Updated: 10/4/2015
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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    


*-a₁ imperative suffix


PAN     *-a₁ imperative suffix

Saaroa -aobject focus imperative
Kanakanabu -aimperative suffix
Bunun -aimperative suffix (Nihira 1983)
Rukai -aimperative suffix (Li 1973:37, 286)
Bikol -aalternant command suffix for verbs taking -on in the infinitive
Aklanon -asuffix attached to verbs of object focus #1 (with infix -in- or suffix -on) to express a command
Mansaka -asuffix: active, imperative mode, object orientation
Javanese -aimperative suffix
Sasak -apronominal suffix marking the object in imperatives
Mongondow -asuffix that incites to action (no longer in general use)
Kapingamarangi -aimperative (transitivizing) suffix

Note:   Also Kanakanabu -au ‘imperative suffix’, Niue ā ‘sign of emphatic imperative’. Agreements in Saaroa, Bikol, Aklanon, and Mansaka suggest that this imperative suffix corresponded to the object focus of non-imperative forms. There is a fairly high probability that it ultimately derives from the same source as *-a ‘subjunctive’ and *-a ‘3sg. object marker’.


*-a₂ 3sg. object


PMP     *-a₂ 3sg. object

Maranao -aobjective/obligatory suffix
Balinese -asuffix indicating the third person (singular or plural) as a pronoun expressing the genitive, or the agent of a passive verb, or the direct object of a transitive verb
Tontemboan -aa short form of the pronominal suffix of the 3rd person, used with words that end in a consonant; it marks not so much the genitive relationship of the subject as the relationship of the word with -a to the word that follows it
Uma -a3sg. object (especially in future (gerundive) constructions)
Bare'e -apolite form of -ña 'pronominal suffix of the 3rd person
Wolio -a3p. object suffix
Gedaged -aa suffix added to certain finite verb forms to indicate that the third person plural is the undergoer of an action
Motu -a3sg. object suffix
Lakalai -a3rd person sg. object pronoun, suffixed to verb
Roviana -aobjective suffix
Eddystone/Mandegusu -a3sg. object suffix
Bugotu -asuffixed pronoun of the object, added to verbs and prepositions; 3sg., him, her, it; serves as anticipatory object
Nggela -ahe, she, it, as suffixed to transitive verb
'Āre'āre -apersonal pronoun, 3sg., suffixed to verb (with or without verbal suffix) as object, and to prepositions as an anticipatory object, and used both of persons and things: him, her, it; where the object is collective the anticipatory object is used in the singular, and not in the plural
Arosi -apersonal pronoun: he, she, it; suffixed to verbs and prepositions
Gilbertese -apersonal pronoun object suffix of the 3rd person, joined to a transitive verb
Mota -apersonal pronoun, 3sg., suffixed as object to verb and preposition; him, her, it
Fijian -atransitive suffix
Tongan -asuffix forming transitive verbs, usually durational
Rennellese -asuffix with passive, transitivizing, and multiplicative meanings, in close juncture
Kapingamarangi -aobject marker for 3sg. pronoun


PAN     *ni-á 3sg. agent/possessor

Atayal ni-aʔ3sg. agent/possessor
Seediq (Truku) ni-ahis, hers
Itbayaten -na3sg. agent and possessor
Isneg -nahis, her, its; he, she, it
Casiguran Dumagat -na3sg. agent and possessor
Sambal (Botolan) -na3sg. agent and possessor
Tagalog ni-yá3sg. agent and possessor
Bikol -niyá3sg. agent and possessor
Hanunóo -niyá3sg. agent and possessor
Kelabit -neh3sg. agent and possessor
Murut (Timugon) -no3sg. agent and possessor
Kenyah -ña3sg. agent
Bintulu -ña3sg. agent and possessor
Malay -ña3sg. agent and possessor
Karo Batak -na3sg/pl. possessor
Toba Batak -na3sg. possessor
Angkola-Mandailing Batak -nia3sg. possessor
Simalur -nia3sg. possessor
Enggano -nia3sg. possessor
Old Javanese -nya3sg. possessor
Javanese -ne3sg. possessor
Gorontalo -lio3sg. possessor
Mongondow -nia3sg. possessor
Muna -no3sg. possessor
Chamorro -ña3sg. agent and possessor (Topping 1973:225)
Palauan -l3sg. suffix of inalienable possession, used with body parts, kinship relations, and the relationship of part to whole
Vaikenu -nia3sg. possessor
Kambera na- -na3sg. pronoun; as a prefix na- signals the actor: na-laku 'he is going'; as a suffix -na marks a) possession: na ama-na 'his father', b) the agent in substantive constructions: mbàda laku-na-ka 'he has gone already', c) reference to past time: la nomu wula-na 'six months ago'
Rotinese na-3sg. subject pronoun
Leti -ne3sg. possessor
Asilulu -n3sg. (human and non-human) genitive pronoun for inalienable possession
  -ni3sg. human genitive pronoun for inalienable possession
  na-3sg. (human and non-human) genitive pronoun for alienable possession
Buruese -nahis, her, its; an ending for anatomical nouns


POC     *-ña 3sg. possessor of inalienable possessed nouns

Wuvulu -na3sg. possessor
Seimat -n3sg. possessor
Loniu -n3sg. possessor
Penchal -n3sg. possessor
Tolai -na3sg. possessor (with nouns of a personal nature, as body parts)
Gedaged -n3sg. possessor
Gitua -na3sg. possessor
Bugotu -ña3sg. possessor
Lau -nahe, she, it, him, her, after nouns and prepositions, usually called a possessive pronoun
Sa'a -nä3sg. pronoun suffixed to nouns of a certain class, the equivalent of the genitive (nime 'hand': nima-na 'his hand'); noun ending used with nouns denoting relationship
Arosi -na3sg. possessor; his, her, its, with certain classes of nouns; suffix to noun of relationship
Gilbertese -na3sg. possessor
Mokilese -n3sg. possessor
Chuukese -n3sg. possessive pronoun; of him, her, it (used in partitive constructions in many expressions where it would not appear in English, as in expressions of time, but not consistently
Mota -na3sg. possessor, suffixed to a class of nouns and to one preposition
Lonwolwol -n3sg. possessor
Fijian -na3sg. possessor

Note:   Also Enggano -dia, Mentawai inia ‘3sg. possessor’. As noted in Blust (1977), earlier reconstructions of the 3sg. genitive pronoun such as *-ña? (Dyen 1974) and *-na (Dahl 1976:122) erred in interpreting *ni-á as monomorphemic. As a result many irregular reflexes (Atayal, Tagalog, Javanese, Gorontalo, etc.) remained unexplained. I assume ultimate stress, since the genitive marker *ni is the non-contrastive element in genitive constructions. Given an etymon of such a shape and obviously high list and text frequency, it is not difficult to see how the initial consonant and following vowel sporadically contracted to a palatal nasal which then underwent a regular merger with *n in many daughter languages.


*-a₃ subjunctive suffix


PAN     *-a₃ subjunctive suffix

Atayal -asuffix forming active subjunctive from the reduced stem, sometimes preceded by the prefix m-
Cebuano -asubjunctive direct passive affix
Javanese -asubjunctive suffix
Wolio -averbal suffix: subjunctive

Note:   Possibly the same affix as *-a ‘imperative’, and *-a ‘3sg. object’. For arguments supporting the distinction of *-a ‘imperative’ and *-a ‘subjunctive’ cf. Wolff (1973:90).


*a₁ article


PMP     *a₁ article

Palauan aarticle
Tigak aarticle: a, the
Label adefinite and indefinite article
Tolai adefinite and indefinite article: the, a, an. It is prefixed to all common nouns, except those of a personal nature expressing relationships, parts of the body and person equipment, and also to adjectives; the possessive pronouns do not take it
Bugotu apersonal article, used with proper names; used also of particular persons and with relationship terms
Nggela apersonal article, with names of people; prefix to personal pronouns; prefixed to hanu, indefinite pronoun 'So-and-so'; personifies when prefixed to verbs
Lau sapersonal article, now obsolete
Sa'a apersonal article, used with all names of persons, and with certain nouns, and also with verbs; (a) precedes all personal names (except in the vocative), both native and foreign, male and female; (b) used with relationship terms to indicate a particular person, (c) the relationship terms huʔe 'wife', poro 'husband', keni 'woman, wife', mwela 'child', are not ordinarily preceded by a, but require the addition of a demonstrative; (d) in stories the article a may be prefixed to poro and huʔe, which may be translated 'Lord' and 'Lady'; (e) after the Melanesian idiom the noun ola, prefaced by the personal article a; a ola/, denotes 'So-and-so'; (f) the nouns kei, denoting a female, mwai, denoting a male, mwau, boy, are used with the personal article and a demonstrative; (g) the interrogative atei 'who, what person' is made up of a and tei 'interrogative'; (h) there is a regular use of a in personification; (i) used with a verb to indicate a descriptive title
Arosi apersonal article, used with names native or foreign; used with a common noun to personify; with verbs or adjectives to form a descriptive noun or nickname; and with pronouns; it seems to have been used once with names of places; also used with relationship terms
Fijian acommon article, used (1) before nouns: a tamata 'a man or the man'; (2) before possessives (really nouns): a noqu 'mine'; (3) before the preformative i
Niue aparticle used in the following cases: 1. before pronouns (except au), personal names, or local nouns when they are the subject of an intransitive verb; 2. before pronouns, personal nouns and names of months when they follow the prepositions ki and i; 3. before a common noun following (but not preceding) a possessive pronoun; 4. before a demonstrative pronoun drawing attention to a noun associated with an indefinite article and an adjective; 5. after falu (some), a is used in place of the ordinary article, either singular or plural
Anuta aparticle placed between a preposition and a personal pronoun or a proper name, but not before a common noun
Nukuoro apersonal article
Rarotongan arelative pronoun used before personal pronouns and before proper nouns
Maori aparticle used 1. before names of persons, the pronouns wai and mea, and names of canoes, months, etc. a) when they stand as subject in a sentence, b) when they follow any of the prepositions i, ki, hei, kei, c) in explanatory clauses

Note:   The history of this morpheme is problematic. In the Solomons and in Central Pacific languages reflexes of *a function as a personal article, in contrast to the common noun article *na. Pawley (1972:58) reconstructs "PEOc" *na/a ‘common article’, and *(q)a ‘personal article’, thus positing a rather dubious distinction between contrasting articles *a and *(q)a. Similarly, Walsh and Biggs (1966) posit PPn *ʔa ‘personal article’, but reconstruct *ʔ- purely on the basis of Tongan ʔa-. Since Tongan is known to have added initial glottal stop in the reflexes of some other grammatical morphemes (Clark 1976) the evidence for distinguishing *a ‘common article’ and *qa ‘personal article’ appears to be dangerously thin. This morpheme may be a sporadic shortening of *na which happened independently in a number of Oceanic languages. If so, however, it is puzzling that it often replaced *i as a personal article rather than continuing to function as a common noun article.


*a₂ conjunction: and


PMP     *a₂ conjunction: and     [doublet: *maS, *may]

Nias aconjunction: and (in counting and determining dimensions), then
Lou aand
Pohnpeian aconjunction: however, and
Lonwolwol aand, (but)
Fijian aconjunction: and or but
Hawaiian aand, then, but (usually preceding verbs, whereas a me usually precedes nouns; a may also connect words translated by English adjectives

Note:   Also Maori ā ‘and, and then (only connecting successive actions or events)’.


*a₃ exclamation, interjection


PMP     *a₃ exclamation, interjection

Kapampangan aintroductory exclamation like English Oh or Well
Aklanon aexclamation of discovery; "ah" (with high intonation)
Tontemboan aexclamation of surprise (short for ya)
Gorontalo aexpression of satisfaction or ridicule
Mongondow aexclamation capable of expressing joy or amazement, as well as fear and shock
Bare'e aaan exclamation which expresses a variety of emotions, above all uncertainty, amazement or annoyance
Mandar aOh! (exclamation expressing surprise at an unexpected occurrence, and as a response to a question or explanation)
Makasarese aexclamation: ha! See what I told you!
Manggarai a(at the beginning of a sentence) ah!; exclamation of surprise, contempt, etc.
Rembong aexclamation: ah!
Ngadha ainterjection: ah! oh!
Kambera áinterjection of surprise or terror
Tigak aaexclamation: ah!
Mono-Alu āexclamation
Bugotu aexclamation: oh! used in address

Note:   Also Nias aha ‘interjection: aha!’, Old Javanese ah ‘exclamation: ah!, oh!, ha!’, Old Javanese aha ‘exclamatory particle: ah!, oh!, alas!’, Palauan chach ‘oh! (exclamation of surprise)’, Komodo ‘interjection: ah!’, Sika ʔa ‘exclamation of surprise’, Rotinese aʔa ‘exclamation’. The obviously iconic and universal character of this form should not discourage us from a reconstruction, since proto-languages were no less likely than attested languages to contain such words.


*a₄ hesitation particle


PAN     *a₄ hesitation particle

Atayal aaamaybe; hesitation syllable
Pangasinan ainterjection marking hesitation, agreement, disagreement, etc.
Asilulu ahesitation word: umm, uh
Nukuoro aathe sound of hesitation noise


*a₅ ligature


PAN     *a₅ ligature     [disjunct: *Sa₁]

Pazeh aco-ordinate particle (links head and attribute)
Thao alinking particle, ligature, mark of lexical, phrasal, or clausal attribution or modification
Kavalan anominative marker or linker between the attribute and head noun of an NP
Amis aa connecting particle with some of the meaning of "and"; modifying particle
Paiwan aequational construction marker for noun phrase
Itbayaten aconnective particle; adjective-noun connective, clause connective
Pangasinan alinking particle, uniting adjectives or descriptive phrases with verbs and nouns, relative sentences to main sentences, etc.
Palauan aligature, linking particle
Label aligature between nouns; also binds possessive pronouns and adjectives with nouns; genitive particle


*abá exclamation: ah!, oh!, alas!


PWMP     *abá exclamation: ah!, oh!, alas!

Tagalog abáemphatic denial; sudden reproach; simple surprise; hail!
  abah-íntake notice of someone
Hanunóo ʔabáan exclamation of surprise, admiration, wonder; the more commonly used form is ʔabaʔabá
Aklanon abá(h)an exclamation expressing strong disbelief: Really? Ah, go on!
Cebuano abáexclamation of pleasure and surprise
Maranao abaah -- exclamation of surprise
Subanen/Subanun abaalas!
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) abaexpression of warning to stop an action
Toba Batak abáexclamation: ah!, oh!, alas!

Note:   Also Cebuano abaʔa ‘particle indicating disapproval (literary)’, Subanen/Subanun abaa ‘interjection of grief or wonder’.


*aba₁ father


PAN     *aba₁ father

Atayal abafather. Used in direct address only; otherwise i-aba (< i 'prefix for persons' + aba)
Tiruray ʔaba-yfather
Ngaju Dayak abafather (used by and with small children)
Malagasy ábafather, chiefly used by children
Malay aba-hfather, papa
Sundanese aba-hfather (rare)
Wolio abhafather (term of address), daddy
Bimanese abafather (used only within the family circle)

Note:   Also Maranao abo ‘father’, Moken apoŋ ‘father’, Bare'e ambo ‘stepfather’, Mandar abi ‘father’, Buginese amboʔ ‘father’, Wolio awo ‘stepfather, stepmother, etc.’, Yamdena abe ‘mother-in-law’. Apparently a nursery word which has resisted normal sound change in a number of languages (e.g. Tiruray, Malay, and Bimanese, where we would expect -w-; Malagasy, where we would expect -v-).

Although the Wolio form is cited in Anceaux 1987 as an Arabic loan, Wilkinson 1959 lists Malay aba ‘father (Arabic)’, but Malay abah ‘father; papa’, without indication of borrowing. Together with Atayal aba these facts suggest that this cognate set is more likely to be a native form than a loan.

Finally, although Malay abaŋ ‘elder brother’ could be analyzed as aba-ŋ (with fossilized vocative suffix), and hence compared with the other forms cited here, I prefer to treat it as distinct and to withdraw the etymon *ab(ae)ŋ ‘elder brother’ proposed in Blust (1970).


*aba₂ carry pick-a-back


PPh     *aba₂ carry pick-a-back     [doublet: *baba₁]

Bontok ʔabácarry on one's back, as a child or sick person
Kankanaey abácarry on the back (children are ordinarily carried in that way)
Aklanon abá(h)to get, climb up on one's back

Note:   Also Ifugaw abbá ‘carry a baby or little child on one's back with or without a blanket’, Maranao ababa ‘carry, as on the back’. These and the above forms may all reflect *a-baba.


*abag join forces, cooperate in working


PPh     *abag join forces, cooperate in working

Kankanaey abágput their money together; enter, get into partnership with somebody
Cebuano ábaggive material help, help do work

Note:   Also Tagalog habág ‘compassion’, Maranao aoag ‘distant relative’. Possibly a chance resemblance.


*ambak stamp or smack against


PMP     *ambak stamp or smack against

Cebuano ambákjump down to a lower place
  ambák-ambákjump up and down
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) ambakcollide with something (person, post, etc.)
Mandar ambaʔhit, beat
Makasarese ambaʔtry to hit something in a game (one marble with another, billiard ball, etc.)
Yamdena ambakstamp on the ground with the foot

Note:   Possibly a product of chance. With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’.


*abaká Manila hemp: Musa textilis


PPh     *abaká Manila hemp: Musa textilis

Itbayaten avakafiber-producing banana tree. Musa sp.
Ifugaw abakáManila hemp
Ilokano abakáManila hemp
Kapampangan abakathe abaca plant, fiber, or cloth
Tagalog abakáhemp
Bikol ábakaabaca, Manila hemp: Musa textilis
Hanunóo ʔabakáManila hemp, abacá (Musa textilis Ne'e)
Aklanon abaká(h)abaca fibres, Manila hemp: Musa textilis
Maranao wakaMusa textilis Nee: abaca, Manila hemp
Tiruray wogoan abaca


*abal abal beetle sp.


PPh     *abal abal beetle sp.

Ilokano abal-ábalkind of brown burrowing June beetle or June bug. Many people eat it.
Tiruray ʔabal-ʔabalkind of scarab beetle, Leucopholis irrorata Chevrolat

Note:   Tiruray normally reflects PPh *-b- as /w/. This item may be a loan from an undetermined source, or perhaps a chance resemblance.


*abaŋ₁ ambush, block the way; obstacle, hindrance


PMP     *abaŋ₁ ambush, block the way; obstacle, hindrance     [doublet: *qambat]

Kapampangan ambaŋ-anobstacle, impediment to passage
Tagalog abáŋperson asked to wait and watch for someone or some vehicle to come or pass by
Bikol mag-abáŋwait, watch for
  maŋ-abáŋkeep watch, keep vigil
  abáŋ-abáŋa hindrance (referring to a person who is always in the way)
Aklanon ábaŋobstruct, block, hinder; waylay, ambush
Lun Dayeh abaŋan ambush of an animal or enemy; a blocking, a guarding
Kelabit abaŋan ambush
Kayan avaŋan ambush; to ambush
Karo Batak ambaŋrestrain or hold back with outstretched arms, as a runaway horse
Balinese ambaŋhinder, interfere with
Komodo abaŋcross-beam
Manggarai ambaŋobstruct, block the way
Rembong ambaŋrestrain, hold back with extended hands; to catch (a horse) with lasso
Sika abaŋ-papakblock the road, cut off the way
Kambera ambacheck, stop, hold back (as a horse); to hinder


PWMP     *maŋ-abaŋ to block the way, ambush someone

Bikol maŋ-abáŋkeep watch, keep vigil
Lun Dayeh ŋ-abaŋlay an ambush, lay in wait for an enemy or animal; block, guard (soccer)
Kelabit ŋ-abaŋto ambush someone
Karo Batak ŋ-ambaŋ-ito restrain or hold back
Balinese ŋ-ambaŋ-into hinder, interfere with

Note:   Also Itbayaten abaŋ ‘lie in wait’.


*abaŋ₂ ditch


PWMP     *abaŋ₂ ditch

Kelabit abaŋditch, canal
Kayan abaŋtrench, ditch, excavation
Malay abaŋ-anwater conduit of split pinaŋ stem
Balinese abaŋgutter, drain-pipe, channel
  abaŋ-anchannel, groove
Sasak abaŋ-andrain-pipe from roof, aqueduct


PWMP     *ŋ-abaŋ make a gutter, ditch, or channel

Kelabit ŋ-abaŋmake a ditch
Balinese ŋ-abaŋmake a gutter or channel

Note:   Perhaps also Malay abaŋ ‘dimple’. Kayan abaŋ is regular only if it reflects earlier *ambaŋ. Malay abaŋ-an is irregular in any case, since *b normally became Malay /w/ in the sequence *-aba.


*abaŋ₃ rent


PPh     *abaŋ₃ rent

Bontok ʔábaŋto rent; the amount of rent that one pays
Ilokano ábaŋrent, rental, hire, interest
  abáŋ-anto rent, hold under a lease, hire
Pangasinan ábaŋrent, interest
Cebuano ábaŋrent; hire a prostitute; make an offering to a supernatural being for the use of land which is thought to be in his possession
Kadazan t-ambaŋfare (on bus, etc.); freight, freightage, passage money


*abat₁ give a supporting hand


PWMP     *abat₁ give a supporting hand

Hanunóo ʔábatleading by the hand
Cebuano ábathold on to something fixed to support oneself
  abat-ánrailing in the shape of a ladder for baby to cling to when he starts to walk
Iban ambatlend a hand (to hold steady)


*abat₂ spirit that causes sickness


PPh     *abat₂ spirit that causes sickness

Isneg ábata spirit who brings sickness to people whoever they are and wherever they abide
Bontok ʔábatperform a ceremony for someone who has had a spirit encounter; such a ceremony
Cebuano abátany supernatural being or human with supernatural powers which shows itself in an unexpected and startling way

Note:   Also Manobo (Dibabawon) abot ‘sickness in which the victim vomits red vomitus, caused by an evil spirit’.


*abat₃ wound, to wound


PCEMP     *abat₃ wound, to wound

Ngadha abhacut oneself, wound
Buruese abatwound
Buli yabatwound, be wounded

Note:   Also Asilulu apat ‘the unhealed wound of the recently circumcised penis’.


*abaw high, lofty


PMP     *abaw high, lofty

Singhi Land Dayak omuhigh
Malagasy avohigh, lofty, eminent
Javanese ambohoist sail
Arosi saho-sahohigh, lofty; tilt up, tip up, elevate

Note:   Also Itbayaten havavaw ‘shallowness’, Tagalog hambáw ‘superficial, shallow’. With root *-baw₁ ‘high; top’.


*abay side by side


PWMP     *abay side by side

Casiguran Dumagat abaystay parallel with (as for two people to walk side by side, or for workers harvesting in a field to stay together in a row, rather than one getting ahead of the others)
Kankanaey ábayto use like a friend; be the companion of; be friendly to; take a liking to; make very much of
Ilokano ag-ábayto stand, etc. side by side; to sing in unison
Pangasinan ábayside, proximity; to approach, go near person or object close by; put beside
Kapampangan ambaycouple, pair (Bergaño 1860)
  abeaccompany; live together, stay together; friend, companion (used as a term of address)
Tagalog ábaybest man in a wedding; maid-of-honor; escort
Bikol ábayaccompany one another; participate in something together; best man, brides maid
Aklanon ábaysponsor (at wedding or baptism)
Cebuano abáymove along together with something moving; bridesmaid or best man
Mansaka abáybe abreast
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) aveywalk together shoulder to shoulder; proceed side by side
Iban ambailover, sweetheart

Note:   The resemblance of Iban ambai to the other forms cited here may be a product of chance.


*ambay wave back and forth


PWMP     *ambay wave back and forth

Malay ambaipurse-net attached to stakes in a tideway or river. The stakes hold its mouth open; the bunt trails away in the current
Toba Batak m-abe-abewave back and forth
Old Javanese awaybeckon, wave (to)
Javanese awe-aweto wave
Lauje ambebeckon with the hand

Note:   Also Tboli keway ‘up and down movement, as the motion of a bamboo-suspended cradle’. Dempwolff (1934-38) included Ngaju Dayak awei ‘temporary wall (using only loose leaves, etc.)’, but a connection appears difficult to justify. The comparison offered here is itself problematic, since Totoli kambe ‘beckon with the hand’ suggests that Lauje ambe (which regularly loses *k) may not reflect *ambay.


*a(m)bek mat


PWMP     *a(m)bek mat

Casiguran Dumagat abəkmat
Beta ambokmat


*amben belly strap


PWMP     *amben belly strap     [doublet: *ambet]

Sundanese ambenbelly strap of a horse
Javanese ambenbelly band for draft animal
Tae' abaŋband, as an iron band around a chisel
Makasarese ambaŋbelly strap of horses

Note:   Possibly a Javanese loan in the SSul languages.


*ambet strap; something wrapped around


PWMP     *ambet strap; something wrapped around     [doublet: *amben]

Maranao abetstrap
Tiruray ʔambetcatch a loose animal by entwining it in a rope
Kelabit abetway of tying; thing used to tie
  ŋ-abetto tie
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) abUtsecuring devices: pin, band, tie, string, belt
Ngaju Dayak ambetbrought near, drawn to one, seized
Malay ambatnoose
Malay (Jakarta) ambetchild's first garment; swaddling band
Alas abetcoil; cloth that is wound around the body
Old Javanese ambetto lash
Balinese ambetstrap
  ambet basaŋsaddle-girth

Note:   Also Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) abet ‘wear a sarong without undergarment’, Karo Batak abit ‘the long cloth that is fastened under the armpits by women’.


*abi take hold of, grasp


POC     *abi take hold of, grasp     [disjunct: *qampi]

Gedaged abitake hold of, grab, seize, grasp, clutch, take
Numbami -ambihold, get, take
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka abitake hold of something, grasp something
Lakalai abitake, catch, get


*abij copulate


PPh     *abij copulate

Ilokano ábigto copulate (usually applied to adultery)
Mansaka abidcopulate, engage in sexual intercourse


*abijay sling over the shoulder


PPh     *abijay sling over the shoulder

Ilokano abígaythrow a blanket over the shoulder
Cebuano ambiláycarry something with a strap slung over the shoulder

Note:   Also Ilokano abáday ‘carry something in a band slung over the shoulder’, Ilokano abíday ‘throw a blanket over the shoulder’, Kalamian Tagbanwa kablay ‘carry suspended from shoulder diagonally’, Maranao abelai ‘hang over shoulder, sling across shoulder’, Maranao ambelai ‘put hand around shoulder’.


*ambiq extension to house


PWMP     *ambiq extension to house     [doublet: *surambiq, *surambi]

Kapampangan ambiwing or interior gallery of a house (Bergaño 1860)
Tagalog ambíʔeaves, gable end
Karo Batak ambihmake an extension to a house that is too small
Toba Batak ambiwhat one adds; the piece of material that a tailor adds to trousers that are too small
Sundanese ambé-ngallery, veranda of a house
Balinese ambé-nfront balcony, porch, veranda, gallery
Sasak ambé-nside-wings of a roof; side-gallery of a house

Note:   This word apparently meant ‘gallery, veranda’. It is unclear what implications *ambiq has for inferences about the early Austronesian house. The only type of residential structure in use by Austronesian-speaking peoples today which regularly has a veranda is the communal longhouse, found widely over central and northern Borneo. Various considerations, however, suggest that the longhouse is a relatively late development. All that can safely be inferred on present knowledge is that some type of veranda-like extension was sometimes constructed on houses that appear to have normally lacked them. The Sundanese, Balinese and Sasak forms are assumed to reflect *ambiq-an.


*abit climb


PWMP     *abit₁ climb

Maloh ambitclimb, clamber up
Proto-Sangiric *abitclimb a tree
Sangir awiʔclimb

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance. Alternatively, the forms cited here may be compared with Amis safit ‘cloth wrapped around the feet to help climb betel nut tree’, and assigned to PAn *Sabit ‘long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying’ through this semantic connection.


*ambit seize with the hands


PMP     *ambit seize with the hands

Samal ambitlead by the hand
Kadazan ambittake with the hands
Toba Batak ambitcarry a child in the arms
Mentawai abittake along with, bring hither
Manggarai ambétcarrying astraddle on the hip (as in carrying a child); climb (a tree) with a rope looped around the feet


POC     *abit₂ hold, get, take

Numbami -ambihold, get, take


PWMP     *maŋ-ambit take with the hands

Kadazan maŋ-ambittake with the hands
Toba Batak maŋ-ambitcarry
Dairi-Pakpak Batak meŋ-ambitfetch or take in a figurative sense: take a woman from her lineage because she must reside with the lineage of her husband


PWMP     *maR-ambit take with the hands

Kadazan mag-ambittake with the hands
Toba Batak mar-ambitcarry a child in the arms in front of oneself

Note:   Also Tiruray abit ‘beckon, wave someone to come by moving the palm of the hand down and towards the body’, Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) abit ‘plaited rattan carrying strap’, Mongondow abito ‘carrying basket’. With root *-bit₁ ‘hook, clasp; grasp with fingers’.


*abu abu fish sp.


PWMP     *abu abu fish sp.

Cebuano abuábukind of fish
Malay (Jakarta) ikan abu-abufish sp.
Makasarese au-auedible seafish, shining white and unspotted, the mackerel: Scomber neglectus

Note:   Also Bikol ábo ‘a fish, the grouper: Epinephelus undulosus’, Malay ikan ambu-ambu ‘bonito fish: Thynnus tunnina’, Kamarian apu ‘fish sp.’. Banjarese habu ‘young of the murrel (very small, like a fleck of ash): Ophiocephalus striatus)’ evidently reflects *qabu ‘ash’, and the same may be true of the present comparison.


*abuat long (of objects)


PWMP     *abuat long (of objects)

Kalamian Tagbanwa abwatlong
Hanunóo ʔabuwáttall, high, referring to people or objects; height
Palawan Batak ʔabwátlarge; long
Ida'an Begak buatlong
Kenyah buatlong
Berawan (Long Terawan) kebeiʔlong
Berawan (Long Jegan) kuβitlong
Kenyah (Long Wat) buatlong (of objects)
Miri bétlong
Bintulu (be)batlong


*ambun dew, mist, fog


PWMP     *ambun dew, mist, fog     [doublet: *embun, *hapun]

Kapampangan ambundew
  may-ambunovercast, misty
Tagalog ambónshower, drizzle
Bikol ambóndew; fog, mist, haze
Aklanon ámbonfog, mist, haze
  ma-ámbonfoggy, covered with haze, hazy
Kalamian Tagbanwa ambunground fog, mist
Bisaya (Limbang) ambunfog
Bintulu ambunfog
Murik abuncloud, fog
Ngaju Dayak ambondew, fog
Singhi Land Dayak abuncloud, fog
Banjarese ambundew
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) ambundew (in small drops)
Maloh ambundew, vapor
Iban ambundew, damp
Minangkabau ambundew
Sundanese awun-awunmorning mist, fog, haziness
Old Javanese awun-awunfine rain, wet mist
  ambuncloud (or mist?)
Javanese awundew
Sasak awun-awunfog, mist
Tae' ambundew, morning mist

Note:   Also Gorontalo wambulo ‘fog’, Tetun ai abu ‘fog’.


