Updated: 11/20/2014
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Blust's
Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*b   

be    bi    bo    bp    bu        

25207

*ba₁ conjunction: or, if; perhaps; because

740

PMP     *ba₁ conjunction: or, if; perhaps; because

WMP
Malagasy (Provincial) vaor, nor, though, whether, neither, if. It is also used to form several indefinite pronouns and adverbs
Toba Batak baand
Simalur fastill, yet, then, because
Bare'e baperhaps (makes the following word indefinite)
Uma baor, perhaps

741

PCEMP     *ba₇ but, if

CMP
Manggarai waso long as, but, if, not
Buruese baonly, just

742

POC     *ba₈ or, because, but, perhaps

OC
Tolai or, because, whether; if; perhaps
Roviana babut, although, however, or
Eddystone/Mandegusu babut
Bugotu badisjunctive conjunction, or
Nggela mbaadverb, introduces doubt
Mota pabut, and
Gilbertese babecause, so that, as, for
Pohnpeian pasince (contrary to expectations)

Note:   The appropriateness of including all of these forms in a single cognate set is perhaps open to question. However, reflexes of *ba appear to function as conjunctions in nearly all of the languages cited, and semantically many of them introduce an element of doubt, qualification or negation. Both Bare'e and Uma ba are said to be shortened forms of bara (< *baraŋ ‘marker of uncertainty, conditionality or hope’), but the basis for this interpretation is unclear.

25208

*ba₂ interjection or exclamation

743

PMP     *ba₂ interjection or exclamation

WMP
Tagalog bainterjection (short for abá) expressing disgust or surprise
Aklanon ba(h)interjection, expressions of disbelief
Cebuano bain exclamations: how unbelievable that it is that way!; though
Tiruray baan emphatic particle, with the sense of 'really'
Iban ba(h)exclamation to direct attention
Toba Batak baexpressions of astonishment
Nias bainterjection
Bolaang Mongondow baexclamation of delight
CMP
Ngadha bacry out loudly, shriek
Rotinese bacry intended to frighten someone

744

POC     *pa₁ interjection; to startle

OC
Motu hainterjection: warning, forbidding; look out!
Mota vaexpletive
Lonwolwol famake a sudden and alarming noise, to startle, jerk, to shock, cause shock, etc.
Hawaiian exclamation

Note:   Also Ilokano baá ‘an interjection to startle people or to make children laugh’, Ngaju Dayak bah ‘interjection of astonishment’, Balinese bah ‘interjection of amazement’, Uma baʔ ‘interjection’, Nggela mbaa (with nasal grade initial) ‘exclamation, look out!’. The lengthened or doubled vowels in the Ilokano and Nggela forms and the occasional final /h/ in WMP languages may be motivated in different ways by the emotive character of this word.

25209

*ba₃ preposition: at, on, in, to

745

PMP     *ba₃ preposition: at, on, in, to

WMP
Iban baat, in, on, with
Karo Batak baat, on, upon, to, til
Nias bain, at, on, upon, through
CMP
Tetun bato, in, at, on; where the sense is "arriving" at, on, or to (contrasts with iha, where the sense is "being" at, on or to)

746

POC     *pa₂ at, on, in, to

OC
Label hain, at, on, during
Mbula pain, at, from, to
Roviana pain, at, on, from, to

Note:   PMP has well-established generic locative prepositions *i and *di which appear to cover approximately the same semantic range as *ba. The semantic distinction between Tetun ba ("arriving" at, etc.) and iha ("being" at, etc.) may also have applied to PMP *ba and *i, *di, but there is as yet no comparative support for this interpretation.

25210

*ba₄ under, below

747

PMP     *ba₄ under, below

WMP
Iban baunder, below
Malagasy i-valow, not high
CMP
Manggarai waunder, below

748

POC     *ba₉ down, under

OC
Tolai badown

Note:   Presumably connected with *babaq ‘under, below’, though the connection remains obscure.

25211

*ba₅ postverbal interrogative particle

749

PWMP     *ba₅ postverbal interrogative particle

WMP
Tagalog bainterrogative particle
Cebuano baquestion marker used in questions with no interrogative
Maranao bainterrogative marker
Subanen/Subanun bainterrogative particle
Malagasy vainterrogative particle

Note:   This grammatical marker appears in several languages of the central and southern Philippines, but thus far is attested outside the Philippines only in Malagasy (Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *ba based on reflexes in Tagalog and Malagasy, and I have been able to extend his documentation very little). All languages that contain a reflex of *ba are verb-initial, and in all cases the reflex of *ba is postverbal. Panganiban (1973:93) gives Tagalog ba in the Manila-Bulacan area, but ga or bagá in Kumintang. Reid (p.c.) speculates that Tagalog ba is a reduction of earlier *bagá, and attempts to relate this interrogative marker to Ilokano bagá ‘say, tell, speak, declare, utter, relate’ and similar forms in other northern Philippine languages. Ilokano bagá, however, almost certainly reflects *bajaq ‘say, relate, announce’, and the broader comparative evidence suggests that Kumintang Tagalog bagá is compounded of earlier monosyllables.

25212

*ba₆ go

750

PCEMP     *ba₆ go

CMP
Tetun bago, proceed
Selaru bawalk, go, go away, go toward
Kei bago, go away, walk
Buruese fago

751

POC     *pa₃ go

OC
Tolai ba(NG) tread, go
Motu haaux. verb meaning "to go and"
Nggela vago; expressing purpose or intention of action, as in English "I am going to"
Mota vago or come; the same used as auxiliary with the notion of going on, but not easy to distinguish from the causative va-
Lonwolwol vato go
Southeast Ambrym hago, leave, depart

Note:   Paton (1973) describes Lonwolwol va as a short form of van ‘go, pass’ (< POc *pano). Since original medial nasals are otherwise retained in Lonwolwol and since none of the other languages from which cognates are cited here could regularly reflect POc *pano (or PMP *panaw) Paton's interpretation of the Lonwolwol form appears to be unjustified.

This cognate set appears in Blust (1993b:254), where it is observed that Nothofer (1992), favors a comparison with Bolaang Mongondow bayaʔ ‘go’ < PMP *bayaq. Nothofer's proposal has the advantage of eliminating a canonical anomaly (since PMP monosyllabic content morphemes are otherwise virtually unknown), but conflicts with the Motu reflex (*bayaq should > **hala). Alternatively Bolaang Mongondow bayaʔ and all of the items cited here except Motu ha could be assigned to *bayaq.

This is one of the extremely rare monosyllables that appears to have been a content morpheme in PCEMP. Although the glosses for CMP languages suggest that it was a main verb, several of the Oceanic reflexes indicate that it was an auxiliary, and as such it may have been unstressed and so a part of the following phonological word (hence the comment by Codrington and Palmer (1896) that Mota va ‘go or come’ is sometimes hard to distinguish from the causative prefix va-).

24976

*baba₁ carry a person pick-a-back; ride pick-a-back

433

PAN     *baba₁ carry a person pick-a-back; ride pick-a-back

Formosan
Amis fafacarry a baby tied on one's back; to ride piggy back

434

PMP     *baba₇ carry a person pick-a-back; ride pick-a-back

WMP
Itbayaten mi-vavacarry a baby at the side (back or front) of the body
Casiguran Dumagat bábacarry a person "piggyback"; cloth sling used for carrying a baby
Tagalog babácarried on back or piggy-back (as Eskimos and Japanese carry their babies); coitus of quadrupeds
Hanunóo bábacarry (something) on the back, as in a pack
Cebuano bábacarry something on the back, not tied
Maranao bawacarry, as on the back
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bavacarry on the back
Kadazan babocarry on the back
Kelabit babehcarrying basket, back pack
  mabehcarry something on the back
Malay bawaconveyance in one's own custody or possession; to bring with one
Karo Batak bababring something, bring along, carry
Old Javanese wawacarry, carry along, take along, bring
Sangir bawacarry (without reference to the manner in which it is done)
Bolaang Mongondow babacarry on the back
Banggai bababring
Tae' baabring
Wolio bawacarry (esp. on the shoulder), bring; bring along; burden, load
  bawa-bawapregnant
CMP
Leti wawacarry in a basket on the back
Erai hahacarry (on head or back)
Kei wāvcarry on the back
Paulohi hahacarry on the back
SHWNG
Kowiai na-fafacarry on the back
Waropen wawasit on the back, carry on the back (as a child)

435

POC     *papa carry piggyback

OC
Lou papcarry a person (as someone who is sick) on the back
Wuvulu fafacarry a person on one's shoulders (legs astraddle the neck)
Mussau baocarry pick-a-back (NG initial)
Roviana papacarry a child on one's back
Nggela papacarry pick-a-back
Lau fafacarry on shoulders, pick-a-back; carry a bag round the neck
'Āre'āre hahacarry one the back
Sa'a hahacarry a person on one's back
Arosi bahacarry pick-a-back or in cloth on back (NG, OG)
Lonwolwol babaused of a baby, to ride (on its mother's back), or of the mother to carry by slinging on the back (NG)
  fefacarry a baby (or child) slung on the back (OG)
Fijian vavacarry a child on the back
Tongan fafacarry on the back; be carried, have a ride on someone's back
Samoan fafacarry (child or other load) on one's back
Anuta papacarry a person -- generally a small child -- on one's back, piggyback fashion
Maori wahacarry on the back
Hawaiian wahacarry on the back, as a child

Note:   Also Malagasy babi (expected **vavi) ‘carrying on the back’, Mota pepe ‘carry a child on back or hip’. If there is one prototype meaning that can be identified for *baba it is ‘to carry a child pick-a-back’. The term presumably also extended to the transport of sick or injured adults in a similar manner, but its full semantic range remains unclear. The nominal referents in Casiguran Dumagat, Kelabit and Wolio fail to agree, and probably are secondary. Bimanese waʔa ‘carry’, Manggarai ba, wa ‘carry, accompany, take along’ exhibit an apparent semantic generalization similar to that seen in Malay, Karo Batak, Old Javanese and some of the languages of Sulawesi, but show phonological irregularities which cast doubt on the appropriateness of including these forms in the present cognate set.

24977

*baba₂ father

436

PMP     *baba₂ father

WMP
Malagasy babafather
CMP
Bimanese babafather
Ende babafather (Lebar 1972)
Atoni baba-fMB, FZH (Lebar 1972)
Fordata babaaddress of children to their father, of elders to male children, and to any male person with whom one wishes to speak confidentially
Kei babaddress to uncle or father

437

POC     *baba₆ father

OC
Southeast Ambrym papuncle, etc.
Pohnpeian pahpafather, any person one's father would call brother
Samoan papa(children's language) Dad, Daddy

Note:   Also Makasarese baʔba ‘father (esp. as an address to hajis)’. As part of universal nursery language this item could have arisen independently in all or many of the languages in which it appears. At the same time universal tendencies were no less operative in proto-languages than they are in attested languages, and *baba is just as likely to be an inherited form which resisted regular sound change in languages such as Malagasy, Atoni, Fordata and Kei as a result of the recurrent reinforcement that nursery language provided. In any event the term evidently was used in child language or intimate address rather than as the normal adult word for ‘father’ (*ama).

24966

*babaD reproduce, multiply

419

PWMP     *babaD reproduce, multiply

WMP
Maranao babadmultiply; descendant
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bavadof plants, animals or humans, to reproduce one's kind
Sundanese babargive birth
Javanese babarproliferate; unfold, open out; be born; produce, put out; give birth

25859

*bábad soak

1922

PPh     *bábad soak

WMP
Bontok bábadsoak
Tagalog bábadstaying to soak
Bikol bábadsoak
Hanunóo bábaddip in liquid
Aklanon bábadsoak
Cebuano bábadsoak

Note:   Hanunóo badbád appears to be a secondary development from a form which originally lacked a medial cluster.

27126

*babak strike, chip stone

3596

POC     *babak strike, chip stone

SHWNG
Arguni bababreak one thing on another, chip a stone
OC
Tolai papakto peel off bark - also applied to peeling off lime, paint, etc.
Nggela papato chip; chips
Arosi babakbreak one thing on another, chip a stone
Fijian babastrike, smite the head with open hand

24967

*baban group, company, collection, swarm

420

PMP     *baban group, company, collection, swarm

WMP
Nias bawatroupe, herd, swarm
Bare'e bawatogether, in one troupe, herd or flock
CMP
Kambera wawaŋugroup, collection of things that belong together

Note:   With root *-ban ‘group, company’.

25109

*bambaŋen a fish, the snapper: Lutjanus spp.

607

PWMP     *bambaŋen a fish, the snapper: Lutjanus spp.

WMP
Tagalog bambaŋinflame-colored snapper fish: Lutjanus fulvus
Malay bambaŋana snapper: Lutjanus spp.
Makasarese bambaŋaŋsea bass: Lutjanus erythropterus

Note:   Malay normally reflects prepenultimate *a as shwa within a morpheme, but not in suffixed disyllabic bases. The failure of the first *a to weaken in bambaŋan therefore suggests that this word was treated as a suffixed disyllable. Given this observation and the fact that all three languages regularly assimilate *ŋ to a following stop, the forms cited here and those assigned to *baŋbaŋ ‘fish sp.’, or to *baŋbaŋ ‘reddish’ may turn out to belong to a single cognate set.

24968

*babaq₁ lower surface, bottom; short, low; below, beneath, under

421

PMP     *babaq₁ lower surface, bottom; short, low; below, beneath, under

WMP
Itbayaten hi-vavalower part, lower region
Ilokano babábelow
Isneg babálow
Bontok babathe lowlands, particularly the Ilocos region
Casiguran Dumagat bábahumble, low in rank, cheap; low in intelligence
Kapampangan babáʔlow place, underneath
Tagalog bábaʔlowness (physical); humbleness
  i-babáʔunder part, lower part
Bikol babáʔshort in height, squat, low
  i-babáʔdownstairs, below
Hanunóo bábaʔlowness, shortness
Maranao babaʔlower, below, down
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bavaʔshort
Ngaju Dayak bawahbe subjugated, be under someone's command
Malay bawahposition under or below, nether side
  di-bawahbeneath
Sangir bawabeneath
Chamorro papaʔdown, below, bottom, southward, downward, beneath
CMP
Bimanese wawalower oneself, stand so as to make oneself lower than another
Komodo wawaunder, below, beneath; west, western
Kambera wawabeneath; west
Dhao/Ndao babashort
Hawu wawabeneath, under
  ɓaɓashort (not tall)
Sika wawabeneath, under
Selaru hah(a)beneath
Yamdena babebeneath, southern
Dobel fafaground
Fordata vavabeneath, south
Kei wāvNorth; northward, beneath
SHWNG
Buli pāpbeneath, under

422

POC     *papaq₃ below, beneath, under

OC
Keherara babaunder
Wedau vavadownwards, towards the sea (King 1901)
Mussau baoshort
Sa'a hahaunderneath; down, not used of points of the compass
Lonwolwol faunder, below, down, deep, far out at sea; North
Proto-Micronesian *faa(expected **/fafa/) under, underneath; the bottom

Note:   Although a PAn term for ‘under, below’ is unknown, *babaq₁ and *babaw₃ should be treated as a contrast set in PMP. Syntactically both followed *i ‘generic marker of location’, a fact reflected not only in the syntax of many daughter languages, but also in occasional lexicalizations of the preposition + nominal expression. In isolation both *babaq₁ and *babaw₃ probably were nouns meaning ‘lower surface/bottom’ and ‘upper surface/top’. Since they typically followed a preposition, however, their more common English translations would be ‘below, beneath, under’ and ‘on, upon, over, above’.

The following semantic problems are also noteworthy:

(1) reflexes of *babaw refer to high country (headwaters of a river, highlands) in a number of languages. These usages could be products of convergence or could be retentions of a figurative usage similar to the literal senses of the directional terms *daya ‘upriver, toward the interior’ and *lahud ‘downriver, toward the sea’. By contrast, a reflex of *babaq meaning ‘lowlands’ has been noted only in Bontok.

(2) reflexes of *babaq mean ‘short in height, low’ in several widely separated languages. This usage could be a product of convergence or may have been a figurative counterpart of PMP *pandak ‘short’. An analogous usage *babaw = ‘tall’ is attested only marginally in Banggai babo ‘high-rising forest’.

(3) reflexes of *babaq in Chamorro and in several CEMP languages refer to cardinal directions (‘South’ in Chamorro, Fordata and Yamdena, ‘West’ in Komodo and Kambera, ‘North’ in Kei and Southeast Ambrym). By contrast, no reflex of *babaw is known to refer to a cardinal direction.

(4) perhaps the most intriguing problem concerning the comparative semantics of *babaq and *babaw are the semantic equations ‘above’ = ‘outside’ and ‘inside’ = ‘below’. To grasp the full set of interrelations it will be necessary to consider PAn *dalem ‘inside; deep’ as well. In both Bare'e (WMP) and Gilbertese (OC) the reflex of *babaw refers both to the upper surface and to the outside of things. In the Polynesian languages as a group the reflex of *babaw refers only to the outside. No comparable change has been noted for reflexes of *babaq, but reflexes of *dalem ‘inside; deep’ have come to mean ‘beneath, below, down, under’ in a number of WMP and OC languages: Ifugaw dalóm ‘under, beneath, deep, low’, Cebuano dálum ‘beneath, below’, Samoan lalo ‘down, under’, Tuvaluan lalo ‘under, below; the bottom; deep; low; humble, humility’. Moreover, reflexes of *dalem have followed the same semantic trajectory as reflexes of *babaq in coming to refer to the cardinal directions, as in Niue lalo ‘below, under; the bottom; the west’, Rarotongan raro ‘beneath, under, below; down; the under or lower portion; west, westward, towards sunset, to leeward’, Maori raro ‘the bottom, the under side; down; beneath, under; North’ and Hawaiian lalo ‘down, downward, low; under, beneath; leeward, southern’. The equation ‘above’ = ‘outside’ suggests that *i babaw referred prototypically to the surface of water or the earth. Given a parallel semantic equation for reflexes of *i babaq we would expect ‘below’ to sometimes develop the meaning ‘inside’. For a more detailed treatment of these problems cf. Blust (1997).

24969

*babaq₂ width, breadth

423

PWMP     *babaq₂ width, breadth

WMP
Maranao babaʔwidth, breadth
Javanese wawahspacious
Tae' bababreadth

Note:   Also Motu lababa ‘wide, as cloth, road, etc.; breadth’, Tolai tabābā ‘wide, broad, spacious (as a cloth); breadth’.

24970

*babas blown off course

424

PWMP     *babas blown off course

WMP
Ilokano babásto miss -- the mark one shoots at, the harbor on account of contrary winds, the habits of a different rank in society, etc.
Malay babasblown quite out of one's course, not merely deflected

Note:   At first glance this appears to be a straightforward comparison. However, Malay should reflect *babas as **bawas. Malay has reduced original obstruent clusters in reduplicated monosyllables, and there is some evidence that cluster reduction occurred after the change *-aba > -awa-. If so, Malay babas could reflect *basbas. However, there is no evidence that Ilokano has reduced obstruent clusters in reduplicated monosyllables. It is possible that this comparative irregularity is a product of borrowing. Since Ilokano is far more likely to have borrowed from Malay than the reverse, a borrowing hypotheses implies that Malay babas reflects a pre-Malay innovation *basbas which reached Ilokano via Malay sailors (who were perhaps blown off course?) at some time after the reduction of medial obstruent clusters in Malay. Alternatively the comparison -- despite its strong appeal -- may be an etymological siren.

24971

*babat belly of an animal

425

PWMP     *babat belly of an animal

WMP
Maranao babatbelly
Bahasa Indonesia babattripe
Sundanese babatpaunch (of a ruminant)
Javanese babatpaunch (of a ruminant)

Note:   If Bahasa Indonesia babat is directly inherited the etymon must have been *batbat, as the sequence *-aba- normally became Malay, Bahasa Indonesia -awa-.

24972

*babaw₁ rat, mouse

426

PWMP     *babaw₁ rat, mouse     [doublet: *balabaw]

WMP
Samal babawrat
Singhi Land Dayak babumouse

24973

*babaw₂ shallow

427

PWMP     *babaw₂ shallow

WMP
Itbayaten hi-vavawshallow
Tagalog bábawshallowness, lack of depth
Bikol bábawshallow, superficial
Romblomanon mā-babawthe depth of something is shallow; something is in a shallow place
Maranao babawshallow
Dairi-Pakpak Batak baboshallow (as a river)
Nias bawõshallow
Sangir bawoshallow, as where the sea floor is elevated
Bolaang Mongondow babowshallow
Makasarese bawoshallow, shallow place

Note:   In the dictionaries of several languages (e.g. Bikol, Nias) the reflexes of *babaw₂ and *babaw₃ are combined as differing senses of a single polysemous form. Given the semantics of e.g. English superficial this interpretation has some a priori plausibility. However, the occurrence of a monosyllabic root *-baw₂ ‘shallow’ in this and other forms (see roots) strongly suggests that ‘shallow’ is the primary sense of *babaw₂, not a secondary extension from the meaning ‘upper surface; top’. The two forms are accordingly regarded as distinct, despite certain points of semantic similarity.

24974

*babaw₃ upper surface, top; highlands; on, upon, over, above

428

PAN     *babaw₃ upper surface, top; highlands; on, upon, over, above     [doublet: *bawbaw]

Formosan
Atayal babawsurface; on top of, above; later, get ahead, cross over
Saisiyat babawabove, overhead
Kavalan babawupper surface, upper part, top
  ta babawabove
Amis fafawheadwaters, source of a river; leaders with higher rank
Paiwan vavawup, above
WMP
Kapampangan báboup, upstairs, above
Bikol bábawplace something over or put something on top
Hanunóo bábawsurface, top, uppermost surface; mountains, as opposed to lowlands; in the mountains; source, referring to a river; upstream
Cebuano babáwplace up somewhere
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) di-vavewupon, over, above
Nias bawõhighland, plateau; upper surface; on, upon
Banggai babohigh-rising forest
Bare'e wawoupper surface, upper part; the outside of something
Tae' babotopmost layer of rice that has been cooked; fontanel of a child
Wolio bawotop, upper side
Palauan babarea or space above; top; surface
CMP
Bimanese wawopeak, summit; on top of
Ngadha vavoatmosphere, surface (as of water); above, on, over
Sika bawoup, above
Rotinese bafa-k <Aupper surface of a liquid
Leti waw-naon, upon (< *wawa-na)
Selaru hahaon, upon
Paulohi hahaupper side
Buruese fafa-n(something's) top part
Soboyo fafo-ñupper surface, upper part; top sheet of the sail

429

POC     *papo₁ above; outside

OC
Lau fafothe top; on, above
  fafo-ʔilebeyond the reef, outside
Sa'a hahoabove, used with locative i (i haho-mu 'above you'); uplands; wash-boards on gunwale of an overseas canoe
Arosi hahoabove, upon, over
Gilbertese aothe upper part of, the surface, the outside, the back, the exterior
Samoan fafooutside, out of doors; overseas
Rennellese hahooutside
Maori wahothe outside; the open sea; the coast, as opposed to inland
Hawaiian wahooutside, beyond, out, outer, outward

430

PAN     *i babaw above, on top of

Formosan
Saisiyat ʔi babawhigh above
Saaroa i-vavuabove, up
Paiwan i vavawupon
WMP
Tagalog i-bábawupper crust or surface
  im-bábawsuperficially
Bikol i-bábawon top, on the surface
Aklanon i-bábawtop, uppermost part; upstairs
Romblomanon i-bābawa position above; the top of someone, something, of two or more things piled one on top of the other
  pa-ʔi-bābawsomeone’s or somethings’s going to the top, going up
Cebuano babáwplace up somewhere
  i-bábawplace high up; a place on top of something; high
  pa-i-bábawto soar up (as a crow trying to escape a hawk)
  ma-i-bábawbe the part on top
Karo Batak i-baboup, above, on top of
OC
Lau i-fafoabove
  i fafo-naon the top
Sa'a i-hahoover, above
Marshallese i-ooon, upon; top, surface, over
Mota i-vawoupon

Note:   Also Bintulu ɓaw ‘above, on top of; tall’.

24975

*babaw₄ to weed (a garden, etc.)

431

PMP     *babaw₄ to weed (a garden, etc.)

WMP
Maranao wawawweed, as in rice field, remove turf
Ngaju Dayak bawawweeding, pulling up grass (in garden, ricefield)
Toba Batak baboto weed (a ricefield)
CMP
Tetun fahoto weed or harrow (rooting out the growth with the hands or a hoe)

432

POC     *papo₂ to weed

OC
Nggela vavoto weed
Lau fofo <Aweed with a knife
Arosi hahoto weed

Note:   Based on the Ngaju Dayak and Toba Batak forms Dempwolff (1934-38) posited PAn *babaw ‘to weed’. Milke (1968), on the other hand, proposed POc *wawo ‘to weed; weed’ uncultivated land’, a form that could not directly continue Dempwolff's reconstruction. Blust (1970) compared Maranao wawaw with Milke's *wawo and suggested "PAn" (= PMP) *wawaw as a disjunct of Dempwolff's *babaw. However, of the seven morphemes from six languages cited by Milke in support of *wawo only one (Nggela vavo) can possibly be considered a regular reflex (*w- sometimes disappears and sometimes appears as v-). We are left with no alternative, then, but to dismiss both POc *wawo and PMP *wawaw as unmotivated by the evidence.

24978

*babuy babuy sowbug, woodlouse: terrestrial isopod of the genus Oniscus

438

PWMP     *babuy babuy sowbug, woodlouse: terrestrial isopod of the genus Oniscus

WMP
Ilokano babuybábuypill bug
Cebuano babuybabuykind of louse which hides in crannies and lives in damp places; woodlouse
Karo Batak babibabisowbug
Toba Batak babibabikind of spider

Note:   Also Malay babi tanah ‘insect, unident.’. Presumably a reduplication of *babuy ‘pig’. Although the conceptual basis for a connection between pigs and sowbugs remains obscure, it is noteworthy that a similar association appears in e.g. Spanish cochina ‘sow’, cochinilla ‘sowbug’ (lit. "little sow"), and, of course, in the English word itself.

24979

*babuy₁ bird sp.

439

PWMP     *babuy₁ bird sp.

WMP
Isneg bábuykind of bird
Karo Batak babi-babikind of bird that gives notice of coming drought
Malay buroŋ babia bird, the adjutant: Leptoptilus javanicus

24980

*babuy₂ epilepsy

440

PWMP     *babuy₂ epilepsy

WMP
Maranao babo-baboyepilepsy
Iban gila babiepilepsy
Malay gila babi, pitam babi, sawan babiepilepsy
Sangir sakiʔ u wawiepilepsy

Note:   It seems likely that the PWMP word for ‘epilepsy’ was a longer expression (perhaps *sakit babuy), but the available evidence does not permit this inference. Because it reflects a distinct morpheme (PMP *beRek ‘domesticated pig’), Nggela mbolo ‘pig; foam from the mouth, epilepsy’ confirms that *babuy ‘epilepsy’ derives from *babuy ‘pig’, and indicates that this puzzling association was already present in PMP. For evidence of a wider Southeast Asian distribution of the association ‘pig’ + ‘crazy/illness’ = ‘epilepsy’ cf. Matisoff (1978:70), where it is noted that similar expressions also occur in Khmer, Mon, Thai and Burmese.

24981

*babuy₃ pig

441

PAN     *babuy₃ pig

Formosan
Proto-Atayalic *babuypig
Seediq babuydomesticated pig
Saisiyat baboydomesticated pig
Kavalan babuydomesticated pig
Thao fafuydomesticated pig
Bunun babudomesticated pig
Hoanya babupig
Siraya vavoydomesticated pig
Tsou fuzuwild pig
Kanakanabu vavúlupig
Proto-Rukai *baboywild pig
Amis fafoypig; wild boar
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) vavuywild pig
Paiwan vavuywild pig: Sus taivanus
WMP
Ilokano bábuyhog, pig
Atta babidomesticated pig
Bontok bábuyold male pig, boar
Gaddang bábuydomesticated pig
Casiguran Dumagat bábuydomesticated pig
Kakiduge:n Ilongot bebuydomesticated pig
Bikol báboywild boar
Cebuano bábuypig, pork
Aborlan Tagbanwa babuywild pig
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bavuypig
Tiruray babuydomesticated pig
Kelabit berek babuyboar
Miri babuydomesticated pig
Narum babuydomesticated pig
Kiput babuydomesticated pig
Kayan bavuywild pig
Kenyah (Long Anap) babuywild boar
Seru baboypig
Ngaju Dayak bawoipig
Taboyan bawiwild pig
Lawangan bawuywild pig
Ma'anyan vavuywild pig
Iban babipig
Jarai bəbuypig
Malay babihog, pig
Simalur bafudomesticated pig
Karo Batak babipig
Toba Batak babipig
Lampung babuypig
Javanese babidomesticated pig
Balinese bawipig, boar
Sasak bawipig
Sangir bawipig
Banggai babuypig
Balaesang bawipig
Tajio fafipig
Tialo bauypig
Totoli babipig
Bare'e mbawu, wawupig
Tae' baipig
Wolio bawupig, hog
Muna wewipig, hog; name of a constellation
CMP
Bimanese wawipig
Ngadha vavipig
Li'o wawipig
Hawu wawipig
Sika wawipig
Rotinese bafipig
Atoni fafipig
Tetun fahipig, swine
Kédang wawipig
Leti wawipig
Selaru hahipig
Yamdena babipig
Fordata vavupig
Dobel fafipig
Kei wāvpig
Proto-Ambon *vavu(y)pig
Asilulu hahupig; a term of abuse
Paulohi hahupig
Kayeli babupig
Buruese fafupig

442

PAN     *babuy-an pigpen, pigsty, piggery

Formosan
Amis fafoy-anpigpen
WMP
Tagalog babuy-anpiggery
Cebuano babuy-anpiggery

443

PMP     *babuy banua domesticated pig

WMP
Iban babi menoadomestic pig
Tamuan bawi bnuadomesticated pig
Bare'e wawu banuadomesticated pig
CMP
Yamdena bab' pnuedomesticated pig

444

PMP     *babuy halas wild pig

WMP
Cebuano bábuy i-halaswild pig
Tae' bai alaʔwild pig
CMP
Yamdena babi alaswild pig

445

PMP     *babuy lebu domesticated pig

WMP
Ngaju Dayak bawoi lewudomesticated pig
Lahanan bavuy levudomesticated pig
CMP
Ngadha vavi levudomesticated pig

Note:   Also Ansus tapuy, Serui-Laut tafui, Palauan babíi, Ulithian pa:bwi ‘pig’, Yapese bæbiy (< Palauan), paabuuy (< Ulithian) ‘pig; bulldozer’, Chamorro bæbuy ‘pig, swine; a term used in keeping track of score by counting the number of games won in tres siete (card game), all of which appear to be loans from languages of the Philippines or eastern Sulawesi (the nearest areas where *-uy did not merge with *i), or possibly from the central Moluccas before *-uy was reduced to –u.

Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *babuy ‘pig’. Blust (1970) reconstructed *babuy ‘wild pig’, *beRek ‘domesticated pig’. At the time this semantic distinction appeared to be justified since:

a) the semantic profiles of their reflexes suggested that the two terms were not synonymous,
b) the semantic categories ‘wild pig’ and ‘domesticated pig’ are represented by distinct morphemes in many of the languages of Taiwan, the Philippines, Borneo and Sumatra,
c) although reflexes of *babuy refer distinctively both to the wild pig and to the domesticated pig, reflexes of *beRek refer distinctively to the domesticated pig in Taiwan and Borneo, but never refer distinctively to the wild pig,
d) reflexes of *babuy are found in eastern Indonesia as far as the central Moluccas, but nowhere further to the east and e) apparent loanwords resembling POc *mpoRok are found in a number of the Papuan languages of New Guinea (Blust 1970, Blust 1976).

It now appears necessary to alter this interpretation in the following way: although *beRek evidently meant ‘domesticated pig’ *babuy referred to pigs in general, with qualifications where needed. In other words, the glosses of *babuy and *beRek were not perfectly complementary, but partially overlapping. There are four types of evidence which support this conclusion:

(1) If *babuy meant ‘wild pig’ it has undergone a semantic change to the meaning ‘domesticated pig’ in a disconcertingly large number of widely dispersed languages. Examples include: (Taiwan) Seediq babuy, Saisiyat baboy, Bunun babu, Siraya vavoy, (Philippines) Atta bábi, Gaddang babuy, Casiguran Dumagat bábuy, Kakiduge:n Ilongot bebuy, Isneg ábuy, Tiruray babuy, (Malaysia-Indonesia) Oya Melanau, Narum, Miri, Kiput babuy, Kedayan bawi, Lemanak babi, Simalur bafu, Javanese babi ‘domesticated pig’.

