Updated: 7/25/2014
Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Sub-Groups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References      Roots      Loans      Noise      Formosan      

Blust's
Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*e   

ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

26151

*e numeral prefix

2431

POC     *e numeral prefix     [doublet: *i₄]

OC
Mono-Alu enumeral prefix (used only with 2-4)
Arosi eindefinite article; used with nouns including numerals, and verbs treated as nouns (used with 1-9)
Tutuba enumeral prefix (used only with 2-5)
Atchin enumeral prefix (used only with 2-5)
Fijian eparticle used before numerals; 'there are (so many)' (Schütz 1985:101)
Tongan euntranslatable particle used before numerals
Samoan eparticle used before numerals and certain other words referring to things which can be counted
Rennellese epreposed numeral marker

Note:   Also Tongan ʔe ‘untranslatable particle used before numerals’, Hawaiian ʔe ‘general numeral classifier which precedes numerals from from 1-9’ (Elbert and Pukui 1979). In addition to the indisputably cognate forms cited above it is tempting to compare Palauan e ‘prefix used to form number words that refer to units of time’. However, cognates are unknown in any other non-OC language, and PMP mid vowels *e and *o are rare and problematic. For these reasons I treat Palauan e as a chance resemblance.

In the standard grammars of Fijian and several of the Polynesian languages the numeral marker e is equated with the predicative or existential marker of similar shape which is widespread in OC languages. However, it is noteworthy that reflexes of *e ‘numeral marker’ are known to be distributed only from the western Solomons to Polynesia, whereas reflexes of the variant *i ‘numeral marker’ are found both in CMP and in OC languages.

One hypothesis worthy of further investigation is that a numeral marker *i was innovated in PCEMP and a predicative or existential marker *e was innovated in POc, with a subsequent tendency for the former (which was syntactically more restricted) to be equated with the latter (which was syntactically freer). Just how restricted the distribution of the numeral marker *i, *e was remains unclear, but in most languages it does not occur with ‘one’, and in many others it does not occur with numerals above ‘five’.

26087

*embaq bring, take along

2327

PWMP     *embaq bring, take along

WMP
Karo Batak embahbring, take, carry (as a letter)
Balinese embahtake, be taken

Note:   Also Acehnese ba ‘bring, take along’.

26088

*embaw high, on top

2328

PWMP     *embaw high, on top

WMP
Berawan (Long Terawan) appiwtall
Singhi Land Dayak omuhigh
Sangir embowhat is moved on top
  maŋ-embolay on top

Note:   With root *-baw₁ ‘high; top’.

26089

*embej bind the waist; band around the waist

2329

PWMP     *embej bind the waist; band around the waist

WMP
Tboli m-ebedtie knots, wind about
Balinese bedwind round, tie round
  ebedwrapped up, wrapped about
  embedband or ring which firmly closes something
Sasak embetblack cord around the middle of a newborn or a sick person

Note:   With root *-bej ‘wind around repeatedly’.

26051

*ebek thudding sound

2286

PWMP     *ebek thudding sound

WMP
Ifugaw obókrattling noise, sometimes applied to the resonant sounds produced by those who beat the gongs for those who are dancing
Maranao mbekgive a whacking or thudding sound
Javanese beka thud

Note:   With root *-bek₁ ‘dull muffled sound’.

26091

*embeŋ a dam; to dam a stream

2331

PMP     *embeŋ a dam; to dam a stream     [doublet: *empeŋ]

WMP
Tboli beŋwall
  beŋ ketidam
Kelabit ebʰeŋlevee in paddy field
Kenyah mbeŋa dam
CMP
Bimanese ombodam a stream

2332

POC     *opoŋ block, obstruct

OC
Nggela ovoblock a road with branches

Note:   Also Iban baŋ ‘thwart in a longboat, between the gunwales’, Malay embaŋ ‘thwart, crossbar’, Sasak embaŋ ‘dam up’. With root *-beŋ₂ ‘block, stop, dam’.

26090

*embet bind the middle

2330

PWMP     *embet bind the middle     [disjunct: *embej]

WMP
Sasak embetblack cord around the middle of a newborn or a sick person
Tontemboan embetwrap around, bind the middle (as with a belt)

26052

*ebuk dust, powder

2287

PMP     *ebuk dust, powder

WMP
Balinese ebukdust, powder
CMP
Ngadha evusawdust

Note:   With root *-buk₁ ‘decay, crumble; powder’.