*abun collect, gather


PWMP     *abun collect, gather

Ilokano ambónassemble; concourse
  ambon-ento join in fighting against the enemy
Mentawai abutcollect, gather

Note:   With root *-bun ‘heap, pile; collect, assemble’. Possibly a convergent innovation.


*ambuŋ proud, haughty


PWMP     *ambuŋ proud, haughty     [doublet: *hambúg]

Iban amboŋproud, haughty
Malagasy ávonapride, haughtiness, arrogance

Note:   Also Malay somboŋ ‘arrogance, self-assertion; be puffed-up with pride’, tamboŋ ‘stubborn, headstrong, arrogant’.


*ambuq high, lofty


PWMP     *ambuq high, lofty     [disjunct: *abaw]

Cebuano ambúʔoverlook, look from a high point (as in looking at someone downstairs), tower over
Malagasy ámbohigh, lofty, long, overhead
  ávohigh, lofty, eminent


*abuqaŋ beetle


PMP     *abuqaŋ beetle

Tagalog ambuwáŋlarge beetle
Kelabit buaŋbeetle (generic)
Ngadha fuʔakind of beetle, grub, larva in palm wine
Sika boʔaŋlarva of a caterpillar

Note:   Also Paiwan qaquŋ ‘soldier beetle’, Tagalog uwáŋ, uʔáŋ ‘big beetle, usually infesting coconut trees’, Bikol úʔaŋ ‘large, black, horned coconut beetle, living in and boring into palm trees’. Tae' ambo(y)oŋ ‘kind of beetle which emerges from felled sugar palms, and which develops from the white sago worm which lives on the pith of the sugar palm’ appears to be distinct.


*abuR dust


PWMP     *abuR dust     [disjunct: *qabug]

Cebuano abúgdust; become dusty; turn into dust
Manobo (Dibabawon) abugdust
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) amburdust, broken bits

Note:   Also Kankanaey abúd ‘fine sand, fine mud’.


*ábuR chase, drive away


PPh     *ábuR chase, drive away

Isneg ma-ábugbe driven away
Bontok ʔábulchase away chickens or animals, using a stick; the stick so used
Kankanaey ábudrive away, turn out, expel
Ifugaw ábulchase, repel, drive away
Ifugaw (Batad) ābulfrighten away chickens, rice birds, pigs, flies in any effective manner
Ilokano ábugdrive, drive away, incite
Cebuano ábugchase, drive, drive away
Mansaka abogdrive away, chase away
Manobo (Dibabawon) abugdrive away, drive out, chase
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) avugto drive, as animals; drive away, force out
Maranao abogscatter, drive away

Note:   Also Tagalog abóy ‘something or someone being driven about; act of driving away’ (probably an early Kapampangan loan). The similarity of Yamdena yabur ‘flee, run away’ to the forms cited above is assumed to be a product of chance.


*abus ash


PMP     *abus ash     [doublet: *qabu₁]

Iban abusashes
Manggarai awusash at the tip of a cigarette, etc.; sparks
Rembong awosspark, ashes


*abut pull up, root up


PMP     *abut pull up, root up

Malagasy ávotraplucked up, rooted up, eradicated
Banjarese ambuttear off coconut husk
Balinese abutpull out, pull up; raise (anchor)
Sasak abutpull out (as plants from the ground); draw in, as a kite
Proto-Minahasan *abutpull out
Tontemboan awutto weed, pull up or out
Bare'e awuclear the ground of weeds and bushes
  ma-awut-ia piece of weeded ground
Nggela avuto weed
'Āre'āre rahuuprooted; pull out

Note:   Also Tetun abut ‘root’. With root *-buC ‘to weed, pluck, pull out’.

TOP      ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    



*acaŋ dove, pigeon


PWMP     *acaŋ dove, pigeon

Kadazan asaŋdove, pigeon
Kayan asaŋa bird of one of the pigeon species
Iban acaŋdomestic pigeon
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) asaŋdomestic pigeon
Lampung acaŋ-acaŋdove, pigeon

Note:   Also Bintulu manuk atəŋ ‘tame pigeon, domestic pigeon’, Mongondow asa-asaŋ ‘nocturnal bird sp.’. Possibly a product of borrowing, although it is noteworthy that this form is unattested in Malay (unless in the form acaŋ ‘messenger, errand-boy’, from the use of domestic pigeons to send messages).

TOP      ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    



*aCab a cover


PAN     *aCab a cover

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) aTava cover (in general)
Tagalog atábcovering, roofing, or siding of palm leaves
Iban antapcover, patch, lining, backing

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ʔeTav ‘to cover’.


*aCas high, tall


PAN     *aCas high, tall

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) a-Tashigh


PMP     *atas high, tall

Tagalog taʔásheight; physical stature (esp. of human body); eminence, nobility
Aklanon táʔasbecome taller, grow taller; raise, elevate
  pa-táʔaslet get taller, let grow
  ka-táʔasheight, tallness
Hiligaynon táʔastall
  mag-táʔasgrow tall; raise, increase
Cebuano taʔáslong, tall, high; grow, appear long; add more length, height; do something in a long way; rise in temperature
  ha-taʔásvery long; high
  pa-taʔásraise, lengthen, increase the length; upward
Mansaka taʔaslocative, above, up
Tiruray taʔahlong
Ngaju Dayak atason, upon
Iban atasupon, above, over, (of position) upper
Jarai ataihfar
Rhade taihdistant, far
Malay atasposition over or above
Acehnese ateuëhup, above; high
Simalur ataehigh
Toba Batak atasabove, on top
Angkola-Mandailing Batak atasabove, over
Simalungun Batak atasabove, on top
Mentawai atātall, high
Lampung atasabove
Madurese attashigh; above
Sasak atashigh; above
  ber-atasgo upward
  per-atasraise, elevate (of terrain)
Sumbawanese atasabove
Sangir ataseʔraise oneself up
Proto-Minahasan *atasabove, on (top)
Tondano atasabove
Rotinese atathe heavens, the top (of); above, on top of
Kambera atalong, tall; high
Lakalai -ataup
  g-o-atago up, ascend
Motu latalength; tall, long
  lata na-iupon
  lata-latalong, tall (intensive)
Marshallese ejformant in place names; upper; eastern
Kosraean yateastern part of a village
Chuukese aasupper part, top, summit; eastern side; above (vertically)
Puluwat yáhtall, high, upper, easterly
Woleaian -yas(a)up, upside


PAN     *i aCas above, on top

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) i-Tasup, above


PMP     *i-atas above, on top

Bikol i-taʔásabove, over; upstairs
  mag-i-taʔáslift, raise, hoist, elevate
[Malay di-atasabove, upon]


PWMP     *ma-atas tall, high

Tagalog ma-taʔástall
Aklanon ma-táʔastall, high
Toba Batak m-atas arimidday (lit. 'the sun is high/above')


PWMP     *maŋ-atas lift or raise up

Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-atasclimb up, ascend
Sangir maŋ-ataseʔraise oneself up


POC     *atas-ña its top

Motu lata-nathe top
Mailu ata-natop; up
Chuukese asa-nabove him; its upper side

Note:   Also Tboli tahaʔ ‘long, tall’, Simalur atas, aʔtaiʔ/ ‘high’, Selaru atat ‘high’, Gilbertese eta ‘top, upper, heavens (as opposed to the earth), the shore as opposed to the sea, the land; high’; eta-eta ‘very high’; i-eta above, ashore, over’. Although non-Formosan witnesses point consistently to *atas (with metathesis of the first vowel and consonant in PPh) the reconstruction of a PAn etymon is more problematic. Tsuchida (1983) identifies the Puyuma stem as -Tas, since e.g. i-Tas ‘up, above’ lacks an initial stem vowel. If this analysis is adopted, however, comparison of the Formosan and extra-Formosan material becomes difficult.

To explain the missing initial vowel in Puyuma -Tas we might posit a stem *Caqas which is prefixed both in Puyuma (Tamalakaw) a-Tas ‘high’, and in all MP languages. This hypothesis offers the minor advantage of deriving the Central Philippine forms without metathesis, but creates two more serious problems: 1) it forces us to assume an irregular loss of -H- with contraction of the resulting vowel sequence in Puyuma, and 2) it forces us to assume that all non-Formosan reflexes outside the central Philippines contain an independently reconstructible prefix or particle (presumably *qa ‘locative particle’) which has become fossilized. While this analysis may work for most reflexes in MP languages, it is not clear that the initial vowel in Puyuma (Tamalakaw) a-Tas ‘high’ has any connection with *Sa; the same must be said for the morphologically corresponding but probably convergent form Cebuano ha-taʔás ‘very long; high’. As a compromise, then, I assume that Puyuma (Tamalakaw) -Tas shows an irregular loss of the first syllable vowel. Finally, Ross (1988:276) reconstructs POc *qatas ‘summit, top’, but provides no supporting evidence for the initial consonant.


*aCay death


PAN     *aCay death

Bunun atađkill
  is-atađbe killed with something (Nihira 1983)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ki-n-aTay(imp) die


PMP     *atay death

Casiguran Dumagat atɛdie; dead; death
Ifugaw atéword-base of all the words that convey the meaning of death, die, kill, try to kill by fighting
Tiruray ʔateydying
Lun Dayeh atedeath
Kelabit atedeath
Tunjung pak-atekill
Nias ate-laburial place for the dead
Sangir atedie
  kuk-atebe dying
  met-atebe dying
Banggai maŋa-k-atekill
  baʔa-k-atecommit suicide
  pooa-k-atekill each other, fight to the death, duel, go to war


PAN     *ka-aCay kill (?)

Thao k-acaya curse expressing anger toward someone: Drop dead! Go to Hell!
Kankanaey adi k-atéynot to die
Ifugaw k-atédeath
Kiput k-ataːykill
  se-k-ataːy sediriʔkill oneself, commit suicide
Melanau (Mukah) k-ataystop, as an engine that was running
  k-en-ataywas stopped, as an engine
Sangir k-atedie! (imperative)
Bimanese h-adekill; extinguish (a fire)


PAN     *ka-aCay-an lose someone through death (?)

Thao k-acay-anlose someone through death, be bereaved
Ifugaw k-atay-ántime of somebody's death, manner in which somebody dies
Totoli ka-ate-andeath


PAN     *ma-aCay die; dead; eclipse of sun or moon

Saisiyat masaydie
Thao m-acaydie, be dead
Tsou m-cóidie
  hu-m-cóidead man
Bunun m-atađdie; be killed
  m-atađ valieclipse of the sun


PMP     *m-atay die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love

Isneg m-atáydie
  matay-ānrelative of a dead person; having a dead person among (them)
Itawis m-atáydie
Kankanaey matéydie, depart this life, decease, expire, go out
Ifugaw m-atéhe/she will die
Ilokano m-atáydie, expire, perish, cease, become extinct, be (sick, tired) to death, become indifferent, stop
Kapampangan m-atédie
Tagalog pag-ka-matáydeath
Bikol matáymay I die; an oath taken whereby one swears to take his own life if he is not telling the truth
Hanunóo mátaydeath
  m-ar-aty-únslaughter, killing on a large scale
Aklanon m-atáydie
  mama-matáythose destined to die
Hiligaynon m-atáydie, pass away
Cebuano m-atáydie; stop functioning (as a watch); for the moon to be in its invisible phase; exclamation of displeasure
  kala-maty-ána fatal spot on the body
Maranao m-ataydie
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) m-ateydie
Bilaan (Koronadal) m-atidead
Tboli m-ataydie
Rungus Dusun mataydie
Kadazan mataydie, expire, breathe one's last
Kelabit m-atedie; dead
Kiput m-ataːydie; dead
Miri matayhdie; dead
Melanau (Mukah) m-ataydie; dead
Kayan mateydead
Kenyah m-ataydead
Siang m-atoydie
Murung m-atoydie
Tunjung m-atedie
Ngaju Dayak m-atäydie; dead
Malagasy m-átydead, gone out, as a lamp or a fire; in danger; set, as the sun; beaten in a game
  máty-hénabenumbed, torpid, deprived of sensation
  máti-ny hiańya phrase used to express the setting of one's heart upon something: very desirous of, eagerly wishing for; lit. simply killed by it
Iban matidead; set (of the sun); fast, firm, tight, immovable
Malay matideath; extinction; perish
  me-mati-kancause to die
  harga matifixed price
Bahasa Indonesia matidie; dead; not having ever lived; various figurative senses, including: break up, of a gathering; quiet or ceased (wind); not moving any longer (machine parts); waterless (wells or springs); numb (skin); extinguished (lamp, fire, etc.); dead-end (path, etc.); fixed or agreed so that it cannot change (price, agreement, etc.); fallen quiet (as marketplace); not used any longer (as a language); set (sun)
  mati beranakdie in childbirth
  mati kutu(ña)unable to do anything any more
Moken mataydie; dead
Toba Batak m-atedie; dead; go out (fire); die down, cease (wind); conclude (fight)
  m-ate dalan ithe path-road cannot be used any longer
  mate ma hoa curse
  mar-mate-andie in throngs
  pa-mate-honkill someone
  bulan matenew moon
Dairi-Pakpak Batak matedie; dead; blocked path; go out (fire); new moon; paralyzed
Nias matedie; become paralyzed; dry up, wither; extinguish
  mate dõdõmake a deep impression on something
Mentawai mataydead; death; die; kill; go out (cigarette); set (sun); become feeble (penis)
Rejang mateuidie
  mateui bilaisunset
Lampung m-atidead
Sundanese ŋa-mati-kenkill
Old Javanese m(a)-atidie; dead
  sumur matidried-up well
Javanese matidead; die; inert
  mati garingdie of thirst
  mati sabildie in childbirth
Madurese matedie; dead
Balinese m-atidie, be quenched (fire); dead
Sasak matedie; dead
  [mate ŋ-anakdie in childbirth]
  mate sesetsuicide
Tontemboan m-atedie; kill; a curse: may you die!
Dampelas ma-atedie; dead
Mongondow m-atoydie, go out (fire, light)
Banggai matedie
Uma m-atedead; die
Bare'e matedie; dead; also used of something that has stopped moving or working; go out (fire, torch); stop spinning (top); stop moving (hands of a clock, the wind)
  mate mpoanadie in childbirth
Tae' matedie; dead; disastrous, struck by misfortune
  mate deatawhat is meted out by the gods: die a natural death; lose (in playing dice); numb, asleep (of limbs)
  mate posodie suddenly
  mate ki-anakdie in childbirth
  to matedeceased person, corpse; worthless
Mandar m-atedie, pass away; dead
Makasarese matedead; die; new moon; paralyzed (of limbs); having lost its force (as glue that is no longer adhesive); beaten (in a game); completely done (of a matter)
  beraŋ mateworn-out bush knife
  jaraŋ matehorse that doesn't want to run any more
  takka luppa mate-matetotally forget
  ka-mate-idie somewhere; die with someone
  mate-i aŋiŋ-athere is no wind, the wind has died
Wolio matedead; paralyzed; out (of light or fire); asleep (of hand or foot); death
  mo-mate-nadeceased person
  bawabawa matepregnant (because an unborn child is not yet alive)
Muna matedie; dead
Popalia matedie; dead
Palauan maddie; (electricity, etc.) go out; go numb
  uleko-áddead, extinguished, paralyzed
  oameko-ádkill; extinguish; put out
Chamorro mataidead; corpse; die
  matai-ñalaŋfamine, die of hunger


PCEMP     *matay₁ die; dead

Bimanese m-adekill; die out (of a fire)
Komodo matedead; died; the late
Manggarai matadie; dead; extinguished; lose in a game
  mata wulaŋlunar eclipse
Ngadha matadie; dead; become poor, decline
Li'o matadie, dead
Sika matedie; dead
  mate-ŋnumb, of a foot or arm
Lamboya matedie, dead
Lamaholot matadead, deceased
Erai matedie; dead; sleeping (of members of the body)
  mate ērbe parched with thirst (to death)
  mate klarstarve
Kambera metidie; dead; go out (fire); be eclipsed (sun)
  meti mariŋudie a cool (natural) death
  meti mbanahudie a hot (unnatural) death (as when dying in an accident)
  marapu mameticorpse, cadaver
Hawu madedead
Rotinese matedie; dead; go out (of a light); still (of the sea when becalmed); eclipse of the sun or moon
  beli-na matethe price is fixed
  (hataholi) mate nulakone who dies young
  mate laʔasdie of hunger
  mate-kbe dead, be overcome (in a game)
Tetun matedie; extinguish (fire); wither, die (plants); stop or cease (machinery); dead, stopped
  mate-kdead, dormant, without life; dry (of plants)
  mate-nany animal (or bird) which is the loser in a fight, and by custom is condemned to death
  ai-n mate-kpins and needles in the leg
  kuda isi-n mate-ka quiet horse (easy to ride)
  mate-rkill, slay
Kédang matedie, dead
Leti matidie; dead
  wulla (lera) n-matithe moon (sun) is eclipsed
Wetan matidead; die
  mati wnoahereafter, abode of the dead
Selaru matidie
Yamdena matedie, go out (fire, light); finished, terminated, of a matter; (in some words) very, extremely , exceptionally
Kei mātdie, go out (fire), stop (machinery); be defeated (in a game); be overgrown, of a path; abate (wind); becalmed (sea); dried up (spring)
Asilulu matadead; die; lose consciousness; end in a receptacle without markers in the joŋka game (game language)
Alune matadead, die
Kamarian matadead
Paulohi matadead; die
  mata-edie of something
  mata-e lalableed to death
Hitu matadie, dead
Soboyo matedie; dead
  meseʔ m-an-atecook until well done, cook thoroughly
Buruese matadie, faint, pass out; stop blowing (wind); by any means, in any way
  mata-kfulfilled, established, ready, finished; die of (as cold); ascertain; definitely; completely; to death
Buli matdead; die, also said of a light going out, and of a wound, ulcer, or boil that has healed
  amcait matmatdeathly afraid, scared to death


POC     *mate die; dead

Wuvulu maʔedie, dead
Aua maʔedie, dead
Seimat matdead
Bipi makdie, dead
Leipon i methe is dead
Titan mate-ydie, dead
  ku ta-mate-ykill it!
Lou matdie, dead
Mussau matedead, die
  e mate lahe is dead
Tigak matdie
Tanga metdie; affix with a superlative adverbial effect: completely, very, utter, too much
Mendak maredie, dead
Label matdie; be dead
Tolai matdie; dead; extinguished, go out (of light or fire); numb; intensive particle and adverb: very, greatly, extremely
Lakalai mateout, of a fire
Maleu matedie
Kairiru myatdie; dead, deceased
Manam matedie, suffer
  madidi matefeel cold
  tole matebe hungry
Gedaged matdie, expire, pass away, yield up the ghost, perish, stop (motor), go out (fire); long, yearn, crave, hanker, desire, love, like, pine, pant for, languish for, care, want, die (for), lust after
Numbami mandedie, faint, be paralyzed, long for
Gitua matedie
Motu masedie; adverb of intensity
  mase-anitudie from disease, not a violent death
Mekeo maedie, dead
Tubetube matesoundly, as in sleeping soundly
  i keno matehe is sound asleep
Kilivila matadead; be out, come to an end; extinguish
Banoni matedie
Mono-Alu matedie, be sick, be tired
Roviana matedie; dead
Eddystone/Mandegusu matedead, weak, sick, rotten; death, illness resulting in death; die
Nggela matewithout movement; bedridden, paralyzed; numb, of a limb asleep; unconscious, fainted; dead; death; kill; extinguish; out, of a light; fighting man, soldier; enemy; ready, prepared; completely, quite; out, at cricket; withered, dry, as a branch
Lau maewithout motion, still; unconscious, numb, paralyzed; to faint; die; stop (of a clock), go out (of a light); be eclipsed, of sun or moon; tired out, weak, very ill, ready for rest; war; rainbow
  mae-la-nadying, death; death feast
Kwaio maedie; dead; fight; death; blow (n.); finished, without residual obligations, of a financial transaction; unconscious; want very badly, very much
  mae-siadie from, completely, to the end
Sa'a maedie; ill; become unconscious; numb; eclipsed, of moon; a fighting column; enemies; war; weapons; used with 3p. possessor and ni genitive to denote excess
  mae apoloparalyzed
'Āre'āre māeunconscious; faint; ill; die; paralyzed; numb; war
  māe-sibe ill of, die of
  māe-tadeath feast, memorial feast
  ʔāre māeweapons, instruments for killing
  āsi māethe calm sea in lagoons and passages, as opposed to āsi mauri, the open sea
Arosi maenumb, unable to move, ill; be eclipsed (of moon); be unconscious, faint; die; death; enemy; fighting party; weapons; lee side of an island (where the sea is maé)
  mae-ta(-na)death feast
Gilbertese matedeath, disappearance, extinction; dead, defunct, paralyzed, stopped, extinct, tired, unconscious, lost, cancelled, taken, blocked (in games), known by heart, memorized; free, tranquil; calm (as the sea); die, go out (fire, etc.), stop (clock, etc.), perish, faint, succumb; extenuated, worn out, dead tired
  mate-akinadesire, love
  mate-n taieclipse of sun
  mate-n namakainaeclipse of moon
Marshallese mejdead; numb; death; disease; illness; peril; plague; wrath
  mej ābwinpalsy; paralyzed
Kosraean misɛdeath; die
Chuukese die, lose consciousness, lose sensation, become paralyzed; (fig.) be overcome with fatigue, hunger, or other physiological want; be extinguished (of a light), stop (of an engine)
  máádeath; loss of consciousness; collapse; paralysis; disease, illness, sickness, pestilence
  mááse-norphan (death parted)
Puluwat die, be dead, dying, stricken, paralyzed, very sick; be killed; stop working, as a machine; death
Woleaian masdeath; dead person; (be) dead, die; disease, ailment, sickness
Mota matedie, faint and appear to die; dead
Raga matedie; dead
Lonwolwol mɛrdie; (be) dead; numb, unconscious, apparently dead
Tangoa m̈atedie; dead
Namakir matdie; dead
Nakanamanga matedie; dead
Anejom masdie; dead
Fijian matedeath, disease, sickness; to die, be sick
Tongan matedie; sometimes used in the sense of stunned or quite unconscious; (of fire or light) go out, be out; (of a boat) be sunk or wrecked; (of a volcano) be extinct; (of wind) die down, cease; (of sun or moon) be eclipsed; (of clock or engine, etc.) to stop, not to be going; paralyzed (as a limb); dead; death; be utterly sick and tired of; be overcome or carried away with (laughter, weeping, desire, sleepiness, fear, etc.)
Niue matedie, die out (as a fire); stop (as an engine); be desirous of, need intensely, be ill with deprivation; be destroyed
Samoan matedie (of animals, plants, fire, etc.)
  ta-matekill (animal or plant); (of a coco-nut tree, etc.) strip of leaves so as to kill
Rennellese matedead, dying, unconscious, faint, exhausted, paralyzed; be low tide; be killed or dead, as an engine; be extinguished or out, as a fire; to have stopped, as a clock; to be the dark of the moon; death, sorrow, sound of weeping (poetic)
Tuvaluan matedie; dead; death; funeral wake
  taa matekill; switch off
Anuta matedie
Kapingamarangi madedie; deceased; death; paralyzed
Nukuoro madedead (of plants only); numb, paralyzed; go out (of a fire)
Rarotongan mategeneral term for death: disaster, calamity, danger, defeat, ruin, oppression, hurt, injury, adversity, unconsciousness, subsidence, desire; out, as of a person being caught out when playing cricket; defeat, as in playing a game of cards or other game; a funeral burial; dead, oppressed, unconscious; extinguished, as a light; in lack of, in want of; loss of, as of vitality or vigor overcome with any emotions; overcome in a contest; deep emotion, as of a person or persons being deeply in love; calmed down, subsided; moving slowly or slack, as of the tide, slack water; beaten, as in any contest; benumbed, deadened, paralyzed; dried up, as the water of a stream; withered, as the foliage of trees; die, lose life, perish
Maori matedead; extinguished; sick, ill, unconscious; injured, damaged, suffering; in want of, lacking; overcome with any emotion, the emotion being expressed; deeply in love; calmed down, subsided; moving slowly, slack; completed, finished, accomplished; caught; death; sickness, injury, wound; danger, defeat, calamity; desire; company of mourners
Hawaiian makedie; defeated, killed, unfortunate; to faint; death, fainting, danger of death, peril, destruction, misfortune; kill; deathly, deadly, faint, deceased, late; obsolete; poisonous; desire, want, to want


POC     *mate-a kill

Nggela mate-akill
Hawaiian make-apassive/imperative of make: be defeated, be killed


PMP     *m-atay-an lose someone through death

Toba Batak mate-anlose someone through death
Banggai mate-andeath
Tae' mate-an(of a possession) get rid of, damage something so that it becomes worthless
Makasarese mate-aŋdeclare someone dead
Wolio mate-a(case of) death, decease
  banua mate-aa bereaved house


POC     *mate-an death

Roviana mate-analarge meteor (universally associated with the death of a leader)
Lau mae-adeath, sickness
Mota mate-adeath, dying


POC     *mate-qaŋa death

Kwaio mae-ŋadeath; war
Sa'a mae-ŋasickness, death
Niue mate-aŋadeath
Rennellese mate-ʔaŋadeath
Maori mate-ŋatime, circumstances, etc. of death


POC     *mate-na dead

Seimat i mate-nhe is dying
Mono-Alu mate-nadead
Roviana mate-nadie; dead


PMP     *pa(ka)-m-atay kill; commit suicide (?)

Aklanon paka-matáycommit suicide
Cebuano paka-matáydie for a cause; commit suicide; allow someone to die
Tae' pa-matedie; kill; numb something, bring under narcosis
Makasarese pa-matemistake for dead
Kambera pa-metikill, bring to an end
  tau pa-meti taukiller, murderer
Hawu pe-madekill
Rotinese ka-matereach a firm agreement about something; keep still
Asilulu paka-matadeliver the final blows, administer a coup-de-grace; finish off
Paulohi fa-matakill
Hitu pa-matakill
Soboyo ka-matekill
Buli fa-matkill


POC     *paka-mate kill; commit suicide

Maleu pa-mate-ŋekill
Banoni va-matekill
Mono-Alu fa-matekill
Arosi haʔa-mae-sikill
Fijian vaka-matego out, of a light
Niue faka-matehold the tongue, keep quiet
Samoan faʔa-matekill (an animal); (of fire) put out
Rennellese haka-matecommit suicide or attempt to
Maori whaka-mateput to death; cause to be sick
Hawaiian hoʔo-makekill; pretend to be dead; let die, let diminish, grow faint


POC     *paka-mate-ia kill

Aua foʔa fa-maʔe-iakill
Roviana va-mate-akill
Kwaio faʔa-mae-akill, extinguish
Gilbertese ka-mate-akill, extinguish; learn, memorize
Fijian vaka-mate-aput to death, kill; extinguish a light


PWMP     *paŋ-m-atay means of killing (?)

Aklanon pa-matáyslaughter, kill off, exterminate (in great numbers)
Sundanese pa-matithe center of life (where a man or animal can be struck dead)
Old Javanese pa-matimeans (instrument) for killing, instrumental in killing; killer, slayer
Mongondow po-matoythat with which one kills or wants to kill


PWMP     *ka-m-atay (gloss uncertain)

Cebuano ka-mátayfor people to be killing each other; mass death, killing on a vast scale
Ngaju Dayak ka-matäythose that have died (plants, etc.)
Uma ka-m-atedeath
  ka-m-ate-(k)idie from
Bare'e ka-matetime, place, or manner of death


PWMP     *ka-m-atay-an be affected by a death

Tagalog ka-mátay-andeath
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ke-metay-andeath
Malay ke-mati-an aŋinwind dying away
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ke-mate-n anakone who has lost a child through death
Toba Batak ha-mate-anplace where one dies
  sahit ha-mate-andeadly sickness
Bahasa Indonesia ke-mati-anoccurrence of death; suffer because of a death
Sasak ke-mate-anparalyzed, numb; affected by a death
Tae' ka-mate-anbe affected by a death; dead, the dying of something; time of dying; sensitive part of the body, when one is struck there by a blow; paralyzed, of the hand
Makasarese ka-mate-aŋdeath; end of the lunar cycle


PWMP     *m-atay anak spirit dangerous to children

[Tagalog ṕati-anakgoblin]
Malay mati-anakan evil spirit preying on newborn children
Wolio mate-anakind of fish eaten only by older people, because it is supposed to kill children (in accordance with its name)


PWMP     *m-atay uRat paralyzed

Kayan matey uhatparalyzed
Bare'e mate uaparalyzed


PPh     *na-aCay dead

Bontok na-tə́ydie; dead
Dampelas na-atedie; dead


PAN     *pa-aCay kill

Thao p-acayto beat, kill
Kavalan pataydie, dead
Tsou o-p-cóikill
Kanakanabu mia-pacáikill
Proto-Rukai *pacaydie
Amis pataydeath; die; figuratively to be crushed and despair; go to extreme limits to do something


PMP     *p-atay kill

Isneg p-um-atáykill
  mag-patáyfight fiercely to death
  patay-ánkill, extinguish, put out
Gaddang patay-ankill
Bontok pa-tə́ykill; extinguish or put out, as a fire or a light; turn off, as a radio or a motor
  p<um>atəybe extremely painful (as a headache)
Ifugaw p-um-atehe will kill
  mam-patèkiller, murderer
Ifugaw (Batad) patoykill any kind of animal life including man
  p-um-atoythat with which one kills, as a bolo
  patoy-onthat killed
Ilongot pasikill
Ilokano patàydeath
  ag-patáyfaint, swoon, die away
  mama-pátaykill, commit murder or slaughter
  patay-énkill, slay, put to death, dispatch, murder, extinguish, put out; to stop (an engine)
Sambal (Botolan) pati-enkill
Pangasinan patéydeath
Kapampangan p-atékill; fight
Tagalog p-atáydead; dead person
  patay-pataydilatory, sluggish
Hanunóo pátaydry, as of grass
Kalamian Tagbanwa pataydead
Palawan Batak pataydead, lifeless
Aklanon p-atáykill (person, animal); put out, turn off (a light); corpse, dead person
  patáy-pátay"dead", poor, slim, inadequate, lousy
Hiligaynon p-atáydead person, dead plant or animal, corpse
Cebuano p-atáykill, slay; dead; for something to have been killed, deadened (as an engine); new moon; be head over heels in love
  patáy sa utuggirl used to satisfy one's sexual desires (lit. something to kill one's erection on)
  patáy-pátaydo something intensely
  pam-atáysomething used to kill
Mamanwa pataykill (cp. bonoʔ 'kill with spear')
Mansaka pataycorpse; deceased; kill; die (as people), deteriorate (as crops)
Maranao p-ataydeath; die
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) p-ateydie
Tboli h-ataykill
Bilaan (Koronadal) f-otikill
Rungus Dusun na-pataydead
  pataz-unkill; death
Kelabit p-atedeath of someone
Kiput jakaʔ p-ataːytime of death, time when someone dies
Miri f-atayhdead
Kayan p-ateycorpse; death
  pe-pateykilling one another; killing in warfare
Kenyah p-ataydeath
  pe-patayfight to death
Siang ŋom-p-atoykill
Murung taŋan p-atoykill
Ngaju Dayak p-atäidead person
Malagasy f-átycorpse; death
  maha-fàtykill; put out a lamp
Malay denda patifine for slaying; blood-money (Java)
Toba Batak p-atecomplete, finished, come to an end (argument, process); dead
Lampung p-atikill
Sundanese p-atidying, someone's death; dead body, corpse
  talaŋ patilay down one's life for another
  pati-pate-ndead person
Old Javanese p(a)-atideath
Javanese patideath; dead; unusable
  pati-nhaving ceased to function
Madurese patesomething that is dead
  pate-ñahis death, his corpse
Balinese patideath
  salah paticondemned to death; so much, very
Proto-Sangiric *patedie; kill
Proto-Minahasan *patedie; kill
Tontemboan patetime of death; death; go out from time to time (fire, light)
  maka-patehaving died, having gone out (of fire)
  pate-anplace of dying or killing
Gorontalo patecorpse
Mongondow p-atoykill; extinguish a fire or light; bring flowing water to a standstill
  moko-patoyable to kill
Dampelas p-atekill
Uma p-ate-hikill
Bare'e mpate(-ña)the dead branches on trees
  mem-patedie in throngs
Tae' p-ate-ikill
Mandar p-ate-ikill


PWMP     *ka-p-atay (gloss uncertain)

Bare'e ka-patetime, place, or manner of death
Old Javanese ka-patideath (concrete case of dying)


PWMP     *ka-p-atay-an end or death of something (?)

