃) Tamalakaw

v-en-a-viyaTdraw a bow to its full extent; pull to pieces (e.g. the legs of a chicken) (PAN: *biaC) Tamalakaw

v-en-a-vuliconceal, hide (PAN: *buNi) Tamalakaw

veRaRŋawbluebottle fly (ROOT)

veRashusked rice (PAN: *beRas₁) *beRas Tamalakaw

-veRaygive (PAN: *beRay₁) *beRay Tamalakaw

verekdomesticated pig (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *beRek)

veRHaŋmolar tooth (PAN: *beReqaŋ) Tamalakaw

-veRŋawbluebottle fly (PAN: *beRŋaw) Tamalakaw

veswhizzing sound, as of a flying bird, or of wind (PAN: *bes) Tamalakaw

-vikvikshake dust off (e.g. clothing by holding it with both hands) (NOISE)

viRawMiscanthus sp. (PAN: *biRaSu)

viRaw-RawMiscanthus field (PAN: *biRaSu)

viRviRlips (PAN: *biRbiR) Tamalakaw

vituHenstar (PAN: *bituqen)

Puyuma (560 / 593)

viTukastomach of animals (as food) (PAN: *biCuka) Tamalakaw

viyaT-udraw it! (imperative) (PAN: *biaC) Tamalakaw

vuHiRtaro (NOISE)

vulawfish (general) (NOISE)

vuli-uhide it! (PAN: *buNi) Tamalakaw

vuluHthe Morning Star (PAN: *bunuq₁) *buNuq₁ Tamalakaw

-vuluHto throw overhand something small (PAN: *buNuq) *buNuq₂ Tamalakaw

vulvulfontanelle, the soft and boneless area in the skull of a baby (PAN: *buNbuN) Tamalakaw

vuranmoon, month (PAN: *bulaN)

vuririkhouse lizard (PAN: *bulilik)

vuruHtype of slender bamboo used as an arrow shaft (PAN: *buluq₂) Tamalakaw

vuTucallosity, corn (PAN: *buCu) Tamalakaw

vuwaHfruit (PAN: *buaq) Tamalakaw

wadiyounger sibling, younger cousin (ref.) (PAN: *Suaji) Tamalakaw

wadi-yanyounger sibling, younger cousin (ref.) (PAN: *Suaji-an) *Suaji Tamalakaw

waLaythread, warp (for weaving) (PAN: *walay)

walitooth (PAN: *waNiS)

walusugar; sweet; honeybee (PAN: *waNu)

waraHspiderweb (PAN: *lawaq₂) Tamalakaw

waRiday; time to spare (PAN: *waRi₁) Tamalakaw

Puyuma (580 / 593)

warueight (cardinal number) (PAN: *walu) Tamalakaw

wa-warueight (in counting persons, not things) (PAN: *wa-walu) *walu Tamalakaw

waʔitbarb of spear or arrow (PAN: *waqit)

za-zuwatwo, of people (PAN: *da-duSa) *duSa

z<em>-keremrain-cloudy, about to rain (PAN: *kelem) Tamalakaw

zeRuŋthunder (Tsuchida 1982) (PAN: *deRuŋ₁) Tamalakaw

ʔala-ʔalastranger to the group (other Austronesians); enemy (PAN: *qaNa)

ʔatəɖsend, deliver (PAN: *SateD)

ʔekaneat (NOISE)

ʔ<əm>atəɖto deliver something to someone (PAN: *S<um>ateD) *SateD

ʔetekcut down a tree or bamboo with a bolo (PAN: *Setek) Tamalakaw

ʔuɭasdewdrop (in ritual the pair is muti-ʔuɭas, muti-auɭas ‘transformed into dew, transformed in the world of the dead) (PAN: *qulas)

ʔuɭədred worm; wood worm; spermatozoon (PAN: *qulej)

Puyuma (Chihpen) (1) Form.

deruŋthunder (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *deRuŋ₁)

Puyuma (Nanwang) (378) Form.. see: Puyuma

Puyuma (Pinan) (2) Form.

Daʔusoapberry (PAN: *daqu₂)

maʔawan alder, Alnus formosana (PAN: *maqaw)

Puyuma (Rikavong) (1) Form.

ivaelder sibling, elder sibling's spouse, spouse's elder sibling (PAN: *ibaS)