26053

*ebun heap, pile, swarm, flock; to swarm, assemble, gather

2288

PMP     *ebun heap, pile, swarm, flock; to swarm, assemble, gather

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat ebunswarm, gather (as ants on sugar, bees swarming on a person, birds gathering around drying rice to eat it)
Kenyah mbuna heap
Kenyah (Long Wat) vunheap, pile

2289

POC     *opun heap, pile

OC
Nggela ovucrowd, heap, pile, flock; to assemble, heap together; make a bundle; a bundle
Lau ofube together; pile up, amass; a bundle

Note:   With root *-bun ‘heap, pile; cover with earth; assemble, gather’.

26054

*ebuq gut a fish, eviscerate

2290

PWMP     *ebuq gut a fish, eviscerate

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) evuʔsevere stomach cramps; to disembowel or remove the entrails
Maranao boʔclean out the entrails of a fish; stab in the abdomen
Tiruray ʔeboʔremove the intestines of fish (loan)
Kelabit ibʰuʔlongitudinal incision on the ventral side of a fish or animal to remove the viscera

Note:   Kelabit ibhuʔ is assumed to derive from underlying **ebhuʔ through affixation with *-in-, a derivation which enables us to explain the voiced aspirate as the regular reflex of *b (following shwa). A parallel example is seen in ebhaʔ ‘water’, ibhaʔ ‘kind of bark bowl used for emptying water’.

26055

*ebuR sow, strew, scatter

2291

PMP     *ebuR sow, strew, scatter

WMP
Sundanese ewar-ewurto strew
Mandar embursow, strew, scatter about
CMP
Sika burstrew, scatter; sow rice and maize

Note:   With root *-buR₂ ‘strew, sow; sprinkle’.

26056

*ebus finished, gone

2292

PWMP     *ebus finished, gone     [disjunct: *qubus]

WMP
Aklanon óbusgone, used up, exhausted, all out
Banggai obusfinished, done

Note:   With root *-bus ‘end, terminate, finish’.

26092

*embut to pound, of the pulse

2333

PWMP     *embut to pound, of the pulse

WMP
Karo Batak embutto pound, of the pulse
Toba Batak maŋ-ombut-ombutto pound, of the pulse; to throb, of pain
  maŋ-ombut-ito pound

2334

PWMP     *embut-embut fontanel

WMP
Karo Batak mbut-mbutfontanel
Toba Batak ombut-ombutfontanel
Sasak embut-embutfontanel

Note:   Also Old Javanese embun, Madurese embun ‘fontanel’. PWMP *embut is inferred by extraction from the reduplicated form.

TOP      ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

ed

26057

*edaŋ light, radiance; shine

2293

PWMP     *edaŋ light, radiance; shine

WMP
Kelabit edʰaŋlight, radiance
Tae' arraŋlight, shine, lustre, glitter; to shine, radiate, give out light

26104

*endaŋ stop, come to a stop

2357

PWMP     *endaŋ stop, come to a stop

WMP
Cebuano undáŋstop doing something, come to a stop (eating, plowing, menstruation)
Balinese endaŋstopping of the rain
Sasak endaŋto stop (of the rain)

2358

PWMP     *endaŋ endaŋ periodically stopping

WMP
Cebuano undáŋ-undáŋintermittent, on and off
Balinese endaŋ-endaŋ-edry season

Note:   Also Bikol udóŋ ‘stop, come to a stop’.

26058

*edaʔ vetative; don't

2294

PMP     *edaʔ vetative; don't     [doublet: *eŋgaʔ]    [disjunct: *ejaʔ]

WMP
Maranao daʔnone, nil, lose, not
Tiruray ʔendaʔnone, not any, not
Melanau (Mukah) ndano, not
Iban endaʔnot
Maloh adaʔdon't
Balinese edaparticle marking a negative imperative: do not
Sasak endaʔdon't! (vetative)
Tae' da(ʔ)negative imperative: don't
CMP
Kambera ndaparticle of negation

Note:   Also Malay endah ‘no, not (Brunei, Sarawak)’, Javanese aja ‘don't!, may (it) not’, Buginese ennaʔ ‘no, not’. Bare'e ja ‘only, just, not then’, Makasarese -ja ‘enclitic with a limiting, and therefore sometimes exclusive, accentuated or contrastive character; only, but’ probably are distinct.

