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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Languages

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A

(forms and ROOT, LOAN, NOISE are links)


Abai Sembuak
Abaknon
Aborlan Tagbanwa
Acehnese
Achinese
Adonara
Agta (Central Cagayan)
Agta (Dupaningan)
Agta (Eastern)
Agutaynen
Ahus
Aklanon
Alas
Ali
Alu
Alumbis Murut
Alune
Amara

Ambai
Amblau
Amblong
Ambon Malay
Amganad Ifugaw
Amis
Amis (Central)
Amis (Kiwit)
Amis (Sakizaya)
Amis (Utrecht ms.)
Ampana
Ampibabo-Lauje
Anakalang
Anakalangu
Andra
Anejom
Angkola-Mandailing
Angkola-Mandailing Batak

Aniwa
Ansus
Anuta
Aore
Apma
Araki
'Āre'āre
Arguni
Aroma
Arop-Lokep
Arop-Lukep
Arosi
Arosi (Eastern)
Arosi (Southern)
Arosi (Western)
Arta
As
Asilulu

Ata
Ata Manobo
Atayal
Atayal (Cʔuliʔ)
Atayal (Mayrinax)
Atayal (Palŋawan)
Atayal (Squliq)
Atchin
Atoni
Atta
Atta (Pamplona)
Aua
Avasö
Avava
Axamb
Ayta Abellan
Ayta Maganchi

1. Abai Sembuak (50) WMP (Lobel 2016)

afuglime (for betel) (PAN: *qapuR)

afuyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

a-laatbad (PMP: *zaqat)

atudknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

baa afuyember, glowing coal (PMP: *baRah)

batiscalf of the leg (PWMP: *baties)

buayocrocodile (PMP: *buqaya₂) *buqaya

butuʔpenis (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

daanbranch (PMP: *daqan)

daaʔblood (PAN: *daRaq)

duuʔhoney (PMP: *zuRuq)

faafoot (PAN: *paqa₁)

faitbitter (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

fanuʔfull (PMP: *penuq)

fulutsap (PMP: *pulut)

fundibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

fusodnavel (PMP: *pusej)

goŋgomfist (PAN: *gemgem)

kanuyeagle (NEAR)

kəm-ina-naunt (PWMP: *kam-ina-en) *ina

Abai Sembuak (20 / 50)

ko2sg nominative pronoun, short form (long form = oko) (PMP: *ka₄)

kulatmushroom (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

layoginger (PMP: *laqia)

l<əm>idiʔto boil water (PMP: *diqdiq)

lifagopposite bank (PWMP: *di hipaR) *SipaR

liogneck (PAN: *liqeR)

lomokfat, obese (PAN: *lemek₁)

luaŋhole (PMP: *lubaŋ₁ₐ) *lubaŋ₁

lumutmoss (PMP: *lumut)

ma-ayobig (PAN: *Raya)

manukchicken (PMP: *manuk)

matoŋarrive (PWMP: *d<um>ateŋ) *dateŋ

mbiliʔto choose (PAN: *piliq)

mutulbroken (as a bone) (PMP: *putul) *putun

nakodto climb (a tree) (PWMP: *taked₂)

namukmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

ŋə-loboŋto bury (PAN: *lebeŋ)

ŋgamaŋto crawl (PWMP: *kamaŋ)

owoyrattan (PAN: *quay)

paladpalm of hand (PMP: *palaj₁)

Abai Sembuak (40 / 50)

səbu-anbladder (PAN: *sebu)

siapchick (PWMP: *siap)

talirope (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

timugriver (PMP: *timuR)

titiʔbreast (PMP: *titiq)

tukadladder (PWMP: *tukad₁)

tulaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tumidheel (PWMP: *tumid)

ufohen (PMP: *qupa)

utokbrain (PMP: *hutek)

2. Abaknon (25) WMP (Jacobson 1999) [abx] (Inabaknon) Philippines [aka: Inabaknon]

agakto take care of, to rear (PMP: *aRak)

allorice pestle (PAN: *qaSelu)

alonwave; current (PMP: *qalun)

ampugrandchild (PMP: *ampu) *apu

antaʔeat something raw (PAN: *qataq)

apolime (PAN: *qapuR)

asaŋgills (PMP: *hasaŋ)

bahaʔonew (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

ballito buy, purchase (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

bawiwild pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

dappato measure with armspan; fathom (PMP: *depa)

dawagrain like wheat (PAN: *zawa₂)

impontooth (PMP: *ipen)

iŋkotail (PAN: *ikuR)

kawaytentacle (PMP: *kaway₂)

lahaʔblood (PAN: *daRaq)

lahito run, run away; elope (PAN: *laRiw)

lalomdeep (PMP: *dalem)

lammokfat, stout, obese; greasy (PAN: *lemek₁)

mayand (PMP: *mai)

Abaknon (20 / 25)

pahistingray (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

pannosea turtle (PMP: *peñu)

pannoʔfull (of a container); filled (PMP: *penuq)

passaʔto break (brittle objects) (PMP: *peceq₂) *peceq

pumponto gather; to store; to heap up (PWMP: *punpun)

3. Aborlan Tagbanwa (36) WMP (Reid 1971) [tbw] (Tagbanwa) Philippines

aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

amak-anreed mat used to dry rice (PWMP: *amak)

amen1pl ex oblique (PAN: *amen)

a-nuwhatchamacallit (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

aten1pl in oblique (Jason Lobel p.c.) (PMP: *aten₂) *iten₂

babuywild pig (PAN: *babuy₃)

bayuʔuturtle (NEAR)

baʔbaʔmouth (PMP: *baqbaq)

bekenother, different (PWMP: *beken)

bɨtɨŋabdomen (PWMP: *beteŋ₂) *beteŋ

geneghear, listen (ROOT)

ikamɨnwoven mat, used for sleeping (PPh: *ikamen)

ikɨdcough (PWMP: *ikej)

ɨŋganot (PWMP: *eŋgaʔ)

itithat (3p remote) (PAN: *-i-ti) *-ti

ituthat (2p) (PAN: *i-Cu) *-Cu

kala-láwaʔspider (PWMP: *kala-lawaʔ) *lawaq₂

kami1pl. excl. nominative, we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kamu2pl. nominative, you all (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

kunumcloud (PWMP: *kunem)

Aborlan Tagbanwa (20 / 36)

laʔlurice pestle (PWMP: *laq(e)lu)

ma-agsemsour (PWMP: *ma-qaRsem) *qaRsem

manu-manukbird (PMP: *manu(k)-manuk) *manuk

m-ina-nMZ, FZ (PWMP: *kam-ina-en) *ina

munuŋlip (PWMP: *munuŋ)

nipɨntooth (PAN: *nipen)

nutnutsuck weakly (PWMP: *ñutñut)

padɨkhusk of rice (PWMP: *padek)

pilata healed-over scar (PWMP: *pilat)

puntibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

sa-ŋ-puluten (PMP: *ŋa)

s-inihere (PWMP: *si-ni) *-ni

s-ituthere (2p) (PWMP: *si-tu) *-Cu

tagaynīpdream (PPh: *taRa-qinep) *qinep

tuʔlaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

tuʔugdry (not wet) (PMP: *tuquR)

4. Acehnese (361) WMP (Kreemer 1931) [ace] (Aceh) Indonesia (Sumatra) [aka: Achinese]

abōʔmould, dust, grit, sawdust, scrapings (PMP: *qabuk)

aducompete (PWMP: *adu)

agaihsmall gnat or mosquito (LOAN)

agamareligion (LOAN)

alaŋtoo short, too little, insufficient, inadequate (PWMP: *alaŋ-alaŋ)

aluëbrook, small river, tributary stream (PMP: *qaluR₂) *qaluR

ampōnpardon, forgiveness; apology; remission, absolution (PMP: *ampun)

ampōŋfloat of a fishing net, buoy (PMP: *apuŋ)

aneuʔ busuarrow (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

anɨʔchild; young shoot; pit, stone, kernel, seed; constituent part of something (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anɨʔ bɨdébullet (PMP: *anak i sumpit) *aNak

anɨʔ daramarriageable girl (PWMP: *anak daRa) *aNak

anɨʔ daramarriageable girl (PMP: *daRa₂)

anɨʔ gɨntaclapper of a bell (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anɨʔ gɨtuëŋadopted child (PMP: *anak) *aNak

anɨʔ matapupil of the eye (PMP: *anak i mata) *aNak

anɨʔ matapupil of the eye (‘child of the eye’) (PMP: *anak nu mata) *maCa

anɨʔ pisaŋyoung banana shoots (PMP: *anak i kahiw) *aNak

anɨʔ reunjeunrung of a ladder (PWMP: *anak i haRezan) *aNak

anɨʔ titclitoris (PMP: *anak) *aNak

Acehnese (20 / 361)

anɨʔ ulèë barafirstborn child (PMP: *anak a qulu) *aNak

anɨʔ uystepchild (PMP: *anak) *aNak

a-nòwhatchamacallit, a certain, someone, something that one does not want to, or cannot name (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

ansagoose (LOAN)

antatescort, accompany, convey, bring, transfer (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

aŋènwind, draft; also substitute term for taʔeun 'epidemic' (PMP: *haŋin)

aŋèn-aŋèncharm consisting of a bit of paper with something written on it which is waved over the fire to compel a thief to return something stolen (PMP: *haŋin)

aŋkatlift, raise, pick or take up (PWMP: *aŋkat)

apiunopium (LOAN)

apōŋfloating on the water, light in weight (PMP: *apuŋ)

apuyfire (PMP: *hapuy) *Sapuy

asahope; trust; expectation (LOAN)

asabsmoke, soot, steam (PAN: *qaseb)

asahwhet, sharpen, file off (teeth) (PMP: *hasaq) *Sasaq

asamsour, tart, acid; make something sour; smear with citrus juice (as the blade of a weapon to make it shine); also name of various citrus fruits (PWMP: *qalesem)

asayorigin, provenance; provided that (LOAN)

aséëdog (PAN: *asu₁)

asèë pu-buruhunting dog (PAN: *buRaw)

asòëcontents, load, flesh (living or dead, but not slaughtered; also the flesh of fruits (PWMP: *asi₁)

asòë naŋgròëthe peopling of the land (PWMP: *asi₁)

Acehnese (40 / 361)

ateuëhup, above; high (PMP: *atas) *aCas

ateuëŋdyke in a wet ricefield (PWMP: *ataŋ₁)

awancloud (PWMP: *hawan)

awaʔbody; person; crew (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

awerattan (PWMP: *away₄)

aya-hfather (PMP: *aya₂ₐ) *aya₂

ayōncradle (generally an oblong basket of plaited rattan filled with cushions) (PWMP: *hayun)

bagofësort, kind, manner; just like, identical to (LOAN)

baléʔturned over or around (PMP: *balik₂)

baluytake revenge; restore or replace after a loss (PMP: *baliw₄) *baliw₁

bambaŋred, yellow, jaundiced (PWMP: *baŋbaŋ₈)

bambaŋ, baŋbaŋbutterfly (PMP: *baŋbaŋ₉) *baŋbaŋ₂

ban-duaboth (PMP: *duha) *duSa

banieplank-like outgrowth under the branches of some trees (NOISE)

baŋkécorpse, cadaver (of a non-Muslim or animal) (PWMP: *baŋkay)

baŋònform, shape, figure, posture, build, figure (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

barahorizontal tie-beams in a house (PMP: *bara₂)

baraŋordinary, everyday; gives a general sense to: whoever, whichever (PMP: *baraŋ₁) *baraŋ

baratwest, westerly (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

barōnew; just, just now; first (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

Acehnese (60 / 361)

baròëyesterday (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

basahwet, damp (PMP: *baseq₂) *baseq

bateəstone, rock, boulder; net sinkers (PMP: *batu₁)

bayeuëpay, satisfy (in monetary terms) (PMP: *bayaD)

baʔtree, trunk, stem, stalk (NOISE)

besiiron (LOAN)

beudaʔwhitener, ointment (rubbed into the body of a sick person as medicine (LOAN)

beudéweapon, gun (LOAN)

beukahbreak, break through; broken; piece; broken off; to disperse, of a meeting (PMP: *bekaq)

beukaïhtrace, footprint; impression left behind, remains (PMP: *bekas₃)

beukayprovisions for a journey, supplies (PWMP: *bekel)

beunato rise, of the tide (PMP: *bena)

beunatrue, genuine, real, essential, certain, precise, good, upright, honest, fair (PMP: *bener)

beundaobject, thing, matter, affair, visible evidence, visible sign (LOAN)

beuneuŋthread, yarn (PWMP: *benaŋ)

beuŋèhangry, furious, malicious, bad-natured (PMP: *beŋis₁)

beureukaïhbunch, sheaf, bundle; tie into a bundle (PMP: *beRkes)

beureukat, beurkatblessing, salvation; blessed, prosperous (LOAN)

beureutéhburst open, rice that has popped while being roasted (PWMP: *beRtiq)

beutéhshinbone, the leg bone below the knee (PAN: *beties)

Acehnese (80 / 361)

biasaordinary, customary, in the habit of; experienced, practiced (LOAN)

biayaexpenses, costs; gifts (LOAN)

bibilip (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bibi mataeyelid (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bibi pukòëlabia of the vulva (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bicaraadvice, counsel; deliberation, discussion; consultation; opinion, intention; judgment (LOAN)

bidadifference, distinction (LOAN)

bidanmidwife (LOAN)

bideuëŋbroad, breadth; stretched out, spread out; unit of measure for cloth, mats, etc. (PWMP: *bidaŋ)

bideuëŋbroad, wide; width; extended, spread out (LOAN)

bidoʔkind of outrigger canoe (LOAN)

bieuëpermit, allow, let (PWMP: *bihaR)

bijéhgrain, pip, pit, seed; seedlings (LOAN)

bilathe person who in justice is the object of blood revenge (LOAN)

biléhsmall fish, kind of anchovy especially eaten dried (PWMP: *bilis)

bileuenofficial enjoined with calling the faithful to prayer, and with the upkeep of the mosque (LOAN)

bileuëŋcount, sum up, enumerate, reckon (PAN: *bilaŋ)

biléʔroom, apartment (PMP: *bilik)

binasadestroyed, spoilt, devastated, annihilated (LOAN)

binataŋanimal, beast; cattle (opposed to manusia 'people') (LOAN)

Acehnese (100 / 361)

bintaŋstar; order of knighthood (LOAN)

bintaŋ lheəthe three brightly shining stars in the middle of Orion (PAN: *telu)

bintaŋ paròëa constellation, the Southern Cross (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

bintaŋ tujōha constellation, the Pleiades (PMP: *bituqen pitu) *bituqen

biŋètpeevish, touchy, short-tempered; difficult, troublesome; malicious (of animals) (PMP: *biŋit)

biŋkèrim, edge, border, frame (PWMP: *biŋkay)

biŋkōʔcrooked, bent, curved (PMP: *biŋkuk)

biŋóŋstupid, silly, confused, stupefied, dazed; to doze (LOAN)

biŋóŋstupid, silly, confused, stupefied, dazed; to doze (NOISE)

biraheasily hurt, hypersensitive; a type of Alocasia (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

biri-biriberi beri (disease) (LOAN)

bisapoison, venom (esp. of animals) (LOAN)

bisanthe relationship of persons whose children have intermarried (the bisan of the bride are thus the consanguineal kin of her husband) (PWMP: *baisan)

biséʔto whisper (PWMP: *bisik₃)

biulaviolin (of European manufacture) (LOAN)

blahsplit, cleave, hack; be split, cloven (PAN: *belaq)

-blaïhformative for numerals from 11-19 (LOAN)

blòëbuy (PMP: *beli₂) *beli

bóbóto babble, chatter (LOAN)

bòhfruit, bud, seed, nut, button, ball, weight, importance, egg, calf of the leg, nit (louse egg), spout of a vessel, penis, male sex organs; numeral classifier; element in names of body parts; objects used in games or gambling; also used in a number of figurative expressions (PMP: *buaq)

Acehnese (120 / 361)

bòh asèëpenis of a dog; bolt of a rifle (PMP: *buaq)

bòh atéhypocoristic term, sweetheart (PWMP: *buaq qatay) *buaq

bòh beutéhcalf of the leg (PAN: *beties)

bòh beutéhcalf of the leg (PMP: *buaq ni bities) *buaq

bòh euŋkōtroe of fish (PMP: *buaq)

bòh gōŋboss of a gong; bolt of a rifle (PMP: *buaq)

bòh haleukōmAdam's apple (PMP: *buaq)

bòh kayèëfruit (PMP: *buaq ni kahiw) *buaq

bòh keumiròëoleaginous nut; also human testicles (PMP: *buaq)

bòh Klèŋlit. penis of a Kliŋ (Tamil) = kind of sea cucumber (PMP: *buaq)

bòh manoʔchicken egg (PMP: *buaq)

bòh meureuyamcannon shot (PMP: *buaq)

bòh pisaŋupper arm (PMP: *buaq)

bratheavy; important; pregnant (PMP: *beReqat)

breuëhhusked rice (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

bri, beurigive, endow, present to; allow, permit (PMP: *beRay₂) *beRay

bubèëkind of fish trap (many named varieties) (PAN: *bubu₂)

bubōŋroof, roof covering (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

budaʔchild, lad, boy (LOAN)

budhéenkind of preserve of small fish in brine (much eaten in Daya) (LOAN)

Acehnese (140 / 361)

budi, budi-manexhibit good behavior, sensible, wise (LOAN)

budōstupid, silly (LOAN)

buëhwild, savage; lewd (PWMP: *buas)

buëtwork, occupation, business; matter, affair, question, concern; action, way of acting; behavior, conduct, deed; suitable (PMP: *buhat₂)

buihleak, leak through an opening; flow, stream (PMP: *busbus)

bujaŋbachelor; squire, page, herald (LOAN)

bujaŋ rajathe king's herald (LOAN)

bukaopen (PMP: *buka)

buka puasabreak the fast (PMP: *buka)

bukètmountain (PAN: *bukij)

bukònno, not, not be something; isn't it? (PWMP: *buken₁) *buken

bulèëbody hair, feathers, wool, quills of a porcupine, etc. (PMP: *bulu₁)

buleuënmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

buleuën peunòhfull moon (PMP: *penuq)

bulōhkind of bamboo used for blowpipes, cooking vessels, bobbins, sharpened spikes in pitfall traps (PAN: *buluq₂)

bunitree sp. (PWMP: *buRnay)

buntéŋpregnant, with young; also used of rice when the head is on the point of appearing (LOAN)

buntoʔinflated, swollen up (PMP: *buntuʔ)

buñòesound, noise, tone; rumor (PMP: *buñi)

buŋa apuyfireworks (PMP: *buŋa ni hapuy) *buŋa

Acehnese (160 / 361)

buŋkaihfor something to emerge, break the surface of the water; for the day to break (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

buŋkoihpackage, bale, bundle; to wrap, pack up, roll up (PWMP: *buŋkus)

buŋkoʔhump; bent, curved (as the back, or the shoulders) (PMP: *buŋkuk)

buŋòkind of tree with good wood (PAN: *buŋuR)

buŋòŋflower, blossom; flower motif (in weaving, embroidery, wood carving, ornamentation, etc.); interest on a loan (PMP: *buŋaŋ)

buŋóŋ lawaŋclove (LOAN)

buŋòŋ uroefirst rays of the rising sun (PMP: *buŋaŋ)

buŋsuyoungest child, last-born (LOAN)

buréʔspeckled (PWMP: *burik)

burōŋto accept (a job); payment of a previously stipulated salary (LOAN)

burōthernia, enlarged scrotum (LOAN)

burōthernia, enlarged scrotum (NOISE)

buruhunt, drive before one (PAN: *buRaw)

buruto hunt, go hunting (NOISE)

busōŋswelling of the stomach; sandbank (PWMP: *busuŋ)

busuarcher's bow (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

butablind (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

buta tuloëblind and deaf (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

butōhpenis, male sex organ (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

butōh Kléŋkind of inedible black sea cucumber (lit. 'penis of a Tamil') (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

Acehnese (180 / 361)

dadachest, breast (PWMP: *dahdah) *daSdaS

danoh darahdysentery (PAN: *daRaq)

dapukitchen, fireplace (PMP: *dapuR)

dapu pandésmith’s furnace (PMP: *dapuR)

darahblood (PAN: *daRaq)

daratland, shore (PMP: *daRat)

datu ~ datoʔ ~ toʔgrandfather, ancestor; term of address for elders; title for the guardians of traditional law on the west coast; title of animals or things that are regarded as holy or especially feared (PMP: *datu)

deupafathom (PMP: *depa)

dipreposition of location: in, to, by, on, at, out, from (PAN: *di)

diriridge post, used to support the ridge pole of a house (PAN: *SadiRi)

duatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

duroethorn, spike (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

gaséŋspinning top (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

gatayitch, itchy; also restless, inconstant, desirous, lascivious (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

geugatdecayed through dampness, etc.; moth (PMP: *getget₁)

geunabfull, complete; even (opposite of odd) (PWMP: *genep)

habéhfinished, done, at an end (PWMP: *qabiq)

hambōstrew, sow, scatter (PWMP: *qambuR)

hampato spread out; to be spread out, as a stone that from above appears stretched out and flat (PMP: *hampaR) *SapaR

hantughost, evil spirit (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

Acehnese (200 / 361)

Hantu buruan evil spirit, the Spectre Huntsman (PAN: *buRaw)

hantu rimbaforest spirit (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

hañòtfloat away, be carried away (by a current) (PAN: *qañud)

haŋétodor of perspiration (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

(h)awiha tied cloth, cloth tied into a bundle (PWMP: *qawis)

(h)ayaʔsieve of plaited bamboo or metal wire; to sieve, sift (PWMP: *qayag)

hiehdecorate; ornament (LOAN)

himponcollected, gathered (PMP: *qi(m)pun)

hiramdark (of the face, through rage or shame) (PWMP: *qirem)

iboihthe gebang palm: Corypha gebanga Bl. (PWMP: *ibus)

idoŋnose (PMP: *ijuŋ)

iə matatears (PMP: *mata) *maCa

indahpretty (LOAN)

indaŋwooden vessel in which gold is panned (PWMP: *indaŋ)

ipōhvegetable poison (PWMP: *qipuq)

irehslice (PMP: *qiris)

iréŋwalk single-file, follow, accompany, form a procession (PMP: *iriŋ₁)

iseueŋgills (PWMP: *isaŋ)

isotshove (PMP: *isud)

kamɔə1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

Acehnese (220 / 361)

karamsuffer an accident, sink, shipwreck (PWMP: *kaRem)

katithe outrigger floats of a canoe (PMP: *katiR)

kawanherd, flock, crowd; friend, comrade, companion, mate; follower; assistant; adherent (PWMP: *kaban₁)

kawéangling; fishing line; fishhook (PAN: *kawil₁)

kawéthook, as on clothing (PAN: *kawit)

kayeəwood, tree, stick, pole, beam (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kukuëtlower leg of an animal from the hoof to the ankle (PAN: *kudkud)

kulattoadstool, fungus (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

kulétskin; bark; rind; hide; leather (PMP: *kulit₁) *kuliC

kulubreadfruit tree: Artocarpus incisa (PMP: *kuluR)

lakòëhusband (PMP: *laki)

lalata fly (PMP: *lalej)

laŋkaha step, pace, stride (PMP: *laŋkaq)

layeuësail (PAN: *layaR)

leumah buleuënmenstruation (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

lheəthree (PAN: *telu)

lɨbehmore, in a high degree; remainder (PWMP: *lebiq)

lidah ~ dilahtongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

lihiëneck (PAN: *liqeR)

likōtbehind; rear part; back (anat.) (PMP: *ta-likud) *likud

Acehnese (240 / 361)

lulōnspin with a spinning wheel; a roll of cleansed cotton; (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

lumpòëdream (PWMP: *lupi)

lutōŋlong-tailed monkey with gray fur (PAN: *luCuŋ)

ma-kan-anto eat; all food other than rice (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

manoʔchicken, fowl; hen (PMP: *manuk)

manoʔ uteuënjungle fowl (PMP: *manuk)

m-asamsour tasting (PWMP: *ma-qalesem) *qalesem

mataeye; germ of a seed kernel; joint, articulation (of stalks like bamboo or sugarcane); gemstones, etc. (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata apuythe space above the hearth where foodstuffs are hung in the smoke to preserve them (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ceŋmeasuring marks on a scale (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata gɨnukuteeth of a coconut rasp (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata gōŋboss on a gong (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata iəspring, well, source of a river (PMP: *mata nu wahiR) *maCa

mata itampupil of the eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata kawethe sharp point of a fishhook (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata kayεəknot in wood (PMP: *mata nu kahiw) *maCa

mata laŋayplowshare (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-mataa spy (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

mata pukatmesh of a net (PWMP: *mata nu puket) *maCa

mata sərampaŋprongs of a harpoon (PMP: *mata) *maCa

Acehnese (260 / 361)

mata sikinthe blade of a knife (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata ueyeholes in a coconut shell (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata urɔəsun (‘eye of the day’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

meu-awihcarry in a carrying cloth on the back (PWMP: *qawis)

meu-darahbleeding, bloody (PAN: *ma-daRaq) *daRaq

meu-duadivide in two, to halve (PMP: *duha) *duSa

meu-gaséŋto spin tops (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

meu-geunabto discuss or deliberate with one another (PWMP: *genep)

meu-layeuëgo on a trip, to sail, be under sail, at sea (PAN: *layaR)

meu-salahsprained (as an ankle) (PWMP: *maR-salaq) *salaq₁

meu-tanɔhowning land (PMP: *taneq)

meu-tarōhto wager, place a bet on something (PWMP: *maR-taRuq) *taRuq

meu-ʔapuyburning, sending off sparks (PWMP: *ma-hapuy) *Sapuy

mɨʔ-anɨʔgive birth (PMP: *maR-anak) *aNak

mu-bòhbearing fruit (PMP: *buaq)

mu-buleuën-buleuënfor months (PMP: *bulan-bulan₂) *bulaN

nibōŋpalm sp.: Oncosperma filamentosum Bl. (PMP: *qanibuŋ)

nòhsquid, cuttlefish, octopus (PMP: *nues)

padaŋfield, plain (PWMP: *padaŋ)

pageuëfence, hedge (PMP: *pager)

Acehnese (280 / 361)

pagiDay of Judgement (PWMP: *pagi)

paguattic, loft, ceiling (PWMP: *pagu)

pakufern (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

palanutmeg tree and fruit (LOAN)

palaŋanything used as a barrier: crossbeam, bolt, etc. (PMP: *palaŋ₁)

paléhunlucky (PWMP: *palis₂)

paleŋturn, swerve, avert (PMP: *paliŋ)

paleuëtpalm of the hand (PMP: *palaj₁)

palikatcheckered cloth imported from the Palikat region of India (north of Madras) (LOAN)

paloŋtrough (PWMP: *paluŋ)

paluhit with a stick or other object (as in striking a gong) (PMP: *palu) *palu₃

panèëspots on human skin (PMP: *panaw₁) *panaw

paŋèwild tree from the seeds of which a good cooking oil is prepared (PMP: *paŋi)

paŋgaŋroast (meat or fish) on a spit (PWMP: *paŋgaŋ)

paŋgecall, summon (LOAN)

papeuënplank (as in a coffin or grave) (PMP: *papan)

paraattic, loft (under the ceiling) (PAN: *paRa₁)

parahorde, troop (PMP: *paRa₂)

parohoarse (PAN: *paRaw)

paròëstingray (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

Acehnese (300 / 361)

pasaŋpair, team, spouse, partner, equal (PMP: *pasaŋ₁)

pasibeach, sand (PWMP: *pasiR)

peu-geunabto complete (PWMP: *pa-genep) *genep

peunòhfull, as a rice field full of water; laden (PMP: *penuq)

peu-taloetie with a rope or string (PWMP: *pa-talih) *CaliS

piléhchoose (PAN: *piliq)

prahō pukatfishing boat used especially for seine fishing (PMP: *puket₁)

pu-blòësell (PWMP: *pa-beli) *beli

pu-bukato open, loosen (PMP: *buka)

pukatseine, large dragnet (PMP: *puket₁)

pukɔəfemale genitals (PAN: *puki)

pukɔə ma kahyour mother’s vagina! (term of abuse) (PAN: *puki)

p<um>iléhto choose (PAN: *p<um>iliq) *piliq

pusatnavel, mid-point; also, touch-hole of a cannon or other weapon (PMP: *pusej)

putehwhite, gray (of hair); pure, upright, good-natured (PMP: *putiq)

raketraft (PMP: *Rakit)

rayabig, wide, extensive; considerable, very; vehement; full-grown (PAN: *Raya)

reunoŋ meu-kawétfruiting pole, pole with a hook at the end for bringing down fruit (PWMP: *maR-kawit) *kawit

reuñeunsteps, ladder (PMP: *haRezan)

rɨsamkind of fern (PMP: *aResam)

Acehnese (320 / 361)

rɨsamfern sp. (PMP: *qaRsam)

rumòhhouse, dwelling (PAN: *Rumaq)

rusoʔribs (of the body, of a leaf, a roof); side, border (PAN: *Rusuk)

sakétpain; sick, indisposed; labor (in childbirth); difficult, painful; trouble; torment; grief (PMP: *sakit)

sakét ulεəheadache (PMP: *sakit)

salahmistake, error, fault; offense (PMP: *salaq₁)

salɛsmoke something over a fire; to roast; suspend something in the smoke in order to dry in out (PWMP: *salay)

sambayvarious finely chopped leaves mixed with Spanish pepper, roasted coconut, salt, etc. (a kind of condiment) (LOAN)

seumaŋatsoul of a living person, life-force, (impersonal) soul; be conscious (PMP: *sumaŋed)

seumaŋat padésoul of the rice (PMP: *sumaŋet nu pajay) *sumaŋed

siaŋmade clean, bright (PWMP: *siaŋ)

s<ɨn>ambaʔdyke, dam, mound of earth, wall, rampart, parapet (PMP: *tambak₂)

s<ɨn>umpéta blowpipe (PMP: *sumpit)

sirasalt (PAN: *qasiRa)

sugɔεtoothbrush, specifically a roll of tobacco with which one brushes the teeth after chewing betel (PWMP: *sugi)

sulōhtorch (PMP: *suluq)

sumpétshoot with a blowpipe (PMP: *sumpit)

susahtrouble, burden, distress, worry, grief, adversity (LOAN)

taloerope, line, string, cord (PMP: *talih) *CaliS

talòë pusatnavel string (PWMP: *talih pusej) *CaliS

Acehnese (340 / 361)

talɔə pusatumbilical cord (PMP: *pusej)

tanɔhground, land, earth (PMP: *taneq)

tanɔh kliət(‘sticky earth’) clay, potter’s clay (PMP: *taneq)

taŋirɔεkind of sea fish (PMP: *taŋiRi)

tarōhput down, wager (in a game or gambling contest) (PMP: *taRuq)

tarōh luathe wagers of the bystanders at a cockfight (PMP: *taRuq)

tawantake captive, make a war captive, take as booty (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

təkato come, arrive (PMP: *teka₁)

t<eum>akōtfrightened, afraid, anxious about (PMP: *t<um>akut) *takut

teuneunto drive in the weft (in weaving) (PAN: *tenun)

thɛəto know, have knowledge of something, be able (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

t<ɨm>ambaʔto dam up, make a dyke; heap up earth; fill up (PWMP: *t<um>ambak) *tambak₂

t<ɯm>ubato catch fish by stunning them with tuba (PAN: *t<um>uba) *tuba

tubapoison, venom (PAN: *tuba)

tuba jinu ~ tuba jɯnua poisonous root-sap used to stun fish (so that they can easily be caught) (PAN: *tuba)

tujōhseven (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tumεtheel, hock (PWMP: *tumid)

turōn ~ trōnto descend, go down; to reduce, of prices; be descended from (PMP: *tuRun₁)

ureuəŋ dapudescendants of slaves (PMP: *dapuR)

urɯəŋ mɯ-kulatpreparer of poison (PWMP: *ma-kulat) *kulaC

Acehnese (360 / 361)

warehconsanguineal kin (LOAN)

Achinese (361) WMP. see: Acehnese

5. Adonara (6) CMP (Lebar 1972) [adr] Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara)

amafather (PAN: *ama)

binesister (man speaking) (PCEMP: *b<in>ai) *bahi

inamother (PCEMP: *ina)

kakaelder sibling (same sex?; Lebar 1972:93) (PMP: *kaka) *kaka₂

lakehusband (PMP: *laki)

nithis (PAN: *-ni)

6. Agta (Central Cagayan) (152) WMP (Reid 1971) [agt] (Agta, Central Cagayan) Philippines (dialects: Eastern (Nickell and Nickell 1987) [duo] 27, Dupaningan (Robinson 2011) [duo] 98)

addumany (PMP: *hadu) *Sadu

amótto clamp one’s hand over one’s own or someone else’s mouth to prevent talking or breathing; hold one’s nostrils so no air enters (PMP: *hemut) *Semut Eastern

amot-ánto pinch one’s nostrils so water doesn’t enter (PMP: *hemut) *Semut Eastern

appánbait for fishing (PAN: *paen) Dupaningan

ba-bbeywoman (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi Dupaningan

bátaŋkind of very hard, rather large bracket fungus, in the shape of an ear. It grows on trees and is not edible. (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁ Eastern

begloincloth, traditional g-string (PWMP: *bahaR) Dupaningan

bitáŋlog (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁ Eastern

bitáŋanimal trap (PPH: *batéŋ) Eastern

bitustone (PMP: *batu₁) Dupaningan

biyawin-law (PWMP: *bayaw) Eastern

dad-dákalparents (PPH: *dakél) Dupaningan

dakálbig, large (PPH: *dakél) Dupaningan

danʌold (persons) (PWMP: *dana)

daŋdáŋ-anput a pot next to the fire to keep food warm (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₂) *daŋdaŋ Dupaningan

dapánsole of the foot (PMP: *dapan) *dapaN Eastern

dələkthunder (PWMP: *delek)

demefather (ref.) (PAN: *da-ama) *ama

di-diyaupstream (cp. di-lod ‘downstream’) (PWMP: *di-daya) *daya Dupaningan

digetsea, ocean (PMP: *daRat) Dupaningan

Agta (Central Cagayan) (20 / 152)

digiblood (PAN: *daRaq) Dupaningan

dilátongue (PMP: *dilaq₁) Dupaningan

dilanroad, path, trail (PMP: *zalan) Dupaningan

dinómwater (PMP: *danum) *daNum Dupaningan

dipogashes, dust (PMP: *dapuR) Dupaningan

ditagplain, small clearing (PAN: *dataR) Dupaningan

donleaf (PMP: *dahun) Dupaningan

d<um>igito bleed (PAN: *daRaq) Dupaningan

d<um>itáŋto arrive (PWMP: *d<um>ateŋ) *dateŋ Dupaningan

dúwatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa Dupaningan

e-nuwhat? (PAN: *-nu)

gúsoksternum, center of chest below breasts (PAN: *Rusuk) Dupaningan

gutgutto bite and tear with the teeth (PMP: *gutgut₂) *gutgut Eastern

hiklemnight (ROOT)

hulibuttocks (PMP: *buliq₂)

i-ditáŋbring something (PWMP: *dateŋ) Dupaningan

iklug (< D)egg (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

i-ko2sg., you/thou (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

i-kuyógto accompany, go with (PPH: *kuyug) Dupaningan

i-lákadrun away with, kidnap (PPH: *i-lákaj) *lakaj Dupaningan

Agta (Central Cagayan) (40 / 152)

i-nataŋcook vegetables (PMP: *nateŋ) *NaCeŋ Dupaningan

i-ped-pedto fan (PAN: *paid) Dupaningan

i-saŋlagto fry (PMP: *saŋelaR) Dupaningan

i-tánamto bury (PPH: *i-tanem) *CaNem Dupaningan

kali-dúwasoul (PMP: *duha) *duSa Dupaningan

kan-anfood, especially rice (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen Dupaningan

ka-nuwhen? (PMP: *ka-nu₂) *-nu

katálto scratch (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel Eastern

kayúliving tree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw Dupaningan

kilátlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC Dupaningan

kilay-anraise one’s eyebrows; wink (PWMP: *kiray)

-kitawe, you and I; first person dual inclusive enclitic pronoun (PAN: *kita₁) Dupaningan

-kita-mwe, first person plural inclusive nominative enclitic pronoun (PAN: *kita₁) Dupaningan

kon-pseudo-verb used to indicate quoted speech (PWMP: *kua-n) *kua₁ Dupaningan

kugitáoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa Dupaningan

kulata mushroom that grows from a dead tree (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC Dupaningan

kulemrain cloud (PWMP: *kulem)

kulettree bark, peel of a fruit, shell (PMP: *kulit₁) *kuliC Dupaningan

k<um>agetto bite (PMP: *k<um>aRat) *kaRaC Dupaningan

kútulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCu Dupaningan

Agta (Central Cagayan) (60 / 152)

lakad-ín-anleave someone, walk out on (from *lakad-an-an, with low vowel fronting) (PPH: *lakáj-an) *lakaj Dupaningan

lá-lakayold man; husband (PWMP: *lakay) Dupaningan

lallákiman, male (historically a plural) (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki Dupaningan

láŋawhousefly (PMP: *laŋaw) Dupaningan

láŋetsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC Dupaningan

layáginger, Zingiber officinale (PMP: *laqia) Dupaningan

legneck, throat (PAN: *liqeR) Dupaningan

lésleshold up one’s skirt or pants legs (when crossing a river) (PPH: *lesles) Eastern

límafive (PAN: *lima) Dupaningan

lollobutterfly (NOISE) Dupaningan

l<um>ákadto leave, to exit (PPH: *l<um>ákaj) *lakaj Dupaningan

lumótmoss (PMP: *lumut) Dupaningan

luwáteardrop (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq Dupaningan

luwásgo out (PWMP: *luas) Eastern

ma-digetrough, of the sea (PMP: *daRat) Dupaningan

mag-degustake a bath, bathe; play in water, swim around (PAN: *diRus) Dupaningan

mag-digito menstruate (PWMP: *maR-daRaq) *daRaq Dupaningan

mag-gisgisto brush, as teeth (PAN: *gisgis₁) Dupaningan

mag-gutgutto gnaw, bite into something, tear at something with the teeth (PMP: *gutgut₂) *gutgut Dupaningan

mag-kalito dig (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih Dupaningan

Agta (Central Cagayan) (80 / 152)

mag-kanto eat, especially rice or a meal containing rice (PPH: *maR-kaen) *kaen Dupaningan

mag-kuletto peel, skin (PMP: *kulit₁) *kuliC Dupaningan

mag-lákadto walk (PPH: *maR-lákaj) *lakaj Dupaningan

mag-laŋoyto swim (PWMP: *laŋuy) Dupaningan

mag-lesleslift or roll up clothes when crossing a body of water so that they do not get wet (PPH: *lesles) Dupaningan

mag-lututo cook, especially rice (PWMP: *lutuq) Dupaningan

mag-naŋoyto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy Dupaningan

mag-ŋalŋalto chew, gnaw (PAN: *ŋalŋal) Dupaningan

mag-ŋatŋatto chew, gnaw (PAN: *ŋeCŋeC) Dupaningan

mag-potpotharvest a vegetable that grows in the ground; pluck, uproot (PAN: *putput₂) *putput₃ Dupaningan

mag-saŋetto cry, to weep (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis Dupaningan

mag-sa-sáŋlagto fry; sizzle, hiss (PMP: *saŋelaR) Eastern

ma-katálitchy (PMP: *ma-gatel) *gaCel Dupaningan

ma-manukbird (PMP: *manu(k)-manuk) *manuk

mamitsweet (PMP: *ma-hemis) *hemis

manokbird, chicken (PMP: *manuk) Dupaningan

manukchicken (PMP: *manuk)

mapetbitter (PWMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

ma-puluten (PWMP: *ma-puluq) *puluq Dupaningan

ma-sakétsick (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit Dupaningan

Agta (Central Cagayan) (100 / 152)

matáeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa Dupaningan

ma-tídugto sleep (PMP: *ma-tiduR) *tiduR Dupaningan

meg-ke-teweto laugh (PWMP: *maR-ka-tawa) *Cawa

mə-sidugto sleep (PMP: *ma-tiduR) *tiduR

me-ʔitato see (PAN: *kita₂)

nagenitive of common nouns (PAN: *na₃)

namokmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk) Dupaningan

nataŋvegetable (PMP: *nateŋ) *NaCeŋ Dupaningan

nimarker of (singular) personal names (PAN: *ni) Dupaningan

niyógcoconut (PMP: *niuR) Dupaningan

ŋábŋabcrunching sound of chewing on something hard (PAN: *ŋabŋab) Eastern

ŋadaspalate (PWMP: *ŋadas) Eastern

ŋadasgums (PWMP: *ŋadas) Dupaningan

ŋasŋaschew through (as for a dog to chew through his leash and get away) (PMP: *ŋasŋas) Eastern

