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Updated: 6/16/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Loans

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s   

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

sack

WMP
Malagasy hárunaa medium-sized basket, a pannier
Malay karoŋlarge matwork sack of coarse material
Toba Batak haruŋa sack used for salt
Javanese karuŋjute sack, gunny sack

Borrowing from Malay.

sack:   bag, sack

WMP
Ilokano bayʔóŋ ~ bayʔónsack, bag
Ibaloy bayoŋkind of deep handbag, made of woven bamboo strips
Tagalog bayóŋbag or sack made of woven buri palm leaves
Agutaynen bayoŋbasket for shopping or carrying things in, made of woven bori leaves or abaca, or colorful plastic

Probably a Tagalog loan distribution.

sacred:   holy, sacred

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat banalpious, holy, virtuous, sacred, righteous, godly
Tagalog banálholy; belonging to God; virtuous; good; righteous; devout; pious
Bikol banáldevout, pious, religious

Borrowing from Tagalog.

sacrifice

WMP
Tiruray bilaʔa trade partner, in the trade system between Maguindanao and Tiruray
Tboli bilaʔfriend made through a contract. The two men concerned agree upon an exchange of property. If for some reason one cannot pay, the contract will not be completed, and he will become ill. But if the property is exchanged, the contract is completed by the following ceremony. An egg is put in a pot; the two concerned hold a length of rattan across the top. A third person hits the rattan with a bolo. If he cuts the egg in two the contract is completed, and the two will be friends always
Malay bélablood-offering in the way of self-immolation, propitiation or vengeance; atonement by blood. In old literature, specifically of suttee, of which there were two kinds: (1) béla suduk (suicide with the kris followed by burning); and (2) béla keterjunan (throwing oneself alive into the flames of the pyre); in modern speech bela/ is used (1) of a widow committing suicide when formal suttee is not allowed; (2) of wiping out an injury by an amok; and (3) of taking lives for a life
Acehnese bilathe person who in justice is the object of blood revenge
Simalur bélarevenge, retaliation; compensation
Dairi-Pakpak Batak belaperson who must be killed as a sacrifice in blood revenge
Toba Batak belaghost of a woman who dies in childbirth
Nias bélaghost, a fabulous demi-human; friend
  fa-bélabefriend
Sundanese bélastand by the side, support, help; voluntarily share someone's fate with him; also the sacrifice of an animal on the occasion of a child's circumcision
Old Javanese bélalay down one's life, be prepared to die with another person, die for and with another person b-in-éla to die (sacrifice oneself) for someone pa-béla weapon (kris) which one plunges into oneself to become a bela
Javanese bélasacrifice oneself in defense of someone/something; have a joint circumcision with another boy, usually as a means of economizing; to support, defend
Balinese béla matisacrifice one's life for someone
  bélasacrifice; support, help, stand by someone; look after, care for; commit sati, die on a husband's funeral pyre, kill oneself as a sign of loyalty
Sasak belahethat which is offered in sacrifice for another; (of a girl) to marry on account of already being pregnant
Mongondow bilafriend; also used for brother-in-law (but not as a term of address, as this is lagoʔ)
CMP
Bimanese βelafriend
Komodo belacomrade, friend
Manggarai bélafriend
W.Tarangan bélafriend

Borrowing. Although an Indian source has not been identified, the semantics suggest that this item was acquired either by direct lexical borrowing or by lexical innovation in response to novel cultural influences during the Indianization of western Indonesia. This inference is further strengthened by the appearance of a mid-front vowel in virtually all known cognates, a clear indication of secondary origin. The most likely locations in which the form might first have appeared are southern Sumatra and Java, with subsequent borrowing into other areas.

saddle

WMP
Malay pelanasaddle
Makassarese palanasaddle

Borrowing, ultimately from Persian through Hindi.

save, in safekeeping

WMP
Ilokano simpánto put in order
Tagalog simpánthrift; saving (especially money, but also valuables)
  ma-nimpánto be thrifty; to save; to economize; to guard carefully
Iban simpankeep, store, put by, hide away
  duit simpansavings
  gawai ñimpan (padi)rites of storing away harvest
Malay simpanhaving in one’s custody; retaining; putting by
  me-ñimpanto keep, save
  me-ñimpan rahasiato keep a secret
Toba Batak simpanready, finished
  simpan bahenmake it ready, put it in order
Sundanese simpənput it away, store it!
  ñimpənconceal what is in one’s heart
Old Javanese a-simpənbrought together in a limited space, grouped together, compressed, in a limited number, containing the basic essential; put away, hidden
  as-si-simpənto put away, hide
Javanese simpən-anthat which has been kept or put aside; savings
  pə-simpən-anstorage
  simpən-an bərasstored-up rice
Balinese simpənstore, preserve, put away, keep
Sasak simpənto store, put away

Possibly a Javanese loan into Malay, which then functioned as the vector in spreading it into northern Sumatra and the Philippines.

safflower, Carthamus tinctorius

WMP
Ilokano kasumbásafflower: Carthamus tinctorius
Maranao kasombasafflower: Bixa orellana L.
Malay kəsumbageneric for trees yielding yellowish-red dyes; safflower Carthamus tinctorius
Old Javanese kasumbasafflower: Carthamus tinctorius, from which a bright red dye is made
Sasak kəsumbaplant with red fruits that are used as a coloring agent (safflower): Carthamus tinctorius

Borrowing from Malay (ultimately from Sanskrit).

salt:   preserve food in salt

Formosan
Paiwan valeŋpickled meat (preserved with salt, water, and millet-beer dregs)
WMP
Bontok baləŋpreserve corn kernels by salting them down in a jar

Probably borrowing.

(Dempwolff: *uyaq 'salt')

salt

WMP
Ngaju Dayak uyahsalt
Old Javanese uyahsalt
Javanese uyahsalt
Balinese uyahsalt

Borrowing from Javanese into Ngaju Dayak. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed PAn *uyaq 'salt'.

salve, ointment

WMP
Ngaju Dayak kasaysalve, ointment; cosmetic
Malay kasaya cosmetic used as a hairwash a cosmetic generally, of which two kinds are recognized: the “heating” and the “cooling”

Borrowing from Malay.

sand

Formosan
Saisiyat bonazsand
Pazeh bunatsand
Thao bunazsand

Apparently a Proto-Northwest-Formosan innovation of the shape *bunaj. This shows regular reflexes in Saisiyat and Pazeh , but Thao bunaz is a loan, presumably from Saisiyat . The meaning ‘sand’ was designated in PAn by *qenay.

(Dempwolff: *kesik ‘coarse sand, gravel’)

sand

WMP
Malay kərsekgravel, coarse sea sand
Toba Batak horsiksand
  maŋ-horsikstrew with sand

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) proposed *kesik ‘coarse sand, gravel’.

sandal

WMP
Maranao talompaʔ ~ tarompaʔshoe, boot, sandal; wear shoes, boots or sandals
Mapun tumpaʔshoe, shoes
  mag-tumpaʔto wear shoes
Yakan tehompaʔshoe
Tausug tawmpaʔshoe
Malay təlompahsandal, shoe (said to be Jakartanese, from Balinese)
Old Javanese tarompahsandals, slippers
Balinese terumpahshoe
CMP
Buruese tarupasandal

Although the Maranao and Malay forms show regular sound correspondences that apparently point to *talumpaq, footwear was unknown among Austronesian-speaking peoples prior to modern times. The further irregular of the medial liquid points further to a still unclear history of borrowing. Almost certainly a Philippine loanword in Buruese, perhaps via contact with the Sama Bajaw.

(Dempwolff: *agas)

sandfly

WMP
Miri agessandfly
Ngaju Dayak agasthrong, large swarm
Iban agaslarge whitish sandfly that bites only at night
Malay agassandfly
Acehnese agaihsmall gnat or mosquito
Karo Batak agas-agasvery small mosquito

Probably a Malayic innovation, with subsequent borrowing from Malay.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

Sa

(Dempwolff: *se(n)tul ‘name of a tree’)

Sandoricum indicum:   tree with edible fruit Sandoricum indicum or Sandoricum koetjape

WMP
Itbayaten santola tree (not found in Itbayat?) with edible fruit
Ilokano santóltree with yellowish acidic fruits, eaten salted and dried: Sandoricum koetjape
  pa-nantol-enkind of tall tree valuable for its timber
Isneg santólthe sandal tree, Sandoricum koetjape (Burm. f.) Merr., a meliaceous tree with trifoliate leaves and large, globose, yellowish fruits
Itawis santólsantol fruit (fruit of the Sandoricum koetjape)
Kapampangan santúla fruit and tree: Sandor indicum
Tagalog santólsandor tree and its fruit
Hanunóo santúlthe ketjape or santol tree: Sandoricum koetjape [Burm. f.] Merr.
Maranao santola tree: Sandoricum koetjape
Mansaka santolsantol or kechapi (fruit)
Tiruray santoltree bearing edible fruit: Sandoricum koetjape (Burm. f.) Merr.
Malay səntula lofty tree producing an edible sour fruit: Sandoricum indicum
Old Javanese səntula particular kind of tree with edible fruit: Sandoricum indicum
Balinese sentula tree from whose leaves a much-used medicine is made
Sasak səntultree with sour edible fruit and good timber: Sandoricum indicum
Makassarese sattuluʔtree with sour fruit the size of a tennis ball and bark used medicinally: Sandoricum koetjape

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *se(n)tul ‘name of a tree’, but all Philippine forms appear to be loans from Malay, and this may be true of some forms in western Indonesia as well.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

sa

sandpaper

WMP
Ilokano lihasandpaper
  lihá-ento sand with sandpaper
Ayta Abellan lihasandpaper
Tagalog líhasandpaper
  ipa-líhato get someone to apply sandpaper on something
  lihá-into sandpaper; to smooth, clean, or polish with sandpaper
Agutaynen lihasandpaper
Cebuano líhato rub or smooth down with sandpaper or something similar

Borrowing of Spanish papel de lija ‘sandpaper’.

(Dempwolff: *sen(ae)ŋ ‘content, satisfied’)

satisfied:   content, satisfied

WMP
Kayan sənəŋeasy; rich; lucky (said to be from Malay)
Ngaju Dayak sanaŋquiet, still, calm, secure, at ease
Iban senaipause, stop, rest
Malay sənaŋease; restfulness; of resting one’s weary limbs; of being left in peace; also of a thing requiring little effort
Karo Batak senaŋfind something good; comfortable, at rest, peaceful
Toba Batak sonaŋquiet, composed, calm; satisfied; happy
Rejang sənaŋpleased, happy, glad
Sundanese sənaŋeasy, quiet, well-contented, calm
Old Javanese sənəŋloved one, beloved
  a-sənəŋto have a loved one; toward the loved one
Javanese sənəŋhappy, glad, pleased; to like; to do habitually or characteristically
Balinese sənəŋto like, love, prefer
  sənəŋ-inbe loved, be preferred
Sasak sənəŋagreeable, pleasant; feel good

Also Ngaju Dayak sanai ‘quiet, still, calm, secure, at ease’, Iban sənaŋ ‘comfortable, at ease, well-to-do’, the latter a clear loanword from Malay. Dempwolff (9138) posited *sen(ae)ŋ ‘content, satisfied’, with a vowel that is not so much ambiguous as contradictory, since the Ngaju Dayak and Toba Batak forms point to *a, Malay is ambiguous, and Javanese, along with other languages, points to *e. A more plausible interpretation is that Ngaju Dayak sanaŋ is a loanword from Banjarese, and Toba Batak sonaŋ a loan from peninsula or Sumatran Malay. Malay itself presumably borrowed this word from Javanese, and then spread it to other languages after the merger of last-syllable *a and *e.

sauté, fry in fat

WMP
Ilokano i-gisáto stir fry, sauté
Agta (Eastern) gisáto fry in fat
Tagalog i-gisáto sauté or stew
Agutaynen mag-gisato sauté food in a small amount of oil

Borrowing of Spanish guisar ‘to cook, stew, prepare’.

save, in safekeeping

WMP
Ilokano simpánto put in order
Tagalog simpánthrift; saving (especially money, but also valuables)
  ma-nimpánto be thrifty; to save; to economize; to guard carefully
Iban simpankeep, store, put by, hide away
  duit simpansavings
  gawai ñimpan (padi)rites of storing away harvest
Malay simpanhaving in one’s custody; retaining; putting by
  me-ñimpanto keep, save
  me-ñimpan rahasiato keep a secret
Toba Batak simpanready, finished
  simpan bahenmake it ready, put it in order
Sundanese simpənput it away, store it!
  ñimpənconceal what is in one’s heart
Old Javanese a-simpənbrought together in a limited space, grouped together, compressed, in a limited number, containing the basic essential; put away, hidden
  as-si-simpənto put away, hide
Javanese simpən-anthat which has been kept or put aside; savings
  pə-simpən-anstorage
  simpən-an bərasstored-up rice
Balinese simpənstore, preserve, put away, keep
Sasak simpənto store, put away

Possibly a Javanese loan into Malay, which then functioned as the vector in spreading it into northern Sumatra and the Philippines.

saw, tool for sawing

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat lagárisaw (carpenter’s); to saw
Kapampangan lagáriʔcarpenter’s saw
Tagalog lagáriʔcarpenter’s saw
Bikol lagádiʔsaw (carpentry)
Agutaynen lagadihandsaw
  mag-lagadito saw something with a handsaw
Palawano lagadisaw
Mansaka lagarisaw
Tiruray lagariʔa saw; to saw wood

Borrowing of Malay gərgaji ‘a saw; to saw’.