26059

*edeg back (of humans or animals)

2295

PPh     *edeg back (of humans or animals)

WMP
Isneg addágthe back (of living things)
Bontok ʔədégback of a person or animal; the hard case or shell of bamboo, as contrasted with the inner pith
Kankanaey edégback (used only in tales)
Ifugaw odógback of persons, animals; textiles, garments, belts, certain tools, etc., may be said to have a back
Bikol udógback (of humans, animals, fish)
Bonggi aregback

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat adég ‘the upper back portion of a person's body; turn your back on someone or something’, Singhi Land Dayak dug ‘back (anat.)’. If Singhi Land Dayak dug (expected **dog) is in fact cognate with the Philippine forms cited here *edeg must be assigned to PWMP. How its referent might have differed from that of *likuD remains unclear.

26060

*edem₁ overcast; dull lustre

2296

PWMP     *edem₁ overcast; dull lustre

WMP
Karo Batak endemovercast; clouded over, of the sun or moon

2297

PWMP     *ma-edem overcast; dull lustre

WMP
Palawan Batak ma-ʔudumrain cloud (Reid 1971)
Old Javanese m-eḍemextinguished, lustreless

Note:   With root *-dem₁ ‘dark; overcast’. Old Javanese meḍem is cited under eḍem, but the available textual evidence does not rule out the possibility that it is the morphologically complex surface realization of underlying peḍem.

26061

*edem₂ soak, dye

2298

PAN     *edem₂ soak, dye     [disjunct: *Redem]

Formosan
Paiwan eremto dye
WMP
Tiruray ʔeremimmerse or soak in water
Balantak oromimmerse

26062

*eden to brood, sit on eggs

2299

PWMP     *eden to brood, sit on eggs     [doublet: *qendem]

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) erenof a sitting hen; to sit on eggs
Sundanese ɨrɨnkeep still, quiet, be at rest
Tae' arranto brood, sit on eggs

Note:   Also Bontok eleŋ ‘to rest, stop working, put down one's load for awhile’, Cebuano ugaŋ ‘mother hen’, Tiruray eran ‘(of a hen) to sit on eggs’, Balinese edem ‘rest, be at rest, sleep’.

26105

*enduR thunder

2359

PMP     *enduR thunder     [doublet: *duRduR]

WMP
Isneg addúgthunder
CMP
Kambera ndurusound of thunder or of the hooves of galloping horses

26106

*endut resilient, springing back when pressed down

2360

PWMP     *endut resilient, springing back when pressed down

WMP
Karo Batak endutelastic, resilient, springing back, of something that has been pressed down
Javanese endutbouncy, springy

Note:   Old Javanese eṇḍut ‘mud’, Balinese eṇḍut ‘mud, clay’, eṇḍut pasih ‘quicksand on a beach’, Sasak endut ‘muddy, slippery’ appear to be distinct.

TOP      ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

eg

26064

*egaŋ dry, dried up

2302

PWMP     *egaŋ dry, dried up

WMP
Tagalog igáŋdried up, dehydrated
Kayan gaŋdry branch, dead branch; dryness; be dry
Kayan (Uma Juman) gaŋdry wood used for firewood
  me-gaŋdry
Kayan (Busang) me-gaŋdry (as wood)

Note:   With root *gaŋ ‘dry near a fire’.

26063

*egap gasp, open the mouth to breathe

2300

PWMP     *egap gasp, open the mouth to breathe     [doublet: *ekap]

WMP
Toba Batak ogapsuffocate, choke, drown
Old Javanese egapgasp for breath

2301

PWMP     *um-egap gasp

WMP
Toba Batak m-ogapdrown
Javanese m-egappant, breathe in gasps

Note:   Also Tagalog higáb ‘yawn’, Sundanese ɨŋap ‘feeling of suffocation, choking’, Sundanese eŋap ‘gasp for breath’, Old Javanese egep ‘gasp for breath’, Palauan chisb ‘hiccough’.

26158

*eŋgaʔ no, not

2438

PWMP     *eŋgaʔ no, not     [doublet: *endaʔ]

WMP
Itbayaten eŋgano
Aborlan Tagbanwa ɨŋganot
Malay eŋgano, not (Jakarta)
Sasak eŋgaʔmerely, only, just

Note:   Also Aborlan Tagbanwa ɨga ‘not’, Malay (Jakarta) eŋgaʔ, eŋgah ‘no, not’.