ŋátŋatchew food, betel nut, gum, etc. (PWMP: *ŋatŋat) Eastern

ŋilosensitive teeth (PAN: *ŋilu) Eastern

ŋipantooth (PAN: *ŋipen) Dupaningan

ŋítŋitfood stuck between the teeth (PAN: *ŋitŋit₁) *ŋitŋit Dupaningan

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

payet, still (PAN: *pa) Eastern

Agta (Central Cagayan) (120 / 152)

pa-kan-anto feed a person or animal (PAN: *pa-kaen-en) *kaen Dupaningan

pakófern (PWMP: *paku) *paheku Eastern

ped-peda fan (PAN: *paid) Dupaningan

pigəhow many? (PAN: *pija)

pili-anchoose (PMP: *piliq-an) *piliq Dupaningan

pílitto force, make something act against its will (PPH: *pílit) *pílit₁ Eastern

pítuseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu Dupaningan

potput-anpluck, pull out, uproot, as a hair or a vegetable in the ground (PAN: *putput₂) *putput₃ Dupaningan

puléŋdirt or other matter stuck in the eye (PWMP: *puliŋ₂) Dupaningan

púsadnavel (PMP: *pusej) Dupaningan

pusúheart (PMP: *pusuq₁) Dupaningan

putputpull out of the ground; shed (feathers or hair) (PAN: *putput₂) *putput₃ Eastern

risalouse egg (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS Dupaningan

sáklothold crossways in the arms (as to hold a sleeping child crossways in the arms) (PPH: *sak(e)lut-en) *sak(e)lút Eastern

salaŋdammar pine tree; its raw wood is waxy, as is burned as candles, Agathis philippinensis (PAN: *saleŋ) Dupaningan

saŋetcry, weep (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis Dupaningan

sʌpʌwwaterfall (PPH: *sampaw)

síkatsunrise (PPH: *sikát) Eastern

sikátpopular (< Tagalog) (PPH: *sikát) Eastern

síloloop, lasso, collar; trap made of loops for birds, pigs or deer (PPH: *siluq) Eastern

Agta (Central Cagayan) (140 / 152)

s-inathere (2p) (PMP: *i-na) *-na

sinagsunlight; weather; summer (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR Dupaningan

siyákcry, yelp (PWMP: *ciak) Eastern

sululight, any kind of device for emitting light (PMP: *suluq) Dupaningan

suŋsuŋ-anheadwaters, source of a stream or river (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₁) Dupaningan

supitnarrow (PWMP: *supit) Eastern

tallóthree (PAN: *telu) Dupaningan

ta-titusmall puppy (PMP: *titu) Dupaningan

títupuppy (PMP: *titu) Dupaningan

tudknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

tulaŋbone (PWMP: *tuqelaŋ)

yanthis (PWMP: *ian₃)

Agta (Dupaningan) (98) WMP (Robinson 2011) [duo] (Agta, Dupaninan) Philippines

appánbait for fishing (PAN: *paen)

ba-bbeywoman (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

begloincloth, traditional g-string (PWMP: *bahaR)

bitustone (PMP: *batu₁)

dad-dákalparents (PPH: *dakél)

dakálbig, large (PPH: *dakél)

daŋdáŋ-anput a pot next to the fire to keep food warm (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₂) *daŋdaŋ

di-diyaupstream (cp. di-lod ‘downstream’) (PWMP: *di-daya) *daya

digetsea, ocean (PMP: *daRat)

digiblood (PAN: *daRaq)

dilátongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dilanroad, path, trail (PMP: *zalan)

dinómwater (PMP: *danum) *daNum

dipogashes, dust (PMP: *dapuR)

ditagplain, small clearing (PAN: *dataR)

donleaf (PMP: *dahun)

d<um>igito bleed (PAN: *daRaq)

d<um>itáŋto arrive (PWMP: *d<um>ateŋ) *dateŋ

dúwatwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

gúsoksternum, center of chest below breasts (PAN: *Rusuk)

Agta (Dupaningan) (20 / 98)

i-ditáŋbring something (PWMP: *dateŋ)

i-kuyógto accompany, go with (PPH: *kuyug)

i-lákadrun away with, kidnap (PPH: *i-lákaj) *lakaj

i-nataŋcook vegetables (PMP: *nateŋ) *NaCeŋ

i-ped-pedto fan (PAN: *paid)

i-saŋlagto fry (PMP: *saŋelaR)

i-tánamto bury (PPH: *i-tanem) *CaNem

kali-dúwasoul (PMP: *duha) *duSa

kan-anfood, especially rice (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

kayúliving tree (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

kilátlightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

-kitawe, you and I; first person dual inclusive enclitic pronoun (PAN: *kita₁)

-kita-mwe, first person plural inclusive nominative enclitic pronoun (PAN: *kita₁)

kon-pseudo-verb used to indicate quoted speech (PWMP: *kua-n) *kua₁

kugitáoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kulata mushroom that grows from a dead tree (PMP: *kulat₂) *kulaC

kulettree bark, peel of a fruit, shell (PMP: *kulit₁) *kuliC

k<um>agetto bite (PMP: *k<um>aRat) *kaRaC

kútulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCu

lakad-ín-anleave someone, walk out on (from *lakad-an-an, with low vowel fronting) (PPH: *lakáj-an) *lakaj

Agta (Dupaningan) (40 / 98)

lá-lakayold man; husband (PWMP: *lakay)

lallákiman, male (historically a plural) (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

láŋawhousefly (PMP: *laŋaw)

láŋetsky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

layáginger, Zingiber officinale (PMP: *laqia)

legneck, throat (PAN: *liqeR)

límafive (PAN: *lima)

lollobutterfly (NOISE)

l<um>ákadto leave, to exit (PPH: *l<um>ákaj) *lakaj

lumótmoss (PMP: *lumut)

luwáteardrop (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

ma-digetrough, of the sea (PMP: *daRat)

mag-degustake a bath, bathe; play in water, swim around (PAN: *diRus)

mag-digito menstruate (PWMP: *maR-daRaq) *daRaq

mag-gisgisto brush, as teeth (PAN: *gisgis₁)

mag-gutgutto gnaw, bite into something, tear at something with the teeth (PMP: *gutgut₂) *gutgut

mag-kalito dig (PMP: *kali₂) *kalih

mag-kanto eat, especially rice or a meal containing rice (PPH: *maR-kaen) *kaen

mag-kuletto peel, skin (PMP: *kulit₁) *kuliC

mag-lákadto walk (PPH: *maR-lákaj) *lakaj

Agta (Dupaningan) (60 / 98)

mag-laŋoyto swim (PWMP: *laŋuy)

mag-lesleslift or roll up clothes when crossing a body of water so that they do not get wet (PPH: *lesles)

mag-lututo cook, especially rice (PWMP: *lutuq)

mag-naŋoyto swim (PMP: *naŋuy) *Naŋuy

mag-ŋalŋalto chew, gnaw (PAN: *ŋalŋal)

mag-ŋatŋatto chew, gnaw (PAN: *ŋeCŋeC)

mag-potpotharvest a vegetable that grows in the ground; pluck, uproot (PAN: *putput₂) *putput₃

mag-saŋetto cry, to weep (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

ma-katálitchy (PMP: *ma-gatel) *gaCel

manokbird, chicken (PMP: *manuk)

ma-puluten (PWMP: *ma-puluq) *puluq

ma-sakétsick (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

matáeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-tídugto sleep (PMP: *ma-tiduR) *tiduR

namokmosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

nataŋvegetable (PMP: *nateŋ) *NaCeŋ

nimarker of (singular) personal names (PAN: *ni)

niyógcoconut (PMP: *niuR)

ŋadasgums (PWMP: *ŋadas)

ŋipantooth (PAN: *ŋipen)

Agta (Dupaningan) (80 / 98)

ŋítŋitfood stuck between the teeth (PAN: *ŋitŋit₁) *ŋitŋit

pa-kan-anto feed a person or animal (PAN: *pa-kaen-en) *kaen

ped-peda fan (PAN: *paid)

pili-anchoose (PMP: *piliq-an) *piliq

pítuseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

potput-anpluck, pull out, uproot, as a hair or a vegetable in the ground (PAN: *putput₂) *putput₃

puléŋdirt or other matter stuck in the eye (PWMP: *puliŋ₂)

púsadnavel (PMP: *pusej)

pusúheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

risalouse egg (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

salaŋdammar pine tree; its raw wood is waxy, as is burned as candles, Agathis philippinensis (PAN: *saleŋ)

saŋetcry, weep (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

sinagsunlight; weather; summer (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sululight, any kind of device for emitting light (PMP: *suluq)

suŋsuŋ-anheadwaters, source of a stream or river (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₁)

tallóthree (PAN: *telu)

ta-titusmall puppy (PMP: *titu)

títupuppy (PMP: *titu)

Agta (Eastern) (27) WMP (Nickell and Nickell 1987) [duo] (Agta, Dupaninan) Philippines

amótto clamp one’s hand over one’s own or someone else’s mouth to prevent talking or breathing; hold one’s nostrils so no air enters (PMP: *hemut) *Semut

amot-ánto pinch one’s nostrils so water doesn’t enter (PMP: *hemut) *Semut

bátaŋkind of very hard, rather large bracket fungus, in the shape of an ear. It grows on trees and is not edible. (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bitáŋlog (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

bitáŋanimal trap (PPH: *batéŋ)

biyawin-law (PWMP: *bayaw)

dapánsole of the foot (PMP: *dapan) *dapaN

gutgutto bite and tear with the teeth (PMP: *gutgut₂) *gutgut

katálto scratch (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

lésleshold up one’s skirt or pants legs (when crossing a river) (PPH: *lesles)

luwásgo out (PWMP: *luas)

mag-sa-sáŋlagto fry; sizzle, hiss (PMP: *saŋelaR)

ŋábŋabcrunching sound of chewing on something hard (PAN: *ŋabŋab)

ŋadaspalate (PWMP: *ŋadas)

ŋasŋaschew through (as for a dog to chew through his leash and get away) (PMP: *ŋasŋas)

ŋátŋatchew food, betel nut, gum, etc. (PWMP: *ŋatŋat)

ŋilosensitive teeth (PAN: *ŋilu)

payet, still (PAN: *pa)

pakófern (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

pílitto force, make something act against its will (PPH: *pílit) *pílit₁

Agta (Eastern) (20 / 27)

putputpull out of the ground; shed (feathers or hair) (PAN: *putput₂) *putput₃

sáklothold crossways in the arms (as to hold a sleeping child crossways in the arms) (PPH: *sak(e)lut-en) *sak(e)lút

síkatsunrise (PPH: *sikát)

sikátpopular (< Tagalog) (PPH: *sikát)

síloloop, lasso, collar; trap made of loops for birds, pigs or deer (PPH: *siluq)

siyákcry, yelp (PWMP: *ciak)

supitnarrow (PWMP: *supit)

7. Agutaynen (270) WMP (Hendrickson et al. n.d.) [agn] Philippines

ag-ka-pilay-enfor one’s leg, foot, arm to be asleep, feel numb or paralyzed (PPH: *pílay)

ag-mata-mata-ento see something or visualize something in your mind, such as the face of a dead person (PPH: *mata-en) *maCa

ag-pa-ŋan-ento be eaten (PWMP: *pa-ŋaen) *kaen

alawidfar, a great distance (PWMP: *alawid)

bakaŋbowlegged; for one’s walk or stance to be slightly bowlegged (PAN: *bakaŋ)

bakokoa small land turtle (PPH: *baququ)

baŋkorothe “noni” fruit. It turns black when ripe. Some people boil it and then use the water for medicinal purposes. (PWMP: *baŋkudu)

baŋlófragrant smell of something; nice, good smell (PPH: *baŋ(e)lu)

bataŋdriftwood (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

da-dala-ŋ-dala-ŋteenager: more often used about girls (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

dalamistraw, dried rice stalk (PWMP: *zaRami)

dalanroad, street; fig., the way, methodology, standards one follows in one’s work, life, beliefs; the way by which something is achieved, accomplished (PMP: *zalan)

dala-ŋpuberty, male and female (PMP: *daRa₂)

daonleaf of a plant or tree (PMP: *dahun)

dapitto accompany a procession to, from church for a funeral, wedding, baptism, etc. (PWMP: *dapit)

dapogleaves burned in slash and burn farming (PMP: *dapuR)

dapog-anto burn dried leaves (PWMP: *dapuR-an) *dapuR

dawamillet, a small grain used for porridge, or chicken feed (PAN: *zawa₂)

depaa unit of measure the distance of outstretched arms (PMP: *depa)

depa-ento measure with outstretched arms (PWMP: *depa-en) *depa

Agutaynen (20 / 270)

dilaktongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

dolibone (PMP: *duRi₂) *duRi

domaother, other people (PAN: *duma)

do-roatwo (PMP: *da-duha) *duSa

doyanhammock; swinging cradle for a baby (can be made from a basket, blanket, net, etc.) (PPH: *dúyan)

doyoŋwhale (PMP: *duyuŋ₂)

gosokrib (PAN: *Rusuk)

ipa-takoto make known (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

i-pa-tandigto lean one thing against another (as a ladder against a house) (PMP: *sandiR)

ipa-tepeŋto elevate oneself to the same position or status as another; to make, consider oneself equal to another (PPH: *tepeŋ₂)

i-sabitto hang something up on a nail; to attach something to something; to pin something on something, as a ribbon or leaf on a shirt; to be involved in something, be a part of (PPH: *i-saqebít) *saqebit

i-salinto transfer, move something, as a cake from one plate to another (PWMP: *salin)

i-saysayto explain; narration (PPH: *sáysay)

i-tabed-tabedto wrap a rope around something; to tie something up (PWMP: *tambej)

i-talokto hide or put something away; to conceal something; to keep or save something for future use; to store something away (PMP: *taRuq)

i-tambelto patch a hole in clothing or fabric, using a patch or scrap of material (PWMP: *tambel)

i-taʔpawto put, place something on top of something else (PPH: *i-taq(e)paw) *taq(e)paw

i-teretto squash something by pinching between one’s thumbnails, for example small insects, hair lice, a pimple, dandruff, etc. (PWMP: *tedes)

kabana wooden box or trunk used like a bag or suitcase (these boxes were used in the past and are rarely used today) (PWMP: *kaban₂)

kabana measurement for rice, holds approximately one “pasong” or 25 “ganta” of rice, which is equivalent to 62.5 kilos (LOAN)

Agutaynen (40 / 270)

kakaolder sister (PMP: *kaka) *kaka₂

kalimahand (PAN: *qa-lima) *lima

kalimahand (PAN: *qalima)

kapitclothespins (PMP: *qapit) *qapiC

kapit-enput a clothespin on something (PMP: *qapit) *qapiC

kapoy-onto be overcome, as by sleep or tiredness; become out of breath when doing something (PPH: *kápuy)

ka-soayenemy (PPH: *suay)

ka-talon-anforest, woods, jungle (PPH: *ka-talun-an) *CaluN

kawaywave the hand back and forth (PMP: *kaway₁)

kilaw-anto squint because of looking at something very bright or glaring (PWMP: *kilaw₂)

kiwshark (PAN: *qiSu)

kokofingernail, toenail (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

labinight (PMP: *Rabiqiₐ) *Rabiqi

lamotroot, as of a plant; a magic love charm, directed at a person by another in order to cause him/her to be attracted to her/him (PMP: *Ramut)

lamot-onto put a love charm on somebody (PMP: *Ramut)

láŋkajackfruit (LOAN)

lemektender, soft, as of meat, beans that are boiled; soft, as of a mattress, rotten fish, etc.; loose, as of a cough (PWMP: *lemeq)

lemektender, soft, as of meat, beans that are boiled; soft, as of a mattress, rotten fish, etc. (PWMP: *ma-lemek) *lemeq

likelneck (PAN: *liqeR)

likoto turn a certain direction; to turn away; to be crooked (PWMP: *liku₂)

Agutaynen (60 / 270)

limat-anto bail out water (PPH: *limas-an) *limas

limat-ento bail out water; water inside a boat (PWMP: *limas-en) *limas

loktears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

loktears (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

lok-anto produce tears; to tear, water (of the eyes) (PPH: *luheq-an) *luSeq

lolonto roll up a mat (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

lolon-onto roll up a mat (PWMP: *lulun-en) *luluN

lomotmoss (PMP: *lumut)

lomot-onfor something to be covered with moss (PWMP: *lumut-en) *lumut

ma-baŋlofragrant, nice smelling; to smell good (PPH: *ma-baŋlu) *baŋ(e)lu

ma-boat taŋ dilaktalkative (derogatory; lit. ‘long tongue’) (PMP: *dilaq₁)

ma-deketto be crowded or squeezed together (PPH: *ma-deket) *dekeC

ma-dolichoke on a bone or have one stuck in one’s throat (PWMP: *ma-duRi) *duRi

mag-bakaŋto become bowlegged (PAN: *bakaŋ)

mag-dapogto burn dried leaves (PMP: *dapuR)

mag-depato measure with outstretched arms (PPH: *maR-depa) *depa

mag-kalog-kalogto shake something (PPH: *kalug)

mag-kiʔkibto eat or gnaw on something large while holding with the hands; to tear something apart with the teeth (PPH: *kibkíb)

mag-limatto bail out water, such as when cleaning out a well, or from the bottom of a boat (PMP: *limas)

mag-lotokto cook something (PWMP: *lutuq)

Agutaynen (80 / 270)

mag-níwaŋbecome thin, lose weight (as a domestic pig) (PMP: *niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

mag-pa-sineŋto stare intently; carefully; to scrutinize (PWMP: *sineŋ)

mag-pa-sirapto glance at somebody; to look at, view something from a distance (PPH: *sirap)

mag-pa-takonwithin a year; for one year (PMP: *taqun)

mag-potolto cut something off (PMP: *putul) *putun

mag-sabitto hang something up on a nail; to pin something on, as a ribbon or leaf on a shirt (PWMP: *sabit)

mag-saboagto spread, as of news or gossip, to scatter news or have it come out suddenly (PPH: *sabuag)

mag-salinto pour a liquid into another container; to transfer something to another container or plate (PWMP: *salin)

mag-santikto hit or clink two things together, as stones, or even heads; to strike a match using a matchbox (PPH: *santik)

mag-silotto punish (LOAN)

mag-soay-anto fight each other; quarrel (PPH: *suay)

mag-solsolto stir up; prod somebody to do something; to convince; to incite; make people discontented with the way things are (LOAN)

mag-sontokto box, to hit with the fist (PPH: *suntúk)

mag-soplakto oppose; to contradict, go against (NEAR)

mag-soʔsokto insert something inside a space; to plug into a socket (PAN: *suksuk)

mag-tabanto carry away wrongfully or forcefully; snatch or grab by the mouth, as an animal stealing food (PWMP: *maR-taban) *tabaN

mag-taban-anto elope (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

mag-tabatto cut something, as material (PWMP: *tabas₂)

mag-taki-takito have diarrhea (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

mag-talokto hide something somewhere; to keep or reserve something for future use (PWMP: *maR-taRuq) *taRuq

Agutaynen (100 / 270)

mag-tambakto pile or stack things up; to cover or fill in a depression in the ground; to fill in a large hole (PMP: *tambak₂)

mag-tampelto cover up a hole in something; plug something so that the contents will not spill out; put a patch on something (as a patch of oregano on the head to cure headache) (PMP: *tapel) *Capel

mag-taŋato branch into two or three parts, or directions, such as a road (PMP: *saŋa₁)

mag-taŋkebfor something to shut, close tightly, close all the way (PWMP: *ta(ŋ)keb) *ta(ŋ)keb₁

mag-tapalto apply something to a surface, as leaves to a wound or sore area (PWMP: *tapal)

mag-tapokto shake, knock the dust off something (PPH: *tapuk₂)

mag-tastasto rip out the seams of a garment; to undo stitching (PWMP: *tastas)

mag-tawadto bargain; to give a discount, lower the price of something (PWMP: *tawaD)

mag-tebekto stick a needle, pin into something; to thread a needle (PAN: *tebek)

mag-tekelto grab tightly around the neck; to choke or strangle a person or animal; to accidentally be strangled (PMP: *cekel)

mag-toaŋfor two people to carry something, such as a stretcher, between them; for two people to carry a heavy item, like a bucket of water or a pig, hung in the middle of a long bamboo pole (PPH: *tuaŋ₂)

mag-tokato vomit (PPH: *suka₂)

mag-tokodto start building a house; to put in the first posts for a house, or to lay the foundation (PAN: *tukud)

mag-tokonto carry something on the head or shoulders (PAN: *suquN)

mag-tokonto carry something on the head or shoulders (PPH: *tuqun₁)

mag-toldokto point something out to someone; to show someone the location of something; to teach (PPh: *tulduq)

mag-toldokto point to or at something (LOAN)

mag-tompokto pile something up in a heap (PWMP: *tumpuk)

makaŋstand with the legs spread apart (as someone blocking a doorway) (PAN: *bakaŋ)

ma-kilawglaring, as of a bright light (PWMP: *kilaw₂)

Agutaynen (120 / 270)

ma-labi-anto be overcome by the night; to be benighted (PPH: *ma-Rabi-an) *Rabiqi

ma-lakarare, seldom; to be spaced or thinned out (PWMP: *ma-laka) *la(ŋ)ka

ma-lomotmossy (PMP: *lumut)

ma-lotokcooked; ripe, as of fruit, vegetables (PWMP: *ma-lutuq) *lutuq

mamagrandfather (PMP: *mama) *mamah

mamag-tayawto dance, perform a folk dance (PPH: *tayaw)

ma-milikto choose something (PWMP: *ma-miliq) *piliq

ma-nabanto elope (PWMP: *ma-naban) *tabaN

ma-nalokto hide from (PWMP: *ma-naRuq) *taRuq

ma-nalokfor a person to hide from others (PMP: *taRuq)

ma-nambelto patch a hole in clothing or fabric, using a patch or scrap of material (PWMP: *ma-nambel) *tambel

ma-nebekto catch sea worms, octopuses, etc. by sticking a sharp stick into their holes to pierce them (PAN: *tebek)

ma-nipitthin (as cloth) (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

ma-níwaŋthin, skinny (PMP: *ma-niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

maN-lolonto pack up; get ready to leave (PMP: *lulun) *luluN

ma-nobato catch fish using the sap from the root of the toba tree (PWMP: *ma-nuba) *tuba

ma-nolōkfor a rooster to crow (PPH: *tuRauk)

man-takito defecate (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

man-tampokto clap one’s hands (as in applause) (PMP: *tampuk₁)

maŋ-ŋanito definitely, really do something (PPH: *ŋani)

Agutaynen (140 / 270)

ma-pakitbitter (PWMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

ma-pilikchoosy, picky (PMP: *ma-piliq) *piliq

ma-pitoto make something seven (PWMP: *ma-pitu) *pitu

ma-potolto cut off (PMP: *putul) *putun

ma-sebsebto fall on one’s face (PPH: *sebseb)

ma-silawglaring, as of a bright light, or light being reflected off something (PWMP: *ma-silaw) *silaw

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-tabed-tabedto become wrapped around something; to become tangled up in something (PWMP: *tambej)

ma-tamadlazy; unmotivated; bored (PPH: *tamád)

ma-tanek-ena person who owns a lot of land (PMP: *taneq)

ma-tanek-tanekdiscolored, with a reddish color, particularly of white clothes that are still dirty even after being washed (PMP: *taneq)

ma-tebatfor rice, grain to be completely harvested (PWMP: *tebas₁)

ma-tenekfish with sharp dorsal fins; something that is covered with thorns or spikes; for a part of the body to be pierced by a thorn, or jabbed or stuck by the sharp dorsal fin of a fish (PPH: *ma-tenek) *tenek₂

ma-toltokfor an eye to be pierced with a sharp instrument or a stick (PPH: *tuRsúk)

ma-tonay-anto be pierced, stuck by a thorn, etc., with a piece left deep in the flesh (PPH: *tunay₁)

ma-topadto fulfill a promise or agreement; for something to come true or be realized; to achieve one’s goal; for a prophecy to be fulfilled (PPH: *tupáj)

namomosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

nanakpus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

nan-takonlast year (PMP: *taqun)

nipitthin (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

Agutaynen (160 / 270)

niwaŋthinness (PMP: *niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

ŋaniindeed; really; very (PPH: *ŋani)

oŋ talokin secret; secretly; in private (PMP: *taRuq)

payet; still; additionally; what’s more; moreover (PAN: *pa)

pag-tepeŋ-ento put two things or people next to each other to see if they are level or the same height (PPH: *tepeŋ₂)

pakathigh; leg (PAN: *paqa₁)

pa-laka-ento become thinned out; to be spaced out, as to plant seed with spaces between (PWMP: *la(ŋ)ka)

pala-ma-ŋan-andining room (PWMP: *ma-ŋaen) *kaen

pa-nipit-ento make something thin (as cloth when weaving) (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

panoldokindex or forefinger (PPh: *tulduq)

pa-tako-onto make known (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

pa-taʔpawto go up to the surface (PPH: *taq(e)paw)

pilayfor a person to be paralyzed, crippled in the legs, due to a stroke or accident (PPH: *pílay)

pilikchoose something (PAN: *piliq)

pilik-anchoosy, picky (PMP: *piliq-an) *piliq

pilik-ento choose something (PWMP: *piliq-en) *piliq

pitoseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pito-m-polokseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pito-onto make something seven (PWMP: *pitu-en) *pitu

piyakbaby chicken (PMP: *piak)

Agutaynen (180 / 270)

ponsibanana (PAN: *punti₁)

potol-onto cut something off (as bamboo that has grown too long) (PMP: *putul) *putun

sakaŋcrotch (PMP: *sakaŋ)

santik-anto hit or clink two things together, as stones, or even heads; to strike a match using a matchbox (PPH: *santik-an) *santik

sawalisplit woven bamboo walling material (LOAN)

seŋet-seŋetfor a wound or tooth to throb with sharp, on and off pain (often occurs with the production of pus) (PPH: *seŋet-seŋet)

sibokawa type of tree with red wood; it can be used for medicinal purposes, and is also used for tool handles (PPH: *sibukaw)

sikaŋ-kaŋto be in the position of having one’s legs spread apart (as when slipping on a waxed floor) (PWMP: *sikaŋ)

sikepto catch, trap fish in a kalat trap made of rattan (PMP: *sikep₂)

s<in>abatthat which was cut, leftover material or scraps (PWMP: *tabas₂)

solibreach birth, delivery; impossible (going against reality) (PAN: *suli₂)

s<om>iŋarato look up above (PWMP: *tiŋadaq)

s<om>ogodto continue on going; to go directly somewhere or to somebody, with no delay; to rush to confront or challenge somebody about a disagreement (PPH: *sugud)

s<om>ogodto continue on going; to go directly somewhere or to somebody, with no delay; to rush to confront or challenge somebody about a disagreement (PPH: *s<um>ugud) *sugud

sompoŋto be moody; to have, be in a bad mood; to act according to one’s mood, feelings (LOAN)

sompoŋ-onmoody (person); be overcome bysomething; have an attack of some kind (high blood pressure, stroke, heart attack); become temporarily crazy, insane; be overcome by one’s power to become a witch, causing one to do strange things (LOAN)

sosoa kind of banana, small to medium size (PMP: *susu) *susu₂

taour; us; we (PAN: *-ta)

tabakotobacco (LOAN)

taban-ento carry away wrongfully or forcefully; snatch or grab by the mouth, as an animal stealing food (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

Agutaynen (200 / 270)

tabat-ento cut something, as material (PWMP: *tabas₂)

takifeces, manure (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

takoto know a fact; to know how to do something; to learn something (PMP: *taqu₂) *Caqu

takonyear (PMP: *taqun)

takon-anyears gone by (PMP: *taqun)

takon-takonyearly (PMP: *taqun)

talinoma type of vegetable with edible leaves (it is the top, tender leaves which are cooked and eaten) (PPH: *talínum)

talonforest, woods, jungle (some people believe that evil spirits and elves live in places like this) (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

tamacorrect, right; accurate; appropriate; proper (PAN: *tama₁)

tamad-anfor a person to feel lazy, tired; to be disinterested in, bored or tired of doing something (PPH: *tamad-an) *tamád

tambak-ento pile up; to fill in, such as a hole (PMP: *tambak₂)

tamiloka type of large, edible worm; they burrow into driftwood or boat hulls to lay their eggs; the young worms, which are white and elongated and look similar to an umbilical cord, are considered a delicacy (PWMP: *tamiluk)

tamilok-onfor the hull of a boat to become full of holes made by these worms burrowing in to lay their eggs (PWMP: *tamiluk)

tamiŋshield used by soldiers for protection (PMP: *tamiŋ)

tamohere (close to the speaker) (PMP: *tani₂)

tananall; every; the total amount or number of something (PPH: *tanan)

tandig-anback of a chair (PMP: *sandiR)

tanekground, land; earth, soil, dirt; land owned by somebody (PMP: *taneq)

taniŋa certain amount of time left to live; for one’s life to be limited, have a limit or end point (LOAN)

tanodlocal security guards or watchmen (they help the police keep peace and order by patroling the barangay at night and investigating disturbances) (PPH: *tánud)

Agutaynen (220 / 270)

taŋabranch of a tree (PMP: *saŋa₁)

taŋkalpigpen or chicken coop made of bamboo (PPH: *taŋkal)

tapik-ento tap or slap somebody lightly on the back or other part of the upper body (excluding the face); if a person slaps you lightly on the shoulder, it could mean that they are poisoning you or putting a curse on you; in order to reverse or stop the poison or curse the recipient must return the slap (PMP: *tapik)

tapos-onto finish or complete work, a project, a speech, etc,; to finalize something, to finish school, graduate from school (PAN: *tapus)

t<ar>abako-ancontainer used to hold tobacco (LOAN)

ta-tandak-tandakstamping the feet, as a child who is angry about being told to do something (PWMP: *tanzak)

tawaddiscount (PWMP: *tawaD)

tawasalum (LOAN)

tawtawpupil of the eye (PMP: *tau tau) *Cau

tayawfolk dance (PPH: *tayaw)

taʔnaya small handful of something (as of rice porridge) (PPH: *taq(e)nay)

taʔpawthe surface or top of something; on top of something (PPH: *taq(e)paw)

taʔpaw-anto put, place something on top of something else (PPH: *taq(e)paw-an) *taq(e)paw

tebhigh tide (PWMP: *taeb)

tebelto be constipated (PPH: *tebel₁)

tebel-anto be constipated (PPH: *tebel₁)

telegcurrent (PWMP: *seleg)

t<el><el>epeŋsame height (PPH: *tepeŋ₂)

tenekthorn; the sharp dorsal fin of a fish (PPH: *tenek₂)

tilemvery dark-skinned (not a polite word to use) (PWMP: *tilem₁)

Agutaynen (240 / 270)

tinahair dye (LOAN)

t<in>abanbe snatched or carried away wrongfully (as a fish by a hungry cat) (PWMP: *t<in>aban) *tabaN

tintiŋ-ento ring a bell, such as the church bell; to make a ringing sound, usually by hitting metal against metal (PMP: *tiŋtiŋ)

tiŋeldeaf, hard of hearing (PPH: *tiŋeR)

titinipple; breast; udder (PMP: *titi)

titinipple; breast; udder (LOAN)

tiʔgaymaggots (LOAN)

tobaa kind of tree whose root can be used to blind or poison fish around rocks in shallow water and cause them to come to the surface (PAN: *tuba)

togtogthe sound of something being played, such as an instrument, music, radio, etc. (PWMP: *tugtug)

toldokfinger (PPh: *tulduq)

toldokfinger (LOAN)

toloktorch (made of a bottle filled with kerosene and with a rag for a wick, or a coconut palm frond or piece of bamboo with fire on the end; rarely used anymore) (PMP: *suluq)

tolōkcrow of a rooster (PPH: *tuRauk)

t<om>akasto escape from prison (PMP: *taŋkas)

t<om>akonnext year (PMP: *taqun)

t<om>ampekfor waves to hit and spray up over, or into, a boat (PMP: *tampek)

t<om>andakto stamp one’s foot; to stamp or stomp on something (PWMP: *tanzak)

t<om>andigto lean, recline against something (PMP: *sandiR)

t<om>okokfor a person to duck or bow their head; to look down at the ground; to bend over slightly from the waist; for mature fruit to bend over on the vine or branch (PWMP: *tukuk)

t<om>omawfor worms, termites, insects, etc. to seem to appear out of nowhere, in large numbers (PPH: *tuq(e)maw)

Agutaynen (260 / 270)

t<om>ompokfor things to pile up, such as clothes to wash, work to do (PWMP: *tumpuk)

t<om>onogfor a radio to be playing, a bell to be ringing, etc. (PWMP: *teneR)

tompolfor the sharp point of something to become dull, worn down, or broken off, e.g. a pencil, stick pin, bamboo fencing (PMP: *tumpul)

tonayreal, not fake; authentic; genuine (PWMP: *tunay₂)

tonogthe sound of a radio, musical instrument, engine, a person’s whistle, etc. (PWMP: *teneR)

toŋkodsupport post; cane; staff (PAN: *tukud)

toŋkod-onto brace something up (PAN: *tukud)

toroŋhead covering, such as a piece of cloth wrapped around the head, or a hat with a brim (PMP: *tuduŋ)

totoyeuphemism for the penis of a small boy (PPH: *tutuy)

8. Ahus (17) OC (Blust n.d. (1975)) [anx] (Andra-Hus) Papua New Guinea

a-heŋto feed (POC: *paŋan) *kaen

aŋo-anyellow (POC: *aŋo)

a-teŋto weep, cry (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

buhbanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

ciltopstick of the sail (POC: *jila)

cu-cuhirsmall cockatoo (POC: *supiri)

-k1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

kaurbamboo (POC: *kauru)

kiecoutrigger boom (POC: *kiajo)

laŋa-nhis/her name (POC: *ŋacan) *ŋajan

mihi-mihdream (PCEMP: *mipi) *Sipi

nhahconch shell trumpet (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

nhalslitgong (POC: *drali)

se-ŋ-ohten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

tolawnorth wind; north (POC: *tokalaur)

we-lawspiderweb (PMP: *lawaq₂)

yahfire (POC: *api₂) *Sapuy

9. Aklanon (1332) WMP (Zorc 1969) [akl] (Inakeanon) Philippines

aexclamation of discovery; "ah" (with high intonation) (PMP: *a₃)

-asuffix attached to verbs of object focus #1 (with infix -in- or suffix -on) to express a command (PAN: *-a₁)

abága(h)shoulder(s); take responsibility, to shoulder, take on (PMP: *qabaRa) *qabaRa₁

abá(h)to get, climb up on one's back (PPh: *aba₂)

abá(h)an exclamation expressing strong disbelief: Really? Ah, go on! (PWMP: *abá)

abaká(h)abaca fibres, Manila hemp: Musa textilis (PPh: *abaká)

ábaŋobstruct, block, hinder; waylay, ambush (PMP: *abaŋ₁)

ábaysponsor (at wedding or baptism) (PWMP: *abay)

abó(h)ash(es); to make ashes (PMP: *qabu₂) *qabu

abótarrive, get to one's destination, go as far as; catch up (with/to); overcome by, overwhelmed (PPh: *qabut)

ábota late-comer to dinner (or any meal) (NOISE)

abuh-óngray, ashen color(ed) (PWMP: *qabu-en) *qabu

ádlawday; sun (PMP: *qalejaw)

ádlaw-ádlawdaily, every day (PMP: *qalejaw-qalejaw) *qalejaw

ae-agaw-ánmake a scramble for (in order to take or get) (PAN: *qaRaw)

áeakto distil (any alcohol or alcoholic beverage) (LOAN)

áeakto distill (any alcohol or alcoholic beverage) (LOAN)

ae-ayag-ánscreen (for sifting) (PWMP: *qayag)

ágawgrab, take, seize, snatch, get (without being one's due) (PAN: *qaRaw)

ágda(h)invite, remind someone of an invitation (NEAR)

Aklanon (20 / 1332)

akó1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

ákopgreedy, selfish (PWMP: *aŋkup₁) *aŋkup

alímato use one’s hands on (PAN: *qa-lima) *lima

alíma(h)hand (PAN: *qa-lima) *lima

alim-pu-púdw-an (< R)crown of head (where hair whorls) (PAN: *qali-puju-an) *qali-puju

ali-pudw-anhair whorl (PAN: *qali-puju-an) *qali-puju

alitáptapglowworm, found on rocks at high tide (PMP: *qali-petpet)

ali-táptapglowworm, founds on rocks at high tide (PMP: *teptep)

áma-ámastepfather (PWMP: *ama ama) *ama

amá(h)father (PAN: *ama)

amák-anmat of woven bamboo (PWMP: *amak)

ámbonfog, mist, haze (PWMP: *ambun)

amíhannortheast wind (PMP: *qamihan) *qamiS

amihán-annorth(erly) (PPh: *qamihan-an) *qamiS

ámpawpopped rice candy (PMP: *ampaw)

-ancommon suffix denoting a place or a referent. Used with (1) verbs: ginbáke-an sánda it dúlsi 'candy was bought for them', (2) nouns: simbáh-an 'church' (from símba(h) 'worship'), tindáh-an 'market' (from tínda(h) 'goods for sale'), (3) adjectives: baʔbá-an 'talkative' (from báʔbaʔ 'mouth') (PAN: *-an)

anáhawfan palm: Livistona rotundifolia (PWMP: *qanahaw)

anákgodchild; become a godparent, be a godparent (PMP: *anak) *aNak

ánaytermite (general term) (PAN: *aNay)

ánito harvest, gather a crop (PMP: *qanih) *qaniS

Aklanon (40 / 1332)

aníh-anthe harvest (PWMP: *qanih-an) *qaniS

anílawsmall tree: Grewia eriocarpa (PMP: *qanilaw)

anino(h)shadow, reflection; image; silhouette (PMP: *qaninu) *qaNiŋu

anítosbenevolent lesser spirits who go around counteracting the evil done by devils or evil spirits (the pagan version of a "saint") (PMP: *qanitu) *qaNiCu

ánodfollow the current, drift (PAN: *qañud)

a-nó(h)what?; do what? (particle that can be used as any part of speech) (PMP: *a-nu) *-nu

antábaywait for (PPh: *antábay)

antabáy-anwait for one another (PPh: *antábay)

ántadgap, distance, space (PWMP: *antad)

ántiŋkeen, good, sharp (of hearing) (PPh: *ántiŋ)

ántiŋ-ántiŋamulet, charm (supposedly possessing a secret power allowing a person to avoid injury); power of invulnerability (LOAN)

ánwaŋcarabao, water buffalo (PMP: *qanuaŋ) *qaNuaŋ

áŋhitsmelly, having strong body odor (or an odor like the body odor; said of butter and some animals) (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

áŋkatget on credit (PWMP: *aŋkat)

áŋkitto bite, nip (PMP: *a(ŋ)kit)

áŋkobseal, filling, joiner, gap-filler (PWMP: *aŋkeb)

áŋsodunderarm odor (PWMP: *aŋ(e)cej)

áŋsodunderarm odor (PWMP: *qaŋesej)

áŋso(h)having the smell of urine (PPh: *qaŋesu)

áŋtodsmelling overcooked (said of food, esp. rice) (PPh: *qaŋetej)

Aklanon (60 / 1332)

apánlocust (NOISE)

apasfollow after, go a little later (NOISE)

ápdoʔbile; bile duct (and/or) gall bladder (PWMP: *qapejuq)

ápeodhaving the flavor of raw or unripe bananas (PMP: *apeled)

apídjoin, attach, enclose (PAN: *qapid)

ápogpowdered lime (used in chewing betel nuts); to put lime (into) (PAN: *qapuR)

apog-ánlime box, case used for storing lime powder (PWMP: *qapuR-an) *qapuR

apó(h)grandchild (PMP: *ampu) *apu

á-pʔatfour (PMP: *a-epat) *Sepat

asáwaspouse: husband, wife; married (said of a woman) (PAN: *qasawa)

ásiksplash, spatter (Also Hiligaynon ágsik 'fly off, scatter, spray') (ROOT)

asínsalt; to salt, put salt into (PAN: *qasiN)

asin-isalt it! (imperative) (PWMP: *qasin-i) *qasiN

áslommake sour (PWMP: *qalesem)

ásoglesbian; any woman who acts outside of the female role; tomboy (PWMP: *asug)

asó(h)smoke, fumes (visible); to give off smoke, to smoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

áswaŋvampire, evil creature (preying on people, sucking liver bile and leaving them weak or with some strange afflictions) (LOAN)

átaboverflow slightly, flood over a little bit (PPh: *atáb)

atá(h)Oh, my goodness (expression of surprise) (PPh: *ata₂)

atáŋa room divider (PWMP: *ataŋ₁)

Aklanon (80 / 1332)

atáŋput up, hoist (PWMP: *ataŋ₂)

átasevaporate (PMP: *asat)

atáyliver (of animals or people) (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

átaʔfluid, potion, liquids, semen (NOISE)

atímoncanteloupe: Cucumis melo L. (PMP: *qatimun)

átiplarge board or piece of wood used as a brace or support, particularly when grinding (PMP: *qatip₃) *qatip₁

atipúyoŋfeel faint, be dizzy (PAN: *qaCi-)

átisa fruit, the sugar apple: Anona squamosa Linn. (LOAN)

