Updated: 2/16/2017
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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Noise

I have included a separate module of the dictionary called ‘Noise’ (in the information-theoretic sense of meaningless data that can be confused with a true signal). The reason for this is that the search process that results in valid cognate sets inevitably turns up other material that is superficially appealing, but is questionable for various reasons. To simply dispose of this ‘information refuse’ would be unwise for two reasons. First, further searching might show that some of these questionable comparisons are more strongly supported than it initially appeared. Second, even if the material is not upgraded through further comparative work it is always possible that some future researcher with different standards of evaluation will stumble upon some of these comparisons and claim that they are valid, but were overlooked in the ACD. By including a module on ‘Noise’ I can show that I have considered and rejected various possibilities that might be entertained by others.

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a   

ac    ad    af    ag    am    an    ap    ar    as    aw    ax    

(Dempwolff: *bun)

abundant

WMP
Malay buncroupier at a Chinese gaming mat
Toba Batak bunabundant, of a bumper crop of rice

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ac

(Dempwolff: *bali)

accompany:   accompany, escort

WMP
Ngaju Dayak balianshamaness
Malagasy vadypartner, husband, wife, companion, associate
Malay belianshaman

This set of forms, which Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned to *bali contains material reflecting two distinct etyma (*balian, *baliw₂).

(Dempwolff: *teman ‘accustomed to’)

accustomed to

WMP
Iban temanattendant on a superior, escort; (hence polite for) companion, partner
Malay təmanattendance on a person of higher rank than oneself; friend
Karo Batak temancomrade, friend
Toba Batak tomandecent, chaste, reserved
OC
Fijian tomato accompany, help
Fijian toma-nato help one another

Dempwolff (1938) proposed ‘Uraustronesisch’ *teman ‘accustomed to’.

across:   obstruct, stretch across

WMP
Tae' pampaŋtransverse, stretched across the breadth of
CMP
Manggarai pampaŋobstruct, restrain, hinder, prevent; separate (as two people who are fighting)

action:   action, manner

WMP
Balinese indikaction, behavior; matter, thing, topic (of speech)
Buginese indiʔmanner, way of behaving

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ad

address:   term of address for females

WMP
Cebuano íaʔterm of address for older women
Iban iakterm of address for girls
OC
Tolai iaprefix used before names of females
CMP
Ngadha ioterm of address between women

address:   term of address for girls

WMP
Sundanese enofriendly term for young girls ( = enod)
CMP
Manggarai enuMiss, term of address for a girl if one does not know her name (endu)

adze something:   chop, split, adze something

Formosan
Thao taqtaqchopping of wood; to chop wood
Thao taqtaqto chop or adze something
Thao ta-taqtaqadze used to hollow out canoe hull, etc.
Thao taqtaqto split bamboo
Paiwan taqtaqsplit bamboo

The Thao form could reflect either *saqsaq or *taqtaq, the Paiwan form only *saqsaq. Probably a chance resemblance.

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af

(Dempwolff: *bati ‘house servants’)

affinal relative

PWMP
PWMP batiqaffinal relative (?)
WMP
Maranao batiʔbrother-in-law (man speaking)
Subanon batiʔbrother-in-law of a woman, sister-in-law of a man (Elkins and Hendrickson 1984)
Binukid batiʔbrother-in-law (man speaking)
Javanese batihone’s household, one’s dependents

Also Buli bati ‘friend’. Identical to Dempwolff (1920) *bati ‘house servants’, and probably a chance resemblance.

affirmative:   affirmative particle

WMP
Aklanon hamakparticle used for strong emphasis or stress
Minangkabau amakyes; very well; alright

affix:   passive affix

WMP
Malagasy a-verbal prefix joined to roots and forming a passive verb
OC
Lakalai -apassive formative, suffixed to verbs
Nggela -asuffix to form a past participle passive
Arosi -asuffix added to the transitive termination of verbs to make a past participle passive, and so a passive form of the verb
Fijian ca-passive prefix

The suffixed *-a in Oceanic languages probably is identical to *-a '3sg. object'. The prefixed a- in Malagasy and Fijian is assumed to have no historical connection, either between these two languages, or with any of the suffixes cited here.

after:   follow, go after

WMP
Aklanon apasfollow after, go a little later
Hiligaynon apasfollow, go after
Cebuano apasfollow and catch up with; go after someone to bring him home
Maranao apascatch; miscarriage; go after
Formosan
Amis apaclate in arising; slow to arrive; primitive

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ag

again

WMP
Balinese buinagain, still, further, more
Balinese buin manieven tomorrow
Balinese buin pidanlater, afterwards
Mongondow buiagain, repeat, do over, return, bring back, give back

ago:   a moment ago, in a moment

WMP
Tae' attuʔa moment, in a second
CMP
Manggarai entukjust now

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am

amends:   make amends

WMP
Bontok ʔáwidmake supplication to spirits while walking along a trail.
Kankanaey ʔáwidto exorcise; to conjure
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hawidgift which is given to someone to salve hurt feelings