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) (211) Form. (Tsuchida 1980)

a-apatfour (humans) (PAN: *Sa-Sepat) *Sepat

alakchild, son, daughter (PAN: *aNak)

a-lmeksoft, flexible, as of rice-cake, calf of the leg (PAN: *lemek₁)

amafather, uncle (PAN: *ama)

apuapgrope (in a bag, or in the dark) (PAN: *SapuSap)

apuRchew betel nut with lime (PAN: *apuR)

apuyfire (PAN: *Sapuy)

ar-arasforest (PAN: *Salas)

ariHa man’s male friend (NEAR)

aRlainvite, ask to go out (NEAR)

a-Tashigh (PAN: *aCas)

aTava cover (in general) (PAN: *aCab)

atez-anescort a sick person or a drunk home (imperative) (PAN: *SateD-an) *SateD

avala cover and the belt for carrying a baby on the back (PAN: *SabaN)

a-ydanwhen? (PAN: *ijan)

aʔ-nemsix (of persons, but not animals or objects) (PAN: *a-enem) *enem

buLanmoon; month (PAN: *bulaN)

daHusoapberry tree: Sapindus mukrossi (PAN: *daqu₁)

daRami-anrice straw (PAN: *zaRami)

daReHearth, soil (PAN: *daReq)

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) (20 / 211)

d-em-a-dekiŋ(of deer) to cry "eking, eking" (PAN: *dekiŋ)

disdiscut many times, giving slight wounds (PAN: *disdis)

-em-marker of actor focus (PAN: *<um>₁) *-um-

enemsix (PAN: *enem)

Hali-vaŋbaŋbutterfly, moth (PAN: *baŋbaŋ₂)

Halivaŋvaŋbutterfly (PAN: *qaNi-)

Hali-wazaŋ-anclavicle, collarbone (PAN: *wadaŋ)

HalTuowl (PAN: *qaNiCu)

Haluphunting ground (PAN: *qanup) *qaNup

Haminorth; year, age (PAN: *qamiS)

-Hanito harvest (PAN: *qaniS)

HaŋHaŋbarking of a dog (PAN: *qaŋqaŋ)

HaŋRuodor of salted meat and vegetables in ferment (PAN: *qaŋeRu)

HaŋseRstinking, of urine or fermented eggs (PAN: *qaŋeseR)

Hapedugall bladder; bile (PAN: *qapeju)

HaRaw-isnatch it! (PAN: *qaRaw)

Harazfence (PAN: *qalad)

HaRempangolin, anteater (PAN: *qaRem)

Hari-pudu-anhair whorl (PAN: *qali-puju-an) *qali-puju

HaRsemsour (PAN: *qaRsem)

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) (40 / 211)

Hasevsmoky (PAN: *qaseb)

Hasilsalty (PAN: *qasiN)

Haspaastringent, puckery (the taste of green bananas, the kernel of areca nut, persimmon, etc.) (PAN: *qasepa)

Hasv-ansmoke (PAN: *qaseb)

HaTayliver (PAN: *qaCay)

Hatimraflea (PAN: *qatimela)

Hati-muRmuRgargle (PAN: *qaCi-)

-Hauŋof a dog, to howl (PAN: *qauŋ)

Havuashes (PAN: *qabu₁) *qabu

Havu-anhearth (PAN: *qabu-an) *qabu

Hayambird (PAN: *qayam₁)

Hazinot (negating a verb or adjective) (PAN: *qazi)

H-em-a-Halupto hunt (PAN: *q<um>aNup) *qaNup

H-em-a-HaRawtake by force, snatch away (PAN: *qaRaw)

H-em-aminorth wind blows (PAN: *qamiS)

H-em-aŋHaŋ(of a dog) to bark, as a dog which is kept on a leash or shut up in a room (PAN: *q<um>aŋqaŋ) *qaŋqaŋ

h-əm-aruŋsnore (Ting 1978) (PAN: *SaRuŋ)

HerHerchew, masticate (PAN: *qelqel)

Hesepto chew (for the juice, as sugarcane, chewing gum, etc.) (PAN: *qesep)

HeTarice husk and bran (PAN: *qeCah)

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) (60 / 211)

HeTuRscrotum (PAN: *qeCuR)

Hiruto wipe (after defecating) (PAN: *qiluS)

HiTHiTgnaw through meat from a bone, or as a rat gnawing off a pillar or a wooden box (PAN: *qiCqiC)

Hizusspoon (PAN: *qidus)

Hudalrain (PAN: *quzaN)

Humacultivated field (wet or dry) (PAN: *qumah)

HumuRcram mouth with food or water (PAN: *qumuR)

Huredworm, insect (not caterpillar, earthworm, intestinal worm or tapeworm) (PAN: *qulej)

Hurucut off the head, behead (PAN: *quluh)

Husigums (PAN: *gusi(ʔ))

Hutilpenis (PAN: *qutiN)

Huvalgray hair (PAN: *qubaN)

Huwayrattan (PAN: *quay)