átissugar apple: Annona squamosa L. (LOAN)

atóproof (PMP: *qatep)

atsi(h)sneeze (NOISE)

atúbaŋface (up to), confront, stand/appear in front of; front (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

atubáŋ-anfront, in front of (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

atubaŋ-ángenitals (PPh: *atúbaŋ)

ayinterjection: my! oh! what? (shock, surprise) (PAN: *ai₂)

ayágto screen, sift (PWMP: *qayag)

áyamdog; chase with a dog, sic a dog on (PWMP: *qayam₂)

ayátto challenge (to a fight) (PWMP: *ayat)

ayáwabandon, leave behind (PPh: *ayaw₁)

ayód-ayódmove the waist up and down, back and forth (as in the act of intercourse) (PWMP: *ayud)

Aklanon (100 / 1332)

ayonbe in favor of, support, agree with (LOAN)

bæágonvine (generic) (NOISE)

bæaŋkaʔtake apart, dismantle (ROOT)

bábadsoak (PPh: *bábad)

ba-báyiwoman; female (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

bádbadunravel, take apart (as threads in a garment); to fray, get unravelled (PWMP: *bajbaj)

bádlitlines or marks in the palm (ROOT)

baeábagblocking, obstructing, put across, stretching over; thwart, hindrance, obstruction (PPh: *bala(R)baR)

baeágonvine (generic term) (PWMP: *balaRen)

b<ae>ahóg-anfeeding trough for pigs (PWMP: *bahuR)

baeánakfish sp. (PWMP: *balanak)

baeanáwpuddle (of water) (ROOT)

baeáŋaloss of attention, distraction (PWMP: *balaŋa(q))

baeássand (PMP: *badas)

baeas-ónsandy, having sand (in) (PMP: *badas)

baeátedible green or black eel found at seashore (PPh: *balát)

baeátikbooby trap, improvised trap, (to catch by surprise) (PWMP: *bala(n)tik)

baeáyi(h)the relationship of the parents of each wedded couple; co-parents-in-law (PPh: *balaqih)

báebaeto whip, beat (PAN: *balbal₁)

báeosrevenge, repayment; pay back (a favor), revenge (a crime), get even (PAN: *bales₁)

Aklanon (120 / 1332)

bága(h)glowing ember; be aglow, smoulder (PMP: *baRah)

bagáni(h)hero, patriot (PMP: *baRani)

baganíh-anheroism, patriotism; heroes, patriots (collectively) (PMP: *baRani)

bágaysuits, matches; complementary, becoming; to complement, be appropriate, match; tune a musical instrument (PWMP: *bagay₁)

bágaything, case; the right thing (PPH: *bagay₂)

bágaʔlung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

bagáʔswollen, swelled up (PAN: *baReq)

bagóbefore, prior to (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

bágo(h)bago tree: Gnetum gnemon (PWMP: *baguh)

bágyo(h)hurricane, storm (PAN: *baRiuS)

bágʔaŋmolar tooth, molar teeth (PMP: *bageqaŋ)

bagʔó(h)new; recently (PMP: *baqeRu) *baqeRuh

ba(h)interjection, expressions of disbelief (PMP: *ba₂)

bahágG-string, breechcloth; underwear (PWMP: *bahaR)

báhawcold rice; cool off, get cool (said of food) (PMP: *bahaw) *baSaw

baháʔflood; to overflow, flood (PMP: *bahaq₂) *baSaq

bahógswill, slop, pig food; to feed pigs; pour soup on (PWMP: *bahuR)

báhoʔsmell, odor, stench; to stink (PMP: *bahuq)

bakánkind of tree (PWMP: *bakan)

bakáŋto walk with the knees apart, walk bowleggedly; bowlegged (PAN: *bakaŋ)

Aklanon (140 / 1332)

bákashurry up, hasten, quicken (PMP: *bakas)

bakáw-antree that is good for firewood: Rhizophora mucronata (PWMP: *bakehaw)

bákbaktake off the bark of a tree (PMP: *bakbak₁)

baléteʔbalete tree: Ficus benjamina L. (PPh: *balítiq)

balíbroken, fractured (PMP: *baliq)

baliláʔfish -- quite long, with plenty of spines (PWMP: *balidaq)

balintawáknative dress, knee-length, worn only for dances (LOAN)

baliŋ-baliŋunsteady, aimless (said of a flying object without aim) (PWMP: *baliŋ baliŋ) *baliŋ₂

balisóŋlong, sharp knife common to Batangas (LOAN)

balítaʔnews, report; newspaper; to report (LOAN)

balíwbewitched (PMP: *baliw₅) *baliw₂

báliʔget broken in two, get fractured (as an arm) (PMP: *baliq)

banabá(h)medicinal tree: Premna cumingiana Schaver (PPh: *banabá)

bana-bana(h)tree, fruit, guayabano. Anona muricata L. (NOISE)

bánawto wash (hands, feet) (PMP: *bañaw₂) *bañaw

banáʔagrays (of the rising sun); to be rising (said of sun), send off rays (PMP: *banaqaR)

banaʔ-banaʔestimation, calculation; opinion (NOISE)

bánbanherb used for roofing: Donax cannaeformis (PWMP: *banban)

bánlawrinse out (with water after soaping) (PPh: *balñaw)

banógbird of prey (hawk) (PPh: *banúg)

Aklanon (160 / 1332)

bántaeto dam up (PWMP: *bantal)

bántogfamous, noted, well-known; to announce (PPH: *bantug)

banwá(h)town, country (PMP: *banua)

banyágaʔcriminally-inclined, evil-minded (LOAN)

baŋa(h)palm tree: Orania palindan (PWMP: *baŋa₁)

baŋbaŋfall down, cave in (such as sides of riverbank) (PWMP: *baŋbaŋ₄)

baŋgáʔambush; collide, hit together (LOAN)

báŋkaetree with reddish fruit: Nauclea junghuhnia (PMP: *baŋkal)

báŋkatwoven basket (for small fishes) (PWMP: *ba(ŋ)kat)

báŋkawspear (PWMP: *baŋkaw)

báŋkaycorpse, dead person (PWMP: *baŋkay)

baŋkilíŋa tree: Cicca acida (PWMP: *baŋkiriŋ)

báŋonget up (out of bed), arise (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

báogto putrefy, rot (like old eggs) (PPH: *baqug)

baógputrid, ruined, spoiled, rotten; sterile (incapable of bearing children) (PPH: *baqug)

bæo(h)knowledge, awareness of (NOISE)

báraŋblack magic, voodoo, witchcraft (NOISE)

baráŋgaynative boats -- of historical import, which brought the first Malaysian settlers; club, group, organization (PPh: *baraŋgay)

bárlakshine, radiate (ROOT)

basbáschip off, trim off (PWMP: *basbas₃)

Aklanon (180 / 1332)

bátaʔchildish, young, youthful, immature (PWMP: *bataq)

bátbatpound out metal (PWMP: *batbat)

batíʔiscalf, lower leg (PWMP: *baties)

batóstone (PMP: *batu₁)

bató-báto(h)kidney (PMP: *batu₂)

bátoknape of neck (PWMP: *batuk₂)

báyadpayment; pay (PMP: *bayaD)

bayáʔto ignore (NOISE)

báybaybeach, seashore; bank (of a river) (PPh: *baybáy)

bayóto box, hit, pound, pummel (PAN: *bayu)

bayúoŋburi bag (usually for one cavan) (PWMP: *bayuquŋ)

báyw-on taI’ll box you (PAN: *bayu)

báʔakcut bamboo lengthwise (PMP: *baqak)

báʔbaʔmouth (PMP: *baqbaq)

bíbiduck (LOAN)

bibíglip(s) (PMP: *bibiR) *biRbiR

bi-bíŋkacake made of rice or cassava, cooked between two fires (LOAN)

bída(h)hero (of story, movie); main actor (LOAN)

bidh-án-anfilled with fish eggs (PWMP: *bihed)

bigá-onoversexed (female) (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

Aklanon (200 / 1332)

bígaʔsexual excitement or feeling (PMP: *biRaq₃) *biRaq₁

bígkissash (piece of cloth wrapped around the waist) (ROOT)

bíhagcapture; get the prize (at a cockfight) (PWMP: *bihaR)

bíhodfish eggs, caviar (PWMP: *bihed)

biká(h)shard, potsherd (broken piece, chip off earthenware vessels) (PWMP: *bika)

bíkaʔspread the legs apart, do a split (PMP: *bikaq₂)

bílaŋsomewhat like, considered as, like; consider (as), reckon (as) (PAN: *bilaŋ)

bilaŋgó-anprison, jail (LOAN)

biláŋgoʔto imprison, jail (LOAN)

bilí(h)cost, price, value, worth; be worth, have a value, be priced at (PMP: *bili)

bílinleave behind; order, request (PWMP: *bilin)

b-il-itay-ángallows, place of hanging (PPh: *bítay)

bílogconsolidate, unify, make into a single unit; unit (LOAN)

bilógsolid, entire, whole; full (moon) (LOAN)

b<in>abáyiact like a female (said of a male), be effeminate (PPh: *b<in>a-bahi) *bahi

bínhiʔseed, grain (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

b-in-íraysailboat -- usually three boats tied together during a water festival (LOAN)

b-iniʔássection, internode, joint (of plant, finger) (PWMP: *biqás)

bíntoefish trap (PWMP: *bintul)

b-in-úeanmonthly (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

Aklanon (220 / 1332)

b-in-úhatcreature, creation (PMP: *buhat₂)

b-in-úmbawas pumped by (LOAN)

b-in-umbah-ánwere bombed (LOAN)

b-in-útw-anblistered, having blisters (PMP: *betuʔ₂) *beCuʔ

b-in-útw-anblistered, having blisters (PMP: *butu₁) *buCu

bíŋatpull open, pull apart (PPh: *biŋát)

bíŋka(h)dessert cake (LOAN)

bíŋkitjoin, unite, tie together (PPh: *biŋkit)

bíŋkoŋcurl up (fingers, paper) (PMP: *biŋkuŋ)

birásock, punch, box, hit (PWMP: *bida)

bíri-bíriberi beri (disease caused by lack of thiamine) (LOAN)

bísaeffect, result (LOAN)

bítasslit open, split up; pull apart (PMP: *bitas)

bítayhang, suspend (PPh: *bítay)

bítbitcarry in one's hand (usually by a handle, like a suitcase or a trunk) (PMP: *bitbit₂) *bitbit

bitíkflea (as on dogs) (PMP: *bitik)

bitíkflea (as on dogs) (NOISE)

bítinpull up; dangle, hang (from) (PPh: *bítin)

bitínpoisonous snake (PPh: *bítin)

bitúʔonstar (general term) (PAN: *bituqen)

Aklanon (240 / 1332)

biʔásjoint, notch (of finger); internode of flora, the part between the joints of flowers and plants (PWMP: *biqás)

biʔásjoint; notch (of finger); internode (of flora -- the part between the joints of flowers and plants) (LOAN)

bóbofish trap (PAN: *bubu₂)

bólaball (LOAN)

bolah-ánballfield (LOAN)

bolímbodto tie up (by running the string around many times) (ROOT)

bosínahorn (as on motor vehicles) (LOAN)

botítipoisonous fish with bloated stomach; bloated, swollen, inflated (PWMP: *butiti)

bóto(h)to vote for (LOAN)

bótoʔpenis, male organ (PMP: *butuq) *buCuq

bóʔboʔpour out, dump out (PMP: *buqbuq)

buástomorrow (PPh: *buás)

bubónopen well (PMP: *bubun₁) *bubun

búbon-búbonsoft spot or crown (of infant's head) (PWMP: *bubun bubun) *buNbuN

bubóŋinside roof (PMP: *bubuŋ₁)

buboŋ-ánrafters, attic, inside area of roof (PMP: *bubuŋ-an) *bubuŋ₁

búdbudto wind up; spindle (PMP: *bejbej₂) *bejbej

búdbudwind up; spindle (NOISE)

budíŋsoot, carbon (PWMP: *budiŋ)

bueáddry out in the sunshine (PPh: *belaj)

Aklanon (260 / 1332)

bueágto separate, disjoin, put/pull apart; leave one another, separate, go apart (NOISE)

búeakflower (generic) (PPh: *bujak)

búeak-búeakembellishment (in speech); artificial flower (PPh: *bujak)

búeanmoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bueáŋblade (used in cock fighting); enter a rooster into a cockfight (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

bueáŋ-angallery, arena, place for a cockfight (PWMP: *bulaŋ)

bueáwbecome jaundiced (PAN: *bulaw)

bueáwfish with yellow stripe (NOISE)

bueáw-angold (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

bueawán-ongolden (PAN: *bulaw-an) *bulaw

bueáʔfroth, foam, bubbles; to form bubbles or foam; talk with pride about oneself or others (PMP: *bujeq₂) *bujeq

búebuehair (of animals or people); feathers (of fowl) (PPh: *bulbul₁)

bueo-bukóankle (PMP: *buku)

buéoŋmedicine, cure; to medicate, cure, administer medicine (PMP: *buluŋ₂)

b-ue-uhát-onwork, deed (PMP: *buhat₂)

bufyʔadhave one's stomach protrude or stick out (NOISE)

bugá(h)exhale, blow out (smoke of a cigarette) (PMP: *buRah) *buReS

bugáŋkind of grass used for making brooms: Phragmites vulgaris (NOISE)

bugásuncooked, polished rice (PMP: *beRas₂) *beRas

búgawto shoo, drive away, evict (PAN: *buRaw)

Aklanon (280 / 1332)

bugáwfly whisk; matchmaker, pimp (PAN: *buRaw)

bugáygive, offer (PMP: *beRay₂) *beRay

búgbugbeat to unconsciousness, knock out; get knocked out (PWMP: *bugbug)

búgkosbundle, package; to tie up, bundle, package (PMP: *beRkes)

búgnaytree with red fruit: Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. (PWMP: *buRnay)

búgsaypaddle; oar (for boat); to paddle, row (a boat) (PMP: *beRsay)

búgʔakproud, haughty, boastful (ROOT)

búgʔatbecome heavy, get heavier (PMP: *beReqat)

búhatto make, do, work; create (PMP: *buhat₂)

buhísa tax; impose a tax (PPh: *buhís)

buhókhair (on head) (PMP: *buhek₁) *bukeS

búhosto open a dam (PWMP: *buhus)

búkadunroll, roll open, unwrap (PWMP: *bekaj)

bukáeto boil (said of heated liquids) (PMP: *bukal₁) *bukal

bukásto open up (window, door) (PMP: *bu(ŋ)kas) *bukas

búkawowl (PWMP: *bukaw)

bukáʔto open up (usually something that is hinged, like an oyster or can; also lips); get opened up (PWMP: *bukaʔ)

búkbukbamboo gnat; powder or dust left by boring of insects (PMP: *bukbuk₃)

búkeadopen up (as the hand) (PMP: *bekelaj)

búkeadto open up (as hand) (PPh: *buklad)

Aklanon (300 / 1332)

búkidmountain (PAN: *bukij)

bukíd-nonmountaineer (PAN: *bukij)

bukójoint (of bamboo); wrist (PMP: *buku)

búkoevery young coconut; swell up, protrude, stick out, stick through (like a pen underneath a piece of paper) (PMP: *buŋkul₁) *buŋkul

bukónnot, no, it is not (used to negate nominals and adjectives or similar descriptions) (PWMP: *beken)

bukónnot, no, it is not (used to negate nominals and adjectives or similar descriptions) (PWMP: *buken₁) *buken

búktothunchbacked, stoop-shouldered (PWMP: *beketut)

búktothunchbacked, stoop-shouldered (PPh: *buktút)

buladórkite (LOAN)

bulalákawbird, believed to be carrier of evil spirits (PPh: *bulalákaw₂)

búligto help, assist; help, assistance (PWMP: *bulig)

búligbunch of bananas or similar fruits (PMP: *buliR)

bulilítdwarfish, tiny (PPh: *bulilít)

bulináwvery small fish (PPh: *bulínaw)

bulíʔrear, back (PMP: *buliq₂)

bulíʔrear, back (NOISE)

bulóŋwhisper, speak softly (LOAN)

bulóŋ-buloŋ-anrumor, gossip, whisperings (LOAN)

búmbato bomb, drop bombs on (LOAN)

búmbato pump (water, gas) (LOAN)

Aklanon (320 / 1332)

búmba(h)pump (for water, gasoline, etc.) (LOAN)

búnaebeat up, batter (PWMP: *benal)

bunáestick (used for beating) (PWMP: *benal)

búnaebeat up, batter (PPh: *bunal)

bunáestick used for beating (PPh: *bunal)

bunákwet, damp; to moisten, dampen, wet (NOISE)

búnbunyoung rice seedlings, rice shoots (PMP: *bunubun) *bunabun

búnokrain heavily, rain "cats and dogs" (NOISE)

bunótcoconut husk or fibers; to husk a coconut (PMP: *bunut₁)

bunóʔto stab (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

búnt-ihusk it! (PPh: *bunut-i) *bunut₁

búntispregnant (PWMP: *bentis)

búntispregnant (PPh: *buqetis)

búnyagto water, sprinkle with water; baptize; watering, sprinkling; baptism (PPh: *buniag)

bunyag-í ro búeakwater the flowers! (PPh: *buniag)

búnʔiwhite skin disease, ringworm (PMP: *buqeni)

búŋabear fruit (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

búŋa-buŋásmall mouse (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

búŋa(h)fruit; betel nut (palm, nut): Areca catechu var. Alba (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

buŋah-ánlist of answers for an exam, 'cheat sheet' (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

Aklanon (340 / 1332)

búŋbuŋpartition; temporary wall (PWMP: *beŋbeŋ) *beŋbeŋ₁

buŋíʔharelip (NOISE)

búŋkagdismantle, take apart, undo; be disrupted, get taken apart (PMP: *be(ŋ)kaR)

búŋkagdismantle, take apart, undo; be disrupted, get taken apart (PMP: *buŋkaR)

búŋkoghump (bump on back of some animals) (PWMP: *buŋkug)

buŋkog-ánhaving a hump (PWMP: *buŋkug)

buŋóedeaf, unable to hear; become deaf (PMP: *beŋel)

búŋogfool, stupid fellow, jerk (NOISE)

búŋotwhiskers, beard, facial hair (PPh: *beŋet₂)

búŋotwhiskers, beard, facial hair (PWMP: *buŋut)

buŋóʔskull (NOISE)

burbúrsemen; sexual fluids (NOISE)

burí(h)buri palm (tree, fibers): Corypha elata (PMP: *buri)

buriŋótbad-humored, moody, out-of-sorts, crabby (ROOT)

búsbustear open, puncture, slit open (as with a knife, a chicken tearing open a sack so that the rice inside gets scattered) (PMP: *busbus)

búskadto open wide (like a flower) (PPh: *beskaj)

busógbe full, satisfied (after eating) (PAN: *besuR)

busónmail box, postal box (LOAN)

búswaŋerupt, open up (sore, boil) (PPh: *busuáŋ)

búsʔakto chop (wood) (PPh: *busqák)

Aklanon (360 / 1332)

butáblind; blinded (PMP: *buta₁) *buCa

butá-bútaa game, 'Blindman's bluff' (PWMP: *buta buta₁) *buCa

butígwart (PMP: *buteliR)

butíʔpopcorn, popped rice (PWMP: *beRtiq)

butíʔpopcorn, popped rice (PPh: *butíq)

bútkonarm, upper arm; sleeve (of shirt, dress) (PWMP: *beteken)

butóblister (PMP: *betuʔ₂) *beCuʔ

butóblister (PMP: *butu₁) *buCu

butódswell up (due to gas), become bloated (stomach) (PWMP: *buntuD)

butóŋbamboo: Bambusa vulgaris (PAN: *betuŋ₁)

butóttadpole (baby frog) (NOISE)

búybuy'cotton tree', used for stuffing pillows and mattresses: Ceiba pentandra Linn. (PPh: *buybuy)

búybuycotton tree, used for stuffing pillows and mattresses: Ceiba pentandra L. (NOISE)

buyó(h)to deceive about, conceal one's real intentions (LOAN)

búyokcharmed, convinced (PWMP: *buyuk)

búyoŋspin, turn round and round, go in circles (LOAN)

búyoŋspin, turn round and round, go in circles (NOISE)

búyoʔleaves for chewing: Piper betle (PWMP: *buyuq)

buyʔón-anhaving a bloated stomach or beer belly (PPh: *buyequŋ-an) *buyequŋ

buʔóeheel (of foot) (PPh: *buqel)

Aklanon (380 / 1332)

búʔoŋto break (PPh: *búquŋ)

dáanolder, ancient; the former (PAN: *daqaN)

dáboŋbamboo shoot (Masbatenyos, like most Filipinos, boil young bamboo shoots for food); immature, young (refers to children, unripe fruits or untempered metal) (PPH: *dabuŋ)

daeágagirl, young lady, young unmarried woman; maiden (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

dáeanroad,way, path, trail, street; be carried away by, be led by; almost forget (something else) (PMP: *zalan)

d<ae>apit-ánferry landing (PWMP: *dapit)

dáeomto get deep(er) (PMP: *dalem)

dagámirice stalk, straw (from rice) (PWMP: *zaRami)

dágatsalt water; sea (PMP: *daRat)

dagátget motion sickness, get seasick (PMP: *daRat)

dáhonleaf, leaves; to produce leaves (PMP: *dahun)

dahón-dahóngrass snake (PMP: *dahun-dahun) *dahun

dakídandruff (PMP: *daki₂) *daki

daki-hónhaving dandruff (PMP: *daki₂) *daki

dakópto capture, catch (as dog, person, fish) (PAN: *dakep)

danáwlake, pond (PAN: *danaw)

dáŋdaŋwarm up, put near the fire, heat up (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₂) *daŋdaŋ

dápdapkind of tree (PMP: *dapdap₁)

dápitto ferry across (PWMP: *dapit)

dapítsituated, located (PWMP: *dapit)

Aklanon (400 / 1332)

dapógstove, hearth (PMP: *dapuR)

datágopen field, plain, prairie (PAN: *dataR)

dátu-ʔruler, king; rich, wealthy, powerful (through money) (PMP: *datu)

dáwa(h)grass; rice grain dessert preparation (PAN: *zawa₂)

da-ywato make into two, raise or lower to two (PMP: *da-duha) *duSa

da-ywa(h)two (PMP: *da-duha) *duSa

dílapto lick (PWMP: *dilap₂)

dílaʔtongue (PMP: *dilaq₁)

diláʔ-ansharp-tongued (referring to a gossiper) (PMP: *dilaq₁)

d<in>ugo-ána Filipino dish made from the blood and intestines of pigs, chickens, etc. (PMP: *zuRuq)

díŋdiŋwall (PMP: *diŋdiŋ)

dugóʔblood; to bleed (PMP: *zuRuq)

dúha-dúhahesitation, doubt, fear (PMP: *duha duha₂) *duSa

dúha-dúha(h)to doubt, be hesitant; delay, hesitate (PMP: *duha duha₂) *duSa

dúkotto stick together (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

dukóthard cooked rice at the bottom of the pot; to stick to, cling to; to get pregnant (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

dúmdumto remember, keep in mind (PAN: *demdem₁)

dúŋoglisten to, hear, give ear to (PMP: *deŋeR)

duŋógfame, honor, reputation (PMP: *deŋeR)

dupáarmsbreadth, armspan [unit of measure]; to stretch out one’s arms, hold one’s arms out sideways (PMP: *depa)

Aklanon (420 / 1332)

dúsdusto push, shove (PPH: *desdes₁)

dútdutto tighten, squeeze together (usually by pushing) (PWMP: *detdet)

dúyanhammock; cradle; to rock [a baby] to sleep (PPH: *dúyan)

dúyan-dúyanto rock back and forth (PPH: *dúyan)

eáboŋgrow steadily, multiply, expand, be prolific (PWMP: *labeŋ)

eaeá (h)to weave mats (PWMP: *laja)

eagáʔred, reddish (ROOT)

eákadto step over (with big steps) (PMP: *lakaj)

eakáwto amble, go around (PMP: *lakaw)

eákiman, male (PMP: *laki)

eakin-onmannish (PMP: *laki)

eáli(h)fish (PMP: *lajih)

eantíŋhigh-pitched (voice) (ROOT)

eáŋawfly (general term for this family of insects) (PMP: *laŋaw)

eáŋitsky, heaven (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

eaŋóyto swim (after/the length of) (PWMP: *laŋuy)

eapáwsurpass, exceed, excel (PWMP: *la(m)paw)

eátʔastry to get to some place by a route not ordinarily taken (PWMP: *la(n)t(e)qas)

eáwaʔspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

eawáʔ-eawáʔcobweb, spiderweb (PMP: *lawaq-lawaq) *lawaq₂

Aklanon (440 / 1332)

eawódocean, sea (PAN: *lahud)

eayádry land (PAN: *daya)

eayágsail [of boat] (PAN: *layaR)

eubógmurky, clouded, dirty (water) (PWMP: *lebuR)

eúeodshin (part of leg) (PMP: *luluj)

eúhaʔteardrop (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

euháʔto shed tears; to water (of the eyes) (PMP: *luheq) *luSeq

eúmotmoss, algae – growing in sea (PMP: *lumut)

eúnudsink, go under water (PWMP: *leñej)

eupóʔpoisonous freshwater fish (PMP: *lepuq₂)

eútoʔripe, ready to eat (fruit); ripen, get ripe (PWMP: *lutuq)

euwásoutside; to save from [troubles, evil]; free, liberate; aside from, outside of (PWMP: *luas)

gabíievening, nighttime (PMP: *Rabiqiₐ) *Rabiqi

gabókto rot, become rotten (PMP: *Rabuk)

gáliŋto grind, mill (PWMP: *galiŋ)

galiŋ-ángrinder, mill (PWMP: *galiŋ)

gamótroot (PMP: *Ramut)

gatóshundred; one hundred (PMP: *Ratus) *RaCus

gawaŋdoor (PWMP: *Rawaŋ)

gawáŋdoor (PWMP: *gawaŋ)

Aklanon (460 / 1332)

gíkasstrip, trim, cut (PWMP: *Ri(ŋ)kas)

gilákglitter, shine (PMP: *gilak)

gilákglitter, shine (ROOT)

gi-nháwabreath, health (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

gi-nháwa(h)to breathe (PMP: *nihawa) *NiSawa

gin-unáh-anwent ahead of (PMP: *unah)

gíŋawkind of fish (PWMP: *Riŋaw)

gíʔokto thresh rice with one’s feet (PAN: *Riqek)

gúeaŋto get older (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

gúntiŋscissors, shears; to cut with scissors or shears (LOAN)

gúsokrib bone (PAN: *Rusuk)

gúyodto drag, pull along [the ground] (PWMP: *guyud)

ha-object focus and stative verb prefix (PWMP: *ha-)

habágatsouth wind (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

háboeblanket, use a blanket (PPh: *habél)

habóeto weave (PPh: *habél)

haeó(h)large lizard which eats chickens (PWMP: *haluh)

haeókto kiss (PMP: *hajek) *Sajek

háeʔopestle, pounding stick (PAN: *qaSelu)

hágakbragging, boastful, proud, over-exaggerating (ROOT)

Aklanon (480 / 1332)

hágdanstair(s), step(s) (PMP: *haRezan)

hágoŋgroan, moan (due to severe pain or sickness) (PMP: *haRuŋ) *SaRuŋ

hagóŋin death throes due to disease (PMP: *haRuŋ) *SaRuŋ

hágoŋgroan, moan (ROOT)

hákotget, gather, bundle up (PMP: *hakut) *SakuC

hákot-hákotbee-like insect building nests of mud (PWMP: *hakut hakut)

halígi(h)column, post, mainstay, support (of house) (PAN: *SadiRi)

hálintransfer, move to another place (PMP: *halin)

hamakparticle used for strong emphasis or stress (NOISE)

hámbogproud, swell-headed, boastful (PPh: *hambúg)

hámpakto beat, belt, spank, slap (PPh: *hampak)

hámpaŋto play (a game) (PWMP: *hampaŋ)

hámtaklong bean: Vigna sesquipedalis (PWMP: *hametak)

haŋádintend, try, aspire (for/to) (LOAN)

háŋinair, wind (PMP: *haŋin)

haŋín-onpretentious, boastful; crazy, foolish (PWMP: *haŋin-en) *haŋin

háŋitirritated, provoked, angry (PMP: *haŋit)

háŋospant (from loss of breath); breathless (PWMP: *haŋus₁)

hápdiʔcause pain, smart, hurt a lot; be in pain, feel a smarting pain (PMP: *hapediq) *Sapejiq

hápdoshurt a little, be painful (PMP: *hapejes)

Aklanon (500 / 1332)

hápinput something underneath (to protect the bottom surface from heat, dirt or the like) (PMP: *hapin)

hapíncover, covering, placemat (PMP: *hapin)

hápitstop for, pick up (when on one's way) (NOISE)

háplitto whip, lash (PPh: *haplít)

háponafternoon; to roost, go to roost, settle down (birds) (PPh: *hapun₂)

hapón-anperching rod or twig, roost (PPh: *hapun₂)

hapuhápfeel around, feel for (something -- as when searching a thief for something stolen or for a weapon) (PMP: *hapuhap) *SapuSap

hásaŋgill (of fish) (PMP: *hasaŋ)

hátd-an imáwescort him (imperative) (PMP: *hateD-an) *SateD

hátœto judge, render judgment (LOAN)

hatódto escort, take, deliver safely, conduct (PMP: *hateD) *SateD

háwakwaist (PMP: *hawak) *Sawak

háwanclear up, clean up, make open (PWMP: *hawan)

háyopmammals, cattle (PPh: *hayep)

hiásjewels, treasures (LOAN)

híasseed; idea, thought (NOISE)

hi-bílin, i-bílinleave behind; order, request (PPh: *hi-bilín) *bilin

hígopinhale, sip (PMP: *hiRup) *SiRup

hígottie up (PPh: *hiRét)

híla(h)to pull (PWMP: *hilah)

Aklanon (520 / 1332)

hiláwraw, uncooked; unripe (PPh: *hiláw)

híligfond of, inclined to, having a liking for; hobby (PPh: *hírig)

hilítcorner, side (PPh: *hilít)

hílotrestore a broken bone; massage (PPh: *hílut)

hímokpersuade, convince (NOISE)

hi-níŋa(h)take out food particles between one's teeth (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

hi-ŋáeanto pronounce, say, name (PMP: *ŋajan)

hi-ŋutóto take out lice from someone’s hair (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCu

hiom-hiomto smile (PPh: *hium)

hípagsister-in-law (PMP: *hipaR₁) *hipaR

híponsmall shrimp (PPh: *hípun₂)

hítoʔfish sp. (PMP: *hituq)

híwiʔuneven, askance, off to one side (PWMP: *hiwiʔ)

híwiʔuneven, askance, off to one side (NEAR)

hoecry to stop a carabao (PMP: *huy)

hoyexpression used to call the attention of another; term used to drive a dog away or stop it from barking or biting another (PMP: *huy)

húbadunravel, untie, unwind (PPh: *hubád)

húbadunravel, untie, unwind (ROOT)

hubáslow tide (PPh: *hebás)

hueámborrow (PMP: *hezam) *Sezam

Aklanon (540 / 1332)

húeawstop raining, "let up" (rain only) (PMP: *hedaw)

húeogto drop (something); mail (a letter); to fall, get dropped (PMP: *huluR) *SuluR

hueom-ónto borrow (PPh: *hedam-en) *Sezam

húgasrinse, wash off (PMP: *huRas) *SuRas

hugóŋ-húgoŋrumors (PMP: *heReŋ)

hugóŋ-hugóŋrumors (PMP: *huRuŋ)

hugótto tighten, make firm (PMP: *heRet) *SeReC

húkastake off, unstitch (PWMP: *hukas)

húlidsleep with, share a bed with, be in bed with (PMP: *hulij) *Sulij

hulíkapto pet, feel around (the body) (ROOT)

humáycooked rice (PMP: *hemay) *Semay

húmbakwave, crest (PWMP: *humbak)

húnaʔ-húnaʔspeculate, think of, consider; speculation, idea, thought (PPh: *henaq)

huní(h)chirp, sing (like birds or crickets); to blow (said of whistle or siren) (PMP: *huni) *Suni

húnosto pull (out); draw (gun) (PMP: *hunus) *SuNus

húnos-húnosjerk back and forth, push and pull (PMP: *hunus) *SuNus

hurósslip (off), become loose (PWMP: *hurus)

húyaŋshake, rattle (PWMP: *huyaŋ)

huyápto count, enumerate (PPh: *huyáp)

huyáʔface, pride; shame; be disgraced, be shamed (PAN: *Seyaq)

Aklanon (560 / 1332)

húyoŋshake, rattle (PMP: *huyuŋ)

huyópto blow (air) on (PMP: *heyup) *Seyup

húyʔabto yawn (PMP: *huyeʔab) *Suyeʔab

húʔoyes. Used quite differently than the English equivalent -- the Aklanon "yes" can mean "the former" or "yes, your statement (in the negative) is true" (PMP: *heqe)

iclassic noun prefix used to show locations (PAN: *i₂)

i-prefix for future and command verb forms in the instrumental focus (PMP: *i-) *Si-₁

here (near the speaker) (PMP: *ia₂)

i-bábawtop, uppermost part; upstairs (PAN: *i babaw) *babaw₃

íba(h)go together, be companions (PMP: *ibah) *ibaS

ibá(h)accompany, go along with; different, other, another (PMP: *ibah) *ibaS

ibaʔtree with sour fruit: Averrhoa bilimbi L. (LOAN)

íbogattracted to, desire, like (PMP: *ibeR)

i-dáeombelow, bottom, underneath (PMP: *i dalem) *dalem

ídlapshine, glow (ROOT)

ígateel (PPh: *ígat)

ígpitto clip, catch, hold between two things (PPh: *higpít)

íhiʔurine, urinate (PMP: *ihiq) *iSiq

ika-pitóseventh (PMP: *ika-pitu) *pitu

i-káwyou (singular) (PMP: *i-kahu) *kaSu

i-ka-waeóeighth (PMP: *ika-walu) *walu

Aklanon (580 / 1332)

íkogtail (of any creature) (PAN: *ikuR)

íkʔikto cheep, chatter (sound of animal -- like monkey) (PWMP: *qikqik)

ilá(h)wild, untamed, undomesticated (fowl) (PMP: *ilah)

i-lawódthe seaward part of any town (PMP: *i-lahud) *lahud

i-layáinland (section of town) (PAN: *daya)

ilígto flow (downstream); to flow, drop (PWMP: *qiliR)

ilih-ánplace, location (PMP: *qilih)

il-ihiʔ-ánurinal, place to urinate (PMP: *ihiq) *iSiq

ilógto flow (PAN: *iluR₂)

ílo(h)orphan; to be left an orphan (PWMP: *ilu)

ilóŋ-anfish sp. (PWMP: *ijuŋ-an) *ijuŋ

ílosto ladle out (PAN: *qidus)

íluk-onunderarms, armpit (NOISE)

ímbawclam shell (PMP: *qibaw₁)

imn-adrink (imper.) (PWMP: *inum-a) *inum

ímoyour (sg.), you (PMP: *imu) *Simu

ímonbe possessive (of), hold on to (PPh: *imún)

imótmiserly, thrifty, penny-pinching (PPh: *ímut)

ímpaspay in full, pay one's account (PMP: *qimpas)

ímponmingle, mix with; consist of (PMP: *qi(m)pun)

Aklanon (600 / 1332)

ináM (PMP: *ina)

ína-ínafoster mother; stepmother (PWMP: *ina ina) *ina

in-ápograndchildren (PPh: *in-ampu) *apu

in-atáyliver disease (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

in-áyamact like a dog (implying overt sexual behavior) (PWMP: *qayam₂)

índaŋa tree: Artocarpus cumingiana Trec. (NOISE)

índoŋ-índoŋeel (NEAR)

in-ínsikChinese (language) (LOAN)

ínitto heat, make hot (PWMP: *qinit)

inog-turóʔindex finger (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

inómto drink (up) (PMP: *inum)

ínotsave up, be thrifty with (PPh: *qínut)

ínsikChinese, Chinaman (LOAN)

íntokbecome smaller, shrink (PMP: *itek)

iŋaʔto bellow (carabao) (< *-ŋaq?) (ROOT)

iŋítcrabby, out of sorts, in a bad mood (ROOT)

íŋkiŋtrifling, trivial, insignificant (PWMP: *iŋkiŋ)

iŋókto grunt (like a pig) (ROOT)

íŋosmoan in sadness; purr (PMP: *iŋus)

iótfuck; very strong term of anger or disgust (PAN: *qiut)

Aklanon (620 / 1332)

ipa-causative verb prefix used in giving commands about direct objects (PPh: *ipa-)

ípila tree: Intsia bijuga (PMP: *qipil)

ípiŋside-by-side with, next to (NOISE)

isdáʔfish (PPh: *sidáq)

ísipegoistic, selfish, always considering oneself; think of, consider, reckon, ponder; thought, consideration (PPh: *ísip)

isíp-onthink over (PPh: *isip-en) *ísip

ísoemove backwards (PPh: *isul)

isótbecome smaller; almost, barely, nearly (PWMP: *isut₁)

itíkduck (PWMP: *itik₂)

itikto tickle (PWMP: *qitik₂)

itíphard-cooked rice (at the bottom of the pot) (PPh: *itíp)

itlógegg; testicle (PMP: *qiteluR) *qiCeluR

itúmblack, dark (colored) (PMP: *qitem)

iwíkto squeal, howl (said of a pig) (PPh: *íwik)

iyót“fuck” (very strong term of anger or disgust) (PPH: *iut₂)

ka-very productive adjective prefix, indicating a high degree (when standing alone), or the superlative (when with the -an suffix) ka-gwápo ‘very good looking’ (cp. gwápo ‘handsome’) (PPH: *ka-₃)

ka-noun prefix: ka-támɁis ‘sweetness’ (cp. ma-támɁis ‘sweet’) (PAN: *ka-₅)

kayou singular (contraction of ikáw) (PMP: *ka₄)

ka-amah-ánfatherhood (PWMP: *ka-ama-en) *ama

ka-áŋhitbody odor (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

Aklanon (640 / 1332)

ka-áŋsothe smell of urine (PPh: *qaŋesu)

ka-apó-apó-hanfuture generation(s) (of grandchildren) (PPh: *ka-ampu-an) *apu

ka-ba-bátw-anstony area/place (PWMP: *ka-batu-an) *batu₁

kábagto have gas pains (in stomach), suffer from hyperacidity or indigestion (PPH: *kábag)

kabánfootlocker, trunk (for clothes) (PWMP: *kaban₂)

kabáncavan (unit of measure-- 25 gantas); a sackful of grain weighing approximately 100 pounds (LOAN)

ka-bantog-anfame, popularity (PPH: *bantug)

kabáoŋcoffin (LOAN)

kabásikind of fish (PWMP: *kabasi)

kabítto cling to, hang on to; franchise, collaborate; mistress, paramour (PPH: *kabít)

káblitto touch lightly with one’s finger (PPH: *kablit)

kabógfruit bat (PPH: *kabég)

kabósto be short, run short of, not have enough of (PMP: *kabus₁)

ka-bukír-anmountain range (PPh: *ka-bukij-an) *bukij

ka-búlighelper, assistant (PWMP: *bulig)

ka-dáeomdepth (PMP: *dalem)

kádlitmark, draw a line (ROOT)

ka-duŋg-án-anhonor, fame, repute (PWMP: *ka-deŋeR-an) *deŋeR

kaeámaybrown sugar (PWMP: *kalámay)

ka-eaŋít-anthe heavens; Heaven (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

Aklanon (660 / 1332)

kaeátrope (made of abaca fibers) (PWMP: *kalat)

kagátclaw, pincher (of crab) (PMP: *kaRat) *kaRaC

ka-gueáŋ-anforest (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

ka-gueaŋ-áneldest, oldest (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

káhoytree (general term); wood, lumber (PMP: *kahiw) *kaSiw

ka-hulidbedmate, bed partner (PWMP: *ka-hulij) *Sulij

ka-ibah-ancompanion (PWMP: *ka-ibah-an) *ibaS

ka-ìmonpossessiveness, jealousy (PPh: *imún)

ka-ísipegoism, selfishness, self-consideration (PPh: *ka-ísip) *ísip

ka-isótlittleness, tininess; triviality (PWMP: *ka-isut) *isut₁

ka-kahóy-anforest, jungle (PWMP: *ka-kahiw-an) *kaSiw

kakáwcacao tree and fruit --- used to make chocolate: Theobroma cacao L. (LOAN)

ka-kiláeaan acquaintance, friend (PAN: *kilala)

k<al>íŋkiŋlittle finger, pinky (PWMP: *k<al>iŋkiŋ) *kiŋkiŋ₃

kamáliggrain house or shed (PMP: *kamaliR)

kámaŋcrawl on all fours (PWMP: *kamaŋ)

kamáŋa(h)flint, fine stone used for sharpening razor (PPH: *kamaŋa)

kamátistomato: Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. (LOAN)

kámyawhite flower, camia (PPH: *kamiá)

ka-nípáʔ-annipa swamp (PMP: *nipaq)