Toba Batak ha-pate-anthe end of a matter, agreement
Mongondow ko-patoy-ancome to die, place or time in which one is overcome by death


PWMP     *ka-p-atay-en death

Hiligaynon ka-patáy-undeath
Javanese ke-pati-nsuffer loss through death; (of sleep) deep, sound
Madurese ke-patey-andeath


PWMP     *p<in>atay was killed

Kelabit p-in-atewas killed
Old Javanese p-in-atikill, mortify, cause to be like dead
Mongondow p-in-atoykilled


PAN     *p-aCay-en be killed

Thao (kay) p-acay-inbe beaten, be killed
Ilokano patay-énkill, slay, put to death
Mongondow patoy-onhe must or will die


PAN     *pa-p-aCay kill

Thao pa-p-acayto fight
Saaroa pa-pa-pacikill
Proto-Rukai *pa-pacaykill


PMP     *pa-p-atay kill

Ilokano ag-pa-patáycommit suicide, take one's own life
Samal pa-pataykill
Kelabit pe-p-atekill each other
Toba Batak pa-pate-honbring to an end, extinguish
Sangir pa-patedeath
  ka-pa-patehour of death
Tontemboan pa-patedeath, time of dying or killing


PWMP     *pa-p-atay-an kill

Atta pa-patay-ankill
Isneg pa-patay-ānplace in the axilla of a hog through which its heart is pierced, when slaughtering hogs
Tae' pa-p-ate-ankill
  to pa-p-ate-anmurderer


PMP     *in-atay dead

Atta n-ataydead
Isneg n-atáydied, dead
Itawis n-atáydead
Gaddang n-ataydead
Bontok na-tə́ydie; dead
Kankanaey n-atéydied, departed, deceased, expired, gone out
Ifugaw n-atéhe/she died
Ilokano n-atáydead, defunct, extinct, extinguished, indifferent, stopped
Sambal (Botolan) n-atidead
Lun Dayeh in-atewas killed
Kelabit n-atewas killed
Sangir tau n-atedead person
Gorontalo il-atedead
Soboyo n-ate2sg, 3sg, and 3pl form of mate 'die'


PAN     *m<in>aCay burial ground (?)

Thao m<in>acaygrave, burial place
Ilokano m-in-atáydead (person). Considered as being in somebody's charge
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) m-in-ateydead person
Maranao m-i-a-tay so lawasparalysis
Mongondow m-in-atoydied; gone out (fire, light)


POC     *m<in>ate one who has died, dead person

Tolai m-in-atdeath
Duke of York m-in-atcorpse, dead body; dead
Roviana m-in-atedeath


PMP     *ma-m-atay as if dead?

Itawis ma-matáykill
Pangasinan ma-matéybutcher
Hanunóo ma-matáydie
Rungus Dusun ma-mataykill
Ngaju Dayak ma-matäyas if dying, half to death (of working hard, etc.)
Sangir ma-matekill
Banggai ma-mate-konkill
Rotinese ma-matelooking half dead; deathly sick
Erai ma-matewho dies; going to die
Yamdena ma-matedead


POC     *ma-mate (gloss uncertain)

Gilbertese ma-mateimmortal, imperishable, inextinguishable
Maori ma-matedistressed


PMP     *m-atay m-atay die in throngs; be on the verge of death

Toba Batak mate mate naalmost dead
Old Javanese a-mati matikill (in general, not in a particular case), commit the crime of killing
Makasarese mate matedie in throngs (in times of epidemic); total (with verbs)
Rotinese mate mateabsolute, thorough, complete
Buruese mata matadeadly
Buli mat-matdead body; corpse
Manam mate mateto die (iterative), to suffer
Motu mase maseused as an intensive with hebiri (sit or stand close together), hesede (crowded, jostle, etc.)
Nggela mate mateto overcome
Sa'a mae-maedie, be ill, become unconscious
Arosi mae-maevery weak, wasting; infirmity, weakness
Lonwolwol mɛr-mɛrbe faint; to faint, be half-hearted
Fijian mate matesickly
Rennellese mate mateweak, exhausted, as from sickness or grief; be nearly out, as a fire
Maori mate matedie or be taken or caught in numbers; sickly; shallow, failing, of streams

Note:   Also Bontok etéy ‘death’, pátay ‘any sacrifice performed on behalf of the village’, Aklanon ka-mátay-on ‘death’, Manggarai mate ‘the late, the deceased’, Ngadha mate ‘die; dead; the deceased; kill, slay’, Lamaholot maté-n ‘already dead, not moving any more’, Fordata matta ‘die; dead; go out (fire, light)’, Kowiai matata ‘corpse’, Marshallese mij ‘dead; numb; death’, Niue mase ‘die’. Since all of the forms that Dempwolff compared contain a reflex either of *p- or of *m-, he reconstructed both *patay and *matay ‘die, dead’. However, rather than list these reconstructions with the relevant supporting evidence separately, as was his practice with doublets, he posited paired etyma *patay, *matay at the head of a single mixed comparison, with an empty cross-reference to *matay. The explanation for this treatment is given in Dempwolff (1934-38:sect. 47e), where it is suggested that *matay is derived from *patay by nasal substitution, but is sufficiently widespread (being found in ‘Indonesian’, ‘Melanesian’ and Polynesian languages) to require a separate reconstruction. This was perhaps the closest Dempwolff came to the reconstruction of morphology.

The evidence now available shows that the unaffixed PAn base in question was *aCay. Dempwolff's *patay and *matay can most convincingly be derived from *pa-aCay ‘kill’ (with causative *pa-) and *ma-aCay ‘dead’ (with stative *ma-). That the base began with a vowel rather than *q- is clear from such reflexes as Bunun atađ ‘kill’, Kalamian Tagbanwa patay ‘dead’, Moken matay ‘die; dead’, Muna mate ‘die; dead’, Lou mat ‘die; dead’, and Tongan mate ‘die; dead’. The merger of *q- and zero in many attested languages would have led to homophony between reflexes of PAn *aCay ‘death’ and *qaCay ‘liver’, both of which figured in numerous expressions relating to the emotions. Possibly to avoid such potentially awkward homophony the unaffixed base was lost in the great majority of languages, leaving reflexes of *pa-aCay and *ma-aCay as effective secondary base forms for further morphological elaboration. Thus, next to PAn *pa-aCay and PMP *pa-atay ‘kill’ there is a priori evidence for e.g. PMP *pa(ka)-m-atay ‘kill’ and PWMP *ka-m-atay-an ‘affected by a death’, where the outer affixation evidently was added to an already prefixed base.

The alternative hypothesis, that forms such as Bunun atađ ‘kill’, Casiguran Dumagat atë ‘die; dead; death’ or Kelabit ate are products of analogical back-formation from a base *paCay or *maCay is more difficult to maintain in view of the fairly clear (though by no means universal) association of reflexes of the former with the causative ‘kill’ and of reflexes of the latter with the stative ‘dead’. Partly by analogy with *ma-qudip ‘living, alive’, I have attributed all reflexes that Dempwolff would have assigned to *matay to PAn *ma-aCay, PMP *ma-atay, PCEMP *matay, POc *mate. It is possible that these forms actually represent a conflation of *ma-aCay ‘dead’ (stative) and *um-aCay ‘die’ (active), since the initial vowel in reflexes of *in-atay generally disappeared even though it was retained in most other forms, and we would expect a parallel treatment of the initial vowel of *um-atay. Nonetheless, pairs such as Kelabit mate ‘die; dead’, in-ate ‘killed’ suggest that the former does contain a reflex of *ma- rather than *um-. The same apparently must be assumed in PMP *m-in-atay ‘person who has died, corpse’ (= *m-in-a-atay, with contraction of the sequence of like vowels), despite the fact that the co-occurrence of *ma- ‘stative’ and *-in- ‘perfective’ is otherwise rare.

Because of occasional ambiguities in the morphology it is possible that I have posited some morphologically complex forms of *aCay and its reflexes which are in reality products of convergent innovation. Examples include *m-atay-an ‘lose someone through death’, *paŋ-m-atay ‘means of killing(?)’, *ka-p-atay-an ‘end of death of something(?)’ and *ka-p-atay-en ‘death(?)’. As implied in passing above, it appears likely that the prefix of PAn *ma-aCay was reinterpreted as part of the stem in PCEMP *matay. The only known counterevidence to this claim is Bimanese h-ade ‘kill, extinguish a fire’ and Soboyo n-ate ‘2sg, 3sg and 3pl form of m-ate ‘die’. Finally, although Dempwolff reconstructed both *patay and *matay with the meaning ‘die, dead’ it is clear from the data assembled here that by at least PMP times a far richer complex of meanings was associated with *atay, whether alone, affixed, or in combination with various other free morphemes. These meanings included not only ‘death’, ‘dead’, ‘die’, ‘kill’, and ‘corpse’ but also the following more figurative senses:

1. ‘sick’ (Ilokano, Mono-Alu, Eddystone/Mandegusu, Lau, Sa'a, Chuukese, Puluwat, Woleaian, Fijian, Maori),
2. ‘tired, tired of something’ (Ilokano, Mono-Alu, Lau, Gilbertese, Tongan),
3. ‘faint, lose consciousness; unconscious’ (Ilokano, Asilulu, Buruese, Numbami, Nggela, Lau, Kwaio, Sa'a, 'Āre'āre, Arosi, Gilbertese, Chuukese, Mota, Lonwolwol, Tongan, Rennellese, Rarotongan, Maori, Hawaiian),
4. ‘(in conjunction with *qalejaw or *waRi ‘sun’ and *bulan ‘moon’) solar or lunar eclipse’ (Bunun, Manggarai, Kambera, Rotinese, Leti, Lau, Sa'a, Arosi, Gilbertese, Tongan),
5. ‘new moon’ (Cebuano, Toba Batak, Dairi-Pakpak Batak, Makasarese, Rennellese),
6. ‘go out, become extinguished, of a torch or fire’ (Isneg, Bontok, Ilokano, Toba Batak, Bahasa Indonesia, Nias, Mongondow, Palauan, Bimanese, Manggarai, Tetun, Tolai, Kilivila, Nggela, Kwaio, Gilbertese, Chuukese, Fijian, Rennellese, Rarotongan, Maori),
7. ‘overgrown or otherwise blocked, of a path’ (Bahasa Indonesia, Toba Batak, Dairi-Pakpak Batak, Kei),
8. ‘paralyzed, of the limbs’ (Kayan, Dairi-Pakpak Batak, Nias, Sasak, Bare'e, Tae', Makasarese, Wolio, Palauan, Numbami, Nggela, Lau, Sa'a, Arosi, Gilbertese, Marshallese, Chuukese, Puluwat, Tongan, Rennellese, Kapingamarangi, Nukuoro),
9. ‘numb, asleep, of the limbs’ (Malagasy, Bahasa Indonesia, Sasak, Tae', Palauan, Sika, Tolai, Nggela, Lau, Sa'a, 'Āre'āre, Arosi, Marshallese, Lonwolwol, Nukuoro, Rarotongan),
10. ‘die down (of wind)’ (Malay, Toba Batak, Bahasa Indonesia, Bare'e, Makasarese, Kei, Buruese, Tongan),
11. ‘waterless, of springs or rivers’ (Bahasa Indonesia, Old Javanese, Mongondow?, Rarotongan, Maori),
12. ‘dry up, of plants’ (Hanunóo, Hiligaynon, Ngaju Dayak, Nias, Tetun, Nggela, Nukuoro, Rarotongan, Samoan),
13. ‘beaten in a game’ (Malagasy, Makasarese, Manggarai, Rotinese, Kei, Asilulu?, Gilbertese, Rarotongan),
14. ‘fixed, of a price’ (Malay, Bahasa Indonesia, Rotinese),
15. ‘terminate a matter, reach an agreement’ (Toba Batak, Makasarese, Yamdena, Buruese, Maori),
16. ‘disaster, misfortune’ (Tae', Rarotongan, Maori, Hawaiian),
17. ‘intensive, superlative: very, greatly; completely, thoroughly’ (Cebuano, Balinese, Rotinese, Soboyo?, Tanga, Tolai, Motu, Nggela, Kwaio),
18. ‘desire intensely, be deeply in love’ (Cebuano, Malagasy, Gedaged, Numbami, Gilbertese, Tongan, Niue, Rarotongan, Maori, Hawaiian).

To these we can add for PWMP:
19. ‘limp, of the penis’ (Cebuano, Mentawai),
20. ‘fatal spot on the body’ (Isneg, Cebuano, Sundanese),
21. ‘curse; oath; exclamation’ (Cebuano, Bikol, Toba Batak, Tontemboan),

and for PCEMP
22. ‘becalmed, of the sea’ (Rotinese, Kei, 'Āre'āre, Arosi, Gilbertese, Rarotongan).

For convenience I have associated all of these meanings with PMP *ma-atay. It is, moreover, likely that some form of *aCay was found in a PMP expression meaning ‘commit suicide’ (Ilokano, Aklanon, Cebuano, Kiput, Sasak, Banggai, Rennellese), and in a PWMP expression meaning ‘die in childbirth’ (Bahasa Indonesia, Javanese, Sasak, Bare'e, Tae'). The latter may have been the expression I have reconstructed here as *m-atay anak, although borrowing from Malay (e.g. Tagalog páti-anak) has complicated the issue. By contrast, the common practice of using a reflex of *aCay to refer to machinery which has stopped moving (stopped watch or clock, dead engine, etc.) clearly is convergent. Needless to say, many of these usages express universal tendencies.

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*adaduq long (of objects)


PWMP     *adaduq long (of objects)     [doublet: *anaduq]

Isneg adaddulong (of objects)
Kenyah (Long Anap) dadoʔlong (of objects)

Note:   Also Saisiyat ʔinaroʔ ‘long (objects)’, Paiwan laḍuq ‘be long (spatially)’, Chamorro anakkoʔ ‘long’.


*adamay a plant: Pipturus argenteus


PMP     *adamay a plant: Pipturus argenteus

Cebuano handa-lámaysmall tree: Pipturus argenteus. The white part of its bark is scraped and placed over dislocated bones to prevent swelling; the leaves are applied to eczemas
Maranao aramayhibiscus sp.: Pipturus arborescens
Manggarai samaa tree: Pipturus argenteus
Ngadha zamakind of small tree, the bark of which is used for cordage and mail (armor)

Note:   Sundanese haramay ‘an urticacea: Boehmeria nivea’ may also be cognate. If so, *adamay must be changed to *qadamay. The essence of this comparison appears in Verheijen (1984).


*adani near


PWMP     *adani near     [doublet: *daŋi]

Atta aranninear
Isneg adannínear
Sambal (Botolan) ma-raninear
Mamanwa araninear
Ata ma-daninear
Manobo (Tigwa) ma-daninear
Subanun (Siocon) mo-laninear
Kenyah (Long San) laniʔnear
Penan (Long Labid) daniʔnear
Kenyah (Long Dunin) daniʔnear
Sebop daniʔnear
Kiput danaiʔnear
Katingan daninear
Lawangan daninear
Ilokano adanínear
Bimanese ɗeninear
Dobel rrennear

Note:   Also Seediq dalex ‘near (in space or time)’, Ilokano addaní ‘close intervals (of events)’, Gaddang araʔni, Narum sanæʔ, Bintulu janiʔ ‘near’.


*andap phosphorescent centipede (?)


PWMP     *andap phosphorescent centipede (?)

Itbayaten andapidea of emitting light; sp. of fungus
  om-andapto flare or flicker, emit light
Casiguran Dumagat ándepspecies of plant (shines in the dark)
Ilokano andápopalescence, luminescence, phosphorescence
Pangasinan andapto flicker
Tagalog andáptwinkling (of light); spurt of low flame before extinction
Ngaju Dayak andapsmall brown insect, similar in shape to a millipede; when touched it phosphoresces brightly
Tae' andaʔkind of phosphorescent millipede
Buginese anreʔkind of phosphorescent millipede

Note:   Also Sasak andam andam ‘glowworm’. None of the known Philippine reflexes refers specifically to a phosphorescent millipede, but two considerations favor the gloss I have given. First, the semantic reflexes in Ngaju Dayak and the South Sulawesi languages agree closely in referring to such an insect. Second, on the whole semantic extensions proceed by generalizing properites of the concrete objects of experience rather than by concretizing a priori general properties. I thus consider it unlikely that *andap referred to phosphorescence as such. It is probable that some still undeterminded morpheme which was marked by the *qali/kali- prefix also meant ‘luminous millipede’ (Banjarese halimañar ‘luminous millipede’, Malay kelemayar ‘luminous millipede’, Karo Batak katikeran ‘phosphorescent millipede’, Toba Batak hatitioran ‘phosphorescent millipede’, Ambai halimontan ‘phosphorescent light of luminous millipede or toadstool’, Malay (Jakarta) kalimayah ‘luminous millipede’, Tae' andaʔ kalamoyan ‘phosphorescent millipede’).

David Mead (email of January 18, 2015) informs me that “in all of Southeast Asia there are only two described luminous centipede species, of which only the first one listed below -- because of its wide distribution -- could have been the reference of *andap.

1. Orphnaeus brevilabiatus (Newport 1845), a small soil centipede, thread-like body about 3 cm long, 1 mm in diameter with 67 to 81 pairs of legs, known from Africa through Hawaii and the Galapagos Islands, a widely distributed "tropical tramp species"
2. Otostigmus aculeatus (Haase 1887) a small tropical centipede with a dark grey body (with prototypical centipede body shape); known distribution includes "China; Indonesia (Java); Laos; Taiwan; Vietnam.

The confusion of O. brevilabiatus with millipedes has two sources. First, the small size, elongated body shape and numerous leg pairs have caused non-specialists to confuse it with (true) millipedes -- and probably even more so when seen at night under dim lighting conditions. Second, the Dutch term duizenpoot, which can refer to both millipedes and centipedes, has probably added another layer of complexity when Dutch sources have been (mis)translated. There is no confusion on the part of myriapodologists, but, sadly, it must be laid at the feet of linguists and lexicographers. Thus, for example, Smith and Schmidgall-Tellings include in their Comprehensive Indonesian-English Dictionary the self-contradictory entry: "kelemayar luminous millipede, glow-worm, Orphnaeus brevilabiatus." And for a quarter-century in Sulawesi we employed a word list which asked for, as one of its items, the local word for ‘luminescent millipede’!”


*adep chest


PWMP     *adep chest

Dairi-Pakpak Batak adepbreast
Toba Batak adopfemale breast (polite word used by young women)
Tae' araʔchest, breast
Mandar areʔbelly

Note:   Mills (1975:615) posits Proto-South Sulawesi *arɨ[p?] ‘chest, belly (i.e. front of the body)’. As he points out, this item may be equivalent to Dempwolff's *qadep ‘front’.


*adi no, not


PAN     *adi no, not     [disjunct: *hadiq]

Seediq (Truku) adinegation expressing the rejection of a preceding implicit affirmation
Atta arino, not
Balangao adino, negation of non-nominal expressions
Bontok ʔadino, not, negative of verbs and adjectives
Ifugaw adinegative auxiliary of verbs that actually denote a present action; if the verb denotes a past action uggé must be used

Note:   Also Itbayaten alih ‘not, none’. All Philippine reflexes that are assigned to *adi could just as easily be assigned to *hadiq, but this is not true of Seediq adi, which forces the reconstruction of a disjunct.


*andiʔ bathing


PWMP     *um-andiʔ to bathe (oneself)

Iban mandiʔbath, bathe
Malay mandibathing. Etymologically of bathing in water, e.g. in a river like a poor person, -- in contrast to having water poured over oneself (siram), as a person in a bath-house
Lampung mandibathe (intr.)
Sundanese mandibathe, wash oneself
Old Javanese maṇḍibathe
Sasak mandiʔbathe oneself, wash (intr.)


PWMP     *pa-andiʔ to bathe (someone)

Samal pandibathe
Iban pandiʔbathing, bathe
  ai pandiʔbathing place, bathing pool
Sasak pandiʔbathe, wash; specifically, wash the body (trans.)

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak andoi ‘bathe’, Ngaju Dayak ka-panduy-an ‘bathing place’, Malagasy m-àndro ‘bathe’, Malagasy f-andrò-ana ‘the Malagasy annual festival, so called because bathing is one of the chief points in its observance; a bath’. Dempwolff (1934-38) posited *anduy, but the independent testimony of Iban and Sasak supports *.


*adu compete, confront in a contest


PWMP     *adu compete, confront in a contest

Maranao adothreaten, as a piece in chess
Iban aduarbitrate, arrange, settle, adjust; complaint, appeal
Malay adupitting; matching one against the other; getting up a contest. Of any trial of strength or skill, or even of smartness and looks
Acehnese aducompete
Karo Batak aducompetition, rivalry
Toba Batak mar-aducompete with
Sundanese aducome into contact with one another (as the noses or foreheads of two persons
Javanese aduin contact, in confrontation
Balinese adufighting, duel, quarrel
Sasak aducompete for something, as in cockfights or races


PWMP     *maŋ-adu compete, confront in a contest

Karo Batak ŋ-aducomplain
  ŋ-adu-kencomplain about someone
Sundanese ŋ-adufight, confront, argue
Old Javanese aŋ-aduput face-to-face, bring into contact, make clash, have fight, pit against; to vie in, measure
Balinese ŋ-aduto fight
Sasak ŋ-aducompete with others

Note:   Also Tagalog áro ‘prodding test of strength of textiles’, Javanese aḍu ‘sue, bring legal action against’, Mongondow adu ‘accusation, charge’ (Malay loan). Many of the forms cited here probably are Malay loans, and the antiquity of the etymon is thus very much in doubt.


*anduŋ ancestors


PMP     *anduŋ ancestors

Nias aduidol
  adu zatuaancestor figure
Minangkabau andoŋancestor; grandfather
Manggarai anduŋancestors


*aduq exclamation of pain, distress, etc.


PMP     *aduq exclamation of pain, distress, etc.

Mansaka adoʔshout to the spirits (as is the custom of a shaman)
Banjarese aduhexclamation of pain, surprise, etc.
Iban adohexclamation of pain or surprise, adih; cry to a child to sooth it
Malay adohoh! as an interjection of grief or pain
Karo Batak aducomplain
Sundanese aduhan exclamation of pain or grief' oh! ouch! alas!
Old Javanese aḍuhan exclamation of emotion (pain, surprise, etc.)
Javanese aḍuhexclamation of pain, sorrow, joy
Balinese aḍuhalas, oh! (pain, grief); address to superiors; illness, groaning
Kambera arúexclamation of pain, disappointment, astonishment


PWMP     *maŋ-aduq to exclaim in pain, distress, etc.

Karo Batak ŋ-adu-kencomplain about someone
Javanese ŋ-aḍuhto exclaim in pain, etc.

Note:   Also Tagalog aróy ‘pleased or complimentary exclamation’, Hanunóo adúg ‘ow! ouch! An exclamation of sudden pain similar to adíg’, Aklanon adóy ‘oh darn! (expression of frustration)’, Tiruray adoy ‘exclamation of pain’, Old Javanese aḍu, aḍū ‘an exclamation of emotion’, Tae' alu ‘exclamation of lamentation, regret, or disappointment’, Kei adō ‘exclamation of surprise or compassion’.


*a(n)duq long, of objects


PWMP     *a(n)duq long, of objects

Bontok ʔandulong; tall
Balangao andulong
Kayan arulong (general term)

Note:   Apparently a syncopated form of either *adaduq or *anaduq, with possible contamination from *Sadu ‘much, many’.

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*agam consider, think


PWMP     *agam consider, think

Iban agamconsider, think, reckon that
Toba Batak agamthink, intend

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) also included Tagalog ágam-ágam ‘retrospection; misgiving, foreboding’, but the cognation of this form is very doubtful. Although PWMP *agam is only weakly supported it is difficult to explain the known reflexes through an appeal to borrowing, since a reflex has not been reported in Malay.


*agas a tree: Aporosa spp.


PWMP     *agas a tree: Aporosa spp.

Binukid agasa tree: Aporosa sphaeridophora Merr. (Madulid 2001)
Malay agas-agasa tree: Aporosa maingayi


*agem₁ hold, grip


PWMP     *agem₁ hold, grip

Bintulu agemhand
Melanau (Matu) agemhand
Sebop agemhand
Madurese agemhold
Balinese agemhold

Note:   With root *-gem ‘grasp, grip’. Hiligaynon águm ‘obtain, attain, achieve, possess’ and related forms in other Philippine languages are assumed to derive from *agem ‘use, get use from’ (Blust 1980).


*agem₂ use, get use from


PWMP     *agem₂ use, get use from

Cebuano águmget full use out of some benefit someone bestows on one
Subanen/Subanun agomto enjoy (Churchill 1913)
Javanese di-agemused, made use of


*agem₃ overcast


PWMP     *agem₃ overcast

Cebuano agumdirtyish-white, greyish
Karo Batak agemdull (of color, sound); not entirely clear, of the light
Old Javanese agemcloudy sky


*agu and, also


PMP     *agu and, also

Maranao agoand, also
Manggarai aguand, more, yet more, still
Rembong aguand, with, together with

Note:   Also Kambera àŋu ‘and, with’.

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*ai₁ anaphoric or relative particle: there, previously mentioned place


POC     *ai₁ anaphoric or relative particle: there, previously mentioned place

Tolai aiit, sometimes used as a relative pronoun
Motu aiof time or place; in, at, when, during. May be used after single words or clauses
Mono-Alu -aisuffix: there, away; place where or whither
Arosi aithere, that place
Tongan aipronominal adverb: there, in it, on it, because of it, etc.; or (in a relative sense) where, in which, on which, because of which, etc.
Niue aia particle used in the following ways: 1. after verbs to show that what has happened, or is to happen, is the result, consequence, or intention of what has gone before, 2. to indicate a relative clause, frequently giving a verb a passive sense, 3. with the prepositions i and aki to refer to a thing or place already mentioned
Samoan aianaphoric and relative particle: there, why (e.g. 'that was the reason why he came'), herein, hereby
Tuvaluan aianaphoric pronoun
Rennellese aicommon anaphoric particle usually closing a verb phrase and liking it to a preceding noun, often with meaning there, thereby, thus, at, in, it, him, her
Nukuoro aipredicate complement
Rarotongan aiparticle used after a verb to denote cause, means, etc. of event, or to connect an intransitive verb with a transitive verb
Maori ainot generally to be translated by any equivalent English word, but used in the following cases: 1. in relative clauses, where the relative in English is governed by a verb or preposition, 2. in clauses expressing the reason for which anything is done, or the object in view in doing it, 3. in clauses marking the time or place of an action or event, 4. with a verb or adjective denoting an action or state consequent upon some previous action, 5. denoting present habitual condition or action, 6. with reference to something previously mentioned
Hawaiian ailinking or anaphoric particle. Every ai in Hawaiian has an antecedent, usually expressed, but sometimes understood (Elbert and Pukui 1979:96)

Note:   Also Lau ʔai ‘which (relative pronoun)’, Rotuman e ‘adverb, therein, therefrom, because of it, etc. Though generally a quasi-suffix, it is used occasionally in a more independent position’. There is a history of discussion of this form in the literature, with the following milestones:

(1) Pawley (1972:77) reconstructed POc *(q)i-ai ‘previously mentioned place; there, thereat’, adding that this form is ‘Probably analyzable into relational preposition ... and *ai ‘there, previously mentioned place";

(2) Chapin (1974) provided an extensive discussion of PPn *ai,

(3) Pawley (1978:37) showed that many of the Austronesian languages of New Guinea reflect *-iai ‘a postposition marking locative or general relation’, and noted that ‘Evidently, in New Guinea Oceanic the locative pronoun *ai was reanalyzed as a post-nominal particle and its function was generalised to that of a locative case marker. Further study is needed to determine the precise distribution of this putative innovation’;

(4) most recently Ross (1988:347ff) has documented the distribution of *-iai among most languages of the Papuan Tip cluster, several branches of the North New Guinea cluster, and in Torau and Mono-Alu of the Meso-Melanesian cluster. He argues that its use as a postposition in the latter two languages probably is historically independent from the similar usage in the Austronesian languages of New Guinea, and characterized its ‘most usual function in Oceanic languages’ as that of an ‘oblique proform’.


*ai₂ interjection, exclamation of surprise, incredulity, etc.


PAN     *ai₂ interjection, exclamation of surprise, incredulity, etc.

Atayal aiexclamation
Paiwan aiexclamation: alas! oh my!
Itbayaten ayan expression of surprise, awe and the like
Isneg ayan interjection: ah!
Kankanaey ay-ʔayah! ho! what a pickle you are in! Interjection denoting wonder or surprise
Ifugaw ayexclamation to arouse someone's attention
Ilokano ayan interjection: ah!
  ay-áywoe to
Pangasinan ayinterjection expressing hesitation, surprise, or consternation
Tagalog ayinterjection: ay! alas!
Bikol ayah (exclamation)
Aklanon ayinterjection: my! oh! what? (shock, surprise)
Maranao ay-ʔayexclamation of disdain or disbelief
Kelabit aicry of surprise, shock or dismay
Melanau (Mukah) ayexclamation, oh!
Malay aiinterjection expressive of interest and approval
Nias aiinterjection: hey!
Rejang ai-aiejaculation of astonishment or appreciation
Javanese aiexclamation of incredulity or deprecation
Mongondow aiexclamation: hey!
Gorontalo aːyiexclamation, as on seeing a snake
Bimanese aiexclamation
Ngadha aiwail and lament; complain
Kambera aiexclamation
Mbula aihey!
Kilivila aioh no!
Cheke Holo aiexclamation of surprise
Nggela aiexclamation of surprise
Sa'a aiexclamation of dissent, disapproval or surprise

Note:   Also Itbayaten ayyih ‘exclamation of satisfaction’, Cebuano aháy ‘exclamation expressing utter tiredness or frustration’, Iban aih ‘interjection of annoyance, mockery, etc.’, Malay ahi ‘interjection to invite attention’, Nias hai-hai ‘interjection: oh! oh!, Manggarai ‘exclamation’, Nggela ae ‘exclamation of surprise, or deprecatory’.