(2) The word for ‘pig’ has been borrowed into a number of the languages of western Micronesia from an unknown Austronesian source. In each case the borrowed morpheme reflects *babuy, never *beRek. Since domesticated pigs are more likely to be borrowed than wild pigs, the borrowed reflex of *babuy must have referred, at least optionally, to the domesticated pig. While this does not mean that *babuy referred to the domesticated pig, the probability of such a reference is strengthened in direct relation to the age of the loan. Examples are: Palauan babíi ‘pig’ (expected **bab), Chamorro babui ‘pig, swine’ (expected **papi), Yapese paabuuy ‘pig; bulldozer’, Woleaian paabiiy ‘pig, hog, boar, sow, swine’ (expected **faf). The agreement of Chamorro babui ‘term used in keeping track of score by counting the number of games won in tres siete (card game)’ with Malay babi ‘"pig", as a name for the fifth chicky-suit’ points to what may be an independent Chamorro borrowing (from a Philippine language?) of the same morpheme in a symbolic context.

(3) Comparative evidence supports the reconstruction of PMP *babuy banua, domesticated pig’, *babuy halas ‘wild pig’. No similar descriptive terms have been reconstructed with *beRek.

(4) The reconstruction of PAn *babuy-an ‘pigpen, pigsty, piggery’ is inconsistent with the reconstruction *babuy ‘wild pig’, since it is the domesticated, not the wild pig that would be kept in pens.

The comparative evidence under (3) and (4) could conceivably be a product of convergence. However, convergent innovation is an unlikely explanation of the forms assigned to *babuy banua. Iban menoa means ‘an area of land held and used by a distinct community’, Bare'e banua means ‘house’ and Yamdena pnue means ‘village’. If the association of *babuy with *banua is historically secondary it has no obviously semantic basis. But PMP *banua ‘inhabited territory; area supporting the life of the human community’ forms a rather clear contrast set with PMP *halas ‘forest, uninhabited land’, and this same opposition is seen in *babuy banua vs. *babuy halas (*babuy lebu evidently contains a variant of *lebuq ‘village’, and may be a product of convergence).

In conclusion, Blust (1970) unjustifiably assumed the necessity of reconstructing semantically complementary terms ‘wild pig’ and ‘domesticated pig’. While *babuy halas meant ‘wild pig’ the domesticated pig was called either *beRek or *babuy banua (with *babuy lebu a less convincing third alternative). These observations undermine the suggestion in Blust (1976) that a reflex of *babuy was lost when Austronesian speakers moved into the Pacific because they entered a region in which wild pigs were not yet present. Reflexes of both *babuy and *beRek are found in Formosan and WMP, but only *babuy is reflected in PCMP and only *beRek in OC (despite Anceaux 1961:35) neither term is clearly reflected in South Halmahera-West New Guinea). Given this perspective, the absence of a reflex of *babuy in Oceanic languages is no more in need of special explanation than the absence of a reflex of *beRek in PCMP.

24983

*bacak muddy, waterlogged (of ground)

447

PWMP     *bacak muddy, waterlogged (of ground)

WMP
Cebuano basákfield of wet-cultivated rice
Maranao basakrice paddy; swamp or marsh
  basak-anland suitable for wet rice (flooded or wet)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) basakmud
Tiruray basakland made into rice paddies
Malay (Jakarta) bacakover-watered, of plants

Note:   Also Dobel basa ‘mud’. With root *-cak₁ ‘muddy’.

24984

*baciR sexually impotent

448

PWMP     *baciR sexually impotent     [disjunct: *basiR]

WMP
Tagalog básigcaponed, castrated
Malay bancirimpotent
Javanese bancian effeminate man; an asexual person

24985

*bacuk to hoe, chop up soil

449

PWMP     *bacuk to hoe, chop up soil

WMP
Maranao basokfarm or till the soil
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) basuktill the soil
  Ibe-vasukspirit deity of farming
Malay bacokchop, cut up, cleave (Java)
Sundanese bacokhack (with a knife, etc.)
Javanese bacok, bacukto hoe
Balinese bacokstab, pierce

Note:   With unexplained change *u > o in Sundanese, Javanese, and Balinese. Buli bacu ‘axe’ appears to be a loan.

24982

*baCaj millet sp.

446

PAN     *baCaj millet sp.

Formosan
Atayal (Matabalay) basagmillet
WMP
Hanunóo bátadsorghum, a coarse annual grass, cultivated as a cereal (Andropogon sorghum Linn. Brot.)
Cebuano batádsorghum, kind of coarse grass used for forage: Andropogon sorghum
Maranao bantadSorghum vulgare pers. -- barley-like plant
Makasarese bataraʔmillet sp.
CMP
Tetun batarmaize
Kédang watarmaize

Note:   Also Malay batari ‘Andropogon sorghum’. The following more restricted reconstructions have been proposed: PFOR *baCaR ‘Panicum miliaceum’ (Tsuchida 1977:90), Proto-Central Philippines *batad ‘a plant: Andropogon sorghum’ (Zorc 1979:43), "Proto-Indonesian *bataD ‘grain sp., millet’ (Mills 1981:65). In addition, Mills notes the material earlier assembled by Heyne (1950).

25120

*bandaŋan goat hair decoration on a spear or staff

622

PMP     *bandaŋan goat hair decoration on a spear or staff

WMP
Malay tombak bandaŋanspear with a tuft of goat's hair on the shaft: an emblem of royalty
Tae' bandaŋangoat hair fixed on a bamboo pole, used in feasts (as by the to maʔrandiŋ at the death feast)
Makasarese banraŋanpike decorated with goat hair
CMP
Manggarai bendaŋangoat hair decoration on a spear, staff, etc.

Note:   Possibly spread by borrowing (cp. Maranao banderaŋ ‘ceremonial tasseled spear’, Malay benderaŋ ‘spear with a tuft of goat's hair on the shaft: an emblem of royalty’, where borrowing appears very likely. The absence of prepenultimate neutralization in Malay is puzzling, and may indicate relatively recent affixation with -an. Bolaang Mongondow andaŋan ‘old, long-haired goat’, mandaŋan ‘large long-haired goat’, however, suggest that the trisyllable is old, whatever its original meaning.

24986

*badas grit, coarse sand, gravel

450

PMP     *badas grit, coarse sand, gravel

WMP
Kapampangan balássand
Tagalog baláscrystallized syrup; coarse granulated sugar
Hanunóo barássand; beach, seashore
Aklanon baeássand
  baeas-ónsandy, having sand (in)
Cebuano balássand; put sand somewhere; form sand-like particles
Kelabit badasand
Ngaju Dayak barassand; sandy
Sundanese cadaspulverized sandstone ground; rocky ground
Javanese waḍasa variety of sandstone
CMP
Ngadha tana vadacement

Note:   Also Kambera wara ‘sand, gravel’ (expected **warahu). Although most recorded reflexes of *badas are glossed ‘sand’, it appears likely from the Sundanese, Javanese, and Ngadha reflexes and the competing form *qenay that *badas referred to coarse sand or gravel, while *qenay indicated fine sand. Paiwan baras, varas ‘pebbles, ballast’ is given by Ferrell (1982) as a loan from English through Japanese (also cf. Javanese balas ‘a weight for holding or steadying something; ballast’).

24989

*bad(e)ris draw a line

453

PWMP     *bad(e)ris draw a line

WMP
Cebuano badlísdraw a line
Malay barisstraight line

Note:   With root *-ris₂ ‘scratch a line’.

24987

*badi nervous spell

451

PWMP     *badi nervous spell

WMP
Subanen/Subanun badia nervous spell (Churchill 1913)
Iban badisudden attack of sickness

29828

*badiq dagger

6437

PMP     *badiq dagger

WMP
Cebuano baríʔkind of sickle
Maranao badiʔbolo, machete, knife
Uma badiʔ- badiʔkind of dagger
CMP
Ngadha badidagger, sword

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak badek ‘a 6-9 inch dagger, with a cutting edge on only one side’, Iban badi ‘dagger’, Malay badik ‘small dagger’, Javanese baḍik ‘poniard’. It is possible that this is a loan distribution that originated with Malay badik.

25121

*banduŋ pair of boats joined by a connecting platform

623

PWMP     *banduŋ pair of boats joined by a connecting platform

WMP
Cebuano banduŋlarge boat used to bring the net and fishermen out to the fishing grounds, consisting of a pair of smaller boats or a wide boat so made that a platform can be placed across it
Iban bandoŋlarge sailing vessel; matching pair, set
Malay bandoŋtwin; in duplicate; alike and linked. Of semi-detached houses with a common roof, two yolks in one egg-shell, etc.
  perahu bandoŋa Borneo flat-bottomed river-boat
Old Javanese baṇḍuŋtogether, at the same time
Javanese baruŋin time with (of gamelan beat)

24988

*badut jackfruit sp.

452

PWMP     *badut jackfruit sp.

WMP
Cebuano bárutthe inedible pulp of the jackfruit which surrounds the edible flesh
Kelabit buaʔ badutjackfruit

24990

*bagahak fish sp.

454

PWMP     *bagahak fish sp.

WMP
Cebuano baghákkind of medium-sized grouper
Malay begahaklarge silurid fish: Belodontichthys dinema

Note:   Also Malay gahak ‘large silurid fish: Belodontichthys dinema’.

24991

*bagak foolish

455

PWMP     *bagak foolish

WMP
Tagalog baŋgákfoolish (said of young women)
Iban bagaklively, vivacious (as a woman, when guests are present)
Malay biŋoŋ bagakjackass, an absolute ass
Minangkabau bagakbold, undaunted

Note:   Possibly with root *-gak₁ ‘proud; boast’.

24992

*bagal overgrown, clumsy, sluggish

456

PMP     *bagal overgrown, clumsy, sluggish

WMP
Tagalog bágalslowness to act
Maranao bagaldullard
Malay bagaltoo tall or stoutly built; overgrown; clumsy; beyond the regulation size for cockfighting
Toba Batak baŋgalbig, strong
  ma-baŋgalhaving a broad chest and face; large-boned
Dairi-Pakpak Batak baŋgallarge, of inanimate things
Old Javanese wagalrude, unmannered
Balinese bagaltoo large, too coarse (basketry, carving)
CMP
Manggarai bagal, bahalobese, fat, big
Ngadha baga dzogéof large, powerful build

24993

*bageqaŋ molar tooth

457

PMP     *bageqaŋ molar tooth     [doublet: *baReqaŋ, *beReqaŋ]

WMP
Kapampangan bágaŋmolar tooth
Tagalog bagáŋ, bagʔáŋmolar tooth
Bikol baʔgaŋmolar
Hanunóo bagʔáŋany of the molars and bicuspids
Aklanon bágʔaŋmolar tooth, molar teeth
Cebuano bagʔáŋmolars
Maranao bagaŋmolar tooth
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) baɣaŋmolar tooth
Bolaang Mongondow bagaŋmolar tooth
Mandar bagaŋmolar tooth
CMP
Soboyo bagaŋmolar tooth

Note:   All languages cited here except Kapampangan, Hanunóo, Mandar, and Soboyo have merged PAn *R and *g as /g/. Kapampangan bágaŋ, Hanunóo bagʔáŋ ‘molar tooth’ are Central Philippine loans. Since Soboyo normally reflects *b as /f/, Soboyo bagaŋ also appears to be a loan (presumably from a language of northern Sulawesi or the southern Philippines). We might therefore dismiss the present doublet of *baReqaŋ as a product of irregular sound correspondences introduced through borrowing. However, for this to be possible it would also be necessary to dismiss Mandar bagaŋ as a loan, despite the lack of a clear source language and the generally low probability that the same body part term would be borrowed independently by more than one language. For the present *bageqaŋ is thus maintained as a rather precarious doublet of *baReqaŋ.

24994

*baguh a shrub or tree: Gnetum gnemon

458

PWMP     *baguh a shrub or tree: Gnetum gnemon

WMP
Aklanon bágo(h)bago tree: Gnetum gnemon
Cebuano bágusmall wild tree the leaves of which are used as a vegetable: Gnetum gnemon
Malay bagua shrub: Gnetum brunonianum
Sasak bagua tree the fruits and cooked leaves of which are eaten: Gnetum gnemon
Bolaang Mongondow bagua thin-stemmed, short tree from the bast of which cordage is made: Gnetum gnemon
Makasarese baguGnetum gnemon; a tree which yields bast fiber used in making cordage

Note:   Where a specific identification is not given in the source reflexes of *baguh can easily be confused with reflexes of *baRu ‘Hibiscus tiliaceus’ in languages that merge *g and *R, as both are small trees which yield a strong bast fiber used in making cordage. Unlike the Hibiscus tiliaceus, the Gnetum gnemon is further useful as a source of food, since its leaves serve as an important vegetable in some areas (Merrill 1954). The semantic distinction between PMP *suka (q.v.) Gnetum gnemon and the present etymon remains unclear.

24995

*baguq disease that causes swelling of body parts

459

PWMP     *baguq disease that causes swelling of body parts

WMP
Bikol bagóʔedema, dropsy
Cebuano baguʔdisease characterized by general debility, swelling in the region of the stomach, and yellowish skin
Maranao bagoʔenlarged spleen
Simalur bahuʔ, baxuʔswelling under the sole of the foot (apparently tertiary Framboesia)

24996

*bahak laugh boisterously

460

PWMP     *bahak laugh boisterously

WMP
Cebuano bahak-háklaugh boisterously
Malay (W.Sumatra) bahakguffaw loudly

24998

*bahaq mouth

464

PMP     *bahaq₁ mouth     [doublet: *baqbaq, *beqbeq]

WMP
Manobo (Sarangani) bahaʔmouth
Tiruray ʔebaʔmouth
Tboli bakmouth
Kayan bamouth; window or door opening
Kenyah (Long Anap) paʔmouth
Bintulu ɓaʔmouth
Kanowit bahmouth
CMP
Sika wamouth; opening of a door
Lamboya bamouth

Note:   Although this form is reflected as a monosyllable in most languages, Kenyah (Long Anap) p and Bintulu ɓ indicate an earlier cluster. If the complex stops of North Sarawak languages assigned by Blust (1969), Blust (1974) to *bS, *dS, *jS, *gS sometimes derive from the medial clusters in reduplicated monosyllables, *baqbaq would have yielded reflexes with first-syllable shwa and "complex" medial consonant. Some of the above forms could conceivably reflect such a development, with further loss of the first syllable. On the other hand, Manobo (Sarangani) bahaʔ suggests that there was a disyllabic word base with medial *S which could have yielded the North Sarawak initial consonants as reflexes of *bS. If valid, this implies that *baqbaq -- presumably a reduplication of *baSaq -- actually was *baSaq baSaq. Buludupi babpa ‘mouth’, cited by Ray (1913), may support this interpretation. For the agreement in the extended meanings of Kayan ba, Sika wa, cf. note to *baqbaq.

30205

*bahaR loincloth

7038

PWMP     *bahaR loincloth

WMP
Agta (Dupaningan) begloincloth, traditional g-string
Casiguran Dumagat bɛgG-string, loincloth; put on a G-string
Isneg abāga man’s G-string; the string of a bow net
  ag-bāx-ānthat part of the waist around which a man’s G-string is wound
  mag-bāgto put on a G-string
Itawis bagloincloth
Tagalog bahágG-string, loincloth with a part pulled between thighs
  bahag-háriʔrainbow (lit. ‘loincloth of king’)
  bahag-subayrainbow
Bikol bahágloincloth, G-string
  mag-bahágto wear a loincloth
Palawan Batak baʔágloincloth, breechclout made from bark cloth
Central Tagbanwa baagloincloth
Aklanon bahágG-string, breechcloth; underwear
Waray-Waray bahága scanty piece of cloth worn around the waist; G-string
  mag-bahágwear a G-string
Cebuano bahágG-string; wear, make a G-string
  bahág-bahágharmless kind of long thin jellyfish, semitransparent, resembling a snake
Binukid bahagtrousers, pants, slacks
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bahagloincloth; wear a loincloth
Maranao baʔaggarment, apparel
Timugon Murut abagloincloth
Kelabit ebʰarloincloth
Murik bahloincloth
Kayan bahloincloth
  ŋə-bahwear a loincloth
Melanau (Mukah) bayloincloth
Kayan (Busang) bahman’s loincloth, made of cotton or bark cloth
  ŋə-bahwear a loincloth
  bah alanrainbow (lit. ‘loincloth path’)
Bolaang Mongondow baagold word for belt, girdle

Note:   Also Erai ha ‘loincloth’. Reflexes of *bahaR are found from the northern Philippines to central Borneo, but apparently nowhere else. Although the known distribution of this term cannot be used to justify a PMP reconstruction, it is a reasonable inference that male speakers of PAn and PMP wore loincloths (probably made of bark cloth), and *bahaR would be the best candidate for a PMP term (replaced in PCEMP by *malo ‘a tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera; loincloth made from the bark of this tree’). The use of this term in reference to the rainbow both in Tagalog and in Kayan (Busang) (Kayan dialect of the Kapuas basin), suggests that one way of referring to this phenomenon in PWMP was through a figurative expression which represented it as the loincloth of a deity.

30213

*bahen to sneeze

7061

PPh     *bahen to sneeze     [doublet: *bañen, bañan]

WMP
Ilokano ag-baénto sneeze
  manag-baénfrequently sneezing
Tagalog bahína sneeze
  b<um>ahínto sneeze
Hiligaynon bahúna sneeze
Cebuano bahunsneeze
Binukid ag-bahan-en <Ato sneeze
Maranao baʔan <Asneeze

30164

*bahi female

6934

PAN     *bahi₁ female

Formosan
Hoanya paiwoman; female
Rukai (Mantauran) a-vaiwoman
Rukai (Tona) a-bay-ánəwoman

6935

PMP     *bahi₂ female, woman, wife; female of animals

WMP
Ilokano bai-éna homosexual man
Bontok báifemale animal
Kankanaey báifemale; hen (not used for persons)
  baí ~ bai-éna henlike cock
Ifugaw (Batad) o-baylarge female animal
Tagalog baí ~ báyiʔroyal lady; lady of the court; princess
Hanunóo báyifemininity, quality of being female
Cebuano báyifemale animal or plant; have or make into a mistress
Binukid bahihuman female; woman, girl
Mansaka baiy-anfemale monkey
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bahifemale person
Maranao báʔilady, queen, respectful term for woman
Malay (Middle) baimother, mother animal
Mori Bawah waifemale, of animals
Mori Atas iro-waifemale
Buginese baifemale, of animals
  cala-baitransvestite

6936

PCEMP     *bai₂ [woman, female]

CMP
Ngadha faiwoman; wife; female
Ende (ata) faiwoman
Palu'e (ata) waifemale; woman
Li'o faifemale, woman
Sika baiwoman
Lamboya la-waiwoman
Tetun fe-nwife

6937

POC     *pe- [mother]

OC
Tongan fe-huhumother; honorific or regal for faʔē (lit. ‘mother of the breast’


Note:   Also Pangasinan bíi ‘woman, female’, Ibaloy bii ‘female of the species --- esp. of humans: girl, woman’, bi-bii ‘three or more women, women as a group or category’; men-, ma-, -an, -to, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bayi ‘a term of direct address meaning woman or girl’.

6938

PPh     *ma-ba-bahi to court girls; to womanize

WMP
Isneg ma-mabáyto court the girls
Kapampangan mam-babaypursuing women
Tagalog mam-ba-báʔeto fool around with women
Masbatenyo mam-ba-báyihave promiscuous sexual relations with women, womanize


Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak mam-bawi ‘act or dress like a woman’.

6939

PAN     *ba-bahi [woman, female]

Formosan
Rukai (Tanan) a-ba-báywoman
Amis fa-fahiwife
  fa-fahi-anfemale; woman
  pa-fa-fahi-enget someone a wife
Puyuma ba-bay-anwoman
Paiwan va-vai-anwoman, female person
WMP
Ibanag ba-váyifemale
Ilokano ba-báigirl, woman; female; concubine, mistress
Agta (Dupaningan) ba-bbeywoman
Casiguran Dumagat bə-befemale; lady, woman, girl
Isneg ba-báywoman, girl; female
Itawis ba-báygirl, woman; female
Bontok ba-báiwoman; female; girl
Kankanaey ba-báiwoman; female; hen
Ifugaw ba-báiwomen
Ifugaw (Batad) ba-bāiwoman; female (person, monkey)
Kapampangan ba-báiwoman
  ba:baywomen
Tagalog ba-báʔewoman, lady; female; mistress, paramour
Bikol ba-báyi ~ ba-bahigirl, woman, lady; female
Hanunóo ba-báyiwoman, girl; female
Hiligaynon ba-báyifemale, woman
Aklanon ba-báyiwoman; female
Masbatenyo ba-báyifemale; girl, lady, woman (refers to the female sex of any animate being)
Waray-Waray ba-báyewoman
Cebuano ba-báyiwoman
Palawan Batak ba-báʔiwoman, female
Maranao be-bayfemale: woman, girl; sister
Tausug ba-baia woman, female (applies particularly to humans, but is sometimes used of animals or plants)
Ma'anyan babeiwoman
Lawangan bawewoman
Ngaju Dayak bawifemale, feminine; wife
Tunjung wawewoman
Malagasy vávya female; feminine


Note:   Also Hanunóo báyiʔ ‘femininity, quality of being female’, Tiruray baʔi ‘the female leader among superhuman beings; a Moslem noblewoman’ (said to be a Magindanao loanword), Malagasy vehivávy ‘a woman’.

6940

PPh     *ba-bahi-en take a woman as mistress

WMP
Ilokano ba-bai-énto court; treat badly; keep as one’s concubine
Tagalog ba-baʔi-hintake a woman as mistress


Note:   Possibly a loan distribution.

6941

PAN     *b<in>ahi [woman, wife]

Formosan
Trobiawan vinaiwife; take to wife
WMP
Iban biniwife; married woman
Malay biniwife; spouse (less respectful than isteri
  ber-binibe a married man
Ngaju Dayak ha-bineifemale, feminine; wife
Jarai bənaywoman
Muna ro-ɓinewoman, girl; wife; female

6942

PCEMP     *b<in>ai [woman, female]

CMP
Komodo winefemale (of humans and animals)
  ata winewoman
Manggarai winawife; woman; female (of people and animals)
Hawu mo-beniwoman
Kambera ka-winiwoman
Soboyo finewoman; female
SHWNG
Buli ma-piŋwoman; female
Numfor binwoman; female

6943

POC     *pine female

OC
Nggela vine-vineobstinate, stubborn, disobedient (cp. mane-mane ‘hold one’s head high, put on airs’ < mane ‘male, man’)
Gilbertese ainefemale; woman; feminine
Mota ta-vinefemale; woman; used also of animals and birds
Tongan fine-motuʔaelderly woman; married woman
  fine-muiyoung woman
Rennellese taʔa-hinehonor, term of reference, esp. for a sister, daughter, niece
Samoan mā-finewoman, girl (term conveying sympathy or endearment)
Nukuoro hinefemale, woman (must be preceded by an article)
Mele-Fila te-finewoman
Futuna-Aniwa finewoman
Rarotongan ʔinegeneral term applied to females; sometimes denotes respect or kind regard, but is (or was) mostly used towards young women and those of adult age; in some cases used as a term of endearment by a lover towards his sweetheart; it is extensively used in love songs
Maori hinegirl; chiefly used in addressing a girl or young woman, never used with an article or definitive; daughter
  hine-ŋagirlhood
Hawaiian kaikama-hinegirl, daughter, niece


Note:   Also Basai minai ‘wife; take to wife’.

6944

PMP     *ba-b<in>ahi woman; female

WMP
Sangir bawinewoman; female; sister
Tae' bainewoman
Mandar bainewife; female, of animals (as a hen)
Wolio bawinewoman; female (of people, animals, and plants)
Palauan babílfemale
SHWNG
Moor vavin(a)woman
Ansus vavi(ŋ)woman
Windesi babinwoman; female

6945

POC     *papine woman; female; sister (male speaker)

OC
Nali pihinwoman; wife
Loniu pihinwoman
Lou peinwoman
Titan peinwoman
Penchal pehinwoman; wife
Nauna pehinwoman; wife
Sori bibiŋwoman
Seimat hehinwoman
Wuvulu pifinewoman
Tanga fifin ~ fifin-fuwoman, adult female
Tolai wawinawoman
Wogeo veinewoman
Manam ainewoman
Gedaged painwoman; wife; female (also said of plants like papaya, etc.)
Takia peinwoman
Gapapaiwa wavinewoman
  wivinewomen
Molima wavinewomen
  wivinewomen
Motu hahinewoman; female
  haahinewomen
Tawala wawinewoman; female
Dobuan wainewoman
  wiwinewomen; female
Bugotu vavineman’s sister; woman’s brother
Nggela vavinesister of a man, brother of a woman; all of this standing in one’s clan
Mota vavinewoman; female
Raga fafinewoman
Makatea fafinewoman
Paamese ahinwoman; female
  ahin-alisister (male speaker)
Tongan fefinewoman, girl
  fafinewomen (dual or plural)
Niue fifinewoman; female
Rennellese hahinewoman; female; to be feminine
Anuta papinewoman; female
Samoan fafinewoman; female
Tuvaluan fafinewoman; wife; female of an animal
  faafinewomen
Nukuoro hahinewoman
  haahinewomen
Rarotongan vaʔinewoman; female; wife
Maori wahinewoman; female; wife
  waahinewomen
Hawaiian wahinewoman, lady; wife; sister-in-law; female cousin-in-law of a man; feminine
  wāhinewomen


Note:   Also Kapingamarangi ahina ‘woman, female’.

6946

POC     *pai-p<in>ai woman; female

OC
Suau (Daui) waihinwoman
Panatinani waiinewoman
Bugotu vaivinewoman; female
Arosi haihinewoman
Bauro haihenewoman
Gilbertese te-aiinewoman
Chuukese feefinwoman; womanhood; female; left hand or side
Woleaian faifil(e)woman; sister


Note:   Also Chuukese feefina- ‘sister (of a man)’.

6947

PPh     *b<in>a-bahi effeminate, of a man

WMP
Ilokano b<in>abáiwomanlike, effeminate; a castrated rooster
Kankanaey b<in>abáiwomanish, effeminate; weak man
Tagalog b<in>abáehermaphrodite; an effeminate man
Hanunóo b<in>abáyihermaphrodite (human)
Aklanon b<in>abáyiact like a female (said of a male), be effeminate
Cebuano b<in>abáyieffeminate; cock with henlike feathers
Maranao b<in>abayeffeminate


Note:   Also Ifugaw b<in>a-bai ‘women’, Kapampangan b<in>a-bái ‘common-law wife; girlhood’.

Note:   As noted in Blust (1982b) from a morphological standpoint this is one of the most challenging of all Austronesian comparisons. In addition to the reduplicated and infixed forms of *bahi that are reconstructed here there are numerous other affixed forms that are confined to particular languages or genetically restricted groups of languages, and a few that are widespread but semantically heterogeneous.

The following is a selection of affixed bases that may or may not indicate proto-forms with similar morphology: 1) Ilokano ka-babai ‘the smaller part of a pair’, Maranao ka-babai ‘feminine — esp. applied to female nut called togaiaq’, 2) Bontok ka-babaiy-an ‘sister or female cousin of a male Ego’, Kankanaey ka-babai-an ‘girl, maiden, lass’, Tagalog ka-babai-han ‘womanhood; women as a group’, Bikol ka-babayi-an ‘women’, Cebuano ka-babayi-nan ‘women as a group’, 3) Puyuma maki-baya-bayan ‘copulate’, Isneg maki-babbáy ‘be concupiscent, lustful’, 4) Hanunóo bayi-ʔán ‘doe, the female of deer’, Binukid bahi-an, and Manobo (Western Bukidnon) behi-ʔan ‘female animal’.

The last of these may point to PPh *bahi-ʔan ‘female, of animals’, but this inference would be much more secure if a similar meaning were found in other, more distantly related languages. While similar forms do occur in Taiwan, elsewhere in the Philippines and in Malagasy, their meanings are widely divergent (Rukai (Tona) abayánə, Puyuma ba-bay-an, Paiwan va-vay-an ‘woman’, Ifugaw ba-bay-án ‘sexual organs of a woman’, Cebuano bayi-nan ‘people on the bride’s side in a marriage’, Malagasy va-vai-ána ‘be made to have a companion’), and so no higher-order reconstruction appears possible at present.

Finally, like several other nouns referring to people the word for ‘woman’ appears to have had a plural form distinguished by length of the penultimate vowel, as in Kapampangan , Motu and most Polynesian languages. Cross-cutting the evidence for plural marking by lengthening of the penult is the evidence from several languages in western Melanesia for a singular : plural distinction based on the contrast of /a/ and /i/ Molima wavine ‘woman’ : wivine ‘women’, etc.). If this distinction is posited for POc it may help to explain the otherwise irregular first-syllable /i/ in a number of other languages that are not known to distinguish plural from singular in this way, as Nali pihin, Sori bibiŋ, Wuvulu pifine, Tanga fifin or Niue fifine ‘woman’.

25000

*bahu odor, stench

466

PMP     *bahu odor, stench     [doublet: *bahuq]

WMP
Kapampangan baúa smell, odor
Mapun bawua smell, odor (either good or bad)
Maranao bawodor, scent, smell
Sebop baʔusmell, odor
Kenyah (Òma Lóngh) baʔusmell
Kayan (Uma Bawang) buʔsmell, odor
Kayan (Uma Juman) busmell, odor
Berawan (Long Terawan) biʔohsmell, odor
Kiput biusmell, odor
Narum biwodor
Murik mpuodor
Miri bausmell, odor (as of a flower)
Bintulu vawstench
  tə-vawhaving a bad smell
Melanau (Dalat) bu-nits odor, its smell
Malay bauscent; odor (whether pleasant or the reverse)
  ber-bauto have a smell
Gayō bauodor, as of burnt rice
Karo Batak baustench; odor; for agreeable odors this is contracted to bo: ntabeh bo-na ‘It smells delicious!’
Toba Batak bauodor, stench; stinking
Sangir bouto smell, as perfume
Pendau boostink, smell bad
Tialo mem-boostink, smell bad
Bare'e wauodor, smell
Tae' bauodor, smell
Palauan báusmell, odor, scent
  bu-lits smell, its odor
  beke-báu(cooked meat, or fish, cooking pot, etc.), foul-smelling
Chamorro paoodor, smell, scent, aroma (as of perfume, gas, etc.)
CMP
Bimanese wouodor; to smell
Manggarai wauodor; rotten
Rembong wauodor; to smell, stink; rotten
  wau mbohave a rotten smell
Ngadha wauunpleasant odor, to reek, stink
Li'o waustink
Lamboya baurotten; smell
Kambera wauodor, stench; to smell, to stink
  wau katipenetrating, of an odor
Hawu wousmell, odor
  wou naki-nakistinking
Sika wauodor; to smell
  wau-kto stink, smell bad
  wau-ŋodor; give out an odor
Lamaholot wau-kodor, aroma
  waũ-ʔits odor
Asilulu hausmell
  hau-nIt stinks!
  hau-esavery fishy smell
  hau-minadelicious oily smell of roasting fish, especially with juices dripping on the embers

7004

POC     *bou smell, odor

OC
Seimat pou-nits smell, its odor
Manam bousmell, odor
Motu bo-nasmell, scent
  bona-iato smell
Merlav bo-nasmell

7005

POC     *bou roŋoR to smell

OC
Manam bou loŋoto smell
Northeast Ambae roŋo namᵇonato smell
Sa roŋo bonto smell
South Efate nroŋ na-bonto smell

7006

PMP     *ma-bahu smelly, stinking     [doublet: *ma-bahuq]

WMP
Kapampangan ma-baúsmelly
Lun Dayeh mə-bu-ənsmelly, having a strong smell
Karo Batak m-bauto stink
Bare'e ma-wausmelly, stinking

7007

PWMP     *ka-bahu-an stench

WMP
Tagalog ka-bahuʔ-anfoulness of odor, fetidness
Ngaju Dayak ka-bew-anstench (as from an ulceration)

7008

PWMP     *bahu-an give off an odor (?)

WMP
Kapampangan bau-ansmell something
Mapun bawu-anhaving a bad smell, smelly
Yakan bewu-wan ~ bewwanfor something to smell bad, to stink (like dung, rotten fish, etc.)
Murung bu-anto smell
Ngaju Dayak bew-anto stink; stinking
Toba Batak bau-bau-anperfume, fragrance
Bolaang Mongondow booʔ-ansmell it
Chamorro pagu-angive off scent, odor, aroma, smell (as cooking)

7009

PWMP     *bahu-en be smelled by someone

WMP
Lun Dayeh bu-ənsmell, scent (good or bad)
  mu-ənto smell with the nose
Kelabit bu-enodor, smell
Sa'ban winodor, smell
Bolaang Mongondow booʔ-onbe smelled by someone

Note:   Also Buginese bauʔ ‘to sniff, smell’, Makasarese bauʔ ‘odor, fragrant, smelling good; term of address for the high nobility’, Kambera bau ‘to stink’, Rembong mbo ‘corpse; to smell’, Kelabit buen ‘smell, odor’, Melanau (Mukah) bun ‘odor’, pe-bun ‘to smell, have an odor’.