sawdust, wood shavings

WMP
Yogad kúsutwood shaving
Tagalog kusótsawdust, wood shavings
Bikol kusótsawdust

Mintz and Britannico (1985) derive the Bikol form from a Hokkien original, and English (1986) holds a similar view of the Tagalog form, although this has not been confirmed.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

sc

scale for weighing, balance

WMP
Tagalog talároʔscales; a balance for weighing; a weight; a piece of metal used in weighing
Ngaju Dayak tarajoa small gold scale; to weigh, consider
Malagasy tarazú-inato be carried on one end of a pole, in contradistinction to lanja-ina (lanja), carried as two burdens at each end of a pole
Malay tərajupair of scales, balance; tent ropes; rod supporting the heddles of a loom; the string joining loosely the two extremities of the body of a kite, and to which is attached the line by which the kite is flown
Old Javanese tarajupair of scales, balance

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Persian. Dempwolff (1938) marked this as a loan distribution, but provided a reconstruction simply to illustrate the regularity of the sound correspondences. However, as with other loans used for a similar purpose, the sound correspondences are not entirely regular, the final glottal stop in Tagalog being an immediate clue to its loan status.

scheme:   intelligence, craft, scheme

WMP
Maranao akaltrick, fool, plan
  akal-akaltrick a person without mercy
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) akalbetray
Mansaka akaltrick; crafty procedure or practice
Berawan (Long Terawan) akanknowledge, intelligence
Ngaju Dayak akaladvice, redemption; cunning deceit
  m-akalcheat, deceive, outwit
Iban akalskill, craft, cunning, intelligence; deceive, delude
Maloh akalintelligence, cunning
Malay akalwit; intelligence. Properly 'mind as the organ of thought' (in contrast to hati or 'mind as the subject of consciousness'); reasoning. In common speech: trick, dodge, stratagem
Javanese akalidea, scheme
  ŋ-akalseek, find a solution; take advantage of someone
Balinese akalintend, be intended for; mind, intention
Mandar akalwits, thoughts; intelligence
CMP
Asilulu akalmind, attitude; deceptiveness, chicanery
Buruese akalscheme, trick, ruse, stratagem

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

scheme:   trick, ruse, scheme, wits

WMP
Maranao akaltrick, fool, plan
  akal-akaltrick a person without mercy
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) akalto betray
Mansaka akaltrick; crafty procedure or practice
Tiruray ʔakara trick, a crafty or cheating action
  feg-akarto trick (someone)
  tag-akar-enalways tricky
  ʔakar-antricky
Tausug akkalintellect, intelligence, wisdom, ability
  maŋ-akkalto fool, trick, dupe, deceive (someone)
  paŋ-akkal(someone) prone to fool people; one who tricks, dupes, or deceives people
  akkal-unto use one’s mind, wisdom, intellect (to do something)
Lun Dayeh akalshrewdness, cleverness; deception; an excuse
Iban akalskill, craft, cunning, intelligence
Malay akalwit; intelligence
  bər-akalclever, resourceful
Gayō akalintelligence, but in an unfavorable sense: clever trick, subterfuge, pretext
Javanese akalidea, scheme (as to solve a problem)
  akal budicommon sense
  akal kojaa convincing lie; skilled at deception
  di-akal-ito take advantage of someone
Balinese akalmind; intention
Sasak akaltrick, ruse, deceit
  bər-akalclever, smart, ingenious
Banggai akaltrick, ruse, deceit, fraud, artifice
Mandar akalwits, ideas, thoughts, cleverness
  pe-akaldeceptive, not honest
Wolio Ɂakalaguile, trick, ruse, device, artifice, way out, resource, means, reason, intellect, spirit
Muna akalamind, intellect; way, tactic, strategy, deceit
  akala-i ~ akala-hito deceive with cunning, trick
CMP
Bimanese akawits, intelligence
  mbora akaconfused, losing one’s wits, not understanding
  mboto akaclever, sharp-witted, brainy
Rembong akalwits, intelligence; deceive, lie to

A Malay loanword, ultimately from Arabic. Note how the positive features of the meaning in Malay assume a more negative cast in most other languages.

scissors

OC
Nggela palato cut
  palapalascissors
Mota palato double, set stick against stick, set across; wattle; fasten between two sticks palapala to move crossing one another, cut with scissors; scissors

Probably a Mota loan diffused through the use of Mota as the language of instruction in the nineteenth-century London-based Melanesian Mission.

(Dempwolff: *guntiŋ ‘scissors’)

scissors

WMP
Kapampangan guntíŋscissors
  ma-ŋuntiŋto cut with scissors
Tagalog guntíŋscissors
  guntiŋ-íncut something with scissors
Bikol guntíŋscissors; A-beam (carpentry)
  mag-guntíŋto cut with scissors
Hanunóo guntíŋany cutting edge or blade, as of a knife, which is sharpened or beveled from one side only; this type of bevel; scissors
Romblomanon guntiŋa pair of scissors
  guntiŋ-unsomeone cuts something with scissors
Masbatenyo gúntiŋscissors, shears
  guntíŋ-onto cut with scissors
Aklanon gúntiŋscissors, shears; to cut with scissors or shears
Waray-Waray guntíŋa pair of scissors
  guntiŋ-áto cut off with a pair of scissors
Hiligaynon gúntiŋscissors; haircut
  mag-gúntiŋto cut with scissors
Cebuano guntiŋscissors; scissors in game of pik (hammer, scissors, paper); cut with scissors
Maranao gontiŋscissors; cut with scissors
Binukid guntiŋscissors; to cut (something) with scissors
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) guntiŋscissors; to cut with scissors
Mansaka gontiŋcut with scissors
Tiruray guntiŋa pair of scissors
  guntiŋa pair of scissors
Mapun guntiŋscissors; shears
  ŋuntiŋto cut something with scissors; cut someone’s hair
  guntiŋ-unto cut something with scissors; cut someone’s hair
Yakan guntiŋscissors
  pag-guntiŋhaircutting ceremony; name-giving ceremony (it is usually a big occasion; many people attend and much food is provided)
Tboli guntiŋscissors
Tausug guntiŋscissors
  mag-pa-guntiŋto have one’s hair cut
  g<um>untiŋto cut something (with scissors or an instrument resembling scissors)
Kadazan Dusun guntiŋscissors
  guntiŋ-anto cut (for someone)
  guntiŋ-onto have cut something
Tombonuwo guntiŋscissors
Ida'an begak guntiŋscissors
  g<əm>untiŋto cut with scissors
Bintulu gutiŋscissors
Melanau (Mukah) gutiŋscissors
  mə-gutiŋto cut with scissors
Ngaju Dayak guntiŋ ~ kuntíŋwhat is cut (with scissors)
  ba-guntíŋto cut the hair
Iban guntin ~ guntiŋscissors, shears; cut with scissors (as hair)
Malay guntiŋshears; scissors; cutting with shears
Gayō guntiŋscissors; tonsure, haircut
  mu-guntiŋto cut the hair
Karo Batak ŋguntiŋcut the hair with a knife or piece of glass
  per-guntiŋknife or glass fragment used to cut hair
Toba Batak guttiŋ ~ gustíŋscissors
Nias gutiscissors
  mo-gutito cut with scissors
Sundanese guntiŋscissors
  ŋa-guntiŋto cut, cut out or off
Old Javanese guntiŋscissors
  a-guntiŋto cut (have cut) the hair
  g<in>untiŋto cut (with scissors)
Javanese guntiŋscissors, shears
  ŋuntiŋto cut (out, into) with scissors
  guntiŋ-ana piece cut from something
Madurese gunteŋscissors
  a-gunteŋto cut with scissors, cut the hair
Balinese guntiŋscissors
  ŋ-guntiŋto shave; cut the hair
Sasak guntiŋscissors
  bə-guntiŋto cut with scissors
Mongondow mo-gonsiŋto cut, cut through
  go-gonsiŋscissors
  gonsiŋ-ancut something off; cut into something
Pendau guntiŋscissors
Bare'e gunjiscissors
  mo-gunjicut something with scissors
Tae' gontiŋscissors
  maʔ-gontiŋuse scissors, cut the hair with scissors
Mandar gocciŋscissors; to cut with scissors, as cloth
Buginese gonciŋscissors
  gonciŋ-ito cut with scissors, as hair
Makassarese gonciŋscissors
Wolio gunti(pair of) scissors; to snip, cut with scissors
  gunti kakatuahair clipper
  po-guntiget a haircut
Muna guntiscissors; to cut (with scissors, knife, axe, etc.)
  ka-guntiscissors
  po-gunticut in two, broken, severed
CMP
Manggarai gojiŋscissors
Rembong guntiŋscissors; to cut with scissors
Kambera ŋgutiŋuscissors; to cut the hair
Rotinese ŋguteto cut with scissors (as hair)
Wetan kontiscissors
Kei guntiŋscissors
Asilulu guntiŋscissors; the forking timbers that support a peaked roof; to cut with scissors
Buruese guntiŋscissors; to cut with scissors
SHWNG
Buli gutiscissors; to cut with scissors
Numfor guntiŋscissors [found only in the English index]

The history of this word is still obscure. It is almost certainly a loan from some non-Austronesian source, and its distribution in most languages, including all those of the Philippines and eastern Indonesia, probably is a product of borrowing from Malay. However, it is also found in Old Javanese texts that are centuries old, and its application to terms in carpentry (Bikol) and house construction (Asilulu) raises questions about a possible earlier meaning that was later transferred to scissors once these were introduced.

Despite the improbability of it being native, Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *guntiŋ ‘scissors’, and Mills (1975) posited Proto-South Sulawesi *gun(tc)iŋ ‘shears; to cut’. The most likely source of this word, which shows irregular sound correspondences in several languages, is some southern form of Chinese, but this is yet to be confirmed. The use of scissors presumably spread widely within a short time because they offered a far more convenient means of cutting hair than was previously possible with the use of single straight blades, as with knives.

scoop (water):   dipper, scoop (water)

WMP
Mapun gayuŋany pail, dipper, or container used for drawing water or other liquids
Tausug gayuŋa small vessel made of coconut shell, bamboo or tin, used to scoop up water
Malay gayoŋa rude ladle made of a bowl of coconut shell and a handle; any small dipper, such as an empty can

Borrowing from Malay.

score:   drawn, tied, even in score

WMP
Ibaloy tabdatie, no winner or loser, even score
  man-tabdato tie
Pangasinan tábladraw, tie (in a game)
Tagalog tabládrawn; tied
  maka-tabláto draw; to tie; to break even
Tausug tablaeven, equal, tied (as in a game or contest)

Borrowing from Tagalog.

(Dempwolff: *kala ‘scorpion’)

scorpion

WMP
Ngaju Dayak kalascorpion
Malagasy hálaa spider, a scorpion
Malay kalascorpion
Toba Batak halascorpion
Sundanese kalaa category of evil demons with dangerous teeth
Old Javanese kalascorpion
Javanese kalastinging animal
Balinese kalaan ogre, demon, believed to be abroad at noon

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Sanskrit. Dempwolff (1938) proposed *kala ‘scorpion’, marking it as a Sanskrit loan, but no satisfactory native term has yet been reconstructed for this meaning.

(Dempwolff: *tinzaw ‘scrutinize, consider closely’)

scrutinize consider closely

WMP
Malagasy tsinjugazed at from a distance, perceived
Malay tinjawcraning the neck
  ma-ninjawbe on the watch; to look hard at a distant object
Javanese tinjoto visit

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tinzaw ‘scrutinize, consider closely’ (genau betrachten). Cf. PMP *tindaw ‘see in the distance’.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

se

seaweed jelly

WMP
Iban agar-agarjelly made from edible sea-weeds (Eucheuma, Gracilaria, Sphaerococcus, and other spp.) often colored and flavored with pandan (kerupok)
Malay agar-agar(specifically) the so-called 'seaweed' from which seaweed-jelly is made; (generally) agar-agar jelly and things suggesting it such as 'Turkish delight' and gelatine
Toba Batak agar-agargelatine
Sundanese agerwell-known seaweed from which a jelly is made, gelatine
Old Javanese ager-agerkind of seaweed, Sphaerococcus lichenoides
Javanese ager-agerseaweed (jelly)
Buginese agaraʔseaweed jelly
Makassarese agaʔ-agaraʔkind of edible seaweed which is sold in blocks in stores

Borrowing, ultimately from Javanese.