26159

*eŋgem hold something inside the mouth

2439

PMP     *eŋgem hold something inside the mouth     [doublet: *qeŋkem]

WMP
Cebuano úgumhold or keep something inside the mouth; enclose something within it as if enclosed in the mouth
Maranao gemhold in mouth
Kayan gemhold, take hold of; touch
Madurese egemshut the mouth
Sasak eŋgemcarry in the closed hand
  ber-eŋgemwith clenched fist
Sangir eŋguŋthe wings with which a hen protects her chicks
Gorontalo oŋgomoclenched in the fist

2440

POC     *oŋkom hold in the mouth

OC
Nggela oŋgom-ihold a solid in the mouth
Kwaio okom-iato swallow
Sa'a okom-iroll around in the mouth and swallow whole

Note:   Also Toba Batak oŋom ‘hold something in the mouth without swallowing’. With root *-gem ‘grasp in the fist’.

26065

*egik high-pitched throaty sound

2303

PMP     *egik high-pitched throaty sound

WMP
Malay eŋgékto pant
Toba Batak oŋgikgasp for breath (as of someone drowning)
Javanese eŋgikchirp of a certain beetle
CMP
Rembong gékto cry
Ngadha gicall a puppy

Note:   With root *-gik ‘shrill throaty sound’. PWMP *e > Bikol u in the penult is exceptional, but not unparalleled (cf. e.g. Dyen 1953:fn. 67, and the Bikol reflex of *edeg, *Reken, etc. in this dictionary).

26172

*e(ŋ)guk make a gurgling sound

2454

PMP     *e(ŋ)guk make a gurgling sound

WMP
Tagalog ugókrumbling sound (from the stomach or the bowels)
Sundanese eŋguk-eŋgukonom. for the sound of the turtledove
Javanese eŋgokthroat
Sangir eŋguʔmake a grumbling or moaning sound
CMP
Manggarai guksound of water going down the throat
  ŋguksound of water being swallowed

Note:   With root *-guk ‘deep throaty sound’. Pending further information, I treat Manggarai NC- and eNC- as diachronically equivalent.

TOP      ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

ej

26066

*ejaʔ vetative; don't

2304

PWMP     *ejaʔ vetative; don't     [disjunct: *edaʔ]

WMP
Maranao daʔnone, nil, lose, not
Iban endaʔnot
Balinese edaparticle marking a negative imperative: do not
Uma ojaʔnot want

26173

*e(ŋ)juŋ nose

2455

PWMP     *e(ŋ)juŋ nose     [doublet: *ijuŋ, *ŋijuŋ, *ujuŋ]

WMP
Kapampangan áruŋnose
Bisaya (Limbang) aduŋnose
Rungus Dusun oduŋnose
Belait ndoŋnose
Kenyah (Long Anap) nduŋnose
Singhi Land Dayak nuŋnose
Rejang ñuŋnose

Note:   Also Ilokano agóŋ ‘nose; the funnel-shaped entrance to a bow net’, Kakiduge:n Ilongot ɨgɨŋ ‘nose’, Iban (Lemanak) ɨdɨŋ ‘nose’, Ifugaw olóŋ ‘nose’. It is possible to reconstruct a PPh disjunct *ajuŋ, but this possibility -- because it is only weakly attested -- is ignored here.

TOP      ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

ek

26067

*ekab open, uncover

2305

PWMP     *ekab open, uncover

WMP
Tausug okabto open
Dairi-Pakpak Batak oŋkambreak open, lift up
Old Javanese eŋkabopen, unfold, develop, expand
Javanese eŋkabpeel off, break off
Balinese eŋkablift up, open something by lifting a lid
Gorontalo oʔabuopen (wing)
Bare'e okaopen, broken open (as the ground, a dam, a wall)

Note:   Also Tagalog hikáb ‘yawn’. With root *-kab ‘open, uncover’.

26174

*e(ŋ)kak choke, gasp, struggle for breath

2456

PMP     *e(ŋ)kak choke, gasp, struggle for breath

WMP
Toba Batak oŋkakrattle, rasp, choke
CMP
Manggarai kakto bark (dog)
Sika kaklose one's voice
Kambera àkastutter (onom.)
  àkakua stutterer

2457

PWMP     *eŋkak-eŋkak choke, gasp, struggle for breath

WMP
Toba Batak m-oŋkak-oŋkakchoke on too large a bite
Dairi-Pakpak Batak m-eŋkak-eŋkakpant, gasp for breath
Sundanese eŋkak-eŋkak-ansputter in breathing, as someone sinking in water
Balinese eŋkak-eŋkaklament continually
Sasak eŋkak-eŋkakgasp for breath

Note:   With root *-kak₁ ‘cackle, laugh loudly’. Possibly identical to *Sekak.