Surprisingly, Manam on the north coast of New Guinea, and a number of the languages of Vanuatu agree in pointing to a verb ‘to smell’ which combines apparent reflexes of PMP *bahu and *deŋeR ‘to hear’, an association that appears also in Tawala nonola ‘hearsmell’ (Ezard 1985). Why odor would be associated with an auditory sensation is unclear.

30188

*bahuq odor; stench

7010

PWMP     *bahuq odor; stench     [doublet: *bahu]

WMP
Tagalog báhoʔa bad odor or smell, stench; stink; a very bad smell
Hiligaynon báhoʔsmell, odor; stink; odorous, pungent, acrid smelling, stinking
Aklanon báhoʔsmell, odor, stench; to stink
Masbatenyo báhoʔstench, stink; reek
Waray-Waray báhoʔodor, smell, scent
Cebuano báhuʔodorous, ill-smelling (as a toilet); smell, odor (as of roast pig)
  ka-báhuʔstench
Mansaka baoʔsmell; to smell
Tausug bahuʔbad odor, stench, smell
  ka-bahu-anto smell a bad smell
Kenyah (Long Anap) baʔoʔodor, smell
Kenyah (Long Dunin) baʔuʔodor, smell
Bolaang Mongondow booʔ ~ buoʔ <Modor, smell, stench; to smell

7011

PWMP     *ma-bahuq smelly, stinking     [doublet: *ma-bahu]

WMP
Tagalog ma-báhoʔfoul, smelly
Aklanon ma-báhoʔsmelly, malodorous, stinky
Masbatenyo ma-báhoʔunpleasant smelling
Waray-Waray ma-báhoʔhaving an offensive smell or odor
Tausug ma-bahuʔstinky, odorous, smelly

Note:   Many Greater Central Philippine languages contain an unexplained final glottal stop in this form. They are included in the same comparison since a doublet cannot be reconstructed even at the Proto-Philippine level.

30214

*bahuR mix foods, as in preparing pig’s fodder

7062

PWMP     *bahuR mix foods, as in preparing pig’s fodder

WMP
Itbayaten man-vahoyto add water to solid mass (as when mixing yam or camote with weed or corn, preparing pig’s fodder)
Ilokano báorto mix ordinary rice with díket (soft, sticky) rice
Tagalog bahógbroth mixed with some rice; food diluted with water or other liquid
  ma-bahógbe mixed with broth or other liquid
Masbatenyo bahógrefers to feed for domesticated animals
  mag-bahógto feed animals
  bahúg-anfeeding trough
Hiligaynon bahúgfood for pigs
  mag-bahúgto feed swine, or any animal; of people, to eat mixed foods simultaneously
Aklanon bahógswill, slop, pig food; to feed pigs; pour soup on
  b<ae>ahóg-anfeeding trough for pigs
Cebuano bahúgput liquid or fat into the staple food
  b<in>ahúgfood mixed with soup, lard, or water
Binukid bahugfeed something to a domestic animal (as a pig)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bahugmoisten one’s food with broth, soup or water
Tausug bahugimmerse cooked food in liquid, as cooked rice in soup, gravy, milk or water
Malay campur baurmuch mixed up
Bahasa Indonesia baurto mix

7063

PWMP     *maR-bahuR mixed with

WMP
Tagalog mag-bahógeat rice mixed with broth
Bahasa Indonesia ber-baurmixed, mixed with

7064

PWMP     *bahuR-an be mixed, mixture

WMP
Itbayaten vahoy-ana part of sugarcane mill
Ilokano baor-anto mix ordinary rice with díket (soft, sticky) rice
Tagalog bahug-áncontainer for left-over food
Tausug bahug-animmerse cooked food in liquid
Bahasa Indonesia baur-anmixture (of foods, vegetables, etc.)

Note:   Also Cebuano áhug ‘mix something wet with something dry’, Javanese bawur ‘mixed together, as a bouquet of mixed flowers; blurred, hazy, of vision’ (probably from Malay).

30081

*bai do, make

6793

PCEMP     *bai₁ do, make

CMP
Soboyo feido, make, work, carry out, execute, perform

6794

POC     *pai₂ do, make

OC
Tongan faido, attend to, carry out, carry on with, engage in, perform
Samoan faido, make

Note:   Nothofer (1992) cites Bonggi maŋka-bai ‘do, make’ as a probable WMP cognate. However, van den Bergh (1953) gives kabai ‘make, do’ as the unaffixed base form, and it is by no means clear that this form is cognate with those cited above.

25001

*baisan co-parent-in-law, the kinship tie between the parents of a married couple

467

PWMP     *baisan co-parent-in-law, the kinship tie between the parents of a married couple

WMP
Tagalog baysána parent of the spouse of one's offspring; the relation between parents of a married couple
Melanau (Mukah) bisanson-in-law, daughter-in-law
Malay bésanthe relationship of persons whose children have intermarried
Acehnese bisanthe relationship of persons whose children have intermarried (the bisan of the bride are thus the consanguineal kin of her husband)
Karo Batak bésanthe 'affinal', not true brother or sister; reciprocal term used between the parents of a man and the parents of his wife
  turaŋ bésanan affectionate term for the mother of one's children; term used between brother and sister, and also between husband and wife
Simalur bisan-bisanparents-in-law
Rejang bisanrelationship of parents whose children are married to each other
Sundanese bésanreciprocal term used between two fathers or mothers whose children have married: co-parent-in-law
  be-besan-an(of two fathers or mothers) to stand or come to be in such a relationship to one another
Javanese bésanparent(s)-in-law of one's child

468

PWMP     *baisan-an become a co-parent-in-law (?)

WMP
Tagalog baysan-anbetrothal party held by parents of bride and groom
Javanese bésan-anto become mutual parents-in-law

Note:   Also Malay bisan ‘the relationship of persons whose children have intermarried’. The gloss of Melanau (Mukah) bisan is doubtful both because of its divergence from that of the cognate term in other languages, and because another term (benatew) was also recorded for ‘child-in-law’.

30882

*bait good, kind, pleasant

8710

PWMP     *bait good, kind, pleasant

WMP
Tagalog baʔítkindness; prudence; sense; a clear or sound state of mind; senses; mind
  ma-baʔítkind, kindly; friendly; kind-hearted; good-hearted, good-natured; benevolent; good; virtuous; indulgent; making allowances; not too critical; mild; benign; amiable; affable; gently; kindly; friendly
  mag-baʔítto try to be good; to try to be prudent or sensible
  ka- báʔít-ankindness; goodness; humaneness; friendliness; leniency; prudence, good sense
Malay baitgood (variant of baik)
Toba Batak baitgood

29830

*bajaq know, understand; ask, inquire

6439

PAN     *bajaq₁ know, understand; ask, inquire

Formosan
Atayal baqcan; know, understand; learn, teach
Pazeh baza-know, understand
Thao fazaqremember; know; understand; think; have the opinion that
Kanakanabu taa-valáʔəknow, understand; can
Amis fanaʔgeneric term for knowledge, including understanding what is heard
Paiwan ki-vadaqinquire, request

6440

PMP     *bajaq₂ tell, inform; ask, inquire

WMP
Ilokano bagánotice, announcement, bulletin
  i-bagásay, tell, declare, utter; inform on
  bag-bagaadvice
  bag-baga-ánto advise, admonish
Bontok ʔi-bagáask, tell; ask for payment of a debt
Kankanaey i-bagáask, inquire after
  baga-anask for, claim the payment of a debt
Ifugaw bagáto ask; to tell
Ifugaw (Batad) bagatell; confess; request
Pangasinan bagátell, say, invite or ask by word of mouth
Kapampangan bálaʔresponsibility; warning
Tagalog bálaʔthreat
Binukid bálaʔto divine, discover something by means of divination
Mansaka báraʔwarn of accident or misfortune
Tausug balaʔmisfortune, affliction, plague
Tboli bálaʔreply, respond
Mapun balaʔcalamity, disaster (believed to come from God, such as a plague, flood, earthquake)
Ida'an Begak baraʔtell
  maraʔtell
Kelabit badaʔadvice
  madaʔto advise; tell, instruct
Kenyah badaʔtell, relate; complain
Kayan baratell, relate, say
Kayan (Uma Juman) baraannounce, inform, tell
Karo Batak bagahoffering to the spirits of the dead so they will desist from pestering one
Dairi-Pakpak Batak bagahsay, announce something; introduce
  bagah bagahpromise
  bagah-ensomeone who may be summoned, like a servant
Toba Batak baga-bagapromise; expect
Old Javanese warah-warahcommunication, information, report, instruction, teaching
  pa-warahtell, report, teach, instruct
Javanese -warah-anteach each other
  marahteach, advise; reason for, because
Sasak badaʔsay, mention, report; advise
CMP
Rotinese fadaspeak, say, name, mention, tell
Soboyo fayasay

6441

PAN     *ka-bajaq know, understand

Formosan
Pazeh ka-bazato know
Thao ka-fazaqthink, know, remember
Amis ka-fanaʔbe known

6442

PAN     *ma-bajaq know, understand

Formosan
Pazeh ma-bazato know, understand; able, can
Thao ma-fazaqto know, remember

6443

PAN     *pa-bajaq give knowledge, teach

Formosan
Pazeh pa-bazacause to know; teach
[Thao pia-fazaqmake knowledgeable, give someone understanding]

Note:   Also Soboyo baya ‘say’. This form evidently underwent a semantic change in PMP, from a verb that referred primarily to knowing and understanding (and perhaps secondarily to asking or inquiring), to a verb that referred to communicating information by relating it to others.

25002

*bajbaj loosen, untie, unwrap; unravel; to clear forest (fig.?)

469

PWMP     *bajbaj loosen, untie, unwrap; unravel; to clear forest (fig.?)

WMP
Ilokano bagbágunravel, disentangle, disengage the threads of; to clear (of underbrush, etc.)
  bagbag-enunravel, disentangle, disentangle the threads of
Isneg badbādunbind, untie, to loose, to loosen
Bontok badbaduntangle, unwind
Kankanaey bagbagundo, unstitch, unsew; demolish
Ifugaw badbádact of unwinding something (e.g. a string)
Casiguran Dumagat badbadunravel, untwist (of rope which becomes unravelled at the end)
Bikol badbáddisentangle, loosen (as a knot, a rope); unwind, uncoil
Aklanon bádbadunravel, take apart (as threads in a garment); to fray, get unravelled
Cebuano badbaduntie, get untied; liquidate a debt; solve a problem; translate
  badbáduntie, get untied
Maranao bebadunroll, unfurl, uncoil
Makasarese baʔbaraʔunroll something that is rolled up (as a sail); come loose, of something that was previously stuck on; no longer taut (of an anchor rope)
Malagasy vavatraopened, untied (of something like a clasp-hold, or lid-fast or a fast knot)
Old Javanese babada clearing; to clear (a piece of forest)
Balinese babadto clear forest; clearing, a cleared space
  badbaddisentangle, open, clear

Note:   Also Ngadha bheva ‘loosen, untie; loosened, untied’. Motu papa-ia ‘unroll, open up a ball’ may be related. With root *-baj ‘unravel, untie’.

25015

*bak₁ clap! smack!

487

PMP     *bak₁ clap! smack!

WMP
Tboli bakbark of a dog
Ngaju Dayak baksplash!
Malay baksound of a smack
Karo Batak baksound of clapping, of horses' hooves, etc.
Dairi-Pakpak Batak baksound of a large object falling on a wooden floor
CMP
Ngadha basmack, clap with the hand

488

POC     *bak strike against

OC
Arosi baastrike one upon another, as firewood in breaking it
Tongan touch; hit; knock against; collide with; slap (esp. on the head)

Note:   The OC forms cited here may reflect PMP *pak.

25016

*bak₂ negative marker

489

PMP     *bak₂ negative marker

WMP
Simalur baʔ, faʔno, not
Mentawai banegative (vetative)
Bare'e banegative
SHWNG
Buli pano, not, nothing, no one
Numfor bano, not

Note:   Simalur baʔ, faʔ points to *bak, but each of the other languages has regularly lost *-k. As a consequence of the loss of final *k reflexes of *bak may be confused with reflexes of the conjunction *ba ‘but, or, if, because’, which introduce an element of doubt, qualification or occasionally even negation.

25006

*baka conjunction: despite, nonetheless

473

PMP     *baka conjunction: despite, nonetheless

WMP
Ilokano bakábe vague, inconsequent, contradictory
Cebuano bákait doesn't matter, never mind if
Iban bakain spite of
OC
Tolai bakaperhaps (placed at the beginning of a sentence)

Note:   Also Kayan bekaʔ ‘nevertheless, however’.

25003

*bakaka a bird, the kingfisher

470

PWMP     *bakaka a bird, the kingfisher

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bekakakingfisher
Ngaju Dayak bakakapredatory fishing bird somewhat smaller than a dove, with green back, yellow breast, red feet and bill and a short tail
Iban bekakastork-billed kingfisher

Note:   Also Tiruray bekakah ‘kingfisher: Pellargopsis capensis (Linn.)’, Malay bekakak, pekakak ‘kingfisher: Halcyon sp.’.

25234

*baŋkal a tree: Nauclea sp.

782

PMP     *baŋkal a tree: Nauclea sp.

WMP
Aklanon báŋkaetree with reddish fruit: Nauclea junghuhnia
Cebuano baŋkáltree sp.: Nauclea orientalis
Iban baŋkalsmall trees, Nauclea sp.
Malay baŋkalname for certain trees: Nauclea spp. or Sarcocephalus spp.
Makasarese baŋkalaʔa timber tree: Sarcocephalus undulatus (Cense (1979)); a tree: Nauclea orientalis (Mills (1975))
CMP
Manggarai baŋkaltree sp.

Note:   Mills (1975:627) posits "PInd" (?) *baŋkal ‘tree sp.’, but is unable to further specify the referent. This taxon is not mentioned in Verheijen (1984).

25004

*bakaq spread apart, split

471

PMP     *bakaq spread apart, split

WMP
Cebuano bákaʔwalk with the legs apart
Kulawi bakaʔwounded (Esser 1964)
CMP
Proto-Ambon *vakasplit
OC
Nggela vaŋgato split, from the heat of the sun

Note:   With root *-kaq₂ ‘split’.

25244

*ba(ŋ)kas₁ come loose, untied

805

PMP     *ba(ŋ)kas₁ come loose, untied

WMP
Bontok bákastear, as cloth; break up; pull down; destroy, of anything that has been made
Malagasy vahaloosened, untied, relaxed, as of parcels, burdens, etc.
CMP
Manggarai bahascome apart, come undone
Kambera waŋgamake an opening, take apart
Paulohi hakato open (intr.)

Note:   With root *-kas₂ ‘loosen, undo, untie’.

25245

*ba(ŋ)kas₂ swift, strong, energetic, fast

806

PMP     *ba(ŋ)kas₂ swift, strong, energetic, fast     [disjunct: *beŋkas]

WMP
Aklanon bákashurry up, hasten, quicken
  ma-bákasquick, fast, speedy
Kadazan vakasstrong
  mama-vakasstrengthen, make strong, invigorate
Makasarese baŋkasaʔswift, agile, energetic
OC
Mota vakahave strength, energy

Note:   With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile; strong, energetic’.

25005

*bakat waves, heavy weather at sea

472

PWMP     *bakat waves, heavy weather at sea

WMP
Maranao bakatwaves, windy weather, gusty wind
Iban bakatchoppy (of water), small waves made by wind and tide in shallow water
Simalur bakadwave, billow
Javanese bakatmighty, terrific, powerful

25246

*ba(ŋ)kat type of basket

807

PWMP     *ba(ŋ)kat type of basket

WMP
Aklanon báŋkatwoven basket (for small fishes)
Cebuano bakátkind of hamper, woven container about two feet high with a top
Iban baŋkatlarge basket

25235

*baŋkaw barbless spear

783

PWMP     *baŋkaw barbless spear

WMP
Aklanon báŋkawspear
Maranao baŋkawspear or lance
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) baŋkewgeneric for any barbless spear
Iban baŋkaupike, short round spike on a staff; baŋkau also applies to the long bayonets of the early 19th century fixed to ironwood staves for arming Fortmen (Richards (1981))

Note:   Also Bontok baŋgaw ‘kind of spear having a plain blade without barbs’. Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *baNkaw ‘spear, lance’.

25007

*bakbak₁ peel off, of skin; remove the bark of a tree

474

PMP     *bakbak₁ peel off, of skin; remove the bark of a tree

WMP
Ilokano bakbákcrustless, scabless
Itawis bábakthat which peels off (skin, paint, etc.)
Kapampangan bakbákscar, scab, peeling skin
Tagalog bakbákdetached, decorticated; remove the bark or thick skin (of something)
Bikol bakbáka large scab, ready to fall off; to peel (as sunburned skin)
Hanunóo bakbákchipping off, breaking off
Aklanon bákbaktake off the bark of a tree
Kelabit bebʰaktorn, as a shirt
Iban babaktake off, pull down, undo, tear away, pull out, pull up by the roots
Karo Batak bakbakremove the rind (of fruits)
Toba Batak bakbakloosen, undo; detach, as the bark of a tree
Rejang babaʔskin
Sundanese babakraw; open or abraded skin (as on the back of a horse, from harness-wear)
Old Javanese babaksplit open, laying bare, raw (wound), torn off
Javanese babakskinned, bruised
Madurese babbaʔbark of a tree
Balinese babakscrape, graze (the skin), blister (from walking or working); peel off (skin)
Sasak babakbark of a tree; scraped, flayed (skin)
Chamorro pappastrip off (bark of a tree), skin (an animal), peel off, rip off (as skin, bark)
CMP
Ngadha bhabhapeel off, remove the bark

476

PWMP     *bakbak-an peel off, remove bark

WMP
Tagalog bakbak-ánremove the bark or thick skin of something
Bikol bakbak-ánpeel something off
Javanese babak-anpiece of skin, shaving, peeling
Balinese babak-anbark of a tree

Note:   This item appears to have referred prototypically to the peeling off of skin (intransitive) or to the removal of the bark of a tree (transitive). The removal of skin (transitive) probably was represented by *kulit-i, a form which apparently could be applied as well to the removal of tree bark. Evidently, then, the transitive meaning of *bakbak was largely coextensive with the meaning of *kulit-i as it applied to tree bark rather than to the skin of animals. The occasional nominal referents (Rejang babaʔ ‘skin’, Madurese babbaʔ ‘bark of a tree’) seem to be secondary, and the meaning of the suffixed form (*bakbak-an) remains unclear.

25008

*bakbak₂ sound of heavy clapping or pounding, smacking sound

477

PAN     *bakbak₂ sound of heavy clapping or pounding, smacking sound     [doublet: *bekbek, *bukbuk]

Formosan
Paiwan b-alʸ-akbakdrumming sound, as of many stones falling or tumbling, horse's hooves, drumming on table with hands
WMP
Isneg bábaʔbeat, hammer, smash, crush; pound the first rice of the new harvest
Bontok bakbakfrog
Ifugaw bakbákwooden slab with a handle with which women beat the clothes they are washing; frog
Kankanaey bakbákfrog
Hanunóo bakbákchipping off, breaking off
Casiguran Dumagat bakbakfrog
Pangasinan bakbákto whip
Cebuano bakbákfrog, toad (onom.)
Maranao babakfrog; hammer
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) bakbakfrog
Tiruray bakbaka hammer; to hammer, pound
Kadazan babaksmash, crush, bread to pieces
Banggai babakbeat a drum
Tae' baʔbakspread the wings
Makasarese baʔbaʔclick the lips to make a horse stand still
Chamorro pappawing
CMP
Sika wawakloud sound or noise
SHWNG
Waropen wawaknock on side of canoe; make a clamor

478

POC     *baba₄ strike, chip stone

OC
Arosi bababreak one thing on another, chip a stone
Fijian babastrike, smite the head with open hand
Maori pak-i, papak-islap, pat; make a clapping noise

Note:   With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’. The varied meanings brought together here are united by a common onomatopoetic reference to a loud smacking sound or to an animal or instrument that produces such a sound. The meaning ‘frog’ appears to be a Philippine innovation (cf. Reid 1971:85 for several other, unrelated onomatopoetic forms for ‘frog’ in the Philippines). Ngadha vava ‘cry of the raven’ probably is an independent onomatopoetic formation, and Eddystone/Mandegusu baba ‘wing’ apparently does not belong here, as we would expect the final consonant to be preserved (with a supporting vowel). For the appropriateness of including Chamorro pappa ‘wing’ in this set cf. the semantic parallels with reflexes of *pakpak.

29882

*bakehaw mangrove

6543

PWMP     *bakehaw mangrove

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat békawspecies of uncultivated mangrove tree, genus Rhizophora
Bikol bakáw-anmangrove tree, having stilt-like roots and stems forming dense thickets along tidal shores: Rhizophora
Hanunóo bakháwtype of mangrove tree: Rhizophora sp.
Hiligaynon bákhawmangrove
Aklanon bakáw-antree that is good for firewood: Rhizophora mucronata
Cebuano bakháwmangrove tree: Rhizophora spp.
Mapun baŋkawmangrove tree; mangrove swamp
Mansaka bakawkind of hardwood tree (grows along shore)
Maranao bakawmangrove, Rhizophora sp.
Tiruray bakawa mangrove tree found in virgin swamps, Rhizophora candellaria DC, Rhizophora mucronata Lam.
Tausug bakkawRhizophora spp., mangrove
Kadazan vakauclimbing plants (tough), twiners, lianas
Iban bakautrue mangrove: Rhizophora spp.
Malay bakaumangrove-covered swamp; mangrove tree, specifically of true mangroves (Rhizophorae)
Toba Batak bahotree sp.
Sasak bakotree that yields a good timber
Bolaang Mongondow bakowtree sp.
Wolio baŋkomangrove tree: Rhizophora conjugata
Muna bhaŋkomangrove tree (its wood is used for cooking and building)

6544

PPh     *ka-bakaw-an mangrove swamp

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat ka-bekaw-anmangrove swamp
Maranao bakaw-anmangrove swamp
Tausug ka-bakkaw-anmangrove swamp

25009

*bakelad fish corral

479

PWMP     *bakelad fish corral     [disjunct: *belat₂]

WMP
Tagalog bakládfish corral
  baklar-ánplace where fish corrals are set
Iban belatcane fishing screen or net (with canes horizontal) usually set across stream or current
Malay belatscreen made of rattan strips tied to one another longitudinally; screen-trap for fish. In most of these traps the fish are led by the tide between two converging rows of screens (bidaŋ belat, bidai belat) into a trap, usually of several compartments, from the inmost of which there is no escape
Sasak belatfish corral made in the sea
Buginese beleʔscreen-trap for fish

Note:   For the phonological history of this and similar trisyllables in Malay and some other languages of western Indonesia see Blust (1982).

25010

*bakes belt; tie around the waist

480

PAN     *bakes belt; tie around the waist

Formosan
Amis fakecput a belt on
  sa-fakeca belt
WMP
Ilokano barkésanan inflammatory disease of the skin, often originating at the waist; to tie into one bundle
Isneg baxákatbelt, girdle, sash (worn around the waist by women to keep the tapis in place)
Pangasinan balkésbelt
Cebuano bakúsbelt; wear a belt, tie around the waist
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) aɣkestie up something inanimate
  bakesbelt
Singhi Land Dayak bokesbelt
Malagasy vahygeneric for plants used as withes, girdles, and in plaiting, rope-making, etc.
CMP
Kambera waŋgihutwist, wind around; belt; rope that is tied around the loincloth
Hawu waketie around the waist; belt

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.

27120

*baki₁ break off with the hand

3590

POC     *baki₁ break off with the hand

OC
Motu baki-ato break, of bread, sago, etc.
Tongan pakibreak or break off, esp. with the hand; pick or pluck

25236

*baŋkiriŋ tree sp.

784

PWMP     *baŋkiriŋ tree sp.

WMP
Aklanon baŋkilíŋa tree: Cicca acida
Cebuano baŋkilíŋkind of small, deciduous, cultivated tree which has a rounded, light green fruit, fleshy and sour, used as a flavoring for vinegarized dishes or eaten pickled: Cicca acida
Malay beŋkiriŋa tree: Garcinia sp.

30114

*baŋkudu tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia

6843

PWMP     *baŋkudu tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia

WMP
Tagalog baŋkúroMorinda citrifolia L. (Madulid 2001)
Agutaynen baŋkorothe “noni” fruit. It turns black when ripe. Some people boil it and then use the water for medicinal purposes.
Cebuano baŋkúrua tree: Morinda spp.
Tausug baŋkuduMorinda bracteata Roxb. (Madulid 2001)
Iban meŋkudusmall trees: Morinda citrifolia L. and others
Malay meŋkudua tree of which the root’s bark gives a red dye: Morinda spp., esp. Morinda bracteata and Morinda citrifolia
Toba Batak baŋkudua tree the roots of which yield a reddish-brown substance used to dye cloth(ing)
Old Javanese waŋkuḍua plant the root of which produces a red dye: Morinda spp.
Sundanese caŋkuduname of a shrub (the bark of the roots yields a light red dye): Morinda spp.
  ñaŋkudu-anto dye with caŋkudu
Balinese baŋkudua tree: Morinda spp.
Sasak beŋkudua tree: Morinda citrifolia; the fruits are used in rujak (kind of fruit salad), and the bark for a red dye
Bolaang Mongondow boŋkudutree that yields soap fruits

Note:   Also Iban eŋkudu ‘small trees: Morinda citrifolia L. and others’, Old Javanese wuŋkuḍu ‘a plant the root of which produces a red dye’. In the Philippines and western Indonesia this term evidently was in competition with *ñiñu; these terms may have distinguished Morinda species, but this remains unclear.

25011

*bakuku fish sp. (presumably sea-bream)

482

PWMP     *bakuku fish sp. (presumably sea-bream)     [doublet: *bakukuŋ]

WMP
Cebuano bakúkufish sp.
Malagasy (Provincial) vahóhofish sp.
Malay bekukusea bream: Sparus hasta

25012

*bakukuŋ a fish, the sea-bream: Sparus hasta

483

PWMP     *bakukuŋ a fish, the sea-bream: Sparus hasta     [doublet: *bakuku]

WMP
Malay bekukoŋthe sea-bream: Sparus hasta
Makasarese bakukuŋlarge edible sea fish with a tough skin: Sparus hasta

30883

*bakul kind of basket made of woven bamboo strips

8711

PWMP     *bakul kind of basket made of woven bamboo strips

WMP
Itbayaten vakolbasket?
Ilokano bakúltwilled (bamboo strips in weaving)
Tagalog bákola round, shallow basket generally carried on the head of vendors selling fish, vegetables, etc.
Bikol bákolsmall basket, woven from bamboo, with four corners at the bottom and circular opening at the top
Tiruray bakula small basket used by salt water fishermen to store their line and hook
Tausug bakula big basket with a cover
Kelabit bakulbasket that is carried in the hand
Kenyah (Long Anap) bakunbasket (generic)
Bintulu bakulbasket
Malay bakulbasket; loosely (in Bazaar Malay) any basket; specifically a large lidded basket of plaited bamboo wicker to be carried on the head, either oblong or cylindrical; if tight-meshed used for storing rice, and if openwork for storing fruit, etc.
Old Javanese wakula type of basket
Javanese wakulrice-serving basket
  wakul-an(placed) in a serving basket; by the basket(ful)
Sundanese bakula basket like a saʔid (large bamboo basket for holding fruit), but larger, and usually without wooden or bamboo feet
Balinese bakula small basket
Proto-Minahasan *bakulbasket
Tondano wakulbasket
Tontemboan wakulsmall shallow basket for holding vegetables, spices and the like
Tae' bakkuʔbasket used to keep all sorts of things, including foods, pounded and cooked rice, etc.
Mandar bakuʔbasket
  sam-bakuʔa basketful
Makasarese bakuʔbasket

8712

PWMP     *bakul-bakul (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Karo Batak bakul-bakulfence of stakes with bamboo plaitwork connected together, used at dykes and dams
Toba Batak bahul-bahula large sack made of straw for storing rice
Mandar baku-bakuʔsmall basket (can be closed and used as a place to store money or other valuables)
Buginese bakuʔbasket
  mab-baku-bakuʔby the basketful

Note:   Also Bare'e bako-bako ‘four-sided basket made of silar leaves, with a lid, used for storing the ingredients of the betel chew’.

25237

*baŋkulis fish sp.

785

PWMP     *baŋkulis fish sp.

WMP
Cebuano baŋkulís-ankind of fish
Makasarese baŋkulisiʔscaleless, striped marine fish about half a meter long, with forked tail fin

Note:   For another fish name to which Cebuano has added the suffix -an, cp. PMP *taRutuŋ > Cebuano tagutuŋ-an ‘porcupine fish: Diodon sp.’.

25013

*bakuŋ₁ a lily-like plant: Crinum asiaticum L.

484

PAN     *bakuŋ₁ a lily-like plant: Crinum asiaticum L.

Formosan
Thao fakunCrinum asiaticum L., fam. Amaryllidaceae, a shore plant which grows in sandy soil and reaches a height of slightly over one meter; it has lanceolate leaves and a small fruit, and is distinguished by its white lily-like blossoms with six slender elongated petals
Amis fakoŋname of an herb used on broken bones
WMP
Itbayaten vakoŋCrinum asiaticum L., a plant similar to the lily with white flower and purple fruit. It is fragrant and said to repel mosquitoes
Ilokano bákoŋCrinum asiaticum L. A stout, amaryllidaceous plant with large, fragrant white flowers, much cultivated for ornamental purposes
Tagalog bakoŋspider lily, Crinum asiaticum L.
Hanunóo bákuŋsmall upland plant with large white flowers and large round leaves
Cebuano bákuŋkind of ornamental bulb, the spider lily: Crinum asiaticum
Maranao bakoŋCrinum asiaticum L., a plant with white flower, used to treat stomach ache
Ngaju Dayak bakoŋa water plant which grows on riverbanks and often right out into the river so that in stronger currents entire islands of them are flushed out. The stem is eaten; the long wide leaves are used as talusoŋ (torch material)
Malagasy vahónageneric for various plants of the genus Aloe, esp. A. macroclada Baker, and A. deltoideodonta Baker; also a species of Crinum
Iban bakoŋplants of Amaryllis family growing on river banks, Crinum spp. (esp. Crinum asiaticum: also water lilies, Nymphaea spp., and probably Indian lotus, Nelumbium spp.
Malay bakoŋa bulbous plant grown for its big white ornamental flowers, Crinum asiaticum
  seperti sulur bakoŋ'like the curve of the bakoŋ', as a simile for suppliant hands
Toba Batak bahuŋkind of shrub
Sundanese bakuŋkind of lily with large white blossoms
  hui bakuŋkind of tuber
  daun bakuŋgeneric for cactus-like plants
Old Javanese wakuŋa lily-like flower, Crinum asiaticum. The petals are very slender; fingers are compared with them
Javanese bakuŋa certain flower
Balinese bakuŋlily
Sasak bakoŋCrinum asiaticum, a plant with large white blossoms the petals of which are used as a standard of comparison for beautiful fingers
Buginese bakuŋkind of flowering plant
Makasarese bakuŋkind of lily, Crinum asiaticum
CMP
Manggarai waŋ kuŋa plant: Crinum asiaticum L.
Rembong waŋ kuŋa plant: Crinum asiaticum L.

Note:   Also Old Javanese bakuŋ ‘a lily-like flower, Crinum asiaticum’. Merrill (1954:35) describes the Crinum asiaticum as a coarse, erect herbaceous plant in the amaryllis family, and states that ‘It prefers the sandy soil immediately inland from the beach line’. In view of this characterization it is somewhat surprising that a cognate is found in Thao, which is spoken around Sun-Moon Lake, at an elevation of nearly 1000 meters in the western foothills of the Central Mountains of Taiwan. There is evidence that Thao was spoken on Taiwan's Western Plain (Blust 1996), perhaps as recently as the 17th century, but even then it probably would not have been in contact with the sea. However, the Crinum asiaticum is reported from inland riverine environments in Indonesia as well (cf. reflexes in Ngaju Dayak and Iban). In any event Thao fakun was spontaneously offered as the name of the Crinum asiaticum when a color photograph of the latter was presented to Mr. Shih A-shan, and there can be little doubt about the botanical identification.