(Dempwolff: *tetep ‘firm, fixed’)

secure:   fixed secure

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tetepof long duration, uninterrupted; be set fast; to not rock (of a boat in the water)
Iban tetapfirm, steady, stable
Malay tətapsteadfast; constant; secure; regular; fixed (of tenure or residence)
Toba Batak totopfixed; unchanging; determined; perpetual
Javanese tetepsteady; unchanging; tight; firm; confirmed
Balinese tetepbe sure, firm, certain, in order

Probably a Malay loan distribution (apart from Iban). Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tetep ‘firm, fixed’ (festsein).

secure:   fastener, thing used for fastening or making secure

WMP
Tagalog kansíŋgold brooch
Ngaju Dayak kanciŋbutton, buckle, clasp; bolt
Iban kancinfastening, button, bolt, lock
Malay kanciŋbuckling together; button; rivet; bolt; stud; clasp
Toba Batak hatsiŋbutton, anything used to fasten
Sundanese kanciŋbutton, as people use on clothing
Old Javanese kanciŋlock, bar, bolt
Javanese kanciŋbutton
Balinese kanciŋfastening; button, toggle; bolt, lock, key

Borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *tanDu ‘sedan chair’)

sedan chair

WMP
Malay tandua hammock-litter made by fastening to a pole the ends of a broad strip of strong cloth; the pole was carried on the shoulder of coolies, and the passenger supported in the folds of the cloth
Toba Batak tandusedan chair
Javanese tanḍustretcher-like conveyance for transporting things or persons

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tanDu ‘sedan chair’ (Tragstuhl).

seed

WMP
Tagalog bíriʔwild saffron, also known as kasubháʔ or kasumba, parrot seed, safflower, used as food coloring and dye
Malay bijiseed; pip; grain; testicle; numeral coefficient for small objects
Acehnese bijéhgrain, pip, pit, seed; seedlings
Toba Batak bijia monetary unit, half an uaŋ
Lampung bijiseed
Old Javanese wijiseed, kernel; (fig.) kernel, contents, content, substance
Javanese wijiseed; descendant
Sasak biji matapupil of the eye
Buginese wijiseed; numeral coefficient for small objects
Makassarese bijiseed, as of a cucumber

Borrowing from Malay, with the possible exception of Tagalog bíriʔ, which may be a chance resemblance.

seed:   coriander seed

WMP
Maranao katombarpepper: Capsicum frutescens Linn.
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ketumbalchili pepper, any plant of the genus Capsicum
Malay kətumbarcoriander: Coriandrum sativum
  biji kətumbarcoriander seed (for spicing curry); also used medicinally
Sundanese katuncarcorinander seed
Makassarese katumbaraʔcorinander seed, used in preparing spices

Borrowing from Tami through the medium of Malay.

seedling

WMP
Malay bibitseedling; germ
Karo Batak bibitseedling; offspring of animals; vaccine
Dairi-Pakpak Batak bibitseedling
Toba Batak bibitseed, sperm
Sundanese bibitanything intended for propagation: seed, seedling, branch or cutting, fish that serve for breeding, stud animal
Javanese bibitorigin, beginning; seed; provide with something for breeding
Balinese bibitseed, seedling; germ, bacteria
  bibit cukitvaccine (smallpox)
  bibit-anseed, seedlings ready for transplanting; fresh vaccine
CMP
Manggarai bibitmale (of cattle)
Rembong bibitrice seedlings ready for transplanting

Borrowing from Malay.

seesaw motion

WMP
Ngaju Dayak uŋkalscale for weighing gold
Toba Batak uŋkalgo up, of a balance scale
Javanese uŋkallifted up (of a heavy object, block of stone)

Borrowing from Javanese.

(Dempwolff: *si(ŋ)kap ‘to seize’)

seize

WMP
Ngaju Dayak siŋkapseized, grasped
Malay laŋ sikaphawk, name for Accipitrinae (esp. Accipiter virgatus) and Falconidae; it does not cover eagles

Dempwolff (1938) posited *si(ŋ)kap ‘to seize’, but Ngaju Dayak siŋkap appears to be a Banjarese loan, and both of the forms cited here are better assigned to *sikep₁.

(Dempwolff: *taŋkap ‘seize, grip’)

seize, grip

WMP
Ngaju Dayak taŋkapwhat is grasped or gripped
Iban taŋkapgrip, seize, catch, arrest; captive
Malay taŋkapgripping; clasping; capture, esp. capture in the hand
Toba Batak taŋkapseize, graph (said to be from Malay)
Rejang takeupcatch, seize, hold

Probably identical to PMP *taŋkep ‘to catch, as by covering’, but with the Ngaju Dayak and Toba Batak forms borrowed from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *taŋkap ‘seize, grip’.

(Dempwolff: *sadiRi 'house post')

self, oneself

xxx
CRAM treybody
WMP
Yami (Iranomilek) diriʔself, oneself
Jarai dreybody
Malay diriself, oneself
Karo Batak diri(rare = iba) self
Minangkabau diriperson, individual
Sundanese diriself
Javanese ḍirioneself, one's identity
Madurese diriʔself, oneself
Balinese dihiself, person (said to be 'the true Balinese form of the commoner diri', the latter borrowed from Javanese)
Sasak diriʔself

Apparently a late innovation in western Indonesia, perhaps spread in part by borrowing from Malay. The agreement of Iban and Sasak in pointing to final suggests that this form is distinct from *sadiRi 'house post', although the two cognate sets were combined by Dempwolff (1934-38).

sell

WMP
Ngaju Dayak jualwhat is sold; the price
  man-jualto sell something
  tara-jualsalable
  jual-jalaoften sold
Banjarese jualsell
  ba-jualto sell
  man-jualto sell
Iban jualsale, sell
  be-jual be-belibuying and selling
  ñualto sell
Malay jualsale; selling; (at cards) to bid
  ber-jualbe engaged in selling
  men-jualbe engaged in selling
Gayō mu-juelto sell
  juel-enthe status of a woman who has patrilocal residence
Dairi-Pakpak Batak mer-jualto borrow something that can be returned in monetary value
Toba Batak juala measure for rice (< Malay)
Sundanese ŋa-jualto sell
  di-jualsold
  ka-jualsold
  paŋ-jualcommerce; sales price
  jual-anto sell
  jual-ɨnwhat someone wants to sell or will sell
Old Javanese dwal ~ dolwares
  a-dolto sell
  ma-dwalto sell
  d<in>wal ~ d<in>olto sell
Javanese a-dolto sell; to lease out a rice paddy on certain terms
  di-dolsold, hired, pawned; for sale
  ŋe-dolto sell; to lease a rice paddy on certain terms
Madurese juwalto sell
  a-juwalto sell
  wal-juwalselling, commerce
Balinese dolsale (< Javanese)
  ha-dolto sell (intr.)
  ŋa-dolto sell (tr.)
Sasak jualto sell
  jual-angoods for sale
  jual-insell something to someone

Also Old Javanese ka-juwal ‘sold’ (Malay?). The antiquity of this form is unclear. It’s distribution is entirely within an area that has been subject to Malay-dominated commerce for many centuries, and so the possibility is very real that many of these forms could ultimately be Malay loanwords. The word was present in Old Javanese in a form that differs from Malay jual, suggesting that it has been circulating in western Indonesian for over a millennium, but this is still consistent with a Malay source, since Sriwijaya dominated commerce in the Malay archipelago by at least the 7th century AD. The semantics of Sumatran forms such as Gayō juel-en also suggest that if this word is a Malay loan it was borrowed early enough to become thoroughly enmeshed in the cultural traditions of the borrowing society.

sell in small quantities

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) tiŋíʔto sell at retail
Tagalog tiŋíʔretail selling; the selling of goods in small quantities at a time
Central Tagbanwa tiŋiʔto sellin small quantities

Borrowing from Tagalog.

sell well:   merchandise for sale; to sell well

WMP
Ilokano lákomerchandise for sale
  ag-lákoto sell
  i-lákoto sell something
Bontok ʔi-lakuto buy; to sell
  l<um>akuto buy
Ibaloy man-dekoto sell
  i-dako-anto sell to someone
Tagalog lákoʔgoods being pedalled
Bikol lákoʔgoods or merchandise which are peddled
  mag-lákoʔto peddle goods

Borrowing from Malay. Arosi rao ‘to sell’ presumably is a chance resemblance.

(Dempwolff: *ki(r)im ‘to send’)

send

WMP
Malay kirimto send (things, not persons)
Sundanese kirimto send; to bring
Javanese kirimto send
  kirim-anthat which is sent
Balinese kirimcarry the ashes of a dead person to the sea
  kirim-ana package sent by the hand of an intermediary (said to be from Malay)

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) posited *ki(r)im ‘to send’.

separate

WMP
Maranao parakscatter
Malay parakseparation; parting; dividing; division; allotment

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

seriously ill

WMP
  parahdangerous or serious, of a wound
Dairi-Pakpak Batak parahextremely sick
Sundanese payahvery sick, extremely sick or painful; seriously or dangerously ill
Mongondow pahaserious, of an illness

Probably a Malayo-Chamic innovation that has been borrowed from Malay into Dairi-Pakpak Batak and Mongondow.

servant:   maid, female servant

WMP
Maranao baboʔaunt, mother-in-law
Malay babumaid-servant
  babu tétékwet-nurse
Sundanese babutitle of Eve (Babu Hawa); in general = paŋasuh (female servant)
Old Javanese babumother; older servant
Javanese babuyoung female servant; (literary, formal) mother
Balinese babudomestic servant, maid
Banggai ba-babufamily member
Wolio babufemale servant, maid (in colonial times)
CMP
Bimanese babuhouse servant

Probably a fairly late innovation in Western Indonesia, spread by borrowing from Malay or Javanese.

(Dempwolff: *talam ‘dish, bowl’)

serving tray

WMP
Maranao talambrass tray
Tausug talama brass tray (without legs)
Kadazan Dusun talama tray
Tombonuwo talamcopper tray
Ngaju Dayak talamcopper dish (said to be Banjarese)
Iban talamtray, usually round and metal (formerly brass)
Malay talamplatter, tray (without pedestal)
Toba Batak talamsmall clay pan
Javanese talamserving tray
Balinese talama tray; the leaf on which food is presented to a guest
Sasak talamlarge wooden serving tray

Borrowing from Tamil through Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *talam ‘dish, bowl’ (Schüssel).

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

Se

Seville:   Bitter orange Seville orange: Citrus aurantium

WMP
Ilokano kahélspecies of orange tree with sweet or sour fruit (said to be from Spanish cahel through Tagalog)
Tagalog kahélspecies of orange tree and its fruit, usually sweet, but sometimes sour
Bikol (Camarines Sur) kahélcitrus fruit, similar to a grapefruit: Citrus aurantium
Cebuano kahílsmall, green, somewhat bitter orange which turns yellow when overripe: Citrus aurantium

From Spanish cajel ‘Bitter orange, Seville orange (also called ‘blood orange’), a native of the Mediterranean region that must have been imported into the Philippines directly from Spain, rather than through the usual Mexican route for plants introduced during the Spanish colonial period.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

sh

shack:   hut, shack

WMP
Ngaju Dayak podoksmall house or hut used only for short periods (as when in the forest collecting rattan, hunting, etc.)
Malay pondoknight shelter, in two senses: 1. in Malay and Minangkabau, hut; shanty; lean-to; a depreciatory description of one’s own house, 2. in Java and Singapore a sort of hotel or residential clubhouse
Toba Batak pondokhut, in particular a sales booth that one erects by the roadside
Old Javanese a-monḍokto erect a temporary shelter, to camp
Javanese ponḍoka small crude hut; (fig.) my humble home
  monḍokto live in a rented room away from home
  monḍok-akéto board someone
  monḍok-ito rent a room in someone’s house
  ponḍok-ana place to stay when away from home; lodgings, rented rooms
Balinese ponḍoktent, hut, temporary or poor dwelling; this is the word one uses for one’s own house in polite speech
Sasak pondoktemporary dwelling

The presence of mid-back vowels in all these forms points to borrowing from Malay.

shackles

WMP
Tboli belaŋguʔprisoner
Malay beleŋgufetters; shackles for the feet

Borrowing, ultimately from Tamil.

(Dempwolff: *tiŋtiŋ ‘loosen by shaking’)

shake grains on winnowing tray

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tintiŋpurify by shaking
Malay tintiŋto winnow with a swaying motion so as to separate grain from chaff or sand from alluvial gold; (fig.) to refine; to retain only the best
Javanese tintiŋto sort grains according to size by shaking them on a broad shallow tray

Borrowing from Malay. Despite the consistent shapes of the forms cited here Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tiŋtiŋ ‘loosen by shaking’ (durch schütteln losemachen). His inclusion of Tongan sisiŋ-i ‘hit oneself on the head’ (sich auf den Kopf klopfen) is puzzling, as I find no such form in Churchward (1959), and even if it could be found, the semantic connection with the above forms is strained beyond credibility.

shake hands

WMP
Ilokano lamanohandshake
  ag-lamanoto shake hands
Maranao lamanoshake hands

Borrowing from Spanish.

shavings:   sawdust, wood shavings

WMP
Yogad kúsutwood shaving
Tagalog kusótsawdust, wood shavings
Bikol kusótsawdust

Mintz and Britannico (1985) derive the Bikol form from a Hokkien original, and English (1986) holds a similar view of the Tagalog form, although this has not been confirmed.

shawls:   cloth used for shawl

WMP
Ngaju Dayak palaŋisilk material much used for shawls
Malay kain pelaŋibandanna-cloth, colored rather gaudily by the tie-and-dye process
  pelaŋistriped in gay colors; variegated
Makassarese palaŋeflowery cloth (worn over the shoulder by women at festivals)

Borrowing from Malay.

shearing off:   pinching off, shearing off

WMP
Ngaju Dayak katipthe pinching of crabs
Malay kətipnip or bite of small insects such as gnats, mosquitos and bugs

Also Ngaju Dayak kutip ‘pinching with the fingernails; pinched off’. Dempwolff compared the Ngaju Dayak and Malay forms with Fijian koti ‘to clip, to shear’, Tongan kosi ‘to cut with scissors or shears or clippers, to clip or shear; to cut grass with a lawn-mower; (of rats) to gnaw through, to gnaw a hole in’, Samoan oti ‘to cut (with scissors, clippers, etc.)’, but these are better assigned to *ketil.

shed light on:   clarify, shed light on

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat liwánagto explain, to clarify, to reveal; to make clearr
Tagalog liwánaglucidity; clearness, especially of thought, expression, perception, etc.
Bikol liwánaglight, daylight
  ma-liwánagclear, distinct, vivid, coherent, graphic, lucid, plain, understandable
  mag-liwánagto become light
Maranao liwanagenlighten, light up, clarify, return to reason
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) liwanagto enlighten someone’s mind, to explain the true situation to someone

Presumably a Greater Central Philippine loanword in Casiguran Dumagat.

sheep

WMP
Maranao bili-bilisheep
Malay biri-birisheep
Simalur biri-birisheep
Karo Batak biri-birisheep
Dairi-Pakpak Batak biri-birisheep
Nias biri-birisheep
Balinese biri-birisheep
Makassarese biri-birisheep (only in stories translated from Malay; the animal is unknown to most Makasarese)

Borrowing from Malay. Although Wilkinson 1959 does not list Malay biri-biri the form is given in the sources for several other languages of Indonesia as a Malay loan.

shell (useful)

WMP
Itbayaten agoroŋshell for tobacco pipe
Ilokano agúroŋkind of shellfish with a black, elongated shell of spiral design

Borrowing from Ilokano.