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an

and:   and, with

Formosan
Tsou hoand
Saaroa ɬaand
PRuk laand
WMP
PSS naand
Buginese naand
Makasarese naelement used to introduce consecutive senses, the connection of words in addition and comparison (the introduction of the second part of a comparison); and

The three Formosan forms almost certainly are cognate, and may point to PAn *Na. However, uncertainty concerning a possible Rukai-Tsouic subgroup, and the unknown history of borrowing between Rukai and Tsouic make such a reconstruction premature. In any case, the similarity of the South Sulawesi words to these is probably best treated as a product of convergence.

anew:   begin anew

WMP
Sundanese babakannew settlement on previously uninhabited land; colony
Javanese bambanbegin anew
CMP
Ngadha vavaprocess of making a new start

anger

WMP
Malay béraŋrising anger, fury, passion
Formosan
Amis firaŋanger

animal:   animal trap

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) attibset a rat or mouse trap; catch a rat or mouse in a trap
Simalungun Batak atip-atipanimal trap

animal:   venomous animal

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat ipelpoisonous snake (small and greenish)
Miri n-ifalcentipede

ant

WMP
Aklanon bitíkflea (as on dogs)
Hiligaynon bitíkflea, tick
Ngaju Dayak bitikant (collective term for all varieties)
Malagasy vitsikaants, emmets. Fig. many, numerous, as ants

Chance. The Ngaju Dayak and Malagasy terms reflect a Proto-Barito innovation; those in Bisayan languages reflect *bitik 'spring up suddenly'.

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ap

apart:   stand apart

WMP
Ngaju Dayak pampaŋthe ends of the antlers of deer; more generally the ends of anything similar; raised part, excrescence on something else
Malay pampaŋkemudi fork-support for paddle-rudder
Bare'e pampastand at right angles to one another, as pieces of wood that are tied into a cross; stand out straight, as buffalo horns that do not curve

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ar

(Dempwolff: *ali)

argue:   argue, quarrel, dissention

WMP
Tagalog alievil influence; demoniac or diabolic urge
Malagasy adya fight, combat, quarrel, contention, battle, dispute, contest, attack, assault, war

arm

OC
Tolai (Nodup) ābaklower arm
Manam sabaarm

Potentially a reflex of *sabak, but the limited distribution suggests that this is a product of chance.

armpit

WMP
Aklanon íluk-onunderarms, armpit
Cebuano ílukarmpit; carry under the arm
Kelabit ilekarmpit

Chance. Together with the Cebuano and Aklanon forms, Maranao, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) irek, Mongondow iok 'armpit' indicate PCPh *irek.

arms:   clasp in the arms

CMP
Tetun fahaclasp in the arms
Buruese babahold or carry in the arms

around:   wind around

OC
Gedaged bidbidlooped, wound about, convoluted, coiled
Fijian vivito wrap up, as a mat; to bind, as a bandage
WMP
Tontemboan wiʔmbitto twist, as sugar palm fibers into a rope

article:   definite article

WMP
Chamorro idefinite article
OC
Nggela ni(preposition with many meanings)
Nggela ia prefix to some nouns, probably a form of
Arosi idefinite article used with nouns, verbs treated as nouns, and pronouns.

Probably a reflex of *qi 'genitive marker' in Nggela and Arosi. I assume that the similarity to Chamorro i is due to chance.

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as

aside:   push aside

WMP
Kayan iunpush sideways; wipe or brush aside
CMP
Ngadha iuturn, bend or push to the side

(Dempwolff: *si(dD)aŋ ‘steep, precipitous’)

aslant:   aslant, steep, precipitous

WMP
Ngaju Dayak sidaŋ ~ siraŋoblique, slanting (as something that was cut at an oblique angle)
Malagasy síranasloping

Dempwolff (1938) proposed *si(dD)aŋ ‘steep, precipitous’, but this comparison appears to be confined to Ngaju Dayak and Malagasy. It is thus best treated as ‘noise’ not on grounds of false cognation, but rather on the grounds that it cannot be reconstructed for a proto-language of any considerable time-depth.

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aw

away:   sweep away

WMP
Pangasinan palísburn weeds in a seedbed or other piece of land
Kapampangan palísbroom
Tagalog pálisleveler; straight-edged tool for leveling grains to the mouth of measuring devices; sweeping off or away
CMP
Rotinese haliwipe off, wipe away, rub away, brush away (esp. of tears, but also of dirt)

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ax

axe

OC
Label hēkaxe
Kilivila bekustone axe blade (important object of men's wealth)

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 2/16/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)