25014

*bakuŋ₂ kind of pandanus

485

PMP     *bakuŋ₂ kind of pandanus

WMP
Bolaang Mongondow bakuŋkind of pandanus with fragrant leaves
Chamorro pahoŋpandanus, screw pine --- bears edible fruit
CMP
Ngadha vakukind of pandanus
Asilulu haʔunkind of very tall pandanus with large inedible fruits

486

POC     *pakuŋ kind of pandanus

OC
Kwaio haʔupandanus; pandanus umbrella
'Āre'āre haʔuthe pandanus tree, which has broad leaves; used by men as perineal bandage; also used to make a kind of mat called haʔu
Sa'a haʔupandanus with broad leaves used to make umbrellas; an umbrella of haʔu leaves
Arosi haʔua pandanus; a mat made by sewing together the dried leaves of pandanus
Bauro hagupandanus

Note:   Also Bolaang Mongondow bakoŋ ‘kind of pandanus with fragrant leaves’. Despite the superficial dissimilarity of the Crinum asiaticum and the pandanus (a plant of considerably greater stature), it is possible that *bakuŋ₁ and *bakuŋ₂ represent a single etymon. The Crinum asiaticum is noteworthy not only for its rather striking snow-white blossoms with six long, slender, widely splayed petals, but also for its long fragrant leaves which somewhat resemble those of the pandanus in form (and, in some cases, in fragrance). These similarities may have triggered parallel semantic changes which reassigned reflexes of PAn *bakuŋ from associations with the Crinum asiaticum to associations with various redolent members of the genus Pandanus. Alternatively, PMP *bakuŋ may already have had both meanings.

25247

*ba(ŋ)kuq curved, bent

808

PMP     *ba(ŋ)kuq curved, bent

WMP
Cebuano bákuʔstoop-shouldered; become hunched
Kenyah (Long Wat) bakoʔbend, curve
Bare'e waŋkubent over, inclined, of someone who does not walk erect; leaning over, as a house or tree
CMP
Kambera bakubent, curved

Note:   With root *-ku(q) ‘bend, curve’.

25040

*bala₁ to adze, shape wood with an adze

515

PWMP     *bala₁ to adze, shape wood with an adze

WMP
Itbayaten valachips produced in lumbering, small chips cut off from wood by axe
Tiruray balato shape roughly, as wood, prior to smooth or detail finishing
Tae' balawork wood with an adze

Note:   Iban bala-n ‘make smooth with an adze’ may reflect *bala-en.

25041

*bala₂ pen, enclosure for domesticated animals

516

PMP     *bala₂ pen, enclosure for domesticated animals     [disjunct: *bara₁, *baRa₂]

WMP
Malagasy valathe wooden fence of a cattle pen
Gorontalo balafence
Uma walafence, enclosure
Bare'e wayafence, enclosure
Tae' balafence, enclosure
Mandar balafenced enclosure for animals
SHWNG
Serui-Laut farafence, palisade

517

POC     *bala₄ fence; animal pen; fortification

OC
Mussau bala-balafence
'Āre'āre parafence, trap
  para ni kenian enclosure of girls, virgins, taboo for men
Arosi barahedge; fence made of wood
  bara-baraa fence around a grave

25042

*bala₃ whatever, whichever

518

PMP     *bala₃ whatever, whichever     [disjunct: *bara₃]

WMP
Tagalog balawhatever, whichever, whoever
Old Javanese walain compounds it seems to be 'all kinds of, in every respect'
CMP
Erai h(a)lawhat, something
OC
Label hala, some, somewhat

28847

*(bp)ala₁ dried out

6078

POC     *(bp)ala₁ dried out

OC
Molima vala-valaget dry; to heat, of sun or fire
Kwaio baladried out, of wood or tobacco; racks in house for drying wood, etc.
Woleaian pal(a)be dry, dried (as a cloth)

28848

*(bp)ala₂ fight

6079

POC     *(bp)ala₂ fight

OC
Kwaio balachallenge, confront in hostility
Lonwolwol balfight, be damaged, meet damage or trouble or even death
Fijian vala (OG)to fight

25017

*balabaw rat, mouse

490

PMP     *balabaw rat, mouse     [doublet: *labaw, *kalabaw]

WMP
Subanun (Siocon) bolabowrat
Kenyah (Long Anap) belabawrat
Katingan balawaurat
Miri balabuhrat, mouse
Melanau (Mukah) belabawrat, mouse
Sangir balaworat, mouse
Tae' balaorat, mouse
Mandar balaorat, mouse
Makasarese balaorat, mouse
Proto-South Sulawesi *bala(b)orat, mouse
Palauan beábrodent; rat, mouse
CMP
Manggarai belaworat, mouse

Note:   Malagasy voalavo ‘a species of rat: Mus alexandrinus’ may be a product of folk etymology (< *buaq ‘fruit’?).

25018

*balabeg spear, harpoon

491

PWMP     *balabeg spear, harpoon

WMP
Ilokano balábag <Aharpoon with a single barb; spear, cane, etc.
Isneg balábaga very long spear whose head is removable and has two barbs
Ifugaw balabógkind of spear, the blade of which is provided with two barbs
Malay belebak <Mbamboo spear (used in spring traps)

Note:   Malay belebak is assumed to show metathesis of the penultimate and final vowels prior to the change of last-syllable *e to a.

30497

*balabu dim, of vision

7726

PCMP     *balabu dim, of vision

CMP
Tetun balabuto see dimly, to appear dimly or indistinctly
Soboyo balafudim vision (due to old age)

25019

*balabuR blurred, of vision

492

PMP     *balabuR blurred, of vision

WMP
Javanese blawurblurred, not clearly visible
CMP
Tetun balabusee dimly
Soboyo balafudim vision (due to old age)

25020

*baladaw dagger

493

PWMP     *baladaw dagger

WMP
Isneg baladáwa hatchet
Tagalog balaráwdirk, dagger
Cebuano balaráwkind of dagger
Maranao baladawancient and primitive machete
Ngaju Dayak baladausmall double-edged dagger
Malay beladaua curved single-edged dagger worn hidden in the sleeve or waistbelt and used for treacherous stabbing
Gorontalo baladudouble-edged knife (used as personal weapon)
Bare'e baladoshort, pointed, double-edged dagger

27122

*balai₁ fish sp.

3592

POC     *balai₁ fish sp.

OC
Gedaged balaia fish about two feet long, red color
Motu baifish sp.
Mussau balaifish sp.

Note:   Motu bai may reflect POc *mpali or *mpalaŋi.

27123

*balai₂ wild yam: Dioscorea sp.

3593

POC     *balai₂ wild yam: Dioscorea sp.

OC
Proto-Micronesian *palaiwild, bitter, common yam: Dioscorea bulbifera
Rotuman paraikind of hard yam
Tongan palaikind of yam
Niue palaiyam variety
Samoan palaiLiane (Dioscorea sp.), one of the common yams
Rennellese pagaikind of wild yam

25021

*balakaŋ hips

494

PWMP     *balakaŋ hips

WMP
Kapampangan balakáŋhips
Tagalog balakáŋhips
Malagasy valahanaloins
Iban belakaŋback, rear, behind, after
Malay belakaŋback; rear; hind-portion; behind or after
Old Javanese balakaŋ, walakaŋback
Madurese balakaŋback

Note:   The meaning of this item is not entirely clear. However, *likud appears to have meant ‘back’, and no other reconstructed form is known for the meaning ‘hips’.

25022

*balaki edible marine fish

495

PWMP     *balaki edible marine fish

WMP
Ilokano balákikind of middle-sized white marine fish; it is provided with barbels and its meat is esteemed
Wolio balakikind of edible fish, the tunny: Thynnus tunnina

Note:   Maori paraki ‘a freshwater fish, the smelt: Retropinna retropinna’ shows regular correspondences with the Ilokano and Wolio forms, but probably is a chance resemblance.

25023

*balalaCuk a bird: the woodpecker

496

PAN     *balalaCuk a bird: the woodpecker

Formosan
Saisiyat (Taai) balʸasokwoodpecker
Paiwan balatsukFormosan barbet: Megalaema oorti muchalis
WMP
Bikol am-balátokwoodpecker
Cebuano balalátukkind of woodpecker
Maranao balalatokwoodpecker
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tem-belelatuka woodpecker
Ngaju Dayak balatokwoodpecker
Iban belatokwoodpecker
Malay belatokwoodpecker
Old Javanese walatukwoodpecker
Balinese belatuksp. of woodpecker

Note:   Also Old Javanese palatuk ‘woodpecker’. All trisyllabic reflexes are assumed to show the effects of haplology. Alternatively, the Formosan and western Indonesian forms might be taken to support *balaCuk, and the additional syllable in the Philippine forms attributed to a still unjustified affix *-al-. Despite the problem of justifying an analysis *b-al-alaCuk, this solution would offer some advantages, since the alternative chosen here creates a canonically anomalous quadrisyllable. It is possible that *balalaCuk contains a *bala- variant of the *qali-, *kali- prefix. Whatever the history of the first two syllables, it seems clear that the last syllable of this item is the root *-Cuk ‘knock, pound, beat’.

25025

*balalaŋ₁ grasshopper, locust

498

PWMP     *balalaŋ₁ grasshopper, locust

WMP
Kapampangan bálaŋkind of insect said to be destructive to coconut trees
Tagalog bálaŋlocust
Malagasy valálalocust, grasshopper
Malay belalaŋgrasshopper; cricket; mantis
Dairi-Pakpak Batak balaŋgrasshopper
Sundanese walaŋgrasshopper
Old Javanese walaŋcricket, grasshopper, locust
Javanese walaŋlocust, grasshopper, or similar insect with jointed legs
Balinese balaŋgrasshopper, locust
Sasak balaŋgrasshopper

Note:   Also Malay bilalaŋ ‘grasshopper’, Dairi-Pakpak Batak baleŋ ‘grasshopper’, Old Javanese wilala, wilalan ‘grasshopper’. The reflexes of *balalaŋ are assumed to show haplology in all witnesses except Malagasy and Malay.

25026

*balalaŋ₂ long-legged shore-bird, the sandpiper or snipe

499

PPh     *balalaŋ₂ long-legged shore-bird, the sandpiper or snipe

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat balaláŋa bird: the sandpiper
Sangir balalaŋa bird: the snipe

Note:   Also Sangir baralaŋ ‘snipe’.

25024

*balalantiʔ tree sp.

497

PWMP     *balalantiʔ tree sp.

WMP
Isneg balansícommon tree whose leaves are used for the wrappers of cigars and whose timber is used for the shafts of spears
Hanunóo balántiʔtree sp.: Kleinhovia hospita L.
Cebuano balalántiʔsmall tree, the leaves of which have a medicinal use; the wood is of magical importance, esp. in sorcery
Ngaju Dayak balantirather thick tree with white bark and hard and durable timber

Note:   Also Iban belati (expected **belatiʔ) ‘tree sp.: Brownlowia cuspidata Pierre’, Malay meranti ‘tree name, mostly Shorea spp.’, Karo Batak beranti ‘various trees, including Shorea leprosula, which yields a useful resin’, Simalur barati ‘jambu tree and fruit’. The Isneg, Hanunóo, and Ngaju Dayak reflexes are assumed to show haplology. This item may have contained a *bala- variant of the *qali-, *kali- prefix.

25028

*balan scratch or wale on the skin

501

PMP     *balan scratch or wale on the skin     [disjunct: *balar]

WMP
Malay balanwheal
  harimau balan daunthe marbled cat: Felis marmorata
Balinese balanweal raised by a blow with a thin stick or lash
CMP
Ngadha balastripe, streak, wale on skin

25027

*balanak a sea fish: the mullet

500

PWMP     *balanak a sea fish: the mullet

WMP
Ilokano balánakfish sp.
Tagalog bánakadult large-scaled mullet fish, known as agwás when still spawning and taliloŋ when still immature: Mugil waigensis
Bikol balánakfish sp. found in rivers
Hanunóo balánakmedium-sized white fish
Aklanon baeánakfish sp.
Cebuano balánakgeneric for large mullets: Mugilidae
Maranao balanaklarge mullet
Tiruray belanaka mullet: Mugil spp.
Ngaju Dayak balanaka sea fish
Iban belanakgrey mullet: Mugil spp.
Malay belanakgrey mullet: Mugil spp.
Simalur balanaʔa river fish, family Mugilidae
Sundanese balanaka fish that stays in river mouths
Old Javanese balanaka sea fish, the grey mullet
Madurese balanaʔmullet
Mandar balanaʔmullet
Buginese balanaʔmullet
Makasarese balanaʔa sea fish, the mullet

Note:   Different growth stages of the mullet probably were terminologically distinguished in PMP (cf. PMP *qaRuas ‘young growth stage of mullet’). In addition, the adult forms of different species may have been distinguished in PWMP (cf. PMP, PWMP *kanasay ‘mullet’). Tagalog bának is assumed to be a contraction of earlier *bahanak, with rare but recurrent *l > /h/ and accommodation to a disyllabic canonical target (Blust 1976a).

25047

*balaŋ₁ scar

524

PMP     *balaŋ₁ scar

WMP
Mentawai balakscar, cicatrix
CMP
Manggarai balaŋscar, former wound

25048

*balaŋ₂ side, part

525

PCEMP     *balaŋ₂ side, part

CMP
Sika walaŋside, part

526

POC     *balaŋ₄ side, part

OC
Tigak palpart
Nggela palaside, part
Tongan palaside, edge

Note:   Also Kambera mbara ‘direction, side, course’, Hawu bara ‘side, wind direction’, 'Āre'āre paro ‘beyond, on the side’, Mota para ‘sideways, turning aside’, all of which are probably unrelated to the above set and, except for Kambera mbara and Hawu bara, to one another.

25049

*balaŋ₃ spotted, striped, multi-colored

527

PWMP     *balaŋ₃ spotted, striped, multi-colored     [doublet: *baleŋ, *belaŋ]

WMP
Kelabit balaŋtiger
Bolaang Mongondow balaŋspotted, striped, multi-coloured, mottled
Bare'e wayamulti-colored

Note:   With root *-laŋ₂ ‘striped’.

25043

*balaŋa shallow earthenware cooking pot or pan

519

PMP     *balaŋa shallow earthenware cooking pot or pan

WMP
Kapampangan balaŋáʔclay pot, used to cook viands
Tagalog balaŋáʔwide-mouthed earthen cooking pot
Ngaju Dayak balaŋasacred jar
Iban belaŋaʔwide-mouthed earthenware cooking pot
Malay belaŋawide-mouthed cooking pot for cooking vegetables, curries, etc. -- not for boiling rice
Karo Batak belaŋashallow iron pan in which one cooks sugar, fries meat, etc.
Toba Batak balaŋairon pan
Makasarese balaŋaearthen rice pot with small opening
Wolio balaŋaearthen cooking pot

520

POC     *palaŋa potsherd used as a frying pan

OC
Gedaged palaŋpotsherd, used to render fat and to cook oil; frying pan, shallow roaster

Note:   Also Siraya vaŋara ‘mortar’, Paiwan valaŋa ‘mortar’, Buli palaŋa (expected **palaŋ) ‘kind of old pot in which one puts tree roots that are boiled to make a medicine’, Malagasy vilany ‘cooking vessel, pot, pan’ (expected **valany). Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *baŋa, *balaŋa ‘vessel, receptacle’, basing the shorter variant entirely on the comparison of Tagalog baŋáʔ ‘low earthen water jar’ with trisyllables in the other languages examined. A number of the forms in island Southeast Asia may be Malay loans, but this cannot be true of Gedaged palaŋ, which confirms the antiquity of this word. For a useful and more detailed discussion of POc *palaŋa cf. Ross (1996).

25044

*balaŋa(q) inattentive

521

PWMP     *balaŋa(q) inattentive

WMP
Aklanon baeáŋaloss of attention, distraction
Malay belaŋahto gape
Sundanese balaŋahcareless, inattentive

Note:   With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gape, open the mouth wide’. This item may be a convergent innovation.

27124

*balaŋi fish sp.

3594

POC     *balaŋi fish sp.     [disjunct: *mpalai]

OC
Motu baifish sp.
Fijian balaŋia fish: Teuthis sp.
Tongan palaŋifish sp.
Samoan palaŋiname given to certain fishes of the genus Acanthurus (Surgeon fishes) when about one foot long
Rennellese pagaŋikind of surgeonfish, perhaps ring-tail surgeonfish: Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes
Hawaiian palania surgeonfish (Acanthurus dussumieri) famous for a strong odor

25030

*balaq split, divide

503

PWMP     *balaq split, divide

WMP
Isneg baláʔeasy to cleave (said of wood)
Maranao balaʔopponent; oppose
Maloh balaʔcut, split
Malay balahdispute, argue
Minangkabau balahsplit, divide
Bare'e bayashallow indentation or other division of a terrain; groove between the two halves of the back, breasts, buttocks
  balasplit, in pieces

Note:   With root *-laq ‘split’.

25029

*balaqih co-parent-in-law, the relationship between parents of spouses

502

PPh     *balaqih co-parent-in-law, the relationship between parents of spouses

WMP
Kapampangan baláifather of a married child as he stands related to the father of his child's spouse
Tagalog baláea parent of one's son- or daughter-in-law
Bikol baláyiin-laws
Hanunóo baláyithe reciprocal relationship between parents of mates, as the relationship between a man's parents and the parents of his wife
Palawan Batak bálaygrandparent-in-law (sex undifferentiated)
Aklanon baeáyi(h)the relationship of the parents of each wedded couple; co-parents-in-law
Maranao balaʔiin-laws; marriage vows
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belaʔiany relative of one's son-in-law or daughter-in-law
Tiruray belaʔiparent-in-law (probably a Maranao loan)

25033

*balar scratch or wale on the skin

507

PMP     *balar scratch or wale on the skin

WMP
Malay cakar balarscratches and scars all over a body
Sasak balarweal
CMP
Manggarai balarlong (of scratch or scar)
Ngadha balastripe, streak, wale on skin

25032

*balaR pale, unnaturally white

505

PMP     *balaR₁ pale, unnaturally white

WMP
Malay balarunnatural or albino whiteness, esp. in a buffalo
CMP
Hawu warawhite, bleached white

506

POC     *balaR₂ pale, albino

OC
Lau balawhite from scars (face, body)
'Āre'āre para-parawhite, pale
Sa'a palalight in color (coconuts, people, animals); cataract in eye; pale; faded
  pala-palagrey, whitish
Arosi barapale in color (as a yellowish coconut); pale from fear or illness, of men
Maori paraturned yellow, sere, discolored

Note:   Manggarai walak ‘extremely white (cotton)’, Ngadha bhara ‘white, whitish, gray’, Sika bala ‘ivory, elephant tusk’, Kambera bara ‘white’ and Leti warsa ‘white (as a horse)’ exhibit phonetic and semantic similarities to the forms cited here, but cannot be reconciled with them under any known correspondence formula. With root *-laR ‘whitened’.

25046

*bala(R)baR crosswise, athwart

523

PPh     *bala(R)baR crosswise, athwart

WMP
Bontok balábaglie crosswise, as a person lying across the narrow part of a sleeping mat; be in a horizontal position, of something that should be vertical
Kankanaey balabágto lay, etc. askew, obliquely, across, awry
Ifugaw balábaghorizontal position of a wooden stick, a cane, a shelf of canes, a spear including its shaft, etc.
Casiguran Dumagat balagbágbe crosswise, as to carry something sideways on your back, for the wind to be against the side of a boat, or for game to stand sideways to the hunter
Tagalog balagbágcrossbeam; placed or lying crosswise
Bikol balagbágcrosswise
Hanunóo balagbágparallel zigzag lines usually running across, i.e., horizontally, a decorated object
Aklanon baeábagblocking, obstructing, put across, stretching over; thwart, hindrance, obstruction
Cebuano balábaglie across a path; block someone's way, for a fetus to be in a transverse position
Maranao balabaghindrance, encumbrance
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belavagcrosswise; lay something crosswise
Tiruray berawarlay something across something else or between two points

Note:   Although the proposed cognation almost certainly is valid, this comparison is problematic in two respects. First, the Bontok, Kankanaey and Ifugaw reflexes suggest *g, not *R for the final consonant. The Tiruray reflex instead indicates *R, while all other reflexes are ambiguous. Since *R is known to be reflected sporadically as /g/ in some Philippine languages, but *g is not known to be reflected as /r/ I adopt *R in the reconstruction. Second, the Casiguran Dumagat, Tagalog, Bikol, and Hanunóo reflexes point to *balaRbaR, which raises the possibility of an infixed reduplication *b-al-aRbaR, while the Bontok, Kankanaey, Ifugaw, Aklanon, and Cebuano reflexes indicate *balabaR.

25031

*balaRen vine

504

PWMP     *balaRen vine

WMP
Aklanon baeágonvine (generic term)
Cebuano balágunvine; grow like a vine
Mansaka baragunvine
Subanen/Subanun balagonvine
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belaɣenrattan (generic)
Maranao balagenrattan
Proto-Minahasan *balahancucumber
Bare'e wayaacreeper, vine, liana, rope, cord

Note:   Also Tiruray berogon ‘a wild vine: Merremia peltata’, Bare'e balara ‘rope made of strong liana’, Tae' balaan ‘vine that is used as a rope’. If cognate with the Philippine forms both Proto-Minahasan *balahan and Bare'e wayaa show assimilation of the last vowel. This item may be a loanword which has spread into Sulawesi from the north.

25036

*balat kind of banana

510

PWMP     *balat kind of banana

WMP
Bontok bálatbanana plant: Musa sp.
Tanjong balatbanana
Kejaman balatbanana

Note:   Also Bintulu, Melanau (Matu), Nibong, Ukit balak, Lara’ Land Dayak barak, Singhi Land Dayak borak ‘banana’. Since PMP *punti persisted as the generic term for ‘banana’ in PWMP *balat presumably represented a species or variety.

25106

*balát edible marine invertebrate - probably sea cucumber

604

PPh     *balát edible marine invertebrate - probably sea cucumber

WMP
Ilokano balátkind of blackish, edible worm, resembling a leech; it is found in brackish pools along the seashore
Bikol bálatshellfish which breeds along the beaches
Hanunóo balátedible black squid, but not greatly valued as a source of food
Aklanon baeátedible green or black eel found at seashore
Cebuano balátsea cucumber

25045

*bala(n)tik spring back suddenly; spring-set spear trap; the constellation Orion

522

PWMP     *bala(n)tik spring back suddenly; spring-set spear trap; the constellation Orion

WMP
Ilokano balantíkflipping, flicking with the tip of a stick; being hit by a twig that crosses the path in a forest
Hanunóo balátikhorizontal spring spear pig trap, usually equipped with a long, tapering bamboo point
Aklanon baeátikbooby trap, improvised trap, (to catch by surprise)
Cebuano balátiktrap consisting of a trip rope which releases a spear
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belatikbamboo spear trap; the constellation Orion
Tboli belatikspring-spear trap for wild pigs
Kayan belatikto flip; to spring back straight, as a bent sapling suddenly springing straight; a pig trap using a spear propelled by a bent sapling
Iban belatiktrap consisting of a low frame from which a spear is hurled when the trap is sprung
Malay belantékspring-gun, spring-spear, spring-trap
  bintaŋ belantékOrion
Balinese belantiktiger-trap
Sangir balatiʔspring-set spear trap for pigs
Tae' baʔtikflicking movement of the tongue in speaking; resilient rebound of an object that has been bent down (under tension) when it is released

Note:   The meaning ‘Orion’ in Manobo (Western Bukidnon) and Malay may point to a distinct morpheme (cf. Orion ‘the hunter’), but if parallels between different language families are any indication it is likely that all forms cited here belong to a single cognate set. With root *-tik₁ ‘spring up; flicking motion’.

25034

*balatuk kind of ladder

508

PWMP     *balatuk kind of ladder

WMP
Toba Batak balatukladder
Bare'e wayatubamboo or long pole in which the stumps of the branches remain, used as a ladder in climbing trees

Note:   Sangir tem-balatuŋ, Bare'e balatu ‘steps of a ladder’ suggest that this comparison may be a product of chance.

25035

*balatuŋ the mung bean: Phaseolus spp.

509

PPh     *balatuŋ the mung bean: Phaseolus spp.

WMP
Ilokano balátoŋgreen gram, mungo: Phaseolus radiatus
Isneg balátoŋthe green gram or mungo: Phaseolus radiatus
Bontok balátuŋkind of small, black bean: Vigna sp.
Ifugaw balátoŋkind of bush producing small, black beans: Phaseolus radiatus L.
Pangasinan balatóŋmung beans
Kapampangan balátoŋmongo bean
Tagalog balátoŋmung or mongo bean, green gram bean: Phaseolus aureus Roxb.
Bikol balátoŋlong beans
Hanunóo balátuŋmungo bean: Phaseolus aureus Roxb.
Cebuano balátuŋkind of string bean, reaching more than a foot and less than an inch around: Vigna sesquipedialis
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belatuŋmungo bean: Phaseolus aureus
Kadazan bahatuŋbean

Note:   The last syllable vowel in Ilokano, Isneg, Ifugaw, Kapampangan, and Bikol suggests borrowing from Tagalog, where lowering of *u is regular, Kadazan bahatuŋ (expected **vohatuŋ) also appears to be a loan. This item thus may be a Greater Central Philippine innovation which acquired a wider distinction through borrowing. Balinese belatuŋ ‘cactus’, Bare'e wayatu, Makasarese balatuŋ ‘the rambutan tree and fruit: Nephelium sp.’ are assumed to be unrelated.

25107

*baláw negative marker

605

PPh     *baláw negative marker

WMP
Kankanaey baláwcontradict, gainsay
Hanunóo baláwno, not; an emphatic negative similar to bukun, but not so strong, and less frequently used in conversation ... it is common in certain set phrases

25037

*balaw₁ small shrimp sp.

511

PPh     *balaw₁ small shrimp sp.

WMP
Ilokano balaw-bálawfresh-water shrimp or prawn, not much larger than the head of a pin
Bikol baláwsmall shrimp

25038

*balaw₂ a tree, probably Dipterocarpus spp.; resinous substance obtained from this tree

512

PWMP     *balaw₂ a tree, probably Dipterocarpus spp.; resinous substance obtained from this tree

WMP
Ilokano bálawa tree: Dipterocarpus spp.
Cebuano baláwa tree: light species of Dipterocarpus (source of timber and resin); resinous preparation used to caulk and waterproof a boat, obtained from the sap of the Dipterocarpus and Agathis philippinensis
Malay balauname for trees yielding a particular class of timber used in wharf and bridge building: Shorea, Swintonia, and Parinarium spp.
  em-balaugum-lac; shellac; also solder, sealing wax and the material used for fixing the haft of a blade in the handle. Local embalau is a gummy substance deposited by the female Coccus lacca on the twigs of certain trees, but the best embalau is imported and its exact nature is not known

Note:   Melanau (Mukah) balaw, Kayan balau ‘the cultivated sago palm’, Sangir balau ‘tree of the primary forest which has a bluish-gray, nut-like, egg-shaped fruit’ may also be related, though differing in meaning.

25039

*balay public building, community house, guest house

513

PMP     *balay public building, community house, guest house

WMP
Ilokano baláyhouse, dwelling, residence
Tagalog báhayhouse
Bikol baláyhouse, hut
Hanunóo baláyhouse, building; shell of a mollusk
Palawan Batak baláyhouse, dwelling
Cebuano baláyhouse, home
Maranao walayhouse, building, case
Ngaju Dayak balailarge, open building, either entirely without walls or with 2-3 foot high walls. In Pulopetak these are built only when one holds a death feast. Further inland every village has its balai, where games are played, where community gatherings and the discussion of legal matters take place, and where visitors find lodging
Singhi Land Dayak borismall house in farm
Malay balaipublic building, in contrast to a private house
Balinese balea platform, raised on pillars, with a thatched roof and walls on one or two sides; most houses have more than one of these in the complex, and the life of the family is lived on them ... there are bales also in temples and in public places in buildings
Sasak balehouse
Proto-Sangiric *balayhouse
Proto-Minahasan *balehouse
Palauan baivillage meeting-house; guest-house; community house
Itbayaten vaxayhouse, building
CMP
Kayeli balaivillage meeting house

514

POC     *pale canoe shed, storehouse

OC
Mussau alehouse
Tolai palhouse, building
Tanga palsmall house or shed; canoe shed; storehouse for ritual gifts of food
Label palhouse, men's house
Nggela valehouse
Kwaio falehut for childbirth (very taboo for men)
'Āre'āre harehouse of retirement for women during menstruation and after childbirth
Sa'a haleyam shed outside a garden; any shed
Arosi hareshrine, small house on poles
Arosi (Eastern) hareshed for yams
Arosi (Western) harehouse with one side of roof only, made in gardens
Arosi hare-haresheath for knife
Bauro harecanoe house, men's house
  ha-hareshed
Chuukese fáánbuilding, dwelling house, meeting house
Woleaian falmen's house, clubhouse
Sonsorol-Tobi fareboathouse; men's house
Fijian valehouse
Samoan falehouse
Maori wharehouse
Hawaiian halehouse

Note:   For an extended discussion of the meaning of this term, cf. Blust (1987).

25108

*baláyaŋ banana sp.

606

PPh     *baláyaŋ banana sp.

WMP
Ilokano baláyaŋa variety of thick-skinned banana with numerous seeds, Musa sp.
Isneg baláyaŋa variety of thick-skinned, yellow, flattish banana, Musa sapientum L.
Kankanaey baláyaŋa variety of much esteemed, thick-skinned, small yellow banana
Hanunóo baláyaŋa variety of plantain (Musa paradisiaca Linn.) similar to sabʔá except that the fruits are thicker

Note:   Bare'e balaja ‘tree sp. used to make house posts’ presumably is distinct.

25050

*balbal₁ beating stick; to hit, beat (esp. clothes in washing them)

528

PAN     *balbal₁ beating stick; to hit, beat (esp. clothes in washing them)     [doublet: *palpal]

Formosan
Kavalan babbalhit with the fist
WMP
Ifugaw balbálkind of wooden slab with a handle with which women beat the clothes they are washing
Casiguran Dumagat balbálspank, hit with a stick
Aklanon báebaeto whip, beat
Tiruray balbala rigid instrument used to strike something; to strike with a balbal
Karo Batak balbalwooden beating stick with which the flower stalk of the areca palm is beaten so as to promote a flow of liquid from the plant; to beat
Toba Batak balbala club, piece of wood, with which one beats something; knock, beat, hit
Buginese babbaʔwhip
Makasarese baʔbalaʔstick used to beat; whip
CMP
Manggarai babalwhip; to whip
Yamdena babalhit, beat; something with which one hits, beats
Soboyo bababeat (clothes)
Sekar babanhit

25051

*balbal₂ dull-witted, stupid

529

PWMP     *balbal₂ dull-witted, stupid

WMP
Maranao babaldullard, blockhead; stupid
Iban babalignorant, thoughtless, slow-witted, forgetful, absent-minded
Banjarese babalstupid
Minangkabau babaldull-witted

Note:   Given its limited distribution this word may well prove to be a Malay loan in Maranao.However Malay itself has /bebal/, a form which should be borrowed into Maranao with a penultimate shwa. Moreover, neither Banjarese nor Minangkabau (which have merged *e and *a) is a likely source of loans in any Philippine language. For these reasons and because there is independent (and stronger) support for a doublet *belbel the PWMP status of this item is defended.

25055

*bale(m)baŋ butterfly

534

PWMP     *bale(m)baŋ butterfly     [doublet: *baŋbaŋ₂]

WMP
Subanun (Siocon) belembaŋbutterfly
Melanau (Mukah) belebaŋbutterfly

25052

*balej border, boundary

530

PWMP     *balej border, boundary

WMP
Karo Batak baleŋborder, partition
Toba Batak balokfurrow which marks the border between two things; border
Dairi-Pakpak Batak baleŋboundary between two rice fields
Old Javanese walerboundary, limit, end
Sasak baled-anborder, boundary

Note:   Also, Malagasy vala ‘a border, as in a rice ground’.

25056

*baleŋ spotted, streaked

535

PWMP     *baleŋ spotted, streaked     [doublet: *balaŋ, *belaŋ]

WMP
Maranao baleŋscar, pockmark, defect
Tiruray baleŋ-anpockmarked
Melanau (Mukah) baleŋstreaked
Malay balaŋbanded (in coloring)

Note:   Also Melanau (Mukah) pe-baleŋ ‘streaked’.