*ai₃ come


PAN     *ai₃ come     [doublet: *ari, *aRi]

Ilokano ayto come
  ipa-ayto present, use as, offer
Tiruray ʔayto go, to come
Tboli è ec’mon, come on!
Tontemboan aihither, toward the place where the speaker is; used as a verbal postclitic
  ke-aiat the coming of
  maka-aiall come
  mapa-ailet come, allow to come
  ai-ento have come to (a condition)
Enggano aicome


PAN     *um-ai to come     [doublet: *um-ari, '(ari', *um-aRi 'aRi)']

Favorlang maito come
Ilokano um-ayto come
  aginʔa-ayto pretend to come
  maka-umayable to come
Tontemboan m-aiwill come, shall come
Banggai maiCome!
Tae' maihither, toward the speaker
  dio maifrom there
  dao maifrom above
  male maicome here
Mandar maifrom; hither, to here
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *maito come
Wolio maicome; hither; Come on! (= ‘Let’s go!’)
Muna maicome
  mai-moCome on! Let us.
Bimanese maito come; Come on! Let’s go!
Manggarai maiCome on! Let’s go!; hither; to come; then, therefore, thus; origin, originate; from, after (in time)
Rembong maito come; Come on! Let’s go!
Ngadha maito come; hither
Sika maito come
Lamboya maito come
Kambera maito come
Hawu maito come
Rotinese maito come; to arrive
Tetun maito come; prepostion: to, for, here
  mai bebut, however
Leti maito come
Kisar maito come
Wetan maito come, to come to, to become (in this case it is usually followed by pi)
Erai mato come
Selaru r-mato come
Yamdena n-mato come
Paulohi maito come; hither
Alune maito come; here
Kamarian maihither, toward the speaker
Buli mahither, toward the speaker
Numfor matoward the speaker
  rā-macome hither
Ansus ra-macome
Waropen mahither, toward the speaker
  aede macome here


POC     *mai come; toward the speaker

Lou meto come
  wa meCome here! (= ‘you come’)
Penchal meto come
  wa meCome here! (= ‘you come’)
Loniu meto come
Titan meto come
Bipi meto come
Levei o meCome here! (= ‘you come’)
Lindrou wa meCome here! (= ‘you come’)
Sori mayto come
  go mayCome here! (= ‘you come’)
Wuvulu maito come
  no maiCome here! (= ‘you come’)
Mussau maito come
  kasu maiCome here! (= ‘walk hither’)
Vitu maicome; this way, here; to me
Tolai maihither, to here; Come here!; to cease, stop, abate, of rain
Lakalai maito me; hither
  s-o-maiin my direction
Kairiru -myaicome; motion towards the speaker
Manam maito come
  go maiCome here! (= ‘you come’)
Molima maito come; hither (vs. wai)
Motu maito come
Selau la maCome here! (= ‘walk hither’)
Mono-Alu lao-maCome here! (= ‘walk hither’)
Sengga meto come
Vangunu maito come
Kokota maito come
Lengo maito come
Eddystone/Mandegusu maihither, to here, generally used with an imperative; to come
  bola maiCome here!
Longgu la maiCome here! (= ‘walk hither’)
Nggela maihither, from a point, at a point away from the speaker; come; up til now, from up til now
  nia maicome with, bring
  vula te mainext month
Kwaio maihither; come
  mai-acall someone by waving the hand; beckon
  siŋali loʔo mainext month
Toqabaqita maivenitive directional; signals direction toward the deictic center; in temporal noun phrases it signals that the period of time is distant from the time of reference
Sa'a maihither, here, this way
'Āre'āre maihere, hither, this way, said of things and persons coming nearby; come here; give it to me; let me see, show me
  uta mairain is coming
Arosi maihither; nearer
  mai hei?Where do you come from?
  haa maiGive me
Proto-Micronesian *maifrom
Gilbertese maifrom
  mai ikaifrom here
  ka-maiGive me! (for distant objects)
  nako-maiCome here, come towards me!
Puluwat mefrom
Woleaian mefrom, at, to than (as in ‘Where did you come from?’)
Carolinian mefrom, at
Mota mahither, this way
Motlav van meCome here! (= ‘walk hither’)
Raga maito come
Fortsenal su-maito come
Axamb -ko-maiCome here! (= ‘you come’)
Makatea nu-maito come
Nakanamanga u-maito come
Wayan maiindicates movement or orientation towards the speaker or the speaker’s point of reference: this way, hither, here (the movement may be actual or figurative); indicates that a change of state is beginning or is in progress: start to, become, grow, get (into a new state)
Fijian maia directive particle after verbs, indicating movement towards the speaker
Tongan maito or towards me or us, etc.; also expression of desire, etc.
Niue maidirective particle: hither, this way, towards the speaker; to give (towards the speaker only); from
Futunan maimai
  mai le tosiGive me the book!
Samoan maipre-basic particle, from; post-basic particle which denotes a literal or figurative movement from a position (in space or time) toward the point where the speaker is
Tuvaluan maitowards the speaker; to pass to the speaker; to come (plural)
Kapingamarangi maitoward speaker; from (place or time)
Nukuoro maitoward the speaker; less; nearer
Rennellese maidirectional particle and verb indicating direction towards the speaker; this way, here; me, us; give me; look here; preposition, from
Anuta maiparticle indicating action toward some point of reference, generally the speaker; from
Rarotongan maihither, here; correlative of atu; used with verbs, adjectives and local nouns to indicate direction or action towards the speaker
Maori maihither, correlative of atu; used with verbs, adjectives and local nouns to indicate direction or action towards the speaker; indicating extension of time or space towards the speaker; often to be translated ‘from’
Hawaiian maidirection towards the speaker; come, come here; say, give (used without particles); almost, nearly, as though; particle of negative command
  hele maiCome!

Note:   Also Kajeli mae ‘to come’, Nauna ko me-h ‘Come here! (= ‘you come’)’, Roviana mae ‘come; used frequently in conjunction with other words, but always implies motion towards speaker’. Dempwolff reconstructed only *maRi ‘hither’, and although he noted that Sa'a mäi showed an unexplained loss of the medial consonant under his interpretation, he regarded the Fijian and Polynesian forms as regular developments. However, nearly all reflexes of this form in Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages reflect *um-ai, suggesting that even where they are ambiguous for *um-ai or *um-aRi they probably reflect the first variant. It is further noteworthy that both Ibaloy ali (< *aRi) and Toqabaqita mai (< *um-ai) signal distance in time from the present.


*ait copulate; copulation, sexual intercourse


POC     *ait copulate; copulation, sexual intercourse

Gedaged aihave sexual intercourse (also used in respect to animals)
Mbula -yehave sexual intercourse
Mono-Alu aiticopulate (of humans)
Fijian caihave sexual intercourse with: trans. cai-tá
Maori ailie with a female; copulate, of both sexes
  ai-tiacopulate with
  ai-taŋaprogeny, descendants
Hawaiian aicoition; to have sexual relations

Note:   Also Iban ait ‘desire, long for, crave, covet’, Lou aIt (< *aetV) ‘copulate, have sexual intercourse’, Gedaged yait ‘fornication’.

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*ajan name


PMP     *ajan name     [doublet: *najan, *ŋajan]

[Isneg náxanwho?, what? (cp. ŋáxan 'name, appellation')]
Kalamian Tagbanwa aranname
[Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) ŋadanname; what?]
Mansaka aranname
Belait adinname
Bukat aranname
Lahanan aranname
Taboyan aranname
Kayan (Uma Juman) araname
Ngaju Dayak araname
Maloh asanname
Singhi Land Dayak adunname
Old Javanese aranname
Javanese aranpersonal name; name, (what something is) called or known as
Balinese adanname, appellation; give a name
Sasak aranname
Sobei asa-name
Tarpia taya- <Mname
Seimat axa-name
Kairiru asa-name
Manam ara-name
Motu lada-name
Mekeo aka-name
Roro ata-name
Tigak asa-nname
Tanga asaname, either personal or common; who?
Tabar asa-name
Mendak asa-name
Label asawhat?
Banoni vasaŋaname
Nggela ahaname
  ahei (< *asa-i)who?; whoever, anyone, he who
Lau sataname; namesake; friend
Kwaio lataname
  lata-naname; reputation
Sa'a sataname
'Āre'āre rata-iname
Arosi ataname
  atei (< *asa-i)who; interrogative pronoun, but not indefinite like Mota isei
Gilbertese araname, title, noun
  are (< *asa-i)who, whom, that, which, what, whoever
Marshallese ātname; reputation
Pohnpeian ahdname; noun
Mokilese adname; reputation
Jawe yatname
Rotuman asaname; reputation, honor
Fijian yacaname


PMP     *pa(ka)-ajan to name, give a name to

Sasak p-arangive someone a name
Fijian vaka-yaca-nato name

Note:   Also Samal oon ‘name’, Jarai anan ‘name’, Sasak ara ‘name’, Sangir areŋ ‘name’, Bantik adeŋ ‘name’, Buginese aseŋ ‘name’, Makasarese areŋ ‘name’, Numbami ase ‘name’. Kayan (Uma Juman) ara appears to have lost the final nasal through analogical back-formation by reinterpretation of -n as ‘3sg. possessor’ (cp. mata-n ‘his/her eye’). The same presumably is of true of Ngaju Dayak, Sasak ara, although the facts in these cases are less well known.

Finally, the use of the word for ‘name’ as an interrogative marker, either ‘who?’ (extension of its use as a marker of personal names), or ‘what?’ (extension of its use as a marker of common names) has a thin but widespread distribution in Austronesian languages, including the northern and southern Philippines, New Ireland, the Solomon Islands and portions of Micronesia. I assume that these usages are convergent developments.


*ajiq exclamation of pain or surprise


PWMP     *ajiq exclamation of pain or surprise

Pangasinan agíouch!
Iban adihexclamation of pain or surprise

Note:   Also Tiruray adey ‘exclamation of pain’, Malay adoh, aduh ‘oh! as an interjection of grief or pain’. Given their expressive character some or all of these items could be products of convergence.

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*akak cackling laughter


PMP     *akak cackling laughter

Bikol ákákto quack
Balinese akaklaugh loudly
Manggarai ahakimitation of the sound of a cough

Note:   Also Hanunóo akhák ‘expectoration of catarrhal phlegm’, Cebuano akaʔak ‘make a crackling sound, loud creaking sound’. With root *-kak₁ ‘cackle, laugh loudly’.


*akaŋ take a long step, step over something


PWMP     *akaŋ take a long step, step over something     [disjunct: *sakaŋ]

Casiguran Dumagat akáŋto cautiously take a step (as a hunter in stalking game, or a small child just learning to walk)
Bontok ʔákaŋto step over, as a rock or a sleeping person
Kankanaey akaŋ-káŋto spread one’s legs; to straddle
Ifugaw (Batad) ākaŋfor someone to step over someone or something, especially something low
Lun Dayeh akaŋa pace, step, stride
  ŋ-akaŋopen the legs to step forward, step over something
  kaŋ-en ~ kaŋ-inwill be stepped over

Note:   Kankanaey akaŋ-káŋ is assumed to show rightward reduplication. With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.


*akaR root


PMP     *akaR root     [disjunct: *wakaR]

Bisaya (Limbang) akawvine, creeper
Murik akahvines, creepers, aerial roots
Kayan (Uma Juman) akahvines, creepers, exclusive of rattan
Malay akarroot; root-fibre; creeping or climbing plant; liana
Karo Batak akarvery young jungle (must have earlier referred to creepers)
Balinese akahroot, tree root
Sasak akarroot
Watubela akalroot
Tongan akaroot
Samoan aʔaroot
Tuvaluan akaroot
Rennellese akaroot
Anuta vai-akaroot
Kapingamarangi agaroot (of tree or plant)
Rarotongan akaroot
Hawaiian aʔasmall root, vein, artery, nerve, tendon, muscle
Maori akalong and thin roots of trees or plants; vine of any climbing plant

Note:   Also Sasak akah ‘root’.


*aŋkat lift, raise, pick up


PWMP     *aŋkat lift, raise, pick up

Kankanaey aŋkátthe place from where it is fetched, taken, brought (money, camotes, wood, etc.)
Pangasinan aŋkátbuy wholesale
Tagalog aŋkátconsignment of merchandise
Aklanon áŋkatget on credit
Cebuano aŋkáttake something for resale on credit
Maranao akattransport, move
Malagasy ákatraascent, upward progress
Malay aŋkatlifting up; (fig.) adoption
Acehnese aŋkatlift, raise, pick or take up
Karo Batak r-aŋkatgo out on an expedition or raid
Dairi-Pakpak Batak peŋ-aŋkatway of leaping
Mentawai akátlift, raise (Morris 1900)
  masi-akkatlift (Pagai, Sipora, southern Siberut)
Rejang akeutadopted; senior, older
Sundanese aŋkatlift it up! (imperative)
  m-aŋkatdepart on a trip
Old Javanese aŋkatdeparture, getting up
  m-aŋkatget up, rise, set out, depart
Javanese ŋ-aŋkat-(i)lift, raise
Balinese aŋkatset off, march to war, depart
Sasak aŋkatlift up, raise; appoint to a position (by those higher up)
Mongondow aŋkatexpression of congratulations
Bare'e me-aŋkastand up, rise up
Tae' aŋkaʔpick up, lift up, raise up; to praise, exalt; promote to (an office or position)
Makasarese aŋkaʔlifting, raising
Wolio aŋkalift up; fly up (many birds), run away (many people)
  aŋkat-akahold in high esteem, have a high regard for


PWMP     *ka-aŋkat moveable (?)

Rejang k-akeutlift, adopt, take up (imperative)
Javanese k-aŋkatmovable, portable


PWMP     *maŋ-aŋkat lift, raise, carry

Itawis maŋ-akkátcarry
Karo Batak ŋ-aŋkatlift up, raise
Dairi-Pakpak Batak meŋ-aŋkatleap; lift, raise
Rejang meŋ-akeutadopt
Sundanese ŋ-aŋkatopen festivities; lift, raise; appoint
Balinese ŋ-aŋkatset off, march to war, depart
Bare'e maŋ-aŋkat-akalift, raise up high
Makasarese aŋŋ-aŋkaʔlift up, lift and carry away


PWMP     *maŋ-aŋkat-aŋkat lift, elevate

Malay meŋ-aŋkat-aŋkatto praise up; to flatter
Dairi-Pakpak Batak meŋ-aŋkat-ŋ-aŋkatleap, spring, rise on one's toes
Old Javanese aŋ-aŋkat-aŋkatlift, elevate; send off, make depart; take up one's belongings (weapons, baggage) in order to depart


PWMP     *maR-aŋkat lift, raise, pick up

Isneg max-akkātlift a bow net that has been set
Malagasy mi-àkatraascend, go up, mount up
Malay ber-aŋkattravel with a retinue, to journey (of a prince)
Sasak mer-aŋkatto marry
Bare'e mo-aŋkalift up, as something that has been lying flat but which the heat of the sun has caused to curl


PWMP     *pa-aŋkat (gloss uncertain)

Malay p-aŋkattier; stage; floor; grade; rank; school-standard
Sundanese p-aŋkatrank, grade
Makasarese pa-aŋkaʔbearer, carrier


PWMP     *paŋ-aŋkat act of lifting or raising

Karo Batak peŋ-aŋkathelp
Sundanese paŋ-aŋkatintroduction, beginning (as of a feast)
Javanese paŋ-aŋkatact or way of raising
Makasarese paŋaŋ-aŋkaʔthe lifting, raising


PWMP     *taR-aŋkat lift, raise, pick up

Bahasa Indonesia ter-aŋkatraised, lifted
Makasarese tar-aŋkaʔbe lifted or raised (cp. Bahasa Indonesia ter-aŋkat)


PWMP     *aŋkat-an lift, raise up

Isneg akkat-ánto lift, as a load that has to be carried; remove a pot from the fire, etc.
  akkat-ānhelp lift up a load
  aŋkat-ānthe place where loads are lifted up, where bow nets have been set
Malay aŋkat-anexpedition; generation (same age group)
Javanese aŋkat-anact or way of lifting; a load
Tae' aŋkar-andeliverance from worry and disaster
Makasarese aŋkakk-aŋlift or raise something for someone


PWMP     *aŋkat aŋkat hold up, keep aloft

Malay aŋkat-aŋkatgait, bearing
Wolio aŋka-aŋkalift and keep up, hold up, keep aloft

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat egkat ‘stand up, lift up, get up from a sitting position’, Kankanaey eŋkát ‘the place from where it is fetched, taken, brought (money, camotes, wood, etc.)’, Lauje leŋkat ‘depart’, Dondo boŋkat ‘depart’, Sa'a aka ‘pull out (as teeth); emerge (as a crab from its den)’. I assume that Manggarai aŋkak ‘lift, raise; depart’, Rembong aŋkak ‘depart, go; lift, raise’ are irregularly altered loans from Malay.


*ake tree sp.


POC     *ake tree sp.

Eddystone/Mandegusu akesp. tree
Tongan akehardwood tree found at Vava’u
Rarotongan akeakea tree which is common at high altitudes --- it attains from 12 to 15 feet in height, Xylosma gracile
Maori akea tree: Dodonaea viscosa
Hawaiian aʔeseveral native trees, the soapberry (sapindus saponaria f. inaequalis), and all species of Fagara (also known as Xanthoxylum), Fagara having yellowish wood formerly used for digging sticks and spears; seeds of all (largest in the soapberry) are black, round, and used for leis

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*aŋkeb covering, lid


PWMP     *aŋkeb covering, lid

Aklanon áŋkobseal, filling, joiner, gap-filler
Cebuano aŋkúbcovering over the opening of a small boat, the analogue of a deck on large boats; fill something in to cover up a deficiency
Balinese aŋkebcover(ing), lid, bed-spread, table-cloth

Note:   The Bisayan forms may contain *-kub₁ ‘cover’ (cp. Mongondow aŋkub ‘to cover’, where u can come only from *u). With root *-keb₁ ‘cover’.


*aken 1sg oblique


PAN     *aken 1sg oblique

Thao y-akin1sg accusative and absolute possessive pronoun
Proto-Bunun *ð-akun1sg acc (Ross 2006:533)
Paiwan ti-akenI
Ibatan y-aken1sg topicalized nominative pronoun, fronted agent pronoun
  dy-aken1sg dative and emphatic possessive marker
Tagalog ákin1sg oblique
Maranao r-aken1sg oblique
Bonggi di-adn1sg oblique
Ida'an Begak n-akon1sg oblique
Sungai Seguliud akon1sg oblique
Murut (Kolod) d-akon1sg oblique


*akeq 1sg oblique


PPh     *akeq 1sg oblique     [doublet: *aken]

Cebuano (SE Bohol) akeʔ1sg oblique
Murut (Kalabakan) r-akoʔ1sg oblique
Mongondow koʔi-n-akoʔ1sg oblique

Note:   Also Molbog ny-ahiʔ, Lotud j-okiʔ ‘1sg oblique’. The reconstruction of this variant, and *q-final forms of the first person plural inclusive and exclusive oblique pronouns, is based on material provided by Jason Lobel. The reconstruction of all forms of the oblique personal pronouns has benefited from unpublished data provided by Lobel, although they are independently reconstructible without this material.


*akerahaq cry of a monkey


PMP     *akerahaq cry of a monkey

Tagalog akláhaʔcry of monkeys
Maranao keraʔsound made by the monkey
Iban kerah-kerahchattering
Manggarai keracall, cry of a monkey
Ngadha kerashrill cry of monkeys

Note:   Iban kerah-kerah was earlier assigned to *keraq ‘chattering of monkeys’ (Blust 1970: no. 207).


*a(ŋ)kit bite


PMP     *a(ŋ)kit bite

Aklanon áŋkitto bite, nip
Ngaju Dayak p-aŋkitbiting, to bite (as a dog)
Manggarai akitto bite


PMP     *um-a(ŋ)kit to bite

Dusun Malang maŋkitto bite
Tetun makkitto bite


*aku 1sg nominative; I


PAN     *aku 1sg nominative; I

Proto-Atayalic *-akuI
Atayal s-akuprimary pronoun, I
Seediq (Truku) y-akuemphatic form of the 1sg. personal pronoun; always requires a particle (ka or o) in order to be united with the predicate of which it is the subject
Saisiyat y-ako1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Pazeh y-aku1sg. topic and accusative pronoun: I, me
Kavalan iku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Thao y-aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Tsou na-ʔo1sg.; I’
Saaroa ilh-aku1sg.; I
Proto-Rukai *-ako1sg.; I’
Rukai (Budai) ko-akó1sg.; I’
Bunun ðakume
Itbayaten akoI
Ivatan ako1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Sambal (Botolan) aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Kapampangan aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Tagalog akó1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Bikol akó1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Hanunóo ʔakúI (pronoun)
Cebuano akúI, me
Aklanon akó1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Hiligaynon akú1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Aborlan Tagbanwa aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Palawan Batak ʔakóI (pronoun)
Mansaka aku1sg. topic pronoun: I
Maranao ako1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Tboli ɔʔuh1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Tausug akuh1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Samal aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Yakan aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Bonggi ou1sg. focused actor pronoun: I
Murut (Timugon) aku1sg. topic and theme pronoun: I
Bisaya (Limbang) aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Bisaya (Bukit) aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (coarse, or non-respect form)
Ida'an Begak aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Kelabit u-ih1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Penan (Long Labid) akəuʔ1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Berawan (Long Terawan) akkoh1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Narum kaw1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Miri ko-y1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Bintulu akəw1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Melanau (Mukah) akəw1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Kayan (Uma Juman) aku-y1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Ma'anyan aku1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Malagasy ahoI, myself (used chiefly after the predicate)
  iz-ahoI, myself (used chiefly before the predicate)
Ba'amang y-akuʔ1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Siang akuh1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Singhi Land Dayak aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Iban akuI, me, my, mine
Jarai kəwI, me
Rhade kəwI, me
Malay akuI; me. The pronoun of the first person singular, but used in a double sense: (i) 'myself', used by a superior to an inferior, by an elder to a younger, or between equals talking so familiarly as to ignore etiquette. Also in prayer, (ii) 'my own', i.e. taking responsibility for or answering for
Gayō aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Karo Batak aku1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Toba Batak ahu1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Simalur aʔu1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Nias y-aʔó1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me
Mentawai āku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Rejang uku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Old Javanese akupronoun of the first person: I, me
Javanese aku1sg. nominative and accusative pronoun: I, me; my (variant of -ku)
Sasak aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Mongondow aku-oi1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Banggai i-aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Bare'e aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Tae' aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Mori aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I (future)
Uma aku-ʔ1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Wolio i-aku1sg.: I, me
  -akusuffix with transitive verbs indicating 1sg. object
Chamorro gwahu1sg. emphatic subject pronoun: I
Palauan ŋak1sg. emphatic subject and object pronoun: I, me
Komodo ahu1sg.: I, me
Manggarai aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Li'o aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Hawu yaː1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Rotinese au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Atoni auʔ1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Kemak au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Mambai au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Leti au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Kisar au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Erai au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Selaru yau1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Yamdena yaku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Ujir ak1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Dobel saʔu1sg. nominative pronoun: I
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) ok1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Elat ak1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Geser aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Bonfia y-ā1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Hitu y-au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Alune aku~ au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Paulohi au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Nuaulu au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Soboyo aku1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Buruese y-akome. Usually objective case
Sekar yai1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Kowiai laʔ1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Ansus y-au1sg, I
Giman yak1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Buli ya1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Ambai yau1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Numfor ya1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Wandamen yau1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Sobei yau1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Wuvulu au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Leipon yo1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Tabar au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Duke of York i-au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Lakalai e-auI, me
Maleu i-au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Mengen i-au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Gitua yau1st sg., I
Roro au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Motu lau1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Suau yau1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Ubir yau1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Tinputz yo1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Kis au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Southwest Tanna i-ou1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Fijian i-au1sg. cardinal pronoun: I
Tongan au1sg.: I, me
Niue au1sg.: I, me
Samoan aʔu1sg. exclusive conjunct verbal pronoun (post-basic)
Maori au1sg.: I, me
Tahitian (v)au1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Hawaiian (w)au1sg. nominative pronoun: I


PWMP     *aku-en acknowledge; receive, accept

Ilokano ako-énreceive, accept with both hands; receive graciously (a petitioner, etc.); to get (a reward)
Malay (Sarawak) akunclaim, admit
Old Javanese akon-akonpossession (promised as war booty); acknowledged (adopted) child


PAN     *k-aku 1sg oblique: to me, for me

Amis kako1sg.; I
Kapampangan kaku1sg. benefactive-dative personal pronoun; to (for) me (Mirikitani 1972:102)
Karo Batak kakusomeone who answers for another
Rejang k-akewacknowledge (imperative)
Old Javanese k-ākumake something one's own, to appropriate; relate to oneself, take possession of, master; regard as one's own, acknowledge, confess to, admit; to claim (as one's own), be sure of, depend on, answer for, guarantee, declare that one is able to (often boastfully)


PWMP     *maŋ-aku admit, confess

Pangasinan maŋ-ákoaccept, receive
Iban ŋ-akuʔtreat as, acknowledge; claim, admit, confess, own (as if owning up to the paternity of a child)
Karo Batak ŋ-akuadmit, confess
Toba Batak meŋ-ahu-hondesire for oneself
Dairi-Pakpak Batak meŋ-aku-iguarantee, be responsible for
Rejang meŋ-akewacknowledging
Sundanese ŋ-akuadmit, confess; to receive (a guest)
Old Javanese aŋ-akumake something one's own, to appropriate; relate to someone; take possession of, master; regard as one's own, acknowledge, confess to, admit; claim (as one's own), be sure of, depend on, answer for, guarantee, declare that one is able to (often boastfully)
Javanese ŋ-akuacknowledge, claim or acknowledge as one's own; claim falsely
Madurese ŋ-akoadmit, confess
Balinese ŋ-akuclaim as one's own, say 'mine'; acknowledge (a child)
Sasak ŋ-akuadmit, confess
Sangir maŋ-akuadmit, confess; undertake something
Tontemboan maŋ-akuadmit, confess; commit oneself to something
Gorontalo moŋ-akuadmit, confess
Mongondow moŋ-akuadmit, confess, acknowledge, promise
Dampelas meŋ-akuadmit, confess
Bare'e maŋ-akuadmit, confess; undertake something
Tae' maŋ-akuadmit, confess
Makasarese aŋŋ-akuadmit, confess


PMP     *ni aku 1sg. agent

Cebuano n-ákuʔmy; by me (agent/possessor form)
Lampung ñakI (coarse form)
Bimanese nahuI (older person speaking to younger one: coarse, or non-respect form)
Tigak nakI
Magori nau1sg.
Misima nau1sg.
Bugotu i-nauI
Nggela nauI, me; to seize
Lau nauI, me
  nau-nauself-assertive, egotist; strong and violent, of a person
  nau satato own
Kwaio nauI, me
  nau ʔaniaclaim title to
Sa'a i-neu1sg., used as subject only and followed by nou
Ulawa i-nau1sg., used as subject and also as a possessive
Mota i-nau1sg., I, me
Raga i-nau1sg.
Nakanamanga ki-nau1sg.
Paamese i-nauI, me, 1sg.
Canala naI, me


POC     *ŋau₂ 1sg.: I

Seimat ŋa1sg. nominative pronoun: I
Lou ŋa1sg.: I
Sengseng ŋa1sg.: I
Lamogai ŋa1sg.: I
Manam ŋau1sg.: I
Gedaged ŋa1sg.: I, me
Gitua ŋaI (subject prefix): yau ŋa geno 'I slept'
Lamogai ŋa1sg.: I
Nehan i-ŋo1sg.: I, my
Kosraean ŋa1sg.: I
Marshallese ŋaabsolute pronoun, 1sg.: I

Note:   Also Nias yaʔo ‘I’, Ngadha dzao ‘I’, Sika ʔaʔu ‘I’, Tetun haʔu ‘I, me’, Yapese gaeg ‘I, me’, Mussau agi ‘I’, Vitu Gau ‘I, me’, Wogeo va ‘I’, Roviana rau ‘I, me’, Rotuman goua ‘I, me’, Tongan ou ‘I, me’. Many reflexes of *aku contain a fossilized person marker *i (cf. Blust 1977). In some Oceanic languages it is difficult to determine whether an initial high front glide in this form is the reflex of *i, or the epenthetic onset that was commonly added to forms that began with *a (Blust 1990:10ff).

There are several additional problems associated with the morphology of this entry, not including the non-morphologically derived forms *-ku and *ak, which are treated as separate entries.

First, independent evidence for a directional particle *ki suggests that *k-aku derives ultimately from *ki aku, although direct evidence for this collocation still is lacking.

Second, widespread reflexes of *n-aku or *ñ-aku (presumably < *ni aku) suggest that the long-form pronoun *aku followed the agent/possessor marker *ni in certain constructions, even though normally only the short-form pronouns occurred in this environment (Blust 1977:5).

Third, although it is necessary to reconstruct a POc variant *ŋau the source of the initial consonant, and the syntactic distinctions between *ŋau and other forms of the 1sg. personal pronoun remain unclear (cf. Pawley 1972:61, where ‘PEOc’ *(i) nau is glossed ‘1sg. focal’, *au and *nau as ‘1sg. object’, *(ŋ)ku and *na(u) as ‘1sg. subject’, and *-ŋku as ‘1sg. possessive’, although *ŋau does not appear among the languages considered, and hence is not considered).

Fourth, so many CMP and OC languages show an irregular loss of *k in *aku that it is simplest to posit a change *aku > *au in their immediate common ancestor (PCEMP), which thus had variants *aku, *au. Although this is a distinction of form which evidently had no connection with morphology, we still must ask whether there could have been a syntactic distinction between *aku and *au in PCEMP or any of its descendants.

Finally, although affixed forms of *aku meaning ‘admit, confess, acknowledge’ and the like apparently must reconstructed, many of the known reflexes probably are due to borrowing (e.g. Tagalog paŋ-ákoʔ ‘promise’, Javanese peŋaku ‘confession, acknowledgement, verification’), Manggarai aku, Kambera maŋaku ‘admit, confess’.


*aŋkub cover


PMP     *aŋkub cover

Bontok ʔakúblarge covered basket, generally used as a lunch basket for carrying rice to the fields
Ilokano akkúbcover, wrapper, shell (of crab)
  akóbjoin together two things of the same kind facing each other (two plates, two shells, two hands, etc.)
Javanese aŋkubcalyx, flower sheath (green cover that splits at blossoming)
Mongondow aŋkubto cover


POC     *aŋkup₂ cover

Arosi sakuclose tightly on

Note:   With root *-kub₁ ‘cover’. Pigeaud (1938) gives Javanese aŋkup ‘calyx’; aŋkub was offered by Soeparno (p.c.). Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *aŋkub ‘cover’.