Huz-Huzemblack (PAN: *qudem)

ikuRtail (PAN: *ikuR)

imaRgrease, fat (PAN: *SimaR)

inamother, MZ, FZ (ref) (PAN: *ina)

isimeat, flesh (PAN: *isiʔ)

isiHurine (PAN: *iSiq)

i-Tasup, above (PAN: *i aCas) *aCas

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) (80 / 211)

iupto blow with breath (PAN: *Seyup)

kaR-Havu-Havuashy (of color) (PAN: *qabu₁) *qabu

karicanal, an artificial small waterway for irrigation (PAN: *kali₁) *kali

k<em>a-keRaŋto roast right on the fire, to broil (PAN: *keRaŋ₃)

k-em-a-kiRus, kiRus-icarve out, as a spoon; scrape out, as rice in the bottom of the pot in a digging motion; to clean out, as a ditch or water-pool (PAN: *kiRus)

k<em>uda-kudahow to do? what do do? what kind of? (PAN: *kuja₁) *kuja

k<em>uda ziwhy? (PAN: *kuja₁) *kuja

keripto blink (once) (PAN: *kelip)

ki<a>ŋeRto listen to (PAN: *kiŋeR)

ki-n-aTay(imp) die (PAN: *aCay)

kiŋR-ilisten! (PAN: *kiŋeR)

kiR-va-vulihide oneself (PAN: *buNi)

kuR-kiŋR-anto be audible (PAN: *kiŋeR)

kuTemcloud (PAN: *kudem)

la-lakplural of alak (PAN: *aNak)

laŋsistinking, of over-cooked (burnt) rice (PAN: *laŋ(e)si)

ma-a-aRlainvite, ask to go out (NEAR)

ma a ŋayaw(of many people) to go headhunting (Tsuchida 1982) (PAN: *ŋayaw)

m-a-Ha-Hiutto have sexual intercourse, of human beings (vulgar) (PAN: *qiut)

m-a-HaRa-HaRawto fight for (as for the ground) (PAN: *qaRaw)

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) (100 / 211)

m-a-iRik, iRik-uscrape off with feet, thresh with feet (as millet) (PAN: *iRik)

maka-nm-ensixty (PAN: *maka-enem) *enem

maka-pt-elforty (PAN: *maka-Sepat) *Sepat

maka-ptu-lseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

maka-Tason (PAN: *aCas)

maka-waru-n80 (PAN: *maka-walu) *walu

ma-laŋusurfeit (with food) (PAN: *ma-laŋu) *laŋu

ma-nadamaccustomed (= tamed) (PAN: *ma-najam) *najam

maR-Ha-Hanito harvest (PAN: *maR-qani) *qaniS

ma-riʔipregnant (PAN: *maliqi)

m-aR-ki-vu-a-li-vuliplay hide-and-seek (PAN: *buNi)

maR-tamafather and child (PAN: *maR-ama) *ama

maR-taynamother and son or daughter (< ta-yna 'mother, aunt') (PAN: *maR-ina) *ina

ma-Tumek(of trees and bamboos) crumbling, falling to pieces (PAN: *Cumek)

ma-veŋveŋmake a noise, as of fire bursting into flames, of bees or flies buzzing (PAN: *beŋbeŋ₂)

ma-w-wiRileft-handed (PAN: *wiRi)

m-a-ʔatezescort a sick person or a drunk home (PAN: *ma-SateD) *SateD

me-Ra-Ramesrub and crumble without much force (PAN: *Rames)

mi-a-n-aTaydie (PAN: *aCay)

mi-buLanfor months (PAN: *bulaN)

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) (120 / 211)

m-u-a-laHudto flow (of water), be adrift (PAN: *qañud)

mu-liu-liusturn round (thing) (PAN: *liuS)

mu-liústurn round (person) (PAN: *liuS)

muR-TaTaweyeball (PAN: *CaCaw)

ŋeTŋeT-ito bite severely (PAN: *ŋeCŋeC)

pa-a-laHudset adrift (PAN: *pa-añud) *qañud

paka-ra-a-ri-keriH(of a monkey) to cry "keriH keriH" (PAN: *keriq)

palTukto explode (PAN: *paleCuk)

pa-pat-afour (animals and objects) (PAN: *pat-a) *Sepat

pa-pituseven (people) (PAN: *pa-pitu) *pitu

paR-asa-nto do once (PAN: *paR-isa-an) *isa₁

parisito pray (PAN: *paliSi)

paR-nem-endo six times (PAN: *paR-enem-en) *enem

paR-pat-endo four times (PAN: *paR-Sepat-en) *Sepat

paR-waru-ndo eight times (PAN: *paR-walu-en) *walu

paR- X -(en)do X times (X = numeral) (PAN: *paR- X -en) *paR-₂

patfour (cardinal) (PAN: *Sepat)

pa-va-vekasto run (PAN: *bekas₂)

pa-ʔatezsend (PAN: *pa-SateD) *SateD

p-en-arisitaboo (PAN: *paliSi)