(Dempwolff: *bazu)

shirt, jacket

WMP
Tagalog bároʔdress for upper part of body
Ngaju Dayak bajushirt, jacket
Malay bajushirt, jacket
Toba Batak bajushirt, jacket
Old Javanese baju, wajujacket
Javanese bajushirt, jacket
Makassarese bajushirt, blouse, bodice
CMP
Erai harujacket with long sleeves

Borrowing, ultimately from Persian.

(Dempwolff: *tembak ‘to shoot’)

shoot

Formosan
Paiwan ts<alʸ>ebakto make sound of one object falling (as stone, book)
WMP
Ngaju Dayak tembakshooting (with firearms)
Malay tembakfiring shots; also hydraulically with monitors
Toba Batak tembakan aim, aiming
  mar-tembakto aim
  ma-nembakto aim at (a target)
Javanese témbakFire! (as a command)
  témbak-ana shot
PSS *tembakto shoot

Western Indonesian forms have been borrowed from Malay, and the resemblance of the Paiwan form to these is best attributed to chance. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tembak ‘to shoot’.

(Dempwolff: *sulur ‘offshoot, shoot of a plant’)

shoot of a plant:   offshoot shoot of a plant

WMP
Tagakaulu Kalagan suloloffshoot
Ngaju Dayak sulohto sprout; a sprout or offshoot
Malagasy súlua substitute
  sulú-anato be substituted, to be replaced
Iban sulurproject, stick out (in succession), hence go one after another; new growth (of cut plants)
Malay sulurturning or rising upward; shoots; of the roots of certain species of Ficus, but used in Malay of runners for plants, shoots on a tree trunk, upturned crockets, upward extensions of a boat’s ribs, etc.
Sundanese sulurto replace; a replacement
Old Javanese sulurshoot of a creeper; aerial root
Javanese suluraerial roots hanging down from tree branches
Balinese sulurto climb in a spiral (creeper)
OC
Samoan suluthe true son of a chief (Pratt 1893)

Based on proposed cognates in Tagalog, Javanese, Malay, Ngaju Dayak, Malagasy and Samoan, Dempwolff proposed *sulur ‘offshoot, shoot of a plant’. However, I am unable to find Tagalog sulol in Panganiban (1966) or English (1986), the Samoan form probably is a chance resemblance, and several of the remaining forms show contradictory reflexes for the final consonant, Ngaju Dayak supporting *R, but Old and Modern Javanese, Sundanese and Balinese supporting *r.

short

WMP
Malay pendekshort
Toba Batak pendekshort; low
Sundanese pendekshort in stature; small, of a person
Javanese pènḍèkshort

Borrowing from Malay.

shoulder pole

WMP
Sasak lembahcarry with a shoulder pole
  lembarshoulder pole; carry with a shoulder pole
Mandar lembarshoulder pole
Buginese lempaʔload carried on a shoulder pole
Makassarese lémbaraʔload carried on a shoulder pole
CMP
Bimanese lembacarry on the shoulder
Rotinese lepacarry with a shoulder pole (of one person or two in tandem)
PAmb *lebacarry on the shoulder

This comparison (with a consistent mid-front vowel) is most plausibly attributed to borrowing from a somewhat earlier stage of Buginese or Makassarese.

shout

xxx
PCS boliáwanswer a person by shouting
WMP
Kapampangan búlyoshout
Tagalog bulyáwloud or shouted rebuke or reproach; angry and sudden shout to drive away fowls and animals
Bikol bulyáwshout out something in anger

Borrowing from Tagalog.

shovel

WMP
Itbayaten palashovel, spade
Ilokano pálaspade, shovel
  palá-anto shovel; hit with a shovel
Tagalog pálashovel, spade
  mag-pálato shovel
  p<um>álato shovel
Agutaynen palashovel
  mag-palato shovel earth, cement, etc.; to use a shovel to dig a hole
Maranao palashovel, spade
Mapun palashovel

Borrowing of Spanish pala ‘shovel’.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

si

side:   gunwale, side plank on canoe

WMP
Mansaka ampaʔboard used to increase freeboard of boat
Sangir ampathe plank that is fixed on the baule (unfinished hull of a boat) to give it more freeboard

Borrowing from Sangir.

side:   spicy condiment side dish with rice

WMP
Ngaju Dayak sambalcondiment with rice, various fruits, vegetables, etc., raw or cooked, thoroughly mixed with salt and Spanish pepper
  ma-ñambalmake something into this condiment
Malay sambalcondiment eaten with curry (generic for peppers, pickles, grated coconut or pineapple, salt fish, fish roe, very salted eggs, very acid sliced fruits and other condiments eaten cold to give additional flavor to the curry and rice)
Acehnese sambayvarious finely chopped leaves mixed with Spanish pepper, roasted coconut, salt, etc. (a kind of condiment)
Toba Batak sambalpungent side-dish with rice
Sundanese sambalcondiment eaten with rice (as Spanish pepper)
Old Javanese sambəla hot condiment
  s<in>ambəl-anto supply with a hot condiment
Javanese sambelhot spicy sauce or paste
  ñambelto make ingredients into a hot spicy sauce or paste
Balinese sambala very frequently used sauce (green pepper, fish-paste, and lemon juice)
Sasak sambəlspices eaten with rice

Apparently an innovation in Old Javanese that was borrowed by Malay and subsequently disseminated among languages in western Indonesia that were in frequent contact with Malay traders.

side, flank

WMP
Malay lambuŋside; flank
Toba Batak lambuŋside of the human body; side in general
Sundanese lambuŋthe soft space under the ribs on the side
Old Javanese lambuŋside, flank of the body, of a mountain, of a battle-array
Javanese lambuŋside; flank; upper side of the human body
Balinese lambuŋside of the body (rarely used of persons)
Sasak (Sewela) lambuŋbreast and side of the body; sleeveless garment for women

Probably borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *kesaq ‘breath loudly’)

sigh

WMP
Malay kəloh-kəsahrestless, sighing (of a lover)
Karo Batak kəsahbreath; wind or air in something; spirit, a Holy Ghost (in the Christian sense)
Toba Batak hosato breathe; life, breath

Dempwolff proposed *kesaq ‘breath loudly’, adding Javanese gesah, geresah ‘to groan, moan’. I am unable to find the latter in either Pigeaud (1938) or Horne (1974).

(Dempwolff: *tanDa ‘sign, signal, mark’)

sign, signal, mark

WMP
Tagalog taláʔlist, entry; thing written or printed in a book
  tandáʔsign; any mark, thing or motion used to mean, represent, or point out something
Ngaju Dayak tandaa sign, mark (from Banjarese)
Malagasy tandraa mole in the skin
Malay tandasign; token; emblem
Toba Batak tandasign; sign of recognition
Old Javanese tanḍaspecial sign on a banner belonging to each hero, ensign, standard, banner
  sa-tanḍaeach company (banner) separately
Javanese tanḍasign, mark, indication
CMP
Kambera tandasign, signal, mark
OC
Sa'a ada-loŋafour plates of turtle shell on the shoulders of the hawksbill turtle

Borrowing, probably from old or modern Javanese, where it referred to a military ensign. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tanDa ‘sign, signal, mark’, showing some of his most extreme semantic permissiveness with the Sa'a form.

(Dempwolff: *pirak ‘silver’)

silver

Formosan
Saisiyat pa-pilaʔsilver
Atayal (Cʔuliʔ) pilaʔsilver
Pazeh pilasilver; silver coin
WMP
Yami pilalead (metal)
Itbayaten pilaksilver
Ilokano pirákmoney; silver
  na-pirákrich, wealthy
  pirak-ánto finance; to bribe
Isneg piráʔsilver; money; coin, piece of money
Bontok pilákmoney
Kankanaey piláksilver; money, coin, cash
Ifugaw pilákmoney, silver (said to be from Ilokano)
Casiguran Dumagat pílaksilver metal; coin
Ibaloy pilakmoney
  man-pidakto have money
  ma-pidakrich, having a lot of money
  me-midakto buy a favor from someone; to buy votes in an election
  pidak-anto give money to someone
  pidak-ento get money
Pangasinan piláksilver, money (esp. silver coins)
Kapampangan pílakcoin; silver; nickel
Tagalog pílaksilver; money
  mag-ka-pílakto happen to have or get some money
  ma-pílakhaving plenty of money, rich
  pilák-anto cover something with silver or silver plate
  pilák-into make money out of something; to turn any goods or one’s work into money
Bikol píraksilver; money
  mag-pírakto alloy silver with other metals
  pirák-anto mix other metals with silver
Hanunóo pílaksilver; coinage, money
Aklanon pílaksilver; wealth
  pilák-anwealthy, well-to-do
Agutaynen pilaksilver
Cebuano pílaksilver; money; to plate with silver
Maranao pirakmoney; silver
Tiruray filaksilver (the metal); money, a peso
Mapun pilakpeso, money; silver
Tboli filakmoney; silver; tin; coins
Tausug pilaksilver (the metal); money, pesos
Kelabit pirəksilver
Kayan pirəksilver
Kayan (Uma Juman) pirəksilver
Kiput pirəksilver
Malagasy fírakalead, pewter
Iban piraksilver; silvery
  tukaŋ piraksilversmith
Malay peraksilver
Karo Batak piraksilver
Toba Batak piraksilver
Old Javanese piraksilver; money, wealth
  ma-pirakto possess wealth, be rich
  pi-pirak-anriches
Javanese péraksilver
  se-pérakone rupiah
Balinese pérak ~ piraksilver
Mongondow perasilver; silver coin
Makassarese peraʔsilver
Muna perasilver

This extremely widespread loanword appears to be of Mon-Khmer origin (Thurgood 1999:360). It evidently was acquired by Malay as a result of contacts on the mainland of Southeast Asia, and then spread throughout much of western Indonesia-Malaysia, the Philippines and Taiwan through trade contacts, perhaps mediated by the Dutch presence in southwest Taiwan from 1624-1661, and the Spanish presence in northeast Taiwan from 1626-1642 (the latter out of Manila). Surprisingly, it is almost totally absent from eastern Indonesia, suggesting that apart from the spice trade, which drew Malays into the Moluccas at an early time, Malay trade routes tended to favor a north-south route. Based on the comparison of the Tagalog, Malagasy, Malay, Toba Batak and Javanese forms given here Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *pirak ‘silver’.

silver

WMP
Malay selakasilver (< Javanese)
Sundanese salakasilver (poetic for the normal perak)
Old Javanese salakasilver
Balinese salakasilver; silver coin
Sasak selakasilver, specifically silver coin (< Javanese)
Buginese salakasilver
Wolio salakasilver
Muna salakasilver
CMP
Kamarian salakasilver
Saparua salakasilver

Borrowing from Javanese. The mechanism of diffusion in this case may have been Javanese influence during the peak of the Majapahit period (1293-1500). However, it is possible that the Dutch colonial administration was responsible to some extent for the spread of this form, which was used for the colonial rijksdaalder, and which was borrowed into some of the Papuan languages of the North Halmahera family, as with Galela salaka.

sing

Formosan
Rukai (Tanan) wa-senaysing
Rukai (Tona) wa-θenaysing
Puyuma s<em>enaysing
Paiwan s<em>enaysing

A likely loan distribution, probably starting from Paiwan.

(Dempwolff: *tuŋgal ‘submit, humble oneself’)

single

WMP
Ilokano tuŋgáleach, every
Maranao toŋgalsingle out
Ngaju Dayak tuŋgalone, single, only
Malagasy tukanaone, single, alone
Malay tuŋgalsole; unique; alone; the one
  anak tuŋgalonly child
  tuŋgal-tuŋgalin Indian file
Toba Batak tuŋgalmale, of animals
Balinese tuŋgalunity, union; be one
Sasak tuŋgalisolated, on one’s own
PSS *tuŋgaleach, single
CMP
Kambera tuŋgalusingle, alone, by oneself

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tuŋgal ‘submit, humble oneself’ (sich beugen). His inclusion of Toba Batak tuŋgal was based on the notion that male animals travel alone, while females move with their cubs.

sit deferentially

WMP
Bikol mag-sílaʔto sit with the legs crossed at the thighs
Iban dudok be-silasit kneeling (on knees and feet together); sit deferentially, or cross-legged(?)
Malay dudok ber-silato sit in the proper, deferential way
Sundanese silasit with the legs crossed under the body
Old Javanese śīlamoral character, action, conduct; good conduct, good character (Sanskrit: practice, conduct, disposition, charact er, good conduct, morality, piety, virtue)
Javanese sila(to sit) cross-legged
Balinese silasit like an ascetic; sit properly, with good manners; sit in the proper position before a superior
  sila napeksit in the usual way, with each foot under the opposite thigh
  sila sisihsit with the left foot against the right knee
Sasak bə-silasit with the legs crossed

Several of these forms, including at least those in Bikol and Iban, are likely Malay loans, ultimately from Sanskrit.

sit cross-legged

WMP
Tagalog mag-sílaɁto sit on the floor with legs crossed at front
Bikol mag-sílaɁto sit with the legs crossed at the thighs; to cross the legs in this way
Iban duduk be-silasit kneeling (on knees and feet together); sit deferentially, or cross-legged (?)
Malay dudok bər-silato sit in the proper deferential way
  tikar silamat to sit on
Sundanese silasit cross-legged

Said to be from Sanskrit in western Indonesia, and then borrowed through Malay into Philippine languages such as Tagalog.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

sk

skilled, adept

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) likhíto be skilled in
Tagalog liksíquickness, agility
Bikol ma-liksíʔagile, deft, nimble

Probably a Tagalog loan distribution.

skin disease

WMP
Maranao bodokskin on the head which is scaly, skin lesion
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) buzukskin disease on the scalp which forms large scabby areas
Malay bodokleprosy in its early stage
Old Javanese wuḍugleprosy
Javanese buḍug-enhave/get leprosy
  buḍugleprosy

Malay bodok is assumed to be a loan from Javanese. The similarity of the Philippine forms to those in western Indonesia is attributed to chance.