26069

*ekaŋ hoot, croak

2307

PWMP     *ekaŋ hoot, croak

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ekaŋowl
Iban kaŋfrog sp.
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) kaŋcroaking sound of a bullfrog

Note:   With root *-kaŋ₂ ‘bark, croak’.

26162

*eŋkaŋ spread the legs

2443

PWMP     *eŋkaŋ spread the legs

WMP
Tagalog iŋkáŋunbalanced (in walking)
Minangkabau eŋkaŋwalking with legs wide astretch
Bare'e oŋkasquat

Note:   Also Balinese eŋgaŋ ‘stand apart like a pair of compasses, legs’. With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.

26068

*ekap gasp for air

2306

PMP     *ekap gasp for air     [doublet: *egap]

WMP
Karo Batak eŋkapgasp for air, be at one's last gasp
Toba Batak oŋkapgasp for air, cough
CMP
Manggarai hapgasping, panting

Note:   Also Ilokano rikáb ‘gasp, respire convulsively’.

26161

*eŋkaq breathe quickly or deeply

2442

PWMP     *eŋkaq breathe quickly or deeply

WMP
Karo Batak eŋkahbreathe quickly, pant
Old Javanese ekahsigh, moan
Balinese eŋkahbreathe out through the mouth

Note:   Also Old Javanese eŋkeh, eŋkuh ‘sigh’.

26070

*ekeb cover

2308

PMP     *ekeb cover

WMP
Isneg akkábspread a tabúkol net over an agglomeration of pebbles in a stream; join the rims of two baskets, the upper one upside-down
Kankanaey ekébinclosed, covered, hidden (applied to the gall bladder when completely inclosed in the liver, which is considered as a good omen)
Kelabit ekebto cover; lid, as for a basket
Kenyah (Long Wat) kepcover, lid
Bintulu keblid; to cover (imper.)
  m-ekebclose by covering with something, as a bowl, etc.
Murik keplid, cover
Balinese eŋkebhide, keep secret
Bolaang Mongondow oŋkobto cover
CMP
Manggarai ekepbrood, sit on eggs

2309

POC     *okop cover with something (?)

OC
Fijian okocover up a bunch of bananas to ripen them

Note:   With root *-keb₁ ‘cover’.

26175

*e(ŋ)kek subdued laughter; sobbing

2458

PMP     *e(ŋ)kek subdued laughter; sobbing     [disjunct: *qekqek]

WMP
Ilokano ekkéklaugh with subdued laughter
Karo Batak eŋkeksob heavily (children)
CMP
Manggarai ŋkekimitation of the sound of a fart

Note:   With root *-kek ‘shriek, creak, cluck, chuckle’.

26163

*eŋkel bent, stooped

2444

PMP     *eŋkel bent, stooped

WMP
Bare'e oŋkocrooked, leaning over, bent (as a coconut tree about to fall, or someone stalking birds)
Wolio oŋkostoop, bend down
CMP
Bimanese okobow the head

2445

POC     *oŋkol bend, stoop over

OC
Cheke Holo ogobent over, stooped (tree, or old man)
Fijian oqoto walk stooping, as in a house or in the presence of a chief; crouch down in approaching something, as a fish to spear it

Note:   Also Bare'e ogo ‘bowed by age or sickness’, oŋgo ‘bent, bowed, as someone in walking’. With root *-kel ‘bend, curl’.

26073

*ekeŋ stiff

2312

PMP     *ekeŋ stiff

WMP
Toba Batak oŋkoŋstiff, rheumatic, arthritic
CMP
Manggarai keŋtaut (rope)

Note:   With root *-keŋ₁ ‘cramps, stiffening of limbs’.

26165

*eŋkeŋ moan, hum, howl

2447

PMP     *eŋkeŋ moan, hum, howl

WMP
Dairi-Pakpak Batak eŋkeŋsound made by a sleeping person during a nightmare
CMP
Manggarai ŋkeŋhum, howl (as the wind)

Note:   With root *-keŋ₃ ‘hollow, resounding sound’.