Aklanon (680 / 1332)

ka-níwaŋthinness, skinniness (PMP: *niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

kán-onrice; staple food (PAN: *kaen-en) *kaen

ka-nyog-áncoconut plantation, coconut grove (PMP: *niuR)

kanʔ-aeat it! (imper.) (PPh: *kaen-a) *kaen

káŋkaŋto stretch or spread out one’s feet (PWMP: *kaŋkaŋ₁)

káonto eat; to take (in chess), jump (in checkers) (PAN: *kaen)

kápaypropeller (on ship); to propel, paddle (boat) (PMP: *kapay)

kapínmore so, all the more, especially (PWMP: *kapin)

kápitcling to, adhere to (PMP: *kampit)

ka-putíʔwhiteness (PWMP: *ka-putiq) *putiq

ka-ragát-anopen sea; ocean (PPh: *ka-daRát-an) *daRat

káraŋbamboo sled (PWMP: *kazaŋ₁)

ka-saeáʔto sin (morally), do evil (PWMP: *ka-salaq) *salaq₁

ka-saeʔ-án-ansinfulness; sins (PWMP: *ka-salaq-an) *salaq₁

ka-sákítsuffering, pain (PWMP: *ka-sakit) *sakit

ka-saŋáyto have the same first name (PWMP: *saŋay)

ka-sári-sáribe varied, be assorted/different (LOAN)

kásiŋ-kásiŋheart; core (PWMP: *gasiŋ)

ka-taeón-anrural areas (PPH: *ka-talun-an) *CaluN

ka-támadlaziness, indolence (LOAN)

Aklanon (700 / 1332)

ka-tamn-anorchard, plantation (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

ka-támn-anorchard; plantation (PAN: *ka-tanem-an) *CaNem

ka-tawóh-anhumanity (PMP: *ka-tau-an) *Cau

ka-táʔasheight, tallness (PMP: *atas) *aCas

kati-ándecoy; “stool-pigeon” (PPH: *kátiq)

kátigoutrigger (of a boat) (PMP: *katiR)

ka-tímbaŋequal, equivalent (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

kátiʔto decoy, entice (like using one chicken to catch another) (PPH: *kátiq)

kátl-anoversexed, sex-crazy (female) (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

katóeitchy; disease – having an itchy head (PMP: *gatel) *gaCel

katókcrazy (PPH: *katúk)

kátribed (LOAN)

ka-túbw-ansugarcane plantation (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

ka-tueógto be asleep; to doze off, fall asleep (PWMP: *ka-tuduR) *tuduR

ka-tueóg-onsleep (PWMP: *ka-tuduR-en) *tuduR

ka-tunáy-antruth, genuineness (PWMP: *tunay₂)

katúraytree with edible blossoms: Sesbania grandiflora (PPH: *katuday)

ka-tuyóʔ-anpurpose, aim (PPH: *tuyuq)

ka-uháw-onthirst (PAN: *quSaw)

ka-utaŋ-ándebts, accounts payable (PWMP: *ka-qutaŋ-an) *qutaŋ

Aklanon (720 / 1332)

kawáyanbamboo: Dendrocalamus merrillianus (PAN: *kawayan)

kawíllong deep sea fishing line with reel (PAN: *kawil₁)

káwiŋto have intercourse with; fuck; to draw near to, approach (PWMP: *kawiŋ)

kiláeato be acquainted, get introduced (PAN: *kilala)

kilátflash of lightning, lightning bolt (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

kílawto marinate in vinegar and serve raw (PPH: *kilaw₁)

kili-kíliarmpit (PPH: *kili-kíli)

kilíŋ-kilíŋto ring a bell (PPH: *kilíŋ)

kilíŋ-kilíŋto ring (a bell) (ROOT)

kímpittweezers, tongs; clothespin; to pinch together; to press or hold between two things (PAN: *kipit)

k<in>abásibolo (having shape of kabási) (PWMP: *kabasi)

kina-daánvery old, ancient (PAN: *daqaN)

k<in>áonwas eaten by someone (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

k<in>ilawmeat or fish marinated and served raw (PPH: *kilaw₁)

kíŋkiŋhop (on one foot) (PWMP: *kiŋkiŋ₂)

kípotto close, shut; tighten (up) (PMP: *kiput)

kipóttight, not loose (PMP: *kiput)

kisáw-kisáwto flicker, have a tic (said of one’s eyes) (PPH: *kisaw)

kitáŋdeep fishing line with hooks (PPH: *kitáŋ)

kiyawkind of bird (PAN: *kiaw)

Aklanon (740 / 1332)

-komy, mine, I (PAN: *-ku)

kóŋkoŋto curl inwards (of one’s toes) (PMP: *kuŋkuŋ₂)

kue-ka-túeogto pretend to be asleep (PWMP: *ka-tuduR) *tuduR

kueóbface down(wards) (PWMP: *kureb)

kúeonearthenware pot (for cooking) (PAN: *kuden)

ku<eu>yog-ánplace of assembly, meeting grounds (PPH: *kuyug)

kugítaoctopus (PMP: *kuRita) *guRiCa

kugontall grass: Imperata cylindrica and Imperata exaltata (PPH: *gúRun)

kukú(h)fingernail; toenail (PMP: *kuhkuh₂) *kuSkuS₁

kúlismark up, scratch (PWMP: *kuris₂)

k-um-a-íŋkiŋlittle finger, "pinky" (PWMP: *iŋkiŋ)

kúmpayfodder, grass or food for cattle; to feed (cattle) (PPH: *kumpay)

kúpasto fade (color), to lose color (PPH: *kupas)

kúpitto pickpocket; to embezzle a small amount; a small amount which was embezzled (PPH: *kúpit)

kúpkopto embrace, hug (PMP: *kupkup₃)

kúritmark up, make lines in (PMP: *kur(e)qit)

kurótto pinch (PWMP: *kezut₂) *kezut

kutánato ask, question, inquire, query (PMP: *kutaña)

kútibto mutter (PPH: *kútib)

kútkutdig, excavate; gnaw at, said of rats (PWMP: *kutkut₁)

Aklanon (760 / 1332)

kútolouse, lice (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCu

kúyogto assemble, congregate, group together (PPH: *kuyug)

lapádsmall flat-sided bottle; hit with the broad side of a bolo (ROOT)

líbotturn, spin, revolution (PWMP: *libet)

lígisharrow (farmer's tool) (PWMP: *li(ŋ)gis)

ligísroll over, smooth out (by rolling); harrow, run over (PWMP: *li(ŋ)gis)

lígwanlarge horsefly (< *qali-Ruan) (PMP: *qani-Ruan)

likáwto avoid, veer away from (PAN: *likaw)

likódback (as of a building, one’s body) (PAN: *likud)

likóʔto turn (around a corner) (PWMP: *likuq)

likóʔ-ancrossing, turning point (PWMP: *likuq)

limáfive; make into five, raise or lower to five (PAN: *lima)

limásto bail water out of a boat (PMP: *limas)

límbokpounded rice (ROOT)

l<in>a-eakíto act like a man (said of a woman) (PWMP: *la-laki) *laki

línogearthquake (PAN: *linuR)

l-in-úmotcovered with algae (PMP: *lumut)

líŋa líŋahard of hearing, slightly deaf; not listening (PWMP: *liŋa₂)

líŋa-liŋáhard of hearing, slightly deaf; not listening (PWMP: *liŋa₁)

liŋáwto be noisy, make a racket (PWMP: *kaliŋaw)

Aklanon (780 / 1332)

líŋliŋpeer at (while hiding), sneak a look at, peek or peep at (PWMP: *liŋliŋ)

lipátto forget, to leave behind (something) (PPH: *lipat)

líʔogneck (PAN: *liqeR)

ma-ámbonfoggy, covered with haze, hazy (PWMP: *ambun)

ma-áslomsour (PWMP: *ma-qalesem) *qalesem

ma-asósmoky (PMP: *ma-qasu) *qasu₃

ma-báhoʔsmelly, malodorous, stinky (PWMP: *ma-bahuq) *bahuq

ma-bákasquick, fast, speedy (PMP: *bakas)

ma-búgʔatheavy, weighty (PMP: *ma-beReqat) *beReqat

ma-buŋah-ónfruitful (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

ma-busógfull, satisfied (after eating) (PAN: *ma-besuR) *besuR

ma-dáeomdeep (PAN: *ma-dalem) *dalem

ma-ga-gabókrotten (PMP: *Rabuk)

mag-amárelated as father and child (PAN: *maR-ama) *ama

mag-asawábe husband and wife, be married (PWMP: *maR-qasawa) *qasawa

Mag-bu-búhatCreator (PMP: *buhat₂)

mag-ináto be mother and child (relationship) (PAN: *maR-ina) *ina

mag-salápidto plait, to braid, to twist (hair, etc.) (PWMP: *salapid)

ma-gúeaŋold, elder (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

ma-gueáŋelder sibling (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

Aklanon (800 / 1332)

ma-háŋinwindy, stormy (PPh: *ma-haŋin) *haŋin

ma-haŋít-onirritable (PMP: *haŋit)

ma-háwanclear, having no obstructions, expansive (PWMP: *hawan)

ma-húmbakwavy, stormy, rough (sea) (PWMP: *ma-humbak) *humbak

ma-huyáŋshaky (PWMP: *huyaŋ)

ma-ilá(h)wild, untamed (PWMP: *ma-ilah₁) *ilah

ma-ila(h)wild, untamed (PWMP: *ma-ilah₂) *ma-ilah

ma-ímonpossessive, overly protective, selfish (PPh: *imún)

ma-inithot (PPh: *ma-qinit) *qinit

ma-intoksmall, short, tiny (PPh: *ma-intek) *itek

ma-ísipegoistic, selfish (PPh: *ma-ísip) *ísip

ma-isótlittle, tiny, small (PWMP: *ma-isut) *isut₁

ma-itúmblack, dark-colored (PMP: *ma-qitem) *qitem

maka-bu-e-úsogfilling, quickly makes one satisfied (PWMP: *maka-besuR) *besuR

maka-ŋi-ŋílo(h)causes one to grimace, sets the teeth on edge (as when eating something very sour or hearing a grating noise) (PAN: *ŋilu)

m-alícome on! let's go! (PWMP: *um-ari) *ari

ma-líkoʔroundabout, indirect; improper (way of doing) (PWMP: *likuq)

ma-liŋáwnoisy, boisterous, raucous (PWMP: *kaliŋaw)

mamáhgreat grandfather (PMP: *mama) *mamah

mama-matáythose destined to die (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

Aklanon (820 / 1332)

mamáʔto chew (tobacco, betel nut) (PMP: *mamaq)

manákawthief (PWMP: *maŋ-takaw) *Cakaw

ma-nipísthin, narrow, not thick (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

ma-níwaŋskinny, thin (PMP: *ma-niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

manóg-pa-kiláeaemcee, master of ceremonies; introducer (PAN: *kilala)

manókchicken (PMP: *manuk)

manók-manók-onalmondine (said of eye’s shape) (PPh: *manuk-en) *manuk

ma-nu-nuróʔa teacher (PWMP: *ma-nuzuq) *tuzuq₁

ma-ŋa-ŋáhoywood-gatherer (PWMP: *ma-ŋahiw) *kaSiw

ma-paʔítbitter (PWMP: *ma-paqit) *paqiC

ma-píliʔchoosy, selective, “spoiled” (PMP: *ma-piliq) *piliq

ma-putíʔwhite (PMP: *ma-putiq) *putiq

ma-sakítpainful, hurting; sick, ill (PMP: *ma-sakit) *sakit

matáeye; to be awake; to wake up, awaken, awake; to observe, raise, rear (PMP: *mata) *maCa

ma-taeómsharp-edged, razor-sharp (PWMP: *ma-tazem) *Cazem

ma-támadlazy, inactive, indolent (LOAN)

matá-matá (h)to look down on, belittle (PMP: *mata-mata) *maCa

m-atáydie (PMP: *m-atay) *aCay

ma-táʔastall, high (PWMP: *ma-atas) *aCas

ma-tínʔawclear, crystalline, crystal clear (PMP: *tin(e)qaw)

Aklanon (840 / 1332)

ma-unodfleshy (PPh: *ma-qunej) *qunej

m<in>a-gueáŋrelating to older people or ways; “of the older generation”; “adult way” (PAN: *Rudaŋ)

naparticle showing that an action has begun and/or is enduring; now, already, just (PAN: *na₄)

nábawbecome shallow(er) (ROOT)

námnamdelicious, flavorful (PAN: *ñamñam)

nánaʔpus (PMP: *nanaq) *naNaq

ná-nowhat (noun form only) (PAN: *na-nu) *-nu

n-átonour; we (incl.) (PMP: *aten₁) *iten₁

nátoʔa tree with reddish fruit, Nauclea junghuhnii (PMP: *ñatuq)

nisingular associate marker for the name of a person or a pet, used in postpositive position [marks possession] (PAN: *ni)

nípaʔpalm --- used for roofing or siding: Nipa fruticans (PMP: *nipaq)

nipísto become thin(ner), less thick (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

níwaŋget thinner, become skinny, lose weight (PMP: *niwaŋ) *Niwaŋ

niyógcoconut tree and fruit (PMP: *niuR)

nunóktree -- believed to be bewitched or enchanted (PMP: *nunuk)

ŋáeanname (one’s personal name); give a name to (PMP: *ŋajan)

ŋákŋakbabble, sing or say meaningless syllables (PMP: *ŋakŋak)

ŋáŋa(h)to open up (as the mouth) (PMP: *ŋaŋa₃) *ŋaŋa₂

ŋiló(h)very sour, acrid, caustic (PAN: *ŋilu)

ŋípontooth, teeth (PAN: *ŋipen)

Aklanon (860 / 1332)

ŋísŋisto giggle, snicker (PMP: *ŋisŋis)

ŋuyŋuywhimper, cry, simper (in the fashion of a spoiled child trying to get its way) (PWMP: *ŋuyŋuy)

óbusgone, used up, exhausted, all out (PWMP: *ebus)

óbus, úbosgone, used up, exhausted, all out (PMP: *qubus)

olitáwomaster, sire; bachelor, young man (PPh: *ulitau)

-oncommon object focus verb suffix for future time; common adjective suffix showing the quality of a person or thing (PAN: *-en)

ótoʔ-ótoʔtake advantage of, play for a fool (NOISE)

pasustaining particle with the sense of English “yet” or “still” (PAN: *pa)

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

pæa-common noun or adjective prefix denoting a fondness for or a continuous repetition of some act (NOISE)

pa-ágawthrow things for others to catch (PAN: *qaRaw)

pa-ánodgo downstream; let drift (PAN: *pa-añud) *qañud

pa-áslomcause to become sour, let get sour (PWMP: *qalesem)

pa-báŋonto awaken, wake (someone) up (PMP: *baŋun₂) *baŋuN

pa-báŋonto awaken, wake someone up (PWMP: *pa-baŋun) *baŋuN

pa-buás-buásprocrastinate, put off until later, delay (PPh: *buás)

pa-bueáʔtalk nonsense, 'foam at the mouth' (PWMP: *pa-bujeq) *bujeq

pa-búkaeto boil in water, bring to a boil (PMP: *bukal₁) *bukal

pa-búkidgo to the mountains, head for the hills (PAN: *bukij)

pa-búligask for help, have someone assist (PWMP: *bulig)

Aklanon (880 / 1332)

pa-búnaeaccept a beating (PPh: *bunal)

pa-búŋato bear fruit (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

pa-buŋóeact as if deaf, play deaf (PMP: *beŋel)

pa-dugóʔto bleed, let bleed (PMP: *zuRuq)

pa-dúkotto dance close together (PMP: *deket₁) *dekeC

pa-dúmdumto remind (of) (PAN: *demdem₁)

pa-duŋógto honor, celebrate, give honor to (PWMP: *pa-deŋeR) *deŋeR

pa-eagíwrun away and hide, avoid (PMP: *pa-laRiw) *laRiw

p<ae>ákpakto clap for, applaud (PAN: *pakpak)

pa-eatʔas-anshortcut (PWMP: *la(n)t(e)qas)

páeayrice (growing in the fields), Oryza sativa; rice seeds (freshly harvested, unmilled) (PAN: *pajay)

páeoŋto put out (fire), turn off (light); to die out (fire), to go out (light) (PAN: *padeŋ)

pagátpata tree: Sonneratia caseolaris (Linn.) (PWMP: *paRatpat)

págbobeam, girder (supporting roof) (PPh: *paRbu)

pághidrub one's hands on something in order to get dirt off; clean off (by scraping--without water) (PPh: *paRhid)

págiray, ray fish (PMP: *paRih) *paRiS

pag-káonfood (PAN: *kaen)

págotgrind one's teeth (PWMP: *pagut)

pagútputlet out much air while defecating (PPh: *p<aR>utput) *putput₁

pa-háŋinlet fresh air blow over something (PMP: *pa(ka)-haŋin) *haŋin

Aklanon (900 / 1332)

pa-háŋin-háŋingo out for some fresh air (PMP: *pa(ka)-haŋin-haŋin) *haŋin

pa-hueámlend (PAN: *pa-hinzam) *hinzam

pa-hueómto lend (PAN: *pa-Sezam) *Sezam

pa-i-lawódto go seawards (PMP: *i-lahud) *lahud

pa-i-layáto go inland (PAN: *daya)

pa-inomto give to drink (PMP: *pa-inum) *inum

paka-matáycommit suicide (PMP: *pa(ka)-m-atay) *aCay

pa-káonto feed (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pakig-ímpongather, mingle with (PMP: *qi(m)pun)

pa-kiláeato introduce, acquaint (PMP: *pa-kilala) *kilala

pákpakwing; to spank, slap (children) (PAN: *pakpak)

pakú(h)a fern: Athyrium esculentum (PWMP: *paku) *paheku

pálhiinhabited with evil spirits, enchanted (PAN: *paliSi)

palidget blown away by the wind (PWMP: *palij)

pa-líkoʔto turn (something); have someone turn (PWMP: *likuq)

paltikhomemade gun--for only one bullet (PWMP: *paletik)

páltikhomemade gun -- for only one bullet (PWMP: *pale(n)tik)

pa-máhawbreakfast; snack (so-called because it generally consists of cold leftovers, particularly rice; to eat breakfast (PMP: *bahaw) *baSaw

pa-matáyslaughter, kill off, exterminate (in great numbers) (PWMP: *paŋ-m-atay) *aCay

pa-míhaginvade and capture, take over, seize (PWMP: *bihaR)

Aklanon (920 / 1332)

pa-mínhiʔprepare seeds for planting (PMP: *binehiq) *bineSiq

p<am>únoʔto lead, start out first (PWMP: *p<am>uqun) *puqun

pa-nábaŋprayer (imploring divine help or favor) (PMP: *tabaŋ)

pa-nábascut or style of clothing (PWMP: *tabas₂)

pa-naeóg-ansupport or brace for bamboo flooring (PMP: *saleR)

pa-nagáʔto fish with a hook (LOAN)

panakáwtheft (PMP: *paŋ-takaw) *Cakaw

pa-nambít-anproverb, saying (PWMP: *pa-ña(m)bit-an) *sa(m)bit

pánawgo on foot, walk; leave, depart, go (PMP: *panaw₂) *paNaw

pa-nawágto call out (PWMP: *tawaR₂)

panáʔbow and arrow; shoot with bow and arrow (PAN: *panaq)

panihóewhistle, whistling (with lips) (PMP: *sihul)

pa-níktikto spy (on) (PPH: *tiktík)

pa-nímbaŋto adjust one’s personality or ways to others; to be cautious or careful with others (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

pa-nimbáŋ-ancounterbalance (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

pa-nípisto have a very close call (danger, death); to pass through a crowd or crowded area with great difficulty (PMP: *nipis) *Nipis

pánitskin, flesh; to peel off, to skin (PWMP: *panit)

pa-nulíto clean one’s ears (of ear wax) (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

pa-númdumto ponder, think, concentrate (PAN: *demdem₁)

paŋáhook (for getting fruits) (PAN: *paŋa₁) *paŋa

Aklanon (940 / 1332)

pa-ŋahóyto gather/collect wood (PWMP: *pa-ŋahiw) *kaSiw

paŋ-ánodcloud (PPh: *paŋ-añud) *qañud

pa-ŋawílto go deep sea fishing (PWMP: *pa-ŋawil) *kawil₁

paŋ-áyamto hunt (with dogs) (PWMP: *qayam₂)

paŋ-ayátto affront, challenge (a whole group) (PWMP: *ayat)

páŋdana tree and its fruit: Pandanus tectorius (PMP: *paŋdan) *paŋudaN

paŋ-diláʔ-diláʔstick out one’s tongue (in a taunting manner) (PMP: *dilaq₁)

paŋ-hi-nakítto feel sorry for, sympathize with; to bear a grudge, feel bad about, take ill (someone’s actions or talk) (PMP: *sakit)

pa-ŋilátto be lightening, flashing, of lightning (PMP: *kilat₁) *likaC

pa-ŋ<in>áonto have an appetite, eat well (PAN: *k<in>aen) *kaen

pa-ŋitáŋto fish with a long line having many hooks (PPH: *kitáŋ)

páŋpaŋbank (of river); shoreline (PWMP: *paŋpaŋ)

paŋ-túeogpyjamas, sleeping clothes (PAN: *tuduR)

paŋ-úeoto lead, head, be the head (of) (PWMP: *paŋ-qulu) *quluh

paŋ-umáto farm land, be a farmer (PWMP: *paŋ-quma) *qumah

paŋ-utánaquestion, inquiry (PMP: *kutaña)

paónbait (for fishing); to put on bait (PAN: *paen)

pa-palidto winnow, separate the grain from the chaff in the wind (PWMP: *palij)

pa-putíʔto whiten, make white (PMP: *putiq)

parakóeaxe (LOAN)

Aklanon (960 / 1332)

paráwsailboat (PWMP: *padaw)

pa-sákitto cause/inflict suffering on (PMP: *pa-sakit) *sakit

pa-síkatto be a show-off, exhibit one’s prowess conceitedly (PPH: *pa-sikat) *sikát

pa-sósoto suckle, breastfeed (PAN: *pa-susu) *susu₁

páspasto hurry up, speed up, go faster; fast, quick, hurried; rash, too quick (PPH: *paspás₄)

pa-tábasto have tailor-made, bring to a tailor (PWMP: *tabas₂)

pa-ta-likódto make someone turn around; to do behind one’s back (PMP: *ta-likud) *likud

pa-táwadto forgive (PWMP: *tawaD)

p-atáykill (person, animal); put out, turn off (a light); corpse, dead person (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

patáy-pátay"dead", poor, slim, inadequate, lousy (PMP: *p-atay) *aCay

pa-táʔaslet get taller, let grow (PMP: *atas) *aCas

patíkbeat, rhythm, count (in music) drumstick (PWMP: *pa(n)tik)

pa-túboʔto let grow; lend with/on interest (PPh: *pa-tubuq) *Cubuq

pa-túeogto put to sleep, hypnotize (PWMP: *pa-tuduR) *tuduR

pa-túeoʔto let trickle or drip (PAN: *tuduq)

pa-tukár-onsteep, uphill (PWMP: *tukad₂)

pa-udtoh-óngibbous (waning); 3rd quarter (PPh: *uRtuh)

pa-úliʔhave (something) returned; ask to return (PMP: *pa-uliq) *uliq₁

pa-útaŋcredit; lend money; give, extend credit (PWMP: *pa-qutaŋ) *qutaŋ

pawíkanlarge sea turtle (PPH: *pawikan)

Aklanon (980 / 1332)

páypayto beckon to, call over by waving one’s hands (PPH: *paypáy)

páʔathigh, upper leg (PAN: *paqa₁)

paʔítbitterness (PMP: *paqit₂) *paqiC

píhakto cut into two equal parts; halve (PWMP: *pihak)

pihákthe other side; half (PWMP: *pihak)

pihak-ánuneven-sized, one is larger than the other (PWMP: *pihak-an) *pihak

pikíttight; get tight(er) or more crowded (PMP: *pikit)

píkpikpat with one's hand (PAN: *pikpik)

piláhow much? [money], how many? [in quantity] (PAN: *pija)

piláŋ kasome, a few (PAN: *pija)

pili-li-ánelection(s); choosing (PAN: *piliq)

pílitto force, compel, insist on (PPH: *pílit) *pílit₁

pílitglue, paste (PMP: *pilit) *pilit₂

pilítto glue, stick together, fasten with paste (PMP: *pilit) *pilit₂

píliʔto select, choose, pick out; to take out any bad or ruined grains from rice pile (PAN: *piliq)

pilóʔfold, bend, crease; hem (of dress) (PMP: *piluq)

p<in>ilí-anleftovers (after others have taken the best) (PMP: *piliq-an) *piliq

pisíksplatter, fly off in all directions (PMP: *picik)

pitákgranary, warehouse (for grain) (PWMP: *pitak₂)

pitóseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

Aklanon (1000 / 1332)

poʔpoʔgather, harvest (fruits) (PMP: *puqpuq)

puea(h)become red or reddish (PMP: *pula₁)

púeohandle of a bolo (PAN: *pulu₁) *pulu

pueótsticky sap, syrup (PMP: *pulut)

púgaʔto wring out, squeeze (to get out excess water) (PMP: *peReq)

púliŋto get something in one’s eye, get blinded (with foreign elements in the eye) (PWMP: *puliŋ₂)

púnaytype of dove (PAN: *punay)

puno-ánleader, leadership (PWMP: *puqun-an) *puqun

púnoʔtree, trunk (of tree); base, bottom; beginning, start; leader, head (PMP: *puqun)

punóʔfull; to fill up (as a bottle with liquid) (PMP: *penuq)

púsodnavel, belly button (PMP: *pusej)

púsoʔbanana flower, banana heart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

putíʔto become white(r) (PMP: *putiq)

pútorice bread (PPH: *putu)

putóeshort, brief; trimmed, clipped; cut off, amputated; to shorten, clip off; amputate (PMP: *putul) *putun

puyómudfish (PWMP: *puyu₁)

sareferent marker, used to illustrate locations, indirect objects, beneficiaries and agents in causative constructions; it is also used to indicate future time with any words stating time (PAN: *sa₂)

sabáwjuice; soup, broth (PWMP: *sa(m)baw)

sábodto feed (fowl or poultry) (PWMP: *sabuD)

sáboŋcockfight, cockfighting (PWMP: *sabuŋ)

Aklanon (1020 / 1332)

sabótpubic hair (PWMP: *sabut)

sábsabto lap up. drink (with tongue), said of animals (PAN: *sabsab)

sabsáb-anfeeding trough (PAN: *sabsab)

sábwagto sow, to scatter (seeds); to broadcast seeds (PPH: *sabuag)

sábʔasmall round banana, good for cooking, Musa sapientum var. compressa (PWMP: *sabeqa)

sábʔitto hang up (on the wall) (PMP: *saqebit)

saeápaŋspear, javelin (PWMP: *sarapaŋ)

saeápidto braid, entwine (PWMP: *salapid)

saeáʔsin, error, mistake, wrongdoing; to err, make a mistake, do wrong (PMP: *salaq₁)

sáeodcatch a dripping liquid like tuba (coconut wine) (PWMP: *saluD)

saeódvessel used for gathering tuba (PWMP: *saluD)

saeógsplit bamboo stick (used for flooring); floor (PMP: *saleR)

sáeoŋsap of tree (PAN: *saleŋ)

ságocarrion, dead or decaying flesh or body (PWMP: *saRu₂)

sagocarrion, dead/decaying flesh or body (PWMP: *sagu₂)

sago(h)ball of starch made from araro (arrow root), and used in desserts (PMP: *sagu₁)

ságʔobto fetch water, get water; bamboo container about two meters long used to fetch water—carried on shoulder (PPH: *saR(e)qeb)

sa idáeomunderneath (PAN: *sa₂)

sakáyride (on), travel (on), get on (vehicle), mount (an animal) (PMP: *sakay₁)

sakítillness, ailment, infirmity; to be hurt by, suffer from; to hurt (physically), cause pain (PMP: *sakit)

Aklanon (1040 / 1332)

salídsidto slice thinly, cut near or on the surface (PPH: *sarijsij)

sa Lúneson Monday (PAN: *sa₂)

sámbitto speak of, mention (PWMP: *sa(m)bit)

saŋáa branch; to branch off (river); produce branches (tree) (PMP: *saŋa₁)

saŋáynamesake, person having the same first name (PWMP: *saŋay)

saŋgáɁbase, platform; dish of water used to keep ants from getting into another container on that dish (PWMP: *saŋgaq)

sáŋitto get entangled, get tangled up, delayed, get hung up (PPH: *saq(e)ŋit)

sáŋkaptool, utensil; well-equipped, complete, having all that is needed (NEAR)

saŋ-kurótlittle, few, a little bit, just a little (PWMP: *kezut₂) *kezut

sáŋsaŋbe harsh on, be stern with (PPH: *saŋsáŋ)

sapáɁpond, small lake (PAN: *sapaq₁)

sapáɁ-sápaɁpond, very small lake (PAN: *sapaq₁)

sapáɁ-sapáɁ-anoverflooded in areas, covered with puddles, ponds (PAN: *sapaq₁)

sapínshoes (PPH: *sapín)

sápsapfish sp. (PPH: *sapsap₂)

sápsapchip, piece of; to chip off, get a piece of (PWMP: *sapsap₁)

sapúpo(h)to nurse back to health; revive, help (the sick) (PPH: *sapupu)

sári-sáriassorted, varied, different; sári-sári store (LOAN)

sasánipa leaves (for roofing) (PMP: *sasah)

sasá(h)to derib nipa leaves (PMP: *sasah)

Aklanon (1060 / 1332)

sawásnake (generic term) (PMP: *sawa)

sawáliʔwoven bamboo (< Tagalog) (LOAN)

sáwa-sáwagame where a group of people line up, hold on to the waist of the one in front of each, and follow the leader (PMP: *sawa)

sáysayto tell, relate, describe, narrate (PPH: *sáysay)

sitopic marker for the name of a person or a pet, denoting the singular (PAN: *si₁)

síbaɁto devour, swallow (said of large animals, as a crocodile) (PPH: *sibáq)

sibítto scratch or cut out (a sliver or thorn embedded) (PPH: *sibít)

sígasparkle, shine (PMP: *siRa₂)

sígato sparkle, shine (PMP: *sigá)

sigáysea shell --- used as toy by children or as gambling pieces by some gamblers (PWMP: *sígay)

sí<g>lak-sí<g>lakto shine, radiate (PMP: *sirak₁)

síkadto press/push with one’s foot; brace oneself; to kick (PPH: *sikad)

sikátpopular, popularly accepted; “cool”, “groovy”, “neat” (PPH: *sikát)

síkoelbow (PAN: *siku₁)

síkoeto elbow, hit with elbow (PMP: *siŋkul)

síkuto elbow, hit with elbow (PAN: *siku₁)

sílaksunshine, sunlight; to shine (of the sun) (PMP: *silak)

siŋkamástuber --- yam bean (Pachyrrhizus erosus) (LOAN)

síŋkitalmondine (eyes) (PPH: *siŋkít)

sipíɁsection, as of an orange or jackfruit (PPH: *sipíq)

Aklanon (1080 / 1332)

sípitcarry under one’s arm (PAN: *sipit)

sipítlarge tongs (used for asjusting a fire); hairpin (PAN: *sipit)

sítsitto hiss; call a person with “pssst” (PMP: *sitsit) *sitsit₁

sósofemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

súbsubto be headed downwards; dip; fall headlong; have the front down (PPH: *sebseb)

súdlaycomb; to comb out (NEAR)

súdsudblade of plow (PPH: *sudsud₂)

súdsudblade of plow (PPH: *sedsed₃)

sueóʔtorch; to use as a torch (PMP: *suluq)

súesueto ignite, set on fire, kindle (PPH: *súlsul)

súgodbite, sting (said of insects) (PWMP: *seRed)

súkato vomit (out), throw up (PPH: *suka₂)

súksukhouse lizard (small) (PWMP: *cekcek)

súmpaʔpromise, oath, pledge, vow (in good connotation); curse (in bad connotation); to vow, swear, promise; to curse (PWMP: *sumpaq)

súmpitto jet out, splurt, squirt (out); blowgun (PMP: *sumpit)

súmpoŋto ‘blow up’, get/become hot-headed (LOAN)

súndaŋknife (LOAN)

súndaŋknife (LOAN)

súntokto rap or hit with one’s knuckles, especially on the head (PPH: *suntúk)

súntokrap or hit with one's knuckles (ROOT)

Aklanon (1100 / 1332)

súntokrap or hit with one's knuckles (ROOT)

súŋayhorn (of animals) (PPH: *suŋay)

súŋitserious, solemn, crabby, out of sorts (PWMP: *seŋit)

súŋo“whisker” of shrimps (PWMP: *suŋu₁)

súŋsuŋstopper, cork; to cork up, stop up, put a stopper in (PWMP: *suŋsuŋ₂)

supáʔto munch on, chew thoroughly with the pupose of getting out the juice or the flavor (PWMP: *sepaq)

súpotpaper or cloth bag (PPH: *súput)

súyodsteel-spiked harrow; to harrow with this implement (LOAN)

táanfish net (across river) (PAN: *taqan₁)

tabákswordlike beak (of a swordfish); long pin, hat pin (PPH: *tabák)

tábansnatch with one’s jaws (like a dog stealing food) (PMP: *taban) *tabaN

tábaŋto help, assist (PMP: *tabaŋ)

tábasto cut into shape, tailor (PWMP: *tabas₂)

tabáʔfat, stout, plump (PWMP: *tabeq)

tabídattach, join (PWMP: *ta(m)bid)

tábogto shoo, scare away (PPH: *tabug)

tabógsomething used to shoo away (flies) (PPH: *tabug)

tábogto shoo, scare away (PPH: *tabuR₂)

tabógsomething used to shoo away (flies) (PPH: *tabuR₂)

tábtabto chop, cut (up) (PWMP: *tabtab₁)

Aklanon (1120 / 1332)

ta-bulíʔturn the rear to (PMP: *buliq₂)

ta-bulíʔturn the rear to (NOISE)

tábʔáŋfresh drinking water; insipid, flat, tasteless (PWMP: *taq(e)baŋ)

tábʔaŋfresh drinking water; insipid, flat, tasteless, flavorless (PWMP: *taq(e)baŋ)

tádtadto hack, hit repeatedly with a blade (PWMP: *tadtád)

tadtar-ánchopping block, cutting board (PPH: *tadtad-án) *tadtád

taeabáoyster (PPH: *talaba)

t<ae>ámn-anfield [for planting] (PAN: *tanem-an) *CaNem

taeómsharp-edged, razor-sharp (PMP: *tazem) *Cazem

táeonfield; underdeveloped or overgrown land (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

táetaeto remove, take down (PWMP: *taltal₁)

tagá-noun prefix denoting a place of origin or where a person hails from, often thought of as an equivalent for the English preposition “from” (LOAN)

taga-búkidperson from the mountains (derogatory, implying backwardness) (PAN: *bukij)

taga-liʔóg“neck-deep” (in troubles), be on edge, edgy (PAN: *liqeR)

tágayto pour out (slowly) (PPH: *tágay)

tagáʔto strike with a sharp object (PAN: *taRaq₁)

tagáʔhook (LOAN)

tag-b-ue-uŋáfruit-bearing season (PMP: *buŋaₐ) *buŋa

tag-búhatcraftsman, creator (PMP: *buhat₂)

tag-íhiʔfeel like urinating (PMP: *ihiq) *iSiq

Aklanon (1140 / 1332)

tagi-pusóʔ-onheart (PMP: *pusuq₁)

tágkosbinder, a piece of cloth wrapped around a painful part of the body, usually head or waist (PPH: *tagkes)

tagómmedicinal tree (PMP: *taRum)

tahíʔto sew (manaN-, paN-) (PMP: *tahiq) *CaqiS

tahópto sift (PMP: *tahep) *tapeS

táistool, feces; to defecate (PMP: *taqi) *Caqi

tákaŋto totter, half walk (said of baby only) (PPH: *tákaŋ)

tákawsteal, take (without permission) (PMP: *takaw₁) *Cakaw

tákbato service, engage in intercourse (like animals, from behind rather than in front) (PPH: *takbá)

ta-likódto turn one’s back to; turn one’s back on, refuse help; give up (PMP: *ta-likud) *likud

talinuman herb: Talinum triangulare (PPH: *talínum)

talísaytree with edible nut: Terminalia catappa L. (PMP: *talisay)

tamádto feel lazy, not feel like working; a lazy person (LOAN)

tamárawspecies of wild carabao found only on Mindoro (PWMP: *tamadaw)

támaʔright, correct, enough; to hit directly, make a bullseye, hit straight on (PMP: *tamaq₁)

támbaemedicine: coagulant; to stop bleeding (PMP: *tambar)

támbakpile; to pile up (one on top of another); fill (hole) (PMP: *tambak₂)

támbawbe over one another, overlapping (ROOT)

tamíloklarge edible worm found in trees (PWMP: *tamiluk)

tamíŋshield (PMP: *tamiŋ)

Aklanon (1160 / 1332)

tamíʔtest food, taste (using one's finger) (PMP: *tamiq)

támpoemedicinal leaf used as plaster (PMP: *tapel) *Capel

támsakto splash, splatter (ROOT)

támsiksplash, splatter (ROOT)

tanaŋáwrice bug (damages rice by sucking the unripe grains) (PWMP: *tanaŋaw)

taníŋlimit (to life); predestination (LOAN)

tánomrice seedling, rice shoot (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tanómto plant (PMP: *tanem) *CaNem

tánʔawto see, look at (PPH: *taq(e)náw)

taŋáscatter-brained, absent-minded, foolish, gullible (PMP: *taŋa) *taŋa₁

taŋáʔto look upward (PWMP: *taŋaq₂)

táŋeadlemon grass (used for seasoning): Andropogon citratus DC (PMP: *taŋelaj) *Caŋelaj

taŋígilarge, delicious fish (PMP: *taŋiRi)

taŋílshim, something used to level off an unbalanced table or chair that is wobbling (PPH: *taŋíl)

táŋisto cry, bawl (tears) (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

táŋpaʔto pay tax for (PPH: *taŋpaq)

tápadried meat (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

tapá(h)to dry out (PMP: *tapa₁) *Capa

tapah-ándrying rack (PWMP: *tapa-an) *Capa

tápayyeast (PWMP: *tapay)

Aklanon (1180 / 1332)

tápiʔboard, lumber (PPH: *tapiq₁)

tapósto finish, complete, end, come to a close (PAN: *tapus)

tásikbrine, salty water (PMP: *tasik)

tátlothree (PAN: *ta-telu) *telu

tátlo(h)to raise or lower to three, make three (PAN: *ta-telu) *telu

táwaddiscount (PWMP: *tawaD)

tawágto call (for), page (PWMP: *tawaR₂)

táwoperson, people; man (PMP: *tau₁) *Cau

tayáʔa bet, wager; to bet, wager something (PPH: *tayáq)

táʔasbecome taller, grow taller; raise, elevate (PMP: *atas) *aCas

taʔónfish trap in river (PMP: *taqen)

tiáwa delicious soft-boned fish (PMP: *tiqaw₂) *Ciqaw

tibókto beat, thump (said of the heart) (PAN: *tibuk)

tígisto pour out (PMP: *tiRis)

tig-pitóseven-by-seven, seven at a time (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

tigú-dwatwo by two, two at a time (PMP: *duha) *duSa

tíktikwitch, evil spirit (in form of bird or human -- named after the sound it makes (PMP: *tiktik)

tíktikdetective, spy, agent (PPH: *tiktík)

t<il>ipon-ánplace of assembly (PPH: *típun)

tímbaŋto balance, compare weight; equate; partner, pair (PWMP: *timbaŋ)

Aklanon (1200 / 1332)

tímogthe east wind (PMP: *timuR)

timónrudder of a boat; to steer, man the helm (LOAN)

t<in>ábasrags; clothing scraps (PWMP: *tabas₂)

t-in-uhog-anpierced ears (for earrings) (PMP: *tuhuR) *CuSuR

tínʔawto become clear or clean (PMP: *tin(e)qaw)

tiŋáfood particles caught between teeth (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

tíŋgilclitoris (PPH: *tuŋgíl)

tíŋkoʔclink, hit lightly against (as glasses carried in a tray) (PMP: *tiŋkuq)

típonto gather, collect, assemble (non-homogeneous things) (PPH: *típun)

títinipple, teat (childrens word) (PMP: *titi)

tiyánstomach, abdomen; womb (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tiyan-ánhaving a large, curved stomach; fish with a big stomach (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tubashrub, nut, medicinal: Jatropha curcas L. (PAN: *tuba)

túbasto end, finish off (harvesting) (PWMP: *tebas₁)

tubáʔto cut down bananas (PAN: *tebaS)

tubósugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₁) *tebuS

tubódflow out, gush, well up (said of liquids) (PAN: *Cebuj)

tubóehard, dry stool (feces) (PPH: *tebel₁)

tubor-ánspring, well (PAN: *Cebuj)

túboʔto grow, sprout, develop; increase; interest on loan, growth (PMP: *tubuq, tumbuq) *Cubuq