(Dempwolff: *ku(r)us ‘slender’)

skinny:   thin, slender, skinny

WMP
Melanau (Mukah) kuruihthin, of animate beings
Ngaju Dayak kurusnarrowness in the waist
Iban kurus(of people, animals) thin; meagre, poor
Malay kurusthin, attenuated, esp. of a person being lean or skinny

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Sanskrit. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *ku(r)us ‘slender’.

skirt

WMP
Ilokano sáyaskirt
Tagalog sáyaskirt
Bikol sáyaa traditional skirt
Maranao sayaskirt, dress
Binukid sayaskirt

From Spanish saya ‘skirt, dress, tunic’.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

sl

slaughter in accord with Islamic law

WMP
Ngaju Dayak sambalihslit the throat of a sacrificial animal
Malagasy (Taimoro) sombilislaughter in a ritual way
Malay səmbəlehto slaughter ritually (as cattle are slaughtered by cutting the throat)
Toba Batak ma-nambolito slaughter
  tar-sambolbe slaughtered
Javanese sembelèhto butcher, slaughter
  belèh-anslaughtering place

Arabic, through the medium of Malay. For a detailed account of the Malagasy term as a Malay loan cf. Adelaar (1989:4-6).

sledge hammer

WMP
Itbayaten maasosledge hammer
Ilokano másomallet, sledge hammer
  masú-ento hit with a mallet or sledge hammer
Tagalog másomallet; a heavy wooden hammer; a maul; sledge hammer
Bikol másosledge hammer
  mag-másoto pound with a sledge hammer
Cebuano másusledge hammer; to do something with, make something into a sledge hammer
Tausug māsusledge hammer

Borrowing of Spanish mazo ‘mallet’.

(Dempwolff: *ku(r)us ‘slender’)

slender:   thin, slender, skinny

WMP
Melanau (Mukah) kuruihthin, of animate beings
Ngaju Dayak kurusnarrowness in the waist
Iban kurus(of people, animals) thin; meagre, poor
Malay kurusthin, attenuated, esp. of a person being lean or skinny

Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Sanskrit. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *ku(r)us ‘slender’.

(Dempwolff: *lampay ‘slim, slender')

slim, slender

WMP
Ngaju Dayak lampayvery long, too long; a tie with which one binds something, or on which one hangs something up
Malay lampaylissom; graceful; bending into curves

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *lampay ‘slim, slender' (Schlanksein).

slowly:   budge, move slowly

WMP
  aŋsura little at a time, in action or motion
Sundanese aŋsurpush something toward the place where it belongs
Makassarese ansoroʔ(harbor language) move a heavy load bit by bit
CMP
Rembong aŋsurbudge a little at a time

Borrowing from Malay.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

Sm

Smilax sp.

WMP
Malay itah besia climber, Smilax myosotifolia
Nias hitacreeper with fruits used as gold weight measures

Probably an old Malay loan in Nias.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

sm

smoking pipe

Formosan
Amis ʔoŋtopipe for smoking
Puyuma Huŋtuysmoking pipe (from Min hun-chhui)
Paiwan quŋtsuytobacco-pipe (Min)
WMP
Yami (Iranomilek) unsuitobacco pipe, esp. bamboo water-pipe
Cebuano hunsúypipe for smoking
Maranao onsoipipe
Tboli unsuytobacco pipe
Tausug huŋsuytobacco pipe
Singhi Land Dayak usoipipe
Malay unchu, unchuiChinese tobacco-pipe
Rejang ucuʔipipe, cigarette-holder
Madurese oncuytobacco pipe

Borrowing from Southern Min, probably during the Ming dynasty.

smooth

WMP
Ilokano lísosimple, plain; flat sheet of zinc
Tagalog lísosimple; plain; unadorneed; all of one color
Bikol lísopure; alll of one kind; all

Borrowing of Spanish liso ‘smooth, even; unadorned, plain’.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

sn

snail

WMP
Malagasy sífutraa snail, the common name given to many species of freshwater and land shells, which are very numerous in Madagascar
Iban siputgeneric for spiral shells; shellfish
Malay siputshell; general name for shellfish and snails or land shells

Probably a Malay loan in Malagasy. No related forms are known in other languages.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

so

(Dempwolff: *kucak ‘gurgle, sob’)

sob:   gurgle, sob

WMP
  kocakgurgle, sob
Javanese kocakgurgle, sob

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) proposed *kucak ‘gurgle, sob’, but I cannot find a form with the shape and meaning that he cited in any modern dictionary of either of these languages.

(Dempwolff: *buDak)

social inferior

WMP
Malay budaklad; lass. Associated sometimes (1) with immaturity; (2) very commonly with service (e.g. budak dalam "palace slave girls", budak jogét "dancing girl", budak-budak gembala "herd-boys")
Acehnese budaʔchild, lad, boy
Simalur budaʔslave, servant
Toba Batak budakslave (used only as a term of abuse)
Rejang budoʔservant, slave
  matey budoʔdie in childbirth
Sundanese budakchild in general (either boy or girl); fetus; manservant, slave maŋsa budak in one's youth ŋaran budak childhood name, given name
Javanese buḍakslave

Borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *kukuq ‘firm, solid’)

solid:   firm, solid

WMP
Malay kukohstaunch; strongly built; of unshaken loyalty; backing one’s assurances with guarntees or with an oath; strengthening a town’s defenses
Sundanese kukuhstrong, firm
Old Javanese kukuhstrong, firm, inflexible, tough, sturdy, relentless
Javanese kukuhsolid, strong, resistant
Balinese kukuhbe strong, grow strong; be firm, be stiff; be headstrong
Sasak kukuhstrong, sturdy, of body build

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kukuq ‘firm, solid’.

sorrel, light reddish brown (of horses)

WMP
Ibaloy alasanbrown --- as a color of cows and horses
Cebuano alasanchestnut-colored horse with small white speckles

Borrowing of Spanish alazán ‘sorrel (of horses)’.

(Dempwolff: *tas ‘sound of breaking or tearing’)

sound of breaking

WMP
Malay tasrustle, e.g. of paper or dry leaves; sound of a shot
Toba Batak tassound of beating

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tas ‘sound of breaking or tearing’. Possibly native, but the limited geographical distribution of this onomatopoetic form makes it difficult to confidently attribute it to a language with much time-depth.

sound:   well-made, structurally sound

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat tíbaystable, firm, enduring, lasting, strong (structurally)
Tagalog tíbaymaterial or structural strength
  ma-tíbaystrong, morally strong, materially strong
Bikol ma-tíbaywell-made

sour fruit

WMP
Aklanon ibaʔtree with sour fruit: Averrhoa bilimbi L.
Cebuano ibaʔtree with sour fruit: Averrhoa bilimbi L.
Maranao ibaʔtree with sour fruit: Averrhoa bilimbi L.
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ivaʔtree with edible sour fruit
Tiruray ʔibaʔtree bearing edible fruit: Averrhoa carambola L.
Chamorro ibbaʔa tree, Phyllanthus acidus, with sour fruit that makes the lips pucker up

Borrowing into Tiruray and Chamorro from some GCPh language or languages.

source, origin

WMP
Tagalog muláʔsource; the place from which anything comes or is obtained
Ngaju Dayak mulaoriginally
Malay mularoot; origins; source; beginnings
Karo Batak mulabeginning, origin of something
Toba Batak mulabeginning, origin
Old Javanese mūlabasis, foundation, cause, origin, beginning
Javanese mulaoriginally; from the beginning
Balinese mulaoriginal, not an imitation
Sasak mulabeginning, origin

Borrowing from Sanskrit, in most cases through Malay.

soursop: Annona squamosa

WMP
Ilokano átissweetsop: Annona squamosa
Pangasinan átistree with sweet, light yellowish green fruit similar in shape to a pinecone and about the size of a large apple, sometimes known as sugar apple
Tagalog átistree that bears very sweet fruit called custard apple
Bikol átissugar apple: Annona squamosa
Hanunóo ʔátisthe sweetsop, a tree that bears aromatic and very sweet fruits: Annona squamosa Linn.
Aklanon átissugar apple: Annona squamosa Linn.
Cebuano átissugar apple, a widely planted sweet fruit with numerous black seeds: Annona squamosa
Tiruray ʔatissweetsop: Annona squamosa Linn.
Tausug atissweetsop, sugar apple: Annona squamosa
PSan *atissoursop: Annona squamosa

A native of tropical America, the soursop was introduced into Southeast Asia sometime during the 16th century.

soy sauce

WMP
Ilokano túyosoy sauce
Casiguran Dumagat tóyosoy sauce
Ayta Abellan toyosoy sauce
Tagalog tóyoʔsoybean sauce; a Chinese and Japanese sauce made from soybeans
Bikol táwyoʔ ~ tóyoʔsoy sauce

Borrowing of Hokkien (Minnan) dao⁵ yiu² ‘soy sauce’

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

sp

(Dempwolff: *tambilaŋ 'spade')

spade

WMP
Malay təmbilaŋa long-shafted spade
Toba Batak tambilaŋspade

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) posited PAn *tambilaŋ.

speak

WMP
Maranao bitiaraspeak, talk; feast, as in marriage
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bitiyaradiscussion; to discuss
Kayan besaraʔcourt, tribunal
Malay bicaradeliberation; discussion; discourse; legal proceeding
Sundanese bicaracounsel
  gedoŋ bicaratown hall, meeting place for public discussions
Buginese bicaratalk, speak

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

(Dempwolff: *ucap 'speak, converse with')

speak, converse

WMP
Tagalog úsapconversation; conference, meeting; case in court, litigation; request for a favor; counsel, admonition, gossip, scandal
Iban ucapmutter
  ucap-ucapincessant talk (of a group)
Malay ucaputterance. In Malaya, esp. of prayer or other emotional speech
Old Javanese ucaptalk, speech, words
Javanese ucapwhat someone says; to say; utterance
Balinese ucapsay, speak, tell, report, announce

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff's (1934-38) inclusion of Fijian vosa 'speak, talk' under a reconstruction *ucap 'speak, converse with' appears unjustified.

speed

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat bilísfast, swift; speedily
Tagalog bilísspeed

Borrowing from Tagalog.

spelling

WMP
Malay éjaspelling, orthography
Sasak éjaspelling
Makassarese iʔjaspelling

Borrowing, ultimately from Arabic.

spice

WMP
Malay bumbucondiments; curry-stuffs. In these terms are included all ingredients (such as salt, onion, red peppers, tamarind, rasped coconut, gingers, etc.) that are pounded up together for flavoring Malay curry dishes
Javanese bumbuseasonings, spices (prepared by grinding with mortar and pestle)
CMP
Bimanese βumbuspices, condiments, seasoning

Borrowing from Javanese into Malay, and probably from Malay into Bimanese.

spicy condiment side dish with rice

WMP
Ngaju Dayak sambalcondiment with rice, various fruits, vegetables, etc., raw or cooked, thoroughly mixed with salt and Spanish pepper
  ma-ñambalmake something into this condiment
Malay sambalcondiment eaten with curry (generic for peppers, pickles, grated coconut or pineapple, salt fish, fish roe, very salted eggs, very acid sliced fruits and other condiments eaten cold to give additional flavor to the curry and rice)
Acehnese sambayvarious finely chopped leaves mixed with Spanish pepper, roasted coconut, salt, etc. (a kind of condiment)
Toba Batak sambalpungent side-dish with rice
Sundanese sambalcondiment eaten with rice (as Spanish pepper)
Old Javanese sambəla hot condiment
  s<in>ambəl-anto supply with a hot condiment
Javanese sambelhot spicy sauce or paste
  ñambelto make ingredients into a hot spicy sauce or paste
Balinese sambala very frequently used sauce (green pepper, fish-paste, and lemon juice)
Sasak sambəlspices eaten with rice

Apparently an innovation in Old Javanese that was borrowed by Malay and subsequently disseminated among languages in western Indonesia that were in frequent contact with Malay traders.