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) (140 / 211)

pi-a-n-aTaykill (PAN: *aCay)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pitu-aseven (animals/objects) (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

puna-punaygreen dove: Chalcophaps indica? (PAN: *puna-punay) *punay

punuHbrain (PAN: *punuq₁) *punuq

puR-a-uRehto shed tears (PAN: *luSeq)

puruTa plant: Urena lobata, var. tomentosa (PAN: *puluC)

Rauŋlie in wait for an enemy or animal (PAN: *RaSuŋ)

RawaRflying squirrel (PAN: *lawaR)

rawaswide, broad (PAN: *lawas₁)

Rekenround pad for putting hot cooking pots on, usually made of a plaited hoop of rattan (PAN: *Reken)

Rekenround pad for putting hot cooking pots on, usually made of a plaited hoop of rattan (PAN: *reken)

Rivasdemolish (PAN: *RibaS)

rukuTAsplenium nidus (PAN: *lukuC)

ruvaŋa hole (PAN: *lubaŋ₁)

sa-puŋul-anone cluster of areca-nuts (PAN: *puŋuN)

sazumany, much (of non-human) (Tsuchida 1980) (PAN: *Sadu)

suHaRthorn (in general) (PAN: *suqaR)

tahraŋchest, breast (PAN: *tageRaŋ)

taRa-walanright (side) (PAN: *waNan)

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) (160 / 211)

taRa-wiRileft (side) (PAN: *wiRi)

ta-ynaM (ref., respectful) (PAN: *ta-ina) *ina

T-em-a-Takawsteal (PAN: *Cakaw)

tenepsubmerge (PAN: *teñeb)

tikerbend (PAN: *tikel)

timizchin (PAN: *timij)

T-in-aHi-yana seam (PAN: *C<in>aqiS) *CaqiS

tuHezold stump which is getting rotten (PAN: *tuqed)

tutuRdove, pigeon (PAN: *tuRtuR)

Tuwatwo (serial counting) (PAN: *duSa)

tuzuknee (PAN: *tuduS)

ulubeads (PAN: *quNuq)

-uRaswash one's hands or feet (PAN: *SuRas)

uRaTblood vessel, vein (PAN: *huRaC)

uReHtears (PAN: *luSeq)

uRlasnow (PAN: *SuReNa)

-utaHvomit (from the stomach) (PAN: *utaq)

utaH-anvomit (imperative) (PAN: *utaq-an) *utaq

-uvuTpull out without much effort one by one, something small and rooted (PAN: *ubuC)

vaRaglowing embers (PAN: *baRah)

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) (180 / 211)

vaRaHlung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

vaReHto swell (PAN: *baReq)

varesavenge, retaliate (PAN: *bales₁)

vaRiwtyphoon (PAN: *baRiuS)

vavuywild pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

v-en-a-viyaTdraw a bow to its full extent; pull to pieces (e.g. the legs of a chicken) (PAN: *biaC)

v-en-a-vuliconceal, hide (PAN: *buNi)

veRashusked rice (PAN: *beRas₁) *beRas

-veRaygive (PAN: *beRay₁) *beRay

veRHaŋmolar tooth (PAN: *beReqaŋ)

-veRŋawbluebottle fly (PAN: *beRŋaw)

veswhizzing sound, as of a flying bird, or of wind (PAN: *bes)

viRviRlips (PAN: *biRbiR)

viTukastomach of animals (as food) (PAN: *biCuka)

viyaT-udraw it! (imperative) (PAN: *biaC)

vuli-uhide it! (PAN: *buNi)

vuluHthe Morning Star (PAN: *bunuq₁) *buNuq₁

-vuluHto throw overhand something small (PAN: *buNuq) *buNuq₂

vulvulfontanelle, the soft and boneless area in the skull of a baby (PAN: *buNbuN)

vuruHtype of slender bamboo used as an arrow shaft (PAN: *buluq₂)

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) (200 / 211)

vuTucallosity, corn (PAN: *buCu)

vuwaHfruit (PAN: *buaq)

wadiyounger sibling, younger cousin (ref.) (PAN: *Suaji)

wadi-yanyounger sibling, younger cousin (ref.) (PAN: *Suaji-an) *Suaji

waraHspiderweb (PAN: *lawaq₂)

waRiday; time to spare (PAN: *waRi₁)

warueight (cardinal number) (PAN: *walu)

wa-warueight (in counting persons, not things) (PAN: *wa-walu) *walu

z<em>-keremrain-cloudy, about to rain (PAN: *kelem)

zeRuŋthunder (Tsuchida 1982) (PAN: *deRuŋ₁)

ʔetekcut down a tree or bamboo with a bolo (PAN: *Setek)

550. Pwele (1) OC

ka-laospiderweb (PMP: *lawaq₂)

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 5/28/2016
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)