Aklanon (1220 / 1332)

tueáya bridge (PPH: *tuláy)

túeogto be asleep; to sleep off/through (PAN: *tuduR)

túeotto permit, allow (NOISE)

túeoʔto drip, leak (of faucet, water) (PAN: *tuduq)

t-ue-úbd-anspout, place where water flows out (PAN: *Cebuj)

t<ue>ún-anbook, textbook (PPH: *tuqun₂)

túgonto order, request (PWMP: *tuRun₂)

túgonto order, request (PPH: *tugen)

túgotto permit, allow (PWMP: *tuRut)

tugótstring of/for kite (PWMP: *tuRut)

túhodknee (PMP: *tuhud) *tuduS

túhogpierce, pass or cut through, penetrate (PMP: *tuhuR) *CuSuR

tukádto go out of town; to go uphill (PWMP: *tukad₂)

tukónbamboo pole (PMP: *teken)

túktukto chop continually; tenderize (meat) by pounding it with a blade (PAN: *tektek₁)

tulíear wax; ear drainage (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

túliʔto circumcise (PPH: *turiq)

tulíʔcircumcised (PPH: *turiq)

túmanobey, follow, oblige (PWMP: *tuman)

túnawto melt, dissolve (PPH: *túnaw)

Aklanon (1240 / 1332)

túnaypure, true, genuine, real, actual (PWMP: *tunay₂)

tuŋáwvery, very small red insect (PWMP: *tuŋaw₁)

túŋaʔto cut in half (PMP: *teŋaq)

tuŋáʔone half; middle (PMP: *teŋaq)

tuŋógtree with bark used as food coloring (PMP: *teŋeR)

túŋtuŋstand on; upon; be on top (of); step on (PMP: *tuŋtuŋ₂)

tuŋtúŋ-anplatform, stage (PMP: *tuŋtuŋ₂)

tuódstump of a tree (PAN: *tuqed)

tuónto study; learn (PPH: *tuqun₂)

tupádto go or be side-by-side with (PPH: *tupáj)

túpoŋto level, make equal (PPH: *tepeŋ₂)

tupóŋlevel, equal; enjoying/having the same privileges (PPH: *tepeŋ₂)

turósto squeeze, crush with one’s fingernails (as lice) (PWMP: *tedes)

turóʔto teach (a subject), point out (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

tústusto lower, let down, loosen (PPH: *tustus₁)

tuwádput one's rear end out to, bend over and stick one's buttocks toward (PWMP: *tuaj)

tuwádput one’s rear end out to, bend over and stick one’s buttocks toward (PPH: *tuád)

tuwáyclam --- shell (PMP: *tuay)

túyoʔpurpose, aim, intention (PPH: *tuyuq)

úaŋto howl, cry, screech (about) (PAN: *quaŋ₂)

Aklanon (1260 / 1332)

úbangray hair (PMP: *quban) *qubaN

ubán-ongray-haired, having gray hair (PWMP: *quban-en) *qubaN

úbipurple yam: Dioscorea alata (PMP: *qubi)

úbodthe inner white part of the trunk of banana, nipa or coconut palms; core, pith (PMP: *qubud)

údtoabout directly overhead (in the sky) (PPh: *uRtuh)

ueánrain; rain water; to rain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

ueáŋriver shrimp (PAN: *qudaŋ)

ueátscab, scar; miscolored skin (left by a wound); to heal, form a scar (said of a wound) (PWMP: *ulat)

úeh-anthe head, top (of bed) (PMP: *qulu-an) *quluh

úeodstomach worm(s) (PMP: *qulej)

úeo(h)head (PMP: *qulu) *quluh

ueónlie down, rest one's head on a pillow (PMP: *qulun₂)

ueótinterval, space, unit of space (PMP: *qelet) *qeleC

ugáliʔcustom, tradition; habit (PWMP: *ugáliq)

ugámcoating or deposit on the tongue when one is sick, resulting in bad-tasting food or drink (PMP: *guham) *guSam

ugátblood vein; tendon (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

ugótbe angry; get peeved (ROOT)

ugtoat the zenith, directly overhead; half moon (waxing or waning) (PPh: *uRtuh)

úhawbe thirsty (PAN: *quSaw)

úhaystalk (of rice) (PPh: *quhay)

Aklanon (1280 / 1332)

úhoŋmushroom (PAN: *quSuŋ)

ulíhi(h)be late, tardy; behind; later on (PMP: *udehi)

úliŋcharcoal; make charcoal out of (PAN: *qujiŋ)

ulíŋ-onany wood or substance to be made into charcoal (PPh: *qujiŋ-en) *qujiŋ

úliʔreturn, bring/give (something) back (PMP: *uliq₁)

ulíʔgo home, return (to one's place, country) (PMP: *uliq₁)

-um-verbal infix used on command or conditioned forms (PMP: *<um>₂) *-um-

umá(h)parm; plantation; field(s) (PMP: *quma) *qumah

umánnext time; repetition; repeat, do again, do over (PAN: *quman)

úmaŋhermit crab (PAN: *qumaŋ)

úmoepress with one's palm, squeeze into small balls (PPh: *qemel)

úmʔumsuck on, dissolve in the mouth without swallowing, as is done to medicine or candy (PAN: *qemqem)

únafirst; go first, go ahead, precede (PMP: *unah)

únatstretch, straighten out; unbend, unkink (PPh: *uñat)

únl-anpillow, cushion (PMP: *qulun-an) *qulun₂

unódmeat, flesh, muscle (PMP: *qunej)

únosbe in motion; blow (wind), flow (water) (PMP: *qunus)

úntayto stretch, straighten out, extend (PWMP: *quntay₁)

uŋáecry out, scream (PMP: *quŋal)

uŋáʔchild; son/daughter; give birth (humans) (PPh: *uŋaq)

Aklanon (1300 / 1332)

upárice husk (PWMP: *qepah)

úpakskin, peeling (of fruits, vegetables); rind; to peel, take off (the skin or peeling) (PWMP: *upak₁)

úpawfall out (said of hair) (NOISE)

upóŋgather stalks of rice and bundle them together during the harvest (PAN: *qupuŋ)

upósconsumed, used up; cigarette butt (PMP: *upus)

usá(h)deer (PWMP: *u(R)sah)

usokpole (of a fence), fencepole (PMP: *usuk)

usókpole (of a fence) (PMP: *u(n)sek)

utáka blunted knife (used for weeding) (PPh: *eták)

útanvegetables (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

útaŋdebt; owe to, be indebted to (PMP: *qutaŋ)

utásslash, cut off (with a blade) (PWMP: *etas)

utásslash, cut off (with a blade) (PWMP: *qutas)

utógerection of penis; to erect, be sexually excited (penis) (PAN: *qeCuR)

utógerection (of penis); to erect, become sexually excited (penis) (PPh: *utúg)

útogbe/get sexually excited (PPh: *utúg)

útokbrain (PMP: *hutek)

útok it bulináwdull, stupid, brainless (PPh: *bulínaw)

utótflatulence; let some gas (PMP: *qetut₂) *qetut

utótflatulence, bad air, fart (PMP: *qutut)

Aklanon (1320 / 1332)

uwákcrow (PMP: *uak₁)

uwáyrattan (PAN: *quay)

waeáʔdisappear, become nothing; run out of; left without (PWMP: *wada-q) *wada

waeóeight (PAN: *walu)

wágwagrice (traditional variety) (PPh: *wagwág₁)

wákatroots of mangrove trees (PMP: *wakat)

wakwáklarge bat-like creature (believed to be a witch's messenger) (PAN: *wakwak)

wáliŋ-wáliŋorchid (LOAN)

wásayaxe; chop with an axe (PWMP: *wasay)

wáswasshake (off), rid something of dirt (PPh: *waswás₁)

wawáʔmouth of a river (PPh: *wáwaq)

wíʔwiʔsplit open further (e.g. a buttonhole), enlarge by splitting (PPh: *wíqwiq)

10. Alas (22) WMP (Akbar, Ahmaddin and Mardjo 1985) [btz] (Batak Alas-Kluet) Indonesia (Sumatra)

abetcoil; cloth that is wound around the body (PWMP: *ambet)

abinhug a child who is cold (PMP: *qabin)

asakstuff or press in (PWMP: *qasak)

bayoubrother-in-law (woman speaking), sister-in-law (man speaking) (PWMP: *bayaw)

burikspotted, striped (PWMP: *burik)

lakihusband (PMP: *laki)

lateŋstinging nettle (PMP: *lateŋ) *laCeŋ

limefive (PAN: *lima)

linurearthquake (PAN: *linuR)

lisenit, louse egg (PMP: *lisehaq, liseqah) *liseqeS

saburscatter seed, sow (PMP: *sabuR)

sandarlean against (PWMP: *sandaR)

sawepython (PMP: *sawa)

sikuelbow (PAN: *siku₁)

siresalt (PAN: *qasiRa)

susunstack up (PMP: *susun) *susuN

taŋkowto steal (PMP: *takaw₁) *Cakaw

terepforest tree with fruit similar to breadfruit (PWMP: *teRep)

tuhutrue; truly, really (PMP: *tuqu₂)

ubunfontanel (PWMP: *ubun (ubun))

Alas (20 / 22)

udanrain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

utahvomit (PAN: *utaq)

11. Ali (2) OC

lasto sniff, smell (POC: *acok) *Sajek

tapu-ŋyoung drinking coconut (POC: *tabʷa)

Alu (92) OC. see: Mono-Alu

Alumbis Murut (7) WMP. see: Murut (Tagol)

12. Alune (95) CMP (Niggemeyer 1951-52) [alp] Indonesia (Maluku)

aiwood; tree (PCEMP: *kayu₁) *kaSiw

ai-lamut-itree root (PMP: *Ramut)

aku~ au1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

alakwehornbill (PMP: *kalaw)

amafather (PAN: *ama)

ami1pl. excl., we, us (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

amu2pl. possessive, your (PMP: *kamu₂) *amu

anuflow, stream (PAN: *qañud)

asudog (PAN: *asu₁)

babaabove, on top (PAN: *babaw₃)

besay, tell (PCMP: *bei)

bedapowder (LOAN)

betasibling of opposite sex (PMP: *betaw)

betuwake up; emerge, appear suddenly; be awake (PMP: *betu)

binawoman; female (PCEMP: *b<in>ai) *bahi

boi-niits stench; stench of (PMP: *bahuq)

buafruit (PMP: *buaq)

bualeap up (PMP: *buhat₃)

bua-inumeral classifier for roundish objects such as eggs, pearls, heads, etc. (PMP: *buaq)

bubuleinsect, beetle, worm; wood worm (PMP: *buRbuR₂)

Alune (20 / 95)

bukato open (PMP: *buka)

bukademolish (PMP: *buŋkaR)

bulanemoon, month (PMP: *bulan₃) *bulaN

bulibear fruit (PMP: *buliR)

buli-nia cluster of fruit (PMP: *buliR)

bulufeather, fur (PCEMP: *bulu₃) *bulu₁

bunukill (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

bunu-eextinguish (PMP: *bunuq₂) *buNuq₂

busukstinking, rotten (PMP: *busuk)

busulepig trap; spring-set spear trap; hunting bow (PMP: *busuR) *busuR₂

butu-iheap, pile (PCEMP: *butu₂) *butu

esaone (PAN: *esa)

ianefish (PMP: *hikan) *Sikan

ilahow much? how many? (PAN: *pija)

ile3pl., they, them (PMP: *ida)

itewe, us (incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

ituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

kaneto eat (PAN: *kaen)

kenabe hit, injured (PMP: *kena₁)

keteto bite (PMP: *keteb)

Alune (40 / 95)

keteto bite (PMP: *ketep₁)

-ku, au... -ku1sg possessive suffix (PAN: *-ku)

kutulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCu

kʷalaspider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

kwalisibling of the same sex (PCEMP: *waji) *Suaji

kwalueight (PAN: *walu)

kwelewater; river (PCEMP: *waiR₁) *wahiR

laidirt (PMP: *daki₂) *daki

lalablood; red (PAN: *daRaq)

lalanepath, road (PMP: *zalan)

laleheart, inner part; contents (PMP: *dalem)

lanitesky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

lapiasago (PMP: *Rambia)

latalelevel land, plain (PAN: *dataR)

latuvillage head (PMP: *datu)

leneto hear (PMP: *deŋeR)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

loi-niits leaf; leaf of (PMP: *dahun)

luatwo; both (PMP: *duha) *duSa

maito come; here (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

Alune (60 / 95)

ma-kwayawn (PCEMP: *mawab) *Suab

malilaugh (PCEMP: *malip)

m-anuflow, stream; float away; carried off on a current (PAN: *ma-qañud) *qañud

manuebird (PMP: *manuk)

masacooked, done; ripe, mature (PMP: *ma-qesak) *qesak

masacooked, done; ripe, mature (PAN: *ma-Sasak) *Sasak

matadead, die (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

mataeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata-ledead (PCEMP: *matay₁) *aCay

mata-losiwindow (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matua-neold man (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

ma-tulusleep (PMP: *ma-tuduR) *tuduR

meteneblack (PCEMP: *ma-qitem, ma-qétem) *qitem

mtuaold (PMP: *ma-tuqah) *tuqaS

m-uliafter, behind; to follow (PCEMP: *m-udi) *udehi

nabuto fall, drop (PMP: *nabuq)

nikwelecoconut (PMP: *niuR)

ninureflection (PMP: *qaninu) *qaNiŋu

nunubanyan (PMP: *nunuk)

nusaisland, land (PMP: *nusa₁)

Alune (80 / 95)

sanabranch (PMP: *saŋa₁)

susufemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

tabuliconch shell trumpet (PMP: *tabuRi)

tamataperson (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

tauneyear (PMP: *taqun)

təluthick (PCEMP: *təlu)

teluthree (PAN: *telu)

teta ~ tetecut off, chop off, split into two pieces (PAN: *tektek₁)

tia-belly (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tibalegong (PCMP: *tibal)

ulanerain (PMP: *quzan) *quzaN

uleneearthenware cooking pot (PAN: *kuden)

upugrandparent/grandchild (PMP: *umpu)

uri buli-nia stalk of bananas (PMP: *buliR)

utanewild vegetables (PMP: *qutan) *quCaN

13. Amara (22) OC (Thurston 1987)

a-puacrocodile (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

emekbird (POC: *manuk)

-into drink (PMP: *inum)

-k1sg possessive suffix; my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

kat-kateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

-keneat (POC: *kani) *kaen

-lago (POC: *lako) *lakaw

-loŋoto hear (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

-mecome (POC: *mai) *ai₃

meteeye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

motoufear (POC: *matakut) *takut

o-loŋofly (insect) (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

o-puonet (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

-ponfull (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

-punto hit, kill (POC: *punuq₃) *buNuq₂

ruotwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

soŋoulten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

ta-manemale (PMP: *ma-Ruqanay) *RuqaNay

telthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

telŋe-ear (POC: *taliŋa) *Caliŋa

Amara (20 / 22)

temefather (PMP: *t-ama) *ama

tnemother (PMP: *t-ina) *ina

14. Ambai (6) SHWNG (Anceaux 1961) [amk] Indonesia (Papua)

atatbird with blue feathers that nests in the holes of trees (LOAN)

-humy, mine, marker of general possession (house, book, boat, etc.) (PAN: *-ku)

karacockatoo (PEMP: *kaRa)

tawaa tree: Pometia spp. (PMP: *tawan)

wefoot, leg (PAN: *waqay)

yau1sg. nominative pronoun: I (PAN: *aku)

15. Amblau (2) CMP (Stresemann 1927, van der Miesen 1911) [amv] (Ambelau) Indonesia (Maluku)

lanaoil (van der Miesen) (PMP: *laña)

matecuscus (PCEMP: *mansər) *mansar

16. Amblong (1) OC (Tryon 1976)

tšamanaoutrigger (POC: *saman) *saReman

Ambon Malay (2) WMP. see: Malay (Ambon)

Amganad Ifugaw (2) WMP. see: Ifugaw (Amganad)

17. Amis (564) Form. (Fey 1986) [ami] Taiwan (dialects: Utrecht ms. 1, Central (Blust 2002) [ami] 3, Kiwit (Ogawa 1933, Ferrell 1979) 27)

aa connecting particle with some of the meaning of "and"; modifying particle (PAN: *a₅)

akuŋcrooked (ROOT)

alato take (PAN: *ala)

ala-enbe taken (PAN: *ala-en) *ala

alafohdust blown by the wind (ROOT)

alunahlarge variety of ant (PAN: *alujah) Kiwit

amafather (Hualien county) (PAN: *ama)

ano-cilatomorrow (PAN: *siRa₁) Kiwit

anu-sauniafter, later (Tsuchida 1976) (PAN: *Sauni)

anu-tsilatomorrow (PAN: *siRa₁) Kiwit

apaclate in arising; slow to arrive; primitive (NOISE)

apekpowder, flour (ROOT)

atalet's go! (PAN: *ata₁)

ayáexclamation showing displeasure or question (PAN: *aya₁)

ayaexclamation showing displeasure or question (NOISE)

ayaexclamation showing displeasure or question (NOISE)

canominative case marker for plural personal names (PAN: *sa₁)

cadiwto sharpen (PAN: *saNiw)

cafaycompanion to do something (PAN: *sabay₁)

cahdalcome out, of the sun between rain showers (PAN: *sah(e)NaR)

Amis (20 / 564)

cahdalthe condition when the sun comes out for a moment between rain showers (PAN: *saheNaR)

cakalmuzzle for ox, water buffalo (PAN: *sakal)

cakatarise, go up (PAN: *sakat)

cakcakcut into pieces with a machete, as sweet potatoes; hoe ground until it is well tilled (PAN: *saksak₁)

caleŋpine tree or wood (PAN: *saleŋ)

caliwborrow, lend (PAN: *saliw)

camolmixture (PAN: *samuR)

caŋrayto lean back against something (PAN: *saŋeday)

capetto grab with the hand; catch (PAN: *sapet)

cekcekto press, crowd together, shake down (of people, grain, etc.) (PAN: *seksek₁)

celcelslip through a crowded place (PAN: *selsel₁)

celemto sink into (as setting sun); dive into the water (PAN: *selem₁)

ceŋettick (insect) (PAN: *seŋet₂) Kiwit

cepcepto suck (as a mosquito sucking blood) (PAN: *sepsep)

cfosto splash liquid or water on something (PAN: *sebuS)

ciproper name prefix (PAN: *si₁)

cidalsun (PAN: *siNaR)

cikoelbow; intersection, corner (PAN: *siku₁)

cila-cilafrequently (PAN: *siRa₁) Kiwit

cila satonext day (PAN: *siRa₁) Kiwit

Amis (40 / 564)

ci-losaʔto have tears (PAN: *luSeq)

c-imawho? (PAN: *si-ima) *ima

c-ima c-imawhoever (PAN: *si-ima) *ima

c-ima c-ima-anto whomever (PAN: *si-ima) *ima

ci-mataable to see; to wear glasses (PAN: *maCa)

ci-tiyad-to cigrashe has a belly (i.e. she is pregnant) (PAN: *tiaN)

ciwciwbaby chick, baby bird (PAN: *siwsíw) *siwsiw

ckelbow the head (PAN: *sekel)

ckelbow the head (ROOT)

cmetan interval of sleep (NEAR)

cocobreast of a female; udder; teat (PAN: *susu₁)

cokcokto lock (PAN: *suksuk)

cokerto prop up, support, help, as the cross pole in the hitch of a wagon (PAN: *suked)

cokorwalking stick, cane (PAN: *sukud)

coledinsert; push inside a slot or opening; put into a handbag or basket (PAN: *suleN)

colireturn, retort (PAN: *suli₂)

copcopto suck (as a mosquito sucking blood) (PAN: *supsup)

cowiɁa bird, Common Sandpiper (appears at sunset with its call) (PAN: *suiq)

dateŋgeneric term for vegetables; any kind of cooked food served except rice (PAN: *NaCeŋ)

demdemendure, referring to illness or personal feelings (PAN: *demdem₁)

Amis (60 / 564)

dihifcave, den (PAN: *Nihib)

ditaʔa lump of clay for making pottery; clay; a type of soil (PAN: *diteq)

ditaʔclay (ROOT)

doʔesbone marrow (PAN: *NuqeS)

facaʔwash clothes (PAN: *baseq₁) *baseq

facfacto hit, strike -- as a child or a water buffalo (PAN: *basbas₁)

fadalthorny briar plant (PAN: *baNaR)

fafacarry a baby tied on one's back; to ride piggy back (PAN: *baba₁)

fa-fahiwife (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

fa-fahi-anfemale; woman (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

fafawheadwaters, source of a river; leaders with higher rank (PAN: *babaw₃)

fafoypig; wild boar (PAN: *babuy₃)

fafoy-anpigpen (PAN: *babuy-an) *babuy₃

fakecput a belt on (PAN: *bakes)

fakigrandfather (Ferrell 1969); uncle (the authoritiy figure in the home for giving instructions; Fey 1986) (PAN: *baki₂)

fakoŋname of an herb used on broken bones (PAN: *bakuŋ₁)

falahember (PAN: *baRah) Kiwit

falatcrossbeam in a house; horizontal, as opposed to vertical (PAN: *baRat₁)

falatcrossbeam in a house; horizontal, as opposed to vertical (PAN: *barat₁)

falaʔlung (PAN: *baRaq₁)

Amis (80 / 564)

faliwind (PAN: *bali₃)

faliwind, air (LOAN)

faliyostyphoon; monsoon winds and rain (PAN: *baRiuS)

faloeight (PAN: *walu)

falodto bind; a bundle (PAN: *baluN)

fanawto wash articles of any kind (not cloth) (PAN: *bañaw₁) *bañaw

fanawlake, pond (PAN: *banaw)

fanawlake, pond (LOAN)

fanaʔgeneric term for knowledge, including understanding what is heard (PAN: *bajaq₁) *bajaq

fanaʔgeneric form for knowledge (NOISE)

faniwmushrooms (PAN: *bajiw)

faŋasChinaberry tree: Melia azedarach (PAN: *baŋaS)

faŋawbedbug; flying insect (PAN: *baŋaw)

faŋesskin (PAN: *baŋeS)

fasawcooled off (PAN: *baSaw)

faʔigrandmother (PAN: *baqi) Central

faʔlohnew; renew (PAN: *baqeRuh)

fecolfull, satisfied from eating (PAN: *besuR)

fedfedbe bound with a lot of string wrapped around; ball of string with a hollow center (PAN: *bejbej₁) *bejbej

fedoledema, have fluids retained in one's flesh causing swelling (PAN: *bedul)

Amis (100 / 564)

fekotbend one's body, as to hump over double (PAN: *bekuC)

felacmilled rice grain (PAN: *beRas₁) *beRas

fesobloated; filled with air (stomach, bread, balloon); bladder (PAN: *beCuʔ)

fetakcracked; dry, as of soil (PAN: *betak₁) *betak

fetikwet fingers with wine and snap them to the gods; pluck the strings of a musical instrument (PAN: *betik₁) *betik

fickotto cramp, double up with pain; have a spasm, convulse (ROOT)

fikfikshake off, shake out (as clothing) (NOISE)

filaʔleaf used to wrap betel nut for chewing; plant sp. (PAN: *biRaq₁)

filfillips (PAN: *biRbiR)

firaŋanger (PAN: *biraŋ)

firaŋanger (NOISE)

fitokastomach, place where food is digested (PAN: *biCuka)

fitokoldried and bent over, though still alive (trees) (ROOT)

flatto flicker; light appearing and then disappearing, as of a lighted match (ROOT)

focolquiver, sheath for arrows (PAN: *busuR₂)

fofoa fish trap for catching fish and crabs in rivers (PAN: *bubu₂)

fofograndchild/grandparent (PAN: *bubu₆)

fohaŋlarge hole (PAN: *buhaŋ)

fohetsquirrel (PAN: *buhet)

foladmoon, month; menstruation cycle (PAN: *bulaN)

Amis (120 / 564)

folawto fight; war against, causing the community to leave (PAN: *buRaw)

folfolbreak into small pieces, to crumble (PAN: *bulbul₂)

foloddo or go together (PAN: *buluN)

foloʔspecies of bamboo that makes very small poles (PAN: *buluq₂)

fonorthe falling of dry twigs or leaves or fruit from a tree (NOISE)

fonosmachete (PAN: *bunuS)

foŋohhead (NOISE)

fotfotto pull up, as weeds (PAN: *buCbuC)

fowakto bubble, gurgle, motion of water (PAN: *buak)

hakaptouch lightly, intending to find out the identity of an object (ROOT)

hcekpost, wooden pillar (PAN: *hesek)

hcekpost, pillar (ROOT)

hcepsoak up (ROOT)

hicepto slurp water (PAN: *hisep)

hicepslurp water (ROOT)

hmaycooked rice (PAN: *Semay)

hokaʔloosen something that was tight, as a belt (PAN: *hukaq)

honi, soninoise, sound (PAN: *Suni)

igrammatical particle indicating place (PAN: *i₂)

iparticle indicating time past (NOISE)

Amis (140 / 564)

ikorafter, behind (PAN: *ikuD)

inamother (PAN: *ina)

ina-cilayesterday (PAN: *siRa₁) Kiwit

inihere, near at hand (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

iruswooden spoon (PAN: *qidus) Kiwit

isiʔurine, urinate (PAN: *iSiq)

iso2sg. (PAN: *iSu)

ka-connective in negative word combinations where ma- would be used in a positive statement (Fey 1986:370): caay ka-fanaɁ kako ‘I don’t know’ (cp. ma-fanaɁ kako ‘I know’) (PAN: *ka-₂)

ka-active verbal particle: ka-tayal ‘work as an activity not necessarily in process’ (cp. ma-tayal ‘refers to the activity of working’) (PAN: *ka-₅)

ka- -anformative for nouns of location; ka-tayal-an ‘place of business’ (cp. tayal ‘work’) (PAN: *ka- -an₂)

kaenpertaining to food (PAN: *kaen)

ka-fanaʔbe known (PAN: *ka-bajaq) *bajaq

kafitattached to, stuck to; to hang (PAN: *kabit₁)

kafoŋhat, anything worn on the head (LOAN)

kahotto take in one’s hands; a handful (NOISE)

kakaolder sibling (brother or sister); one more advanced than Ego; in a superior position (PAN: *kaka₂)

ka-kaen-enfood, things to eat (PAN: *ka-kaen-en) *kaen

ka-kawita small sickle (PAN: *kawit)

kako1sg.; I (PAN: *k-aku) *aku

ka-k<om>aen-antable, dining area (PAN: *ka-kaen-an) *kaen

Amis (160 / 564)

ka-lafi-andinner time (PAN: *ka-Rabi-an) *Rabiqi

kalaŋcrab (PAN: *ka-Rabi-an) *Rabiqi

kalaŋcrab (PAN: *gaRaŋ)

(ka)-lawalflying squirrel (PAN: *lawaR)

kaleŋa deep voice (ROOT)

kalichannels for water in the fields; ditch (PAN: *kali₁) *kali

kali-tosa-enbe divided into two (PAN: *duSa)

kaloŋkoŋthe echo of thunder (PAN: *kaluŋkuŋ)

kamay ~ kayamhands, including the arm (PAN: *kamay)

kamayaa bush, the Taiwan Ebony Velvet Apple: Diospyros discolor (PAN: *kamaya)

kami1pl. excl. nominative, we (PAN: *k-ami) *ami

kamo2pl. nominative, you all (PAN: *k-amu) *amu

kamorawpomelo (in some areas) (LOAN)

kanoosfingernail, toenail, claw (PAN: *k<aN>uSkuS) *kuSkuS₁

kanuʔusfingernail, claw (PAN: *k<aN>uSkuS) *kuSkuS₁ Kiwit

kaŋkaŋa plow (LOAN)

ka-panay-anthe time of harvest (PAN: *ka-pajay-an) *pajay

ka-piliʔ-anone who is chosen (PAN: *ka-piliq-an) *piliq

kapkapreach out and feel with the hands for something you cannot see, grope (PAN: *kapkap)

karkardig in the soil (PAN: *karkar)

Amis (180 / 564)

karotrake the muddy fields with a buffalo; rake rubbish (PAN: *karut₁)

kasoyfirewood (PAN: *kaSiw)

kasuytree; firewood (PAN: *kaSiw) Kiwit

katawacastor oil plant, castor bean (PAN: *katawa)

kawasheaven (Ferrell 1969); Kawas-God; gods; spirits, supernatural beings, ghosts’ (PAN: *kawaS₁)

ka-wilileft (as opposed to right); out of step; awkward (PAN: *ka-wiRi) *wiRi

kawitto knit, crochet; to make nets (PAN: *kawit)

kawkawsickle, long-blade knife with curved handle (PAN: *kawkaw₁)

kawkawsickle (PAN: *kawkaw₁) Kiwit

ka-ʔorip-ansource of livelihood (PAN: *ka-qudip-an) *qudip

keɫatsaygray mullet (PAN: *kaNasay)

kelkelheart response causing a person to shake (PAN: *keRkeR)

kemkemto chew something hard (PAN: *kemkem₂)

kepitto close eyes (PAN: *kepit)

kiaw-kiawpullet, young chicken (PAN: *kiaw)

kickicto cut flesh off the bones (PAN: *kiskis)

kilimlook for, search for (PAN: *kiRim)

kilim-enlook for (it) (PAN: *kiRim-en) *kiRim

kiŋkiŋbells (PAN: *kiŋkiŋ₁)

kiskisscrape off a surface, strip (PAN: *kiSkiS)

Amis (200 / 564)

kitawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

kletuse a sickle to cut off twine (PAN: *keRet)

kliwthread; the plant from which string or thread is made: China Grass-Ramie (Boehmeria frustescens) (PAN: *keRiw)

kloŋresounding noise, as to hear a door being closed (PAN: *keRuŋ)

kodicmange; skin disease (PAN: *kudis)

kofitbutton (ROOT)

kohpicthin (opp. thick) (ROOT)

kolitthin, underweight (PAN: *ma-kuliC) *kuliC

k<om>aento eat (PAN: *k<um>aen) *kaen

komespubic hair found in the groin area (PAN: *kumeS)

koŋkoŋto knock at the door; to knock on a drum (slit-gong or hollow log) (PAN: *kuŋkuŋ₁)

kopiteyes closed; to close eyes (PAN: *kupit)

korawitgrasp or pull in with a hook (ROOT)

koreŋlarge earthen vessel for salted meat, water, or wine (PAN: *kudeŋ)

korkorto dig in the soil (PAN: *kurkur)

koskosto scratch one's body (PAN: *kuSkuS₂)

kotkotto use metal to scrape (PAN: *kutkut₂)

kotolouse, lice (PAN: *kuCu) Amis

kowaweagle (PAN: *kuaw)

ktilpinch with fingernails (PAN: *ketil)

Amis (220 / 564)

ktilto pinch with fingernails (PAN: *getil)

ktoncut something long, with literal and figurative meanings (includes promises and agreements) (PAN: *ketun)

kuanhamlet (PAN: *kuan₁)

kurenpottery (Vakon dial.) (Chen 1988:111) (PAN: *kuden)

lafidinner; the evening meal (PAN: *Rabiqi)

lafiithe middle of the night; midnight (PAN: *Rabiqi)

lahodsteam, vapor (PAN: *lahuN)

lalanpath, road, street, highway; direction figuratively; means to do something (PAN: *zalan)

lalaŋto forbid, refuse permission (PAN: *laRaŋ)

lalaʔto menstruate, have monthly period (PAN: *daRaq)

la-lima-yfive (people) (PAN: *la-lima) *lima

La-Lintaqmountain leech (PAN: *meCaq) *meCaq (X + meCaq)

ɬa-ɬintaqmountain leech (PAN: *qaNi-meCaq) *-meCaq Kiwit

laliwleave behind; desert, escape (PAN: *laRiw)

laliʔclay (PAN: *daRiq)

lamecto mix with the hands (PAN: *Rames)

laviʔievening, night (PAN: *Rabiqi) Kiwit

lawatto step, to take a step; a single step (NEAR)

lciksmall broken pieces that have flown and landed someplace (PAN: *lecik)

lidoŋshelter; shadow, shade (PAN: *liduŋ)

Amis (240 / 564)

lifawaswell, be swollen; tumor (PAN: *Ribawa)

ɬihivcave (PAN: *Nihib) Kiwit

likatlight from a source (PAN: *likaC)

likatlight, ray; lamp (PAN: *likaC) Kiwit

likat nu tsiɬalray of sunlight (PAN: *likaC) Kiwit

likesmosquito, fly (PAN: *likeS)

limafive (PAN: *lima)

liʔelneck (PAN: *liqeR)

lolodto roll up, as to roll up a mat or paper (PAN: *luluN)

lomaʔbuilding, a house, a home (PAN: *Rumaq)

losaʔtears (PAN: *luSeq)

lotoŋFormosan rock monkey (PAN: *luCuŋ)

ɬukawound, injury (PAN: *Nuka) Kiwit

ɬuqus nu ukakmarrow (lit. ‘marrow of the bones’) (PAN: *NuqeS) Kiwit

ma-alabe taken (PAN: *ma-ala) *ala

maca-colidisagree with each other (two parties) (PAN: *suli₂)

ma-caʔitto be hung up (PAN: *saqit)

ma-cidalshining, of the sun (PAN: *siNaR)

ma-dokaʔwounded, hurt (PAN: *ma-Nuka) *Nuka

ma-faŋawrice which doesn't mature (PAN: *baŋaw)

Amis (260 / 564)

ma-fasawcold, as rice that has been left to sit too long; cooled off, of anger; grown cool, as one’s feelings toward someone (PAN: *ma-baSaw) *baSaw

ma-folawto leave the village (PAN: *ma-buRaw) *buRaw

ma-kaento have eaten (PAN: *ma-kaen) *kaen

ma-kilimfound (PAN: *ma-kiRim) *kiRim

ma-koŋkoŋto be hollow inside (PAN: *kuŋkuŋ₁)

ma-lafito eat dinner (as in ma-lafi kita ‘Let’s eat dinner!’) (PAN: *Rabiqi)

mali-kakabrothers and sisters belonging to each other (PAN: *kaka₂)

ma-likatto be burning, glowing (PAN: *likaC)

mal-oinafamily with the mother (< wina 'mother') (PAN: *maR-ina) *ina

ma-nanamtamed (PAN: *ma-najam) *najam

ma-oradrainy (PAN: *ma-quzaN) *quzaN

mapa-pdekto blink (PAN: *pedek)

ma-pikpikflap the wings (PAN: *pikpik)

ma-piliʔbe chosen (PAN: *ma-piliq) *piliq

ma-potonbobbed, as a cat’s tail; amputated, as a person’s arm (PAN: *putun₂) *putun

ma-psiʔsqueeze out juice, as from a pepper (PAN: *peSiq)

ma-simdimdark (PAN: *ma-demdem) *demdem₂ Utrecht ms.

mataeye (PAN: *maCa)

ma-talawafraid (PAN: *ma-talaw) *talaw

ma-tawato laugh (PAN: *Cawa)

Amis (280 / 564)

ma-tawato laugh (PAN: *ma-Cawa) *Cawa

ma-ʔinapjealous (PAN: *qijap)

mi-camolto mix (PAN: *samuR)

mi-caʔitto hang up (PAN: *saqit)

mi-cocoto suck or nurse; give the breast to (PAN: *susu₁)

mi-folawto force to leave the village (PAN: *buRaw)

mi-kalatto bite; to be burned, as by the sun; to have an allergic reaction (PAN: *kaRaC)

mi-kaŋkaŋto plow a field (LOAN)

mi-kasoyto hunt for firewood (PAN: *kaSiw)

mi-keskesscratch (PAN: *keskes₁)

mi-kiŋkiŋto ring a bell or bells (PAN: *kiŋkiŋ₁)

mi-ɬaŋuyto swim (PAN: *Naŋuy) Kiwit

mili-matato put out someone’s eye (PAN: *maCa)

mili-ŋaŋanto take the name of someone else for oneself; to take land distributed for oneself (PAN: *ŋajan)

mi-osato approach a person (PAN: *uSa)

mi-pacekto nail, hammer a nail into (PAN: *pasek)

mi-paluto fight with fists (PAN: *palu₃) Kiwit

mi-pekpekbeat, hit (PAN: *pekpek₁)

mi-pikpikto fly, of birds (PAN: *pikpik)

mi-porodto wind string into a ball (PAN: *puduN)

Amis (300 / 564)

misaka-lafito prepare dinner (PAN: *Rabiqi)

misa-lomaʔto build a building or house (PAN: *Rumaq)

misa-ʔadado evil against; make a person out to be bad (PAN: *qaNa)

mi-taqisto sew (PAN: *CaqiS) Kiwit

mi-tfosto harvest sugarcane (PAN: *tebuS)

mi-tivukpound rice (PAN: *tibuk)

mu-nanawwash (hands, feet) (PAN: *ñawñaw)

nagenitive of plural personal nouns (PAN: *na₃) Central

namoyour, by you (agent/possessor form) (PAN: *n-amu) *amu

nanomwater (PAN: *daNum)

neŋneŋto look, see (PAN: *NeŋNeŋ)

neŋneŋ-enlook at someone or something (PAN: *NeŋNeŋ)

nigenitive of singular personal names (PAN: *ni) Central

nugenitive case marker for common nouns (PAN: *nu₃)

ŋafŋafeat grass, as a cow does (PAN: *ŋabŋab)

ŋaŋanname, title, designation; character, reputation (PAN: *ŋajan)

ŋitŋitto gnaw (on bones or wood) (PAN: *ŋitŋit₁) *ŋitŋit

ŋosoʔnose (PAN: *ŋusuq)

olattendons; blood vessels (PAN: *huRaC)

omahfield, farm (PAN: *qumah)

Amis (320 / 564)

o-nathis (PAN: *-na)

osaapproach (PAN: *uSa)

otaʔvomit (PAN: *utaq)

otaʔ-envomit (a command) (PAN: *utaq-en) *utaq

pa-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-₂)

pa-cafayto be a companion, to go with (PAN: *sabay₁)

pa-camolto add something to (PAN: *samuR)

paceka nail, nails (PAN: *pasek)

pa-cidalto put out in the sun (PAN: *siNaR)

pa-cmetto nap (NEAR)

pa-colito oppose, rebel (PAN: *suli₂)

pacpacbeat hard; thresh out; hit with twigs (PAN: *paspas₁)

padeŋto put out, literally to extinguish a fire; to turn off (PAN: *padeŋ)

pa-fa-fahi-enget someone a wife (PAN: *ba-bahi) *bahi

pa-hcekput stakes of wood in the ground, as when staking claims (PAN: *hesek)

pahkotype of fern that is edible (PAN: *paheku)

paka-causative prefix (PAN: *pa-ka-) *pa-₂

pa-kaento feed, give food (PAN: *pa-kaen) *kaen

pa-kafoŋ-ento put a hat on someone (LOAN)

paka-tawa-enmake someone laugh (PAN: *Cawa)

Amis (340 / 564)

paki-ʔafalacarry on the shoulders (PAN: *qabaRa₁)

pakpakto clap hands, to hit with the hand (PAN: *pakpak)

pa-lafito give dinner to (as in feeding a child) (PAN: *Rabiqi)

palittied, ensnared (ROOT)

paloto hit with something large or flat-surfaced, or with the hand (PAN: *palu₃)

panayrice; the harvested grain (PAN: *pajay)

panaʔbow for shooting arrows (PAN: *panaq)

pa-osatake food to someone, as to workers in a field (PAN: *pa-uSa) *uSa

pa-pinahow many? (of people) (PAN: *pa-pija) *pija

pa-pina-pinaseveral (people) (PAN: *pija pija) *pija

pa-pitoseven (people) (PAN: *pa-pitu) *pitu

pa-semastick out the tongue (PAN: *Sema)

pa-talato prepare (PAN: *taRah)

pa-talawto threaten (PAN: *talaw)

pa-taŋic-ento beseech, try to force someone to comply (PAN: *pa-Caŋis) *Caŋis

pataydeath; die; figuratively to be crushed and despair; go to extreme limits to do something (PAN: *pa-aCay) *aCay

patseknail (PAN: *pacek)

pa-walito dry outside (PAN: *waRi₁)

pa-ʔorip-ayprovider, rescuer; deliverer, saviour (PAN: *pa-qudip) *qudip

pa-ʔorip-enbe saved (physically, as from drowning; spiritually) (PAN: *pa-qudip) *qudip

Amis (360 / 564)

paʔpaʔchew; the action of the jaws and teeth in chewing (PAN: *paqpaq₁)

pdekto put out, as when lights are turned off (PAN: *pedek)

pedpedto crown, pack solid (PAN: *pedped)

pi-flac-ana basket for rice that has been milled (PAN: *beRas-an) *beRas

pi-kaŋkaŋ-antime to plow; field to be plowed (LOAN)

pi-koŋkoŋ-ana drum made from a tree trunk, used to arouse the village to action (PAN: *kuŋkuŋ₁)

piliʔto choose, pick one (PAN: *piliq)

pinahow many?; several (PAN: *pija)

pisa-dateŋ-anvegetable garden (PAN: *NaCeŋ)

pitoseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pi-tosorto kneel (PAN: *tuduS)

plaʔsplit in two (ROOT)

plocpull off (as a ring), disengage (as to let down a baby that has been tied on its mother's back) (PAN: *pelus)

pokiwomen’s genitals; labia; a vegetable called komiyat [chayote] is given this term for a nickname because of its shape (PAN: *puki)

poloʔgroup of ten (PAN: *puluq₁) *puluq

ponanavel (PAN: *puja)

ponoʔbrain (PAN: *punuq₁) *punuq

poroda ball of string or yarn (PAN: *puduN)

pota7soil, soft mushy dirt (ROOT)

potapotto work in the rice field pulling weeds and cultivating young rice plants (PAN: *putput₂) *putput₃