25053

*bales₁ to answer, retaliate; reciprocate good or evil

531

PAN     *bales₁ to answer, retaliate; reciprocate good or evil

Formosan
Saaroa um-ali-a-valəəto answer
  m-utu-a-valəəto echo
Rukai (Budai) tua-báləto answer
Pazeh ka-baretto borrow
  pa-baretto answer
Saisiyat shu-baəhto revenge
Paiwan valetoppose someone, talk or strike back; do in return; trade places with; return a visit; oppose, take revenge
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) varesavenge, retaliate
WMP
Ilokano bálestake revenge; vengeance; reward, repay; make requital, remuneration
Bontok báləsto revenge; to pay back
Ifugaw balló(h)conveys the idea of vengeance; take revenge on somebody (with unexplained -ll-)
Itawis bálatretaliation, revenge; retaliate
Isneg bálatrevenge, turn (opportunity in an alternating order)
Casiguran Dumagat balésthe custom whereby a Negrito works for a lowland person for a few days, and then the lowland person works for the Negrito for the same number of days
Pangasinan balésretribution, vengeance, price (of action, etc.)
Bikol balóstake revenge on, get even with, retaliate against
  balós-balósreciprocate
  ma-balósthank you
Aklanon báeosrevenge, repayment; pay back (a favor), revenge (a crime), get even
Cebuano bálusdo back to someone what he did to the agent; for something to be done one way and then the opposite way; for a brother and sister to marry people that are also brothers and sisters; avenge; return a favor, repay a moral obligation
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) balesrepay, reward; revenge
Bintulu baləs ɗawsupernatural storm precipitated by mockery of animals (lit. ‘retaliate day’)
Malagasy valythe answer to a question or a letter; a reply; a revenge or recompense
Malay balasrequital, repayment; reply (e.g. to a letter)
Toba Batak balosrepay something to someone, retaliate; answer (a letter)
Nias balərevenge
Lampung balosreturn something
Sundanese balesretribution, retaliation; retaliate, avenge; to answer
Old Javanese walesreturn, reaction, countermove, repayment, retaliation, revenge
Javanese walesretribution, revenge; response; reaction; return
Balinese balesreward, recompense, desserts; to reward, repay, retaliate; respond, reply (to a letter)
Sasak balesanswer; avenge
Buginese waleʔreciprocate, do in return
Makasarese balasaʔwhat is reciprocated; revenge; answer (to a letter or request)
CMP
Komodo balahto answer, repay
Kambera balahuretribution, retaliation; compensation; result
Leti walsarepay, requite, answer
Kisar walherepay, requite, answer
Roma wahal <Manswer
Fordata valatanswer, repay, requite
SHWNG
Buli palasto pay

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak balaeh ‘repayment, retaliation, revenge; take revenge, pay back’ (with unexpl. *-s > /h/), Selaru alas ‘to answer’ (expected **balas), Buli balas ‘answer, take revenge’ (expected **palas). Dempwolff (1934-38:86a) gives *s > /h/ as a rare sporadic change in Ngaju Dayak, but it appears to be found only in this form. As noted elsewhere, there is a pervasive similarity between the glosses of *bales and certain aspects of the glosses of *baliw₂ and *balik. Only rarely does this semantic overlap create serious doubt as to which etymon a form is to be attributed.

25054

*bales₂ to complete, perfect something

532

PMP     *bales₂ to complete, perfect something

WMP
Maranao balestighten; complete an operation
Tiruray balesto finish in detail, to smooth finish, as of wood
CMP
Manggarai balesbetter

533

POC     *palos to perfect, complete something

OC
Motu halo-ato perfect, complete (of work badly done and returned to worker)

25861

*báli join, participate in; accompany

1924

PPh     *báli join, participate in; accompany

WMP
Bontok bálibe included, as a child in a game
Bikol bálijoin, become a member of ; affiliate with, associate with; engage in, partake of, participate in
Proto-Minahasan *baliaccompany, escort, lead

25077

*bali₁ become, happen

564

PWMP     *bali₁ become, happen

WMP
Tiruray waleybecoming
Uma walibecome
  me-walibecome, change
Bare'e walihappen, occur

Note:   Zorc (1971) proposed PPh *baliq ‘may, can, be allowed; happen; become’. However I am unable to find any Philippine language which supports this etymon apart from Bolaang Mongondow baliʔ ‘can, may, happen, become; be born’. The reflexes of *bali in both Uma and Bare'e (neither of which is a Philippine language) can be reconciled with *baliq, but Tiruray waley cannot. We might thus reconstruct PWMP *baliq, but all supporting evidence for such a reconstruction would come from geographically neighboring languages spoken in Sulawasi.

To complicate matters, a number of Philippine languages reflect a similar form with reflexes of final *n or *ŋ: Isneg balín ‘can, may, be able, be possible, allowed, permitted; finished; to end by becoming (something)’, Itawis balín ‘finish, become’, Ilokano balín ‘can, may, be able, allowed, be possible; become; change, alter, convert, transform’, Tagbanwa baliŋ ‘become, happen, succeed, go through’. These forms may be morphologically related to Bolaang Mongondow baliʔ, Tiruray waley, Uma, Bare'e wali, but if so it is unclear how. On the other hand the Tiruray, Uma and Bare'e forms could all reflect *baliw₁ in the sense of ‘change, transform’.

25078

*bali₂ equal, equivalent

565

PWMP     *bali₂ equal, equivalent

WMP
Cebuano bálibe worth it; serves one right; worth, in the amount, quantity, duration of; amount taken in advance from wages
Hanunóo báligood, fitting, suited
Karo Batak baliequal, identical; as, like; repaid, of a debt
Dairi-Pakpak Batak balieasily repaid, of a debt; same, identical

Note:   Conklin (1953) suggests that Hanunóo báli derives from Spanish valer ‘be worth’. The Batak forms, however, raise doubts about this proposal.

25079

*bali₄ lie, deception

566

PMP     *bali₄ lie, deception     [doublet: *baRiq]

WMP
Bontok balíevade, cheat, deceive
Kankanaey balídeceived, cheated, deluded, beguiled, taken in
Ifugaw balídeceit, fraud, lie
Pangasinan bálilie
Kelabit balihlie, deceive
Miri bariʔlie, tell a lie
Lun Dayeh baliha lie
CMP
Ngadha bhalitwist, distort, misrepresent; falsehood; misinform
Paulohi hari-harilie, deceive
  hari-hari-neliar
Buruese fali-kfabricate or make up (a story)

567

PWMP     *ma-bali₂ lying, deceiving, untruthful

WMP
Pangasinan ma-baligiven to lying, untruthful
Lun Dayeh me-balihlying, untruthful

25080

*bali₅ reverse, turn around

568

PMP     *bali₅ reverse, turn around     [disjunct: *balik₂]

WMP
Cebuano bálireversed, backwards; turn something over; for wind to change direction, switch party loyalty; be reversed, wrong side out, backwards
CMP
Ngadha baliturn oneself around
Hawu ɓariturn over in one's sleep
  wariturn, change
Rotinese falireturn, go back
Kambera welireturn, turn back

Note:   To the above we might add Old Javanese bali ‘come back, return, once more’, wali ‘again, once more’, wali, waly-an ‘retribution, compensation’, a-wali wali ‘coming back again and again repeatedly, time and again’, Javanese bali ‘return; remarry’, Madurese a-bali ‘return’. However, the Old Javanese forms are cross-referenced to waluy, and it appears likely that the entire Javanese and Madurese data set derives from *baliw₁, with perhaps some input from *baliw₂ (Old Javanese wali, waly-an ‘retribution, compensation’).

27125

*bali₆ fish sp.

3595

POC     *bali₆ fish sp.

OC
Motu baifish sp.
Arosi barifish sp.
Fijian balifish sp.

Note:   Motu bai may reflect POc *mpalai or *mpalaŋi.

25057

*balian shaman (probably a transvestite or hermaphrodite), shamaness; shamanistic ceremony

536

PWMP     *balian shaman (probably a transvestite or hermaphrodite), shamaness; shamanistic ceremony

WMP
Bikol balyán, balyán-apriestess (Bikol mythology)
Hanunóo balyánshamanism
  balyán-anshaman, medium, shaman doctor
Subanen/Subanun balianmen and women who perform ceremonies in honor of the gods
Maranao walianlegendary witch
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) beylan <Mshaman; to act or perform the office of a shaman
Kadazan bo-bohizanpriestess
Iban belianperform a rite of Shamanistic curing or exorcism (pelian)
Bare'e wuliashamaness, female shaman
Ngaju Dayak balianall ceremonies in which the balian (shamaness and ritual prostitute) plays a role; the shamaness herself
Ma'anyan wadianshaman
Malay belianshaman; sorceror or sorceress; touch with the spirit-world
Old Javanese walen, walyanphysician, healer
Balinese balianshaman, healer (many named varieties)
Proto-Sangiric *balianshaman
Proto-Minahasan *balian(pagan) priest, shaman
Bolaang Mongondow bolianpriest, priestess
Bare'e baliapriest, priestess in shamanistic ceremonies
Uma baliashamanistic ceremony
Wolio baliaspirit medium

Note:   Also Iban pelian ‘generic for majority of rites for the sick performed by manaŋ (shaman)’, Makasarese balieŋ ‘(archaic) officiant at various rituals’. Dempwolff (1934-38) included Malay belian, Ngaju Dayak balian with Malagasy vady ‘partner, husband, wife; companion, associate; a mate, one of a set of two’ under a proposed etymon *bali ‘escort, accompany’. Among his reasons for doing so we can surmise the following: (1) several languages in the Philippines and northern Sulawesi reflect a form having the shape and roughly the meaning he reconstructed; (2) the bulk of vocabulary in Dempwolff (1934-38) is disyllabic, and there is a well-attested PAn suffix *-an. In addition Malay belian, Ngaju Dayak balian were explicitly assumed to have meant something like ‘the one who escorts the soul to the other world’.

Despite a certain a priori plausibility there is reason to believe that Dempwolff's interpretation of this comparison was incorrect.

First, Malagasy vady almost certainly reflects *baliw₂.

Second, despite the predilections of some lexicographers (e.g. Barber 1979, who puts Balinese balian under bali ‘make offerings, sacrifice’), there is little evidence that *balian contains a suffix. Hanunóo balyán-an can perhaps be cited as indirect evidence that a suffix *-an was earlier added to a base *bali, but there is no known corroboration from any other language, and the evidence is too circumstantial to support a sound inference.

Third, *balian evidently referred not only to the shaman(ess) but also to the ceremonies of healing and exorcism which they typically conducted; Dempwolff's attempt to relate the semantics of *bali and *balian are his own, not those of native speakers.

It is noteworthy that *balian has disappeared without trace in all languages spoken by lowland Christianized Filipinos (but in Bikol was preserved in the real world long enough to incorporate the Spanish feminine ending before retreating into the less persecuted world of mythology). In Moslem communities such as the Maranao, Malay, Makasarese, and Wolio it has survived, though occasionally with semantic change motivated by religious attitudes (Maranao).

25059

*balida fish sp.

538

PWMP     *balida fish sp.     [doublet: *balidaq]

WMP
Tagalog baliláhairtail fish: Trichiurus haumela
Cebuano balilawolf herring: Chirocentrus dorab
Bisaya (Limbang) beliloa featherback: Notopterus spp.
Kenyah beliraa featherback: Notopterus spp.
Iban belidaʔmarine fish
Malay belidaa featherback: Notopterus spp., believed by Malays to have once been a cat and to squall like a cat when caught (so not eaten)
Sundanese balidakind of sea and river fish
Sangir ba-walirakind of fish

Note:   The exact referent of this term remains unclear. Although the Kenyah and Malay glosses agree the compiler of the Kenyah dictionary (Galvin (1967)) probably identified the term which he collected through its Malay cognate, with the consequent danger that the Malay gloss was assumed to apply unchanged to the Kenyah form.

25058

*balidaq fish sp.

537

PWMP     *balidaq fish sp.     [doublet: *balida]

WMP
Aklanon baliláʔfish -- quite long, with plenty of spines
Malay belidaha featherback: Notopterus spp., believed by Malays to have been a cat and to squall like a cat when caught (so not eaten)

25060

*baliji grass (type of?)

539

PMP     *baliji kind of grass     [doublet: *balizi]

WMP
Tagalog balílian aquatic grass: Panicum stagninum
Cebuano balíligeneral name for grasses that do not grow tall
Simalur balixi, falixigrass (generic)
Sangir balirikind of grass
Bare'e walirikind of herb
Tae' baririgrass and weeds collected together to burn in firing pots

540

POC     *palisi₁ grass

OC
Proto-Willaumez *varili <Mgrass (Goodenough 1961)
Selau wəsli <Mgrass
Kwaio falisigrassy undergrowth (generic)
'Āre'āre harisigrass, small clover
Ulawa halisigrass; onion (late use) (Ivens 1929)
Mota valistall coarse grass; in recent use grass generally and onions
Central Maewo mbalisigrass
Sonsorol-Tobi fätirI <Mgrass
Puluwat fátilgeneral name for grasses
Chuukese fetingeneral term for a class of plants including grasses, sedges and ferns
Samoan falīkind of grass (?Scirpodendron sp.)

30498

*balik₁ to mix, blend

7727

PCMP     *balik₁ to mix, blend

CMP
Rotinese bali(k)to mix, blend, add something to something else
Yamdena valikmixture of liquid and dry substances
Fordata valikmixture of liquid and dry substances

Note:   Rotinese generally reflects PAn *b as /f/, but shows *b > b word-initially in several other comparisons which are clearly not products of chance, and not likely to be loans, as in *baRaq > ba ‘lungs’, *baqbaq ‘mouth’ > bafa(k) ‘opening, mouth, beak’, *babuy > bafi ‘pig’, *batu > batu ‘stone’, or *bulan > bula(n) ‘moon, month’.

25066

*balik₂ reverse, turn around

546

PMP     *balik₂ reverse, turn around     [doublet: *bali₅]

WMP
Ilokano balíkchange, turn; move to and fro; retract, recant
Kapampangan balíkreturn something; return to somewhere
  ka-balíkopposite, opponent
Tagalog balíkreturn, restoration; return something to someone, restore
  tum-balíkupside-down, wrong end up
Bikol balíkback to front, inside out (of shoes on the wrong feet, gloves on the wrong hands); return; revert
Hanunóo balíkreturn, going back
Cebuano bálikgo, come back, come back to get something; return to a former state; have a relapse; (do) again; revive
Maranao balikrepeat, return
Kadazan balikbackside; turn oneself round, come back
Iban balikturn, turn to look at; turned speech in which syllables are said in reverse order
Ngaju Dayak balikchange (clothes, words), turned around
Malagasy vadikaoverturned; changed; turned upside down
Malay balékreversal, going back; on the contrary; turn back
  ter-balékoverturned, of a ship capsizing, etc.
Acehnese baléʔturned over or around
Karo Batak balikinverted, backwards, in error
Sundanese balikturn around, go back home
Old Javanese balikopposite, contrary; reverse
  walikturn round, reverse
Javanese balikon the contrary; in reverse order; turn this way and that
  walikon the contrary, the other way around, on the opposite side; the other way; around (as a shirt on backwards); go back on one's word, turn traitor
Balinese balikbe wrong way round, be reversed, (come) from the opposite side
Sasak balikturn around; resist; capsized (of a boat)
Proto-Sangiric *balikreturn, go back
Banggai balikfade, of colors
Uma baliʔenemy; future part; repayment, retribution
Tae' baliʔfade, of colors
  balikturn around; change, alter
Mandar baliʔreturn; change into; go home
Buginese baliʔfade, of colors
Makasarese baliʔturn oneself around
CMP
Bimanese warireversal, going back
Manggarai balikrepay, take revenge
  walékchange, turn around
Rembong balikgo home, turn round
Ngadha baliturn oneself around
  valiagain, further, besides, moreover
Hawu ɓariturn over in one's sleep
  wariturn, change
  wàriagain
Rotinese falireturn, go back
Kambera welireturn, turn back
Atoni fanigo home
Tetun faliagain, another time; go back, return; to vomit
Lamaholot balikreturn
Erai halikback, go back, return; again
Leti waliturn oneself, go back; back again, once again
Yamdena balikturn around or about
Selaru balikinvert, turn upside down
Kei wālturn around, rotate
Paulohi hariturn over
Proto-Ambon *valiturn around

Note:   This important comparison is richly attested in both WMP and in CMP languages. Its basic literal sense appears to have been ‘to reverse, turn around’, from which such derivative senses as ‘to return home (when on a journey)’, ‘to fade, of colors’ and ‘to repeat, (do, etc.) again’ are obtained. In various languages portions of the gloss for this item overlap with the glosses posited for *baliw₁ (Ilokano balík, Maranao balik, Ngaju Dayak balik, Malagasy vadika, Tae' balik, Mandar baliʔ, Balinese balik, Uma baliʔ) or *bales (Uma baliʔ, Manggarai balik). Given their general phonetic similarity and semantic overlap, doubts may occasionally arise as to which reconstruction an attested form reflects (e.g. Hawu wari ‘turn, change’ could reflect *balik or *baliw₂).

25061

*balikat scapula, shoulder blade

541

PWMP     *balikat scapula, shoulder blade

WMP
Tagalog balíkatshoulder
Ngaju Dayak balikatthe side of a thing; on the side, next to
Malay belikatscapula, shoulder-blade
Sundanese walikatshoulder blade
Old Javanese walikatshoulder blade
Madurese balikatshoulder blade
Makasarese (Salayar) balikashoulder

Note:   The rarity of reflexes outside the Java-Malaya area and areas that have been strongly affected by both Malay and Javanese (as the Ngaju Dayak region in Southeast Borneo) suggests that this item may be a western Indonesian innovation that has spread to Tagalog and Salayarese by borrowing.

25101

*balíkes encircle, wrap around

599

PPh     *balíkes encircle, wrap around

WMP
Kankanaey balíkesone of the most ordinary kinds of woven belts, yellow and red
Ifugaw balíkohwoman's belt
Cebuano balíkuscoil, put around something else (as a python seizing a pig)

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.

25062

*baliketád reverse, turn around

542

PPh     *baliketád reverse, turn around

WMP
Bontok baliktádturn inside out, as clothes; turn over, turn upside down
Casiguran Dumagat balikatár-anreversible (as of a jacket that can be worn inside-out)
Bikol baliktádinverted, overturned, upside down; the opposite, reverse
Bolaang Mongondow balikotadroll over, turn

Note:   Also Kapampangan baligtád ‘backwards’, baligtar-ín ‘reversible cloth, political turncoat’, Tagalog baligtád ‘inside-out, upside-down’, Cebuano baligtád ‘wrong side out, up; contrary to what is expected’. Conklin (1956) gives Tagalog baliktád, and notes that in addition to its usual dictionary glosses it refers to a type of "Pig Latin" based on systematic phonological distortion intended to conceal the content of messages. In this connection it is noteworthy that Richards (1981) gives a similar extended meaning for Iban balik.

Prepenultimate *a normally becomes Bolaang Mongondow /o/ (through earlier shwa) and the absence of such a change in the present case suggests that balikotad is still treated by Bolaang Mongondow speakers as bimorphemic. In addition to balikotad Dunnebier (1951) lists kotad ‘roll over, turn’, thus raising the possibility that *baliketad contains a variant of the *qali-, *kali- prefix. At the same time a derivation from *balik plus some still unidentified morpheme *etad seems equally plausible.

25063

*balikid reverse, turn over or around

543

PPh     *balikid reverse, turn over or around

WMP
Ilokano balíkidreverse; turn over
Isneg balíkidturned over, reversed
Kankanaey balíkidcome to life again, be resuscitated, rise from the dead
Cebuano balikídturn around, look back
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belikidturn over; inside out

Note:   Also Cebuano balilikid ‘turn around, look back’.

25102

*balíkis tie around; belt

600

PPh     *balíkis tie around; belt

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) balíkisrelatively narrow imported belt of leather
Cebuano balíkiscoil, put around something else (as a python coiling round a pig)

Note:   With root *-kis₂ ‘tie, band’.

25064

*balikutkút bend, curl up

544

PPh     *balikutkút bend, curl up

WMP
Ilokano balikutkútbend, incline the body, stoop
Cebuano balikutkútbunch, fold, curl up in an irregular way; cause something to do so

Note:   With root *-kut ‘hunched over, bent’.

25068

*baliliŋ turn, revolve

548

PWMP     *baliliŋ turn, revolve

WMP
Tagalog balilíŋphysiologically twisted (of the neck)
Kayan beliliŋround, circular (as a coin)
Madurese baliliŋfall with a spiraling motion
Bare'e walilicircle, circuit
Mandar baliliturn oneself around when lying or sleeping; rotate
Wolio baliliturn around, turn over, roll over

Note:   Also Sa'a palili ‘turn aside’, Arosi bariri ‘turn aside, push aside’. With root *-liŋ₃ ‘turn, revolve’.

25067

*balilit species of edible snail

547

PPh     *balilit species of edible snail

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat balilítspecies of edible marine triton shell, genus Cymatium
Hanunóo balílittiny edible fresh-water snail with a smooth, spiraled black shell

25069

*balin-tuaj somersault

549

PWMP     *balin-tuaj somersault (cf. *tuaj)

WMP
Ilokano balintuágturn a somersault, tumble, revolve, rotate; turn upside down
Bontok balintuwágfall on one's head; tumble end over end
Tagalog balintuwádbottom-up, upside down
Cebuano balintúwadfall headlong on the face; pick someone up by the feet and hold him upside down
Maranao balintoadsomersault
Tae' balittuaʔturn upside down; head over heels, tumble over

Note:   This word appears to contain a variant of the *qali-, *kali- prefix.

25083

*baliŋ₁ misunderstand, fail to grasp

571

PWMP     *baliŋ₁ misunderstand, fail to grasp

WMP
Old Javanese waliŋmistaken belief, thinking (wrongly)
  w-in-aliŋto think (wrongly)
Bolaang Mongondow baliŋtemporarily forgotten or misunderstood

25084

*baliŋ₂ bent, twisted

572

PWMP     *baliŋ₂ bent, twisted

WMP
Tagalog báliŋturn or inclination of the head
Maranao baliŋtooth turned inward
Malay baliŋrevolution; circling round a central point
Karo Batak baliŋbamboo scarecrow that turns like a windmill
Toba Batak baliŋbent, warped; iron implement with which the teeth of a saw are bent (?)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak baliŋbent, as a board

573

PWMP     *baliŋ baliŋ spiral or circle round

WMP
Aklanon baliŋ-baliŋunsteady, aimless (said of a flying object without aim)
Malay baliŋ-baliŋwhirligig; missile hurled by being swung round the head, e.g. a stone attached to a string; bull-roarer
Karo Batak baliŋ baliŋbamboo scarecrow that turns like a windmill
Toba Batak baliŋ-baliŋbamboo scarecrow that turns like a windmill
Simalur baliŋ-baliŋchild's toy windmill
Tae' baliŋ-baliŋspiral around while falling

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) also included Ngaju Dayak baliŋ ‘bundle’ (= ‘what is made by winding around’). On similar grounds we might include Subanen/Subanun baliŋ ‘cloth girdle or belt’. With root *-liŋ₃ ‘turn, revolve’.

25081

*baliŋbiŋ a tree and its edible fruit, the starfruit: Averrhoa bilimbi, Averrhoa carambola

569

PWMP     *baliŋbiŋ a tree and its edible fruit, the starfruit: Averrhoa bilimbi, Averrhoa carambola

WMP
Tagalog balimbíŋa small tree whose edible fleshy fruit has five longitudinal angular lobes: Averrhoa carambola Linn.
Bikol baliŋbíŋstarfruit: Averrhoa carambola
Cebuano baliŋbíŋa small cultivated tree with oblong fruit having longitudinal angular lobes: Averrhoa carambola
Iban belimbiŋfive-ridged fruit: Averrhoa bilimbi L. and Averrhoa carambola L.
Malay belimbiŋridged longitudinally
  buah belimbiŋfruit from the tree Averrhoa bilimbi
Toba Batak baliŋbiŋa sour fruit; kind of tamarind
Sundanese caliŋciŋkind of tree with sour fruit
Madurese baliŋbiŋa tree and its edible fruit: Averrhoa bilimbi
Balinese beliŋbiŋspecies of fruit which grows on trees
Sangir balimbiŋa tree and its edible fruit: Averrhoa carambola

Note:   Also Bikol balimbíŋ ‘starfruit: Averrhoa carambola’, Cebuano balimbíŋ ‘a small cultivated tree with oblong fruit having longitudinal angular lobes: Averrhoa carambola’. Merrill (1954) notes that although this plant is indigenous to tropical Asia it is widely cultivated. As a result part of the distribution of *baliŋbiŋ reflexes may be due to borrowing. I assume this to be the case with Sika balimbeŋ ‘shrub with edible fruit’ (expected **welimbiŋ). As observed in Blust (1970), the heterorganic cluster in this reconstruction suggests that it can be analyzed into a reduplicated monosyllable infixed with *-al-.

25070

*baliq fracture, break

550

PMP     *baliq fracture, break

WMP
Tagalog báliʔfracture, break along the length; fractured, broken
Aklanon báliʔget broken in two, get fractured (as an arm)
  balíbroken, fractured
CMP
Hawu ɓaribroken, in pieces

25071

*balisúsu a bird: the kingfisher

551

PPh     *balisúsu a bird: the kingfisher

WMP
Kankanaey balisósokingfisher
Hanunóo balisúsumedium-sized red-billed kingfisher

25082

*bali(n)taŋ piece of wood used for a purpose; lie athwart, as a beam

570

PWMP     *bali(n)taŋ piece of wood used for a purpose; lie athwart, as a beam

WMP
Ilokano balítaŋbamboo seat
Isneg balitāŋframework in the shape of a hammock used for transporting tobacco leaves
Bikol balítaŋa tripod consisting of three stakes driven into the ground and serving as a holder for a pot (used for cooking when in the fields, on the trail, etc.)
Cebuano balitáŋwhippletree of a plow; wood used in stripping abaca, fishing with a net that is pulled, etc.; piece of bone, vein or tendon supposed to lie across the vagina which obstructs the easy birth of a child
Malay belintaŋsplit bamboo rails for a fence; laying across; cutting off, cutting communications
Toba Batak balintaŋcrossbeam of a fence

25104

*balítiq a tree: the banyan or strangler fig

602

PPh     *balítiq a tree: the banyan or strangler fig

WMP
Itbayaten valitiplant sp. (Moraceae, Ficus stipulosa Miq.)
Ilokano balítiFicus sp. Moraceous trees whose timber is used for building: F. indica L., F. stipulosa Miq., F. benjamina L., F. concinna Miq., etc.
Isneg balísiFicus indica L. and similar species of Moraceous trees
Kapampangan balítiʔsp. of tree, said to be a favored place of spirits
Tagalog balítiʔtype of fig tree
Bikol balítiʔbanyan (plays a prominent part in legends and mythology, calling forth associations of the dark and evil)
Aklanon baléteʔbalete tree: Ficus benjamina L.
Maranao balintiʔbanyan tree: Schefflera insularum Seem. Harms
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) belitiʔa balete tree: the strangler fig

Note:   Also Hanunóo balíti ‘a tree (Ficus benjamina Linn.), really a vine, which strangles and eventually replaces its tree host’.

25072

*baliuŋ adze, axe

552

PWMP     *baliuŋ adze, axe

WMP
Ngaju Dayak balioŋnative axe
Iban belioŋadze
Malay beliuŋadze, small hatchet
Toba Batak baliuŋadze
Mentawai baliokaxe; chop with an axe
Sundanese baliuŋnative axe or adze
Proto-Sangiric *baliuŋaxe
Bolaang Mongondow boliuŋaxe
Bare'e baliuadze (an imported tool)
Buginese baliuŋadze

Note:   Although this item is described as a ‘native’ axe or adze in the sources for Ngaju Dayak and Sundanese, part of the distribution of *baliuŋ reflexes may be a product of borrowing. Tetun baliuk, baliun ‘axe’ probably is a Malay loan.

25074

*baliw₁ dual division, moiety

554

PMP     *baliw₁ dual division, moiety == cluster (a) answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy

WMP
Ilokano báliwopposite bank, shore
Ifugaw báliwact of turning oneself when walking, etc. and continue (walking, etc.) in the opposite direction; produce an action which will have an effect which is the contrary of what somebody else tries to produce (e.g. to defend the life of somebody who is attacked); opposite part (e.g. the lowlands are the balíw-on of the mountain area and vice versa
Bikol balyógo across, go over to the other side
Malagasy vadypartner, husband, wife; a companion, an associate; a mate, one of a set of two (thus the saucer is the vady of a cup)
  vadylahya friend
Mentawai baliwbrother, sister
Gorontalo baliopponent, adversary (as in a cockfight)
Bolaang Mongondow baluy <Moppose, answer back or contradict the village head
Bare'e balireverse side, opposite part
  sam-balione side
  si-balimerged or fused with
Tae' balicompanion, mate; partner, whenever two parties oppose each other, as in a cockfight; opponent; answer, oppose resist
  to pa-bali-anassistant, helper; the slave who stands at the side of the to mebalun (funeral director) at the performance of the death ritual
  saŋ-balione side, either member of body parts that come in pairs
  si-balibecome a pair, marry
Proto-South Sulawesi *bali₁side (friend, partner)
  *bali₁ + istand beside, help
  *bali₂enemy (oppose)
  *bali₃answer (contradict, answer back)
Wolio baliside, direction, opponent, enemy; counting-word for things occurring in pairs (e.g. parts of the body); face, be opposite to

555

PCEMP     *bali₈ dual division, moiety

CMP
Manggarai balifriend; enemy; divided in halves; foreign, alien
Rotinese falihelp, stand beside
Leti waliside, half; partner, companion; opponent like
  loke wali-liopposite side of the river
Yamdena bali-nside, opposite side; half, one of a pair
  ŋriye bali-nenemy, opponent; opposed party
Kei wali-nside, opposite side
Paulohi halu (< *baluy)answer
Soboyo fali-hayaplacenta
  fali-tuhafriend, companion

556

POC     *bali₇ answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy

OC
Nggela mbalibring together, of opposite planks of a canoe
Kwaio balipart, side
Lau balipart, side, portion, half; disunited, on the other side; each side in a game; two-edged, two-sided
  bali ʔana geni, bali ʔana wanebride's people, bridegroom's people
Mota ta-val-abeyond, the other side of
  ta-val-a imwathe other side of the house; members of the other veve, with whom alone marriage is allowed
  ta-val-iua side or part, where there are two, the one or the other
Lonwolwol walithe one (or other) of (a pair); the mate of
Mokilese uh-palside with
Puluwat páliy, peliyside, as in a game or war; half-section
Woleaian paliyside, flank
  paliy-etamoutrigger side, windward side of a canoe
Tahitian pariside
Tuamotuan pari-aa half

557

PMP     *baliw₄ cluster (b) == repay, return in kind; retaliate, take revenge (hence: to equalize a loss or debt)

WMP
Ilokano balíw-anset right, correct, mend
Ngaju Dayak baliblood money for a murder
Acehnese baluy <Mtake revenge; restore or replace after a loss
Karo Batak balialike, equal, settled (of a debt)
Tae' balirepay, retaliate
CMP
Manggarai walireturn in kind (gifts, etc.)
Rembong walirepay, reply
Li'o valirestore, equalize a loss, win back what was lost in a game
Lamaholot baliw-anmake war, take revenge
Paulohi haluanswer
OC
Tolai bălirepay, replace, compensate, refund; punish, revenge, settle

558

PMP     *baliw₃ cluster (c) == don mourning apparel; mourn for a deceased spouse

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) bāluthat which a man or woman wears to indicate that his or her spouse has died; to put on clothing to indicate that one's spouse has died
Pangasinan baliw-anblack clothing worn by a person in mourning; to wear such clothing
Timugon Murut maluy <Mchange into white mourning clothes on the death of one's spouse
CMP
Fordata bali-nveil oneself, as a woman does when her husband is dead
  na-bali-n nitumourn for the dead, be in mourning
OC
Lakalai valito mourn
Mota valto refrain from certain food as a sign of mourning

Note:   This is among the most complex comparisons known in Austronesian. For convenience in perceiving semantic groupings the reflexes have been segregated into three clusters, but all are believed to continue the same etymon. The lexicographical issue at stake is how the linguist can distinguish homophony from polysemy in a principled way in cases such as this. On the one hand we could posit homophones (1) *baliw ‘answer, oppose; opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy’; (2) *baliw ‘repay, return in kind; retaliate, take revenge (hence: to equalize a loss or debt)’; and (3) *baliw ‘don mourning apparel; mourn for a deceased spouse’.

However, there are multiple problems with this analysis. First, *-iw occurs in only three of the over 2,200 reconstructions in Dempwolff (1934-38) (*baliw ‘change’, *baRiw ‘spoiled, tainted’, *laRiw ‘flee’), and it would therefore be unexpected to find this rare diphthong in three additional morphemes all of which are homophonous with *baliw ‘change’. Second, suffixed forms reflecting *baliw-an occur in at least the semantic clusters (b) and (c). Third, and most critically, all three semantic clusters are related by a pervasive notion of duality, and are fully consistent with descriptions of the psychology of dual divisions in the ethnological literature (see Blust 1980a, Blust 1981b for further discussion).