*aŋkup scoop up with both hands; a double handful


PWMP     *aŋkup₁ scoop up with both hands; a double handful

Isneg ákupto catch
  akkúp-ancatch birds in their nest, at night
Itawis m-ákkupgather up in both hands cupped together
Casiguran Dumagat akoppick up (as to pick up rice, salt, sand by cupping it in your hands, or to pick up a pile of clothing or trash in your arms
Bontok ʔákupgather up with cupped hands, as spilt beans
Kankanaey ákupone (great) handful; one (small) armful. A quantity that can be taken up with both hands
Ifugaw ákupact of scooping out things (e.g. pounded rice, beans) with one's two hands joined
Ifugaw (Batad) ākupscoop out a liquid or solid with the two hands cupped together
Ilokano akúp-engather, collect. With both hands, two brooms, etc., as dirt
Pangasinan ákopget with both hands
Hanunóo ʔákuphandful, as of rice grains
Aklanon ákopgreedy, selfish
Cebuano akup-akupmonopolize a job, possession, or enjoyment of something
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) akupa measure of two handfuls
Maranao akopscoop with both hands
  sa-ʔakoptwo handfuls
Tiruray ʔakufthe contents of one's two cupped hands; try to get all for oneself
Kenyah akopwith hands cupped; two hands full
  m-akopscoop with both hands
Ngaju Dayak akopscoop up with the two cupped hands
  aŋkopsmall pincers or tweezers used to extract facial hair
Malay aŋkuppincers, opening and shutting as tongs. Of an animal snapping its jaws, a person nipping with his fingers, a butcher seizing and tearing off the skin of a slaughtered animal
Dairi-Pakpak Batak aŋkupsmall pincers used for plucking
Lampung akuʔtake something
Old Javanese aŋkuppincers or tongs
Gorontalo waʔupocatch, capture, be caught or captured

Note:   Also Hiligaynon hákup ‘handful, fistful’. This item evidently referred to the gathering of particulate matter in the two cupped hands. It is possible that those forms associated with the meaning ‘pincers, tweezers’ are distinct, but I treat them as part of the same cognate set on the assumption that they share a common semantic element in the approximation of two surfaces brought together in order to lift an object. Kenyah, Ngaju Dayak akop show unexplained lowering of *u, but clearly are cognate. Probably with root *-kup ‘enclose, cover’.

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*ala take, get, fetch, obtain


PAN     *ala take, get, fetch, obtain     [disjunct: *alaq₁]

Pazeh araget it!
Thao araget it!
  maki-arapluck rice heads between the thumb and index finger in harvesting
Kavalan araget it!
Amis alato take
Bontok ʔálaget
Ibaloy alato get, take something
Pangasinan aláget, take
  ala-ánsource of something
Mentawai alafetch, get, pick up
Sundanese alafetch, get, look for, gather in, harvest
Uma pa-ʔalacatch something; haul in loot or booty
Mandar alafetch, get, take
Komodo alatake; marry
Soboyo alafetch, get, take, capture
Gilbertese anatake, subtract, take away, remove, take off


PAN     *ma-ala be fetched, be taken

Amis ma-alabe taken
Ibaloy m-adato get, take something
Uma ma-ʔalaseized, caught


PAN     *um-ala to fetch, get, take

Pazeh m-arato take
Thao m-arato get, fetch, take
Tsou m-aroto take
Kanakanabu um-á-alato take
Saaroa um-a-alato take
Proto-Rukai *m-alato take
Kavalan m-arato get, take
Bontok ʔ<um>álato fetch, to get


PAN     *ala-en be taken

Amis ala-enbe taken
Ilokano alá-entake, get, go and get
Ibaloy ala-ento get, take something
Malagasy ala-ìnabe fetched; be taken, be summoned, be called, be invited; be chosen, be preferred


*alaŋ-alaŋ insufficient, half-heartedly


PWMP     *alaŋ-alaŋ insufficient, half-heartedly

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) alaŋ-alaŋto deceive by hypocrisy; to be at the stage of growth where one is almost an adult
Mansaka araŋ-anhesitant; reluctant; overly cautious
Binukid alaŋ-alaŋsomewhat, but not quite; not up to a certain level; to be not quite (as fruit that isn’t yet ripe enough to eat)
Mapun alaŋ-alaŋpartially; sparingly; without all of one’s effort; half-heartedly
  alaŋ-kapalaŋto be hesitant or reluctant
Tiruray ʔalaŋ-alaŋfalling short, not fully completed, discontinued too soon
Iban alaŋ-alaŋinsufficient, (do) half-heartedly
Malay alaŋmediocre; medium; half-and-half
  alaŋ-alaŋ-anhalf-hearted; in a mild way; of a man who is a poor hater, or lover
Acehnese alaŋtoo short, too little, insufficient, inadequate
Karo Batak alaŋ-alaŋmediocre; in-between; insufficient; for one purpose too large, for another too small
  alaŋ-alaŋ-enlacking the courage to do something; indecisive, wavering
Toba Batak alaŋinsufficient, inadequate
  si-alaŋ-alaŋnot enough to make two, but too much for one, as with pieces in carpentry
  horbo si-alaŋ-alaŋa carabao that is too large to slaughter, but too small to work

Note:   Also Kayan alaŋ-alaŋ ‘half-heartedly; carelessly’ (< Malay). Possibly a Malay loan distribution, although in some cases this appears unlikely.


*alap fetch, get, take


PAN     *alap fetch, get, take     [doublet: *ala, *alaq]

Paiwan alaptake, pick up
  ki-alap(bride) go to groom's house
Itbayaten axapidea of taking, getting, bringing
  axa-axapchildren's game: catching, tag
  paka-axap-anobject-agent for plentiful catch (in fishing)
Casiguran Dumagat alápto get, catch, trap
Kelabit alapact of taking, getting or fetching
Jarai dua rep-aneight (etymologically = 'two taken away from ten')
Malay alapgather fruit by means of a long pole to which a knife or hook is attached
  d-elap-aneight (etymologically = 'two taken away from ten')
Toba Batak alapfetch; invite
  si-alap arimessenger of the bridegroom to the father of the bride to inquire about the day of the wedding ceremony
Sundanese d-alap-aneight (etymologically = 'two taken away from ten')
  s-alap-annine (etymologically = 'one taken away from ten’)
Old Javanese alaptake, fetch, carry off, steal, seize, win
  alap alapa certain bird of prey. The texts suggest a large creature, which can attack a man; an eagle?
  dwa-lap-aneight (etymologically = 'two taken away from ten')
  sa-lap-aneight (etymologically = 'one taken away from ten')
Javanese alapa variety of hawk
Balinese alaptake off, pluck (fruit), harvest; take away, abduct; the fruit-harvest
Proto-Sangiric *alapget, fetch
Sangir alaʔfetch, take; bite (of fish)
Mongondow alapcatch, seize, grasp
Tongan alagather or catch with the hands, of certain kinds of shellfish and small crabs
  alaf-icatch it
  alaf-ia(of a woman) to be married, or (more strictly) to have had sexual intercourse, not to be a virgin


PWMP     *ka-alap fetched, gotten, taken

Itbayaten ka-axapupon getting (it)
Old Javanese k-ālaptaken, fetched, carried off


PWMP     *ka-alap-an fetched, gotten, taken

Itbayaten ka-axap-angetting
Old Javanese k-ālap-antaken, fetched, carried off


PAN     *ma-alap be taken

Paiwan ma-alapbe taken; able to be reached; become convinced, have mind changed; be enticed, led astray
Itbayaten ma-axapbe caught, be apprehended
Old Javanese m-ālaptake, fetch, carry off


PPh     *maka-alap able to fetch, get, take, reach

Itbayaten maka-axapcan get
Sangir maka-alaʔable to reach or get
Mongondow moko-alapable to seize or capture


PWMP     *maŋ-alap fetch, get, take

Itbayaten maŋ-xapfetch, get, buy, procure, take
Kelabit ŋ-alaptake, get, fetch
Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-alapfetch (knock down) fruits, etc.
Toba Batak maŋ-alapfetch; invite
Old Javanese aŋ-alaptake, fetch, carry off, steal, seize, win
Sangir maŋ-alaʔfetch, take; bite (of fish)


PWMP     *paŋ-alap means or instrument for catching

Old Javanese paŋ-alapa means of catching
Sangir paŋ-alaʔall sorts of fishing gear: nets, traps, lines, spears, etc.


PWMP     *paŋ-alap-an place where something is fetched

Toba Batak paŋ-alap-an boruthat relationship within which a man is permitted by customary law to take a wife
  paŋ-alap-an gogothe place or means by which one acquires strength
Old Javanese paŋ-alap-anplace for fetching something


PAN     *in-alap that which has been taken; was taken by

Paiwan in-alapsomething which has been taken; one's catch (hunting)
Itbayaten in-axapwas taken; took, got
Kelabit n-alapwas taken or gotten by
Old Javanese in-alapwas taken, fetched, carried off, stolen, seized, won
Mongondow in-alapcaptured, seized, taken


PWMP     *um-alap fetch, get, take

Itbayaten om-axaptake, get, bring
Old Javanese um-alaptake, fetch, carry off, steal, seize, win


PWMP     *alap-an what is taken (?)

Itbayaten axap-anmeans for taking
Balinese alap-anthe harvesting of fruit


PPh     *alap-en fetch, get, take

Itbayaten axap-enget, take, fetch, buy, take out, draw out
Mongondow alap-onit must or shall be gotten or taken

Note:   Also Itawis álak ‘take’, Eddystone/Mandegusu alavi ‘marry’, Nggela alavi ‘get, take’. The reduplicated forms of *alap in Itbayaten and Old Javanese are assumed to be independent developments. This form and its doublet *alaq both appear to have covered the semantic range represented by the common English verbs ‘get’ and ‘take’, and there is some evidence that it could be used at least in certain contexts in the sense of ‘to bring’. In addition reflexes of both variants contain recurrent references to 1. one's ‘catch’ in hunting or fishing (Paiwan, Itbayaten, Sangir, Tongan), 2. the harvesting of fruit or grain (= one's ‘catch’ in gathering; Malay, Balinese), and 3. to marriage, with particular reference to a man ‘taking’ a woman to wife (Paiwan, Toba Batak, Tongan, perhaps Eddystone/Mandegusu for *alap, Banggai, Uma, Wolio, Komodo, Wetan for *alaq).


*alaq₁ fetch, get, take; marry


PMP     *alaq₁ fetch, get, take     [doublet: *ala, *alap]

Ilokano álatake, get, go to and get
Isneg aláʔget, obtain, take, catch, bring
Bontok ʔálaget
Ifugaw álaconveys the action-denoting idea of getting, taking
Ifugaw (Batad) ālaget
Pangasinan aláget, take
  ala-ánsource of something
Kayan alaget, receive, take, find
Kenyah alaʔtake
Malagasy álaremoved, taken away, released, fetched, withdrawn, freed from
Mentawai alafetch, get, pick up
Banggai alatake away, fetch
Uma (Toraja) alaʔfetch, get, take
Bare'e ayafetch, get, take; use; believe, trust; care for; reckon with
Tae' alafetch, get, take; begin a song; contact, touch
Mandar alafetch, get, take
Buginese alafetch, get, take
  ka-ala-alatake what is not rightfully one's own
Wolio alatake, fetch, include, take along, take away, accept
  po-alachange with each other, marry one another
Komodo alatake; marry
  alafetch, get, take; search for (firewood), cut and haul (pandanus); understand, grasp
Manggarai alaget, fetch
Rembong alafetch, get, take
Ngadha alafetch, get, take; take out, win, capture
  ala atétake note of, remember
Sika ʔalafetch, get, take, capture
Rotinese -alafetch, get, take, capture
Kisar alagive
Wetan alato use, to take; like, love, marry
  i-alabelongings, clothing, what one uses
Selaru alreceive, get, take; give
Dobel n-altake
Soboyo alafetch, get, take, capture
Buruese ala-hpluck, as grain from the stem
Buli yalget, fetch
Gilbertese anatake, subtract, take away, remove, take off


PWMP     *ma-alaq taken, fetched

Isneg ma-alaʔto get, etc., be able to get, etc., it can be got, etc.
Bare'e m-ayait is taken, caught, succeeded, it can be, may be, it is possible
Tae' ma-alait is gotten, it is successful, it is popular, it has a discount (of merchandise)
Wolio ma-alain demand, in favor, popular


PWMP     *maŋ-alaq₁ fetch, get, take

Isneg maŋ-alaʔcatch
Ifugaw maŋ-álago to get
Malagasy man-àlatake away, remove from, subtract, withdraw from
Banggai maŋ-alatake away, fetch
Uma ŋ-alaʔtake, fetch, get
Bare'e maŋ-ayado one thing or another to someone; damage something
Tae' maŋ-alafetch, take, in the pregnant sense of lending money


PWMP     *paŋ-alaq what is used for getting something

Isneg paŋ-alaʔto get, etc.
Ifugaw (Batad) paŋ-ālainstrument used to get something
Tae' paŋ-ala geloŋleader of song group in the maro ceremony


PAN     *um-alaq fetch, get, take

Kanakanabu um-á-alato take
Bontok ʔ<um>álato get
Ifugaw um-álaget, take
Buginese m-alaget, fetch, obtain


PWMP     *alaq-en be taken

Ilokano alá-entake, get, go and get
Bontok ʔalá-ʔənget
Ifugaw (Batad) ala-ʔonget
Malagasy ala-ìnabe fetched; be taken, be summoned, be called, be invited; be chosen, be preferred

Note:   Although the basic sense of this form appears to have been ‘to fetch, get, take’, its extended meanings evidently included the notion of ‘taking’ a bride, as reflected in the Wolio, Komodo and Wetan glosses, and the similar semantics in various reflexes of the doublet *alap. In this connection the gloss ‘capture’ is significant in view of the many 19th century anthropological discussions of ‘marriage by capture’.


*alaq₂ defeat


PWMP     *alaq₂ defeat

Kadazan ahaʔdefeat, overcome, conquer
Ngaju Dayak alahlose, be overcome (in battle, legal matters); lose things
Iban alahbeaten, defeated; subdue, vanquish
Malay alahdefeat; being worsted in battle
Rejang aleaʔdefeated
Old Javanese alahlose, be defeated, be worsted, give away, succumb
Balinese alahdestroy, defeat, abandon; destruction
Buginese p-alato win


PWMP     *ka-alaq defeated

Kadazan ka-ahabe able to overcome, beat or conquer
Ngaju Dayak k-alahlose, be overcome
Malay k-alaha condition or position of inferiority
Balinese ka-alahdestroy, defeat


PWMP     *maŋ-alaq₂ defeat, overcome

Kadazan maŋ-ahadefeat, overcome
Old Javanese maŋ-alahgive in, admit oneself beaten
Balinese ŋ-alahdestroy, defeat, abandon

Note:   Also Asilulu ala ‘overcome, defeat; outsmart’ (probably a loan from Ambon Malay). Kadazan ka-aha may reflect *maka-alaq). Said (1977) cites a number of apparently disparate forms under ala, some of which probably are ala and others alaʔ. I assume that Buginese pala does not end with a glottal stop, although no explicit indication of the contrast between -ʔ and zero is given in his orthography.


*alaq₃ resemble


PWMP     *alaq₃ resemble

Cebuano álaʔbe mistaken for another person
Balinese alahbe like, resemble


*alawid far


PWMP     *alawid far

Kalamian Tagbanwa alawidfar
Agutaynen alawidfar, a great distance
Palawan Batak ʔaláwidfar
Samihim lawitfar
Dusun Witu lawitfar
Ma'anyan lawitfar
Malagasy lávitrafar, distant


*alinaw shadow


PPh     *alinaw shadow     [doublet: *qaninu, etc.]

Gaddang alinawshadow
Mongondow olinowshadow, that is shadow-image

Note:   Also Subanun (Siocon) dlinaw ‘image’, Kayan hiŋau ‘shade’.


*aliq move, change place


PMP     *aliq move, change place

Ngaju Dayak alihchange, alteration, evasion
Iban alihchange
Malay aléhveer, change, shift one's position
Toba Batak aliin place of
Rejang aliaʔmove, transfer (of an individual or group)
Sundanese alihmove, change residence
Old Javanese alihmoving to another place, changing
Javanese alihact of moving (changing residence); (having been) moved from one place to another
Mota alto move
  ali-almove from place to place

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) included Tagalog alí ‘dominating; influence; succession; to dominate, influence’, and Fijian yali ‘lost, absent, missing’ in this comparison, but neither form is semantically close to the set given here. Moreover, although he cites Tagalog aliʔ ‘Nachfolger with a final glottal stop his source (Laktaw 1914) gives ali. In addition, Tsuchida (1976:172) compares Kanakanabu taku-aíʔi ‘change one's direction, veer’, a resemblance which I believe can most plausibly be attributed to chance. The distribution of the residual cognate set leaves open the possibility that *aliq was a relatively late innovation in western Indonesia.


*aliten firebrand; unconsumed wood in a fire; charred wood


PWMP     *aliten firebrand; unconsumed wood in a fire; charred wood     [doublet: *aluten]

Isneg alitánfirebrand, half-burned wood
Nias alitõfire

Note:   Also Mota lito ‘firewood’.


*alub put in or over a fire


PWMP     *alub put in or over a fire

Maranao alobroast, blacken by heating
Tiruray ʔalubwarm or dry something briefly over a fire
Old Javanese alubput in the fire, heat
Javanese alubto parboil (vegetables) by placing them in hot water briefly


*alud type of canoe


PWMP     *alud type of canoe

Maranao arorraft
Tiruray ʔarura raft
  feg-arurto ride a raft
Ida'an Begak aludboat
  bəg-aludride a boat
Tombonuwo aludcanoe
Lun Dayeh aluda boat
Kelabit aluddugout canoe, boat
  ŋ-aludcarry things in a boat
Kenyah (Lepu Anan) alutboat, canoe
Sebop alutboat, canoe
Berawan (Long Terawan) alunboat, canoe
Kiput alotboat, canoe
  ŋ-alotpaddle a canoe
Miri aludboat
Bintulu aludboat
Singhi Land Dayak orudboat, canoe
Katingan alurboat
Dohoi alʸutcanoe

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak arut ‘boat made by joining different planks (as opposed to jukuŋ, a single-log dugout)’, h-arut ‘have a boat, travel in a boat’ (expected **alut). Probably a canoe used on interior rivers rather than a boat that could be used at sea. As such, it lacked outriggers, and was no doubt built for sturdiness and agility in navigating river rapids.


*aluja to paddle


PAN     *aluja to paddle

Thao ruzaboat, canoe
  maka-ruzapaddle a boat
Karo Batak er-lugato paddle (Joustra 1912)
Palauan me-iúsrow, paddle; stir
Raluana (Nokon) alusto paddle


PAN     *pa-aluja to paddle

Thao pa-ruzaboat, canoe; a canoe paddle
Kavalan palunapaddle, oar; to paddle, to row
Gaddang paluwato paddle
Subanun (Sindangan) pɨlulato paddle
Likum heluhto paddle
Arosi harutato paddle

Note:   Also Isneg pilóxa ‘the oars and paddles of a canoe’. Consonant-initial forms are assumed to contain the (fossilized) causative prefix *pa-. Some of the Oceanic members of this comparison were first brought to my attention by Ross Clark.


*aluŋ shade, shadow


PMP     *aluŋ shade, shadow

Cebuano áluŋcast a shadow over something
Maranao aloŋshadow, see dimly
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) aluŋshadow, reflection
Tboli oluŋshadow, reflection
Tiruray ʔaluŋshade
Sasak aluŋscreened, shaded
Soboyo ka-m-aloŋshadow
Arosi m-aru(-na)shade; to shadow, overshadow
Tongan m-alushaded or sheltered
Rennellese m-agushade, shelter, protection; to shade, shelter, protect

Note:   Also Tiruray galuŋ ‘shade oneself; in the shade’, Tboli keluŋ ‘shade’, Mongondow oliuŋ ‘shadow’, Tolai malur ‘shade’.


*aluten burning brand; charred or smoldering wood


PMP     *aluten burning brand; charred or smoldering wood     [doublet: *aliten]

Isneg alutánfirebrand, half-burned wood
Bontok ʔalutə́npieces of split log when placed on a fire; firewood
Ifugaw alutónpieces of wood that are not, or not wholly burned and still lie in the hearth
Bisaya (Bukit) lutonfirewood
Kenyah (Long Wat) lutenfire
Kayan lutenfirebrand, partly burnt stick; faggots
Iban lutancharred wood, cold embers, litter of charred logs in burned clearing; unburned logs
Mongondow olutonremains of firewood in the hearth, pieces of smoldering wood
Tetun haʔi lutanburning brand
Sawai lutenfire

Note:   Bisaya (Bukit) luton ‘firewood’ was erroneously glossed ‘burning brand’ in Blust (1980).

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*ama father


PAN     *ama father

Tsou amófather
Thao amafather
Proto-Rukai *amafather
Rukai (Budai) amafather (addr.)
Amis w-amafather
  amafather (Hualien county)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) amafather, uncle
Paiwan amafather!
Yami amafather
Ibanag y-amafather
Isneg amāfather. Sometimes: uncle or any relative whose relationship is similar to that of a father
Itawis amáfather
Casiguran Dumagat ámafather (reference)
Bontok ʔamámarried man; adult male, one who has had a child; an old man, one who has grandchildren and who knows the prayers; be big, of children, male or female, especially newborn, also of sweet potatoes
  ʔámaterm of address for one's male relatives at the first ascending generation level; father; uncle; father-in-law
Kankanaey amáfather; parent; sire
  ámamy father
Ifugaw amáfather
Ilokano amáfather. Also said of persons that are old enough to be one's father
Pangasinan amáfather
Tagalog amáfather, progenitor; founder
Aklanon amá(h)father
Cebuano ama námuʔthe Lord's prayer
  amáexpression uttered when frightened: help!
Yakan s-amafather
Kadazan amafather (addr.)
Melanau (Matu) amahfather
Ngaju Dayak amauncle (term used for one's own uncle; for the uncle of another person one uses mama); also often used for other older unrelated persons
Singhi Land Dayak s-amafather
Jarai amafather
Rhade amafather
  mafather (children's speech)
Gayō amafather
Simalur amafather
Nias amafather, uncle (also more distant relatives), father-in-law
Mentawai amafather
Uma tu-amafather
Mori amafather
Buginese amafather
Muna amafather
Wolio amafather
Bonerate amafather
Gorontalo tiy-amofather
Bimanese amafather
Sika amafather
Lamboya amafather
Kambera amafather, FB
Hawu àmafather
Rotinese amafather
Tetun ama-nfather, FB
Kemak ama-kaifather
Lamaholot amafather (used only in traditional ceremonies)
Kédang amofather
Leti amafather
Erai ama(n)father, father's brother and the other male members of father's lineage and generation
Selaru amafather
Yamdena amefather, FB, MZH
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) amafather
Dobel samafather
Kei yama-nfather
Elat amafather
Bonfia yamafather
Asilulu amafather (archaic); a rank in the village hierarchy related to adat
Paulohi amafather
Alune amafather
Buruese amafather; ancestor; son. Used as 'son' in address only
Soboyo n-amafather
Sekar yamafather


PAN     *da-ama father

Siraya damafather
Agta demefather (ref.)
Melanau (Sarikei) dama-myour father (used by persons of GP's generation in speaking to GC)
Simalur da-amathe fathers
Old Javanese r-āmafather, also used for uncle, guru, etc.; eldest, senior (in religious community, village, army)
Javanese rămăfather; older and/or higher-ranking male


PAN     *maR-ama to be father and child

[Puyuma (Tamalakaw) maR-tamafather and child]
Itbayaten mi-amafather and child
Isneg magga-amāfather and child(ren)
[Bikol mag-amá-ʔfather and child]
Aklanon mag-amárelated as father and child
Simalur mal-amahave a father


PAN     *si ama father (ref.)

Thao ti amafather (ref.)
Yakan s-amafather
Singhi Land Dayak s-amafather
Gorontalo tiy-amofather
Lauje si amafather
Dampelas si amaŋfather


PAN     *ta-ama father (ref.)

Seediq (Truku) tamafather
Bunun tamafather
Rukai (Tanan) t-amáfather (ref.)
Rukai (Budai) t-ámafather (ref.)
Paiwan tjamafather (familiar, usually in questions to child)


PMP     *t-ama father

Kadazan tamafather (ref.)
Belait tamahfather
Kelabit te-tamehfather (ref.)
Berawan (Long Terawan) tamehfather
Berawan (Batu Belah) t-amahfather (ref.)
Kenyah (Long Wat) t-amenfather (ref.)
Kayan (Long Atip) t-ama-nfather (ref.)
Kiput tamafather
Narum tamahfather (ref.)
Miri tamafather
Bintulu tamafather
Melanau (Mukah) tamafather
Banggai tamafather
Palauan ʔe-dámfather (addr.)
  demá-paternal GP
  ua-dámold man (term of reference for older male in-law)
Buli hmāfather, FB
Numfor kemafather (ref.)
Ansus tama-father
Windesi tamafather
Wuvulu ama-father
Seimat tam(a)-father
Leipon time-father
Likum tama-father
Nali tama-father
Lou tama-father
Nauna tama-father
Wogeo tama-father
Manam tama-father, uncle
Gedaged tama-father, FB, son, MZH (w.s.); FB, MZH (m.s.); lord, master, guardian; owner, composer, originator, inventor
Gitua tama-father, FB, MZH
Numbami tama-father (term of third person reference)
Wampar rama-father
Motu tama-father
Roro hama-father
Mussau tama-father
Tigak tama-father
Tabar tama-father
Mendak tama-father
Tolai tama(-na)father, father and child, or the relationship between them or between them and the father's brothers
Lakalai tama-father, FB
Vitu tama-father
Dobuan tama-father
Molima tama-father
Misima tama-father
Kilivila tama-father, FB, FZS, MZH
Nehan tama-father
Selau tama-glafather
Banoni tama-father
Babatana tama-efather
Roviana tama-nafather
Eddystone/Mandegusu tama-father, grandfather, uncle
Bugotu tama-ñafather
Nggela tamafather (ref.); those of his standing in a man's clan
Lau ama-nafather
Sa'a amafather, FB
Gilbertese tamafather
Marshallese jemafather, FB
Pohnpeian sahmfather, any person one's father would call brother
Chuukese saamone who is a father, fathers (when used without a possessive suffix); father, grandfather, uncle, any male relative of higher generation in one's own or one's spouse's father's lineage
Woleaian tam(a)father; father's side, patrilineality
Mota tama-ifather, in relation to individuals
Raga tamafather
Central Maewo tamafather
Nakanamanga tamafather
Southeast Ambrym tamefather, FB, FFF, MZH (w.s.), BS, HZS
Anejom e-tma-father
Fijian tamafather, FB, MZH
Tongan tama-ifather, FB
Samoan tama-afather
Rennellese tama-naclassificatory father; to have a classificatory father
Kapingamarangi dama-nafather, uncle; big, large (singular)
Nukuoro dama-nafather, uncle, senior male relative, male elder, person in a fatherly relationship
Rarotongan tamaterm used as a respectful manner of address to a man, being equivalent to the English word, sir
  e tama!interjection, exclamation which denotes 'I say!', 'oh dear!', 'bother'; sometimes used as an exclamation of surprise or annoyance
Maori tamaman


PWMP     *ka-ama-en fatherhood

Bontok ka-ʔama-ʔənuncle
Aklanon ka-amah-án <Afatherhood
Toba Batak ha-ama-onpaternity, fatherhood


PWMP     *kam-ama-an father's brother

Rungus Dusun kam-ama-nFB, MB
Bisaya (Limbang) kem-ama-nMB, MZ
  kem-ama-n mianayFB
  kem-ama-n kekimuʔFZ
Kiput kem-ama-nuncle
Mentawai kam-ama-anFB, FZ


PMP     *pa(ka)-ama treat like a father

Nias fa-ʔamacall father
Samoan faʔa-tama-atreat like a father


PWMP     *paR-ama-en relationship of father and child

Toba Batak par-ama-onrelationship of children to their father
Javanese p-ama-nuncle; uncle who is a parent's younger brother; older man of lower status than speaker
[Tontemboan pa-ama-ŋ-ananything that serves as a sign of the relationship, or the reason for the relationship between father and child]


PWMP     *paRi-ama relationship of father and children

Boano pogi-ama-ŋ-anuncle


POC     *paRi-tama relationship of father and children

Sa'a mu hei ama-dafathers and children
Fijian vei-tama-nifather and son relationship: applied to animals (cp. also Toba Batak par-ama-on 'relationship of children to their father')
Rennellese hai-tama-naclassificatory father in relation to his children; to be such


PPh     *ama-an (gloss uncertain)

Ifugaw ama-ānthumb
Cebuano amah-anfather
[Palawan Batak ʔamāy-anFB]
Mentawai amaʔ-ancorpulent, easy, comfortable (given by Morris 1900 under āma 'father')


PWMP     *ama-en uncle

Itbayaten ama-enfather-in-law, one considered as father, foster father
Kalinga amaʔ-onuncle, great uncle
Cebuano amáʔ-ungodfather in any ceremony
Mamanwa amaʔ-enuncle


PMP     *amá-ŋ father (voc.)

Casiguran Dumagat amə-ŋfather (vocative)
Tagalog amá-ŋ(in some localities) elder person
Hanunóo ʔamá-ŋfather (vocative)
Tapuh emaŋfather
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) amaŋfather
Toba Batak amáŋvocative: oh, father!
Sangir i amaŋfather
Tontemboan amaŋfather
Totoli amaŋfather
Manggarai ama-ŋFZH, HF, MB, WF


PAN     *ama-ʔ father (voc.)

Saaroa amaʔafather (reference)
Itbayaten amaʔfather
Bikol amáʔfather
Hanunóo ʔámaʔfather (particularly in the nominative)
Kalamian Tagbanwa amaʔfather
Palawan Batak ʔamáʔfather (particularly in the nominative)
Mansaka amaʔfather
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) amaʔfather (direct address)
Maranao amaʔfather
Subanen/Subanun gamaʔfather
Tboli maʔfather
Samal ɨmmaʔfather
Bonggi ameʔfather
Alumbis Murut amaʔfather
Ida'an Begak amaʔfather
Murut (Timugon) amaʔfather
Kenyah (Long Wat) amaʔfather (add.)
Kenyah (Long Selaaʻn) amaʔfather
Lahanan amaʔfather
Bukat amaʔfather
Maloh amaʔfather
Tunjung maʔfather
Madurese emmaʔfather
Sasak amaʔfather
Sangir (Siau) amaʔfather
Sangir (Tamako) amaʔfather
Bantik (i)amaʔfather
Tondano amaʔfather
Mongondow amaʔfather; sometimes also mother, and uncle
Makasarese ammafather
Manggarai emaF, FB, MZH
Ngadha emafather; favorite son
Atoni amaʔfather


PMP     *ama-i father (voc.)