Amis (380 / 564)

potonto cut off, referring to someone or thing with a stump from a missing limb (PAN: *putun₂) *putun

procslide down (PAN: *perus)

procslide down (ROOT)

psiʔto smash dead, as an insect; to squeeze juice (PAN: *peSiq)

puluqquail, partridge (PAN: *puRuq)

rafrafbe inflamed with (anger) (NOISE)

rakatmovement; walk (PAN: *rakat)

rakescamphor tree (PAN: *dakeS)

risristo hoe out grass, roots and all (PAN: *riSriS)

romaother, another; different; some, some other, sometimes (PAN: *duma)

roma-satomoreover (PAN: *duma)

sa-cadiwinstrument used for sharpening, as a rock (PAN: *saNiw)

sa-fakeca belt (PAN: *bakes)

safalatsouth wind (PAN: *SabaRat)

safitlong cloth used as a band to tie a baby on one's back; cloth used as a belt; cloth used as a headdress; cloth wrapped around the feet to help climb betel nut tree (PAN: *Sabit)

sa-kafoŋ-ento put on one’s hat (LOAN)

saka-limathe fifth (PAN: *lima)

saka-siwaninth (PAN: *Siwa)

sakina-tosasecond time (PAN: *duSa)

salilipost (Chen 1982:141) (PAN: *SadiRi)

Amis (400 / 564)

samaʔtender edible greens which look somewhat like dandelions (PAN: *Samaq)

saneka bad odor, smell (PAN: *Sajek)

sa-pa-ʔoripthe provision of salvation (PAN: *pa-qudip) *qudip

sa-pdekeyelashes, something for blinking (PAN: *pedek)

sa-pikpíkwing (PAN: *pikpik)

sapsapfeel with one's hands; figuratively feel: find out (PAN: *SapSap)

sa-qaɬevdoor (PAN: *qaNeb) Kiwit

sa-spatfour (animals and humans) (PAN: *Sa-Sepat) *Sepat

sa-toktoka hammer (PAN: *tuktuk₃)

sawquestion particle indicating that the speaker expects the answer to be obvious (PAN: *Saw)

sawsawgeneric word for wash (PAN: *SawSaw)

sa-ʔdefa door (PAN: *qeNeb₁)

sematongue (PAN: *Sema)

siketbe attached, joined to (PAN: *Siket)

siketattached to, joined to (ROOT)

simaloil, grease, fat; gasoline (PAN: *SimaR)

sirigoat (PAN: *Sidi)

sisirscraping sound; to slide (NOISE)

siwanine (PAN: *Siwa)

siwitslant, set at an angle, off course (PAN: *Siwid)

Amis (420 / 564)

siwitto slant, set at an angle (NEAR)

skakthe crow of a rooster; to crow (PAN: *Sekak)

sodocpull out, draw, as a sword (PAN: *SuNus)

sololslide down (as a log down a hill) (PAN: *SuluR)

solotto pull; draw something literally; attract, exert influence on (PAN: *SuRut)

solot-enpull (imper.) (PAN: *SuRut-en) *SuRut

solsolto thread through holes and draw, as to run a drawn string through holes; to string together (PAN: *SuRSuR)

sosoʔto let drip out, to drain (PAN: *SuSuq)

sotaʔearth, dirt; mud; land (ROOT)

sowafto yawn (PAN: *Suab)

soʔawthirsty (PAN: *quSaw)

soʔsoʔto drip, drain water off (PAN: *SuqSuq)

spatfour (PAN: *Sepat)

stekto literally cut, sever (PAN: *Setek)

tademgrave, tomb (PAN: *CaNem)

tadem-ento bury (PAN: *CaNem-en) *CaNem

tafada disembodied head gotten in headhunting or war (PAN: *tabaN)

tafaktobacco (LOAN)

tafoto wrap up, to make a bundle (PAN: *Cabu)

takawsteal (PAN: *Cakaw)

Amis (440 / 564)

takecembrace (PAN: *ta(R)kes)

takecto embrace, to hold in one’s arms (PAN: *takes)

takecembrace (ROOT)

taktakto pour out of a container (PAN: *taktak₁)

talato wait (PAN: *taRah)

talawbe afraid, fear (generic term) (PAN: *talaw)

talitaro (PAN: *Cali)

taliyokperimeter, area around the outside; go around (PAN: *taliuk)

talodall kinds of grass, weeds (generic term) (PAN: *CaluN)

taloʔanhut, temporary shelter for use in the fields (PAN: *taRuqan)

tamato find; to be right; to hit on target (PAN: *tama₁)

tanamtry to do something; taste (PAN: *tañam)

tanamto try to do something; to taste (PAN: *taNam)

ta-neŋneŋ-ansomething to look at and get an idea from (PAN: *NeŋNeŋ)

tano-cokorto take along nothing but a cane; for an old person to have only a cane on which to lean (PAN: *sukud)

taŋiccry; expressed or unexpressed grief (PAN: *Caŋis)

taŋilaear, ears (PAN: *Caŋila)

tarodoʔfingers, toes (LOAN)

ta-tolothree, of humans (PAN: *ta-telu) *telu

ta-tosatwo, of people (PAN: *da-duSa) *duSa

Amis (460 / 564)

tawageneric for laugh with positive and negative meanings (PAN: *Cawa)

təfossugarcane (PAN: *tebuS)

tekepthe name of a trap (PAN: *tekep)

tekoŋto bang; the sound of a thud (PAN: *tekuŋ₂)

tektekto peck, with reference to birds and chickens (PAN: *tektek₁)

terter ~ teltelto be shaken or jolted, as when riding in a vehicle (PAN: *terter)

tevunwell (water source) (PAN: *Cebuj) Kiwit

tfona well, a source of water (PAN: *Cebuj)

tifekto mill grain (ROOT)

tikolaca quail, bamboo partridge (PAN: *tikuRas)

timolsouth (PAN: *timuR)

tinaɁiintestines (PAN: *C<in>aqi) *Caqi

tiŋashave food caught in one's teeth (PAN: *CiŋaS)

tisekto stick a needle through the middle of to hold together, as a hair bun (NEAR)

t-ita-ananto us (incl.) (PAN: *ita₁)

tiyadbelly, stomach (PAN: *tiaN)

tkepkind of trap (ROOT)

tkessmall species of bamboo (PAN: *CekeS)

tkiʔmake a sound; the sound of rocks hitting (PAN: *tekiq)

tkoŋto bang (ROOT)

Amis (480 / 564)

tnemsalty water (as is found in the village of Haciriwan) (PAN: *tenem)

todaan eel (PAN: *tuNa)

todohto burn (generic); to roast, barbecue (PAN: *CuNuh)

todoh-ento burn something (PAN: *CuNuh)

tokara ladder, stairs (PWMP: *tukad₁)

tokeda crossbeam in a building (PAN: *tuked)

tokothe large center beam of a house or a ship's mast (PAN: *tuku₁)

toktokto hit with a hammer (PAN: *tuktuk₃)

tolothree (PAN: *telu)

t<om>aŋicto cry, weep (PAN: *C<um>aŋis) *Caŋis

tomaythe Formosan black bear; be fierce, violent (PAN: *Cumay)

t<om>okolto sprout, come out of the ground (PAN: *tukul)

tonathese (unnamed) people (NOISE)

toŋtoŋthe sound of drums (PAN: *CuŋCuŋ)

toris, tosira line on paper or a line of planted rice plants (PAN: *Curis)

toros ~ tosorknee (PAN: *tuduS)

toroʔto point with the finger; to point figuratively; to pick (PAN: *tuzuq₁)

toroʔ-enbe pointed at (PAN: *tuzuq-en) *tuzuq₁

tosatwo (non-humans) (PAN: *duSa)

tsekpierce, stab (PAN: *Cesek)

Amis (500 / 564)

tsiɬalsun (PAN: *siNaR) Kiwit

tumushead louse (PAN: *CumeS) Kiwit

vaŋesskin (PAN: *baŋeS) Kiwit

vetuʔcallus (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *beCuʔ)

wadistooth (PAN: *waNiS)

wakwakwhite-breasted water hen (PAN: *wakwak)

walaystring; noodles (PAN: *walay)

waliEast (PAN: *waRi₁)

w-amafather (PAN: *ama)

warayseparate two parties that are quarreling (PAN: *waray)

watawatwave something back and forth (as a flag) (PAN: *watawat)

waʔaylegs including the feet (PAN: *waqay)

wiŋawiŋwag one's tail (PAN: *wiŋawiŋ)

ʔacawachild’s spouse, son-in-law or daughter-in-law (PAN: *qasawa)

ʔadaenemy (PAN: *qaNa)

ʔadawaŋgateway (ROOT)

ʔadigoshadow; human soul or spirit (PAN: *qaNiŋu)

ʔaditscab over a healing wound (PAN: *qaNiC)

ʔafalashoulder (PAN: *qabaRa₁)

ʔafaraʔ-anshoulder (Ferrell 1969) (PAN: *qabaRa-an) *qabaRa₁

Amis (520 / 564)

ʔafoashes; fertilizer (PAN: *qabu₁) *qabu

ʔalapittweezers, chopsticks (ROOT)

ʔalemanteater with long tongue: Manis tricupis (PAN: *qaRem)

ʔaƚipaŋpaŋbutterfly (Ogawa 1934) (PAN: *qaNi-)

ʔalolbe carried away by water so that it is no longer seen (PAN: *qaluR₁) *qaluR

ʔalolbe carried away by water so that it is no longer seen (PAN: *qañud)

ʔamisnorth (PAN: *qamiS)

ʔanikakcrow (ROOT)

ʔaŋlisstrong smell of fish (PAN: *qaŋeRiS)

ʔaŋsitthe stink of a skunk; the smell of certains kinds of plants (PAN: *qaŋeSit)

ʔaolbamboo (generic) (PAN: *qauR₁) *qauR

ʔapocokthe very top of a mountain (PAN: *qapucuk)

ʔapolwhite; lime paste made from burnt white stone soaked in water that becomes powder (PAN: *qapuR)

ʔardoswamp grass, used in making things (PAN: *qaReNu)

ʔasoloa wood or stone pestle used to mill rice (PAN: *qaSelu)

ʔatayliver (PAN: *qaCay)

ʔatimelafleas (PAN: *qatimela)

ʔatipa weaver's bar (PAN: *qatip₁)

ʔawʔawto bark; the noise of a dog (PAN: *qawqaw)

ʔayambird, chicken (PAN: *qayam₁)

Amis (540 / 564)

ʔcakripe, edible; cooked, done (PAN: *qesak)

ʔdefto close (PAN: *qeNeb₁)

ʔdefspread out over the whole area (PAN: *qeNeb₂)

ʔəmuNew Year’s cake, made of sweet sticky rice (PAN: *qemu)

ʔetolsexual arousal, sexual passion (PAN: *qeCuR)

ʔian untranslatable particle at the end of a dependent clause (NOISE)

ʔilostoilet paper; anything used for wiping (PAN: *qiluS)

ʔinapjealousy, be jealous (PAN: *qijap)

ʔkoŋowl (PAN: *qekuŋ)

ʔmincomplete; all; every one included (PAN: *qemin)

ʔoaŋto howl; high-pitched sound of a dog (PAN: *quaŋ₂)

ʔokothuddle (PAN: *qukut)

ʔokothuddle, as when cold (ROOT)

ʔoniŋdirt, soil of clothing or skin (PAN: *qujiŋ)

ʔoŋtopipe for smoking (LOAN)

ʔoradrain (PAN: *quzaN)

ʔoriplife (PAN: *qudip₁) *qudip

ʔosŋetan expression of anger (PAN: *quSeŋeC)

ʔotkokto huddle, as when cold (ROOT)

ʔowalpry with a crowbar (NOISE)

Amis (560 / 564)

ʔowayreeds made from a plant that grows in the mountains; plant used in tying together poles, furniture, baskets (PAN: *quay)

ʔpihem (< *-pi) (ROOT)

ʔtahchaff (PAN: *qeCah)

ʔtotto pass gas from bloating (PAN: *qetut₁) *qetut

ʔuƚuqbeads (PAN: *quNuq)

ʔuɬuqbeads (Tsuchida 1976) (PAN: *uNuq)

Amis (Central) (3) Form. (Blust 2002) [ami] (Amis) Taiwan

faʔigrandmother (PAN: *baqi)

nagenitive of plural personal nouns (PAN: *na₃)

nigenitive of singular personal names (PAN: *ni)

Amis (Kiwit) (27) Form. (Ogawa 1933, Ferrell 1979)

alunahlarge variety of ant (PAN: *alujah)

ano-cilatomorrow (PAN: *siRa₁)

anu-tsilatomorrow (PAN: *siRa₁)

ceŋettick (insect) (PAN: *seŋet₂)

cila-cilafrequently (PAN: *siRa₁)

cila satonext day (PAN: *siRa₁)

falahember (PAN: *baRah)

ina-cilayesterday (PAN: *siRa₁)

iruswooden spoon (PAN: *qidus)

kanuʔusfingernail, claw (PAN: *k<aN>uSkuS) *kuSkuS₁

kasuytree; firewood (PAN: *kaSiw)

kawkawsickle (PAN: *kawkaw₁)

ɬa-ɬintaqmountain leech (PAN: *qaNi-meCaq) *-meCaq

laviʔievening, night (PAN: *Rabiqi)

ɬihivcave (PAN: *Nihib)

likatlight, ray; lamp (PAN: *likaC)

likat nu tsiɬalray of sunlight (PAN: *likaC)

ɬukawound, injury (PAN: *Nuka)

ɬuqus nu ukakmarrow (lit. ‘marrow of the bones’) (PAN: *NuqeS)

mi-ɬaŋuyto swim (PAN: *Naŋuy)

Amis (Kiwit) (20 / 27)

mi-paluto fight with fists (PAN: *palu₃)

mi-taqisto sew (PAN: *CaqiS)

sa-qaɬevdoor (PAN: *qaNeb)

tevunwell (water source) (PAN: *Cebuj)

tsiɬalsun (PAN: *siNaR)

tumushead louse (PAN: *CumeS)

vaŋesskin (PAN: *baŋeS)

Amis (Sakizaya) (11) Form.. see: Sakizaya

Amis (Utrecht ms.) (1) Form.

ma-simdimdark (PAN: *ma-demdem) *demdem₂

18. Ampana (7) WMP (Adriani 1928)

ajabreeding animal, stud (PWMP: *qayam₂)

ali-wombobutterfly (PMP: *beŋbeŋ₄)

kawu-kawukapok tree: Eriodendrum anfractuosum (PMP: *kabu-kabu)

padahigh grass, cane grass (PWMP: *padaŋ)

pusu mbuainflorescence of the areca palm (PMP: *pusuq₁)

t<in>ujuindex finger (PWMP: *t<in>uzuq) *tuzuq₁

tiŋafood or other matter between the teeth (Adriani 1928) (PMP: *tiŋah) *CiŋaS

19. Ampibabo-Lauje (5) WMP (Himmelmann 2001) [law] (Lauje) Indonesia (Sulawesi)

mo-nalagto fry (PWMP: *ma-naŋelaR) *saŋelaR

mo-ñavato breathe (PMP: *ma-ñawa) *NiSawa

mo-ʔopugrandchild (PMP: *kempu)

tai nu tuliʔearwax (PMP: *tuli₁) *Culi

(u)ŋa-lagavirgin, young girl (PWMP: *da-daRa) *daRa₂

Anakalang (2) CMP. see: Anakalangu

20. Anakalangu (2) CMP (Fox n.d.) [aka: Anakalang]

itato see (PAN: *kita₂)

tabuniafterbirth, placenta (PMP: *tabuni)

21. Andra (1) OC

draŋahwrasse (POC: *taŋapa)

22. Anejom (24) OC (Lynch 2001a)

a-pan ~ hango (POC: *pano) *paNaw

a-tleŋ/e-tleŋto swallow (POC: *toloŋ)

e-mtaγfear (POC: *matakut) *takut

e-tma-father (PMP: *t-ama) *ama

-iconstruct suffix: of (inja era-i pikad ‘blood of a pig’ [blood passive.possessive-construct suffix pig] (PAN: *ni)

-k1sg possessive suffix: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

masdie; dead (POC: *mate) *aCay

maslow tide (PMP: *ma-qati) *qaCi

matraw (POC: *mataq) *hataq

na-ŋaicanarium almond (POC: *kaŋaRi)

na-teŋa shrub or tree with medicinal uses: Ficus adenosperma (POC: *taŋa₃)

na-θeθfemale breast (PAN: *susu₁)

na-tpʷa(-nean)spongy mass inside a coconut that has started to shoot (POC: *tabʷa)

n-aubamboo (PMP: *qauR₂) *qauR

na-urasMorinda citrifolia (POC: *kurat)

ne-γetlouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCu

ne-koablenny: Ecsenius sp. (POC: *kakawa₂)

ne-tosugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

n-haua flowering plant, Hibiscus tiliaceous (POC: *paRu) *baRu

ni-jhotooth (POC: *lipon) *lipen

Anejom (20 / 24)

n-iθaname (POC: *isa₂)

no-hosbanana (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

n-umwearth oven (PMP: *qumun)

n-waifresh water (POC: *waiR₂) *wahiR

Angkola-Mandailing (10) WMP. see: Angkola-Mandailing Batak

23. Angkola-Mandailing Batak (10) WMP (Siregar 1977, Warren 1959) [akb] (Batak Angkola) Indonesia (Sumatra) [aka: Batak, Angkola-Mandailing]

anak ni taŋanfinger (PMP: *anak i lima) *aNak

antatadurather large caterpillar that adheres to leaves (PWMP: *hantatadu)

antatadurather large caterpillar that adheres to leaves (PWMP: *qantatadu)

asak-asakiron used to clean gun barrel (PWMP: *qasak)

atasabove, over (PMP: *atas) *aCas

hali-mismishave a sty on the eye (PWMP: *mismis)

lai-laitip, extremity (PWMP: *lawi₂)

ma-ñuanto plant (PWMP: *suan)

-nia3sg. possessor (PAN: *ni-á) *-a₂

sabawet ricefield, rice paddy (PWMP: *sabaq)

Aniwa (3) OC. see: Futuna-Aniwa

24. Ansus (28) SHWNG (Anceaux 1961) [and] Indonesia (Papua)

aefoot (PAN: *qaqay)

aytree, wood (PCEMP: *kayu₁) *kaSiw

ayabird (PAN: *qayam₁)

bocanoe paddle (PMP: *beRsay)

-enasleep (PAN: *qinep)

i3sg., he, she (PAN: *ia₁)

ina-mother (PCEMP: *ina)

karacockatoo (PEMP: *kaRa)

ko-dutwo (PMP: *duha) *duSa

rato walk (PMP: *lakaj)

ra-macome (PAN: *um-ai) *ai₃

tama-father (PMP: *t-ama) *ama

tapuypig (LOAN)

tawana tree: Pometia spp. (PMP: *tawan)

tobusugarcane (PMP: *tebuh₂) *CebuS

unu(ŋ)to drink (PCEMP: *unum)

ura-ruavein (PMP: *uRat) *huRaC

utulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCu

vavi(ŋ)woman (PMP: *ba-b<in>ahi) *bahi

ve-vorunew (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

Ansus (20 / 28)

wacanoe (PEMP: *waŋka)

wanuvillage; house (PMP: *banua)

warahand (PMP: *baRa₁)

we-rauŋleaf (PCEMP: *daun) *dahun

woaroot (PMP: *wakaR)

wonasix (PEMP: *onəm) *enem

wurubody hair, feathers (PCEMP: *bulu₃) *bulu₁

y-au1sg, I (PAN: *aku)

25. Anuta (228) OC (Feinberg 1977) [aud] Solomon Islands

aparticle placed between a preposition and a personal pronoun or a proper name, but not before a common noun (PMP: *a₁)

alo-alobelly inside (POC: *qarop) *qadep

amaoutrigger (POC: *saman) *saReman

anusaliva, spit, spittle (POC: *qanus₂)

aodaytime (as opposed to night), day (as in day of the week) (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

apifire (POC: *api₂) *Sapuy

arapath, road (POC: *salan) *zalan

ateliver (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

ateplant sp.: Wedelia biflora, Adenostema lavenia (PMP: *qatay qatay₁)

atubonito (POC: *qatun)

atuindicates action directed away from the speaker or point of reference (PMP: *atu)

atuaspirit being (PMP: *qatuan)

aturetype of small fish that comes into the shallow reef water in large schools. Ranges in size from about one to one and a half pounds (PMP: *qatulay)

auocean current (PMP: *qaRus)

e aiby whom? (PMP: *sai)

e mata piahow many tens of fish? (POC: *pica) *pija

e-nathat, there (PAN: *-na)

e piahow many is it? (POC: *pica) *pija

e toko piahow many people? (POC: *pica) *pija

i aiwith whom? (PMP: *sai)

Anuta (20 / 228)

ie-nihere, in this place (PAN: *ia-ni) *-ni

iioyes (PMP: *qio)

inuto drink (PMP: *inum)

ipia tree: Inocarpus fagiferus (POC: *ipi₂)

ipoto descend; downwards (POC: *sipo)

iramole (on a person's skin) (PMP: *qila)

ivibone (in certain constructions and words) (POC: *suRi₁)

kaito eat; generic name for food crops (POC: *kani) *kaen

kai taeeat shit! (curse) (POC: *kani) *kaen

kapa-kapato flap wings (POC: *kaba-kabak) *kapak

kipreposition: to, toward (PMP: *ki₂ₐ) *ki₂

ki aito whom? (PMP: *sai)

kiatothwart or outrigger boom of canoe (POC: *kiajo)

kira-kirashiny (PMP: *kila-kilat) *likaC

kiriskin, outer covering (POC: *kulit₂) *kuliC

kiuismall bird which comes only during monsoon season (POC: *kiwiwi)

ko aipronoun: who? (PMP: *sai)

kopito embrace (POC: *kobit₁) *kepit

ku piahow many was it? (POC: *pica) *pija

kutuhead louse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCu

Anuta (40 / 228)

loant (generic) (POC: *loRo)

maa-ramathe light part of the day; daylight; light, bright; intelligent (POC: *ma-ramaR) *damaR

maatoruthick (POC: *matolu) *təlu

maiparticle indicating action toward some point of reference, generally the speaker; from (POC: *mai) *ai₃

mai aifrom whom? (PMP: *sai)

malomen’s loin garment, made from a strip of bark-cloth (PCEMP: *malaw)

mamato prepare food to be fed, usually to an infant, by chewing; may also be used as a generic term for chewing, but the usual word in that case would be kamu (PMP: *mamaq)

manapower; almighty (POC: *mana₂)

manava-navashort of breath (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

manipi-nipithin (POC: *manipi-nipis) *Nipis

maru ~ maruuprotected; dry (as the inside of a well-constructed house when it is raining); shady; protector (PEMP: *maluRu)

maru-marushady; dry (as a result of being protected from the rain) (POC: *maluRu maluRu) *maluRu

mataraw; green (PMP: *ma-hataq) *hataq

mataraw (POC: *mataq) *hataq

mataeye (including the immediate surrounding area); face (has this meaning when used in plural); front end of an object (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matakuto be afraid, frightened; fear (POC: *matakut) *takut

mataŋiwind; old name for Anuta (POC: *mata ni aŋin) *maCa

mata putinew shoot springing from old banana plant (‘eye of banana’) (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mata taua line of men in battle formation (PMP: *mata) *maCa

matedie (POC: *mate) *aCay

Anuta (60 / 228)

matuahusband; important, major, primary; adult, mature; ripe (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

ma-urilive, be alive; life, soul (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mitito suck (POC: *miti)

miti-mitihard candy or other object to be sucked (POC: *miti-miti) *miti

mo aiwith whom? (PMP: *sai)

mo-monafat, grease; greasy (POC: *moñak₂) *meñak

m-uriback; the rear portion of something; behind; a village just to the west (i.e. "behind") Mua (POC: *muri) *udehi

namumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

nimafive (PAN: *lima)

nima matauright hand (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

nipotooth, teeth (POC: *nipon) *nipen

niucoconut tree and fruit (PMP: *niuR)

niu matayoung coconut (PMP: *niuR)

nonua tree, of which there are two subvarieties; te nonu kuru (with larger fruit), and te nonu vao (POC: *ñoñu) *ñəñu

nopoto dwell; to sit; to be alive (POC: *nofo)

ŋa maatuaaparents (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

(ŋa)-roŋonews (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

ŋarubreakers, surf (rarely: wave) (POC: *ŋalu)

ŋauto chew (POC: *ŋau₁)

ŋutumouth; cutting edge (of knife, scissors, axe, adze, etc.) or the striking edge of a club or point of a spear (PAN: *ŋusuq)

Anuta (80 / 228)

ŋutu korekoreto curse someone or shout in anger (PAN: *ŋusuq)

ŋuua hum or soft groan; to utter such a sound (POC: *ŋuRuR)

ōto go, to come (POC: *oRo)

okatransverse beams supporting roof of house (POC: *oka₂)

okatransverse beams supporting roof of house (POC: *sokar) *seŋkar

onebeach; beach sand (POC: *qone) *qenay

one-onebeach; beach sand (POC: *qone qone) *qenay

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

oŋefamine (POC: *soŋe)

ooprovisions for a voyage (POC: *qoso)

otasago palm (NOISE)

otifinish (POC: *qoti) *qeti₃

pafour (PEMP: *pat) *Sepat

pai matauright side (PMP: *ma-taqu₂) *taqu

paka-causative prefix (mate ‘die’ : paka-mate ‘commit suicide’, taŋi ‘to cry, to moan’ : paka-taŋi ‘to blow a conch shell or other type of whistle, horn, etc.’) (POC: *paka-) *pa-₂

panaany implement which discharges projectiles (PAN: *panaq)

pano-panowash the hands (POC: *paño) *bañaw

papacarry a person -- generally a small child -- on one's back, piggyback fashion (POC: *papa) *baba₁

papaboard, plank; any hard flat surface, as the top of a plank, a flat rock (POC: *baban) *papan

papiefirewood (POC: *papian) *Sapuy

Anuta (100 / 228)

papinewoman; female (POC: *papine) *bahi

parusmall red reef fish (NOISE)

patastorage shelf inside a house (POC: *pataR₁)

paturock, stone (POC: *patu₂) *batu₁

patu manavaheart (POC: *patu₂) *batu₁

penurubbish (POC: *benu)

pikisticky sap, as that of the breadfruit; glue (POC: *bikit) *pikit

piki-pikisticky (POC: *bikit) *pikit

piri-pirinear (PMP: *pilit) *pilit₂

pitonavel, umbilical cord (POC: *bito)

pituseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

ponusea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

poroto swallow (POC: *polon) *belen

pua pituseventy (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

pukuprotuberance; erection of penis (POC: *buku)

puŋatop surface of something (POC: *pupuŋan) *bubuŋ₁

puŋacoral stone abrader (POC: *buŋa₃) *buŋa

puŋa pareceiling, roof (lit.: top of house) (POC: *pupuŋan) *bubuŋ₁

puŋa teatype of white coral which is used for finishing woodwork (POC: *buŋa₃) *buŋa

pu-puruwash an object other than oneself (POC: *pulu₂) *bulu₂

Anuta (120 / 228)

puput-ipull something up from the ground; stretch something like a piece of rubber (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

purafor a spark to ignite upon rubbing a stick on a wood platform or fire plow (POC: *bula₁)

puratype of fish (NOISE)

puriturn something around (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

puri-iturn something over (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

purucoconut husk and fiber (POC: *bulut₂) *bulut

purufibrous material including body hair (not head hair, which is te rau uru), animal fur, bird feathers (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

puru-ŋakere(lit. 'washing the dirt') name of the Anuta circumcision rite (POC: *pulu₂) *bulu₂

puru o manubird feather (POC: *pulu ni manuk) *bulu₁

puru-puruwash one's self (POC: *pulu₂) *bulu₂

puru-puru ou nimawash your hands (POC: *pulu₂) *bulu₂

put-ipull in a length of line such as fishing line or anchor line (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

putibanana (generic term) (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

putukind of tree: Barringtonia asiatica (POC: *putun₁) *butun

putu-putufor crops to be planted close together (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

puu-kaaconch shell (blown to signify the start of church); shell trumpet (POC: *buu₅) *buu₂

raasail (PAN: *layaR)

raa-kautree, plant, wood, stick, club, plank, timber, log (POC: *raqan kayu) *daqan

raa-kau ~ ra-kautree, plant, wood, stick, club, plank, timber, log (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

raeforehead (POC: *raqe) *daqiS

Anuta (140 / 228)

rakato step over something (POC: *lakar) *lakaj

rakato step over something (PMP: *laŋkaq)

raka-rakato walk taking large brisk steps; to walk quickly (POC: *lakar-lakar) *lakaj

raka-rakato walk taking large brisk steps; to walk quickly (PMP: *laŋkaq)

rakinorthwest; wind coming from northwest; season during which winds from this direction predominate (i.e. monsoon season) (PCEMP: *raki)

raŋofly (insect) (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

raotesticle (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

rapaa kind of skin fungus marked by severe itching, and very difficult to cure (POC: *lapa₂)

rararoast something on a spit over an open fire (only birds are prepared this way on Anuta) (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₂) *daŋdaŋ

rarodown (direction); below (place); west (POC: *ralom) *dalem

rauleaf; frond; head hair; sheet of paper (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

rau tariŋaearlobe (POC: *raun ni taliŋa) *dahun

rereto travel quickly – to run; to fly; a ship or canoe racing over the water is also said to rere (POC: *rere₂)

rianit (egg of head louse) (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

rikismall (POC: *rikit) *dikit

rimuseaweed; algae growing on the reef (PMP: *limut)

rimu ŋa utamoss (lit. ‘inland algae’) (PMP: *limut)

roalong (in time) (POC: *loan)

Roaroalong (in either time or distance) (POC: *loan)

roŋoto hear (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

Anuta (160 / 228)

roŋo-roŋoto hear about (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

ruato vomit; to be seasick (PMP: *luaq)

ruohole (PMP: *luaŋ)

ruruhawk; owl (POC: *druru)

taa ~ tato strike, to hit; an implement used for striking (i.e. a club); to chop down; to cut; to build (as in cutting out the shape/building a canoe) (PAN: *taRaq₁)

taeentrails; excrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tae-pikointestines (lit. ‘crooked feces’) (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

taiwater covering the reef (PMP: *tasik)

t-ai-na"sibling" of the same sex, "sibling-in-law" of opposite sex (POC: *taci) *Suaji

tainamumosquito net (POC: *tai ñamuk)

ta-ku, to-kupossessive pronoun, first person singular (my), with singular object (POC: *-gu) *-ku

tanuto bury (POC: *tanum₂) *tanum

taŋataman, person; male (PMP: *tau-mata) *Cau

taŋito cry, to moan (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

taospear (POC: *jaot) *saet

tapato cut the stomach of a fish in order to remove the gut; to circumcise (POC: *tapa₂) *tapa₁

tapeocean current (POC: *tape₁)

tape-ato drift (POC: *tape-a) *tape₁

tarabarb (of a spear, fishhook, etc.) (POC: *salaŋ)

Anuta (180 / 228)

tarabarb (of a spear, fishhook, etc.) (PEMP: *sala)

tarisennit cord used for lashing canoes (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

tarotaro, Colocasia esculenta (POC: *talos) *tales

ta-tou ~ taa-toufirst person plural inclusive personal and possessive pronoun; we, us; our, ours (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

tauyear (PMP: *taqun)

te ponua string figure (POC: *poñu) *peñu

te rau poethe flat surface of canoe paddle blade (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

tikaa type of dart made from a reed shaft about four feet long, and tipped with a heavy hardwood head; a type of contest in which men compete to see how far they can throw their tika darts before they come to rest (POC: *tika)

tike-tiketo squat (POC: *tike)

tikoto defecate (POC: *tiko)

tiko-ŋatoilet (POC: *tiko)

timuto rain lightly, drizzle (PMP: *timuR)

tinobody (LOAN)

tioto look (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

tioa kind of very small shellfish (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

toaironwood tree (POC: *toRas) *teRas

tokaa boulder in the sea which is submerged at least part of the time (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

tokaa boulder in the sea which is submerged at least part of the time (POC: *toka₂)

tonuright, correct; true, truthful (POC: *tonuq)

toruthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

Anuta (200 / 228)

totoblood; red (POC: *toto)

totoblood; red (NOISE)

tuaback (anatomical part); rear portion of something; outside; away (POC: *tuqa₁)

tueiwait; old, ancient (POC: *tuaRi)

tuito point with one’s finger (POC: *dusiq)

tuk-ito strike by extending one’s arm, as in boxing or karate (as opposed to slapping or hitting by bringing the arm down, which is ta); to puncture or drive an object through something; to hammer, strike, or beat something, as in mashing tubers to make a pudding; club (PMP: *tuktuk-i) *tuktuk₃

tunuroast something over an open fire; roasted (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

tupaland crab (POC: *tubaRa)

tuputo grow (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

tupuaa spirit which was never a human being (POC: *tupuqa)

t-upu-nagrandparent/ancestor (POC: *tubu₂) *umpu

tututo pound something, as in the preparation of bark cloth or pandanus leaf for making mats (POC: *tutuk₂) *tuktuk₃

tu-turideaf (POC: *tuli₁) *Culi

uaneck (POC: *Ruqa)

ukathin line or cord (POC: *uka₂) *uka₁

unaturtle shell (POC: *qunap₂) *quSeNap

unu-ipull out (POC: *unus-i) *SuNus

upiyam (generic) (PMP: *qubi)

urepenis (POC: *ule)

uruhead (POC: *qulu) *quluh

Anuta (220 / 228)

utasupplies or cargo lying in the hold of a boat or canoe (PMP: *ujan)

uubreast; nipple (PAN: *susu₁)

vaedivide a group of objects into subsets (POC: *wa(n)se₂) *wa(n)se

(vae)-raŋiheavens, sky (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

vaiwater container (PEMP: *waip)

vai-akaroot (PMP: *akaR)

vai niucoconut shell water bottle (PEMP: *waip)

vaograss (POC: *wao)

varueight (PAN: *walu)

26. Aore (7) OC (Tryon 1976) [aor] Vanuatu

asechin (POC: *qase) *qazay

a suanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

na-tuaiold (POC: *tuaRi)

raniday (POC: *raqani) *daqaNi

tae-excrement (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

tia-belly, abdomen (PMP: *tian) *tiaN

tine-guts (PMP: *t<in>aqi) *Caqi

27. Apma (4) OC (Tryon 1976) [app] Vanuatu

ka-limfive (PMP: *ika-lima) *lima

kitato see (PAN: *kita₂)

mbito-navel (POC: *bito)

renday (POC: *raqani) *daqaNi

28. Araki (44) OC (François 2002) [akr] Vanuatu

aiwater; fresh, drinkable water, collected from rain or from rivers (POC: *waiR₂) *wahiR

akaboat (POC: *waŋka)

alov-ibeckon, wave to someone (PAN: *qalep)

dauleaf, palm leaf (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

doŋoto hear someone or something; feel physically; feel one way or another, feel well or ill; feel that, realize that something is going on; feel like, fancy (doing) (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

esechin, lower jaw (between ears) (POC: *qase) *qazay

ha-possessive classifier for food (POC: *kana-)

ham̈alimen’s clubhouse, where eminent men traditionally meet and take important decisions (PMP: *kamaliR)

huriskin; tree bark (POC: *kulit₂) *kuliC

hurulouse (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCu

ilawild, from the bush (of animals) (POC: *ila₁) *ilah

imahouse, home (PAN: *Rumaq)

inuto drink (PMP: *inum)

jihicroton: Codiaeum variegatum (PMP: *siRi)

-ku1sg possessive pronoun: my (POC: *-gu) *-ku

laŋiwind (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

laŋoa fly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

laso-testicles (POC: *lasoR) *laseR

loin, on, at; locative preposition referring to space (POC: *lom) *lem

lo-los-iswim (POC: *loso-loso)

Araki (20 / 44)

luato vomit (PMP: *luaq)

lum-lummoss, seaweed, lichen (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

m̈anukind of black and white flying-fox (POC: *manuk)

mo visahow many? (POC: *pica) *pija

nahoface (POC: *nago)

naho danimorning (‘face of the day’) (POC: *nago)

naho hocofront teeth, including canines and incisors (POC: *nago)

-n(i)construct suffix, always followed by a noun phrase referring to possessor (PAN: *ni)

oβusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

paratrunk of a tree; hence the tree itself, vs. its fruits (vae), or its other parts (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

par̃atrunk of a tree; hence the tree itself vs. its fruits (vae), or its other parts (PMP: *bataŋ) *bataŋ₁

rasisea; salt (PMP: *tasik)

rasisea, saltwater (PMP: *tasik)

roluthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

ruaibefore, beforehand; in olden time, a long time ago (POC: *tuaRi)

salaroad, path, way (POC: *salan) *zalan

sa-ŋa-vuluten (PMP: *ŋa)

seinterrogative, who? (PMP: *sei)

suato row, paddle (PEMP: *suak)

sui-bone, skeleton (POC: *suRi₁)

Araki (40 / 44)

susu-breast; milk (PAN: *susu₁)

usarain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

va-punered-bellied fruit dove: Ptilinopus greyii (POC: *bune) *punay

xuariroot (PEMP: *wakaR-i) *wakaR

29. 'Āre'āre (402) OC (Geerts 1970) [alu] (’Are’are) Solomon Islands

-apersonal pronoun, 3sg., suffixed to verb (with or without verbal suffix) as object, and to prepositions as an anticipatory object, and used both of persons and things: him, her, it; where the object is collective the anticipatory object is used in the singular, and not in the plural (PMP: *-a₂)

ae-naanus (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

ahara-nashoulder (POC: *qapaRa₁) *qabaRa₁

ahe-ta ni waia dry river bed (POC: *tape₁)

aiaexclamation of assent, of wonder (PAN: *aya₁)

ana apa maion this side (POC: *taba₂)

ani-ato eat; to wear out, to burn (POC: *kani-a) *kaen

aniria fish (PMP: *taŋiRi)

ānogarden, garden-ground (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

ano-ato bury, fill a grave with sand, to fill a hole, cover with earth (POC: *tanom) *CaNem

āno-ānodust (POC: *tanoq tanoq) *taneq

ano-miato bury (POC: *tanom) *CaNem

aothe black heron (POC: *kao)

ao ekethe white heron, egret (POC: *kao)

apawing (POC: *kabak) *kapak

apa-ato flap the wings (POC: *kabak) *kapak

apa-apaside, part, portion, half (POC: *taba₂)

a-pinutwisted, out of shape, flabby, folded, bend over (POC: *pinu)

apotaegg (POC: *posaq) *peceq

āpusacred, forbidden, taboo; used also as a prohibitive, dehortative to children (POC: *tabu) *tambu

'Āre'āre (20 / 402)

āpu-nataboo (there are four varieties of taboo, each causing a different sickness) (POC: *tabu-na) *tambu

āpu-ni-aput a taboo under curse; forbid (POC: *tabu-ni-a) *tambu

aralarge green parrot, red under the wings (POC: *kaRa)

ara-iato bite (POC: *kaRati) *kaRaC

arami-ato permit, consent, allow (POC: *taRamʷi)

ārotaro (several varieties) (POC: *talos) *tales

arua green coconut, good for drinking (POC: *karut₂)

āsisea, saltwater (PMP: *tasik)

āsi māethe calm sea in lagoons and passages, as opposed to āsi mauri, the open sea (POC: *mate) *aCay

āsi maethe quiet sea in the lagoon (lit. ‘dead sea’) (PMP: *tasik)