26071

*ekep brood, sit on eggs

2310

PMP     *ekep brood, sit on eggs     [disjunct: *ekeb]

WMP
Kayan kepto brood on eggs, hatch
  hiap kepa brooding hen
Singhi Land Dayak ŋ-ukopto sit (of a hen)
CMP
Manggarai ekepbrood, sit on eggs; sit in hiding

Note:   Also Nias uxu ‘brood, hatch eggs’, Bolaang Mongondow oob ‘brood, sit on eggs’, Uma ooʔ ‘brood, sit on eggs’, Bare'e oʔo ‘brood, sit on eggs’. With root *-kep₁ ‘cover; fold over’.

26164

*eŋker low guttural or rumbling sound; snore, roar

2446

PWMP     *eŋker low guttural or rumbling sound; snore, roar

WMP
Maranao kerroar, grunt (as a hog)
Karo Batak eŋkersnore
Tontemboan eŋkerdull roar of flames, of (walking on) hollow ground, or the sound that accompanies an earthquake
Tonsea eŋkersnore (Schwarz 1908)

Note:   With probable root *-ker (cp. *-kur ‘coo; turtledove’).

26072

*eket stick, adhere

2311

PWMP     *eket stick, adhere

WMP
Isneg akkátcleave, adhere, stick
Dairi-Pakpak Batak eŋketwith, and, together with
Balinese eŋketbird-lime, sticky stuff, sap of trees
Mentawai eketsap, resin; to stick or adhere

Note:   With root *-keC ‘adhesive, sticky’.

26176

*e(ŋ)kik shrill cry

2459

PMP     *e(ŋ)kik shrill cry     [disjunct: *ekit]

WMP
Tboli m-ekikcry
Balinese eŋkiksound sad
  eŋkik eŋkirspecies of bird which has a mournful cry
CMP
Rotinese ekiscream, shriek, shout at the top of one's voice; laugh, make noise (out of pleasure or anger); a shriek, cry, shout

Note:   With root *-kik ‘shrill throaty sound’.

26074

*ekit squeak, shriek

2313

PMP     *ekit squeak, shriek     [disjunct: *e(ŋ)kik]

WMP
Maranao kitdull sound of chopping soft material (as rawhide)
Malay eŋkét-eŋkétcreaking of a carrying-pole
Toba Batak oŋkitto sob
Javanese eŋkètcreaking sound made by a shoulder carrying-pole
Sasak eŋkitsqueak, chirp; hiss (snake)
CMP
Rotinese ekiscream, shriek, shout at the top of one's voice; laugh, make noise (out of pleasure or anger); a shriek, cry, shout

Note:   Javanese eŋkèt probably is a loan from Malay.

26075

*ekuk make a croaking sound

2314

PMP     *ekuk make a croaking sound

WMP
Balinese eŋkukthe rise and fall of the voice of the dove
Sasak eŋkokretch, heave
CMP
Manggarai kukcroak of a kind of frog

Note:   With root *-kuk₂ ‘sound of a sob, cackle, etc.’.

26076

*ekup enclose, cover

2315

PWMP     *ekup enclose, cover

WMP
Isneg akkúpto catch (birds) in their nest at night
Javanese eŋkupclose up (as an umbrella)

Note:   With root *-kup ‘enclose, cover’.

26166

*eŋkus snort, sniff; blow air through the nostrils

2448

PWMP     *eŋkus snort, sniff; blow air through the nostrils

WMP
Karo Batak eŋkussnort, as a wild buffalo; pant in suffocation or anxiety
Sasak eŋkussniff in or up

Note:   Also Sasak eŋkos ‘to spit, hiss (snake)’.

26167

*eŋkut guttural sound

2449

PMP     *eŋkut guttural sound

WMP
Maranao kotsound made by throat in swallowing hard
Sundanese eŋkutsay "kut", of the uŋkut-uŋkut bird
Tontemboan eŋkutsound of soft groaning or moaning
CMP
Kambera àŋgufirst sounds of a small child learning to talk

TOP      ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

el

26077

*elak separate two things

2316

PMP     *elak separate two things     [doublet: *qelaŋ]

WMP
Kankanaey élak-endivide between two
Kelabit elakstored in the fork of a branch
Malagasy élak-élakamiddle, intermediate space, that between
Old Javanese elaklie open, with gaping opening
Tae' ellakwalk through something, step between something, as between the rows of rice plants in a paddy field
CMP
Manggarai elakalternating, spaced widely, seldom
  lakat intervals, periodically, occasionally
Rembong elakalternating, at intervals; variation
Yamdena elakmark off a border; stretch between
Fordata elakfrontier, border, line of division

Note:   Also Fordata elat ‘frontier, border, line of division’.