Casiguran Dumagat amáyuncle
Hiligaynon amáyfather
Palawan Batak ʔamay-anFB
Binukid amayfather, vocative. Term of address for one's father
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ameyfather (reference)
Manobo (Sarangani) amayfather
Kenyah (Long Anap) amayfather
Kayan ameifather (vocative); polite address to an older man
Ngaju Dayak amaifather
Dusun Malang amaifather
[Siang tamayfather]
Riung amefather
Ngadha amefather, uncle, nephew


PWMP     *ama ama stepfather

Bontok ʔam-ʔamáan old man, one who has grandchildren and who knows the prayers
Kankanaey am-ʔamáold man
Aklanon áma-ámastepfather
Cebuano ama-ámastepfather
[Binukid amay-amaystepfather]
Mansaka ama-amabig man
[Maranao amaʔ amaʔstepfather]
Toba Batak ama-amaeveryone who is called father
Wolio ka-ama-amaadopted father (an older person of one's own choice with whom one has a friendly relationship)

Note:   Also Paiwan kama ‘father’, Mongondow kog-amaʔ ‘have a father’, Nias maŋ-ama ‘acknowledge as a father, call father’, Bikol pakó-amaʔ-ón ‘uncle’, Cebuano paŋ-ama ‘to go to someone as if he were one's father to ask for help’, Mongondow poku-amaʔ-an ‘uncle’, Uma tuama ‘father’, Ma'anyan amah ‘father Manggarai ema ‘father’, Li'o ema ‘father’, Sika ʔama ‘father’.


*amak mat


PWMP     *amak mat     [doublet: *lamak]    [disjunct: *hamak]

Sambal (Botolan) amakmat
Hanunóo ʔamákwoven mat, especially one made of buri-palm leaves and used for sleeping purposes
Aklanon amák-anmat of woven bamboo
Cebuano amák-anbamboo matting woven with a kind of twill weave, commonly used for walling (the weft is passed over two and under two warp pieces); weave amákan
  in-amák-ansomething woven like amákan
Aborlan Tagbanwa amak-anreed mat used to dry rice
Toba Batak amakmat woven of bulrushes
  amah-amakstraw that is scattered under the ears of rice after the stalks are trampled to separate the grain
  amak podom-ansleeping mat


*amaŋ amaŋ dare to do something


PWMP     *amaŋ amaŋ dare to do something

Cebuano amáŋ-amáŋhave the nerve to do something which an ordinary person wouldn't dare do
Iban amaŋmenace, threaten, aim (weapon) at; (hence) test, try (someone)
Malay amaŋdefiance
  amaŋ amaŋto challenge
Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-amaŋ amaŋfrighten someone, threaten (by pointing a weapon at them, etc.)


*amaq to eat


PWMP     *amaq to eat

Tiruray ʔamaʔto eat
Balinese amaheat


PWMP     *amaq-an eating place (?)

Tiruray ʔamaʔ-anthe place on the floor where people are eating; by recent extension, a table
Balinese amah-anwood eaten into dust (by worms); cooked rice


*amaRa tree sp.


PWMP     *amaRa tree sp.

Cebuano amagáa forest tree: Diospyros sp.
Malay mara keluaŋa tree: Melanorrhoea curtisii, Melanorrhoea pubescents W.
Tae' maratree with beautiful black wood, of which blowpipes are made
Makasarese amaratree with strong wood used to make the shafts of lances and pikes, and also formerly used to make the finishing planks of royal canoes


*amen 1pl ex oblique


PAN     *amen 1pl ex oblique

Thao yamin1pl ex accusative and absolute possessive pronoun
Proto-Bunun *ð-amun1sg acc (Ross 2006:533)
Paiwan ti-akenI
Ibatan y-amen1pl ex topicalized nominative pronoun, fronted agent pronoun
  dy-amen1pl ex dative and emphatic possessive marker
Sambal (Botolan) kun-n-awən1pl ex oblique
Tagalog ámin1pl ex oblique
Aborlan Tagbanwa amen1pl ex oblique
Central Palawan d-amen1pl ex oblique
Ida'an Begak n-amon1pl ex oblique
Sungai Seguliud ŋ-amon1pl ex oblique
Murut (Kolod) d-amon1pl ex oblique


*ameq 1pl ex oblique


PWMP     *ameq 1pl ex oblique     [doublet: *amen]

Cebuano (SE Bohol) ameʔ1pl ex oblique
Murut (Kalabakan) r-amoʔ1pl ex oblique

Note:   Also Lotud j-amiʔ ‘1pl ex oblique’. Ross proposes first person accusative pronouns with a morpheme boundary before *-en. While it is clear that this is historically accurate it can be questioned whether the morpheme boundary was still present in these forms in PAn, since the derivation of *aken from *aku, *iten from *ita and *amen from *ami require two ordered operations: 1. deletion of the final vowel of the nominative pronoun, and 2. addition of a suffix *-en of unknown origin to the shortened stem (simple addition of *-en would have predictably produced **akun, *itan and *amin). As noted in Blust (1977), and reinforced in Ross (2006:533), all known Malayo-Polynesian reflexes show an irregular change of PAn *iten to PMP *aten, presumably as a result of paradigmatic leveling (*iten : *amen > *aten : *amen).


*am(e)ʔin all; finished


PAN     *am(e)ʔin all; finished

Bunun aminall
Paiwan aminfinished; there is no more, there is no other than
  pu-amincomplete, terminate, leave
Isneg ammínall; consume, exterminate, finish; (to do) all, completely
Bontok ʔamʔínall
Kankanaey amʔínall, whole, each, any, every; everyone, everything, wholly, entirely, quite, completely, thoroughly
Ifugaw amʔínall, persons or things; is often pronounced as if there were no glottal catch
Ifugaw (Batad) amindo all, complete something, exhaust a supply, as of food, money; all, exclusively
Ilokano áminall; total, entire, complete, whole
  ámin nowhatever
Pangasinan amínall
Kapampangan aminconsume, finish
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) amincomplete; consume; use up
Maranao aminformula used in ending prayer; so be it

Note:   Also Isneg ámin ‘all’, Bontok amín ‘use up, consume’, Kowiai lomin ‘full’.


*amiaŋ any plant with hairs that sting or cause itchiness


PWMP     *amiaŋ any plant with hairs that sting or cause itchiness

Iban miaŋirritants produced by plants; irritating; irritated (as by paddy dust or bamboo) (Scott 1956), minute bristles on bamboos and other plants; irritation of skin caused by them (Richards 1981)
Malay miaŋitchiness; the fine hairs on certain plants (as bamboo) that cause itchiness when touched
Malagasy amíanashrubs with large stinging hairs

TOP      ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    



*-an verbal suffix marking locative focus; nominal suffix marking location


PAN     *-an verbal suffix marking locative focus; nominal suffix marking location

Atayal -ansuffix forming first passive indicative from the reduced stem, and suffix forming first passive perfect from the reduced stem in connection with the infix -in-. Forms an imperative with the reduced or extra reduced stem. Forms nouns indicating place or time. Common suffix in place names, and less common suffix in personal names (e.g. qalup 'to hunt' : qlup-an 'hunting ground')
Paiwan -anspecific location in time or space; specific one/type: kan-an 'eating place' (kan 'eat')
Bontok ʔana voice-marking suffix, non-completive aspect, which subjectivalizes the locative case relation; a gerundivizing suffix occurring in combination with voice marking affixes... In appropriate contexts it also functions as a temporal or locative suffix
Ilokano -ana suffix of general use, mostly locative
Ifugaw -ansuffix of general use. First, it conveys a locative meaning; it is used to form names of places, or common nouns indicating certain places... Second, -an (like -on) is a suffix which actually verbalizes a given word-base by making it pertain to the so-called passive voice..... The difference between the suffix -on and the suffix -an can be (in some way) clarified as follows: the suffix -on puts in evidence that the meaning of the word-base can be applied and, in fact, is applied to the direct object, while the suffix -an puts in evidence that the meaning of the word-base is only indirectly applicable to the grammatical object
Tagalog -anthe -an suffix usually functions as the affix that focuses attention on the person or object or place toward which the action is directed or where the action is being carried out. Usually the actor focus counterpart of the -an suffix is -um-: b-um-ilí kamí sa kaniyá 'we bought from her (actor focus construction)', b-in-ilh-án namín siyá 'we bought from her (locative focus construction) (Ramos 1981:63)
Bikol -an1. verbal affix, locative series, infinitive-command form: dumán 'there, yonder' : duman-án 'come or go to', 2. verbal affix, reflexive action series, infinitive-command form: hugák 'lazy' : hugak-án 'to feel lazy', 3. verbal affix, regular series, infinitive-command form: imbitár 'invite' : imbitar-án 'to invite', 4. alternant command suffix for verbs taking i- in the infinitive: i-abót mo an asín or abot-án an asín 'pass the salt', 5. nominal affix, locative: eskuéla 'student' : eskuelah-án 'school'
Aklanon -ancommon suffix denoting a place or a referent. Used with (1) verbs: ginbáke-an sánda it dúlsi 'candy was bought for them', (2) nouns: simbáh-an 'church' (from símba(h) 'worship'), tindáh-an 'market' (from tínda(h) 'goods for sale'), (3) adjectives: baʔbá-an 'talkative' (from báʔbaʔ 'mouth')
Hiligaynon -aninfinitive benefactive-locative focus affix; noun formative affix designating a container or a place where an action occurs
Cebuano -anlocal passive verb affix, future; noun forming affix. 1. forming nouns which refer to a place where something is found, done, held, located..., 2. forming nouns which refer to a person possessed of a certain power..., adjective forming suffix 1. forming adjectives which mean 'characterized by being [so-and-so]..., 2. added to nouns to form adjectives which mean 'having [so-and-so]
Maranao -ana third grammatical relation between the verb and the so-phrase is indicated by the suffix -an: Tabas(an) o bebai so mamaʔ (cut o-woman so-man) 'The man is the one for whom the woman will cut it' or 'The woman will cut it for the man'. Here the action is performed on behalf of the one designated by the particle so. The so-phrase stands in an indirect relation to the verb. It may indirectly receive the action, be the location of the action, or be the associate or beneficiary of the action. The suffix -an thus marks referential voice
Murut (Timugon) -anassociate focus suffix. It occurs with all verbs that are inflected with -um- in the subject focus...The past temporal aspect is formed by the addition of -in- ... to the future temporal forms (e.g. min-oŋoy 'went (active)' : in-aŋay-an 'place where someone went')
Kelabit -anmarker of nouns of location (e.g. irup 'what is drunk; way or manner of drinking' : m-irup 'to drink' : rup-an 'watering hole for animals in the jungle', dalan 'path, road' : nalan 'to walk' : delan-an 'path made by repeated walking over the same course
Malagasy -anapassives in -ana are often similar in meaning to those in -ina, and are used simply as passives of verbs active transitive in mi- and man-. Often, however, passives in -ina and -ana are made from the same root, and used in different senses, thus: from tàmpoka ('suddenly, unexpectedly') are formed tampóh-ina 'being surprised', and tampóh-ana 'having cold water added'; the passive in a- is of very frequent occurrence. Its primary meaning is said to be that an object is placed in such and such a position...The most difficult use, however, to a learner is when it is made a correlative of the passive in -ana...Many verb that govern two accusatives, one of an object to which something is done, and the other of the instrument, means, etc., with which the action is effected, make the former the nominative case of a passive in -ana, and the latter of a passive in a-... Thus in the sentence manóso tsólika ázy àho 'I anoint it with oil', the body anointed would be made nominative case of the passive hosór-ana ..., and the oil of the verb a-hòsotra
Bahasa Indonesia -anthe suffix -an is used to form nouns from various types of base ... It is also used to form a small number of adjectives and adverbs ... When added to a root which can function as a noun, the suffix -an 1. occasionally produces a noun which hardly varies in meaning from the base noun (e.g. ruaŋ 'room' : ruaŋ-an 'room'); 2. more usually it produces a noun whose referent has some real or fancied resemblance to the referent of the base noun (e.g. achir 'end' : achir-an 'suffix', anak 'child' : anak-an 'interest (on an investment)', rambut 'hair' : rambut-an 'a fruit, the hairy cherry'; 3. when added to a noun root (usually reduplicated) the suffix -an forms a noun which refers to a collection of the referents of the simple noun, or of related referents (e.g. bintaŋ 'star' : bintaŋ-an 'constellation', pohon 'tree' : pohon-pohon-an 'trees, the vegetable kingdom'; 4. when added to a numerative (usually only satu, or those which can be preceded by satu in the form se-), the suffix -an forms a noun referring to a group consisting of that number (e.g. satu 'one' : satu-an 'a unit', -puluh 'ten' : puluh-an 'decade, a group of ten'; 5. when added to a verb (all other prefixes and suffixes being lost), the suffix -an forms a noun which refers to what is involved in the performance of the action referred to by the verb, whether as the product or the instrument (e.g. makan 'eat' : makan-an 'food', me-lukis 'to draws, paint' : lukis-an 'a drawing, painting', meŋ-ayun 'to rock, sway' : ayun-an 'cradle'. Such nouns in -an contrast with nouns in ke- -an, per- -an and peŋ- -an in that they refer to more concrete or definite things, while the three latter groups refer to more abstract processes. Nonetheless, there is sometimes a congruence in meaning between the noun in -an and the other nouns, especially those in per- -an and peŋ- -an... 6. Such nouns, derived from verbs by the addition of -an, refer to a collection of items, when the root is reduplicated (e.g. meŋ-gali 'to dig' : gali-an 'what is dug up' : gali-gali-an 'minerals, root crops', tembak 'to shoot' : tembak-an 'shot' : tembak-tembak-an 'shooting'; 7. Just as the suffix -an, added to a reduplicated noun root, produces a noun referring to a collection of items, the same suffix, added to a few adjective roots, usually reduplicated, produces a noun referring to a collection of items which can be characterized by that adjective (e.g. enak 'delicious' : enak-enak-an 'delicacies', manis 'sweet' : manis-an 'candy, sweets'; 8. Otherwise, adjectives and the occasional verb root, when reduplicated and followed by -an, produce adjectives, or adverbs of manner (e.g. teraŋ 'bright' : teraŋ-teraŋ-an 'frank', takut 'afraid' : takut-takut-an 'bashful', buta 'blind' : buta-buta-an 'at random, blindly') (Macdonald and Soenjono 1967:65ff).
Simalur -ansuffix used to form: 1. abstract nouns, 2. nouns which express a nominal perfect participle, 3. nouns of location; verbal suffix used to express various relationships between the action and the object; added to qualitative and intransitive constructions it has a causative function
Toba Batak -an(in the second passive) the prefix tar- or ha- is placed before the nominal form. The prefix ha is always used when the active has the suffix -i: in the passive, this suffix is replaced by -an... The passive verbal substantives with the suffix -an do not always have a corresponding verb with the suffix -i. Their meaning can also be derived from another verbal form. For example, I have never come across a ma-maŋani-, which would mean 'to eat out of (something), as an active corresponding to paŋan-an: 1. 'that which can be eaten out of' (e.g. a large leaf); 2. 'from which one usually eats (a plate or a dish); 3. 'that which has been eaten into (by a disease)' (referring to marks left on the limbs by, for example, an eruptive skin disease... Such derived substantives represent a place where that which the verb represents usually takes place, or must take place... The suffix -an, just as the suffix -i, can, moreover, not only refer to a plural, but also to the repeated occurrence of the thing represented by the verb, or to its occurring on and off, for example, dalan-an can also mean where it is customary for someone to walk... The suffix -an seldom denotes a direct object, but an example is suru-an 'messenger who is sent', from ma-nuru. Suru-suru-an (repetition of the stem-word) is, however, far more often found...where such a word has not been taken from Minangkabau or Malay -an, representing -i, also means a plural, or repetition, or frequency ... (The second kind of nominal verb) has the suffix -an. a. When verbs of this kind are derived from substantives, the suffix indicates place and the subject is, therefore, represented by this verb as being a place where what the stem-word means can be seen (e.g. panas-an 'to sweat' = the place where the sweat (panas) is; roŋit-an 'to be bothered by flies' = something where flies (roŋit) are to be found), b. when this kind of nominal verb is derived from a verb, the subject is other than the stem-word, i.e. a person who is affected by what the stem-word represents (e.g. ŋolŋol-an 'be bored' : ŋolŋol 'boring', c. the suffix further strengthens what is represented by the stem-word and the derived form then means 'taking place continually', or 'occurring extensively' (e.g. borat-an 'be very laden' : borat 'heavy'; d. these verbs also mean 'an acquiring of', or 'a losing of', as a state (e.g. mate-an 'having deaths, of someone whose soldiers have been slain'; e. when they are derived from a qualificative verb, these verbs have the accent on the suffix and indicate that the quality exists to a greater degree (e.g. gabe-án 'to be richer' : gabé 'rich', datu-án 'to be a more skillful datu' ... Words ending in a vowel can insert an n before the suffix (e.g. dae-n-an, from dae) (van der Tuuk 1971:161, 196ff)
Lampung -ana noun + -an, most often a reduplicated noun, specifies a large variety of the thing signified by the single-morpheme noun' (e.g. bataŋ 'tree' : bataŋ-bataŋ-an 'all kinds of trees'; verbal roots combine with -an to form nouns signifying the result of the action of the verb: cinciŋ 'carry (something light)' : cinciŋ-an 'that which is carried', aji 'to chant' : aji-an 'the chant', xatoŋ 'to come' : xatoŋ-an 'guests, the people coming'; partial reduplication + -an functions as a circumfix, combining with some intransitive verb roots meaning to cook, expressing a variety of ingredients used in the cooking process: gulay 'to make soup' : ga-gulay-an 'vegetables', pajaʔ 'to boil something' : pa-pajaʔ-an 'greens for boiling'; this combination also occurs with a few adjective and intransitive verb roots to give the abstraction of the root meaning: taway 'to teach' : ta-taway-an 'teaching, instruction', demon 'like' : da-demon-an 'a liking'
Mongondow -ansuffix with locative sense, where what the base-word says happens, is, or comes; afflicted with
Banggai -ansuffix forming adjectives. The suffix -an is actually local, and in the second instance temporal, and it thus gives the place and time at which or in which the meaning of the stem word is realized... Examples of adjectives with the suffix -an are: buluŋ-an 'loud, of sound' (from buluŋ 'throat', boo-an 'evil-smelling' (from boo 'stench'), buku-an 'strong' (from buku 'bone'), mon-doso-an 'be taboo' (from doso 'a taboo')...The collective function of -an which is found in some other languages is seen in osoa-an 'to marry' (from soa 'spouse') ... In other cases the meaning of the stem word is not available in Banggai, and hence the precise meaning of the suffix -an cannot be determined
Uma -athe basic sense of the suffix -a is locative, although this basic sense is applied and extended in a variety of directions, so that there is often little or nothing of a local function left to perceive. As for the relationship of -a to the similarly local suffix -i, it can be said in general that -i is found in verbal, -a in nominal forms. There are, however, also many exceptions to this rule ... a. when added to a noun derived from a verb or adjective -a denotes the place or time in which the action takes place or the condition in question prevails; this suffix also occurs with forms that are prefixed with ka- and a possessive pronoun; b. -a is added to (underived) nouns in the sense 'having, supplied with, suffering from. These forms are adjectives, and have no prefix
Makasarese -aŋ1. suffix used to form passive nouns: that on which, in which, with which something is done (e.g. doŋkoʔ 'back (anat.)' : doŋkok-aŋ 'carriage', at-taʔgalaʔ 'to hold, keep ahold of' : taʔgall-aŋ 'handle', enteŋ 'stand, stand up' : enteŋ-aŋ 'place where one stands, position'); 2. suffix used to form deverbal adjectives or nouns with a passive sense, and carrying an implication of possibility or desirability; 3. suffix used to form adjectives with the meaning 'afflicted with, suffering from' (e.g. kaluara 'ant' : kaluar-àŋ 'covered with ants', bulalaʔ 'white spot on the cornea' : bulalakk-aŋ 'have a white spot on the cornea'; 4. substitute for the more commonly used -aŋŋaŋ, which expresses the comparative; here also belong indications of place and time in comparison with other place and time indicators; 5. suffix in connection with siapa and piraŋ- 'how much', with the meaning 'how much not'; 6. verbal suffix with the meaning 'do something for the benefit of, do something with something, do something because of something, do something at a certain point in time'
Chamorro -anattributive suffix. It is difficult to find an appropriate name for this suffix. It is usually added to nouns. The affixed form then describes something that has attributes or features of the stem... The stem usually, but not always, takes the infix -in- (e.g. bosbos 'skin rash' : b-in-esbus-an 'condition of having a skin rash', chugoʔ 'sap, juice' : chiguʔ-an 'salty fish sauce', palaoʔan 'woman' : p-in-alaoʔan-an 'effeminate male' or 'having attributes of woman', pao 'odor' : pagu-an 'smelly')
Roviana -anasuffix of location (e.g. huhuve 'bathe' : huhuve-ana 'bathing place, bath')

Note:   *-an is one of the more important affixes that can be reconstructed for PAn and PMP. The reflexes in such languages as Atayal, Tagalog, Murut (Timugon) and Chamorro show that PAn *-an probably could co-occur with *-in- in past temporal expressions, and examples in other languages suggest that the final element in PWMP *ka- (stem) -an was identical to *-an. Reflexes of *-an are often the exclusive or principle morphological means of expressing the ‘locative focus’ in Philippine languages, and at the same time are commonly used to derive nouns of location. It is, however, perhaps an oversimplification to associate *-an exclusively with semantic properties that can be characterized in a straightforward sense as ‘locative’. To judge from its functioning reflexes in modern Formosan and Philippine languages, and from its fossilized reflexes in other languages, *-an had multiple functions (alternatively, we might recognize more than one homophonous suffix).

Thus, many of the languages of western Borneo have a form tapan ‘winnowing basket’ (active verb: napan ‘to winnow grain’) which reflects PMP *tahep ‘up and down movement of grains being winnowed’ + *-an, here receiving a more natural universal interpretation as instrumental rather than locative. Particularly interesting is *tian-an ‘pregnant’ (from *tian ‘abdomen’ + *-an), found in a number of WMP and OC languages, since here the suffix clearly was used adjectivally in PMP. Like *-en, reflexes of *-an sometimes mean ‘inflicted with’ or ‘suffering from’ the referent of the base (Mongondow, Makasarese, Chamorro). In general the use of *-an decreases sharply as one moves southward from the Philippines, and eastward in Indonesia. The evidence for POc *-an is slim, but difficult to dismiss, although it probably was something of a relic affix in the eastern region of the Austronesian-speaking world even at this early time.


*anabu shrub or small tree: Abroma augusta L.


PWMP     *anabu shrub or small tree: Abroma augusta L.

Isneg anabóa malvaceous tree with red or yellow flowers, and entire leaves that affect the skin like nettles. The fibers of its bark are used for binding purposes
Ibanag anabosmall tree: Abroma augusta L. (Madulid 2001)
Ilokano anabosmall tree: Abroma augusta L. (Madulid 2001)
Isinay anafusmall tree: Abroma augusta L. (Madulid 2001)
Hanunóo ʔanabúsmall tree (Abroma augusta L.); the leaves are used to rub on swollen parts of the body; the bast fibers of the inner bark are used extensively for making twisted bowstrings
Cebuano anabúshrub or small tree which produces strong bark fiber of commercial importance: Abroma augusta
Palauan labbush in cocoa family (bark used for cord): Abroma augusta L.

Note:   Also Isneg anabnó ‘a malvaceous tree with red or yellow flowers’, Iban ñabuʔ ‘grass sp.’, Malagasy adábo ‘a tree (Ficus sp.); if eaten to excess the fruit is said to cause a vomiting of blood’. Palauan lab (rather than **ŋelab) suggests that unstressed initial vowels in trisyllables were lost prior to the addition of word-initial ŋ.


*anaduq long (of objects)


PMP     *anaduq long (of objects)     [doublet: *adaduq]

Itbayaten anaruʔlong (of objects)
Rungus Dusun anarulong (of objects)
Bimanese narulong (of objects)
Tetun naru-klong, lengthy; tall, lofty
Proto-Ambon *nadulong (of objects)


*anaŋ dehortatory exclamation


PWMP     *anaŋ dehortatory exclamation

Hanunóo ʔanaŋanáŋan exclamation expressing a threat or boast, somewhat in the sense of 'you'll see!'
Iban anaŋin prohibitions: don't; you must, don't fail to


*anapiŋ cheek


PWMP     *anapiŋ cheek

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) enapiŋcheek
Manobo (Ilianen) napiŋcheek
Singhi Land Dayak paniŋ <Mcheek

Note:   Also Cebuano ápiŋ ‘cheek’. The direction of metathesis assumed in this comparison is arbitrary, but is motivated in part by the observation that nominal bases with a reflex of initial *n are less common than nominal bases with a reflex of initial *p in most of the languages of Indonesia and the Philippines.


*aniŋal echo


PMP     *aniŋal echo

Hanunóo ʔaniŋálecho
Asilulu ninalecho

Note:   Also Bikol aniniŋál ‘echo, reverberation’. Possibly *qani-niŋal, with a variant of the *qali/kali- prefix, and haplology both in Hanunóo and in Asilulu.


*anipa large snake sp.


PMP     *anipa large snake sp.

Isneg annípaan exceedingly dangerous, very large, dark green, venomous snake with a big head
Kenyah (Long Wat) nipahsnake
Murik ñipaʔsnake
Narum nipahsnake
Bintulu ñipasnake
Ma'anyan anipesnake
Siang ñipoʔsnake
Tunjung nipaʔsnake
Ngadha nipakind of large snake

Note:   Also Lun Dayeh menipeh ‘snake’, Kelabit menipeh ‘generic for poisonous snakes’, Kiput lipah ‘snake’, Berawan (Long Terawan) lipeh ‘snake’, Miri ñipah ‘snake’, Melanau (Mukah) dipa ‘snake’, Paku adipe ‘snake’, Samihim undipe ‘snake’, Kapuas handipeʔ ‘snake’. Ngadha nipa may reflect PMP *nipay ‘snake’.


*ansaw roam about


PWMP     *ansaw roam about

Kadazan ansauroam about, go astray
Iban ansaulook about in search of anything
Toba Batak ansoroam or rove about; idle around with nothing to do
Bare'e ancoforce one's way through grass and bushes; wander in the wilderness


*anuliŋ a fruit-bearing plant: Pisonia umbellifera


PMP     *anuliŋ a fruit-bearing plant: Pisonia umbellifera

Itneg anuliŋa tree: Pisonia umbellifera (Madulid 1999)
Tagalog anuliŋtree with yellowish leaves, used as spinach
Bikol anuliŋtree with yellowish leaves, used as spinach
Hanunóo ʔanulíŋsp. of tree: Pisonia umbellifera Seem.
Manggarai nuliŋa plant with fruit that grows in clusters and is used for glue: Pisonia umbellifera
Nggela nulitree with yellowish leaves, used as spinach

Note:   Verheijen (1984) compares Manggarai nuliŋ with Cebuano anuliŋ, a form which does not appear in Wolff (1972).


*anuqus smoke


PWMP     *anuqus smoke

Hanunóo ʔánussmoke, as from a cooking fire
Cebuano anúʔussoot
Melanau (Matu) anussmoke (Ray 1913)
Kanowit anussmoke (Ray 1913)

Note:   Also Balinese andus ‘smoke’, Komodo nuh ‘smoke’, Manggarai nus ‘smoke’, Ngadha nu ‘smoke, cloud, dust cloud; to smoke, whirl upward; turbid, clouded over’.