āsi maurithe open sea (lit. ‘living sea’) (PMP: *tasik)

asuherat (POC: *kasupe) *kazupay

a-teiinterrogative pronoun: who? (PMP: *sei)

atoa rafter of wood or bamboo (PMP: *kasaw₁)

eri-ato dig, harvest; dig a hole; bury, cover with earth (PCEMP: *keli)

fiuseven (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

fiu-naseventh (PAN: *pitu₁) *pitu

stage, shelf, small platform above the fireplace, used as a depository (PMP: *pa(n)tar₂)

hahacarry one the back (POC: *papa) *baba₁

haifour (PCEMP: *pat-i) *Sepat

'Āre'āre (40 / 402)

haka ro-rohoairplane (PMP: *Rebek)

haneclimb, ascend, rise (of sun and moon); rise, ferment (POC: *panek) *panahik

haneia ūnuordeal, judgement by hot stones, trial by fire (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

hanoa skin disease, white spots without scales (PMP: *panaw₁) *panaw

hanualand, as opposed to asi sea; district, place, country, island; the territory, area where a person lives, where his possessions are, such as food, bamboo, trees, pigs, water and graves is called his hanua (POC: *panua) *banua

haorunew, fresh, young (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

hapatimber; a canoe seat (POC: *baban) *papan

haraspread, of the arms; stretch; to stroke (NOISE)

harehouse of retirement for women during menstruation and after childbirth (POC: *pale) *balay

harepalate (NOISE)

haristingray (POC: *paRi₂) *paRiS

harilop off branches, cut off a bunch of bananas, betelnuts (POC: *paRi₃) *paRi

hari-a(OG. lop off branches (NOISE)

hari-manubig ray fish (PMP: *paRih manuk) *paRiS

harisigrass, small clover (POC: *palisi₁) *baliji

harisigrass, small clover (POC: *palisi₂) *balizi

haropierce, bore, drill (POC: *paRo₁)

harua few, some, several (POC: *palu₆) *balu₃

hau manu-manupumice stone (POC: *mañur mañur) *qañud

haʔa-mata-ato dry fish or meat over the fire before the final cooking between hot stones (PMP: *ma-maja) *maja

'Āre'āre (60 / 402)

haʔuthe pandanus tree, which has broad leaves; used by men as perineal bandage; also used to make a kind of mat called haʔu (POC: *pakuŋ) *bakuŋ₂

hihi-nalabia (POC: *pipiR) *biRbiR

hinanataro pudding (POC: *p<in>aŋan₁) *paŋan

hinaŋataro pudding (POC: *p<in>aŋan₂) *paŋan

hioroto fast, starve (POC: *pitolon)

hioro-nahunger, fasting, famine, starvation (POC: *pitolon)

hirawild taro; there are several varieties, of which some are edible. It is used also in magical curing of the sick (POC: *piRaq₂) *biRaq₁

hira-hirato scar, to cut; a scar, a cut (POC: *pilat₂) *bilat₂

hiri-achoose, pick out, select (PMP: *piliq-an) *piliq

hiri-si-achoose, pick out, select (PAN: *piliq)

hiriʔ-iatwist, entwine, tie, bind, with a vine; tighten a vine around the waist of a woman in order to provoke an abortion (POC: *piri₂)

hiro-atowring out, squeeze, twist (POC: *piros)

hirucurly, of hair; to wind (round) (POC: *piluk₂) *biluk

hirua palm tree with digital leaves, used for making bows (POC: *piRu) *biRuʔ

hitasplit, hit, struck (POC: *pisak) *biseqak

hitahow much? how many? (POC: *pica) *pija

hita roʔuahow often?, how many times? (POC: *pica) *pija

hita ʔārehow many? (of things and persons) (POC: *pica) *pija

hokobundle; faggot (POC: *pokos) *beRkes

hokos-iamake into a bundle (POC: *pokos) *beRkes

'Āre'āre (80 / 402)

honufull (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

honutortoise, turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

honu akoa sickness caused by the turtle, a cough and vomiting of blood (POC: *poñu) *peñu

hori-abuy, pay; reward (POC: *poli-a) *beli

hori-a kenipurchase a bride (POC: *poli-a) *beli

horo-horobroken into many pieces (POC: *poro poro)

horos-iato cross, go across, swim across (POC: *polos₁)

hotea paddle; to paddle, row (POC: *pose) *beRsay

hote ruaruato paddle alternately on both sides of the canoe (of steerer) (POC: *pose) *beRsay

houraʔ-ishown (NOISE)

a littoral tree; extracts of its bark used to poison fish; its fruit (POC: *putun₁) *butun

huato bring, carry, of person or thing that cannot move by itself (reanalyzed as hu-a) (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

huaracrocodile (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

huhudry, powdery, of powdered substance such as hena (POC: *pupuk₂) *bukbuk₃

huhudry, powdery, of powdered substance such as lime (POC: *pupus) *busbus

huhuswollen, of callosity in the stomach (POC: *pupuŋ) *buŋbuŋ₄

hu-hua-naseeds, of fruits (POC: *puaq puaq) *buaq

huhus-i-aspill, shake off, of powdered substance (POC: *pupus) *busbus

huia wart (POC: *putiR) *buteliR

huia taro (NOISE)

'Āre'āre (100 / 402)

huia taro (NOISE)

hui-apour out, pour water over, on (PCEMP: *buqi₂)

hunu-acut up an animal, operate on people (POC: *punuq-a) *buNuq₂

hunu-a pōbutcher a pig (POC: *punuq-a) *buNuq₂

hunu-a pōna meracut the umbilical cord (POC: *punuq-a) *buNuq₂

huramoon, lunar month (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

hura-ʔarorainbow (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

hururun, go fast (NOISE)

huru motaʔahairy (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

husibanana (there are many varieties) (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

hutabe born, appear, rise up (POC: *pusa₁)

hutāblood relatives; birth, generation (POC: *pusa₁)

huto-hutoslime, saliva (POC: *pucoq pucoq) *bujeq

huʔonet, fishing net (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

huʔo-ato fish with a net (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

ilocative preposition: in, to, at, on; always used before names of places, and with words denoting time and direction (PAN: *i₂)

ipast participle ending (NOISE)

ianapregnant (PMP: *tian-an) *tiaN

ihu-nahair, feather (POC: *ipu-)

imaa big clam shell; a big clam shell armlet, worn by the elder men and by the rāmo (mythical ancestral warriors) to break the ribs of their victims (PMP: *kima)

'Āre'āre (120 / 402)

i naʔo-ibefore, in front of; in former times (POC: *nago)

i naʔo-kubefore my time (POC: *nago)

īoyes (PMP: *qio)

ipemat, bed (POC: *ibe)

irea pandanus, its leaves used to make armlets (POC: *kiRe) *kiRay

irea stone axe (PMP: *kiRam)

irolook for, collect (POC: *qiro)

irolook for, collect (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

iroan oyster living on the roots of mangrove trees (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

iro-iroreflection, mirror (POC: *qiro)

i-rorobowstring (PAN: *deles)

iruh-iadrink slowly (POC: *iRup) *SiRup

isumove, remove, of persons and things (PMP: *icud)

isumove, remove, of persons and things (PMP: *isud)

isu maimove here, nearer (PMP: *isud)

isu woumove away a bit (PMP: *isud)

i waritaformerly, in the old days (POC: *waRi(n)sa)

iʔafish (generic) (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

kamuchew betelnut (POC: *kamu₃) *kamu₂

kanasing, in incantations to a spirit in order to know a cure against a sickness (POC: *kanam)

'Āre'āre (140 / 402)

kania skin disease, white spots (POC: *kani-kani)

kapia trap (POC: *kabi)

katococonut leaf basket (POC: *kaso₂) *kaso

kau-ato hook, catch hold of (POC: *kau₂)

keni haorua marriageable girl (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

keni naowidow (POC: *ñao)

kiokiothe kingfisher (PAN: *kiaw)

kokonarrow, confined (POC: *kokop) *kebkeb

koracharcoal, ashes, embers (POC: *koran)

-ku1sg possessive ending: my; suffixed to nouns of parts of the body, and relationship, to adverbs and prepositions connected with persons (POC: *-gu) *-ku

kua ~ kuakuaa fowl (POC: *kua kua)

kukuhang down (POC: *kukut)

māeunconscious; faint; ill; die; paralyzed; numb; war (POC: *mate) *aCay

mae ana hioronastarve (POC: *pitolon)

māe-sibe ill of, die of (POC: *mate) *aCay

māe-tadeath feast, memorial feast (POC: *mate) *aCay

mailow-tide, ebb-tide (PMP: *ma-qati) *qaCi

maihere, hither, this way, said of things and persons coming nearby; come here; give it to me; let me see, show me (POC: *mai) *ai₃

(ma)-marushade, shadow; to shade, overshadow (PEMP: *maluRu)

ma-mataripe, wise, sensible (PEMP: *ma-qosak) *qesak

'Āre'āre (160 / 402)

mami-ʔasweet (POC: *mamis) *hemis

mā-naeye, face, front (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mā-na nimadoorway (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mā-na panonanostril (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mā-na susunipple, teat (PMP: *mata nu susu) *maCa

mā-na suuentrance of a bay (PMP: *mata) *maCa

mā-na suʔapoint of a spear (PMP: *mata) *maCa

māne haorua young unmarried man, a newcomer (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

mā ni waimouth of river (POC: *mata ni waiR) *maCa

mā ni ʔaʔecore of a boil (PMP: *mata nu bisul) *maCa

manōniaromatic, having a pleasant smell (POC: *manoŋi)

manu-manuto float (POC: *mañur mañur) *qañud

maru-anaunder, below (PEMP: *maluRu)

maru-iunderneath (PEMP: *maluRu)

maru-marutime between three and six in the afternoon (POC: *maluRu maluRu) *maluRu

mataripe, of fruit (PEMP: *ma-qosak) *qesak

mataripe, of fruit (PAN: *ma-Sasak) *Sasak

matara ni tanimorning star’ (tani = ‘daylight’) (PMP: *talaq₁)

mataʔito have fever, to have an attack of malaria (POC: *masakit) *sakit

mauaunripe, of food (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

'Āre'āre (180 / 402)

ma-urilive, be alive; be green, of wood; grow well, of food; new, fresh (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

ma-uri roʔurecover, of health, rise from the dead (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mauruto sleep, slumber (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

mauru hāhi-ato watch with a dead person (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

mauru suusuupretend to sleep (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

maʔuto be afraid (POC: *matakut) *takut

maʔu-niato fear, be afraid of (POC: *matakut) *takut

mera-merared (of fruit) (PCEMP: *meRaq meRaq) *iRaq

munocaterpillar (POC: *muno)

naand (PAN: *Na)

nakosticky, gluey (PMP: *ña(ŋ)ket)

namuchew betelnut; chew, masticate (POC: *ñamu)

na-namastrong, powerful, in a metaphysical sense; something extraordinary, effected by a spiritual power (POC: *mana₂)

naowidower (POC: *ñao)

narewhite ants (POC: *ane) *aNay

nas-ichew, gnaw (PMP: *ŋasŋas)

natotoothless (NEAR)

naʔo-hiabefore, preparatory to (POC: *nago)

naʔo-nafront (POC: *nago)

naʔo-na lorathe stem, bow of a canoe (POC: *nago)

'Āre'āre (200 / 402)

nigenitive particle: of, belonging to (rata-na ni hanua ‘clan name’, waisia ni hanua ‘land animals’) (PAN: *ni)

nimafive (PAN: *lima)

nima-nathe fifth (PAN: *lima)

nini-suakind of bee (PMP: *ñikñik)

niucoconut tree and fruit (PMP: *niuR)

niu mānaa coconut over which incantations are said, and the cream of which is used to wash the region of the eyes of a corpse (PMP: *niuR)

niu ni taohaa palm, Nipa fruticans taoha = ‘canoe house; shrine on the beach’) (PMP: *niuR)

noro-ahear, hear tidings of, understand (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

noro-a kenito inquire about a girl as a prospective bride for a man (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

nunuquake; loose (POC: *nunu₁)

nunu-nashadow of persons or things as cast by the sun; likeness, phantom, portrait, figure, carving; a man's very self (POC: *qanunu)

nurumurmur, growl, mumble, groan (POC: *ŋuRuR)

nutocuttlefish, squid (POC: *nuso)

oho-naattempt, try (in compounds); sample, taste (of drinks) (POC: *topoŋ) *tepeŋ₁

ōhusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

okacross beam (POC: *oka₂)

okato root the ground for food (of pigs); to eat food raw (of crazy people) (POC: *qodaq) *qetaq

omuroll the food in one's mouth (of toothless people) (PMP: *emuR)

onaposts, stakes, put in a hole -- used as a trap for humans (POC: *ona₂) *ena

onaposts, stakes put in a hole -- used as a trap for humans (POC: *ona₁) *ona

'Āre'āre (220 / 402)

ona-onato wound, harm (POC: *ona₁) *ona

oneonelittoral tree with berries (eaten by pigeons) (LOAN)

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

opana huhua swollen stomach, inflated by wind (POC: *pupuŋ) *buŋbuŋ₄

opugreen coconut (NOISE)

orafireplace (POC: *koran)

orireturn; come back, go back (home) (PCEMP: *oliq, uliq) *uliq₁

ori-ato skin, peel, scrape (of roasted food) (POC: *orit) *erit

oruthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

osi-ato cut, bevel timber for joints (PEMP: *tosi)

osi-acut, bevel timber for joints (NOISE)

otapalm tree with big edible leaves (NOISE)

otoprovisions, food for a journey (POC: *qoso)

otoa war spear, arrow with one barb (POC: *kojom)

otomi-ato spear (POC: *kojom-i) *kojom

oto-otostraight; correct and proper in conduct (POC: *oto)

oto-otostraight; correct and proper in conduct (POC: *kodos)

parafence, trap (POC: *bala₄) *bala₂

parafence, trap (POC: *baRa) *baRa₂

parafence, trap (POC: *bara₄) *bara₁

'Āre'āre (240 / 402)

parasmall platform, mostly above the fireplace, used as a depository (POC: *paRa, baRa) *paRa₁

para ni kenian enclosure of girls, virgins, taboo for men (POC: *bala₄) *bala₂

para ni kenian enclosure of girls, virgins, taboo for men (POC: *baRa) *baRa₂

para ni kenian enclosure of girls, virgins, taboo for men (POC: *bara₄) *bara₁

para-parawhite, pale (POC: *balaR₂) *balaR

pari-a(NG. cut up (animals and fish) (NOISE)

pariparipalm tree sp. (NOISE)

pata māevery fine shell money, having great value, used to make necklaces and for buying pigs (pata = 'money') (PCEMP: *matay₂) *matay

pau ni rāoa length of stitched sago palm leaves (POC: *qatop) *qatep

pepebutterfly (POC: *bebe)

pinahornbill (POC: *binam)

pina ni ānoa big grey pigeon (POC: *binam)

pinuto roll a leaf in form of a horn, for drinking purposes (POC: *pinu)

pinu-ato fold, hem (POC: *pinu)

piraopen one's eyes wide (POC: *pilat₁) *bilat₁

pirathe white of an egg (POC: *piRa) *biRaS

piragreen, unripe (POC: *pira)

pira-nathe roe of fish (POC: *piRa) *biRaS

pisispurt, splash, crackle (POC: *bisik) *bicik

pisisplurt, splash (PMP: *picik)

'Āre'āre (260 / 402)

pisih-iato wet, spurt on, squirt (POC: *bisik) *bicik

ponievening, after sunset, night; an appointed day (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

poni oru-sithree days ago (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

puaa betel nut tree; betel nut (POC: *buaq)

pua-puaa palm tree, used for bows for children (NOISE)

puricowrie (shellfish), the shell being used as sinkers for fishnets (POC: *buliq₁)

puribehind, after (POC: *burit₃) *burit₁

puruputtynut, used to caulk canoes; a tree gum, puru nari, a resin (PMP: *pulut)

puru-i-ato gum, stick, caulk the joints of canoe planks with puttynut (PMP: *pulut)

puru-puru-ʔablack, blue (POC: *buluŋ₃) *buluŋ₁

puru-puru-ʔa kaku(a)pitch black (POC: *buluŋ₃) *buluŋ₁

pusuburst, explode, spurt out, squirt, blow (of whale), spray (PMP: *pucut₁)

pwela ni niu1,000 coconuts (PMP: *niuR)

rae hitari-aunderstand (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

rae-kuI want, like (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

rae-nastomach, heart, liver, lungs, womb, mind, seat of affections, intention, will (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

rae-na e taʔabe angry ( = 'his liver is wrong/bad/evil') (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

rae nisu-na, rae ʔohuʔohu-nalung (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

rahaobig white worm living in dead trees (POC: *qapator) *qabated

rahuuprooted; pull out (PMP: *abut)

'Āre'āre (280 / 402)

rahuuprooted; pull out (POC: *Raput) *RabuC

rahu-ʔato be old, worn-out and dirty, of things (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR

rahuʔ-ato be old, worn out and dirty, of things (PMP: *Rabuk)

raiathe puttynut tree; the nut is used for caulking purposes and inlay work (POC: *qatita)

rāothe sago palm; its leaves are used for thatch (POC: *qatop) *qatep

rapuhit, strike, whip, beat (PMP: *dabuk₁)

rarato be warm, hot, of sun; fade, wither, dry up (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₂) *daŋdaŋ

rarihecentipede (PCEMP: *qalipan) *qalu-Sipan

raruironwood, a littoral tree (POC: *aRu) *aRuhu

rarupike fish (PMP: *qalu)

rasuto smoke, of fire (PMP: *qasu₃)

rasu-ato smoke, blacken with smoke (PMP: *qasu₃)

rataa very strong liana, used especially to sew canoe planks (POC: *qasam) *qaRsam

rata-iname (PMP: *ajan)

rata-naname (PMP: *ajan)

ratosun, sunshine, no rain, good weather (POC: *qaco) *qajaw

rautuna fish (POC: *qatun)

rawaa spider; cobweb (PMP: *lawaq₂)

riaa ginger with perfumed roots, used as a medicine by witch doctors; there are several varieties for different diseases (PMP: *laqia)

ria ni marutanaa ginger used to enlist the affections of women (PMP: *laqia)

'Āre'āre (300 / 402)

riteeggs of louse and flea (POC: *lisa) *liseqeS

riu-aused to form the comparative and superlative; surpass, win, excel, go beyond, pass over, of time (PMP: *liu₁)

rohoto fly (PMP: *Rebek)

rokaopen, unfolded (PMP: *le(ŋ)kaq)

rotocloudy; black cloud, squall; to be dark, night; blind (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

ruatwo (POC: *rua) *duSa

ruaflood tide, incoming tide (POC: *Ruap) *Ruab

ruā-nasecond (POC: *rua) *duSa

rua-nathroat, neck, back (POC: *Ruqa)

rua-rua-ʔato doubt (POC: *rua rua₂) *duSa

rua susularyngitis (POC: *Ruqa)

rumuseaweed; a moss on trees, used in ceremonial purification; it is wrung out over the head of a newborn baby when taken into somebody’s house (PMP: *lumut)

ruru-raokind of nettle (POC: *latoŋ) *laCeŋ

rusuthe ribs of a canoe, cut out of a slab of hardwood, used to strengthen the canoe and to support the seats (PAN: *Rusuk)

rutato charge, load, carry a load (PMP: *Rujan)

rutato charge, load, carry a load (PMP: *lujan)

rutāa load, charge, cargo (PMP: *lujan)

ruta-niato load, charge (PMP: *Rujan)

sahua lime, used in magic, on which incantations are done and put over the doorway outside on the ridgepole or blown around in the house; used as a protection for the house, the inhabitants and the belongings, against evil spirits, and sickness (PAN: *qapuR)

sau-rahidusk, evening (about 6:00 p.m.) (POC: *Rapi) *Rabiqi

'Āre'āre (320 / 402)

sinashine, brighten, phosphorescent; light, brightness (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sina-rishine (of moon and stars); moonlight, light of stars (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sirired hen parrot (POC: *siri)

siwanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

siwā-naninth (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

suaharpoon, arrow, spear (with four barbs) (POC: *sua₁)

suhi-ato shave the head, beard; scrape (PEMP: *supi)

suraa comb with four prongs, the two outer ones long, the two inner ones short (PEMP: *sura)

suruboiled coconut cream (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

suru sahuput or blow the lime over the doorway, etc. (PAN: *qapuR)

susuto suck the breast (PAN: *susu₁)

susu-ato dig the earth (PAN: *suksuk)

susu-nabreast (PAN: *susu₁)

susuʔi-apierce, spear, take with a needle; prick of the poisonous nohu [stonefish] (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

taɁerise, get up, stand (PMP: *sakay₄)

taɁe-ato raise up, make get up, put somebody on their feet, lift up (PMP: *sakay₄)

tahana ni rāoa fathom length of stitched leaf (POC: *qatop) *qatep

tai-ato entangle (of spider’s web entangling a person); entwine, mix together; jumble up; sew (POC: *saqit) *zaqit

tamain line, in pairs (POC: *jama) *sama

ta-na-rauhundred (PMP: *sa-ŋa-Ratus) *RaCus

'Āre'āre (340 / 402)

tani na poniday and night (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

tapaikatobacco (LOAN)

tarato fail, miss (PMP: *salaq₁)

tara ni puristring of white cowrie shells around the neck or on the forehead (POC: *buliq₁)

tarito stick in the throat; to be tangled up in, be caught in, be aground, stick fast in (POC: *sariŋ) *zariŋ

tarudraw, dip water (PMP: *saRup₁)

tarudraw, dip water (PMP: *saruk)

taru-aneedle, the bones of a flying fox (POC: *saRum) *zaRum

taru-aneedle, the bones of a flying fox (POC: *saRu) *saRu₃

taru-a, tarus-iabail out water, draw water (PMP: *saruk)

tā-tarasweep the house (POC: *salap)

tauto say, often used in narratives (PMP: *sau₄)

tawaa channel in the shore reef; a landing place (POC: *sawaŋ₂)

taʔawrong, bad, evil; be dying, be in a bad condition (POC: *saqat) *zaqat

taʔeride, embark; used to denote the numerical strength of a canoe (PMP: *sakay₁)

taʔe ruaa two-man canoe (PMP: *sakay₁)

taʔe taʔaia one-man canoe (PMP: *sakay₁)

toroinland, the mountain, hill country (POC: *solos)

totoh-iasuck, inhale, draw, absorb (POC: *sosop) *sepsep

ūlouse, flea (PMP: *kutu₁) *kuCu

'Āre'āre (360 / 402)

ūhi-ablow, breathe from the mouth (POC: *upi-a) *upi

uma-aclear the undergrowth when commencing a new garden (PMP: *quma) *qumah

ūmustone oven (PMP: *qumun)

ūnaa demonstrative, thus, so, like that, that way, referring to something that has been said; locative: here (NOISE)

una-una-nafish scales (PMP: *qunap qunap) *quSeNap

ūnutorch made from dry coconut leaf; go fishing at night with this torch (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

urashrimp, crayfish, prawn (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

uraa shrub, the roots of which are used to make red dye (POC: *gurat)

urahua fish (taboo for women and children) (PMP: *kuRapu)

ura-paulobster (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

ura-urabone marrow; vein (PMP: *uRat uRat) *huRaC

uria fruit tree; its fruit (PCEMP: *quRi)

urucloud, heaven, sky, top (POC: *qulu) *quluh

uruto wade (POC: *tuRu₁)

usupush, shove (POC: *qusur) *qunzur

usurub, grate, wipe (PMP: *usuq)

utato rain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

uta mairain is coming (POC: *mai) *ai₃

uta paraparasunshower ( = "white rain") (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

uwea liana (POC: *que) *quay

'Āre'āre (380 / 402)

uwoa piece of skinned soft wood used as a float for fishing nets (POC: *uton) *utem

uwo-woipith, heart (of tree) (POC: *quto)

waifresh water (as opposed to āsi 'saltwater'); moisture, sap, juice; river (POC: *waiR₂) *wahiR

waritaformer, previous, past (POC: *waRi(n)sa)

waroliana; string, rope; fishline; string of money (POC: *waRoc) *waRej

warueight (PAN: *walu)

wateto herald the assigned food portions at a feast to the different villages; make an oration at a feast (POC: *wa(n)se₂) *wa(n)se

wate-agive (the thing given has not to be returned to the donor, as opposed to ta) (POC: *wa(n)se-a) *wa(n)se

wate-nagift (POC: *wa(n)se-ŋa) *wa(n)se

waʔasplit, cut in sections; yam section (PMP: *wakaq)

ʔahesurf, flooded river, current caused by tide, wind, rain; tidal-rip; to flow; a current, stream; to drip quickly (POC: *tape₁)

ʔahe-siato drift away, to be carried away by the current (POC: *tape₁)

ʔahe-tahato flow (POC: *tape₁)

ʔaigeneric name for wood, tree (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

ʔarasi-ato scrape, polish, of wooden articles such as combs, bows; to sharpen, point a stick; grate coconuts (POC: *karasi)

ʔāre māeweapons, instruments for killing (POC: *mate) *aCay

ʔāru masiuabandoned, overgrown; last year's garden (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

ʔirarainvoke a spirit in order to know what to do to cure a sick person (PAN: *kilala)

ʔora-ʔoraashes, dust (POC: *koran)

ʔūnaover there, there, yonder (NOISE)

'Āre'āre (400 / 402)

ʔuruʔururipe (of coconuts only) (POC: *kulu₂)

ʔuruʔuru ana niua fully grown ripe coconut (POC: *kulu₂)

30. Arguni (6) SHWNG (Grace n.d.) [agf] Indonesia (Papua)

bababreak one thing on another, chip a stone (POC: *babak₁) *babak

bababreak one thing on another, chip a stone (PAN: *bakbak₂)

fatfour (PMP: *epat) *Sepat

poresoar, paddle (PMP: *beRsay)

yaffire (PEMP: *api₁) *Sapuy

yaimother (PMP: *aya₂ₐ) *aya₂

31. Aroma (1) OC [khz] (Keapara) Papua New Guinea

yabaranorthwest wind (PMP: *habaRat) *SabaRat

Arop-Lokep (2) OC. see: Arop-Lukep

32. Arop-Lukep (2) OC [aka: Arop-Lokep]

salistrip leaves from branch or palm frond (POC: *sali)

sa-ŋa-ulten (PMP: *ŋa)

33. Arosi (806) OC (Fox, C. 1970) [aia] Solomon Islands (dialects: Southern 1, Western 2, Eastern 4)

apersonal article, used with names native or foreign; used with a common noun to personify; with verbs or adjectives to form a descriptive noun or nickname; and with pronouns; it seems to have been used once with names of places; also used with relationship terms (PMP: *a₁)

-apersonal pronoun: he, she, it; suffixed to verbs and prepositions (PMP: *-a₂)

a-an adjectival prefix, showing condition, often a shortened form of the prefix ta or ma (POC: *a-) *ha-

a-a prefix of spontaneity (PMP: *ta-₂)

-asuffix added to the transitive termination of verbs to make a past participle passive, and so a passive form of the verb (NOISE)

aadato look up, raise the eyes (POC: *tadra)

aadaʔ-ilook up to (POC: *tadra)

abathe half, a part, side, portion, chapter; the slope of a hill, one side of a ridge (POC: *taba₂)

abahalf, part, side (POC: *tabal)

abecarry something against the chest, as firewood (POC: *tabe)

abiraa basket made of coconut leaf (POC: *tabiRa)

abudehortatory: don’t; sacred, in a few names of places, etc. (POC: *tabu) *tambu

aedung; food in process of digestion (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

aeno, not, negative particle (POC: *taqe₁) *taqe

ae-niapolluted (POC: *taqe₂) *taqay

agohudirt, dust (<*-puk₂?) (ROOT)

aheto flow, as a current; to float gently along in water or air; to dissolve into liquid; to be in flood, to come down in a freshet (POC: *tape₁)

ahe-aheto float gently; a flood, freshet (POC: *tape-tape) *tape₁

ahe-ahe-aan early name for foreign ships, whalers on the south coast (POC: *tape-tape) *tape₁

ahe-aurua waterfall (auru = ‘down’) (POC: *tape₁)

Arosi (20 / 806)

ahe-siacarried away to sea (POC: *tape₁)

ahubranching coral (PAN: *qapuR)

ahuflock together (PMP: *tapuk₁)

ahucome together in a group, flock together (PMP: *ta(m)pun)

ahuto bury; a pile, heap of firewood, mound of earth (POC: *tapun₂) *tabun₂

ahufall, come down (ROOT)

ahuflock together (ROOT)

ahunito bury, cover, conceal, hide (POC: *tapuni) *tabuni

ahuriconch, usually a Triton shell blown at the side; blown only on solemn occasions, e.g. at a death, or at feasts (POC: *tapuRi) *tabuRi

aithere, that place (POC: *ai₁)

aia native of, person of (POC: *kai)

ai (ni) Wangoa native of Wango (POC: *kai)

akuruto thunder; thunder (ROOT)

amadibetel pepper (POC: *tamaji)

Ɂa-nahis, hers, its; when food, drink, medicine or anything acting on the person is referred to (POC: *kana-)

anethe white ant which bores and destroys (POC: *ane) *aNay

ane-haua variety which lives in the ground; the name for its nest; these ants were thought to be incarnations of the dead (POC: *ane) *aNay

anothe ground, earth, soil, the land (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

ano-anolow, of shrub, tree, house, hill; lowering, of clouds; a drop of liquid left at the bottom of a vessel (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

ano-ito bury (POC: *tanom) *CaNem

Arosi (40 / 806)

ano-iaa landslip (POC: *tanoq) *taneq

ano-mito hide, conceal (POC: *tanom) *CaNem

a-nutathe name of a small island on the south coast (POC: *a-nusa) *nusa₁

aŋato have in a bag (POC: *taŋa₂)

aŋa-aŋato have a bag, to carry in a bag (POC: *taŋa₂)

aŋa(-na)a plaited bag with string handles, hung over the shoulder, or from the head in carrying burdens (POC: *taŋa₂)

aŋito cry; to sound, of bell, gong, panpipes, trumpet; to sing, of birds; to shout; indeed, almost any sound, as the swish of water or the whistle of a steamer (PMP: *taŋis) *Caŋis

aŋi-aŋicry or sound long continued (POC: *taŋi-taŋis) *Caŋis

aŋi-hi ~ aŋi-sito cry for (PMP: *taŋis-i) *Caŋis

aŋi-siacried for (POC: *taŋis-ia) *Caŋis

aosago palm; the leaves are used for thatching (POC: *qatop) *qatep

arato chop, cut, cut down a tree; to lop off branches, break off; to hoe; to make equal, level (PAN: *taRaq₁)

aragaufish hawk: Haliaster girrenera (POC: *taragau)

ara-ito chop, cut, cut down a tree (PAN: *taRaq-i) *taRaq₁

aramianswer, acknowledge, assent to (POC: *taRamʷi)

arereto be joyful, a word used only in songs (NOISE)

arito plait; rope; wind up, make a noose; lie curled up (dog or snake) (POC: *tali₁) *CaliS

arito fold; to plait; to wind up, make a noose; to bend, of a string or creeper; to lie curled up like a dog or snake (POC: *tali₂) *tali

ariaa large species of freshwater fish (POC: *kalia)

arimaŋovery large crab with paddles, found in mangrove swamps (POC: *qali-maŋo) *qali-maŋaw

Arosi (60 / 806)

arirismall gastropod shell (PMP: *qaliliŋ)

aritea tree of a semi-sacred character: Terminalia catappa (POC: *talise₁) *talisay

aroa name for taro in some names of varieties (POC: *talos) *tales

arua dug garden; an overgrown garden, land formerly used for a garden (PMP: *talun₁) *CaluN

arumany; of men, islands, etc. (PMP: *hadu) *Sadu

aruto cover up, as with pandanus mat (POC: *taRu)

asi-sibling of the opposite sex (POC: *taci) *Suaji

asisea, saltwater, salt (PMP: *tasik)

asusua crab: Birgus latro (PMP: *qayuyu)

ataname (PMP: *ajan)

atascrape, rub, sharpen with rubbing (PEMP: *asaq) *Sasaq

ata-ataa rasp, scraper (POC: *asaq-i) *Sasaq

ata-iscrape, rub, sharpen with rubbing (POC: *asaq-i) *Sasaq

atei (< *asa-i)who; interrogative pronoun, but not indefinite like Mota isei (PMP: *ajan)

atodistribute food at feasts, yams in holes for planting; give food to the sick (POC: *qaso)

ato, ato-atodistribute food at feasts, yams in holes for planting (POC: *asok) *hasek₁

awaa tree, sp. of lychee, but the San Cristobal species is only edible by birds (PMP: *tawan)

baastrike one upon another, as firewood in breaking it (POC: *bak) *bak₁

bababreak one thing on another, chip a stone (POC: *babak₃) *bakbak₂

babacheek, temples; side of a stream, etc. (POC: *babaR) *papaR

Arosi (80 / 806)

babakbreak one thing on another, chip a stone (POC: *babak₁) *babak

bahacarry pick-a-back or in cloth on back (NG, OG) (POC: *papa) *baba₁

bana-banaplant sp. (NOISE)

barapale in color (as a yellowish coconut); pale from fear or illness, of men (POC: *balaR₂) *balaR

barahedge; fence made of wood (POC: *bala₄) *bala₂

barahedge; fence made of wood (POC: *baRa) *baRa₂

barahedge; fence made of wood (POC: *bara₄) *bara₁

barapale in color, as a yellowish variety of coconut (NOISE)

bara-baraa fence around a grave (POC: *bala₄) *bala₂

bara-baraa fence around a grave (POC: *baRa) *baRa₂

bara-baraa fence around a grave (POC: *bara₄) *bara₁

barifish sp. (POC: *bali₆)

barubarufish sp. (NOISE)

bebebutterfly (POC: *bebe)

cook with hot stones; to dye, soak in dye and boil; to stew bii-bii fold up, make a parcel of (usually in a leaf) (LOAN)

biawhite limestone rock, a cliff of crumbly white limestone (POC: *bia)

bia-biadust from white limestone; a cascade of water over white limestone rocks (POC: *bia-bia) *bia

bibito crush, squeeze, crowd (NOISE)

bibiŋ-iasqueezed, crowded (NOISE)

bina ahuriNicobar pigeon (POC: *binam)

Arosi (100 / 806)

bina awahornbill (POC: *binam)

bina ni asibooby (POC: *binam)

bina uhihawk (POC: *binam)

biradregs, starch, sediment, as in making tapioca (POC: *biRaq₄) *biRaq₂

biradregs, starch, sediment, as in making tapioca (POC: *biRas₂) *biRas

bira-(na)roe of a fish, yolk of an egg (POC: *piRa) *biRaS

bobomake a bundle; a bundle of faggots, sago palm leaves, etc. (POC: *boboc) *bejbej

boboto overcrowd, be too many to fit in (POC: *boboŋ₂) *beŋbeŋ₃

boboŋ-aʔibe overcrowded by (POC: *boboŋ₂) *beŋbeŋ₃

boŋia night; last night (POC: *boŋi) *beRŋi

boo-hita, too-hitaa wedge (POC: *pisak) *biseqak

botabreak by knocking on something else, as an egg on bamboo (POC: *posaq) *peceq

buabetel nut (POC: *buaq)

buaa-buawild betel nut; species of tree with white flowers and large leaves (NOISE)

bubufish sp.: Balistes (POC: *bubu₇)

bubunimoisten, smear over, paint; horizontal lines of charred lime smeared on cheek (POC: *bubuni)

bu-buŋu(-na)bunch of betel nuts or almonds (PAN: *puŋuN)

bu-buŋu(-na)bunch of betel nuts or almonds (PMP: *puŋu)

buricowrie; the buri has a sacred character and should only properly be worn by chiefs. Cowries were placed with dead chiefs (POC: *buliq₁)

buribehind, at the back (POC: *burit₃) *burit₁

Arosi (120 / 806)

burito wallow, roll on the ground, as a dog (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

buri-na rumaat the back of the house (POC: *burit₃) *burit₁

buriŋ-aʔito roll on (something) (POC: *buliŋ) *puliŋ₁

burua constellation: the Pleiades (POC: *puluq₂) *buluq₁

burublack, dark, dark blue (POC: *buluŋ₃) *buluŋ₁

burua tree, Parinarium laurinum; the gum of this tree, rubbed into paste and sets hard quickly; glue, paste; a torch of gum (PMP: *pulut)

buru-naink of cuttlefish (POC: *buluŋ₃) *buluŋ₁

bwau-head; chief, leader (PMP: *batuk₃)

damamate, fellow, companion, corresponding part; like, similar (POC: *jama) *sama

daraospecies of nettle, species of jellyfish; Portuguese man of war, Physalia (sea nettle) (POC: *salatoŋ) *zalateŋ

didiwall of a house; make a wall or partition (POC: *ridriŋ) *diŋdiŋ

diriDracaena (PMP: *siRi)

diwathe U groove of the main posts in which the ridgepole rests (POC: *jiwaŋ) *siwaŋ

dodoto think; to be silent (POC: *rondom₂) *demdem₁

doŋaa pair (as of coconuts) (POC: *doŋan) *deŋan

duʔuto be unable to get away, be cornered, as a fish in a net, mosquito in a net (POC: *jukul₁) *sukul₂

duʔua measure, (a) hands outstretched, fathom, (b) a man stands on a rope and brings hands to full extent above head holding the rope; to measure in this manner (POC: *jukul₂) *sukul₃

duʔu-sito corner, close in upon (POC: *jukul₁) *sukul₂

eindefinite article; used with nouns including numerals, and verbs treated as nouns (used with 1-9) (POC: *e)

ere-vulva (POC: *keRe)

Arosi (140 / 806)

e-taone (in counting only (PAN: *esa)

e-ta-nafirst (PAN: *esa)

gafirst person plural pronoun, usually possessive, we, us, our’s (POC: *-da₂) *-ta

gahumist, to be misty, dim (POC: *kaput₂) *kabut

ganato sing (POC: *kanam)

gana-ganato sing (POC: *kanam)

gana-riaacclaimed in song, sung of (POC: *kanam)

ga-raŋinear (POC: *raŋi) *daŋi

giawe (plural incl.) (PAN: *kita₁)

gomosqueeze, hold tight, clutch (POC: *gomol) *gemel

gomoto squeeze, hold tight, clutch (POC: *komos) *kemes

gomosqueeze, hold tight, clutch (POC: *gomol) *kemel

gorato shrivel up and turn brown, as a green leaf in the fire (POC: *koRaŋ₁) *keRaŋ₃