26078

*eleb knee

2317

PWMP     *eleb knee     [doublet: *qaleb]

WMP
Maranao lebknee
Kenyah lepknee
Melanau (Matu) teb-elebthigh

Note:   Also Kanakanabu ə'və ‘knee’. Probably *qeleb.

26079

*elem₁ shade, darkness

2318

PMP     *elem₁ shade, darkness

WMP
Bontok ʔəlémsheltered or surrounded, as a trail which passes through a forested place
Bolaang Mongondow oḷomcoolness, protection from the heat of the sun, shadow (distinct from olinow 'the shadow of something'), the cool place under a tree
CMP
Manggarai lemnew moon; dark

Note:   With root *-lem₁ ‘dark; obscure’. To judge from the Bolaang Mongondow contrast of oḷom and olinow, and from the reconstruction of PMP *qalinu ‘shade, shadow’ next to *elem, this item probably referred to formless shade in contrast to the well-defined shadow of something. The similarity of the Manggarai word to the other two cited here may be a product of convergent evolution operating on a common monosyllabic root.

26080

*elem₂ cautious, suspicious

2319

PWMP     *elem₂ cautious, suspicious

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat elémguard, keep watch (against raiders while one's companions sleep)
Bontok ʔəlémreluctant, cautious, fearful, suspicious
Ifugaw olómsuspicion; become suspicious, suspect
Ifugaw (Batad) olómunduly jealous or suspicious
Karo Batak elemhate someone
  elem-elem atéhate

26081

*elet₁ borrow, be in debt

2320

PMP     *elet₁ borrow, be in debt

WMP
Tiruray ʔeletborrow, lend
Balinese elethire, rent
CMP
Sika ʔele(t)debt, be in debt

26082

*elet₂ exert strength or effort

2321

PWMP     *elet₂ exert strength or effort

WMP
Ifugaw olótstrength, force
Ifugaw (Batad) olótdo something by exertion, strength
Pangasinan elétrigor, firmness
  ma-letstrong, well-founded
Nias õlõexpenditure of strength or effort (for something)

26083

*eliŋ high-pitched sound

2322

PMP     *eliŋ high-pitched sound

WMP
Maranao liŋsound of metals
Balinese eliŋweep, wail; crying, weeping
Tae' alliŋvague sound from a distance
CMP
Manggarai liŋsound, to sound, as a flute or a clap of the hands

Note:   With root *-liŋ₁ ‘clear ringing sound’.

26084

*eluŋ bend, curve

2323

PMP     *eluŋ bend, curve

WMP
Old Javanese eluŋyoung and flexible branch, shoot (esp. of climbing plants)
Javanese m-eluŋto bend, bow
Tae' eloŋcurl up, as a snake; flutter; up and down movement of a flag
Buginese elloŋneck
CMP
Fordata elunbent, curved

Note:   With root *-luŋ₁ ‘bend, curve’.

TOP      ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

em

26085

*ema₁ father's sister, possibly address term

2324

PMP     *ema₁ father's sister, possibly address term

WMP
Isneg ammāfather
Sundanese (e)mamother (address in informal speech); also a title for married women of inferior social status
CMP
Bimanese umafather (address by someone of the same group)
Manggarai emafather; used in teknonyms
Ngadha emafather
Lamaholot emamother

2325

PMP     *ema-ʔ father's sister, possibly address term

WMP
Tagalog imá-ʔmother
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) ɨma-ʔfather
Bilaan (Sarangani) ma-ʔfather
Tboli ma-ʔfather, used in teknonyms with reference to the eldest child
Samal ɨmma-ʔfather
Iban ma-ʔmother
Lampung ma-ʔmother
Malay ema-kmother, aunt
Proto-Sangiric *ema-ʔmother
Ratahan ma-ʔmother (vocative)
Buginese emma-ʔmother
Makasarese amma-ʔmother (reference and address)
CMP
Komodo ema-ʔmother
Rembong ema-ʔmother; father; MZH, HF

Note:   Also Iban mak ‘mother’, Javanese emak ‘maidservant who takes care of the children; mother, mom’. The meaning of this form is problematic. If we simply conjoin the attested glosses it would seem to follow that *ema meant both ‘mother’ and ‘father’. Such a result, however, would be anomalous, since (1) the meanings ‘mother’ and ‘father’ are represented by PAn *ina and *ama respectively, and (2) reflexes of *ina apparently never mean ‘father’ and reflexes of *ama apparently never mean ‘mother’. If we posit *ina and *ama as referential terms, and *ema as vocative, we can eliminate the problem of synonymy raised in (1), since then *ina = ‘mother (ref.)’, *ema = ‘mother (voc.)’, *ama = ‘father (ref.)’, and *ema = ‘father (voc.)’. Nonetheless, we would still have no explanation for the unique occurrence of a single vocative form representing two address forms. Similarly, we cannot support an inference that the material cited here reflects *ama with oxytone stress, since the divergent semantic evolution of cognates assigned to *amá would remain problematic in any case.