(Dempwolff: *antih)

spin cotton thread

WMP
Kadazan Dusun ganti-ancolored thread
Ngaju Dayak kantihwhat is spun or twined (yarn)
  maŋ-antihto spin, twine
Malay antéh, meŋ-antéhto spin. The meaning covers the whole process of spinning. Possibly from a root kantéh
Toba Batak gantispin, make cotton thread
Sundanese antéhcotton thread; also: to spin
Old Javanese antih-antih-anspider-web
  aŋ-antihto spin
Javanese di-antihbe spun, be woven
  k-antihthread spun on a spinning wheel
  ŋ-antihto spin (thread); to weave
Madurese antetwisting, twining, making thread or string

A relatively late innovation in western Indonesia, with probable borrowing from Malay into some of the other languages cited here.

spirit:   evil spirit, vampire, witch

WMP
Kapampangan aswáŋa frightening spirit creature, half-human, half-bird, vampire-like, said to prey on corpses and unborn children
Tagalog asuwáŋ, aswáŋfolkloric evil creature capable of assuming diverse forms, but specially human form with horse feet
Bikol aswáŋdevil or witch said to eat human flesh
Aklanon áswaŋvampire, evil creature (preying on people, sucking liver bile and leaving them weak or with some strange afflictions)
Cebuano aswáŋa person who is possessed of a supernatural force, which attacks from time to time causing him to change his form and go out, often to harm others, preying on their blood, livers, etc.
Maranao ansoaŋdemon, witch
Mansaka asoaŋdemon
Sangir ansuaŋgiant

Borrowing into Kapampangan from a GCPh source. It is possible that the suaŋgi/ of eastern Indonesia has a similar origin.

(Dempwolff: *paŋgil)

spirits:   call (v.), summon (spirits)

WMP
Kadazan Dusun paŋgisummon, call for something important; convoke
Ngaju Dayak ma-maŋgilinvite
  olo paŋgilthe guests who are invited to a feast
Iban paŋgilask to help or take part; summon, call to attend
Rhade gălcall, summon
Malay lagu p-ĕm-aŋgilthe invocation-song at a shaman's seance
  paŋgilsummon, send for
Acehnese paŋgecall, summon
Karo Batak paŋgilin an invocation: invoke deities or spirits; summon to justice (in native court)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak paŋgilinvoke the spirits to bring sickness or misfortune to someone tabas p-em-aŋgil incantation for summoning the spirits
Toba Batak paŋgilcall, summon
Javanese paŋgila request for something

Borrowing. Apparently a Malayo-Chamic innovation which has spread to Kadazan Dusun, Ngaju Dayak, the Batak languages, and Javanese.

spleen:   milt, spleen

WMP
Toba Batak limpathe liver proper; in contrast to the heart and gall
Old Javanese limpaspleen
Javanese limpaspleen
Balinese limpaliver, pancreas
Sasak limpaspleen; liver

Apparently a Malay loanword.

spot:   place, spot

WMP
Ilokano lugárplace, position, spot; room (for containment)
  i-lugárto place something, put in the proper place; find space for; employ
  l<um>ugárto stay; a resident
Bikol lugára place, spot; room, space
Cebuano lugárgeographical place; proper place, occasion for something
Central Tagbanwa lugarplace
Tiruray lugara place, a location

Borrowing of Spanish lugar ‘place, spot; town, village’.

spotted, striped

WMP
Buginese balospotted, striped; color
Makassarese balomulti-colored, with white spots (esp. of horses and dogs)
CMP
Bimanese warosmallpox
Manggarai balostriped, spotted
Rembong balospotted, having two colors

Borrowing (South Sulawesi to Lesser Sundas).

(Dempwolff: *si(r)am ‘to spray’)

spray

WMP
Ngaju Dayak siramwhat is sprinkled (said to be from Malay)
Iban siramwash part of the body
Malay sirambesprinkling; a term applied to the watering of plants, the ceremonial sprinkling of anything with holy water, and the ablutions of princes
  bər-siramto bathe, of a prince or princess
Old Javanese toya siramwater for washing or bathing
  a-niramto wash, shower, bathe, water, (be)sprinkle
  pa-niramsomething to bathe with or to sprinkle on
Javanese siramto take a bath
  ñiramto pour something onto; to pour water on
  siram-answimming pool; bathing place
Balinese sihamsprinkle with water
  siramsprinkle with water; wash
Sasak siramto pour, spray
  pə-siram-anbathing place

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *si(r)am ‘to spray’, but this is best treated as a loan distribution from Javanese or Malay.

spread out

WMP
Malay bentaŋexpansion; spreading out. Of spreading out carpets, stretching nets to dry, pitching tents, etc.
CMP
Rembong wentaŋspreading out

Borrowing from Malay.

spring, well

WMP
Ilokano bukálfountain, natural spring; well
Bikol bukálspring, a natural flow of water

From Spanish brocar ‘parapet (round well)’.

spring roll

WMP
Ilokano lúmpiaPhilippine eggroll, spring roll, meat, vegetables and or shrimps wrapped in rice starch wrappers
Tagalog lumpiáʔa Chinese dish consisting of meat, shrimps and vegetables rolled in a rice starch wrapper
Bikol lumpiáʔspring roll, egg roll (crepe with various fillings, including meat, shrimp, and vegetables rolled in a pancake-like wrapper made from rice flour, and either fried or served fresh)
Cebuano lumpíaʔegg roll, a dish consisting of a thin pancake filled with sauteed meat and vegetables
Bahasa Indonesia lumpiaconfection consisting of a fritter filled with meat, bamboo shoots, etc., then rolled and fried, or sometimes boiled
Javanese lumpia(h)egg roll

Borrowing from Hokkien.

spy on

WMP
Malay hintipkeep an eye upon, spy upon
Sundanese intipspy on from a place of concealment
Old Javanese intipto peep
Javanese itippeep at
Balinese intipwatch unobtrusively; peep over a wall
Sasak intipspy on, stalk
CMP
Rembong intikspy on

A relatively late innovation in western Indonesia. Rembong intik is either a phonologically altered loan or a product of convergence.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

sq

squamosa:   sugar apple: Anona squamosa

WMP
Tagalog átessugar apple, sweetsop
Bikol átissugar apple: Anona squamosa
Hanunóo ʔatísthe sweetsop (Anona squamosa Linn.), a tree that bears aromatice and very sweet fruits
Aklanon átisa fruit, the sugar apple: Anona squamosa Linn.
Cebuano átissugar apple, a widely planted sweet fruit with numerous black seeds: Anona squamosa
Maranao atissugar apple: Anona squamosa Linn.
Tiruray ʔatissweetsop: Anona squamosa Linn.
PSan atissoursop (Anona squamosa)
Sangir atiseʔtree sp.: Anona squamosa
Chamorro atesplant sp.: sweetsop, sugar apple: Anona squamosa

Merrill (1954:152) notes that all members of the genus Annona which are found in Southeast Asia are natives of tropical America. The plant evidently was introduced by the Spanish into the central Philippines, and probably into Guam during the same period. From there it spread southward through borrowing from Austronesian sources, leaving telltale phonological irregularities in Tiruray and the Sangiric languages (Sneddon 1984:122).

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

st

(Dempwolff: *tikam ‘to stab’)

stab

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ma-nikamto stab (said to be from Banjarese)
Malay tikamwounding by puncture (in contrast to wounding by cuts); to stab; to spear
Toba Batak ma-nihamto stab, kill

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tikam ‘to stab’ (erstechen) based on the forms given here and Tagalog tikam ‘battle, fight’ (Schlacht). However, the latter form does not appear in any modern dictionary.

(Dempwolff: *tuŋgu ‘be attentive’)

stand:   be attentive, stand guard

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tuŋgowatchman, lookout
Malay tuŋguwatching; guarding
  bər-tuŋguto be on the lookout
  tuŋgu-ito watch over
Toba Batak tuŋguto admonish, call attention to a fault
Old Javanese (m)a-tuŋguto stay and wait on, keep watch over, guard, be a guardian
Javanese tuŋguto wait for; to keep watch over, look after

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) posited ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tuŋgu ‘be attentive’ (aufpassen).

(Dempwolff: *ta(n)zuk ‘to stand out, project’)

stand out, project

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tajokanything that projects
Iban tajokframe or whole awning of boat
Malay tajokshort upward projection such as an aigrette or a tholepin; tuft; ornament on head

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *ta(n)zuk ‘to stand out, project’ (Hervorstehen).

(Dempwolff: *bintaŋ)

star

WMP
Bintulu bitaŋstar
Melanau (Mukah) bitaŋstar
Ngaju Dayak bintaŋstar. The Dayaks have no astronomy, and no astrology. They name only a few stars: bintaŋ timor 'Mars', bintaŋ sawah 'Venus as Morning Star', bintaŋ maliŋ '("death star") Venus as Evening Star'
Malagasy víntanafortune, fate, lot, destiny, luck
Iban bintaŋstar; medal, decoration
Malay bintaŋstar; heavenly body; constellation; fig., the star of a knightly order
Acehnese bintaŋstar; order of knighthood
Simalur bintaŋ tumabarOrion, name of a weaving design
Karo Batak bintaŋstar; moon
  er-bintaŋ-bintaŋsinging of girls as they pound rice in concert in a wooden mortar
  piga bintaŋhow many months?
Dairi-Pakpak Batak bintaŋstar; medal, medallion
Toba Batak bintaŋstar; decoration, medal
  par-bintaŋ-anconstellation
Nias bitamedal, medallion
Rejang bitaŋstar
  bitaŋ tlewthe Pleiades, the stars that signal the start of rice planting
Lampung bintaŋstar
Sundanese bintaŋstar; medal, decoration
Old Javanese ka-wintaŋ-ansown with stars
  wintaŋstar, planet (often used in comparisons)
Javanese bintaŋ(star-shaped) award medal; star
Balinese bintaŋstar
Sasak bintaŋstar
  bintaŋ empeta certain weaving pattern
Mongondow bintaŋstar of diamond in the forehead with which -- according to legend -- some princes and princesses are born
Buginese bintaŋstar
Makassarese bintaŋsign of distinction, decoration, medal; star on old coins
Wolio bintamedal, decoration, mark of honor

Borrowing from Malay. This comparison is especially problematic, since it involves an item of basic vocabulary which appears to have been widely borrowed, in most cases presumably replacing a reflex of PAn *bitugen. In addition to competition with the more widely distributed *bitugen, phonological irregularities and the frequently reflected secondary meaning 'medal, decoration' suggest that this comparison is a product of diffusion. On the other hand, the basic character of the term, and its integration into a number of culturally significant expressions (names for stars important in the traditional agricultural calendar, the Karo Batak term for rice-milling songs, etc.) give one hesitation about a borrowing hypothesis in particular cases. More precisely we should say that *bintaŋ was an innovation in a language which gave rise to Malay and certain of its closest relatives. With the ever-increasing influence of Malay after the rise of Indianized states in southern Sumatra the word then spread to languages which did not inherit it directly (including Malagasy, which presumably acquired it during the 7th century A.D. in southern Sumatra).

stare at:   look hard at, gaze, stare at

WMP
Maranao pandaŋstare at, look at carefully
Iban pandaŋshow, exhibit, expose, shine forth
Malay pandaŋgazing at; seeing and noticing --- not merely glancing at; (fig.) observation or attention of any sort
Karo Batak pandaŋmake a comment, say something (negative) about something; rebuke, criticize
Toba Batak pandaŋcharacteristic; a warning sign that one makes with mantraps (pitfall spikes in a trail)
Sundanese pandəŋlooking upward; staring at
  mandəŋto look at a fixed point
  pandəŋ-anthe distance as far as the eye can see
Old Javanese a-manḍəŋto look hard, gaze, stare at, fix with one’s eyes; (in battle) to look someone defiantly in the eye
  a-panḍəŋ-anto stare each other in the eye
Javanese pandəŋscrutiny
  pandəŋ-anto try to outstare; objective
Sasak pandaŋto view, contemplate
  pandaŋ-ancontemplation

Borrowing from Javanese, Malay or both.

(Dempwolff: *patuŋ ‘portrait, image, likeness’)

statue:   graven image, statue

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ham-patuŋwooden or clay images of people, animals, etc.
Malay patoŋpuppet; image (of a deceased person, of stone elephants, of a garden having statues in it)

Borrowing from Malay. Based on this comparison Dempwolff (1938) proposed Uraustronesisch *patuŋ ‘portrait, image, likeness’ (Bildnis).

(Dempwolff: *teguq ‘steadfast, firm’)

steadfast, firm

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tagohimpenetrable, invulnerable
Malay təgohfirm and strong (of tying a knot firmly; of backing up an agreement with promises); (fig.) dependable
Toba Batak togustrong, firm
Javanese təguhsturdy, tough, determined (physically, morally)

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *teguq ‘steadfast, firm’ (standhaftsein).

steamroller

WMP
Itbayaten pisonmachine used to harden and flatten streets, steamroller
Ilokano pisónsteamroller; paver’s beetle
  pisun-ento flatten with a steamroller
Ibaloy pisonvehicle equipped with heavy wide smooth rollers for compacting earth; steamroller
Tagalog pisónsteamroller
  pisun-ínto make flat or smooth with a roller
Bikol pisónsteamroller
  mag-pisónto steamroll something
Cebuano pisunsteamroller

Borrowing of Spanish pisón ‘rammer (for flatteneing earth, etc.)’.

step, tread

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tinjakbe trampled
Malay tijakstepping; treading

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) included Tagalog tindak ‘to tread’, tirak ‘to tread’, and Malagasy tsindzaka ‘dance in which one stamps’, but neither form appears in any dictionary I have consulted. With root *-zak ‘step, tread’.

stew:   fish stew

WMP
Pangasinan paŋátto cook fish in vinegar with garlic
Tagalog paŋátfish cooked in vinegar and salt
Bikol p-in-aŋátdish consisting of minced meat, shrimp or fish, chopped coconut and spices, wrapped in a taro leaf and cooked in coconut milk
  paŋátto cook pinaŋát
Tiruray faŋatto preserve fish for several hours by partially boiling it with salt.
Malay peŋata sweetmeat. Banana and pumpkin or kelédék (sweet potato) cooked in coconut milk and sugar
Minangkabau paŋatstuffing (fish or flesh) and stewing it in a rich, spicy sauce

Borrowing from some Malay dialect. The similarity of Kankanaey paŋaft, pinaŋát 'roasted locusts' to the forms cited above is attributed to chance.