TOP      ac    aC    ad    ag    ai    aj    ak    al    am    an    aN            ap    aq    ar    aR    as    at    au    aw    ay    az    



*aNak child, offspring; son, daughter; interest on a loan


PAN     *aNak child, offspring; son, daughter; interest on a loan

Tsou me-ahʔogive birth
Siraya alakchild
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) alakchild, son, daughter
  la-lakplural of alak
Paiwan (Western) alʸakchild; interest on deposit


PMP     *anak child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan

Yami anakchild
Itbayaten anakone's child (daughter or son), as reference and a vocative term, offspring (of person or animal)
Isneg anáʔchild, son, daughter
Itawis anákchild
Casiguran Dumagat anákbaby, child, son, daughter, offspring
Bontok ʔanákrelative at the first generation level below ego; child; nephew; niece; son; daughter
  ʔanʔákoffspring (plural)
Kankanaey anákchild, infant, offspring; son, daughter; boy, lad, girl, lass; young, whelp, pup, cub; shoot, sprout, young plant
Ilokano anákchild, son, daughter; interest
Ifugaw anákson, daughter; sibling; may sometimes be used in the sense of nephew or niece
Pangasinan anákchild, offspring
Kapampangan anákchild
Tagalog anákoffspring; son, daughter
  anák sa lígawbastard
Hanunóo ʔanákchild, offspring, i.e., son or daughter; with all such kinship whenever one wishes to be specific as to sex; e.g. anák laláki 'son'; young, youthful, referring to persons
Aklanon anákgodchild; become a godparent, be a godparent
Hiligaynon anákchild
Palawan Batak ʔanákchild, young person; offspring, i.e., son or daughter
  ʔanák ka babáygirl, young female (not daughter)
  ʔanák ka lalákiboy, young male (not son)
Cebuano anákson, daughter; give birth; happen to have for a child
  anák sa gawásillegitimate child
Mansaka anákchild; offspring
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) anakoffspring
Maranao anakoffspring, brood
Tiruray ʔonokoffspring, egg, fruit; all consanguineal relatives in descending generations
  ʔonok kayewfruit of a tree
  ʔonok manukchicken egg
Kadazan anakchild
Kelabit anakchild, baby
  anak n-alapadopted child
Berawan (Long Terawan) anaʔchild
Bintulu anakchild; dependent part
Melanau (Mukah) anakchild, offspring
  anak layson
  anak mahewdaughter
Kayan anakchild; the young of plants, animals, etc.
  anak amuŋadopted child
  anak heduŋstepchild
Kenyah anakchild
Ngaju Dayak anakchild, offspring (human or animal)
  anak rearinterest on a loan (rear = 'money')
  anak sarauillegitimate child
Banjarese anakchild
Malagasy ánakachild, the young of anything; anyone treated with affection; affectionate and respectful mode of address
  anak-anakaan allowance made for a loan or debt
  ának-andríanapetty princes among the various tribes
Maloh anakchild
  anak ambuadopted child
  anak biuorphan
  anak lawanbastard
Bukat anakchild
Singhi Land Dayak anakchild
  bir-anakgive birth
Iban anakchild, son, daughter, offspring, youngster, junior; small, a little, young
  anak ambuʔadopted child
  anak ampaŋbastard
  anak duitinterest on money
  anak patuorphan (with neither parent)
  anak tiriʔstepchild
  tunjok anaklittle finger
Jarai anaʔchild
Rhade anakdaughter, son; nephew, niece: one's brother's child
Malay anakchild; young (of animal); native (of a country); one (of a party, set or series); important component part; smaller of two
  anak aŋkatadopted child
  anak anjiŋlower part of calf-muscle
  anak gentaclapper of a bell
  anak lidahuvula
  anak piatuorphan
  anak rajaprince
  anak tiristepchild
  anak uaŋinterest on money
Bahasa Indonesia anakoffspring; young person or animal; person who originates from or was born in (a given country, area, etc.); person belonging to a certain occupation (family, etc.), as anak kapal 'crewmember of a ship'; small part of some larger thing, as anak baju 'undershirt', anak bukit 'small hill (at foot of mountain)', anak air 'small tributary stream'
  anak gampaŋillegitimate child
Moken anaːtoffspring, child
Acehnese anɨʔchild; young shoot; pit, stone, kernel, seed; constituent part of something
  anɨʔ gɨntaclapper of a bell
  anɨʔ gɨtuëŋadopted child
  anɨʔ titclitoris
  anɨʔ uystepchild
Gayō anakchild
Karo Batak anakchild; BC (m.s.), ZC (w.s.); young of animals; sprout of a plant; descendant; inhabitant; figuratively of things that are small for their kind, in contrast with induŋ for things that are large for their kind
Toba Batak anakson, of man or animal; BS (m.s.), ZS (w.s.); son of all other same generation lineage mates; interest from money
  i-anak-honchild in general without regard to sex
Dairi-Pakpak Batak anakson; young of an animal
  anak rajasaid to persons whose behavior is praiseworthy
Simalur anaʔchild, boy
Nias onochild, children; boys; calf; suckling pig; plant shoot
  ono dorosiclapper of a bell
  ono fõnastepchild
  ono ganaʔainterest on a loan
  ono horõillegitimate child
Enggano e-adachild
Rejang anoʔchild, offspring
  anoʔ apaŋillegitimate child, bastard
  ʌnoʔ Dalamroyal family and dynasty of Bencoolen before British occupation in 1685
Lampung anaʔchild, offspring
Old Javanese anakchild; smaller of two things (as a small mountain at the foot of a bigger one)
Javanese anakoffspring; nephew, niece; young plant sprout
  anak kuwalonstepchild
Madurese anaʔchild
Balinese anakperson, human individual; the word originally meant 'child' as in Malay ...; it is the widest word for 'human being', and needs to be qualified with other nouns or with adjectives to give it content; alone it may even be used with nouns indicating animals (bémasé ento anak 'those goldfish'), and with personal pronouns
Sasak anakchild (in contrast with adults); young of animals; sometimes child in general; smaller part of something larger, of small for its kind
  anak akonadopted child who does not have the right to succession
  anak iwoʔorphan
  anak jentikclitoris
  anak liruvula
  anak ora oraillegitimate child
  anak perasadopted child who has the right to succession
Proto-Sangiric *anakchild
Sangir anaʔchild (in contrast with adults; otherwise one uses darioʔ
Proto-Minahasan *anakoffspring, child (of someone)
Tontemboan anakchild, in relation to adults, hence 'offspring'; used as a vocative term
Kaidipang anakochild
Gorontalo walaʔochild
  walaʔa wuwatoʔostepchild
Uma anaʔchild
Bare'e anachild, young one (always as a qualifier of another noun); sometimes also used of a part of some larger thing
  ana ntausomeone else's child
  ana iluorphan
  ana ndaratastepchild
  ana ŋkadoeillegitimate child
Mandar anaʔchild, offspring'
Buginese anaʔchild, offspring'
Makasarese anaʔchild; son, daughter; young of animals, young plant; smaller part of a larger thing
  anaʔ aostepchild
  anaʔ buniillegitimate child
  anaʔ keraeŋprince's children
Mori anachild
Muna anachild
Wolio anachild, offspring', young (of animals), small and separate part of a whole
  ana awostepchild
  ana maeluorphan
  ana-na baluwu o peropacrown prince
Palauan ŋálekchild; baby; anyone younger than speaker; sweetheart; fiance(e)
  ŋálek er a oreomelraelbastard
Komodo anaʔchild; young; BC (m.s.), ZC (w.s.); son, daughter; give birth, breed
Bimanese anachild; anything that is small
  ana cempeadopted child
Manggarai anakchild; part of something; give birth, bear a child; young, small (of animals)
  anak keraéŋnobility (Makasarese loan)
  anak tinuorphan
Rembong anakchild; BC (m.s.), ZC (w.s.); sprout of plant; interest
Ngadha anachild; person, human being; disciple, follower, member; inhabitant, resident; protege'; ward (person); title of distinction; young, small
Li'o anachild
Sika ʔanaksmall, of animals
Lamaholot ana-nchild
Kédang anaʔchild
Kambera anachild; young; small
  ana tau wihicalf of the leg
Hawu anachild
Rotinese anachild, in comparison with adult; young of animals; small (used as both predicate and attributive adjective
  na-anahave a child; accept or consider as a child; develop shoots, of a plant
  na-ana-kcall someone 'child'
  ma-anasmall, become smaller
Atoni anaxchild
Leti anachild; small
  an-walifamily, consanguineal relative
Moa anachild; small; bear children
Erai ana-(n)little, small; child
Selaru analineage; child of; offspring
Yamdena anakchild in the sense of offspring; BC (m.s.), ZC (w.s.)
W.Tarangan (Ngaibor) anachild
Dobel anachild
Kei yana-nchild (in relation to adults); young; component part of something; small (for its kind)
  yana-n sosalôkillegitimate child
Elat anakochild
Masiwang yanachild
Paulohi anachild
Hitu anachild
Buruese anachild
  ana-nchild; small, baby
Soboyo anaʔchild
  baka-anaʔbear children, give birth
  anak katuaʔorphan
  anak makañstepchild
  anak unaadopted child
Sekar kuk-anakchild


PWMP     *a-anak-an doll

Casiguran Dumagat a-anáktoy doll
Ilokano a-anak-ánwomb, uterus, matrix
Banjarese a-anak-andoll


PAN     *aN-aNak child

Thao az-azakchild


PMP     *an-anak child

Isneg an-anáʔchild, son, daughter
Ilokano an-anákdoll
Bontok ʔan-ʔannakdoll
  ʔan-ʔanakchild, one who has not yet entered puberty
Watubela an-anakchild


PWMP     *daŋ-sa-anak relatives

Kelabit deŋ-anakbrothers and sisters
Malay daŋsanakrelatives


PPh     *hin-anak-an brood, flock, lots of children

[Gaddang in-an-anakbilateral personal kindred (formerly the effective units in revenge and wergild (Lebar 1975:101)]
Kankanaey in-anak-ánhaving young ones, having a child. Applied to animals and to unmarried women who have a natural child
Cebuano hin-aŋk-anhen that has raised a brood
Mongondow in-anak-anfamily, lineage


PWMP     *i-anak give birth

Casiguran Dumagat i-yenakbe born
Bontok ʔiy-anákgive birth, bear a child
  ʔiy-anáknephew, niece
Tagalog i-anákgive birth to (an offspring)
Tontemboan i-anakpiece that is placed in or on something else


PMP     *ka-anak have a child

Bahasa Indonesia k-anak k-anaksmall child (usually below seven years of age)
Sasak k-anakchild, young person
Mandar ke-anaʔhave a child
Rotinese ka-anakhave a child


PAN     *ma-anak₁ (gloss uncertain)

Paiwan ma-alʸakbe disturbed by (too many) children


PMP     *ma-anak₂ bear children, give birth

Itawis m-ánakgive birth; parents
Tagalog ma-anákhaving many offspring
Ngaju Dayak m-anakbring forth, give birth to, beget; bear interest
Karo Batak me-anakbe like one's own child in one's house, said of a non-family member
Makasarese m-anaʔget a child (of father and mother), bear, give birth


PWMP     *maka-anak consider as one's child

Kapampangan maka-anakcapable of giving birth
Old Javanese mak-ānakhave as a child, consider as one's child
Tontemboan maka-anakconsider as one's child, get a child, bear a child


PWMP     *mampaR-anak aken give birth to

Bahasa Indonesia memper-anak-kangive birth to children
Bare'e mampo-anabring forth, bear, give birth
Mandar mappe-ana-ŋgive birth


PWMP     *maŋ-anak give birth

Itbayaten maŋ-anakchildren
Itawis maŋ-anáksponsor in baptism
Ilokano maŋ-anáksponsor, godparent
Ifugaw maŋ-anákgodfather, godmother
Bontok maŋ-anákadopt a child; sponsor a child for baptism, have a godchild
Pangasinan man-anákbear a child
Kapampangan maŋ-anákgive birth
Iban (ma)ŋ-anakcall someone a child
Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-anak semaŋwork as a servant, do menial labor
  meŋ-anak suŋaistream profusely (blood, etc.)
Nias maŋ-onogive birth
Sasak ŋ-anakgive birth, bear a child
Mongondow moŋ-anakyoung
Lampung ŋ-anaʔhave children
Javanese ŋ-anakcall someone or regard someone as one's own child
Makasarese aŋgi-anaʔadd a third strand in making rope


PWMP     *maŋ-anak-i have children, increase

Karo Batak ŋ-anak-iyield interest; play the small gong (peŋ-anak)
Toba Batak maŋ-anah-ilend money with the purpose of earning interest
Dairi-Pakpak Batak meŋ-anak-iyield interest (money)
Old Javanese maŋ-anak-ihave children


PMP     *maR-anak give birth; have a child

Itbayaten mi-anakgive birth
Isneg max-an-anáʔgive birth
Casiguran Dumagat meg-enakgive birth
Ilokano ag-anákgive birth, be delivered, bring forth young
Tagalog mag-anákact as sponsor or godparent in baptism, confirmation or wedding; give birth
Hiligaynon mag-anákbear a child, give birth; be a godparent to a child during baptism or confirmation
Kadazan mag-anakbear children, bring forth children, generate, give birth
Banjarese bar-anakgive birth
  bar-anak-anhave a child
Ngaju Dayak ba-anakhave children
Iban ber-anakgive birth; bear interest (money)
Malay ber-anakbe possessed of children; give birth
Acehnese mɨʔ-anɨʔgive birth
Toba Batak mar-anakhave a son or sons
Dairi-Pakpak Batak mer-anak-anak-enhaving lots of children
Simalur mal-anaʔhave children, bear children, give birth
Nias moʔ-onohave a child, get a child, give birth
Old Javanese m-ānakto have (bring forth) a child
Javanese m-anakto reproduce (of animals, crudely of people)
Balinese m-anakgive birth; be born (not usually of human beings)
  m-anak-anproduce young, give birth (usually of animals)
  balyan m-anak-anmidwife
  m-anak-aŋyield interest (money)
Sasak ber-anakgive birth, bear a child
Sangir mah-anaʔget a child, receive a child
  meh-anaʔgive birth, bear a child
Tontemboan m(a)-anakbear, give birth
Uma moʔ-anaʔhave a child
Bare'e mo-anabear, give birth, have children (also said of a man)
Rotinese ma-anakhave a child


PAN     *maRe-anak parent and child

Paiwan mare-alʸakparent and child
  mare-ka-alʸakchildren of the same parents
Malagasy mi-ànakaused in speaking of parent (father or mother) and child
Buginese mar-anaʔwith a child (as a parent sleeping with a child)
  mar-ana-ŋone family


PWMP     *pa-anak-an (gloss uncertain)

Cebuano pa-aŋk-anmake someone pregnant
  p-in-a-aŋk-anillegitimate child; one who gave birth out of wedlock
Ngaju Dayak p-anak-anchildren, descendants
Malay p-enak-annephew


PWMP     *paŋ-anak smaller thing of a pair (?)

Pangasinan pan-anáktime or month of delivery
Cebuano paŋ-anáksponsor in a baptism
Ngaju Dayak peŋ-anaka smaller thing on or in a larger one
Malay peŋ-anakthe smaller of a pair, likened to mother and daughter
Karo Batak peŋ-anaksmall gong
Old Javanese paŋ-anakbringing forth
Makasarese paŋŋ-anaʔthe third strand added in making rope
Palauan oŋ-áleknuclear family


PWMP     *paR-anak act of giving birth (?)

Tagalog pag-anákact or moment of parturition
Tiruray feg-onoklay an egg; bear fruit; deliver a baby
Iban per-anakoffspring, issue
Toba Batak par-anakthe one who arranges the marriage for a young man (Vergouwen 1964:156)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak per-anakthe father of the bridegroom or his substitute
Balinese p-anakbirth; a thing born, a child; used alone it refers to a young animal; interest on money
Sangir pah-anaʔbear a child! (passive imper.)
  peh-anaʔbear a child! (imper.)
Bare'e masoso po-ana-ñashe had her children in rapid succession


PWMP     *paR-anak-an womb, uterus; birth canal

Mansaka pag-anak-anuterus, womb
Malay per-anak-anborn, native
Bahasa Indonesia per-anak-anuterus, womb; mixed descendants of native population and immigrants
Old Javanese p-ānak-anwoman by whom one has a child, wife
Mandar pe-ana-ŋuterus, womb; mixed descendants of native population and immigrants
[Makasarese pamm-anakk-aŋuterus, womb]


PWMP     *sa-anak (gloss uncertain)

Kankanaey s-ánakhave many children, young shoots, sprouts; have numerous offspring
Malay s-anakkindred = sa-anak (children of one and the same descent). Used of blood relationship, esp. (Minangkabau) on the distaff side
Bare'e kami sa-anawe with our children
  tau sa-anaboth parents, or either on, with their children


PPh     *saŋa-anak litter, brood

Ilokano saŋa-anak-ánlitter
Tontemboan saŋa-anaka 'nest of children', a brood. Also used of people, as in saŋa anak sera 'they were born at the same time/they are twins'


PWMP     *um-anak give birth, bear a child

Bontok ʔ<um>anákgive birth, bear a child
Ifugaw um-anákgive birth to a child
Tagalog um-anákgive birth
Cebuano um-a-ánakabout to give birth
Old Javanese um-anak akengive birth to


PWMP     *ka-anak-an time of birth (?)

Yami k-anak-ánchild
Itbayaten ka-anak-anyoung man or woman, bachelor or maiden
Itawis k-ának-annephew, niece
Ilokano ka-anak-ánnephew, niece
Bontok ka-ʔanak-annephew, niece
Tagalog ka-ának-anlast embryonic stage during which birth is expected; month of child delivery
Makasarese ka-anakk-aŋbirth; be born at a certain time
  allo ka-anakk-aŋbirthday


PWMP     *kam-anak-en nephew, niece

Tagbanwa kam-anak-onnephew, niece (Lebar (1975)
Murut (Timugon) akonsibling's child
Kadazan kam-anak-onstepchild, nephew
Bisaya (Bukit) anak nak-onsibling's child
Sa'ban anak m-enak-ensibling's child
Kiput anak m-ena-ansibling's child
Bintulu anak m-enak-ensibling's child
Melanau (Mukah) nak-en anaksibling's child
Melanau (Matu) nak-en laymeronephew/niece
Ma'anyan ak-ensibling's child
Kapuas ak-ensibling's child
Banjarese kam-anak-annephew, niece
Iban ak-andistant cousin; polite form of address to a younger person


PWMP     *anak-an give birth

Cebuano aŋk-anhaving given birth
  aŋk-an-unfor people to be prolific in childbirth
Mansaka anak-angive birth
Banjarese anak-anfingerlings of fish
Bahasa Indonesia anak-aninterest on money
Javanese anak-anthe young of an animal; doll; small, of natural phenomena; copy, duplicate; drawer, section, compartment; interest on borrowed money
Sasak anak-aŋgive birth; lend money to earn interest


PWMP     *anak-en brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking)

Itbayaten anak-ennephew, niece; foster child, one considered as a child, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, spouse of nephew or niece
Ifugaw anak-ónadopt a child as son or daughter
Bontok ʔanak-ənadopt a child; sponsor a child for baptism; have a godchild
Tagalog anak-ínadopt (x) as one's own child; act as sponsor, godparent to (x)
Hiligaynon anák-unbear a child, give birth; be a godparent to a child during a baptism or confirmation
Cebuano anák-unfor people or animals to be prolific in childbirth
Mansaka anak-unnephew, niece
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) enak-enniece, nephew; a person's relative of his child's generation
Kadazan anak-onbe born, of children
Karo Batak anak-enof a wasp's nest, already containing eggs; of a egg, have the beginnings of an embryo
Old Javanese wwaŋ anak-ensuffer from excessive fondness for one's relations


PWMP     *anak anak small child

Bontok ʔan-ʔannakdoll
Cebuano anak ánakadopted child; in a child's game, the pretend child
Bahasa Indonesia anak anakmany children; a small child
Karo Batak anak anakbrook, tributary stream; children, in contrast with adults
Toba Batak anah anaksmall club or cudgel; shuttle of a loom
Dairi-Pakpak Batak anak anakchild, without regard to sex
Simalur anaʔ anaʔsmall child
Old Javanese anak anakgive birth to a child (calve, etc.); consider as one's child
  m-ānak anakbring forth a child
Javanese anak anakto have children
Balinese anak anakpeople, persons (as individuals, as opposed to woŋ which = a person or persons as members of a category)
Buginese anaʔ anaʔmany children; a small child
Makasarese anaʔ anaʔchild (immature person), young man, young woman; servant, follower; doll of native manufacture; part of a casting net


PWMP     *anak anak-an doll (?)

Kapampangan anak anak-anadopted child
Tagalog anák anak-anfoster child
Bahasa Indonesia anak anak-andoll
  anak anak-an mentimunchild adopted for one's wife (lit. 'cucumber doll')
Old Javanese anak anak-andoll or anything (which is treated and fondled) like a baby
  anak anak-(an)pupil of the eye


PMP     *anak apij twin

Kayan anak apintwin
[Maloh anak kampittwin]
[Iban anak sapittwin]
[Malay anak kembartwin]
[Sasak anak (r)indutwin]
[Manggarai anak dapértwin]
[Ngadha ana doatwin; siblings of the same sex]
[Kambera ana nduatwin]
[Erai ana kapu(n) ruatwins]


PMP     *anak bahi, anak babahi, anak binahi sister's child (man speaking), father's sister's child (man speaking); sister's husband (man speaking); wife-taking lineage

Malagasy ana bavyZ (m.s.)
[Karo Batak anak beruZS (m.s.), FZS (m.s.); wife-takers]
[Toba Batak anak boruZS (m.s.), FZS (m.s.); wife-takers]
Manggarai anak winawife-takers
Rembong anak winawife-takers
Kambera ana winiZ (m.s.)
Hawu na weniZ (m.s.)
[Atoni an fetowife-takers]
[Erai ana-hataZC (m.s.)]
[Huaulu haha-pinawife-takers]


PMP     *anak buaq relative (?)

Iban anak buaha relation
Malay anak buahfollowers; tribesmen; clansmen
Toba Batak anak buasubjects, serfs
Bahasa Indonesia anak buahpeople who belong in one's family, (nation, etc.)
Javanese anak buahcrew; group under the command of an officer, or employees under a boss
Makasarese anaʔ bua-na paʔrasaŋaŋainhabitant of an area
Ngadha ana buachildren of the same father, but different mother \nq KAM: ana hua illegitimate child -- Removed 30apr09


PWMP     *anak daRa maiden, virgin, girl of marriageable age

Acehnese anɨʔ daramarriageable girl
Malay anak daramaiden, virgin
Old Javanese anak-ḍaramaid, virgin
Tae' anak daramaiden, young woman; Z (b.s.)
[Makasarese anaʔ rarayoung girl from 10-12 years of age]


PMP     *anak ma-Ruqanay, anak (la)laki brother's child (woman speaking); mother's brother's child (woman speaking); brother's wife (woman speaking); wife-giving lineage

Malagasy ana dahyB (w.s.)
Tae' anak muaneB (w.s.)
Manggarai anak ronawife-givers
Rembong anak ranawife-givers
Kambera ana miniB (w.s.)
Hawu na moneB (w.s.)
[Atoni an monewife-givers]
Erai ana-maneBC (w.s.)
[Huaulu haha-manawife-givers]


PMP     *anak a ma-iRaq neonate (lit. 'red child')

[Kelabit anak siaʔneonate (lit. 'red child')]
Bahasa Indonesia anak mérahneonate (lit. 'red child')
[Dairi-Pakpak Batak anak embarababy, suckling, newborn (lit. 'red child')]
[Bare'e ana ndoroneonate (lit. 'red child')]
[Manggarai anak warababy (lit. 'red child')]
[Rembong anak warababy (lit. 'red child')]
[Kambera ana rarasuckling, infant (lit. 'red child')]
Erai ana mera mera-slittle children, babies (lit. 'red children')


PMP     *anak a qulu first-born, eldest child (lit. 'head child')

[Iban anak tuaieldest child, heir]
[Rhade anak khuafirstborn, oldest child]
[Malay anak suloŋfirstborn child]
Acehnese anɨʔ ulèë barafirstborn child
[Nias ono henefirstborn (of animals)]
[Rejang anoʔ tuwai suʔaŋoldest child in family]
Bare'e ana uyu-efirstborn child
Rembong anak ulufirstborn child
[Kambera ana tuhaŋueldest child]
Rotinese ana ulu-kfirstborn child
[Erai ana(n) ajulueldest child]
[Kei yanan yāneldest child]
[Soboyo anaʔ mantuañeldest child]


PMP     *anak i banua fellow villager, fellow community-member

Simalur anaʔ banwosubject (of state), serf; native of a place
Nias ono mbanuacommon man, villager
Old Javanese anak wanwaperson belonging to the wanwa-community
Ngadha ana nuavillager
[Erai ana-hirathe children, often used in the meaning of: villagers, the village population]


PMP     *anak i batu small stones, gravel

Simalur anaʔ batu-fatusmall stones, gravel
Sasak anak batugravel
Kei wāt yana-nsmall stone


PWMP     *anak i hapuy sparks of fire

Kayan anak apuysparks of fire
Simalur anaʔ axoesparks of fire


PWMP     *anak i haRezan step or rung of a ladder

Bintulu anak kejanrung of a ladder
[Malay anak taŋgarung of a ladder]
Acehnese anɨʔ reunjeunrung of a ladder
[Toba Batak anak ni taŋgarung of a ladder]
Simalur anaʔ aeranrung of a ladder
Wolio ana-na odastep of a staircase of ladder


PMP     *anak i kahiw young tree, sprout

[Acehnese anɨʔ pisaŋyoung banana shoots]
Toba Batak anak ni haushoot, sprout
  [anak ni gaolbanana shoot]
[Simalur anaʔ kaolbanana shoot]
[Sangir anaʔ u nanasipineapple sprout]
[Makasarese anaʔ asesmall rice haulm]
[Komodo ana wanayoung palmyra palm]
[Bimanese ana kalobanana sprout, young banana tree]
Rotinese ai anakyoung tree


PMP     *anak i lesuŋ rice pestle

Sasak anak lisuŋrice pestle
Wolio anana nosupestle
Kei luhun yana-nrice pestle


PMP     *anak i lima little finger, pinkie

[Malay anak jarifinger]
[Toba Batak anak ni taŋanlittle finger]
[Angkola-Mandailing Batak anak ni taŋanfinger]
[Simalur anaʔ kaokaəlittle finger/toe]
Sasak anak imalittle finger
[Palauan ŋálekpinkie; small finger]
Rotinese lima kuʔu anaklittle finger, pinkie


PMP     *anak i manuk chick, baby chicken

Bare'e ana manuchick
Rotinese manu-anachick


PMP     *anak i mata pupil of the eye

[Malagasy anaka-ndri-masopupil of the eye]
Malay anak matapupil of the eye
Acehnese anɨʔ matapupil of the eye
Toba Batak anak ni matapupil of the eye
Nias ono hõrõpupil of the eye
Rejang anoʔ mateypupil of the eye
Sangir anaʔ u matapupil of the eye
Bare'e ana matapupil of the eye
Manggarai anak matapupil of the eye


PMP     *anak i panaq arrow

Ngaju Dayak anak panaharrow
Malay anak panaharrow
Dairi-Pakpak Batak anak céurarrow
Nias ono fanaarrow; bullet
Wolio ana-na panaarrow
Kambera na ana-na panaarrow


PMP     *anak i qaRta slave (?)

[Cebuano anák sa búhatlaborer]
[Ngaju Dayak anak olohslave (affectionate substitute for jipen)]
[Iban anak kulilaborer]
[Malay anak masborn slave]
[Toba Batak anak somaŋservant, slave]
[Dairi-Pakpak Batak anak hambasaid to a person whose conduct is rude]
[Old Javanese anak wesiservant, attendant, constant companion]
Makasarese anaʔ atachild of one's own slaves
Rotinese ana-ataata-anaslave child
[Kei yanan piārhouse slave, house servant]


PMP     *anak i sumpit blowpipe dart

[Malay anak damakblowpipe dart]
[Acehnese anɨʔ bɨdébullet]
[Toba Batak anak (ni) bodilbullet]
[Simalur anaʔ mariamcannot shot]
[Makasarese anaʔ baʔdiliʔbullet]
[Wolio ana-na kasopublowpipe dart]
[Bimanese ana bedibullet]
Manggarai anak sumpitblowpipe dart


PMP     *anak i tau someone else's child

[Iban anak oraŋanother person's child]
[Bahasa Indonesia anak oraŋnon-relative]
Bare'e ana n-tausomeone else's child
Kambera ana tausomeone else's child

Note:   Also Proto-Rukai *valakə ‘child’, Rejang anaʔ ‘child, offspring’, Malay dansanak ‘relatives’, Karo Batak danak danak ‘child(ren), young people as against adults’, me-danak ‘childish’, Makasarese ammanaʔ ‘get a child (of father and mother), bear, give birth’, Pangasinan aŋ-anák ‘one who has sponsored a child at a baptism, etc.’, Itbayaten mi-ʔanak ‘bear a child’, Mandar me-aneʔ give birth; summon a child’, Balinese kep-onak-an ‘sibling's child’, Bahasa Indonesia ke-anak anak-an ‘in a childish way or manner’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) neŋ-anak ‘parent’, Kelabit neŋ-anak ‘give birth’ (probably - /ŋ-/ plus /teŋ-anak/ ‘date of birth’). The following additional observations are noteworthy:

1) apart from the explicit reconstructions offered here, non-cognate compound expressions based on a reflex of *aNak are cited for a number of meanings, including 1. adopted child, 2. bastard/illegitimate child, 3. calf of the leg, 4. clapper of a bell, 5. clitoris, 6. nobility, 7. orphan, 8. stepchild, and 9. uvula; many or all of these may derive from compound expressions which cannot yet be reconstructed;

2) in the same category we should perhaps include the apparent cognate set Tagalog anák na bunsóʔ ‘youngest or last child’, Iban anak bunsu ‘youngest child’, Bahasa Indonesia anak buŋsu ‘last child’, Acehnese anɨʔ buŋsu ‘youngest child, last-born’, and the non-cognate forms Rejang anoʔ uʔai suʔaŋ ‘youngest child in family’, Manggarai anak cucu ‘youngest child’ (lit. ‘child of the breast’), Rembong anak sopo ‘last-born child’, Kambera ana ka-muri ‘youngest child’, Rotinese ana muli-k ‘last-born child’, Erai ana(n) ai-mori ‘youngest child’, Kei yanan warin/loisus ‘youngest child’, and Soboyo anaʔ ipuc ‘youngest child’, since Tagalog bunsóʔ appears to be a Malay loan. Given the reconstruction PMP *anak a qulu ‘eldest/first-born child’ (lit. ‘head child’) we would expect a parallel construction with ‘tail’ (PMP *ikuR) or ‘back’ (PMP *udehi) for the meaning ‘youngest/last-born child’; there is some known support for this, but to date it is confined to CMP languages;

3) some liberties have been taken with the comparative method in connection with the reconstructions for ‘twin’, ‘rice mortar’ and ‘blowpipe dart’: since PMP *sumpit ‘blowpipe’ is well-established, *anak i + blowpipe appears justified by the comparison given here, although only one of the languages cited happens to reflect *sumpit; the same is true of *anak apij and *anak i lesuŋ, since the forms for ‘mortar’ cited in connection with a reflex of PMP *anak reflect several doublet forms rather than a single phonologically uniform etymon;

4) some widespread compounds formed with a reflex of PMP *anak clearly are a product of convergent innovation, as with ‘child of the lock’ = ‘key’, and ‘child of the school’ = ‘pupil, student’. In addition to the affixed, reduplicated and compounded forms of PMP *anak cited above, forms such as Pangasinan anák ‘child’, ának ‘children’ agree with a handful of POc nouns referring to persons which indicate the plural by shifting the accent to the first syllable, or by lengthening the first syllable vowel (POc *papine ‘woman’, *pāpine ‘women’). These agreements suggest that an accent shift or rule of vowel lengthening was employed im PMP to indicate the plural of a small set of nouns which referred to persons.


*aNay insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant


PAN     *aNay insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant     [doublet: *SayaN]

Pazeh alaytermite, white ant
Itbayaten anaytermite, white ant
Isneg an-ánaysmall ant with black head and white body. Not a termite; if eaten it causes the abdomen to burst
Itawis ánaytermite
Gaddang ánaytermite
Casiguran Dumagat anɛtermite
Bontok ʔánəytermite
Ifugaw ánetermite
Ilokano ánaywhite ant, termite
Kapampangan ánetermite
Tagalog ánaywhite ants, termites
Bikol ánoytermite
Hanunóo ʔánaytermite, white ant, whether found in wood or in large anthills
Aklanon ánaytermite (general term)
Hiligaynon ánaytermite
Cebuano ánaytermite; be infested with termites
Mansaka anaytermite
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) aneytermite
Maranao anayant; attack by white ants
Tiruray ʔaneymound-building termites
Kadazan t-anaywhite ant
Kelabit anetermite, white ant
Berawan (Long Terawan) anaytermite, white ant
Bintulu anaytermite, white ant
Kenyah anaywhite ant
  ŋ-anaynumerous as white ants
Kayan aneytermites, white ants
Banjarese anaywhite ant, termite
Maloh anetermite
Malay anay-anaywhite ants; generic for Termitidae
  di-makan anay-anaydestroyed by white ants
Karo Batak ane anewhite ant
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ane anewhite ant
Simalur anae anaetermite
Rejang aney aneyants, termites
Sundanese anaysmall kind of termite which seldom emerges from ground
Gorontalo waletermite larva
Mongondow anoywhite ant
Bare'e anetermite, white ant
  ke-anedamaged by termites
Tae' anetermite, white ant
Mandar anetermite, white ant
  me-ʔanebustling, swarming (as with termites)
Buginese anetermite, white ant
Wolio anelarva of termite, white ant
  ane kumbabeetle larva
Palauan ŋaltermite; termite-ridden
Bimanese anetermite, white ant
Proto-Ambon *ana(y)termite


POC     *ane insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant

Leipon antermite, white ant
Loniu antermite, white ant
Pak antermite, white ant
Mussau anetermite, white ant
Bugotu anewhite ant
Nggela anewhite ant
  ane-gaeaten with white ants, rotten
  ane-lovoflying ants
Lau saneshite ant
  sane-aeaten by white ant
Kwaio nale <Mwhite ant (termite)
  nale-ʔatermite riddled, insect riddled
Sa'a sanewhite ant, the food of ghosts on Malapa?
  sane-ʔaeaten by white ants
'Āre'āre nare <Mwhite ants
Arosi anethe white ant which bores and destroys
  ane-haua variety which lives in the ground; the name for its nest; these ants were thought to be incarnations of the dead
Arosi (Southern) sanewhite ant; to spread over, as ants
Fijian yanesp. of moth
Tongan anemoth (or, more strictly, its larva) that eats holes in clothes, etc.; silverfish
Samoan anesp. of white ant (a wood pest)
  āne-abe damaged by white ants
  anea-neaold, ancient, as a fine mat (lit. so old as to be eaten by ants)
Rennellese anenest of white grubs, the grubs (sometimes fed to chickens); termite nest, the termites
  ane-ato be many ane; moth-eaten
Tuvaluan aneinsect species, termite
  ane-ainfested with ane (of a tree)
Rarotongan anewhite ant
Hawaiian anea dermestid beetle that destroys feathers in feather-work; mites, as in chickens; ringworm; insect-eaten, gnawed
  lehu anefine ashes


PPh     *ma-anay termite-infested

Kapampangan ma-ʔanefull of termites
Bikol ma-ánoybe eaten by termites


PWMP     *anay-en eaten by termites, damaged by termites

Bikol anóy-onbe eaten by termites
Tiruray ʔaney-eninfested by termites
Karo Batak ane-anē-ndamaged by white ants

Note:   Also, Ifugaw ánay ‘termite’, Dairi-Pakpak Batak anei ‘white ant’, Dairi-Pakpak Batak cane ‘white ant’, Rejang naney ‘ants, termites’, Bikol ánay ‘termite’, Bikol áloy ‘termite’, Proto-Sangiric *uanay ‘termite’, Sangir uane ‘white ant’, Haga ghane ‘termite, white ant’, Li'o ŋana ‘termite, white ant’, Wuvulu anana ‘termite, white ant’, Lou ŋan ‘termite, white ant’, Penchal han ‘termite, white ant’, Lenkau nan ‘termite, white ant’, 'Āre'āre sane ‘white ant’; 'Āre'āre sane-ʔa ‘eaten by white ants’.