On the other hand, we could unite at least the material cited here, as indeed we have done. Dempwolff did not consider this material, but as noted already he split *baliw₂ into two separate etyma. Later writers, as Mills (1975) have made similar decisions (in favor of homophony rather than polysemy) for some of the material cited under *baliw₁ (a). There can now be little question that all of the forms gathered under *baliw₁ reflect a single etymon. It is, moreover, likely that *baliw₁ and *baliw₂ were the same morpheme. However, the rather distinct character of the glosses associated with reflexes of *baliw₂, particularly those relating to punitive storms (Blust 1981), is difficult to reconcile with a hypothesis of a unitary PMP etymon *baliw. Formally most Oceanic cognates appear to reflect the nasal grade of *b, but a few languages (Lakalai, Mota, Lonwolwol) evidently reflect the oral grade. I am indebted to Ann Chowning and Ross Clark (p.c.) for useful comments and data relating to this comparison. As Clark points out, Mota val may not belong with the other forms cited here.

25075

*baliw₂ return

559

PAN     *baliw₂ return

Formosan
Proto-Rukai *mo-a-baLiwreturn home

560

PMP     *baliw₅ change, exchange; repeat, return; again

WMP
Ilokano ag-báliwchange, vary, alter, fade, be inconstant, fickle, unstable
Bontok nin-báliwchange, as one's habits or appearance
Tagalog balíwcrazy, demented
Hanunóo báliwtransformation, metamorphosis
  b-in-áliwpetrified, fossilized
Aklanon balíwbewitched
Cebuano báliwdivine punishment, usually for incest, consisting of being struck by lightning and turned into stone; crazy
Maranao baloy <Mmake into, convert, mutate, enchantment by evil spirit
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) baluy <Mturn into or be changed into something, as magic; in the terminology of marriage arrangements, to accomplish or to complete a successful negotiation
Kelabit baliwpunitive storm provoked by incest or mockery of animals in which the offender and his co-villagers are struck by lightning and turned to stone
Berawan (Long Terawan) baluythe friends or relatives of a slain man who take revenge on his slayer -- these are the baluy of the slayer
Melanau (Mukah) buen baliwpunitive storm
Kayan baluy <Maltered, changed; to repent
Ngaju Dayak baloy <Mrepeat; talkative; restore
Malagasy valu, valuz-ichange, repent
Iban balichanging
  ukoy balichameleon
  manaŋ balimedicine man who dresses as a woman
Old Javanese bali, walicome back, return; once more
Sangir baliwevil spirit that sometimes possesses persons
  baluychange something
Tondano waloi-en <Mchange! (imperative)
Bolaang Mongondow baliwexchange, replace, renew, transform
Bare'e balirepetition; different, changed
Wolio balichange, lose color, discolor, fade
CMP
Bimanese waliagain, once more
Ngadha bhalé *i > é unexpl.change, exchange, alter
Hawu ɓare, ɓarichange, repent, change one's mind
Kei wālchange into
Buruese balichange, form, become; be transformed, as by magic
Leti waliagain, once more
Yamdena balchange oneself into

561

PPh     *baliw-an change, exchange; repeat, return; again

WMP
Ilokano balíw-anrepeat, reiterate, do, etc. again
Bontok balíw-anchange, as one's habits or appearance
Maranao baliw-aninstead of, substitute
Tiruray baliw-ana replacement; to replace

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *baliw ‘change’, *baluy ‘return, come again’. The fuller comparison given here suggests that the supporting evidence cited by Dempwolff belongs to a single cognate set in which the rare diphthong *-iw was occasionally altered by metathesis. Next to its more general meaning it is clear that by PWMP times *baliw referred to a supernatural punitive storm precipitated by incest or mockery of animals (see Blust 1981 for a fuller discussion). Although a belief in such punitive storms is also found among speakers of CMP and OC languages, as the Ngadha of Flores and the Suau of southeast New Guinea, it is unclear whether a reflex of *baliw is used to designate them, and hence whether the meaning of PMP *baliw included this referent.

25073

*baliwis wild duck

553

PWMP     *baliwis wild duck     [disjunct: *bariwis]

WMP
Tagalog baliwískind of wild duck
Sundanese waliwiskind of wild duck
Old Javanese waliwiskind of duck (Anas casarca)

25076

*balizi kind of grass

562

PMP     *balizi kind of grass     [doublet: *baliji]

WMP
Tagalog balílian aquatic grass: Panicum stagninum
Cebuano balíligeneral name for grasses that do not grow tall
Sangir balirikind of grass
Bare'e walirikind of herb
Tae' baririgrass and weeds collected together to burn in firing pots

563

POC     *palisi₂ grass

OC
Pak penitgrass
Nauna pelicgrass
Proto-Willaumez *varili <Mgrass (Goodenough 1961)
Selau wəsli <Mgrass
Kwaio falisigrassy undergrowth (generic)
'Āre'āre harisigrass, small clover
Ulawa halisigrass; onion (late use) (Ivens 1929)
Mota valistall coarse grass; in recent use grass generally and onions
Central Maewo mbalisigrass
Sonsorol-Tobi fätirI <Mgrass
Puluwat fátilgeneral name for grasses
Chuukese fetingeneral term for a class of plants including grasses, sedges and ferns
Samoan falīkind of grass (?Scirpodendron sp.)

Note:   Reconstructed as *bali[jzZ]i ‘grass’ in Blust (1970). With regard to the last consonant Simalur balixi, falixi unambiguously indicates *j, but Pak penit, Nauna pelic point to POc *ns, PMP *z, all other known reflexes being indeterminate. Although this item can be securely reconstructed, the supporting cognate set is problematic in this and in certain other respects. First, northern Philippine forms such Kankanaey balíli ‘a rush: Juncus effusus L.’ and Ifugaw balíli ‘kind of tough grass with long leaves’ are either similar to the above forms by chance, or exhibit an unparalleled development of *j, and *z. It is thus possible that all Philippine forms reflect an etymon *balili which is distinct from *baliji or *balizi.

Second, the two intervocalic consonants in POc *palisi appear to have metathesized independently in at least three Oceanic languages: Proto-Willaumez, Selau (and perhaps other languages of Buka and Bougainville), and Proto-Micronesian. In at least the latter case the metathesis in this item evidently is part of a more general change (cp. POc *paluja > Proto-Micronesian *fasula ‘to paddle’).

Nonetheless the possibility remains that POc had doublets *palisi and *pasili which show a complementary pattern of retention. Finally, it is unclear whether PMP *baliji, *balizi referred to a particular type of grass, or whether it functioned as a generic term. If the latter was the case this reconstruction runs counter to the claim of Brown (1984) that the generic category ‘tree’ is always lexically encoded before the generic category ‘grass’.

25100

*balñaw rinse, rinse off

598

PPh     *balñaw rinse, rinse off

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat balnáwrinse off in fresh water (after having been in the ocean, to get the salt off one's body); rinse soap out of clothes, or off dishes
Tagalog banláw <Mfirst rinsing
Bikol balnáwto rinse, rinse off (as soap, dirt)
Aklanon bánlaw <Mrinse out (with water after soaping)
Cebuano banláw <Mrinse, clean with water

Note:   With root *-ñaw ‘wash, bathe, rinse’. Kapampangan banláw ‘wash, rinse’ (Bergaño 1860) is assumed to be a loan from Tagalog.

25096

*balu₁ a plant yielding useful fibers: Thespesia populnea

590

PMP     *balu₁ a plant yielding useful fibers: Thespesia populnea

WMP
Itbayaten valuplant sp.: Thespesia populnea Soland.
Malagasy váloplant whose bark affords a useful fiber: Dombeya sp.
Simalur falutree sp.

591

POC     *(bp)alu tree sp.

OC
Nggela valutree sp.
Arosi harutree sp.
Lonwolwol balhibiscus

Note:   Also Rembong baru tasik ‘a tree: Thespesia populnea’, Buruese balu ‘wild cane in streams’, Melanau (Mukah) bal-bal ‘kind of tree’. According to Merrill (1954) the Thespesia populnea is a close relative of the Hibiscus tiliaceus (*baRu), and like the latter its bark yields a useful fiber. Both of these plants and the Gnetum gnemon (*baguh) share similar useful properties and a similar phonemic shape. Where a specific identification is not given in the source the reflexes of *balu and *baRu or of *baguh and *baRu (but never of all three) may be confused in languages that merge *l and *R or *g and *R respectively.

25097

*balu₂ rice pestle

592

PMP     *balu₂ rice pestle     [doublet: *qaSelu]

WMP
Sangir balurice pestle
CMP
Kamarian harurice pestle

Note:   Also Sangir ba-walu ‘rice pestle’.

25098

*balu₃ some, some more

593

PMP     *balu₃ some, some more

WMP
Chamorro palusome, some more

594

POC     *palu₆ some, some more

OC
Manam aluanother, others; some
Nggela mbalu (NG)any, some, other; another
'Āre'āre harua few, some, several
Sa'a halusome
Arosi harusome, certain
Mota valuevery
Mele-Fila farumore, some

25099

*balu₄ widow(er)

596

PMP     *balu₄ widow(er)

WMP
Tagalog bálowidow(er)
Bikol balówidow(er)
Maranao balowidow(er)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) baluwidow(er)
Melanau (Mukah) balewwidow(er)
Kayan (de)baloʔwidow
Malay baluwidowed, i.e. left desolate by death. Cf. janda (widow or divorcée), a commoner word
Bare'e baluwidow(er) who is still in mourning
Makasarese baluwidow(er)
CMP
Manggarai baluold maid
Ngadha valuwidow(er)
Rotinese faluorphan; widow(er)
Tetun falu-kwidowed, deprived
Leti paluspinster, widow(er)
Dobel fal-búwidow
Paulohi haruwidow(er)
Buruese faluwidow

597

PWMP     *balu balu widow(er)

WMP
Simalur fa-faluwidow, spinster
Old Javanese walu-waluwidow
Wolio balu-baluwidow(er)

Note:   Also Fordata waru, Kei wār ‘widow(er)’. Three semantic distinctions are observed in comparing the glosses for these forms: (1) some languages appear to apply the reflex of *balu only to females, while others apply it to both sexes, 2) Malay recognizes a distinction between one widowed by death and one widowed by divorce or separation, 3) Bare'e recognizes a distinction between a widow(er) in mourning and one who has completed mourning. No evidence is known which would support the reconstruction of any of these distinctions in association with *balu.

25085

*baluk₁ kind of sailing boat

574

PMP     *baluk₁ kind of sailing boat

WMP
Old Javanese balukkind of sailing boat?
CMP
Rotinese balukone-or two-masted boat without outriggers

Note:   Fox, J. (1993) gives Rotinese balo(balu) ‘boat, ship. Ritual language usage’. Rotinese commonly reflects *b as /f/, but shows *b > /b/ in such likely native forms as *baRu > bau ‘Hibiscus tiliaceus’ and *batu > batu ‘stone’. This item may be a Javanese loan, but if so it is puzzling that a similar loan is not found in other languages in the Lesser Sundas.

25086

*baluk₂ to sell

575

PMP     *baluk₂ to sell

WMP
Sundanese baluka woman who goes around the village selling sirih (for the betel chew), tobacco, etc.
  ŋa-balukcarry on the business of a baluk
Proto-Sangiric *balukto sell
Banggai baluk-onsold
Uma baluʔmerchandise
Makasarese baluʔto sell
  baluʔ-baluʔmerchandise
CMP
Manggarai baluktrade, sell, exchange
Rembong baluktrade, sell, exchange

Note:   Also Tboli he-baluʔ ‘to sell, as at a market’, Leti olu ‘sell’.

25087

*balulaŋ thick or hard skin, buffalo hide, leather; callus

576

PWMP     *balulaŋ thick or hard skin, buffalo hide, leather; callus

WMP
Ngaju Dayak balulaŋthick hide (as that of a buffalo); callus (as on the hands)
Malay belulaŋpelt; hide; hard skin; sun-dried untanned leather; callosity; corn; hard skin on bullock's neck; (Brunei, Sarawak) skin, leather
Simalur balulaŋcorn, callus
Old Javanese walulaŋleather, hide
Proto-Minahasan *balulaŋskin, hide (scar of wound; callus; thick hide of various animals)
Bolaang Mongondow bolulaŋantelope skin armor
Bare'e bayuyasubcutaneous fat of pigs
Tae' balulaŋskin of men and animals; shield
Proto-South Sulawesi *balulaŋthick hide (as of buffalo); callus (as on the hands)
Wolio balulahorny skin, leather, tendon

Note:   Based on proposed cognates in Tagalog, Javanese, Malay, Ngaju Dayak and Malagasy, Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *balulaŋ ‘thick hide’. His inclusion of Tagalog balúlaŋ ‘Verstärkungsstrick’ and Malagasy valolana ‘bedstead with an embroidered canopy’ can, however, be questioned on semantic grounds. Panganiban (1966) gives only Tagalog balúlaŋ ‘portable chicken coop made of bamboo splints or palm leaves’, a form which appears clearly related to Isneg balúlaŋ ‘very large basket with a round rim and a square foot, for transporting rice in the husk and other products’ and related items in other Philippine languages (Ilokano, Hanunóo). Despite this weakening of Dempwolff's evidence the PWMP provenance of *balulaŋ seems assured by the agreement of Malay and especially Old Javanese reflexes with widespread forms in Sulawesi.

25103

*balúlaŋ large open-work basket

601

PPh     *balúlaŋ large open-work basket

WMP
Isneg balúlaŋvery large basket with a round rim and a square foot, for transporting rice in the husk and other products
Ilokano balúlaŋlarge, open-worked basket with a flat, square, footless bottom and a round rim; it has no cover, and is used for holding tobacco leaves, fodder, etc.
Itawis balúlaŋcorn basket
Pangasinan balólaŋbasket for chickens to nest in
Tagalog balúlaŋportable chicken coop made of bamboo splints or palm leaves
Hanunóo balúlaŋlarge checker-woven carrying basket hastily made, usually from fresh buri (palm) leaves, for temporary storage or packing

25090

*balun₁ mix

581

PEMP     *balun₁ mix     [disjunct: *balut]

SHWNG
Numfor barenstir into food

582

POC     *balun₄ mix

OC
Tongan palumix and knead in water with the hands
Samoan palumix (with the hands)

25091

*balun₂ provisions for a journey

583

PWMP     *balun₂ provisions for a journey

WMP
Isneg bálonprovisions of uncooked rice (when going on a journey)
Yogad bálunprovisions
Bontok bálunfood taken from the village to be used as a lunch
Casiguran Dumagat bilónrations; food carried along on a trip to be eaten later
Ilokano bálonprovisions; a stock or store of needed materials when going on a journey
Tagalog báonsupply of provisions in victuals or money, away from home
Hanunóo bálunprovisions and necessary articles, including betel, food, trade items, small coinage, etc. which are taken with a person when going away for a period of time
Cebuano bálunfood, money to take along on a trip
Kenyah balunexpenses; provisions on a journey
Mentawai balutprovisions, supplies, food
Sangir baluŋprovisions for a journey
Proto-Minahasan *balunprovisions for a journey
Bolaang Mongondow balunprovisions for a journey; bundle of sago, kind of carrying basket filled with sago

Note:   Also Maranao balotoʔ ‘lunch away from home, provision for journey’, Lun Dayeh baluʔ ‘provisions’.

25088

*balunuq a tree: Mangifera sp.

577

PWMP     *balunuq a tree: Mangifera sp.

WMP
Maranao balonoʔtree with fruit like a mango: Mangifera jack
Malay belunoha fruit: Mangifera sp. (Brunei, Sarawak)
Sangir balunuʔkind of mango tree and its fruit, which has a strong, pleasant odor

Note:   Also Paiwan valuniq ‘fruit of Ficus wightiana’.

25089

*baluN bind, bundle

578

PAN     *baluN bind, bundle

Formosan
Amis falodto bind; a bundle

579

PMP     *balun₅ bind, bundle, wrap in cloth; death shroud; cloth(ing)

WMP
Kayan baluncloth, clothing
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) ti-barunrolled-up (as dried cuttlefish when being heated over a fire)
Iban balunlarge rough bundle
Malay balunrolling up
Rejang balunshroud
Nias baluclothing
Old Javanese waluna cloth for wrapping or covering
Tae' balunwrapping of a corpse
Buginese waluŋwrap up
  pa-waluŋfuneral shroud
Wolio balushroud
  baluŋ-ienvelop in a shroud
Palauan báilclothing; wrapping material; to wrap (present, package)

580

PCEMP     *balun₃ bind, bundle; wrap in cloth; death shroud; cloth(ing)

CMP
Rotinese balucover (as with a blanket), enshroud
  paluwrap a cloth around the body; cloth for wrapping dead person, shroud
Kambera waluŋubind together, bundle
Tetun falu(n)packet, parcel, bundle; wrap up, bag up; to shroud a corpse
  fa-faluna cover or envelope
Buruese balu-nto bandage, cover

Note:   Based on proposed cognates in Tagalog, Toba Batak, Javanese, Ngaju Dayak and Malagasy, Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *balun ‘roll together’. However, Tagalog balón ‘bale of paper’ appears to be a Spanish loan. The forms in the remaining languages cited by Dempwolff probably contain a root *-luN (cf. *luluN ‘roll together’). Since Amis falod is the only non-MP reflex of *baluN discovered to date the PAn gloss of this item is rather general (‘bind; bundle’), but by PMP times the form apparently referred to the wrapping of a corpse and to the death shroud or wrapping cloth itself. Whether PMP *balun also functioned as the general term for ‘cloth, clothing’ or whether these meanings are secondary is moot.

25092

*baluq mourn the dead

584

PMP     *baluq mourn the dead

WMP
Maranao baloʔsound the death toll, beat gong for dead
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) baluʔthe slow beat of the death call, which is beaten on the aguŋ (gong)
Tiruray baluʔstick for beating gongs; strike a gong
Kadazan bahucanopy over the dead
CMP
Manggarai walumourn
Ngadha valugrieve, mourn
Rotinese falumourn the dead; mourners at a funeral

585

POC     *paluq mourn the dead

OC
Arosi harugive the final death feast six months after death; the final death feast

Note:   Also Bolaang Mongondow balu ‘mourn’. This comparison, potentially of considerable culture-historical importance, is exasperatingly tenuous. Jonker (1908) points out that the Korbaffo dialect of Rotinese has fali ‘mourn the dead’, falu ‘orphan, widow’, and he gives this as evidence that standard Rotinese (Termanu) falu ‘mourn the dead’ and falu ‘orphan, widow’ are distinct words. Bolaang Mongondow balu ‘mourn’, on the other hand, probably shows contamination from *balu ‘widow(er)’. The Arosi form may bear only a chance resemblance to the other items, but the correspondences are regular and the meaning is similar.

25093

*baluRu a vine: Entada scandens

586

PWMP     *baluRu a vine: Entada scandens

WMP
Hanunóo balugúlarge reddish, woody, tendril-bearing vine: Entada scandens Benth.; the bark is used as soap
Maranao balogoorange used for blackening teeth
Iban beruruan herb, Salomonia cantoniensis Lour., used as liniment; a climber, Mucuna biplicata, used as lashings and in medicine;
  buah beruruseed box used as container
Malay belurua climber: Entada scandens, the hard-skinned fruit of which is used by potters in polishing their wares

25094

*balut₁ mix

587

PMP     *balut₁ mix     [disjunct: *balun₁]

WMP
Ngaju Dayak balutmixture; something with which one mixes something else; mixed

588

POC     *balut mix

OC
Tongan palumix and knead in water with the hands
Samoan palumix (with the hands)

25095

*balut₂ roll or wrap something up

589

PWMP     *balut₂ roll or wrap something up

WMP
Ilokano bálutto gather, to roll up (garments, mats, etc.)
Casiguran Dumagat balútwrap something up in leaves, cloth or paper
Tagalog bálotcovering, wrapping
  balótcovered, wrapped
Iban balutwrapping; band, bandage, small bundle; wrap up, entangle
Malay balutbandaging, enwrapping
Karo Batak balutwrap something
Simalur baludbundle
Buginese waluʔbundle
Makasarese baluʔroll up (mats, cloth)

Note:   Evidently distinct from such northern Philippine forms as Bontok bálod ‘bind, tie up, imprison’. Chamorro balut-an ‘infold, wrap up, swathe, swaddle, bundle, pregnant, cover by winding round or folding, roll up’ appears to be a loan.

25105

*balútu dugout canoe

603

PPh     *balútu dugout canoe

WMP
Ilokano balotósmall dugout canoe without outriggers
Hanunóo balútudugout, or small canoe
Cebuano balútusmall boat with a dug-out bottom, plank or sawali (bamboo matting) sidings, and usually with outriggers
Mamanwa balotocanoe
Maranao balotosmall boat
Samal balutukind of outrigger canoe

Note:   Also Palauan berotóŋ ‘large canoe’. Reflexes of *balutu are widely distributed throughout the Philippines, while reflexes of a variant *barutu also occur in Southern Luzon, the Bisayas, and Mindanao. A PPh etymon *balutu thus seems fairly secure. In addition, Stresemann (1927) posited "Sub-Ambon" *balutu ‘sailboat’ based solely on Saparua palutu. Together with the Philippine forms this reconstruction suggests a PMP term *balutu which referred to some type of boat. However, Stresemann's source for Saparua (van Hoëvell 1877) does not list palutu. Collins (p.c.) notes that similar, but apparently non-corresponding forms are found in some languages on the north coast of Seram (Salas palút, Benggoi balútam, Kobi balóta).

*balútu The lack of known cognates elsewhere outside the Philippines and the feebleness of attestation in the Moluccas raises suspicions that this form was not found in PMP. It is possible that the Moluccan forms result from contact with Sama-Bajaw sea nomads (cf. Sama-Bajaw balutu ‘type of outrigger canoe’). Collins (p.c.) reports that other names for particular types of boats have been introduced into the Moluccas during the recent past by immigrants from Sulawesi. Moreover, there are other linguistic indications of the incursion of Samal speakers into Indonesia, as with Makasarese balaŋiŋiʔ ‘sea nomad’ (a reference to the Balangingi Samal). If this is the correct explanation for the appearance of reflexes of *balutu in the Moluccas it is possible that many (or all) Philippine forms have a similar source.

25110

*banabá a tree: Lagerstroemia speciosa

608

PPh     *banabá a tree: Lagerstroemia speciosa

WMP
Ilokano banabáLagerstroemia speciosa (L.). Tree with large panicles of lilac-purple flowers, yielding a valuable timber
Kapampangan banabátree of fine quality (Bergaño 1860)
Tagalog banabádeciduous tree cultivated for its beautiful flowers; its timber; the tannin from its fruit, leaves and bark: Lagerstroemia speciosa Linn.
Bikol banabátimber-producing deciduous tree with light purple flowers
Hanunóo banabálarge tree: Lagerstroemia speciosa Linn.
Aklanon banabá(h)medicinal tree: Premna cumingiana Schaver
Cebuano banabámedium-sized tree of the secondary forest, also planted for its lilac or pink flowers. The leaves are commonly used as a tea for stomach or kidney disorders: Lagerstroemia speciosa
Maranao banabamedicinal tree

25111

*banaeŋ thread, yarn

609

PWMP     *banaeŋ thread, yarn

WMP
Maloh banaŋthread
Malay benaŋthread
Nias banayarn, twine
Dairi-Pakpak Batak benaŋ benalukind of cotton thread
Sangir banaeŋthread, yarn
Banggai banaaŋ <Athread, yarn
Bare'e banaformerly the term for all colored cotton, through which all old-fashioned textiles that still are used in religious ceremonies are called bana
Tae' bannaŋthread, yarn
Makasarese bannaŋthread, yarn

25112

*banaqaR radiance, as of rising sun

610

PMP     *banaqaR radiance, as of rising sun

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat banáagrays (of the rising sun)
Tagalog banáʔagsoft ray, glimmer
Bikol banáʔagbeam of light; moonlight, firelight
Aklanon banáʔagrays (of the rising sun); to be rising (said of sun), send off rays
Hiligaynon banáʔagdawn, early morning, rays of the sun
Cebuano banáʔagray of light
Maranao banagdawning, as the light is breaking for dawn
Malay sinar banarradiance, brilliance
Javanese banaropen on all sides (for sun, light)
CMP
Fordata vanabe light, bright
Kamarian panato shine, of the sun
Buruese banafire

Note:   Also Melanau (Mukah) panah ‘ray of (light)’. With root *-NaR ‘ray of light’.

25115

*banat hit, beat, thrash

616

PWMP     *banat hit, beat, thrash

WMP
Tagalog bánata strike, sock, box, or stroke to hit something
Bikol bánatto hit
Malay banatto thrash, to drub

25116

*banat, bañat stretch

617

PWMP     *banat, bañat stretch     [doublet: *binat]

WMP
Ilokano bánatlengthening -- by forging
Tagalog bánata pull to stretch
  banáttaut, stretched
Kenyah bañatstretched; expanded
Kayan bañatstretched; of elastic bodies, expanded

Note:   Also Tagalog ganít ‘toughness for mastication’, Bikol ignít ‘stretch s.t.’, Kayan banat ‘stretched’

25117

*banawaŋ open space

618

PWMP     *banawaŋ open space

WMP
Pangasinan banawaŋcanal, ditch, trench
Melanau (Mukah) benawaŋdoor
Bolaang Mongondow bonawaŋroomy and light; the forepart of a house; annex built under the (overhanging) roof whether in the front of the house, or on the side

Note:   Also Ilokano banáwag ‘wide open space’, Bolaang Mongondow bonaaŋ ‘roomy and light’. With root *-waŋ ‘wide open space’.

25119

*banban a plant, the bast fibers of which are used in binding and plaiting: Maranta dichotoma

621

PWMP     *banban a plant, the bast fibers of which are used in binding and plaiting: Maranta dichotoma     [doublet: *benben₂]

WMP
Isneg bambánDonax cannaeformis Rolfe
Ilokano banbánstrips of bamboo
Kankanaey banbánscraped rattan; cleaned bamboo
Ifugaw banbánthe inner, soft fibers of rattan thongs
Tagalog bambáninner follicle (of fruits); a plant: Donax cannaeformis
Bikol bambánwild grass used in making baskets
Hanunóo bambánspecies of grasslike plant: Donax cannaeformis
Aklanon bánbanherb used for roofing: Donax cannaeformis
Cebuano banban, b-al-anbana branching reed, the main stem of which is split and used in weaving and in sewing nipa shingles: Donax cannaeformis
Tiruray banbangeneral term for arrowroot: Maranta arundinacea
Ngaju Dayak bambanplant whose bast fibers are used in binding and plaiting
Karo Batak banbana plant from which strips are cut for use in beautiful plaitwork: Maranta dichotoma
Sundanese baŋbankind of pliable reed from which hats and baskets are made
Javanese bambankind of reed used to make mats
Tae' bambanlow tree the bast fibers of which are used as binding material in house construction: Grewia laevigata

Note:   Although reflexes of *banban refer to the Donax cannaeformis in several Philippine languages it is clear that the PMP word for the latter plant was *niniq. That *banban referred to Maranta species seems likely from two facts. First, Tiruray banban ‘arrowroot: Maranta arundinacea’ refers to a plant of a different species, but the same genus. Second, Dempwolff (1934-38) gives Tagalog banban ‘Maranta dichotoma’, a gloss which differs from that in Panganiban (1966), but which agrees perfectly with Karo Batak banban.

25122

*banelat fish-corral, screen trap for fish

624

PWMP     *banelat fish-corral, screen trap for fish

WMP
Kapampangan banlátpig pen, cage
Tagalog banlátpig pen; fish corral in rivers
Malay belatscreen made of rattan strips tied to one another longitudinally; screen-trap for fish

Note:   For the development in this form cf. Blust (1982).

25123

*baneR to bruise, raise welts

625

PPh     *baneR to bruise, raise welts

WMP
Pangasinan banélto crush
Bikol banógbash, hit hard, strike
Cebuano bánugfor fruits to be bruised; bruise by pounding
Hanunóo banúgserious external bruises resulting in internal hemorrhage
Maranao banegwelt
Tiruray banegwelt

25124

*banhéd numb; "fall asleep'', of a limb

626

PPh     *banhéd numb; 'fall asleep', of a limb

WMP
Itawis bannádnumbness
  na-bannádnumb
Cebuano banhúdnumb from loss of circulation or anesthesia; become numb, for limbs to fall asleep
Maranao benednumb, numbness
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) be-venednumb; cause loss of feeling or pain, i.e. as a person's leg "goes to sleep" or of medicine which "kills pain"
Bolaang Mongondow banod"sleeping", of foot or hand

Note:   Zorc (1971) gives *banihej, *banhej ‘numb’, but Itawis bannád contradicts *-j.

27128

*bani to paint; smear or rub on

3598

POC     *bani to paint; smear or rub on     [doublet: *pali]

OC
Sengseng panpaint designs on barkcloth
Lakalai vali (OG)apply paint, feathers, or other surface adornment to the head or body
Tongan panismear, besmear, daub, or stain; rub the head with oil
Samoan panidye the hair with the juice of pani (a tree) (Pratt 1984)
Maori panipaint, besmear

25126

*baniákaw tree sp.

628

PPh     *baniákaw tree sp.

WMP
Isneg baniyákawkind of tree
Bontok banyákawtall tree, the wood of which is used for making pestles and spear shafts: Dysoxylon sp. (Meliac.)
Ilokano baniakawkind of tree yielding a poor timber
Bolaang Mongondow boniakowkind of tree

Note:   This item may contain a variant of the *qali-, *kali- prefix.

25129

*banua inhabited land, territory supporting the life of a community

631

PMP     *banua inhabited land, territory supporting the life of a community

WMP
Itbayaten vanualanding place, port
Pangasinan banwásun
Kapampangan banwáyear; sky, heaven
Cebuano banwáfatherland; town, village
Hiligaynon banwátown, community; a compactly settled area usually larger than a village but smaller than a city
Aklanon banwá(h)town, country
Subanun (Siocon) meg-banualive, dwell
Maloh banuacountry, land; commoner
Iban menoa, menuaarea of land held and used by a distinct community, esp. longhouse (rumah), including house, farms, gardens, fruit groves, cemetery, water and all forest within half a day's journey. Use of the menoa is only gained and maintained by much effort and danger, and by proper rites to secure and preserve a ritual harmony of all within it and the unseen forces involved; home, abode, place, district, country, region
  menoa laŋitthe heavens, abode of Petara and other deities
Malay benualarge expanse of land; empire; continent; mainland in contrast to island. To the old Malays even a large island like Java was a benua
Toba Batak banualand, district, region
  banua ginjaŋupper world, heaven
  banua toŋa onmiddle world, Earth
  banua toruunderworld, world of the dead
Simalur bano, fanoland, place, district
Nias banuasky, heaven, thunder; village; homeland; fellow villager; serf
  banua touunderworld
Mentawai manuasky, heaven
Old Javanese wanwainhabited place or area; village, settlement
Sangir banualand, district; people; state; sea; weather
Tondano wanuavillage
Bare'e banuahouse
  wanuaden of an animal
Banggai bonuahouse, dwelling
  so-bonua-none night
Tae' banuahouse, members of a household
Mandar banuatown; district, area
Makasarese bataŋ banoa, bataŋ banuatitle of the heads of certain districts (archaic and poetic)
  banoasheath (for a knife)
Palauan belúucountry, village, place
CMP
Selaru hnu(a)village
Yamdena pnuevillage
SHWNG
Buli pnuvillage
Numfor menuvillage
Ansus wanuvillage; house
Waropen nuvillage, community

632

POC     *panua village

OC
Proto-Admiralty *panuavillage
Emira anuahouse
Mendak anuhouse
Label hanuahomestead, place where one lives
Duke of York wanualand, country
Lakalai la valuathe men
  e-valua-gumembers of my sib
Manam anuavillage
  anua idaradaraevening glow, sunset glow
  anua izaradawn
Gedaged panuvillage, settlement, hamlet, town, place, city
Motu hanuavillage, town
  hanua boinight
Molima vanuahouse
  vanua pouresidents of a village
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka manuahouse, dwelling
Kilivila valuplace, village, town, country, landscape, environment, world; climate, weather
Mono-Alu fanuafellow clansman
Marovo vanuahouse
Bugotu vanualand, island
Longgu vanuapeople
  na vanuathe people
Lau fanualand, earth; weather
Kwaio fanuaplace, village, shrine-territory
Sa'a hanualand, country, village, site of a village, place
'Āre'āre hanualand, as opposed to asi sea; district, place, country, island; the territory, area where a person lives, where his possessions are, such as food, bamboo, trees, pigs, water and graves is called his hanua
Arosi hanua, henuaisland, village (in compounds)
Woleaian faliuwland, island
Mota vanualand, island, village, place
Wusi-Mana wanuahouse
Rotuman hanualand, country, place; native land or place, home. Special uses: (a) it (when referring to conditions of light and darkness), (b) people, as in kei tei hanue? 'Where are the people?'
Fijian vanualand, region, place; used in a number of weather expressions, sa siga na vanua 'it is daylight'; sa bogi na vanua 'it is night'
Tongan fonualand, country, territory, place; people (of the land, etc.)
Samoan fanualand; field
Hawaiian honualand, earth

Note:   Also Tiruray fenuwo ‘a place, a village’. The presence of *-h in PMP *banua is suggested by Aklanon banwá(h), but is contradicted by Itbayaten vanua. For a detailed discussion of the meaning of this morpheme cf. Blust (1987).