(Dempwolff: *te(n)duq ‘stillness of wind’)

stillness (of wind)

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tendohcalm, still (of the surface of water)
Iban tedohcalm, still, quiet (esp. of weather)
Malay tədohthe stilling of wind or rain
  bər-tədohto take shelter
Old Javanese təḍuhquiet (after motion), quietened down, calm, having lost its fierce heat or glare (sun)
Javanese təḍuhcloudy; (of a storm) to subside
OC
Fijian toroto move

Borrowing from Malay, except Fijian toro, which is best treated as a chance resemblance. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *te(n)duq ‘stillness of wind’ (Windstille).

stingy, tight-fisted

WMP
Ilokano kuríputstingy, miserly
Itawis kuríputstingy, tight-fisted
Tagalog kurípotniggardly; miserly; stingy; mean about money; close
Bikol kurípotstingy; a tightwad
Tausug kuriputmean in spending or giving money, stingy

Borrowing from Tagalog

stomach of an animal

WMP
Maranao babatbelly
Banjarese babattripe
Malay (Jakarta) babadtripe
Sundanese babatstomach of a ruminant
Balinese babadstomach of an animal

Maranao assumed to be a loan from some dialect of Malay.

stopper:   cork, stopper

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) tapóncork
Ayta Abellan taponcork
Tagalog tapóncork; plug; stopper
  i-tapónto use something as a cork or stopper
  mag-tapónto cork; put a cork or stopper in
Bikol tapóna cork, stopper
  mag-tapónto place a cork or stopper in

Borrowing, ultimately from Spanish tapón ‘stopper, cork’.

storm:   wind, storm

Formosan
Saisiyat balʸiwind
Pazeh bariwind
Amis faliwind, air
Thao fariwind
Puyuma variwind
  vari-anbreezy
Paiwan valiwind
WMP
Kavalan bariwind
Isneg bálistrong wind, typhoon
Kankanaey bálityphoon, storm

This evidently was the PAn word for 'wind', replaced in PMP by *haŋin. The available forms in MP languages suggest that they were borrowed in the meaning 'typhoon', presumably well after the dispersal of PMP.

story

WMP
Ifugaw bídachanted ballad
Casiguran Dumagat bídastory; tell a story
Kapampangan bídafolk tale, story
Tagalog bídatale, story; main character in a story, as hero or heroine
Bikol bídastar, referring to the leading role in a play, movie
Aklanon bída(h)hero (of story, movie); main actor
Cebuano bídaadventure, experiences of a person in his lifetime; role in a drama; one who plays the leading role; tell one's experiences, adventures; be the leading player

Borrowing from Spanish.

(Dempwolff: *keren ‘charcoal basin’)

stove:   portable stove

WMP
Tagalog kalánstove
Bikol kalánclay, wood-burning stove
Cebuano kálan ~ kalánsmall portable stove made of clay; to make into such a stove
Malay kəranchafing dish; portable stove

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *keren ‘charcoal basin’, but this clearly is borrowed throughout the Philippines, and is most plausibly traced to a Malay source.

stranded

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat binbinbe stranded and not able to get home (as when the river you must cross is flooded, or the bay you must cross is too windy to be safe)
Tagalog binbínforced delay (by bad weather, or by manipulation of others)

Borrowing from Tagalog.

(Dempwolff: *pancu(rR) ‘stream of water’)

stream of water

WMP
Malagasy fántsonaa spout, a water pipe, the means of carrying off water
  mi-fántsonato milk from the udder into the mouth
Malay pancurflowing along a conduit or pipes (of conduits of bamboo or split palm stems supplying water to Malay bath houses)
Toba Batak pancura stream of water that one directs to a bathing place by a bamboo conduit; runoff of rainwater
Sundanese mancurto stream (of light), shine, glitter
  pancur-anbamboo gutter or water conduit
Old Javanese pancurspouting
  pancur-anwaterspout, fountain, waterworks, bathing place with waterspouts
Javanese mancurto flow downward, stream out
  pancur-anfaucet, spring, fountain
Sasak pancorwaterfall; bathing place
Mongondow pansur-aŋwater conduit

This is a clear Malay loan distribution. Dempwolff (1938) posited Uraustronesisch *pancu(rR) ‘stream of water’.

strike:   collide, hit, strike

xxx
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) atognoise of knocking
WMP
Hiligaynon hatúk-hatúkprick, hurt, chop, make several cuts with a sharp instrument
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) atukkill a bird or chicken by piercing it with a needle or other small sharp instrument
Malay antokknocking up against; (of teeth) to chatter. Of heads butting against one another, a keel hitting a reef, a man colliding
Dairi-Pakpak Batak pe-hantukcome in contact with, collide with and produce a clattering sound, as of stones colliding
Toba Batak antuh-antukclub
  maŋ-antukto hit; bump against
  antukclub, heavy piece of wood with which one strikes

The Philippine forms are unrelated to those in western Indonesia. Of the latter only Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) and Malay, or Malay and the Batak languages permit a comparison, and this cannot safely be attributed to PWMP.

striped:   spotted, striped

WMP
Buginese balospotted, striped; color
Makassarese balomulti-colored, with white spots (esp. of horses and dogs)
CMP
Bimanese warosmallpox
Manggarai balostriped, spotted
Rembong balospotted, having two colors

Borrowing (South Sulawesi to Lesser Sundas).

strong:   durable, strong, well-made

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat tíbaystable, firm, enduring, lasting, strong (structurally)
Sambal (Botolan) tíbaydurable, strong, firm
Tagalog tíbaymaterial or structural strength; vitality; power to endure; wear; a lasting quality; service
Bikol ma-tíbaywell-made

Probably a Tagalog loan distribution.

structurally:   well-made, structurally sound

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat tíbaystable, firm, enduring, lasting, strong (structurally)
Tagalog tíbaymaterial or structural strength
  ma-tíbaystrong, morally strong, materially strong
Bikol ma-tíbaywell-made

struggle:   wrestle, struggle with

WMP
Ibatan torsito finger-wrestle someone
Ilokano túrsifinger wrestling
  ag-túrsito finger wrestle, twist
Kankanaey men-tulsíto wrestle, holding each other by one finger of each hand
Casiguran Dumagat tórsea contest of strength (for two boys or men to hook their middle fingers together, and each trying to bend his opponent’s arm down)
Bikol mag-túsayto struggle with one another; to grapple with
Cebuano tursitwist a limb, wring a neck

From Spanish torcer, ‘twist’.

stupid

WMP
Maranao bodadullard
Malagasy bodoinfantile, childish, young; in one’s dotage
Iban budawstupid; disgraceful; disgrace oneself, give oneself a bad name
Malay bodostupid (Jakarta)
  bodokdull; unintelligent
Acehnese budōstupid, silly
Toba Batak bodostupid
  ha-bodo-onstupidity
Sundanese bodoignorant, unskilled, stupid
  ka-bodo-anignorance, stupidity
  ŋa-bo-bodoto fool, deceive, make a fool of
Javanese boḍostupid, ignorant
  boḍo-ntaking a guess; one who is untrained
Balinese bodomad, insane
  buduhmad, foolish, senseless; madman; besotted over, madlyfond of buduh-an fiance'e; foolishness, madness buduh-buduh-an confused In mind; madhouse
Mongondow mo-bodokstupid
Banggai bodoʔstupid
CMP
Rembong bodokstupid
Asilulu bodostupidity
  bodo-bododeceive, make a fool of

Borrowing from Malay.

stupid, idiotic

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat haŋálstupid, idiotic; a loud person
Bikol haŋálstupid, idiotic
Cebuano haŋalinattentive to what one is about

Borrowing into Casiguran Dumagat from a GCPh source (probably Tagalog).

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

su

submerge:   classifier for edible possession

Formosan
Puyuma tenepsubmerge
WMP
Ilokano tánebsubmerge partly, immerse in part
  ma-tnébto sink

Also Wayan ke- ‘prenominal particle; food possession-marker, indicating that the possessed thing is eaten, or is considered as food-producing’, Fijian ke ‘possessive noun, used with suffixed pronouns, indicating (1) that the object is to be eaten, (2) concerning a person or thing, (3) expressing certain characteristics of a person or thing’.

The shape of this important grammatical morpheme is debatable. Lichtenberk (1985:117) posited POc *ka-, but this fails to account for the reflex of a nasal in Seimat, Manam, Pohnpeian or Woleaian. In view of POc *kana ‘food’ it seems likely that the possessive classifier was itself a possessed noun, hence Nggela ga-ŋgu vundi ‘my banana’ (to eat) < POc *kana-gu pudi ‘my food (which is a) banana’. Like many grammatical morphemes that have high text frequency, *kana in possessive constructions was shortened to ka- in most languages. This word is ultimately related to a suffixed form of PAn *kaen ‘to eat’, but its rather independent development in POc merits an independent entry.

(Dempwolff: *tunduk ‘submit, humble oneself’)

submit, humble oneself

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tundoksubjugate, subdue, conquer
Malay tundokbowing the head; bowing to the inevitable; submission or surrender
Toba Batak tunduksubjugated, subdued, conquered

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *tunduk ‘submit, humble oneself’ (sich beugen).

sudden(ly), all at once

WMP
Ilokano gólpesudden blow; strike; all at once, wholesale
  gulpí-ento do all at once
Agta (Eastern) gúlpisudden, quick; very large amount of something; suddenly get everything of something
Tagalog gúlpi ~ gólpea hit or strike
  gulpi-h-into beat up; to beat to helplessness; to pummel
Bikol mag-gúlpito strike or hit
Hanunóo gúlpicontract labor
  gulpí-h-anto be done by contract labor
Aklanon gulpi(h)sudden(ly), quick(ly), without warning; to be taken aback, surprised, be a victim of a sudden act
Agutaynen golpisuddenly; immediately; instantly
Maranao golpimoney given by winner to his friends

Borrowing of Spanish golpe ‘blow, stroke, hit; clash, shock; crowd, throng; accident; surprise’, de golpe ‘suddenly’.

(Dempwolff: *tempuq ‘fall upon, attack’)

suddenly:   attack suddenly, fall upon

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tampohpushing, shoving, colliding (with horns, buffalo, etc.)
Malagasy mi-tepu-tepupulsate, palpitate
Iban tempohassail; break through (as a fence); storm a house (in attack)
Malay me-nəmpohto assail, of charges, storming attacks, etc.
Toba Batak tompusuddenly
Javanese ke-tempuhto get hit
  nempuhto face up to, confront
  pa-nempuh(head on) attack; collision
Balinese nempuhtouch something; sway about (in the wind); be struck (by illness); stroke along something; be responsible

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *tempuq ‘fall upon, attack’.

sugar apple: Anona squamosa

WMP
Tagalog átessugar apple, sweetsop
Bikol átissugar apple: Anona squamosa
Hanunóo ʔatísthe sweetsop (Anona squamosa Linn.), a tree that bears aromatice and very sweet fruits
Aklanon átisa fruit, the sugar apple: Anona squamosa Linn.
Cebuano átissugar apple, a widely planted sweet fruit with numerous black seeds: Anona squamosa
Maranao atissugar apple: Anona squamosa Linn.
Tiruray ʔatissweetsop: Anona squamosa Linn.
PSan atissoursop (Anona squamosa)
Sangir atiseʔtree sp.: Anona squamosa
Chamorro atesplant sp.: sweetsop, sugar apple: Anona squamosa

Merrill (1954:152) notes that all members of the genus Annona which are found in Southeast Asia are natives of tropical America. The plant evidently was introduced by the Spanish into the central Philippines, and probably into Guam during the same period. From there it spread southward through borrowing from Austronesian sources, leaving telltale phonological irregularities in Tiruray and the Sangiric languages (Sneddon 1984:122).

sugarcane

WMP
Yami onassugarcane
Itbayaten onassugarcane
Ivatan onassugarcane
Ilokano unássugarcane
Bontok ʔunasa kind of sugarcane; sugarcane in general
Pangasinan unássugarcane

This is not a word that would ordinarily be borrowed, since PAn *tebuS clearly referred to sugarcane, and there was no need to borrow a word that referred to a plant which was everywhere available. I assume that sugarcane disappeared at some point in the human history of the Batanes islands, and that it was then re-acquired from northern Luzon, along with the lexical innovation that designates this plant in the Cordilleran (Northern Luzon) languages.

suitable:   various, suitable, equal

WMP
Ilokano bágayagree, harmonize; fit; be fitting, suitable
Bontok bágaysuitable; fitting; right; becoming; well-matched
Kapampangan bagay-anmatch something to something else
  bágematching, compatible
Tagalog bágaybecoming, proper, fit
Bikol bágayfitting, proper, suitable
Hanunóo bágaysuitable, fitting; responsive
Cebuano bágaybefitting, becoming; for instruments to be in tune
Maranao bagaipeer, equal
Malay bagaikind, variety, species
  ber-bagaiin various ways; different kinds of; (also) comparable, -- in such expressions as tiada ber-bagai (peerless)
Acehnese bagofësort, kind, manner; just like, identical to
Toba Batak bagevarious

Despite the semantic differences that distinguish most Philippine forms from those in Indonesia, all of these items appear to be products of borrowing, ultimately from Tamil.