Although such apparently irregular reflexes of *aNay as Li'o ŋana and Lou ŋan allow the reconstruction of a doublet, the variety of unexplained initial consonants in the forms cited here suggest that this probably would be an overinterpretation of the data.

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*añam plait (mats, baskets, etc.)


PMP     *añam plait (mats, baskets, etc.)     [doublet: *añem, *ayam]

Tiruray ʔonomto weave
Berawan (Long Terawan) añiːmto weave
Bintulu añamweaving
Melanau (Mukah) añamplait, plaiting
Kayan (Uma Juman) añamplait, weave (as mats)
Kayan añamweaving; to weave (e.g. baskets); plaits of anything; to plait
Kenyah añamwoven
Iban añamweave (of baskets and mats), braid, plait
Malay añamplaiting; braiding; making mats and baskets or wattled fences; interweaving
Sundanese añamplaiting (as of rattan or bamboo)
  añam-anwhat is plaited, plaitwork
Madurese añamplaiting; braiding
  añam-anwhat is plaited or braided
Proto-Sangiric *anamto weave (mats, baskets)
Sangir anaŋan ornament plaited of leaves
Gorontalo walamoweaving, woven
  moh-alamoto weave
Tialo añamweaving of a mat
Tae' ananplait, weave
Makasarese anaŋplaiting, weaving
  paŋŋ-anaŋweave bamboo or rattan around something
Wolio anaplait
Kédang anaŋweave, braid
Selaru anplaiting of mats, baskets, etc.
Fordata ananplaiting of baskets, fish weirs, etc.
Kei ananplaiting of baskets and mats
Paulohi anato plait, weave
Buli yanamto plait, weave (as mats)
Numfor yanəmto plait, weave
Gilbertese anaterm used in mat weaving to designate a certain width
Fijian yana-yanaloosely plaited or woven, as of mats


PWMP     *ma-añam plait, weave (mats, baskets)

Bintulu m-añamto weave
Melanau (Mukah) m-añamto plait
Kayan m-añamto weave
Kenyah m-añamto weave
Jarai m-eñamplait, braid, weave
Rhade m-ñamto weave


PWMP     *maŋ-añam plait, weave (mats, baskets)

Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-añamplait (laths, pandanus leaves, etc.), as in making a mat or basket
  meŋ-añam rambutplait or braid hair
Sundanese ŋ-añamplait a mat
Madurese ŋ-añamto plait or braid
Sangir maŋ-anaŋplait (baskets, etc., but not hair)
Tialo moŋ-añamEweave a mat
Tae' maŋ-ananto plait, weave
Makasarese aŋ-anaŋto plait, weave


PWMP     *añam-en what has been plaited or woven

Bahasa Indonesia añam-anwhat has been plaited or woven; things that have been plaited
  añam-an rambuta plait or braid of hair
Gorontalo walam-olowoven

Note:   Also Old Javanese anam ‘plait, weave, twine; compose’, Javanese anam ‘woven, braided’, Kambera ŋanaŋu ‘to plait, as a mat’, pa-ŋanaŋu ‘plaitwork’. PMP *añam clearly referred to the plaiting of mats or baskets, as against the weaving of cloth (*tenun), and probably the plaiting of hair (PWMP *apid). It remains unclear how it differed semantically from PMP *batuR ‘plait, weave’.


*añem plait, braid


PMP     *añem plait, braid     [doublet: *añam]

Bilaan (Sarangani) anɨmweave a mat
Samal anomweave a mat
Malay añamplaiting, braiding, making mats and baskets or wattled fences; interweaving
Buginese aneŋbraid, plait, twine, weave (baskets, mats, but not cloth)
Rotinese anebraid, plait, twine, weave (baskets, mats, but not cloth)

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*áŋal groan, cry of pain


PPh     *áŋal groan, cry of pain

Ilokano áŋalmoan, groan softly
Tagalog áŋalprolonged cry, expressing pain, complaint, or opposition


*aŋaq open the mouth wide


PMP     *aŋaq open the mouth wide     [disjunct: *qaŋab, *qaŋap]

Sundanese aŋahopen the mouth; be open, of the mouth
Bimanese aŋaopen wide (mouth)

Note:   With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gape, open the mouth wide’.


*aŋat to challenge, confront


PWMP     *aŋat to challenge, confront

Bikol áŋatto challenge
Melanau (Mukah) aŋatface bravely
  m-aŋatbold or fearless in facing someone who is angry with you


*aŋay departure (?)


PAN     *aŋay departure (?)

Tsou ŋoz-ileave, depart
Yami (a)ŋaygo
  aŋ-aŋay-anplace where one goes frequently
Ibatan aŋaysomeone comes, goes to do something
  maŋ-aŋayto go
  aŋay-ansomeone comes, goes someplace


PAN     *um-aŋay to leave, depart (?)

Tsou moŋoito leave, go away, depart
Itbayaten maŋayto go, leave, depart; to come

Note:   This comparison was first brought to my attention by Daniel Kaufman (email of 4/15/2013). The forms in Malayo-Polynesian languages could conceivably be *maŋ-ai reanalyzed as *um-aŋay (cf. Tsuchida, Yamada and Moriguchi 1987:182, where this is implied), but this explanation cannot be applied to Tsou moŋoi.


*aŋ(e)cej stench of sweaty armpits


PWMP     *aŋ(e)cej stench of sweaty armpits     [disjunct: *aŋ(e)ceŋ]

Bontok ʔaŋsə́gunderarm perspiration; the smell of underarm perspiration
Ilokano aŋségstench of putrid urine
Aklanon áŋsodunderarm odor
Cebuano aŋsúdhaving body odor
Maranao ansedoffensive body odor
Toba Batak ansoksweat in the armpits

Note:   Also Aklanon áŋtod ‘smelling overcooked (said of food, esp. rice)’, Maranao lanseŋ ‘malodorous’, Malay (Jakarta) baŋséŋ ‘smelling foully, as a bug’. An association of the meaning ‘repulsive odor’ with the phoneme sequence *(C)aŋ(e)C (where C = consonant) is widespread in Formosa, the Philippines, and western Indonesia.


*aŋ(e)ceŋ stench of sweaty armpits


PWMP     *aŋ(e)ceŋ stench of sweaty armpits     [disjunct: *aŋ(e)cej]

Maranao anseŋmalodorous
Dairi-Pakpak Batak anceŋstench of sweaty armpits


*aŋ(e)lem stench


PMP     *aŋ(e)lem stench

Ilokano aŋlémstench of burning cloth
Nggela aŋoemit a sour smell, as of urine

Note:   Shwa syncope did not take place in PAn *baqeRu > Nggela vaolu ‘new’. However, the syncope and cluster reduction assumed in this form are paralleled in PAn *qaŋeliC ‘smell of burnt rice, etc.’ > Nggela aŋi ‘emit a strong smell or scent, good or bad, usually bad’.


*aŋəhud young


PWMP     *aŋəhud young

Maranao aŋodyoung; youth
Binukid aŋhudterm of address for one's younger sibling
Kelabit aŋudyoung, tender, soft (of leaves, children)
Singhi Land Dayak aŋodyoung


*aŋ(ə)tad in the line of sight, clearly visible


PPh     *aŋ(ə)tad in the line of sight, clearly visible

Ibatan m-antadsomething is easily seen, visible; someone or something is famous
  mayp-antadsomeone or something becomes visible, especially that comes out or sticks out
Cebuano aŋtadbe in line of sight (as in watching a t.v. through a window); be where one can see it
  pa-ʔaŋtadput something in the line of sight


*aŋi aromatic odor


PWMP     *aŋi aromatic odor

Tagalog aŋíaromatic odor of overcooked or oversteamed rice
Iban aŋisweet smelling, scented

Note:   Richards (1981) compares Iban aŋi with Malay waŋi ‘fragrant’, but the latter is itself a loanword from Javanese (ultimately from *baŋi).


*aŋu aŋu silly, senile, doting


PWMP     *aŋu aŋu silly, senile, doting

Cebuano aŋu-aŋusenile
Iban aŋuhalf-witted, silly
  anaŋ aŋu-aŋudon't be silly (Scott 1956), silly, foolish, fond (Richards 1981)

Note:   Also Malay aŋum, aŋup ‘yawn, gape’. Cebuano aŋuaŋuh-un ‘somewhat senile’ suggests *aŋuh, but the Iban cognate points instead to a final vowel.


*aŋusu to spit; spittle


POC     *aŋusu to spit; spittle     [doublet: *qanus-i]

Ere aŋusblow the nose
Lou aŋusblow the nose
Bugotu aŋusuto spit, spit on; spittle
Nggela aŋusuto spit
  aŋusu-lagito spit out, as blood
Arosi ŋusuto spit
  ŋusu-ŋususpittle, poison of snakes

Note:   Also Old Javanese hidu ‘spittle’, aŋidu ‘to spit’, Nggela aŋuhu ‘to foam at the mouth, as a dying man’, Kwaio ŋisu ‘saliva, spittle, gall’, ŋisu-a ‘to spit on (something)’, Lau ŋisu ‘spittle; to spit’, Arosi ŋisu ‘to spit’, ŋisu-hi ‘to spit on’.

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*apa₁ what?


PMP     *apa₁ what?     [doublet: *sapa]

Lun Dayeh i-apehwhere?
Kelabit apehwhich?
Iban apawhat?
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) apamatter, what is said or written
Malay apawhat; how; which; somehow. An idiomatic word giving a suggestion of indefiniteness or interrogation -- even contemptuous interrogation -- to the sentence in which it occurs
  ber-apahow much/how many?
  apa-apaany, aught; any whatever
Karo Batak apawhat?
Mentawai apawhat?; which?; why?; how?
Old Javanese apawhat? (interrogative pronoun); also simply to introduce a question
Javanese apawhat?; what (kind of) thing?; to do what?; what, that which; whatever, anything; something, anything, everything; exclamation pointing out something, or holding something up to derision
  apa-apasomething; anything; everything
Balinese apawhat?; apa is used as an 'empty' word at the beginning or end of a sentence to indicate that the sentence is a question
Sasak apawhat? Used as an answer from one of higher to one of lower status, as from father to son: 'yes'
Sangir apa(interrogative pronoun) what?; (indefinite pronoun) something; also in a contemptuous sense: someone
  seŋ-apahow much?
Tontemboan apawhat, which
  saŋa-apaone thing, in contrast to another
Bare'e apaa word (sometimes in the a), that is used more or less enclitically to make the meaning of a free morpheme more general, often translated with 'or so', 'or something similar', etc.
  apa teʔiwhat is this? (fixed expression in a game)
Tae' apawhat? what sort of?
  apa-ŋkumine, what is mine
  k-(um)-a-apaor (marker of disjunction)
  saŋ-apahow long?
Mandar apawhat?
  saŋ-apahow much?
Proto-South Sulawesi *apawhat
Makasarese apawhat; something, of unique significance
Wolio apawhat?
  tua apahow?
Komodo apawhat; so-and-so, something; wherefore
Manggarai apasomething, anything; genitals; whatever (used jocularly, or when uncertain); never mind, it's alright; what?
Rembong apawhat?
Ngadha apawhat?; which?; what kind of?; wherefrom/from what?
Sika apawhat? (indefinite pronoun)
  apa-hahow much/many?
Lamboya ahawhat?
Dobel yawhat?
Watubela afawhat?
Kowiai lafewhat?


PWMP     *maŋ-apa why?

Malay meŋ-apawhy; reason why
Old Javanese aŋ-apain what way? how?
Javanese ŋ-apato (be) doing what? why?
Mandar maŋ-apa-iwhy? what is the reason?
Makasarese aŋŋ-apa-iwhy?


PWMP     *maŋ-apa-i do something to someone

Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-apa(apa)-ido something to
Makasarese aŋŋ-apà-ido something to someone


PMP     *apa-i what? which?

Dairi-Pakpak Batak apa-iinterrogative of person: who?
  apa-i-nawhich? which part?
Tae' maʔ apa-iwhat is wrong with him/her?
Paulohi afa-iwhat?


PMP     *apa apa something; anything; everything

Malay apa apaany; aught; any whatever
Bahasa Indonesia apa apaanything; what(so)ever
Javanese apa apasomething; anything; everything
Balinese apa apawhatever?; also indefinite pronoun: anything
Sasak apa apasomething
Tae' apa apawhatever; anything; everything
Makasarese apa apathing(s)
Rembong (Wangka) apa apasomething
Ngadha apa apasomething; anything; everything; any one
[Mota sava savaeverything, all sorts of things]


PWMP     *NEG + apa apa nothing

Bahasa Indonesia tidak apa apait's nothing, never mind
Tae' taé apa apanothing; never mind; whatever

Note:   Also Chamorro hafa ‘what, question word; also used in common greetings’, Kedayan ʌpe ‘what?’, Buli ahai ‘what?’. Reflexes of PMP *apa have a rather puzzling distribution. Throughout Taiwan, the Philippines and much of Borneo reflexes of *a-nu or *i-nu mean ‘what?’. The northernmost reflexes of *apa are found in Lun Dayeh and Kelabit of northern Sarawak, where the unaffixed stem apəh means ‘which’, and affixed forms may be used for other question words (Lun Dayeh i-apeh, Kelabit ŋ-apəh ‘where?’).

Only on reaching the Malayic group of languages in southern Borneo do we begin to find languages in which an unaffixed reflex of *apa means ‘what?’. The same type of reflex is widespread throughout the remaining portions of Indonesia, although reflexes of the doublet *sapa are occasionally found in western Indonesia, are somewhat more common in eastern Indonesia and entirely replaced *apa in POc.


*ampal beetle sp.


PWMP     *ampal beetle sp.

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ampallarge cockroach
Old Javanese ampala particular kind of beetle
Javanese ampalbeetle


*apaqpaq armpit, crotch


PWMP     *apaqpaq armpit, crotch

Palauan uʔáuʔcrotch
Chamorro afaʔfaʔarmpit, crotch
Sangir papa-(in composition) armpit, esp. of animals (pigs, etc.); side under the armpit

Note:   Chamorro afaʔfaʔ (rather than **guafaʔfaʔ) suggests *qa-, but the Chamorro treatment of initial vowels may have differed in disyllables and trisyllables. Palauan uʔáuʔ shows metathesis of anticipated **uáʔuʔ, a change which can be seen in the reflexes of some other reduplicated monosyllables, as with *panpan ‘plank’ > uláol ‘floor’ and *bujbuj ‘pour, sprinkle’ > odi-bsóbs ‘pour out (large quantity of liquid)’.


*ampaw empty husk (of rice, etc.)


PMP     *ampaw empty husk (of rice, etc.)

Ilokano ampáwempty shell, nut, etc.
Tagalog ampáwpuffed rice or corn
Bikol ampáwpuffed rice
Aklanon ámpawpopped rice candy
Cebuano ampáwdelicacy consisting of puffed rice coated with caramel and stuck into bricks
Maranao ampawpopped rice
Buruese apa-nempty (grain) hull


*aped hindrance, obstacle


PWMP     *aped hindrance, obstacle     [doublet: *habed]

Ilokano appédobstructed, hindered, impeded, blocked
Malagasy áfitrastopped, hindered, or impeded


*apeled taste of unripe banana; slightly bitter or astringent taste


PMP     *apeled taste of unripe banana; slightly bitter or astringent taste     [doublet: *sapeled]    [disjunct: *pelet]

Kankanaey appédrough, harsh (to the taste)
Aklanon ápeodhaving the flavor of raw or unripe bananas
Cebuano aplúdhaving an insipid to slightly bitter taste with an astrigent effect, such as unripe bananas
Maranao peledsourness of taste
Bimanese firiharsh-tasting, acid, tart


*ampeRij type of finch, rice bird


PWMP     *ampeRij type of finch, rice bird     [doublet: *apiRit]

Malay emperitfinch
Toba Batak amporikrice bird

Note:   Also Karo Batak perik ‘rice bird’, perik perik ‘birds in general’, Javanese emprit ‘a certain small hummingbird, considered an omen of danger’, Balinese perit ‘species of rice bird’, Sasak perit ‘rice bird’. This comparison is unlikely to be a product of chance, yet it can be maintained only precariously. The relationship of the Malay and Toba Batak forms is straightforward, and given the correspondence of the final consonants is not easily explained through a hypothesis of borrowing. However, the Karo Batak form, an almost certain cognate of Toba Batak amporik, has final /k/ rather than the expected final /ŋ/. Both it and the Dairi-Pakpak Batak perik ‘rice bird’ may be early loans from Toba Batak, just as the Javanese, Balinese and Sasak forms appear to be loans from Malay. The validity of *ampeRij is made more likely by the need to reconstruct a doublet, *apiRit, a form which also serves to disambiguate the intervocalic consonant as *R.


*ampet stanch the flow, as of blood


PWMP     *ampet stanch the flow, as of blood

Kapampangan ampatstanch the flow of blood; stop, detain, check the progress of (Bergaño 1860)
Bikol ampát <Astop, put a stop to, quell, suppress
Malagasy mi-àfitrato stay, to halt, to be arrested in one's progress
Javanese ampetto check, restrain
Balinese ampetstanch, stop the flow

Note:   Also Tagalog ampát ‘checked, stopped, as of bleeding’ (presumpably a Kapampangan loan). With root *-pet ‘plugged, stopped, closed off’.


*ampias wind-driven rain


PWMP     *ampias wind-driven rain

Tagalog ampíasrain entering through open or cracked windows, doors, walls, etc.
Iban empiasdrops of driven rain (e.g. drops of rain blown onto a table by a window, drops of rain driven into a room)
Malay t-empiasdeflected (and so beating in), as rain; commonly of slanting rain
Malay (Jakarta) t-ampiasraindrops that spatter or splash in

Note:   Also Aklanon ambi ‘get inside a window, seep in (rain)’, Malagasy tafío ‘rain blown by the wind’, tafíotra ‘rain blown by the wind’, Iban bias ‘rain storm with high wind, driving rain’, Malay bias ‘deflected (of a course). Of rain falling at an angle (hujan bias) because of wind; of a ship's course being affected by tides or currents; but not of a ship being blown off its course altogether by storms’, Malay (Jakarta) lampias ‘veer off one's course at sea’.


*apid₁ braid


PWMP     *apid₁ braid

Bontok ʔapídbraid
Ifugaw apídto braid, entwine, interlace; applicable to anything that can be or that is braided, such as ropes, strings, threads, mats, women's hair
Kayan (Uma Juman) apireither of the halves of two things joined (as of two bananas that are fused together)

Note:   With root *-pid ‘wound together, braid’. Apparently distinct from *Sapij ‘twins’.


*apid₂ lie in stacks, one on top of the other


PWMP     *apid₂ lie in stacks, one on top of the other

Cebuano ápidarrange things of approximately the same size in a neat stack
Mansaka ampidto stack (as wood)
Manobo (Dibabawon) apidlayer, thickness (as of clothing, mat); to double, add a second layer
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) apidof flat objects with considerable surface, or of layers of clothing, to be one on top of the other
Maranao apidancestor, descendant; underclothes
  apid-apidsuccessive generations; something arranged by layers
Gorontalo wapidulayers
Tae' maŋ-apiʔlie in layers, one on top of the other


*apij twins


PMP     *apij twins; double banana     [disjunct: *Sabij]

Palawan Batak ʔápidtwin
Kadazan t-apidtwins; concubine of a married man
  maŋ-apidmarry two wives
Kelabit apidpartner, match, mate, complement
Kayan apintwin offspring
Kayan (Uma Juman) apireither of the halves of two things joined
  p-apirfused, as two bananas that have grown together; twins
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) apidadditional, extra
Singhi Land Dayak anak ber-opidtwins
Mongondow apidtwin, of fruit (e.g. two bananas grown together)
Roviana avisitwins, when of same sex

Note:   Also Amis ʔapi ‘twin; double (as a banana)’, Hanunóo kápid ‘twin(s)’, Hiligaynon kápid ‘twin, double’, Karo Batak galuh rapit ‘double banana’, Javanese Dampit ‘boy-girl twins’, Bare'e mo-rapi ‘twin’. Although PMP *apij can only be glossed ‘twins’, it appears that PWMP *apij referred both to twins and to double fruits, particularly fused bananas. The recurrent references to double bananas in such WMP languages as Kayan (Uma Juman) and Mongondow, and the parallel association of twinning with humans and fruits in the similar but non-corresponding Amis and Karo Batak forms, raise the possibility that *apij ‘twins’ and *qapid ‘braid, twine’ are actually the same morpheme (since both the strands of a braided rope, and double bananas are joined along the length). However, *qapid appears definitely to end in *d, and if Roviana avisi truly belongs in this cognate set (and not with *Sabij), *apij must end in *j.


*ampik pat, clap


PWMP     *ampik pat, clap

Kankanaey ampíkpat, tap lightly
Banjarese ampikclap

Note:   Possibly a convergent innovation. With root *-pik ‘pat, light slap’.


*ampin roll of leaves or cloth


PWMP     *ampin roll of leaves or cloth

Toba Batak maŋ-ampinin weaving, to roll up a woven cloth because it would otherwise be too long for the arms
  sa-ampina piece of cloth as large as a woman can weave at one time
Balinese ampinbunch (of leaves), bundle, pile, heap
Sasak ampinroll of sirih leaves
Tontemboan ampinleaf, cloth, etc. with which one seizes something


*apiRit type of finch, rice bird


PWMP     *apiRit type of finch, rice bird     [doublet: *ampeRij]

Kelabit piritsmall bird with long beak, rice bird
Ngaju Dayak ampitsmall bird which does great damage in the ricefields; there are two kinds: black with white beak, and red with ash-gray neck and green beak
Malay (Jakarta) piritfinch
Sundanese piitsmall finch-like bird

Note:   It is assumed that Ngaju Dayak ampit reflects earlier *ampihit, with syllable loss motivated by the general disyllabic canonical target of non-Oceanic Austronesian languages.


*apis kind of rattan


PWMP     *apis kind of rattan

Tagalog apískind of rattan
Iban apisrattan bag or basket


*apu grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal)


PAN     *apu grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal)     [doublet: *empu, *impu, *umpu]

Thao apugrandparent


PMP     *ampu grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal)     [doublet: *empu, *impu, *umpu]

Itbayaten apokinship term for vocative only: grandparent, great grandpartent, grandchild, great grandchild, etc.
Isneg āpógrandparent; master, mistress; sir, madam; chief, lord; grandchild
Itawis afúGod
Gaddang aforeciprocal relationship between grandparent and grandchild
Casiguran Dumagat apógrandparent, grandchild
Bontok ʔapúthe relationship between relatives at the second (or greater) ascending or descending generation; grandparent, grandchild; an old person, a grandparent; a leader, a person in charge, usually applied only in situations which are not traditional Bontoc institutions
  ʔáputerm of address for all of one's relatives at the second (or greater) ascending or descending generation; grandparent, great grandparent; grandchild, great grandchild
Kankanaey apógrandfather, grandmother, grandchild
Ifugaw apúgrandfather, grandmother, granduncle, grandaunt; also used in the sense of 'master', 'leader having the authority of prestige', 'teacher', 'superior', etc.
Ilokano apógrandparent; master, mistress; sir, madam; grandchild
Pangasinan ápoterm of respect used especially when addressing a priest
  apógrandchild, great-nephew, great-niece
Kapampangan ápugrandparent, esp. grandmother. As a term of address, ápu is used for grandfather and grandmother; as a term of reference, usually it is restricted to grandmother, with iŋkoŋ being used for grandfather; also used with saints' names: Apu Lusya 'Saint Lucy'
Tagalog apógrandchild
Hanunóo ʔápuowner, master, often used figuratively
Aklanon apó(h)grandchild
Cebuano apúgrandchild
Maloh ampugrandchild
Tae' ampograndchild
Makasarese ampuowner of something
Makasarese (Salayar) ampugrandchild
Dobel sabugrandparent/grandchild
Numbami abugrandparent
Southeast Ambrym avugrandparents and their siblings


PPh     *in-ampu (gloss uncertain)

Bontok ʔin-apúdaughter-in-law; son-in-law
Kankanaey in-apóson-in-law; daughter-in-law
Aklanon in-ápograndchildren
Tontemboan n-apo-ʔdeceased grandfather


PPh     *ka-ampu-an descendants

Kankanaey ka-apo-ángreat grandfather; great grandsire; great grandmother
Aklanon ka-apó-apó-hanfuture generation(s) (of grandchildren)
Manobo (Sarangani) ke-epo-andescendants


PPh     *maŋa-ampu ancestors

Itbayaten maŋa-apovocative term: grandchild, spouse of grandchild, great grandchild
Tontemboan maŋa-apo-ʔthe ancestors


PMP     *pa-ampu grandparent, possibly vocative

Itbayaten pa-apovocative term: fond name for grandparent, grandaunt/uncle, or any person two generations older
Tontemboan p-apo-ʔvocative of apo-ʔ
Nali pa-apugrandfather
Bipi pa-apugrandfather


PPh     *paŋ-ampu descendants (?)

Bontok paŋ-apúthe social unit comprising all of the descendants of a single ancestor
Cebuano paŋ-apúhave grandchildren


PEMP     *t-ampu grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal)

Windesi t-apugrandparent; grandchild
Tolai t-abu-grandparent; grandchild; reciprocal term used between a woman and her parents-in-law


PPh     *ampu-en regard as a grandparent or grandchild (?)

Itbayaten apo-enreference term: person regarded as grandparent, grandparent substitute; master, boss
Ifugaw apúw-onadopt a child as one's grandchild
Bikol apó-ʔ-ongrandparents; ancestors, forefathers


PPh     *apu-ʔ grandparent, ancestor, lord, master, owner (voc.)

Tagalog ápo-ʔpatriarch; mogul
Bikol ápo-ʔgrandparent; sire; respectful title for old men or women; imp; a small human-like creature living in little earth mounds and possessing magical powers capable of turning people into animals such as toads, snakes
Palawan Batak ʔapó-ʔfather's father; mother's father; male grandparents and their male siblings; son's son, daughter's son
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) apu-ʔgrandparent; grandchild
Maranao apo-ʔancestor; grandchild
Manobo (Dibabawon) apu-ʔgrandparent; grandchild
Manobo (Sarangani) apo-ʔgrandparent; grandchild
Proto-Minahasan *apo-ʔgrandparent; ancestor; lord (title)
Tontemboan apo-ʔgrandparent; Sir, as a title given to gods and men: lord, ruler


PPh     *ampu ampu forefathers, ancestors

Isneg āp-apóLord
Kankanaey ap-apóforefathers, ancestors
Maranao apoʔ-apoʔancestors; patriarch

Note:   Also Malagasy áfy ‘grandchild’, Simalur ambo, ambu ‘grandparents; ancestors’, Yamdena ambo ‘reciprocal address term used between grandparents and grandchildren’. Reflexes of *t-ampu and *ampu-ʔ almost certainly had a wider distribution than is indicated here (cf. Blust 1979). Finally, Philippine languages invariably reflect a form with non-prenasalized medial consonant, whereas almost all diagnostic witnesses outside the Philippines indicate *-mb- in this form and in the doublets *empu, *impu and *umpu.


*ampuk scatter, disperse


PWMP     *ampuk scatter, disperse

Bontok ʔapúkscatter, as a crowd of people or broken beads
Kankanaey apókspread; scatter; dissipate; expand
Balinese ampukwidely scattered, dispersed

Note:   Also Itbayaten hapak ‘act of scattering’. Possibly a chance resemblance.


*apuk dust


PWMP     *apuk dust     [doublet: *qabuk]

Ifugaw ápukdrizzling rain
Kalamian Tagbanwa apukdust
Palawan Batak ʔapókdust, soot
Mansaka apokmold; moldy, mildewed
Kelabit apukfine ashes or dust in the air; sawdust, facial powder
Sentah Land Dayak apukash
Iban apokfog, mist; dust, dirt
  apok empelawaʔ(old) cobwebs

Note:   Although the evidence for a semantic distinction is rather thin, PWMP *qabuk ‘dust’ and *apuk ‘dust’ apparently had somewhat different referents. Whereas the former probably referred to dust produced by the trituration of dry substances (sago dust, sawdust, etc.), the latter seems to have referred to dirty particles, as in soot, mildew, or old cobwebs. With root *-puk₂ ‘dust’.


*ampun pardon, forgiveness


PMP     *ampun pardon, forgiveness

Kadazan ampunpardon, forgive, condone, remit, excuse, absolve
Ngaju Dayak ampunpardon, forgiveness
Banjarese ampunpardon
Iban ampunforgiveness, pardon, submission; apologize, confess
Malay ampunpardon (of a royal or divine superior showing mercy; forgiveness between equals is maaf, mahap, tabek)
Acehnese ampōnpardon, forgiveness; apology; remission, absolution
Toba Batak ampunpardon, forgiveness
Rejang apunpardon, mercy
  apun tuaninitial salutation to ancestral spirits in propitiation rites
Sundanese ampunpardon, forgiveness
Old Javanese ampunshow mercy toward, receive with favor
Balinese ampunpardon, forgive
Sasak ampunpardon, forgiveness
Sangir ampuŋforgiveness, pardon
Dampelas ampunpardon, forgiveness
Banggai ampunforgiveness, pardon
Bare'e ámpuŋ-iforgiveness, pardon
Manggarai ampuŋpardon, forgiveness


PWMP     *maŋ-ampun pardon, forgive

Kadazan maŋ-ampunpardon, forgive, condone, remit, excuse, absolve
Toba Batak maŋ-ampunask for forgiveness, apologize
Sangir maŋ-ampuŋpardon, forgive
[Mongondow moŋ-ampuŋask for forgiveness, entreat, implore]


PWMP     *maŋ-ampun-i pardon, forgive

Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-ampun-ipardon, forgive
Old Javanese aŋ-ampun-ishow mercy toward, receive with favor
Dampelas meŋ-ampun-ipardon, forgive
Banggai moŋ-ompun-ito pardon


PWMP     *paŋ-ampun-an forgiveness (?)

Bahasa Indonesia peŋ-ampun-anforgiveness, absolution
Toba Batak paŋ-ampun-anapology
Sangir paŋ-ampuŋ-aŋone who will be granted forgiveness; one who asks for forgiveness


PWMP     *ampun-an <