25130

*banuaŋ a tree: Octomeles spp.

633

PWMP     *banuaŋ a tree: Octomeles spp.

WMP
Tagalog banuaŋa tree: Octomeles sp.
Tiruray benuwoŋa tree: Endospermum peltatum Merr.
Ngaju Dayak banuaŋtree of the inner forest, often used in making rafts on account of its buoyant wood
Iban benuaŋ, menuaŋquick growing softwood riparian tree similar to entipoŋ, Octomeles sumatrana Miq.
Malay benuaŋa tree: Sterculia alata. Its very light wood serves to make stoppers for bottles

25128

*banuay tree sp.

630

PWMP     *banuay tree sp.

WMP
Kankanaey banuáykind of tree
Malay benuaia tree: Kayea grandis

Note:   Also Bontok banwáy ‘berries of the alimomósoŋ tree (Vaccinium barandanum Vidal (Ericac.))’, Cebuano banwági ‘kind of tree’.

25133

*banúg hawk, eagle

636

PPh     *banúg hawk, eagle

WMP
Isneg bannógkind of large bird; spirit who takes the shape of a large bird and, in his flight, carries away the victim he is going to kill
Bontok banúgAsiatic sparrow hawk, Accipiter virgatus confusus
Kankanaey banógkind of kite with gray and white plumage
Ifugaw bannúgkind of bird of prey said to eat small snakes, and cannot fly as quickly as other birds of prey
Ifugaw (Batad) bannuga bird commonly called a Red-tailed hawk
Aklanon banógbird of prey (hawk)
Cebuano banúglarge hawk with chocolate-brown feathers and white-colored breast
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) banuggeneric for hawks and eagles
Maranao banogvulture
Tiruray banug (Loan) {??}general term for eagles

Note:   Also Tagalog banóy ‘eagle (the larger of the Philippine variety)’. Dempwolff (1934-38) compared this form with Malagasy vano ‘heron’ and reconstructed *ba(n)uy, but Dahl (1976:106) has shown that Dempwolff's comparison is invalid. If the Tagalog word is an early Kapampangan loan (a cognate is unknown in the latter language) it may point to *-R. The similarity of these words and of Tagalog banóy to such Bornean forms as Lun Dayeh kanuy, Kelabit keniw ‘eagle’ remains to be clarified.

25131

*banuit fish hook

634

PPh     *banuit fish hook

WMP
Isneg bannuwétlarge fishhook, some two inches long, often baited with locusts
Pangasinan banuítfish with a rod; fishhook
Bikol banwítfish hook
Hanunóo bánwitfishing tackle
Maranao banoitfishhook, hook

Note:   Also Ilokano banníit ‘fishhook’. With root *-wit ‘hook-shaped’, varying phonemically with *-it following a rounded vowel.

25132

*banuqut coconut fiber, palm fiber

635

PPh     *banuqut coconut fiber, palm fiber

WMP
Cebuano banúʔutsheath of a coconut blossom
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) benutthe black hair-like substance found on the trunk of a leafy palm of the genus Caryota
Maranao banoʔotpalm with black hair-like fibers
Bolaang Mongondow banutcoconut fiber

Note:   This item apparently contains a variant of the root *-nut ‘husk, fiber’.

25134

*banútan tree sp.

637

PPh     *banútan tree sp.

WMP
Ifugaw banútana tree the stem of which yields a very hard and reddish timber
Bolaang Mongondow bonutantree sp., Mallotus Moluccanus

Note:   Also Ifugaw baʔnútan idem, Malay benitan ‘a tree: Goniothalamus sp., used for making masts’; benitan merah ‘red benitan, a tree: Schoutenia mastersi’.

25113

*baNaR a thorny vine: Smilax spp.

611

PAN     *baNaR a thorny vine: Smilax spp.     [doublet: *baNaw]

Formosan
Kavalan banaRplant sp. (Li 1982: 491)
Kanakanabu vanárəa plant: Smilax china
Saaroa valharəa plant: Smilax china
Tsou fkorəa plant: Smilax china
Bunun banala plant: Smilax china
Paiwan valʸaa plant: Smilax bracteata, S. china
Amis fadalthorny briar plant

612

PMP     *banaR₁ a thorny vine: Smilax spp.

WMP
Ilokano banágSmilax bracteata Presl., a woody, liliaceous vine, armed with spines; its root is used in infusions to purify the blood
Bontok banálkind of vine, commonly used for binding shoulder loads of firewood. Smilax bracteata Presl.
Cebuano banágwoody, spiked vine found in thickets, the tips and fruits of which are used medicinally: Smilax bracteata
Tiruray banarkind of vine, Smilax sp.
Tboli banalthorny plant, the sap of which is used as medicine for pimples
Malay banara climber, Smilax sp.
Malay (Pahang) banar babiSmilax helferi, the leaves of which are used for poulticing
Nias lam-bana(listed under bana) kind of vine
Sasak banara tuberous plant related to Dioscorea hirsuta: Smilax zeylanica
Bolaang Mongondow banagkind of creeper, used as cordage

613

PCEMP     *banaR₂ a thorny vine: Smilax spp.

CMP
Manggarai wanara thorny vine: Smilax modesta

Note:   Also Kankanaey baná ‘Smilax verruculosa Merr., a climbing liliaceous shrub with alternate leaves, thorns, and small dioecious flowers’, Sangir baneheʔ ‘vine with thorns and large, round leaves’. Reflexes of *baNaR are widely distributed in Taiwan and the Philippines, but appear to be rarer in western Indonesia, and very rare in eastern Indonesia. Verheijen (1984:67) cites wanar from several dialects of Manggarai, but the form is still to be found in other CEMP languages.

25114

*baNaS male (of animals)

614

PAN     *baNaS male (of animals)

Formosan
Seediq balasmale, masculine
Saisiyat balaʃmale
Pazeh balasmale, of animals and fowls
Paiwan valʸasmale, of animal (somewhat obscene)

615

PMP     *banah husband

WMP
Cebuano banahusband
  pamanafor women to get married
  pamanh-únunhusband-to-be
Bintulu banahusband
Tunjung wanahusband
Kapuas banahusband

Note:   Also Tagalog bánaʔ ‘husband’. The meaning of this etymon is problematic. PAn *ma-RuqaNay clearly meant ‘male’ with reference to human beings, a meaning which persisted in PMP. Moreover, PMP *qasawa clearly meant ‘spouse’, a meaning which persisted in PWMP. It follows that PWMP had co-existing terms *qasawa ‘spouse’ (either husband or wife) and *bana ‘husband’. Whether such a situation obtained earlier than PWMP, however, is unclear. The similarity of Vartavo (Vanuatu) vana ‘husband’ to the above forms apparently is due to chance.

25118

*baNaw a thorny vine: Smilax spp.

619

PAN     *baNaw a thorny vine: Smilax spp.     [doublet: *baNaR]

Formosan
Rukai (Mantauran) vaɭaua plant: Smilax sp.

620

PMP     *banaw a thorny vine: Smilax spp.

WMP
Malay banaua plant name'; = banar (Smilax sp.)

Note:   Tsuchida (1976) posits "PHes *baNaR ‘a vine: Smilax sp.’, citing the nonconforming Rukai (Mantauran) form in a footnote (p. 191, fn. 41).

25125

*baNiC to skin, flay

627

PAN     *baNiC to skin, flay     [doublet: *panit]

Formosan
Paiwan b-n-alʸitsremove tree bark or old thatch
  b-n-u-lʸa-lʸitsto skin an animal
WMP
Kayan banitbe scratched on the skin (as by thorns)
Kayan (Busang) banitexcoriated, skinned
CMP
Sika banitto skin, flay
Yamdena na-banitto remove, as the copra from the shell in drying, anything that sticks, the skin, etc.

Note:   Also Duke of York pani ‘skin, bark’. Ferrell (1982) lists the Paiwan forms under a theoretical root **balʸits. I take *b-aNiC to be a morphologically complex form of *qaNiC (Blust 1970) ‘skin, hide’, the medial consonant having earlier been reconstructed in error as *ñ. Both morphemes could share a common root *-NiC, but such a root is otherwise unknown. Alternately, given the correlated differences of form and word-class *baNiC could contain a prefix. However, a prefix *b- is otherwise unattested.

25213

*bañan to sneeze

752

PWMP     *bañan to sneeze

WMP
Isneg banánto sneeze. When people set out on a journey and one of them sneezes, this person may go on, but all the others must turn back, lest they be drowned or wounded
Simalur fananto sneeze

25215

*bañaw wash the body

754

PAN     *bañaw₁ wash the body

Formosan
Proto-Rukai *banawwash, bathe
Amis fanawto wash articles of any kind (not cloth)

755

PMP     *bañaw₂ wash the hands

WMP
Kankanaey bánawto dip, soak, steep, drench, wet (as a kettle with adherent dirt)
Sambal (Botolan) mi-banowash the hands
Hanunóo banáwdipping of fingers in water
Aklanon bánawto wash (hands, feet)
Cebuano bánawfor liquids to be spread over an area, spread liquids (as water over a floor)
Moken mañauwash (bottle), baptize (dip in water)
Nias banowash the hands (before eating)
Kulawi wanowash the hands
Uma wanowash the hands
Tae' banowash, rinse off
CMP
Selaru hanwash the hands
SHWNG
Numfor banwash with water (body and objects, not clothes)

756

POC     *paño wash the hands

OC
Tongan fano-fanowash the hands
Niue fano-fanoto rub (as in washing clothes)
Anuta pano-panowash the hands

757

PAN     *ma-bañaw₁ wash the body

Formosan
Proto-Rukai *ma-banawwash, bathe
Rukai ma-banáwwash, bathe (Tanan)
Paiwan ma-vanawtake a bath

758

PMP     *ma-bañaw₂ wash the hands

WMP
Itbayaten ma-vanawwash the hands
Ivatan ma-banawwash hands, feet
Sambal (Botolan) mi-banowash hands, feet
Kulawi mo-wanowash the hands
Uma mo-wanowash the hands
Moken mañauwash (bottle), baptize (dip in water)

759

PWMP     *mem-bañaw wash, rinse off

WMP
Nias mom-banowash the hands (before eating)
Tae' mem-banowash, rinse off

Note:   Also Kankanaey bánew ‘to dip, soak, steep, drench, wet (as a kettle with adherent dirt)’, Tagalog banláw ‘first rinsing’, Bikol balnáw ‘to rinse, rinse off (as soap, dirt)’, and similar forms in other Philippine languages appear to be distinct. With root *-ñaw ‘wash, bathe, rinse’.

25229

*bañen, bañan to sneeze

777

PWMP     *bañen, bañan to sneeze     [doublet: *beñan]

WMP
Isneg banánto sneeze. When people set out on a journey and one of them sneezes, this person may go on, but all the others must turn back, lest they be drowned or wounded
Ngaju Dayak bañento sneeze. If one wishes to set out on a journey and someone in the house sneezes it is a bad sign; one must then postpone the journey
Simalur fananto sneeze
Sangir bennaŋ <Mto sneeze

Note:   Also Sangir binaŋ ‘to sneeze’, Proto-Minahasan *baʔan ‘sneeze’, Bimanese ɓeni, Hawu beñi ‘to sneeze’, Tetun Dili fanin ‘to sneeze’ . The Isneg and Ngaju Dayak glosses suggest that in PWMP society it was considered a bad omen to sneeze at the outset of a journey. Since Mariner (1817:1:456) reports a similar belief in Tonga it is possible that this belief has an even older history among Austronesian-speaking peoples. For a still useful general account of the ethnology of sneezing, cf. Tylor (1958 [1871]:1:97ff).

25217

*baŋa₁ palm sp.

761

PWMP     *baŋa₁ palm sp.

WMP
Hanunóo baŋatall palm (probably Orania decipiens Becc.)
Aklanon baŋa(h)palm tree: Orania palindan
Maranao baŋapalm tree
Tae' baŋaa palm: Metroxylon elatum Mart.
Makasarese baŋakind of pandanus

Note:   Zorc (1982:119) posits "Proto-Hesperonesian-Formosan" *baːŋaS ‘tree’, comparing the Aklanon and Hanunóo items with Formosan forms that refer to the Melia azedarach, a member of the family to which the mahogany and Spanish cedar belong. However, PWMP *baŋah almost certainly designated a palm, and the present comparison is included to establish this point.

25218

*baŋa₂ wide open

762

PMP     *baŋa₂ wide open

WMP
Malagasy vana-vanawidth of space
  mi-vana-vanawide, open, large (used of splitting wood)
Toba Batak baŋaopen, gaping
CMP
Yamdena baŋecave, grotto, opening in rocks; vagina

763

POC     *paŋa₂ wide open

OC
Roviana vaŋavaŋaenlarge the cuts made with an axe, as when felling a tree
Tongan faŋasmall or private beach
Tuvaluan faŋabay
  fa-faŋaopen; separate (as of a woman's legs)
Samoan faŋabay
Maori whaŋabay, bight, nook; stride, spread the legs; measure with the extended arms, or span with the thumb and fingers spread
Hawaiian hanabay, valley (only in place names)

25214

*baŋaq open the mouth

753

PWMP     *baŋaq open the mouth     [doublet: *baŋa₂]

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) baŋaʔcarry something in the mouth
Ngaju Dayak baŋahopen (door, mouth)

Note:   With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gape, open the mouth wide’.

25216

*baŋaw paddy bug, foul-smelling insect that preys on rice in the field

760

PAN     *baŋaw paddy bug, foul-smelling insect that preys on rice in the field     [doublet: *baŋ(e)haw]

Formosan
Amis faŋawbedbug; flying insect
  ma-faŋawrice which doesn't mature
WMP
Tagalog baŋawbotfly
Bikol ati-báŋawhorsefly, botfly; a large blue fly known for its annoying buzzing

Note:   Also Ilokano dáŋaw ‘kind of stinkbug, very destructive to young ears of paddy’, Hanunóo púŋaw ‘taro beetle’, Iban paŋau, empaŋau ‘paddy bug’, Malay aŋau ‘small jungle tick’, paŋau, cenaŋau ‘foul-smelling bug that preys on rice’, tuŋau ‘black sand-flea’.

25220

*baŋbaŋ₁ broad, spacious

765

PWMP     *baŋbaŋ₁ broad, spacious

WMP
Iban bambaŋlarge, broad (as leaves)
Malagasy bámbanaboundless space
Toba Batak baŋbaŋwide, spacious
Simalur fambaŋ-anextend outward
Bahasa Indonesia bambaŋflat and wide, spacious
Bolaang Mongondow bambaŋwide, broad (as tree branches)

Note:   With root *-baŋ₁ ‘broad’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *baŋbaŋ ‘wide, spread out’, but included as supporting evidence two forms (Tagalog bambaŋ ‘canal, ditch’, Ngaju Dayak bambaŋ ‘hewed out (wood)’) that I assign to other cognate sets.

25221

*baŋbaŋ₂ butterfly, moth

766

PAN     *baŋbaŋ₂ butterfly, moth     [doublet: *beŋbeŋ, etc.]

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) Hali-vaŋbaŋbutterfly, moth

767

PMP     *baŋbaŋ₉ butterfly, moth; butterfly fish

WMP
Ilokano kuli-baŋbaŋbutterfly, moth
Ilongot kali-baŋbaŋbutterfly
Dumagat (Polillo) sali-baŋbaŋbutterfly
Gaddang ali-fambaŋbutterfly
Cebuano ali-baŋbaŋbutterfly, butterfly fish
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) keli-vaŋbaŋbutterfly
Acehnese bambaŋ, baŋbaŋbutterfly
Sichule ali-fambabutterfly
Bare'e kala-bambabutterfly
Tae' kalu-bambaŋlarge butterfly

Note:   With rare exceptions (e.g. Acehnese bambaŋ, baŋbaŋ) reflexes of this form always contain the *qali-, *kali- prefix. The agreement of Gedaged kili-bob ‘butterfly; yellow marine fish about 8 inches long’ with Cebuano ali-baŋbaŋ ‘butterfly, butterfly fish’ suggests that PMP *baŋbaŋ applied both to Lepidoptera and to fish of the family Chaetodontidae.

25222

*baŋbaŋ₃ cavity, pit, den; to excavate a pit

768

PMP     *baŋbaŋ₃ cavity, pit, den; to excavate a pit

WMP
Bontok baŋbaŋto bury, as a dead animal or rubbish
Ifugaw baŋbaŋplant something that must grow in the earth, not in the mud
Tagalog bambáŋcanal, ditch
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) baŋbaŋa hole dug in the ground; to dig
Mentawai babakexcavation, hole, den
Balinese baŋbaŋhollow place, esp. in a road; pit, grave; den; dig a hole or pit in the ground

769

POC     *babaŋ hole, cavern

OC
Mono-Alu babaa small hole
Nggela mbambacrab's hole; hollow in a tree; a large cave

25223

*baŋbaŋ₄ collapse, cave in

770

PWMP     *baŋbaŋ₄ collapse, cave in

WMP
Aklanon baŋbaŋfall down, cave in (such as sides of riverbank)
Tae' bambaŋcollapse, fall down

25224

*baŋbaŋ₅ fish sp.

771

PMP     *baŋbaŋ₅ fish sp.

WMP
Banjarese bambaŋ-ankind of marine fish
Ngaju Dayak bambaŋa saltwater fish that is about five feet long and very slender
Nias babafish sp.
Balinese baŋbaŋspecies of large sea fish

772

POC     *baba₅ fish sp.

OC
Fijian babalarge fish, like a snake, with a large mouth
Samoan papaa fish (Epinephelus sp.), grouper

Note:   Possibly also Nggela papa (OG) ‘sp. of fish’, Nukuoro baba ‘squirrelfish’. Whatever identification ultimately is made, it seems very unlikely from the descriptions in languages such as Ngaju Dayak, Balinese, Fijian and Samoan that this comparison will turn out to be identical to *baŋbaŋ₂.

25225

*baŋbaŋ₆ loud resounding sound

773

PAN     *baŋbaŋ₆ loud resounding sound

Formosan
Paiwan b-alʸ-aŋbaŋhave sound as of rain falling on roof, or beating on tin can
WMP
Isneg b-al-aŋpaŋonomatopoetic word for gong used in hudhúd chant
Chamorro p-al-aŋpaŋloud noise, fall down (noisily)
CMP
Sika babaŋloud (noise)

Note:   With probable root *-baŋ ‘dull resounding sound’.

25226

*baŋbaŋ₇ notch, as in a tree that has been cut prior to felling

774

PWMP     *baŋbaŋ₇ notch, as in a tree that has been cut prior to felling

WMP
Tiruray baŋbaŋnotch
Ngaju Dayak bambaŋsomething that is hewed out (wood from a tree; both the piece of wood that is removed and the notch in the tree are called bambaŋ)

Note:   In the absence of corroboration from other Oceanic languages the resemblance of Hawaiian waha ‘square notch cut in the upper part of house posts, in which the wall plates (lohelau) were placed’ is best regarded as fortuitous.

25227

*baŋbaŋ₈ reddish; discolored, as the skin over a bruise

775

PWMP     *baŋbaŋ₈ reddish; discolored, as the skin over a bruise

WMP
Maranao baŋbaŋbruise
Acehnese bambaŋred, yellow, jaundiced
Sundanese baŋbaŋwhite, of the skin, with a somewhat dark reddish tint
Old Javanese baŋbaŋred

Note:   Also Balinese baŋ ‘red, red-brown’, Sasak abaŋ ‘red’. This term probably referred to discolorations of the skin.

25219

*baŋbaŋan embankment

764

PWMP     *baŋbaŋan embankment     [doublet: *paŋpaŋ]

WMP
Ilokano baŋbáŋ-anto hill, raise a heap of earth above the roots of a row of plants (usually by means of a plow)
Kayan bebaŋansteep riverbank, steep hillside

Note:   Also Aklanon báŋbaŋ ‘fall down, cave in (as sides of a riverbank)’. Probably *baŋbaŋ-an.

25240

*baŋ(e)haw having a putrid smell

800

PWMP     *baŋ(e)haw having a putrid smell     [doublet: *baŋaw]

WMP
Cebuano baŋháwhaving the sour smell which develops in cooking starches which are waterlogged, e.g. corn which has been ground without being fully dried, yams which got waterlogged in rain-soaked ground, etc.
Malay baŋauputrid

25228

*baŋeliS tusk; canine tooth

776

PAN     *baŋeliS tusk; canine tooth

Formosan
Kavalan baŋristusk, fang
WMP
Kelabit beŋelihcanine tooth, tusk

25241

*baŋ(e)qeR rotten smell, stench

801

PAN     *baŋ(e)qeR₁ rotten smell, stench     [doublet: *baŋ(e)qes]

Formosan
Pazeh tu-baŋerrotten

802

PMP     *baŋ(e)qeR₂ rotten smell, stench (as of stagnant water)

WMP
Ilokano baŋar <Atree with rank-smelling flowers: Sterculia foetida
  baŋʔégstench of rotten wood
Cebuano baŋʔugfoul smell of liquids that have stagnated, or of food that has spoiled
Miri baŋarsmell of river mud at low tide, or of a swamp
Malay baŋarputrid, as stagnant water or decaying animal matter
Javanese baŋerstench, stinking
Sasak baŋerstale smell, stench (of water)
Proto-Minahasan *baŋəhsmell bad
CMP
Manggarai baŋermusty, stale

Note:   Also Kayan (Busang) baŋéʔ ‘spoiled (of food), rancid (of oil)’. Reconstructed as *baŋer ‘stench’ in Blust (1973) where, however, only WMP reflexes are cited.

25242

*baŋ(e)qes unpleasant smell

803

PMP     *baŋ(e)qes unpleasant smell     [doublet: *baŋ(e)qeR₁]

WMP
Bontok baŋʔəsto have spoiled, as cooked rice, vegetables or cooked meat
Balinese baŋesnoisome, unpleasant in smell or taste
CMP
Manggarai baŋesbeginning to smell badly, mawkish, foul (smell)

Note:   Also Kankanaey laŋʔes ‘smelling of fish’.

25243

*baŋ(e)SiS fragrant

804

PAN     *baŋ(e)SiS fragrant

Formosan
Kavalan baŋsisfragrant
WMP
Ilokano baŋʔíto smell of toast
Cham baŋiused of all agreeable sensations: good, tasty, redolant, etc.
Simalur faŋiodor, fragrance
Old Javanese waŋifragrance
CMP
Ngadha vaŋito smell (badly)

Note:   Based on the comparison Tagalog baŋí ‘broiling’, Javanese baŋi ‘bait’, waŋi ‘fragrance’, Samoan paŋi ‘bait’ Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *baŋi ‘fragrance’. However, in so doing he appears to have brought together forms that belong to several distinct cognate sets (cf. *baŋi ‘bait’ and *baŋi ‘cook over a fire’).

25232

*baŋi₁ bait

780

PMP     *baŋi₁ bait

WMP
Javanese baŋibait
OC
Samoan paŋicoconut bait for flying fish

25233

*baŋi₂ cook over a fire

781

PMP     *baŋi₂ cook over a fire

WMP
Tagalog baŋíbroiling
CMP
Buruese baŋi-hheat over a fire

25230

*baŋiq to bite

778

PWMP     *baŋiq to bite

WMP
Maranao baŋiʔto bite
Palauan baŋʔto bite

25231

*baŋis cruel

779

PWMP     *baŋis cruel     [disjunct: *beŋis₁]

WMP
Cebuano baŋísfierce; cruel
Minangkabau baŋiscruel, hard

29835

*baŋsal cooking shed

6457

PWMP     *baŋsal cooking shed

WMP
Ilokano baŋsálannex to the kitchen consisting of an unroofed platform raised on posts --- used for storage, cleaning, etc.
Iban baŋsalshed
Malay baŋsaltemporary structure of wood or atap used as a booth, coolie-house, cooking shed, etc.
Javanese baŋsalhall, building

Note:   Possibly a borrowing from Malay.

29833

*baŋsit stench

6454

PWMP     *baŋsit stench

WMP
Ilokano baŋsítstench of excrement, stale cooked rice, etc.
Malay baŋsithaving a vile smell

Note:   Also Betawi maŋsit ‘smelling vilely, of the smell of urine, of the padi-bug, etc.’, Balinese maŋsid, maŋsit ‘smell of urine; stink, be rank’, Sasak baŋsu ‘musty, stinking (of food)’.

25238

*baŋun-baŋun kind of herb

786

PWMP     *baŋun-baŋun kind of herb

WMP
Isneg báŋonan amaranthaceous herb with speckled leaves of different colors, planted for ornamental and magical purposes; shamans stick it in their headbands when going to attend a sick person; it is also planted next to the first seedling in a tobacco field
Bontok baŋ-báŋunsmall herb with aromatic leaves and stems: Ocimum sanctum L.
Malay daun baŋun-baŋunanherb, Coleus carnosus, used for the treatment of childbirth

Note:   Also Samoan faŋu-faŋu ‘a tree (Meryta sp.) which bears gourd-like fruit; small tree (Sarcopygme sp.)’.

25239

*baŋuN wake up, get out of bed

787

PAN     *baŋuN wake up, get out of bed

Formosan
Thao fanuzwake someone, rouse someone from sleep

788

PMP     *baŋun₂ wake someone, rouse someone from sleep; erect something, put something in an upright position

WMP
Itbayaten vaŋonidea of getting up from sleep
Isneg b-um-áŋonrise, become erect
Itawis mab-báŋunget up
  ma-báŋunto erect (something)
Bontok báŋunawaken; get up from a prone position
Pangasinan baŋónarise, wake, get up from bed
Tagalog báŋonrising from a lying position
Bikol báŋonget up, arise, rise; get out of bed; name someone after
Hanunóo báŋunarising, getting up
Aklanon báŋonget up (out of bed), arise
  pa-báŋonto awaken, wake (someone) up
Hiligaynon báŋunarise, get up from bed, get up from a lying position
Cebuano báŋunget up from a lying position; make something lying erect; redeem one's honor; revive the name of a deceased relative by naming someone after him; put a boat on a small elevated platform or wedges when it is beached to prevent it from getting rotten or infested with shipworms
Mansaka baŋonget up from bed
Binukid baŋunget up (from a lying position); raise up, make (something lying down) erect
Maranao baŋonrise, get up; build
  baŋon sa walaymarried person; put up one house; family
Kadazan vaŋuncome about, get existence
Iban baŋunbeat, thresh (? to revive)
Malay baŋunrisen posture; usual build, bearing or shape; standing outline. In four senses: (i) to resume one's natural attitude after falling down, i.e. to rise, (ii) bearing or shape, (iii) things that stand up against the sky, whether turrets and battlements, or temporary structures such as scaffoldings or platforms for seats, or as an upstanding patch of rainbow, (iv) revival, restoration or resurrection
Bahasa Indonesia baŋun-baŋunform, shape, build
Acehnese baŋònform, shape, figure, posture, build, figure
Karo Batak baŋunthe existence of something, the appearance, the structure of something, the state of a matter
Toba Batak baŋunbe bound
Dairi-Pakpak Batak b-in-aŋunpost, pillar, post of a house or granary
Sundanese baŋunappearance, form, external shape; body build, style, build
  ŋa-baŋunto found, establish, build, bring into existence; lay down (as a garden)
Old Javanese waŋunrising, starting, taking shape
  waŋun ḍahinadawn
  waŋun udhāniregain consciousness
Javanese waŋundesign, shape; appearance, aspect; suitable (to), in keeping (with); building, structure
Balinese baŋunrise, get up (from bed)
Sasak baŋunwake up, get up (from bed)
Sangir baŋuŋstand up from a reclining position
Proto-Minahasan *baŋunbeautiful, excellent; strong, vigorous
Banggai baŋunrise, stand up
Bare'e waŋustand up from a lying or sitting position
Tae' baŋunstand up, rise; place upright, erect something (as a house)
Buginese waŋuŋbody
Makasarese am-baŋuŋstand up from a reclining position; to construct, build a house, erect a mast, found a society, rouse a reclining or sleeping person, rouse the dead from their graves on Judgement Day
Chamorro paŋonwake (someone) up, rouse someone from sleep, awaken
CMP
Tetun fanunto awaken (anyone asleep)
Erai panurise from sleep
Leti wannuwake up, get up
Fordata n-vanung <Mto erect, set upright
  n-fa-vanuŋset upright, as a post
Asilulu hanuwake up
  hanu-kawaken someone
Paulohi hanuwake up, get up
  hanu-eawaken someone
Buruese faŋuarise, wake up
  faŋu-herect, raise; awaken
SHWNG
Numfor bānwake up from sleeping; set something upright, as a mast or a house; lifting of the hand, as in saluting

789

POC     *paŋun to wake up, rouse someone from sleep

OC
Manam aŋunto wake up, to bring to life
Tolai waŋunto awaken, awake, rouse, arouse, excite
Kilivila vagul-ito wake up
Roviana vaŋunuawake
Eddystone/Mandegusu vaŋun-ito awake, arise
Chuukese féŋú-féŋrouse someone from sleep, wake someone up
Tongan fa-faŋucall out in order to awaken someone; to awaken, arouse from sleep; bell
Niue fa-faŋuto awaken
Samoan fa-faŋuwake someone up, arouse
  fāŋu-abe awakened, awake
  fa-faŋu-inabe brought to mind, be recalled
Tuvaluan fa-faŋuwake (someone)

790

PWMP     *baŋun-an raise, place something upright

WMP
Isneg baŋón-anto raise, erect, set upright
Maranao baŋon-ancommunity, town, village
Ngaju Dayak baŋun-anwhat is erected; the construction, build (of a house)
Bahasa Indonesia baŋun-anwhat is erected, what is constructed (house, building, bridge)
Toba Batak baŋun-an ni rohaavery dear friend' (lit. 'bound by affection')
  sa-baŋun-ana sentence; a series of things
[Javanese baŋun-anbuilding, structure]
Tae' baŋun-anerect, stand something upright
Makasarese baŋuŋ-baŋuŋ-antemporary scaffolding used when building a house
  baŋuŋ-aŋstand up with, lift up

791

PWMP     *baŋun-en be awakened, be revived

WMP
Bontok baŋun-ənbe awakened
[Ilokano baŋón-ento raise, erect, build, construct, rear, set upright; to elevate, appoint, nominate; to found, to originate]
Bikol baŋón-onhelp someone up
Cebuano baŋún-unbe revived, brought to life again (as the name of an ancestor bestowed on a descendant)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak baŋun-ena gift, usually consisting of a plot of land given by a father to his child when the latter marries
  baŋun-en ni atésweetheart

792

PWMP     *b<in>aŋun was awakened by someone

WMP
[Ifugaw (Batad) b-in-aŋonwas awakened by something (as a rooster crowing)]
Old Javanese w-in-aŋunshaped, formed, built, composed

793

PPh     *b<um>aŋun arise from sleep

WMP
Bontok b<um>áŋunawaken, get up from a prone position
Hanunóo b-um-áŋunarise, get up

794

PWMP     *ma-baŋun erect, stand upright

WMP
Itawis ma-baŋunto erect (something)
Old Javanese ma-baŋunwith the shape of, like
Banggai ma-baŋunto stand something upright

795

PWMP     *maŋ-baŋun erect, construct

WMP
Sundanese maŋunerect, set up, write, create (a story or composition)
Old Javanese u-maŋunrise, stand up
  a-maŋunto shape, form, build, compose, bring into existence, cause, perform
Javanese maŋunto build up
Sangir ma-maŋuŋto erect (a house, etc.)
  ma-maŋuŋ saḷimbaŋoffer a ritual meal

796

PWMP     *maR-baŋun get up

WMP
Itawis mab-báŋunget up
Bikol mag-báŋonhelp someone up
Old Javanese mar-baŋuncome to life, revive
Tae' maʔ-baŋun-antake the stacked bundles of rice from the drying place in order to count them, at which time a chicken or pig is slaughtered in offering

797

PWMP     *pa-baŋun to awaken, wake someone up

WMP
Aklanon pa-báŋonto awaken, wake someone up
Makasarese pa-baŋuŋmake someone stand up

798

PWMP     *paŋ-baŋun-an construction, erection of something

WMP
Bahasa Indonesia pem-baŋun-anprocess or manner of construction
Makasarese pam-baŋuŋ-aŋstand up somewhere; raise something for someone, erect something at a certain time

799

POC     *paŋun-ia to awaken, wake someone up

OC
Roviana va vaŋun-iato wake a person
Woleaian faŋiul-i-iwake him up, awake him, arouse him
Chuukese féŋún-irouse (someone), wake someone up

Note:   Also Kankanaey b-um-áŋon ‘rise, get up, stand up’, Ifugaw báŋon ‘arise, get up, stand up’; mamáŋon ‘person who makes somebody stand up’, Ifugaw (Batad) báŋon ‘for someone to wake up; for someone to rise from a prone to a sitting or standing position’, Ilokano b-um-áŋon ‘to rise, become erect’, Tiruray baŋun ‘raise up one end of something’; baŋun liduʔ ‘an item of ceremonial exchange property given in litigation by one who killed in a feud to the side among which he killed, literally "raising one end of the feud"’, Simalur baŋon, faŋon ‘appearance, form, shape’, Old Javanese baŋun ‘rising, getting up, starting; with the shape of, like, as if’, Javanese baŋun ‘wake up, get up’; Balinese waŋun ‘shape, form’, Bare'e baŋu ‘stand up’; tau na-baŋu mpaturu ‘someone who is overcome by enemies while sleeping (headhunting term)’, Wolio baŋu ‘form, shape, style, manner, mode, model, feature, quality; get up, rise, stand up, straighten oneself, become erect, get over a blow, recover one's position; wake, arouse (someone)’, Buruese baŋu-k ‘awakened, come to’, faŋo ‘arise, wake up’, Kayeli bano ‘build’, Gitua vavaŋo ‘wake someone up’, Motu hao-a ‘to awaken, to arouse’, Suau hano-i ‘waken’, Bunama hano ‘awaken’, Guregureu fano ‘awaken’, Kapingamarangi haaŋono ‘wake up (someone)’, Nukuoro haahaaŋo ‘wake up (someone) instantly’.