-gu1sg possessive pronoun: my; occasionally gu or ku is a personal pronoun, first person singular, especially in old songs (POC: *-gu) *-ku

guguto be fast, firm, clinging to; a sea creature like a starfish with tentacles --- clings so tightly it cannot be removed (PMP: *kukuq)

guruto growl, of a dog; mew, hum, buzz, hum a song or chorus (ROOT)

guru-guruthunder (POC: *guRuŋ)

haa maiGive me (POC: *mai) *ai₃

hahaiguana (NOISE)

haha-nafrond of a palm (PMP: *papaq₁) *papaq

Arosi (160 / 806)

haha-nafrond of a palm, branch of a plant or tree that is not an ‘ai, as sago palm, coconut, cycad, screw palm (PMP: *paqpaq₂)

hahicook in a native oven; food cooked so (POC: *papi)

hahoabove, upon, over (POC: *papo₁) *babaw₃

hahoto weed (POC: *papo₂) *babaw₄

hahoencircling reef (POC: *papo₃) *papo

haiwhere, what place, which? (PMP: *pai₁) *pai

haifour (PCEMP: *pat-i) *Sepat

haihinewoman (POC: *pai-p<in>ai) *bahi

hanashoot (PAN: *panaq)

hanaa prickly yam, but regarded by Melanesians as distinct from a yam (NOISE)

haneclimb (not a hill) a rope, tree, cliff, using hands (POC: *panek) *panahik

hane-ʔiclimb (POC: *panek) *panahik

hanomake a journey, set out; go (POC: *pano) *paNaw

hanua, henuaisland, village (in compounds) (POC: *panua) *banua

haorunew, fresh (PEMP: *baqoRu) *baqeRuh

hapaa board; flat; mid-seats of a canoe (POC: *baban) *papan

haramouth; jawbone; double tooth, molar (POC: *paRaŋ) *baReqaŋ

harato swell, of the body; become hard and round, of a swelling (POC: *paRaq₁) *paRaq

haraten, of bananas (NOISE)

hareshrine, small house on poles (POC: *pale) *balay

Arosi (180 / 806)

hareshed for yams (POC: *pale) *balay Eastern

harehouse with one side of roof only, made in gardens (POC: *pale) *balay Western

hare-haresheath for knife (POC: *pale) *balay

haristingray (POC: *paRi₂) *paRiS

hari-reciprocal prefix generally having the force of united action, rather than mutual action (PEMP: *paRi-)

haritear, tear off, pull off a cluster of fruit (POC: *paRi₃) *paRi

haritear off (NOISE)

haroto bore, twist a stick in making a hole (NOISE)

harorotight, taut, of line (NOISE)

harugive the final death feast six months after death; the final death feast (POC: *paluq) *baluq

harutree sp. (POC: *(bp)alu) *balu₁

harusome, certain (POC: *palu₆) *balu₃

haru, harus-ito scratch (POC: *palus)

haruruclose together, of a number of things (cf. ruru 'call together, come together') (NOISE)

harutato paddle (POC: *paluca) *aluja

hasu-hasu-(na)eyebrow (POC: *paju)

hauplait (PMP: *batuR₁)

haustone, rock, iron (recent); expressing strength; coral (POC: *patu₂) *batu₁

hau-boŋabe angry (hau = ‘mind’) (POC: *boŋa)

hau nagiflint (POC: *patu₂) *batu₁

Arosi (200 / 806)

hau-ŋari-ŋariangry (POC: *ŋali-ŋali)

haʔa-abuforbid (POC: *tabu) *tambu

haʔa-abuforbid (POC: *paka-tabu) *tambu

haʔa-burito farewell, speed a parting guest (POC: *burit₃) *burit₁

haʔa-haifour times (POC: *paka-pat) *Sepat

haʔa-horiexpose for sale (PEMP: *poli) *beli

haʔa-mae-sikill (POC: *paka-mate) *aCay

haʔa-ma-matato make dry (PMP: *ma-maja) *maja

haʔa-ma-mata susuthe last born (lit’ ‘to make the breast dry up’) (PMP: *ma-maja) *maja

haʔa-manihito make thin (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

haʔa-maru-ato put in the shade, out of the sun (POC: *paka-maluRu) *maluRu

haʔa-oruthree times (POC: *paka-tolu) *telu

haʔa-rimafive times (POC: *paka-lima₂) *lima

haʔa-rohoto let fly, loose (PMP: *Rebek)

haʔa-roŋoto tell, give news, inform (POC: *paka-roŋoR) *deŋeR

haʔa-ruatwice (POC: *paka-rua) *duSa

haʔa-sihahow often? (POC: *paka-pica) *pija

haʔa-siwanine times (POC: *paka-siwa) *Siwa

haʔa-subuto beget (POC: *paka-tupuq) *Cubuq

haʔa-ta-ŋa-raua hundred times (PMP: *sa-ŋa-Ratus) *RaCus

Arosi (220 / 806)

haʔa-taufar off (POC: *sauq₁) *zauq

haʔua pandanus; a mat made by sewing together the dried leaves of pandanus (POC: *pakuŋ) *bakuŋ₂

he-heʔadefecate (POC: *bekas₄)

he-heʔa-sidefecate (POC: *bekas₄)

heŋuhold the nose (ROOT)

hikos-iaentwined (POC: *piros)

hinaŋayams for sacrifices, one or two tubers; seed yams for planting; vegetable food (POC: *p<in>aŋan₁) *paŋan

hinaŋayams for sacrifices, one or two tubers; seeds yams for planting; vegetable food (POC: *p<in>aŋan₂) *paŋan

hiorohungry (POC: *pitolon)

hioro-hafamine, hunger (POC: *pitolon)

hiralightning (POC: *pilak₂) *bilak₁

hiraa scar (POC: *pilat₂) *bilat₂

hiraa plant, giant caladium; used in magic, and taboo to children; leaves burnt to drive off ghosts (POC: *piRaq₂) *biRaq₁

hirascar (POC: *piras) *biras₁

hirascar (PMP: *birat)

hirascar (PMP: *pilaɁ)

hiralightning (ROOT)

hira-hirascarred (POC: *pilat₂) *bilat₂

hira-ialightning (POC: *pilak₂) *bilak₁

hiripay a fine for, make atonement for, death by violence (POC: *pili) *bili

Arosi (240 / 806)

hiritwist, twine round, coil (of a snake), wind a line round (POC: *piri₂)

hirito choose (PAN: *piliq)

hiri-hiritwist, twine round, coil (of a snake), wind a line round; a thread for tying a hook to a line (POC: *piri₂)

hiri-hiria thread for tying a hook to a line (POC: *piri-piri) *piri₂

hiriʔ-ito twist, twine round, coil (of a snake), wind a line round (POC: *piri₂)

hiruflow in a circle; an eddy; be curly, of the hair (POC: *piluk₂) *biluk

hirua palm sp. used in making the war-bow rau which differed from the basi and baʔe through its wrappings of coconut fibre or pandanus (POC: *piRu) *biRuʔ

hiru-hirularge fish which swims in circles and is the sign of a shark being near (POC: *pilu-pilu) *pilu

hiru-hirularge fish sp. which swims in circles, and is the sign of a shark being near (PMP: *bilu-bilu)

hisuto pluck, as fruit (NOISE)

hitato split, hit, strike (POC: *pisak) *biseqak

hiʔustar (POC: *pituqun) *bituqen

hoadivide, cleave asunder, separate (POC: *potak) *betak

hoacut with a bamboo knife (POC: *potas) *be(R)tas

hoadivide, cleave asunder, separate (PMP: *peka)

hogacome apart (PMP: *peka)

hohoswelling (testicles) (POC: *popol) *belbel₂

hohoswelling on woman's body (POC: *popol) *belbel₂ Western

hokamove the legs apart, stretch legs (POC: *pokaŋ) *be(ŋ)kaŋ

hokamove the legs apart, stretch the legs (PMP: *pekaŋ)

Arosi (260 / 806)

honuto fill (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

honusea turtle (POC: *poñu) *peñu

honu-siafilled (POC: *ponuq) *penuq

horibuy, sell, pay (PEMP: *poli) *beli

horocross over, lie across (POC: *polos₁)

hotea paddle; in names of trees, people, etc.; in old songs; and names of paddling strokes (POC: *pose) *beRsay

hoʔasit with legs apart (POC: *pokaŋ) *be(ŋ)kaŋ

hua i bubuthe constellation Southern Cross (POC: *bubu₁)

hua i haua round stone (PMP: *buaq na batu) *buaq

hua i kuaan egg (fowl) (POC: *puaq) *buaq

hua i ʔaikidneys (POC: *puaq) *buaq

hua-nafruit; to bear fruit; a unit in counting such objects as fruit, stones, eggs, fish, round or lump-like objects; a descriptive prefix with similar objects (POC: *puaq) *buaq

huasacrocodile (POC: *puqaya) *buqaya

huas-icarry suspended from the head, on the neck, as a bag (POC: *puat₂) *buhat₃

hugibanana or plantain (many named varieties) (POC: *pudi) *punti₁

huhularge wickerwork eel trap (POC: *pupu₂) *bubu₂

huhuto pluck fruit (POC: *puput) *buCbuC

huhuleak, drip, flow out; soak (POC: *pupus) *busbus

huhupluck fruit (PMP: *pupu₁)

huhupluck fruit (PMP: *puqpuq)

Arosi (280 / 806)

hu-huabear abundantly (POC: *puaq puaq) *buaq

huhurascar; sore under skin of sole of foot (POC: *pupula₂)

huhuʔiplant a garden; dig, mound up (NOISE)

huitaro in an early stage; a species of taro (NOISE)

huitaro in an early stage; a species of taro (NOISE)

huketo lever up, turn over (POC: *puke) *buka

hunia skin disease, species of ringworm, Tinea circinata tropica (POC: *puni₃) *buqeni

huni-hunihide, conceal (POC: *puni puni) *buNi

huni-ʔaaffected by ringworm (POC: *puni₃) *buqeni

hunukill, extirpate; to finish, complete in counting; last, complete (POC: *punuq₃) *buNuq₂

hunu-s-ikill (POC: *punuq₃) *buNuq₂

hunu-s-iadead (POC: *punuq₃) *buNuq₂

hunu-ʔ-ikill, extirpate (POC: *punuq-i) *buNuq₂

hunu-ʔ-iadead of (POC: *punuq-i) *buNuq₂

huŋaa crowd of people; all the people of a place; many, a mass; to crowd (POC: *puŋa₂) *puŋa

huŋa-muon you (POC: *pupuŋan) *bubuŋ₁

huŋa(-na)above, upon; the top of the roof of a house; put on the roof-top; the centerpost of a round house, which extended well above the roof and had carvings of birds, fish, etc. (POC: *pupuŋan) *bubuŋ₁

huŋa-naon it (POC: *pupuŋan) *bubuŋ₁

huŋa-ʔiheap together a number of things (POC: *puŋa₂) *puŋa

huŋu(-na)bunch or cluster of fruit (PAN: *puŋuN)

Arosi (300 / 806)

huŋu(-na)bunch or cluster of fruit (PMP: *puŋu)

huragush out, as water from a spring (POC: *buraq) *budaq₁

huramoon, month. It is said there were twelve native months beginning July (the planting) and ending in the following June (POC: *pulan₃) *bulaN

hurathe round pearl shell disk of a chief, representing the full moon (POC: *pulan₁) *bulan₁

hura-huragush out; a spring (POC: *puraq puraq) *budaq₁

huro-huroto bubble, boil, be churned up (POC: *puro puro) *puro

huruthe hair of the body (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

hururun (NOISE)

huru-huru-ʔahairy (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

huru-reredowny hair on a child; hair on the legs and arms (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

huru-rimaarmlets worn at feasts (POC: *pulu₃) *bulu₁

hus-ipluck, pull off, as fruit, crab's legs, etc.; to wean (POC: *puput-i) *buCbuC

hutabe born (POC: *pusa₁)

hutofoam (POC: *pucoq pucoq) *bujeq

hutofoam, suds (POC: *busa₂) *busa₁

huto-hutofroth, foam; to curdle, of coconut milk (POC: *pucoq pucoq) *bujeq

huua tree: Barringtonia speciosa (POC: *putun₁) *butun

huumass (as of black ants), clump (as of tomaho shrubs), cluster (as of singers) (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

huubeginning, origin; mass, clump, cluster (PMP: *puqun)

huu i gaua branch of coral; to cluster, mass together (POC: *putu, butu) *butu

Arosi (320 / 806)

huʔeto overturn, prise up (POC: *puke) *buka

huʔoa large net, seine net (POC: *pukot) *puket₁

iexclamation of disgust (PAN: *i₁)

i-instrumental prefix (PMP: *i-) *Si-₁

idefinite article used with nouns, verbs treated as nouns, and pronouns. (NOISE)

ia3sg. (PAN: *ia₁)

idu ganacompose a song (usually in dreams) (POC: *kanam)

iha-BW (m.s.), ZH (m.s.), WB, HZ (POC: *ipaR-) *hipaR

ihaunwrap, as food cooked in leaves (ROOT)

ihato unwrap, as food cooked in leaves (ROOT)

iha-ihaquiver, as tops of trees (NOISE)

ineto wonder, be astonished (PMP: *qina)

inithis; here (PAN: *i-ni) *-ni

inonia man (human) (PEMP: *tinoni)

inoni huŋacrowd of men (POC: *puŋa₂) *puŋa

ioyes (PMP: *qio)

irathey, them (PMP: *ida)

irato remain (POC: *tira) *tida

irato remain (POC: *tira) *tidaq

i-raŋoroller for a canoe; place rollers for a canoe (with instrumental prefix i-) (POC: *laŋon) *laŋen

Arosi (340 / 806)

iri, iriŋ-ito pour (PMP: *iliŋ₁)

iroto look; to stare (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

iroa small gastropod shell from which earrings are made; earrings (POC: *tiRom) *tiRem

iro-hilook into, look for; stare at, gaze into (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

iro-iroclear pool in the reef in which one can see one's reflection (POC: *iro iro)

iro-ŋ-aʔigaze at (POC: *tiro) *tindaw

iruyam soup; to sip yam soup (POC: *iRup) *SiRup

iruh-i(trans.) (POC: *iRup) *SiRup

isu-isunose ornament, made of clam shell (PMP: *ijuŋ)

iʔafish (PEMP: *ikan) *Sikan

kakatorn, split (PMP: *kakaq)

kakato split (POC: *kakas(-i))

kaka-sito split something (POC: *kakas(-i))

kana-kanato have a nice taste in the mouth (POC: *kana) *kana₁

kapeto flutter the wings (POC: *kape₁) *kapay

karaparrot (POC: *kaRa)

karasito scrape, bruise, take off skin (POC: *karasi)

karuto scratch (PMP: *kaRud)

karuto scratch (PAN: *kaRus)

kaubranching coral burnt for lime (POC: *kau₁)

Arosi (360 / 806)

kauto catch and hold, as a shirt in a nail; a crook for pulling down fruit; a thorny, flax-like plant (POC: *kau₂)

kau-haʔito catch on, be hooked by (POC: *kau₂)

kawia hook; to hang to, as a bat; be hitched, hooked to (PAN: *kawit)

kawia hook; to hang to, as a bat; be hitched, hooked to (PAN: *kawil₁)

kawi-kawito hang, cling to (PAN: *kawil₁)

kawoua hermit crab (POC: *katou)

kiokiolarge kingfisher (PAN: *kiaw)

kira-kiraa green parrot (POC: *kiRak)

kire ~ girea pandanus, Pandanus odoratissimus (POC: *kiRe) *kiRay Eastern

kirislice with a knife, cut open a tin (NOISE)

kirikiritickle under the armpits (PMP: *gidik)

kirikiritickle under the armpits (PMP: *giri)

kirikiritickle under the armpits (PMP: *kidi)

kirikiritickle under the armpits (PMP: *kirik)

kirubent, to bend (PAN: *kiluŋ)

kirubent, to bend (PMP: *kiluq)

kiru-sito bend (PMP: *kiluq)

kitorestless, nervous (POC: *kisog) *kiseg

kito-kitoto twist, wriggle (as an eel’s tail cut off) (POC: *kisog) *kiseg

kokoroot of many words meaning to enclose, shut in (POC: *kokop) *kebkeb

Arosi (380 / 806)

ko-kohudisturbed, troubled, dirty, of water (POC: *kopuR) *kebuR

ko-komoto shut in, as ship in harbor, man in cave (POC: *komos) *kemes

ko-komos-ito shut in, enclose (POC: *komos) *kemes

komo, komos-ito close tight upon, as a giant clam (POC: *komos) *kemes

koomake unintelligible sounds, as a baby (PMP: *keŋ₁)

korasound of a gong, or tree struck with stick (PMP: *keRaŋ₁)

koruo gnaw, eat hard food, as a biscuit (PMP: *keRut) Eastern

koto-mito spear (POC: *kojom-i) *kojom

koto-miaspeared (POC: *kojom-i) *kojom

kukaa crab (generic) (POC: *kuka)

kukua small bivalve mollusc, Arca sp. (POC: *kukur) *kuDkuD

maand, but; the vowel changes (PAN: *maS)

maathe face; hole, opening, mesh of a net, gate; edge, point, brim; front of a person or house; numerical unit in counting fish hooks, needles, stakes, flints, fishing rods, houses, traps, slings, armlets and matches; a spot, stain, crystal in rock (as hornblende phanocrystal in dolerite, etc.), a groove for rubbing fire in a soft stick; to look at, stare; a circle; to lead (PMP: *mata) *maCa

maa-(na)the eye (PMP: *mata) *maCa

madaripe (PCEMP: *madar)

madaramorning star (PMP: *mantalaq)

ma-dariwet and slippery, as rocks (PAN: *ma-dalis) *dalis

maenumb, unable to move, ill; be eclipsed (of moon); be unconscious, faint; die; death; enemy; fighting party; weapons; lee side of an island (where the sea is maé) (POC: *mate) *aCay

maepayment for work done or land bought (PCEMP: *matay₂) *matay

mae-maevery weak, wasting; infirmity, weakness (PMP: *m-atay m-atay) *aCay

Arosi (400 / 806)

mae-ta(-na)death feast (POC: *mate) *aCay

ma-hitasplit, hit, broken (POC: *pisak) *biseqak

mailow tide; ebb (PMP: *ma-qati) *qaCi

maihither; nearer (POC: *mai) *ai₃

mai hei?Where do you come from? (POC: *mai) *ai₃

ma-kirucrooked (PMP: *ma-kiluq) *kiluq

ma-matadry (PMP: *ma-maja) *maja

mamifresh, good drink, water; mixed with fresh water, as the sea water near a river mouth; sweetened, freshened, as ahuhu (yam sp.) put in fresh water and its salt flavor removed (POC: *mamis) *hemis

-mami1pl. excl. possessive, our (PMP: *m-ami) *ami

managhostly power (in a few phrases) (POC: *mana₂)

manaand, but; much used in narrative (not ma, na, as it is used with na, i articles) (POC: *mana)

manatatame, trained, gentle, of man or animal (PAN: *ma-najam) *najam

manawato breathe, rest; pant (POC: *mañawa) *NiSawa

manihithin (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

manihi-nihithin (POC: *manipi-nipis) *Nipis

manihis-ito be thin from (PAN: *ma-Nipis) *Nipis

manoŋisavory, of smell or taste (POC: *manoŋi)

manuto float in water or air, as pumice, the moon, frigate hawk (POC: *maqañur) *qañud

manua creature that flies, insect, bird, angel, etc., a winged creature (POC: *manuk)

maŋato eat; also the bits of food in the crevices of the teeth after eating (PMP: *maŋan)

Arosi (420 / 806)

maŋaan opening, mouth (PMP: *maŋaq)

ma-ŋari-ŋariangry (POC: *ŋali-ŋali)

marihither, come hither (= mai); rarely used (POC: *maRi) *aRi

maroa species of tree, paper mulberry; beaten cloth of the maro (the bark was soaked in water an then beaten out, and later painted in gay colors and used as a sling to carry a child, or as a loincloth); a loincloth (PCEMP: *malaw)

marushade; to shade, overshadow; the lee of an island (PEMP: *maluRu)

maru-marushade (POC: *maluRu maluRu) *maluRu

ma-rumu-rumusoft (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

marumu-rumusoft, gentle (PMP: *ma-lumu) *lumu₂

m-aru(-na)shade; to shadow, overshadow (PMP: *aluŋ)

maru-ŋito reign over, rule, command (PEMP: *maluRu)

masaashamed (PCEMP: *ma-mayaq) *Seyaq

masismell of stale fish or urine (PMP: *maŋsit)

masithe smell of stale fish or urine; to smell stale or sour; to be ill from eating stale fish, or fish put in the sun (POC: *masi)

masuto have had enough, be full, replete, satisfied; with food (POC: *masuR)

mataʔito have fever, malaria; be feverish (POC: *masakit) *sakit

mauafull grown (POC: *matuqa) *tuqaS

ma-uribe in good health; live, flourish (PMP: *ma-qudip) *qudip

mauruto sleep (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

maurur-aʔito be sleepless (POC: *maturuR) *tuduR

mawaa cleft, a space between two rocks (PEMP: *mawa)

Arosi (440 / 806)

meraspecies of small red fish (POC: *meRaq) *iRaq

mera-mera-ʔared (POC: *meRaq) *iRaq Eastern

momoa bit of food fallen (PMP: *mekmek)

momoclasp in hand and squeeze (PMP: *mesmes)

monagicuttlefish (POC: *monaki)

monolive, dwell, reside (POC: *mono)

moraoriginal, true, real; customary (PEMP: *molaŋ)

m-uribehind; the back; the outside of egg, bottle, etc., opposed to raro; after, afterwards; to follow; left hand, facing an object (POC: *muri) *udehi

-na3sg. possessor; his, her, its, with certain classes of nouns; suffix to noun of relationship (POC: *-ña) *-a₂

naarticle with common nouns, used with subject rather than object (PMP: *na₁)

nagiflint, obsidian (POC: *nadi)

nahosurf, waves on the beach (PAN: *Nabek)

namito taste, lick (PMP: *ñamit)

namoa landlocked, shallow lagoon near the shore (PMP: *namaw)

na-namumosquito (PMP: *ñamuk)

naoa widow fasting for husband or widower fasting for wife; a widow, in modern translations of the Bible, copying Mota naro (POC: *ñao)

naua tree often used as the sacred tree of the Ho’asia (annual harvest sacrifice); the fruit is eaten (PMP: *ñatuq)

na wari-saof old time (POC: *tuaRi)

na waritaof old time (POC: *waRi(n)sa)

naʔoformer period of time; to go before, to steer for; the front part of a thing, not of a man (rarely used) (POC: *nago)

Arosi (460 / 806)

naʔo-hito steer for (POC: *nago)

naʔo-naprincipal, chief; the genital organs of a man (POC: *nago)

niof, belonging to; showing genitive relation (PAN: *ni)

niucoconut tree and fruit (PMP: *niuR)

niu taohaa species of palm, Nipa fruticans (PMP: *niuR)

noho-nohoto fear, be in awe of, be shy of, as tame pigs of wild or Melanesians of Englishmen (POC: *nopo-nopo)

nohufish with spiny ridge (POC: *nopuq) *nepuq

nonoa fly (PMP: *neknek)

nonoput the lips to, suck, as a sweet (POC: *ñoñop) *ñepñep

nonoto suck (POC: *ñoñop) *ñopñop

nono iasisandfly, midge (PMP: *neknek)

nunuan earthquake; to quake (POC: *nunu₁)

nunubare, stripped of leaves; lose leaves, take off ornaments (POC: *nunu₂)

nunu-naimage, shape, reflection, picture, carved post; it is also rarely used as auŋa, soul (POC: *qanunu)

nu-nutaan island at the mouth of a stream (PMP: *nusa₁)

nutonuto (POC: *nuso)

ŋadathe gums (POC: *ŋadasₐ) *ŋadas

ŋaŋato eat (PMP: *ŋasŋas)

ŋarato cry (POC: *ŋara)

ŋara i suʔua duck (suʔu = swamp) (PMP: *ŋaRaq)

Arosi (480 / 806)

ŋara-ŋarato cry (POC: *ŋara)

ŋara-sito cry for (POC: *ŋara)

ŋari-ŋari-amove about, annoy by change of position (POC: *ŋali-ŋali)

ŋas-ito chew, as sugarcane (PMP: *ŋasŋas)

ŋauto eat food (POC: *ŋau₁)

ŋauto beat, strike (POC: *ŋau₃) *ŋau₂

ŋau-ŋauto eat; a meal (POC: *ŋau-ŋau) *ŋau₁

ŋau-ŋau-raagluttonous; a glutton (POC: *ŋau₁)

ŋgoroto cut up, as for planting (PMP: *keleŋ₁)

ŋirito whine, of a dog; mew, of a cat; hum, buzz, of insects (ROOT)

ŋoniask for, beg (PMP: *ŋeni)

ŋuruto growl, of a dog; mew, hum, buzz, hum a song or chorus (POC: *ŋuru) *ŋurut

ŋuruto growl, of a dog; mew, hum, buzz, hum a song or (POC: *ŋuRuR)

ŋusuto spit (POC: *aŋusu)

ŋusu-ŋususpittle, poison of snakes (POC: *aŋusu)

ŋuuhum (PMP: *ŋuŋ)

oba-obathe lap (POC: *topwa)

obʷacoral reef; a pool in rocks (POC: *tobʷa) *tobʷa₁

obʷa-obʷaa bay, harbor (POC: *tobʷa) *tobʷa₁

odo ~ odo-odostraight (POC: *kodo)

Arosi (500 / 806)

odo ~ odo-odostraight (POC: *kodoŋ) *kedeŋ

odo-nathe right hand (POC: *kodos)

odo-odostraight (POC: *oto)

odo-odostraight (POC: *kodos)

Ɂoethou; you there! friend! (used continually in address where English uses no word) (POC: *koe)

ogaeat food raw, uncooked (POC: *qodaq) *qetaq

oguPalolo sea worm; the month of October in which it appears (NOISE)

oho-ŋaan attempt, try (POC: *topoŋ) *tepeŋ₁

oho-ŋitry, test; tempt (POC: *topoŋ) *tepeŋ₁

ohucomplete, finish; completely (PMP: *epus)

ohucomplete, finished; completely (PMP: *te(m)pus)

oneshore, beach (POC: *qone) *qenay

oneonelarge tree with bright-colored foliage (LOAN)

onosix (POC: *onom) *enem

ono-mito swallow (POC: *toñom)

oŋomangrove (PMP: *teŋeR)

oraa species of tree from which the best canoes are made; a plank-built canoe (POC: *toRas) *teRas

oraa plank-built canoe (POC: *tola)

orireturn; stroll about (PCEMP: *oliq, uliq) *uliq₁

orocome or go with a set purpose, e.g. to help, as Christ came to the world (POC: *oRo)

Arosi (520 / 806)

oruthree (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

oru-nathird (PEMP: *tolu) *telu

osito cut, score (PEMP: *tosi)

osicut, score; level off with a plane (NOISE)

osi-osistriped, slashed (PEMP: *tosi)

oʔato stay, dwell, abide; to settle, of birds (POC: *toka₃) *tekas

pirayoung fruit of areca tree (POC: *pira)

piroto plait the edge of a bag (POC: *piros)

pokupokudraw up the legs (PMP: *pekuq₁)

popodisease in which wrists and ankles swell (POC: *popol) *belbel₂

pusupuff; spurt, splutter, as boiling fat, to discharge, of a boil (PMP: *pucut₁)

pwisisplurt, splash (PMP: *picik)

rabustrike, knock, hit, knock in a nail (PMP: *lambuk)

rabustrike, knock, hit, knock in a nail (PMP: *ra(m)buk)

ragastrong, strengthened, invigorated (PMP: *la(ŋ)kas)

ragaopen with unfolding motion (PMP: *rakaq)

ragaopen with unfolding motion (ROOT)

ragu-s-iatied (PMP: *Rakut)

rahspecies of fish (POC: *lapa₁)

rahaa skin disease (POC: *lapa₂)

Arosi (540 / 806)

rahuold, worn out, as an old bag (PMP: *Rabuk)

rahu-aawhite with dust and dirty; pale with skin disease (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR

rahu-(na)ashes (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR

rahu-rahu-ʔagrey (POC: *rapuR) *dapuR

rakutie, fasten (PMP: *Rakut)

rama-ramadeep water beyond the edge of the reef (POC: *laman)

ramu-ramusmall fibrous aerial roots, loose ends of bag, hanging strings, etc. (PMP: *Ramut)

ramu-ramu-ʔahairy, as a ghost or a man’s legs (ghosts are hairy) (PMP: *Ramut)

raŋaspider shell, with long spines (PMP: *Raŋa) *Raŋa₂

raŋaspider shell, with long spines (PMP: *Raŋak)

raŋaspider shell, with long spines (PMP: *RaŋaR)

raŋito rain; rain (PMP: *laŋit) *laŋiC

raŋowithered, dead, of grass, green boughs, etc. (PMP: *Raŋuʔ)

raŋoa fly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

raŋo buruthe bluebottle fly (POC: *laŋo) *laŋaw

rarato shrivel up, as leaves; to be hot (PMP: *daŋdaŋ₂) *daŋdaŋ

raraa species of tree with red flowers, Erythrina indica (POC: *rarap) *dapdap₁

rariroot; shin (POC: *ralic) *dalij

rarothe inside, inner part; the feelings, heart, mind, disposition; in, within (POC: *ralom) *dalem

rasifish sp. (POC: *laji₂) *lajih

Arosi (560 / 806)

rauleaf; prefix to names of trees; plank (PEMP: *raun) *dahun

rauside, bank of stream; shore (POC: *laur₂) *lahud

rau-na i asibeach (POC: *laur₂) *lahud

rau-na i wairiver bank (POC: *laur₂) *lahud

rawasmall net (PMP: *lawaq₁)

rawasmall net (PMP: *lawan)

rawaa small net; a cobweb (used in fishing with a kite); a spider (PMP: *lawaq₂)

rawa-rawacatch fish or turtles with a net (PMP: *lawaq₁)

rawa-rawacatch fish or turtles with a net (PMP: *lawan)

raʔesore on the hands or lips (POC: *lake)

raʔutake a handful (PMP: *ra(ŋ)kup)

rerea current, tide; to spread, of fire (POC: *rere₂)

riaginger, much used in charms (PMP: *laqia)

ria-riato change, as the sound of a trumpet, call of a bird; to change one’s tune, try another tack, give different advice (PMP: *lian)

rimafive (PAN: *lima)

rima-nathe fifth (PAN: *lima)

riŋito pour, incline a vessel (PCEMP: *liŋi)

ririgo off in a slanting direction, go aside (PMP: *liliŋ)

riroto flash; to lighten, of lightning (PMP: *dilep)

risicut off, cut up (tobacco), shave (PMP: *Risi)

Arosi (580 / 806)

risicut off, cut up (tobacco), shave (PMP: *Risiq)

riugo on, go past (PAN: *liuS)

riugo on, go past; beyond; forms a superlative: goro riu ‘very good’ (PMP: *liu₁)

rododark, black; night (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

rodo-burupitch black (POC: *rondom₁) *demdem₂

rohabreak something brittle (PMP: *lepak₁)

rohoto fly, as a bird (PMP: *Rebek)

roho-sito fly to (PMP: *Rebek)

rohusugarcane (POC: *na topu) *tebuS

rokaopen, set open wide (PMP: *re(ŋ)kaq)

rokocontract, contracted (PMP: *Re(ŋ)keŋ)

roŋoto hear, listen, obey; to feel, endure; correct, as the use of a word; disciple (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roŋo-taʔaa discord, ugly sound; incorrectly used, of a word (POC: *roŋoR) *deŋeR

roro-ʔito string a bow (PAN: *deles)

ruatwo; a company of related persons (POC: *rua) *duSa

rua-nasecond (POC: *rua) *duSa

rua-(na)companion, fellow, mate (POC: *rua) *duSa

rua-ruatwo at a time, two by two (POC: *rua rua₁) *duSa

rua-ruaa flood of water (POC: *Ruap) *Ruab

rua-rua-ʔadoubting, doubtful (POC: *rua rua₂) *duSa

Arosi (600 / 806)

ruhato lose, let go, untie (POC: *Rupas)

ruhato lose, let go, untie (POC: *lupas₂)

ruha-sito lose, let go, untie, set free from debt, forgive (modern) (POC: *Rupas)

ruha-sito lose, let go, untie, set free from debt, forgive (modern) (POC: *lupas₂)

ruha-siaset free, let go, untied (POC: *Rupas)

ruha-siaset free, let go, untied (POC: *lupas₂)

rumaa house, oblong in shape; a family (PAN: *Rumaq)

ruma-nahand, arm; forefoot of animal (POC: *luma)

rumito fold (PMP: *lumiq)

rumuoil (PMP: *lumuk)

rumuoil (POC: *lumu₁)

rumu-rumumoss, lichen, seaweed (PMP: *lumut-lumut) *lumut

rumu-ʔaoily (POC: *lumu₁)

ru-rutathrow a volley of spears (POC: *lusa)

rususupports for seats of canoe (PAN: *Rusuk)

rutaload a canoe, carry to canoe and stow (PMP: *lujan)

rutato load a canoe, carry to canoe and stow; cargo, to carry cargo (PMP: *Rujan)

saea man, homo; mind, heart, thought; only in phrases (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

sae-naliver of a pig (PMP: *qatay) *qaCay

sae warian old man (POC: *tuaRi)

Arosi (620 / 806)

sahefloat in water or air, as thistledown or a feather (NOISE)

saho-sahohigh, lofty; tilt up, tip up, elevate (PMP: *abaw)

sahudust, sawdust (PMP: *habuk)

sahudust, sawdust (POC: *qapuk) *qabuk

sahu-adust, sawdust, decayed wood (POC: *qapuk) *qabuk

sakuclose tightly on (POC: *aŋkup₂) *aŋkub

sanewhite ant; to spread over, as ants (POC: *ane) *aNay Southern

saŋito wedge; a wedge (NOISE)

sarospot over the heart on the breast (POC: *qarop) *qadep

saro, hai-saroh-ito beckon (PAN: *qalep)

sarusp. of tree, Casuarina, fruitless, unlike tarumare (sp. of Casuarina planted in villages, and more or less sacred; a wreath of Casuarina needles thrown into a grave either by each mourner, or by one of each clan') (POC: *aRu) *aRuhu

sasucloudy, smoky (PMP: *qasu₃)

saubonito, a rare word except in names, when it is very common (POC: *qatun)

saustrike down, crush food in a bowl with a pole or coconut frond (POC: *qatu)

sawafreshwater mullet (PMP: *qawas)

sihahow many? (POC: *pica) *pija

siha-nahow many?, what number so far? (POC: *pica) *pija

siɁibreak wind (POC: *siki)

sinathe sun; a torch (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

sinaa large species of echinus (NOISE)

Arosi (640 / 806)

sina-rito shine on; moonlight (PMP: *sinaR) *siNaR

siria parrot: Lorius chlorocereus (POC: *siri)

sisilay bare, show the teeth, as a dog grinning (PMP: *ziziq)

sisito lay bare, show the teeth, as a dog grinning (POC: *sisi₂)

sisilay bare, show the teeth, as a dog grinning (PMP: *zizir)

siwanine (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

siwa-naninth (PMP: *siwa) *Siwa

suato meet, fall in with, come across (NOISE)

sua ~ suasuato root up earth, as a pig (PMP: *sual)

subuto begin to grow; to burst, of seed (POC: *tubuq, tupuq) *Cubuq

sudaa stake set in a pit for the enemy, set slanting and sharpened (POC: *suca) *suja

suhito peel yams (PEMP: *supi)

sukipoke out, poke through (PMP: *su(ŋ)kit)

surato take out a thorn with a needle (PMP: *sulam)

surialong, at, to, through, in, following, after, because of, on account of, according to; to follow (POC: *suRi₂)

suri-ariarivertebra (POC: *suRi₁)

suri-nabone (POC: *suRi₁)

suruto leak (as a roof) (POC: *turuq) *tuduq

surucoconut milk, liquid of coconut; yam soup with strained coconut scrapings and cabbage, octopus, etc. (POC: *suRuq₁) *zuRuq

susuto suck the breast (PAN: *susu₁)

Arosi (660 / 806)

su-sukípoke fruit off a tree with a pole (PMP: *su(ŋ)kit)

susu-nabreasts (PAN: *susu₁)

susu-raʔito prick, pierce, impale (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

susuʔ-iprick, pierce, sew (PMP: *cukcuk)

susu-ʔito plant a cutting; to prick, pierce, impale (PMP: *suksuk-i) *suksuk

suudown; set, of the sun; dive; sink (PMP: *surup₁)

suu-rahievening (POC: *Rapi) *Rabiqi

tabaslap, slash, slap (as water with fishing line) (POC: *sabak) *sambak

tabi-tabiear ornaments (POC: *sabi-sabi)

taɁeto alight on a branch, perch, of a bird; to go up,l ascend; to climb a hill; to rise to the surface (PMP: *sakay₄)

taɁe(-na)embarcation party (PMP: *sakay₁)

tahainterrogative pronoun, what? (PMP: *sapa)

tahean abortion (POC: *tape₂)

tahubore holes; species of wood-boring insect (ROOT)

tahuruspecies of black mussel used in making bonito hooks (POC: *sapulu)

takito knock, stumble against; touch (PMP: *sakil)

taŋaa crotch; fork of the legs (POC: *saŋa₁)

taŋa-aa hand’s breadth, fingers extended (POC: *saŋa₁)

ta-ŋa-huruten (PMP: *sa-ŋa-puluq) *puluq

ta-ŋa-huruten (PMP: *ŋa)

Arosi (680 / 806)

ta-ŋa-raua hundred, of men only (PMP: *sa-ŋa-Ratus) *RaCus

tarato do without sufficient cause or reason; to do badly, carelessly, foolishly (PMP: *salaq₁)

tararake, sweep, gather; a broom (POC: *salap)

tara-(na)path, road; a seam in sewing; a row; place, resting place for something; cause, reason, beginning (POC: *salan) *zalan

tarefloat; flow; dribble (POC: *sale sale)

taria noose; bring in a profit, enrich, get gain (POC: *sariŋ) *zariŋ

tarito strip off (POC: *sali)

taribeat a gong (ROOT)

tarudraw, dip, get water; take up in nets, as Palolo worms; a measure of liquid, a cupful (PMP: *saRup₁)

tarubat’s bone for tattooing (POC: *saRum) *zaRum

tarubat’s bone for tattooing (POC: *saRu) *saRu₃

taruto draw, dip, get water; to take up in nets, as Palolo worm; a measure of liquid, a cupful (PMP: *saruk)

ta-tarahisweep (s.t.) (POC: *salap-i) *salap

taubat’s bone for tattooing (POC: *sau₃)

taʔabad, poor; of poor quality; very (POC: *saqat) *zaqat

taʔa-ha(na)badness, poorness (POC: *saqat) *zaqat

taʔarushoal, shallow spot in the sea (PMP: *sakaRu)

taʔito sew, join together (POC: *saqit) *zaqit

tehato stray, wander (PCEMP: *sepat)

tei ~ a-tei ~ ia-teiwho, interrogative pronoun; not used as indefinite pronoun, which is nei (PMP: *sei)

Arosi (700 / 806)

togomake up a fire, set more wood on (PMP: *zeket)

tohogroan in sickness (ROOT)

tokochoke (PMP: *cekel)

tokubent, of an arm which cannot be straightened (PMP: *zeŋkuŋ)

toroa hill (rare use); the interior, inland country of the hills (POC: *solos)

toro ni henuathe hills (POC: *solos)

toruto hiccup (PAN: *sedu)

totoput lips to, drink with lips, suck; to sip honey, of birds (POC: *sosop) *sepsep

tuhato spit; puff out (PMP: *supaq)

uto stand (POC: *tuqur) *tuquD

uagrandfather, grandchild (PMP: *uaʔ)

ubuto swell; a swelling, large boil (POC: *tubu₁)

ubu--ubuthick (POC: *tubu₁)

udiannoy, disturb (PMP: *usik)

ugu, ukubowstring (POC: *quku)

uhaa species of creeper (POC: *tupa₂) *tuba

uhia yam (the prickly variety is called hana) (PMP: *qubi)

uhito blow, breathe on (PCEMP: *upi)

umefish sp. (PMP: *qumay)

umuround earth oven with loose stones on top (PMP: *qumun)

Arosi (720 / 806)

umwato weed a garden (PMP: *quma) *qumah

unascales of fish (POC: *qunap₂) *quSeNap

unah-iremove shell from turtle, scale a fish (POC: *qunap-i) *quSeNap

unah-iascaled (POC: *qunap-ia) *quSeNap

una-nashell of turtle (POC: *qunap₂) *quSeNap

una-unascales, tortoise shell platess (PMP: *qunap qunap) *quSeNap

unuraise cicatrices on the body with a burning brand (POC: *tunu) *CuNuh

unutake out of (POC: *unus) *SuNus

unus-itake body out of shirt, i.e. take off shirt; fall out of (POC: *unus-i) *SuNus

uraa small prawn (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

ura-uravery small crayfish or prawns as they come from the sea (POC: *quraŋ) *qudaŋ

uria tree: Spondias dulcis (PCEMP: *quRi)

uroworm, maggot (PMP: *qulej)

uruto wade (POC: *tuRu₁)

uruto go down; the west; the horizon; to pass on a tale or news, hand down historical events (PMP: *tuRun₁)

uruh-aʔiwade with, wade and carry (POC: *tuRu₁)

usito worry, annoy (PMP: *usik)

usustretch out, as a branch (POC: *qusur) *qunzur

usuto point out, as a path or place; to draw, paint, write (POC: *tusuq) *tuzuq₁

usur-ihand on a tale (POC: *usur-i)

Arosi (740 / 806)

utarain (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

uta orasunshower ( = "rain posssessed by a foul ghost") (POC: *qusan) *quzaN

utopithy core of breadfruit (POC: *uso)

uuspecies of freshwater fish (PMP: *qutud)

uureal, true (PMP: *tuqu₂)

uwothe flesh, edible part of a yam (POC: *quto)

uwoa float (POC: *uton) *utem

wabring, carry, take (NOISE)

wagalet loose, set free (PMP: *wakas)

waiwater (POC: *waiR₂) *wahiR

waicoconut shell water bottle (PEMP: *waip)

waihusband or wife; to marry (POC: *wati₂)

wai-husband or wife; to marry (POC: *wati₂)

waiaubonito; a fish of sacred character with many customs and ceremonies connected with it (LOAN)

wariold, chiefly of living things; old man (POC: *waRi₂)

wariold, chiefly of living things; long ago (POC: *tuaRi)

waritaan old man (POC: *waRi(n)sa)

waropiece of string; prefix to names of creepers (POC: *waRoc) *waRej

waro-warovines (POC: *waRoc waRoc) *waRej

warueight (PAN: *walu)

Arosi (760 / 806)

wateto give (POC: *wa(n)se₂) *wa(n)se

waʔato split; burst through, as a pig through a fence (PMP: *wakaq)

wouaway from, there, yonder (PMP: *wa-tu) *-Cu

ʔabea creeping, jointed plant, from whose strands string is made; a woman’s string girdle (POC: *kabe₁)

ʔabofirm, tight, as a cork in a bottle (ROOT)

ʔadothink (ROOT)

ʔahiput a broken limb into splints; splints (PMP: *kapit)

ʔahiput a broken limb into splints; splint (PMP: *kaq(e)pi)

ʔaia tree or plant having stem and branches; not used of a fern cycad, sago palm, coconut, etc. (POC: *kayu₂) *kaSiw

ʔanaru, kanarutree sp. with large leaves (PMP: *kanarum)

ʔanawewhite; Tropic Boatswain bird: Phaeton aethurus (POC: *kanawe) *kanaway

ʔanobulb, tuber, part of a tree below the ground (POC: *kanoŋ)

ʔapojam tight, be fixed firm, as cork in bottle, arm in cleft (PMP: *ka(m)pet)

ʔapoh-iclose tight, block up (PMP: *ka(m)pet)

ʔaragaa seaweed; it appears when the yams are planted and grows with them, coming to maturity when they do (POC: *karagʷam)

ʔaroto itch; to scratch (PAN: *kaRaw₁)

ʔasuhe ~ kasuherat, mouse (POC: *kasupe) *kazupay

ʔatorafter of a house (PMP: *kasaw₁)

(ʔau) uhi-uhipanpipes (PCEMP: *upi)

ʔawafish sp. (PMP: *katawan)

Arosi (780 / 806)

ʔaʔawaa fish, blenny sp. (POC: *kakawa₂)

ʔete-adifferent; alone (PCEMP: *kese)

ʔete-ʔetealone (PCEMP: *kese-kese)