(Dempwolff: *baliraŋ)

sulphur

WMP
Kelabit beriraŋstriking edge on matchbox
Ngaju Dayak bariraŋsulphur (used externally as medicine against scurf and vermin)
Malay beléraŋbrimstone, sulphur
Toba Batak bareraŋsulphur
Old Javanese waliraŋsulphur
Madurese baliraŋsulphur
Tae' baliraŋsulphur (said to be a loan from Malay or Buginese)
Buginese beléraŋsulphur
Makassarese baliraŋsulphur; phosphorus (on the tip of a match)
Wolio walirasulphur
CMP
Rotinese balilaŋsulphur (said to be a Malay loan)
Tetun baliransulphur
Soboyo waliraŋ(expected **falihaŋ) sulphur

Borrowing from Javanese (Wolio, Soboyo) and Malay. See maliraŋ.

sulphur

WMP
Tagalog malílaŋsulphur; gunpowder
Kelabit beriraŋstriking edge on matchbox
Ngaju Dayak mariraŋsulphur
Malay beléraŋ, beliraŋbrimstone, sulphur

Borrowing from Malay.

(Dempwolff: *paŋgil)

summon:   call (v.), summon (spirits)

WMP
Kadazan Dusun paŋgisummon, call for something important; convoke
Ngaju Dayak ma-maŋgilinvite
  olo paŋgilthe guests who are invited to a feast
Iban paŋgilask to help or take part; summon, call to attend
Rhade gălcall, summon
Malay lagu p-ĕm-aŋgilthe invocation-song at a shaman's seance
  paŋgilsummon, send for
Acehnese paŋgecall, summon
Karo Batak paŋgilin an invocation: invoke deities or spirits; summon to justice (in native court)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak paŋgilinvoke the spirits to bring sickness or misfortune to someone tabas p-em-aŋgil incantation for summoning the spirits
Toba Batak paŋgilcall, summon
Javanese paŋgila request for something

Borrowing. Apparently a Malayo-Chamic innovation which has spread to Kadazan Dusun, Ngaju Dayak, the Batak languages, and Javanese.

sun-dried fish

WMP
Itbayaten daʔiŋfish opened and cleaned of its viscera and dried in the sun
Ilokano dáiŋsalted and sundried fish
Tagalog daiŋ-ento salt and dry in the sun
Mapun dayiŋfish (generic)
  dayiŋ-anhaving an abundance of fish
Malay daeŋslicing into thin strips and drying in the sun; especially of fish preserved after being cut in two along the line of the vertebrae
Sundanese deʔeŋraw meat cut into strips, spiced and then dried in the sun (better known as deŋdeŋ)
Javanese ḍεnḍεŋsliced season dreid meat, ready for cooking
Balinese deŋdeŋ ~ deŋdeŋdry in the sun

Borrowing from Malagasy.

sun-dried fish

WMP
Ilokano dáiŋsalted and sundried fish
  daíŋ-ento salt and dry in the sun
Tagalog dáiŋjerked fish salted and dried in the sun
  daiŋ-into jerk fish
Binukid daiŋto dry peeled bananas in the sun
Malay daeŋslicing into thin strips and drying in the sun, esp. of fish preserved after being cut in two along the line of the vertebrae

Borrowing from Malay.

support:   monetary support

WMP
Kankanaey biayáabundant, plentiful, high (applied to water)
Casiguran Dumagat biyáyagrace, blessing, mercy, favor (God is always the source of this concept; refers mainly to God's supplying of food),
Tagalog biyáyaʔgrace; favor; blessings, bounty
Bikol biaya, biyáyagrace, blessing; generous; show generosity toward
Malay biayadisbursement; working expenses; working capital. Of the cost of running a poultry-farm; of money spent on building a mosque; of it being impossible to spend on pleasure on earth and lay up treasure in heaven with the same money
Acehnese biayaexpenses, costs; gifts
Dairi-Pakpak Batak biayacosts, expenses (as for a feast); money to spend on a journey
Javanese biyaya(h)cost, outlay
Gorontalo biyayacosts, expenses

Borrowing, ultimately from Sanskrit.

support:   prop, support, boom of a sail

WMP
Ilokano kurípotstingy, miserly
Ibanag sukoŋsupport, prop, buttress; (speak) in support of, second a motion
Maranao sokoŋrod used as leash or harness; control by the nose; boom of sail
Tiruray sukuŋa boom on a sailboat
Malay sokoŋprop; shoring up; underpinning; buttressing; supporting at an angle; spinnaker-boom; sprit
  layar sokoŋspritsail
Javanese ñokoŋto support financially or contribute support
  sokoŋ-anfinancial support or contribution
Balinese sokoŋsupport, prop up
Sasak sokoŋto help, support

The mid-back vowel in Javanese, Balinese and Sasak, and the meaning in languages of Mindanao suggest strongly that this comparison is a product of borrowing from Malagasy.

surgical operation

WMP
Ilokano tistíssurgical operation
  ag-tistísto saw; operate on
Sambal (Botolan) tihtihto slit or split lengthwise (used only of humans and animals)
Tagalog tistísoperated on (surgically); lancing or opening up a boil or the like; to trim or pare wood, bamboo, palm leaves, etc. into long strips

Probably a Tagalog loan distribution.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

sw

(Dempwolff: *paya ‘swamp’)

swamp

WMP
Malagasy fandzaswampland
Malay payaswamp; morass; of grassland sodden with water in the wet season (not of mangrove swamp, or of deep meres)
Toba Batak pealow, flat (usually of land)

Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronesisch *paya ‘swamp’.

sway

WMP
Ifugaw buyyóŋearthquake
Hanunóo buyúŋ-ana four-spoked, horizontal yarn reel
  búyuŋunwinding, spiraling, going around and around, specifically the unwinding of lengths of yarn from a horizontal yarn reel
Aklanon búyoŋspin, turn round and round, go in circles
Cebuano búyuŋbecome dizzy
Malay boyoŋswaying
Old Javanese wuyuŋdisturbance of one's inner peace; anger, bad temper, crossness
Makassarese boyoŋsway gently back and forth

Makassarese boyoŋ appears to be a loan from Malay. The resemblance of the other forms both to this word and to one another is regarded as a product of chance, although the sequence -VyV- is known to be symbolic of swinging or swaying movement in other morphemes (Blust 1988:57-58).

sweet

WMP
Ngaju Dayak manissweet
Malay manissweetness; (of colors) light
  mə-manis-kanto sweeten
  manis-answeetmeats
  jari manisring finger
Toba Batak jari manisring finger
Old Javanese manissweetness, gentleness, kindness, loveliness
  a-manissweet, gentle, kind, lovely
  manis-anto sweeten; to address with sweet words

Because its known distribution is highly restricted this variant of the more common *mamis is best explained as a loan from Malay or Javanese.

sweet soybean dish

WMP
Ilokano tahúkind of delicacy made from soybean or mung bean meal and syrup; the Philippine version is served sweet, not salty as the original Chinese
Tagalog tahóChinese sweet dish made of soybean meal mixed with syrup
Bikol tahóʔa preparation of soybean curd in a sugar syrup, usually served cold as a refreshing snack
Iban tau-hubean curd made by grinding to consistency of soft cheese, usually eaten cooked
Wolio tahusoybean cake

Borrowing from Minnan Chinese (Hokkien) dao⁵ hui¹ ‘bean curd’.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

Sw

Sweetsop: Annona squamosa

WMP
Tboli atisAnnona squamosa, sweetsop tree and its
Ivatan antissweetsop, Annona squamosa L.
Ilokano átissweetsop, kind of tropical fruit similar to the cherimoya and anónas, Annona squamosa
Pangasinan átistree with sweet, light yellowish-green fruit similar in shape to a pinecone and about the size of a large apple, sometimes known as sugar apple
Kapampangan anátisatis, a kind of fruit
Tagalog átistree that bears very sweet fruit called custard apple
Bikol átissugar apple: Annona squamosa
Hanunóo ʔatísthe sweetsop (Annona squamosa Linn.), a tree that bears aromatic and very sweet fruits
Romblomanon ʔātisa sugar apple tree or fruit (fruit is eaten raw as a snack food; root is used as a medicine)
Masbatenyo átissugar apple and tree: Annona squamosa; refers to a small fruit less than the size of a man’s fist which is divided into minute sections and looks something like a small light green grenade; the fruit is full of seeds but the milky white flesh is very sweet
Aklanon átissugar apple: Annona squamosa L.
Cebuano átissugar apple, a widely planted sweet fruit with numerous black seeds: Annona squamosa
Maranao atisAnnona squamosa L. --- sugar apple
Tiruray ʔatissweetsop, Annona squamosa Linn.
Tausug atisAnnona squamosa, sweetsop, sugar apple
Sangir atisəʔa tree, Annona squamosa

The Annona squamosa and its close relatives (Annona muricata, etc.) is native to the tropical Americas and West Indies, and must have been introduced into the Philippines by the Spanish during the operation of the Manila Galleon trade.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

sw

swelling

WMP
Yami (Iranomilek) bunculboss of a gong; swell into a lump
Tagalog busóldoor knob; something hard underneath felt from a comparatively soft surface
Malay boncol, bunculbump, prominence, protuberance
Javanese buncurlump on the head raised by a blow
CMP
Manggarai woncolprotrude, stick out
Rembong bosolswollen, as from a snake bite

Borrowing from Malay.

swidden

WMP
Ilokano kaíŋina clearing of a forest for cultivation
Tagalog kaíŋinsoil cultivation or preparation of land for planting by burning out trees and weeds; clearing, open space of cleared land in a forest
Cebuano kaíŋinslash and burn agriculture; area in the forest cleared by burning for agriculture, of temporary or permanent nature
Maranao kaiŋinslash and burn farming

Borrowing from Tagalog.

sword:   cutlass, sword

WMP
Ilokano kampílansword, saber
Tagalog kampilanlong, straight sabre broadening toward the point; a cutlass
Maranao kampilansword used for fighting --- has straight edge
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kempilana two-handed sword which has a long handle and a straight blade which, on the end, is split similar to a swallow’s tail
Tausug kampilana long, two-handed, bladed weapon (rarely seen or used in recent times)
Malay kampilanlong and heavy sword used by the Mindanao pirates (Orang Lanun)

Unlike most loan distributions that involve Malay, this one appears to have come about through borrowing by Malays of a term current in the southern Philippines at the time of contact. Native Malay words have neutralized the opposition of /a/ and schwa in prepenultimate syllables, and the absense of neutralization here points to borrowing.

(Dempwolff: *pedaŋ ‘sword’)

sword

WMP
Ngaju Dayak padaŋsword (< Banjarese)
Malay pədaŋsword
Toba Batak podaŋsword with cross-grip, sabre
Old Javanese pəḍaŋsword
Javanese pəḍaŋsword; counting unit for long thin objects
Balinese pəḍaŋsword, sabre, a long knife
Sasak pədaŋsword
Tae' paʔdaŋsword, sabre
Makassarese paʔdaŋsword

Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed Uraustronesisch *pedaŋ ‘sword’.

sword, kris, bolo

WMP
Tagalog sundáŋdagger; short machete; a heavy knife
Bikol sundáŋbolo, machete; a knife; any instrument used for cutting
Hanunóo sundáŋblunt-tipped bolo
Romblomanon sundaŋa cutting bolo
Masbatenyo súndaŋwork bolo, bush knife, machete, a short square-ended bolo for work
Aklanon súndaŋknife
Cebuano sundáŋbolo, the general name for large knives, machetes, and swords used for heavy cutting work and as weapons; make into a bolo
Maranao sondaŋbig sharp knife or machete; sword, either wavy or straight blade
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) sundaŋa kris; to stab someone with something sharp
Tiruray sundaŋa kris
Malay sundaŋsword-kris; Sulu kris; a heavy cutting sword with a marked resemblance to a kris; it is two-edged, sharp-pointed, and may be either straight or sinuous

Since this reconstruction implies the use of metallurgy, the comparison almost certainly is a product of borrowing from Malagasy. It is noteworthy, however, that in areas that developed metallurgy relatively early, as Borneo, this word does not appear, suggesting that it skipped areas in which native smiths were already producing iron tools, and spread from Malay into the Philippines prior to the advent of metallurgy in that archipelago.

sad    saf    sal    san    sat    sau    sav    saw    sca    sch    sci    sco    scr    sea    sec    sed    see    sei    sel    sen    sep    ser    sha    she    shi    sho    sid    sig    sil    sin    sit    ski    sla    sle    sli    slo    smo    sna    sob    soc    sol    sor    sou    soy    spa    spe    spi    spl    spo    spr    spy    squ    sta    ste    sti    sto    str    stu    sub    sud    sug    sui    sul    sum    sun    sup    sur    swa    swe    swi    swo    syn    syr    

sy

synchronized:   in harmony, synchronized

WMP
Ilokano kumpásrhythm; compatibility; harmony; gesticulation, expressive motion
  i-kumpásto keep to the rhythm, synchronize
Ibaloy kompas-anto act in rhythm, in synch, in time with something (as dancing to the beat of the drums); to be appropriate (as what one says to the topic of conversation)
Tagalog kompás ~ kumpásthe beat or time in music; the act of beating time
Cebuano kumpásbeing in harmony or correct timing with something else

Borrowing of Spanish compas ‘in time, rhythmically’.

syrup or sauce of coconut milk

WMP
Ilokano latíkscum of coconut milk after extracting oil by the fire
Kapampangan latíka sauce of sugar and toasted coconut
Tagalog latíkscum of coconut milk or meat after cooking and extracting the oil; coconut preserve
Cebuano latíksyrup made of sugar and water, or sugar and coconut milk; sweet prepared from seedless breadfruit (kulu) cooked in syrup mixed with coconut milk

Probably a Tagalog loan distribution

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 6/16/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Loans-Index-s