It is unclear why a number of languages extending from the Philippines to Melanesia have an irregular /o/ in the last syllable of this word. A possible explanation is that the PAn or PMP form contained a rare last syllable *o, but for the present I choose not to increase the number of PAn or PMP vowels through the reconstruction of questionable distinctions such as this. The essential meaning of PAn *baŋuN and its reflexes through at least POc was ‘wake up, get up from sleeping’. It is clear from a number of affixed reflexes that this word did not refer simply to the psychological act of awakening from sleep, but more particularly to the physical act of arising after awakening. It is evidently the latter semantic component which has been elaborated in many of the languages of the Philippines and Indonesia into transitive verbs which refer to the physical action of erecting or setting something upright, or to the symbolic act of establishing something from nothing.

25135

*baqagi share, portion, inheritance; to allot, divide property

638

PMP     *baqagi share, portion, inheritance; to allot, divide property

WMP
Ilokano bágishare, portion, part, lot
Ngaju Dayak bagipart, share, portion
Iban bagishare, part; divide, distinguish; divide bilik property after a death and allot the shares equally to the survivors
Malay bahagi, bagito mete out; to apportion; to deal (cards)
  bahagi-ana share
Karo Batak bagidivide, split, share; portion
Toba Batak bagipart, share, portion
Sundanese bagishare, portion
Javanese bagipart, portion, share
Sasak bagipart, portion, share
  bagi-anshare; inheritance
Bare'e mo-bagidivide, share out
Tae' baʔgipart, portion, share of the property of the (deceased) parents
CMP
Manggarai bagi, bahidivide, share out
Ngadha bagipart, share, portion; divide, allot
Hawu ɓagidivide, allot
Sika bagidivision of the inheritance
SHWNG
Waropen bagepart, share

Note:   Also Maranao bagiʔ ‘divide, distribute, share’, bagiʔ-an ‘share, portion, belong to, fate’, Sundanese bage ‘share, portion’, Sangir bahage-aŋ ‘share’, Hawu bage ‘divide, allot’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *bagi, but marked it as a Sanskrit loan. A similar interpretation of Sasak bagi is found in Goris (1938). However, Wilkinson (1959) does not mark Malay bagi, bahagi as a loan, and the form is conspicuously absent in Old Javanese. Moreover, the agreement of Tae' -ʔC- with Malay -haC- parallels a correspondence in an indisputably native form: Tae' baʔru, Malay baharu ‘new’. The quality of the deleted vowel in this word evidently differed from that in *baqeRu (*baqeRu > baharu ~ bahru ~ baru, but *baqegi > bahagi, bagi without a variant **bahgi).

Dempwolff's interpretation appears to be based on the assumption that this form derives from Sanskrit bhāgya ‘good fortune, luck’ (see ‘Loans and convergent developments’). Indeed a confusion of these two words (Malay bahagi, bagi ‘mete out, apportion’, and bahagia ‘good fortune sent by God’) is apparent in some languages: e.g. Maranao bagiʔ-an ‘share, portion, belong to, fate’, where the native Malay word and the Sanskrit loan are both borrowed (from Malay) and treated as a single polysemous form, presumably on the notion that one's inheritance equals one's fortune or fate.

Although this word appears to be native in Malay, Tae', and some other languages, part of the attested distribution, including the forms in Maranao, Sangir, and perhaps all CEMP languages, probably is due to borrowing from Malay.

25136

*baqak split, break off

639

PMP     *baqak split, break off

WMP
Tagalog baʔáksplit, halved
Bikol báʔakcrevice, fissure, rift
Aklanon báʔakcut bamboo lengthwise
Banggai baakbreak off, broken off
CMP
Manggarai waʔakcut with a machete (banana shoots, etc.)
Sika baakfall down, of branches; fall off

25137

*baqas split lengthwise

640

PMP     *baqas split lengthwise

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) baʔashalf a carcass; to split a carcass lengthwise

641

POC     *paqas split lengthwise

OC
Tongan faʔatear, rend
  faʔa-hiside, half -- when the division is made lengthwise
Tuvaluan ma-faabe broken (coconut, head, cup, canoe); be split
  faaibreak an object, such as coconut, head, canoe
Rennellese haʔa(-sia)cracked
  ha-haʔaa slice, cut off, sever, split; to crack, as a coconut

Note:   Also Samoan fasi (with unexplained loss of vowel length) ‘kill (an animal), slaughter’, ma-fasi ‘(of the skin), be cracked, split’ (Pratt: fāsi ‘to split’), Maori wā-hi (expected **whāhi) ‘break, split; part, portion’, Hawaiian wā-hi (expected **hāhi) ‘cleave, split’. The Tongan, Tuvaluan, Rennellese, and Samoan forms are assigned to PPn *faʔa-si (Biggs, Walsh, and Waqa 1970). This comparison may be fortuitous, as no support other than Manobo (Western Bukidnon) baʔas has yet been found outside the Polynesian subgroup.

25138

*baqbaq mouth, opening; speak, say

642

PMP     *baqbaq mouth, opening; speak, say     [doublet: *bahaq, *beqbeq]

WMP
Aklanon báʔbaʔmouth
Cebuano báʔbaʔmouth; any mouth-like opening
Aborlan Tagbanwa baʔbaʔmouth
Bukat bavamouth
Seru bebamouth
Singhi Land Dayak bobamouth
Maloh babaʔmouth
Malagasy vavamouth; fig. speech
Karo Batak babahmouth, beak, opening
Simalur baʔbamouth, beak, opening
Sundanese babahstinking breath
Old Javanese babahdoor, gate, entrance, opening, aperture
Sundanese babahstinking breath
Banggai babamouth
  mbambadoor
Bare'e babarivermouth
Tae' babaopening of a basket, quiver, cooking pot
  baʔbadoor
CMP
Rotinese bafamouth, beak, orifice, opening; word, to say (metaphorical)
Leti wawamouth
Selaru hahamouth
Fordata vavamouth
Dobel fafamouth

643

POC     *papaq₂ mouth

OC
Loniu pʷaha-mouth
Wagawaga bahaspeak
Longgu vavaspeak
Mota vavaspeak, say
Nukuoro hahamouth odor
Maori wahamouth, entrance
Hawaiian wahamouth; opening; inner surface of a bowl; open top of a canoe

Note:   Also Madurese abba ‘bad smell from mouth. In its literal sense as a body part term *baqbaq evidently referred both to the mouths of humans and to the mouths of animals (the beaks of birds being terminologically distinguished from these). In addition there are three other meanings (‘speak, say’, ‘door’, and ‘bad breath’) which appear in geographically separated reflexes. Since better candidates are available for the first two meanings these senses are perhaps best regarded as historically secondary developments, or as figurative usages in PMP or PWMP. Although no other candidate is available for the third meaning, it too is perhaps best treated as convergent. In this connection it is worth noting that Coolsma (1930) gives Sundanese babah as short for bau babah (odor + mouth).

25139

*baqeluŋ small shallow body of water

644

PWMP     *baqeluŋ small shallow body of water

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat balʔóŋshallow well or hole (made in a riverbed to get clean water); to make a well
Tagalog báloŋspring of fresh water; flow of liquid from some hidden source; to spring forth, flow
Bahasa Indonesia baloŋshallow pond
Sundanese baloŋpond (of medium size); swampy
Javanese baloŋlow-lying land without drainage; marshy; pond (made for fish farming)

Note:   With unexplained vowel lowering in Bahasa Indonesia, Sundanese and Javanese. Casiguran Dumagat permits glottal stop only postconsonantally. The position of *q in this reconstruction is posited to explain the stress difference between the Casiguran Dumagat and Tagalog forms.

25140

*baqeRuh new; bachelor

645

PAN     *baqeRuh new; bachelor

Formosan
Kanakanabu vaʔúru <Anew
Tsou farv-anew
Thao faqƚunew
Bunun baqlunew
Favorlang badounmarried young man
Amis faʔlohnew; renew
Paiwan vaqu-annew

646

PMP     *baqeRu new, fresh; recent(ly); youth, bachelor; beautiful, in one's prime

WMP
Itbayaten vaʔyunew, recent; neophyte, novice
Isneg baxónew, fresh
  bag-baxóyoung man, youth, handsome youth
Itawis bahunew
Ilokano barónew, fresh, modern, novel, recent; virgin (soil); young man, youth, bachelor
Bontok balúnew; unmarried man, youth
Kankanaey balóyoung man; lad; youngster; youth; bachelor
  bal-balóhandsome; beautiful young man
Ifugaw ballúnewly ripe rice; young person married or not, who has the characteristics of not being old
  baló, bal-balóyoung; young man not yet married
Casiguran Dumagat bágubefore, earlier than, in advance
Pangasinan bálonew
Kapampangan báyunew, newly, before
Tagalog bágonew, recent(ly)
Bikol bágobefore
  baʔgóbefore (in time); new
Hanunóo bágʔunew; just, recently, freshly
  bagʔúbefore, earlier than
Hiligaynon bagú, bagʔúbefore; new
Aklanon bagóbefore, prior to
  bagʔó(h)new; recently
Cebuano bagʔúnew; modern; recently, just now
Palawan Batak baʔgonew
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) beɣunew; recent
Maranao bagorenew, reinforce, revise
  bago-bagomost recently, newest
  begonew; renew, increase energy or speed
Kadazan vagunew, again, anew
Kelabit beruhnew; just now
Bintulu vawnew
Melanau (Balingian) bahewnew
Melanau (Mukah) baʔewnew
Iban barunew, modern; anew, again; just (now)
Moken keloynew
Malay baharunew; fresh; now at last
Jarai pohrewnew
Moken kəloynew
Acehnese barōnew; just, just now; first
  baròëyesterday
Nias bohounew, recent
  mam-bohourenew
Mentawai baunew; fresh (eggs)
Karo Batak barunew; just, just now
Toba Batak barunew
Rejang belewnew
Sundanese bahayurecent(ly)
  barunew, fresh (Malay loan)
Javanese wauthe aforesaid; just now [Kromo speech level]
  mauthe aforesaid; just now [Ngoko speech level]
  baruthe aforesaid; just now [Ngoko speech level]
Balinese bahunew; newly, just now
  wahujust, just now
Sasak barunew
  baruʔrecently, just past
Bolaang Mongondow bagujust now
Gorontalo bohunew
Bare'e woʔualso, still, again; new
Mandar barunew; fresh
Tae' baʔrunew
Chamorro paʔgonow, today
Palauan beʔésnew
CMP
Bimanese ɓounew
Manggarai werunew, recently
Rembong warujust now; the foregoing
Leti warunew
Buruese fehu-tnew
Soboyo fohunew

647

PEMP     *baqoRu new, recent; young, fresh

SHWNG
Buli ponew; recently
Ansus ve-vorunew
Serui-Laut va-vorunew
Windesi ba-borunew
Kurudu worunew

649

POC     *ntau (bp)aqoRu youth, young person

OC
Mussau ou-nanew
Motu tau-haua youth
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka vagunew
  e-vagu-nanew (of everything but food); recently, newly
  si-vagu-nanew, freshly gathered (of food)
Misima va-valu-nanew
Mono-Alu haolu-nanew
Cheke Holo valunew
Talise vaolu-nanew
Nggela vaolunew; young, fresh, beautiful, in one's prime; renew
Longgu vaolunew
  va-vaolurenew
Lau fālunew, fresh; recent
Kwaio fooluyoung; new; renew; right away, at the same time; for the first time
'Āre'āre haorunew, fresh, young
  māne haorua young unmarried man, a newcomer
  keni haorua marriageable girl
Sa'a haolunew, fresh
Arosi haorunew, fresh
Chuukese new
Woleaian feonew; cleaned
Puluwat young as plants; new
Nakanamanga vaunew
Fijian vounew; newly, recently
  caura-voua youth, young man of marriageable age
Tongan foʔounew, fresh; strange, unfamiliar
  tāu-poʔouvirgin, maiden; nun; virginity
Samoan fōunew; fresh; renew; restore, repair
  tāu-poutitle of village maiden (virgin singled out for her charm, looks and manners)
Rennellese hoʔounew, fresh; recently, for the first time
Hawaiian hounew, fresh, recent; again, more

650

PWMP     *ma-baqeRuh new

WMP
Lun Dayeh me-beruhnew
Bolaang Mongondow mo-bagunew

Note:   Also Taroko bulax ‘new, fresh’, Ilokano bágo ‘new; having been in some position or condition but a short time’, Malay bahru, baru ‘new; fresh; now at last’, Gedaged fau-n ‘new, young, fresh; again, once more, anew, afresh’, Manam wa-wau, Keherara wou-na, Wedau vou-na, Mukawa wau-na ‘new’. A number of languages in western Melanesia appear to reflect POc *paqou rather than *paqoRu.

The following additional points are noteworthy:

(1) In PMP the bare stem *baqeRu may have been used adverbially, and perhaps as a noun meaning ‘youth, young people in the prime of life’; the same stem prefixed with *ma- clearly meant ‘new; fresh’ (cf. Pawley 1982 for related claims based on the evidence in Oceanic languages). In POc, on the other hand, the *ma- prefix, which had been fossilized in such forms as *ma-sakit ‘painful, sick’ and *ma-takut ‘afraid’, was disassociated from this morpheme. In its place the POc adjectival suffix *na- was added (hence: POc *paqoRu-na).

(2) Some languages in Indonesia show both a native form and a coexisting loan from Malay, which may differ somewhat in meaning (e.g. Makasarese beru ‘new, fresh, not yet accustomed to something; just now’ next to the Malay loan baruʔ ‘new’.

(3) A number of MP languages have an apparent reflex of *e rather than *a in the first syllable of this word (Maranao bego, Rejang belew, Makasarese beru, Manggarai weru, Buruese fehu-t, Serui-Laut va-voru). These items are assumed to show regular reflexes of the unusual sequence *-aqe- preceding the last syllable of the word (as Lun Dayeh me-beruh, Kelabit beruh clearly do).

(4) Some South Halmahera-West New Guinea languages (e.g. Windesi ba-boru) and some OC languages (e.g. Misima va-valu-na) agree in reflecting what appears to be a partially reduplicated form PEMP *ba-baqoRu. On present evidence it is unclear whether such a morphological variant existed in PEMP, or whether the observed agreements are products of convergent innovation.

29829

*baqi grandmother

6438

PAN     *baqi grandmother

Formosan
Tsou baʔigrandmother (Szakos 1993)
Kavalan baigrandmother/granddaughter (add.)
Basai baigrandmother
Amis (Central) faʔigrandmother
WMP
Pangasinan báigrandmother; woman of grandparent’s generation (add. or ref.)
Central Tagbanwa baigrandmother
Palawan Batak baʔí-ʔfemale grandparents and their female siblings
Mamanwa bazi (< bayi)grandmother
Maranao a-baʔimother (used by her own children); queen, lady
CMP
Bimanese vaʔigrandmother
Komodo waigrandmother/grandchild (recip.)
Atoni beʔi-fgrandmother, female ancestor

Note:   Also Kalamian Tagbanwa bai-ʔ (expected **baki). This is not a robust cognate set, yet one that undeniably points to a PAn term for ‘grandmother’, as unambiguous reflexes of *baqi are found from central Taiwan to the western edge of the Lesser Sundas. Kavalan has baqi ‘grandfather (add.); grandson’, baq-baqi ‘ancestors’ next to bai ‘grandmother’. Both are regular, the first word from *baki and the second from *baqi, a development that can cause confusion, since the word for ‘grandfather’ has acquired a phonemic shape that is identical to that of the PAn original for ‘grandmother’. The final glottal stop in Palawan Batak baʔíʔ is paralleled by a similar pattern in other kin terms (*ama > amáʔ ‘father’, *apu > apóʔ ‘grandfather’, *Suaji > arí? ‘younger brother’, *ina > ináʔ ‘mother’), and is assumed to be a marker of the vocative (Blust 1979). Finally, this term is not to be confused with *bahi ‘female; woman’, some reflexes of which may be difficult to distinguish from *baqi.

30218

*baqug spoiled, gone to waste; never realized, of potential for fertility

7072

PPh     *baqug spoiled, gone to waste; never realized, of potential for fertility

WMP
Ilokano báogseed that did not germinate due to lack of water
  na-báogspoiled and smelling due to lack of air and moisture (rice and seeds)
  baóginfertile (people)
  kina-baógsterility; impotence
Bontok báugto have never married; one who has never married (as a woman who is always complaining)
Kankanaey ma-báugrotten within, applied to trees
Ifugaw báugdecay of teeth
Tagalog báog ~ baógsterile, barren, unproductive (as a woman who cannot bear children)
  ka-baug-ansterility, barrenness
Bikol baʔógbarren, infertile, sterile, describing someone who is unable to produce offspring
Hanunóo báʔugrotten egg
  baʔúgsterile woman; tree which does not bear fruit
Aklanon báogto putrefy, rot (like old eggs)
  baógputrid, ruined, spoiled, rotten; sterile (incapable of bearing children)
Cebuano baúgfor eggs to be addled or old; for a house to be no good; sterile, incapable of producing offspring
  báugbe constipated
Mansaka báogrotten, decayed (as food or teeth); to decay

30215

*baququ tortoise, land turtle

7065

PPh     *baququ tortoise, land turtle

WMP
Bikol baʔóʔoturtle found in rivers and lakes
Agutaynen bakokoa small land turtle
Mansaka baoturtle
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) beʔuʔuturtle
Binukid bauuturtle, tortoise

Note:   Also Ifugaw (Batad) baʔúlʔul, Ilongot bakukul, Pangasinan bakokól, Palawan Batak bayóʔo, Subanun (Siocon) buʔu, Maranao baoʔo ‘turtle’, Malay biuku ‘a water tortoise, Notochelys platynota’. It has a yellow streak extending from the eye and gives it a rather languid look, whence mata biuku (tortoise eyes) = ‘sheep’s eyes’’.

This is an extremely frustrating set of data. A Proto-Philippine reconstruction can be justified only by assuming that Agutaynen bakoko reflects *baququ. However, the range of irregular variation with this word is exceptional, and it may well be that Agutaynen bakoko continues a variant form with *k. Of those non-conforming but evidently related forms cited in this note, only Ilongot bakukul, and Pangasinan bakokól can be reconciled phonologically, so that the remaining words appear to point to at least five variants in addition to *baququ (*baqulqul, *bakukul, *bayuqu, *buqu, *bayuku). Malay biuku, the only apparent cognate known outside the Philippines, is nearly comparable with Palawan Batak bayóʔo, but reflects *k rather than *q as the onset of the final syllable

25141

*baquR trigger of a tension-set trap

651

PMP     *baquR trigger of a tension-set trap

WMP
Ilokano baornoose and switch (extensively used in automatic snares)
Maranao baʔog-aʔspring of animal trap
Tiruray bawerthe tension spring of a snare-type trap
Bisaya (Bukit) baug jaratwooden trigger of a noose trap
Kelabit baʔurfishing pole; trip stick in a noose trap
CMP
W.Tarangan ϕôrspringy stick which is the engine in a snare trap; springy stick which holds the sieve taut in the sago-processing apparatus
Dobel ϕ-ϕakʷurspringy stick which is the engine in a snare trap; springy stick which holds the sieve taut in the sago-processing apparatus (reduplication of ϕak ʷur)

Note:   Also Maranao baog-an ‘trigger of trap’. The West Tarangan and Dobel forms in this comparison were supplied courtesy of Richard Nivens, who also provided a photograph showing what appears to be a bamboo pole bent in a horizontal arc as part of the traditional machinery used in the processing of sago. Dempwolff (1924-1925) reconstructed *baqeR ‘spring of a trap’, but cited little supporting evidence.

25157

*bara₁ pen, enclosure for domesticated animals

677

PMP     *bara₁ pen, enclosure for domesticated animals     [disjunct: *bala₂, *baRa₂]

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ba-barapig pen
Toba Batak baraplace under the house where domesticated animals are kept at night; pen, stable, corral
Sasak barapen, stable
Gorontalo balafence
Makasarese barafenced enclosure, animal pen
SHWNG
Serui-Laut farafence, palisade

678

POC     *bara₄ fence; animal pen; fortification

OC
Mussau bala-balafence
Roviana barafence or wall, a fenced pen
  bara-bokopig fence
Eddystone/Mandegusu baraplace of refuge, fort
Cheke Holo barafence, barrier
  bara-bosupigpen
Nggela mbaralower logs on a fence; loosely, a fence
Lau barafence; enclosure, hedge
'Āre'āre parafence, trap
  para ni kenian enclosure of girls, virgins, taboo for men
Sa'a parato fence with upright posts, to guard
Arosi barahedge; fence made of wood
  bara-baraa fence around a grave

25158

*bara₂ support beams in a house

679

PMP     *bara₂ support beams in a house     [doublet: *barat, *baRat]

WMP
Tboli balasupporting poles for a house
Acehnese barahorizontal tie-beams in a house
Simalur baraarchitrave of a house, the horizontal support beams on the front and back sides of the house
CMP
Yamdena barethe two crossbeams in a Tanimbarese house which project from the entrance, and are longer than the others

680

PMP     *barabara₁ support beams in a house

WMP
Nias bara-baracrossbeams

681

POC     *barabara₂ crosspiece

OC
Dobuan bara-baraacross
Molima bala-balaput crosswise
Eddystone/Mandegusu palapalahorizontal supports of a roof, resting on the center posts

Note:   Assumed to be distinct from *barat₁ or *baRat ‘crossbeam’, since final *t should be reflected as a stop in Yamdena, Dobuan, and Molima,

25159

*bara₃ whatever, whichever

682

PWMP     *bara₃ whatever, whichever     [disjunct: *bala₃]

WMP
Tagalog balawhatever, whichever, whoever
Old Javanese bara-baraall sorts of things

25166

*baraŋgay communal boat

689

PPh     *baraŋgay communal boat     [doublet: *baraŋáy]

WMP
Ilokano baraŋgáysection of a municipality or barrio
Aklanon baráŋgaynative boats -- of historical import, which brought the first Malaysian settlers; club, group, organization

25145

*baran mollusk sp.

660

PMP     *baran mollusk sp.

WMP
Ilokano baránkind of small, edible, gastropodous freshwater mollusk with a rough shell
Malay baran-baran, be-barana shell, sp. unident.
CMP
Kei arut baran-ankind of hammer shell: Malleus vulgaris

Note:   Geurtjens (1921) lists Kei arut baranan under arut. There is no independent entry for baranan, but rather one for bararan ‘shellfish’, which is cross-referenced to arut baranan. I take bararan to be a printer's error for the form correctly listed under arut.

25143

*baranbán small marine fish

655

PPh     *baranbán small marine fish

WMP
Ilokano barambánmarine fish resembling the sardine; it is about 8 inches long and very fat; its meat is esteemed, but it is full of spines
Cebuano banban, balanbánkind of halfbeak: Hemirhamphus sp.

Note:   Possibly *b-ar-anban.

25167

*baraŋ marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any

690

PMP     *baraŋ₁ marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any

WMP
Isneg báraŋa conjunction: if perhaps, haply, let us hope
Bontok bálaŋtake anything, not be particular
Kankanaey bálaŋprovided; it is to be seen if, we will see if, it is to be hoped that, we will hope that (used only in tales)
Hanunóo báraŋperhaps; expressing uncertainty or suspicion
Iban baraŋany; about; whatever, however
  baraŋ-kaliperhaps
Malay baraŋ apawhatever
  baraŋ-kaliperhaps
Malay (Jakarta) baraŋapproximately, more or less
Acehnese baraŋordinary, everyday; gives a general sense to: whoever, whichever
Karo Batak baraŋperhaps; as well as; also used verbally
Toba Batak baraŋor; if; introduces indirect questions
Dairi-Pakpak Batak baraŋor; some; whoever, whatever
Old Javanese baraŋanything which, whatever, just any(-body); just as it comes, just anyhow, indiscriminately, without further thought, without sufficient cause; at any time, continually
Javanese baraŋ... or something ..., ... or anything ..., and things like that; whatever, anything
Uma ba, baraor, perhaps
Bare'e baraparticle of indefiniteness; perhaps, sometimes; also disjunctive: or, evasive
Tae' baraŋparticle that gives the following word an indefinite sense; it is also used independently as a verb
  baraŋ apaall that belongs to a person, possessions
Makasarese baraŋparticle that indicates uncertainty or indefiniteness with regard to an action or a thing, thus: perhaps, possible; also the expression of a wish: hopefully
CMP
Manggarai baraŋperhaps
  baraŋ-kanibelongings, possessions
Rembong baraŋsuppose; perhaps; possible

691

POC     *baraŋ₂ marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any

OC
Tolai baraperhaps (always placed at the end of the sentence)
Kwaio balaindiscriminately, unselectively, perhaps, maybe (but Keesing 1975 gives this as "Modern")

Note:   Kenyah baraŋ ‘only’, Sundanese baraŋ ‘when, at the moment’ may be related, but Rarotongan paa ‘perhaps, possibly, may be’ appears to be a chance resemblance. This lexical item evidently was an important sentence modifier in PMP. In at least PWMP it probably also had some verbal uses, as it does in Karo Batak and Tae', among attested languages. Finally, although the Malay word baraŋ (or baraŋ-baraŋ) ‘possessions, belongings’ has been widely distributed in Indonesia as a result of borrowing Tae' baraŋ apa ‘all that belongs to a person, possessions’, Manggarai baraŋ-kani ‘belongings, possessions’ suggest that the word may have been found in PMP as some kind of compound expression. Whether the element *baraŋ in this expression should be considered the same morpheme as the sentence modifier *baraŋ is a moot point.

25160

*baraŋan₁ banana sp.

683

PWMP     *baraŋan₁ banana sp.     [doublet: *baraŋen₁]

WMP
Isneg baraŋanone of the most esteemed varieties of bananas: Musa sapientum L.
Ilokano banáŋar <Mbanana variety
Tae' punti baraŋanbanana sp. with fruits that are of medium size and speckled black

25161

*baraŋan₂ fruit tree

684

PWMP     *baraŋan₂ fruit tree

WMP
Iban beraŋansmall trees yielding a small chestnut: Castanopsis spp.
Malay beraŋangeneric for chestnuts and oaks: Quercus spp., Castanopsis spp., Pasania spp.
Toba Batak baraŋantree with edible fruits
Dairi-Pakpak Batak baraŋanturpentine fruit
Bare'e baraŋaa small, aromatic citrus fruit the juice of which is used in food preparation and as a shampoo: Citrus acida

25162

*baraŋan₃ rat-weed, arsenic

685

PWMP     *baraŋan₃ rat-weed, arsenic     [doublet: *baraŋen₂]

WMP
Malay beraŋansulphide of arsenic; white arsenical oxide (used as rat poison)
Javanese waraŋanrat-weed, arsenic
Sasak baraŋanrat-weed

25163

*baraŋay kind of large boat

686

PWMP     *baraŋay kind of large boat

WMP
Ilokano baraŋáyboat, ship
Isneg baraŋáycanoe
Itawis baraŋáycanoe
Tagalog baláŋaycommunity of families; local branch or lodge of a society or fraternity; boat with 12 to 16 rowers
Bikol baráŋaydivision of a municipality, hamlet; medium-size boat
Cebuano baláŋaybarrio, the smallest unit of self-government; kind of large boat
Maranao baraŋayboat
Iban beraŋaiwar boat, esp. the 'boat' in which the souls of the dead travel the Mandai River
Malay beraŋaia piratical prahu furnished with grapnel and boarding-gangways to attack becalmed or anchored ships

Note:   In Blust (1970) I suggested ‘communal boat’ as a gloss for this form. However, all that can clearly be inferred from the glosses of the genetically most distant reflexes (Iban and Malay vs. the Philippine forms) is that *baraŋay referred to a large boat. References to a residential unit or to a unit of social organization are confined to the Tagalic languages, and the Ilokano doublet, and so may be historically secondary.

25164

*baraŋen₁ banana sp.

687

PWMP     *baraŋen₁ banana sp.     [doublet: *baraŋan₁]

WMP
Isneg baraŋanone of the most esteemed varieties of bananas: Musa sapientum L.
Makasarese unti baraŋeŋbanana sp.

25165

*baraŋen₂ rat-weed, arsenic

688

PWMP     *baraŋen₂ rat-weed, arsenic     [doublet: *baraŋan₃]

WMP
Malay beraŋansulphide of arsenic; white arsenical oxide (used as rat poison)
Buginese waraŋeŋrat-weed, arsenic
Makasarese baraŋeŋrat-weed, arsenic

Note:   Possibly a loan distribution. However, if the South Sulawesi forms are borrowed from Malay or Javanese the last vowel is unexplained.

25146

*baraq disaster

661

PMP     *baraq disaster

WMP
Tagalog bálaʔthreat
  ba-bálaʔportent, as of storm; warning notice
Maranao bara-baraʔto court disaster
CMP
Ngadha varamisfortune, disaster

25149

*baras reciprocate good or evil

665

PWMP     *baras reciprocate good or evil     [doublet: *bales₁]

WMP
Maranao barassorrow, retribution
Tiruray barasgive some reward for past efforts, beyond any agreed compensation
Singhi Land Dayak barasretribution

25148

*barasbas sound of splashing water

664

PWMP     *barasbas sound of splashing water

WMP
Ilokano barasábassound of heavy rain, of a jet of water, etc.
Old Javanese barabasstreaming
Makasarese barabasaʔfall suddenly and in a great quantity fall down together in a large circle (of fruit, leaves, rain)
Chamorro palaspassplash (as a fish in the water)

Note:   Mills (1975), citing Matthes (1859), gives Makasarese baraʔbasaʔ ‘to rain in’. This item may be the same morpheme as *basbas₂ ‘sprinkle’.

25151

*barat₁ crossbeam

668

PAN     *barat₁ crossbeam     [doublet: *baRat₁]

Formosan
Amis falatcrossbeam in a house; horizontal, as opposed to vertical
WMP
Nias bara-baracrossbeam
  ba-baralie across
Proto-Minahasan *baratat an angle, slanting
Bolaang Mongondow barat-ancrossbeam for an outrigger
Wolio barat-abinding for outrigger float
CMP
Rotinese balie crosswise, as a log across the road

669

POC     *barat, parat crosswise beam or shelf     [doublet: *(m)paRat]

OC
Lau barashelf for firewood crosswise (lengthwise: gwegwela)

Note:   Also Kei wār ‘cross-sticks to which the outriggers are attached’. Mota varat ‘the purlins of a house’ may reflect a suffixed