Alternatively, we might assume that *ema was used in teknonyms, as reported for Tboli and Manggarai. Even so, the problem of a single teknonym meaning both ‘mother’ and ‘father’ would remain unsolved. The only parallel to the semantic range of *ema known to me is that of *aya ‘FZ’, which is reflected in some languages with the meaning ‘mother’ and in others with the meaning ‘father’, but which also appears in a few languages with the meaning ‘aunt’, or specifically, ‘FZ’. Perhaps *ema was a vocative/address form of *aya, just as *mama was a vocative/address form of PMP *(ma)tuqah ‘MB’. If so, however, the absence of any reflex which refers exclusively to female collaterals of the parental generation is puzzling, as is the use of the apparently redundant vocative marker (for further discussion of vocative marking in PMP cf. Blust 1979).

26086

*ema₂ kiss

2326

PWMP     *ema₂ kiss     [doublet: *umaq]

WMP
Itawis ammákiss
Karo Batak emakiss, embrace
Dairi-Pakpak Batak emaa kiss
  meŋ-emato kiss

26093

*emeg damp, moist

2335

PWMP     *emeg damp, moist

WMP
Cebuano umúgdamp, moist (as clothing, or coffee which has been exposed to moisture before boiling)
Balinese emegstill wet, damp (as greens just picked)

Note:   Also Tagalog hímig ‘humidity’, Bikol damóg, dumóg ‘saturated, Cebuano humúd ‘wet’, Bolaang Mongondow omok ‘make wet, dampen’.

26094

*emis sweet taste

2336

PMP     *emis₁ sweet taste     [disjunct: *hemis]

WMP
Binukid ɨmissweet
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) emissweet
Kayan (Uma Juman) misweet
Lampung missweet
Proto-Sangiric *emissweet
Proto-Minahasan *emissweet
CMP
Li'o misweet
Palu'e misweet
Sika misweet; insipid
SHWNG
Buli mis-missweet

26095

*emit small in quantity, few; trifling amount

2337

PMP     *emit small in quantity, few; trifling amount

WMP
Iban mitsmall, little
  anak mitbaby
  mi-mita little; small in quantity or number
Sundanese sa-eméta very small quantity, a trifle, a little bit
CMP
Ngadha emia small amount; small, trifling; few; insignificant

Note:   Also Ngadha emé ‘small, few, insignificant’.

26099

*emun if

2350

PWMP     *emun if     [doublet: *amun]

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) emunif, when (in a declarative sense)
Berawan (Long Terawan) munif
Melanau (Mukah) munif
Melanau (Dalat - Kampung Teh) munif
Melanau (Sarikei) munif

Note:   Also Ma'anyan, Kapuas, Siang amun ‘if’, "Proto-Malayo-Javanic" *lamun ‘provided it be’ (Nothofer 1975:97), Brunei Malay (l)amun ‘if, provided that’.

26101

*emuŋ gather, collect together

2352

PWMP     *emuŋ gather, collect together

WMP
Itawis ammúŋgathering
Cebuano umúŋpile up harvested rice together with the stalks
Kelabit emuŋway of gathering
Sangir emmuŋsave up, heap together, gather, collect; stay together, keep company
Makasarese ammuŋaltogether, everyone

2353

PWMP     *maŋ-emuŋ to gather, collect together

WMP
Itawis maŋ-ammúŋgather together (things or persons)
Kelabit ŋ-emuŋcollect, gather, bring together
Sangir maŋ-emmuŋsave up, heap together, gather, collect; stay together, keep company

26100

*emuR hold in the mouth

2351

PMP     *emuR hold in the mouth

WMP
Balinese emuhave the mouth full without swallowing
CMP
Kédang èmurmouth-wash, gargle
OC
'Āre'āre omuroll the food in one's mouth (of toothless people)

Note:   Also Sundanese ɨmɨy ‘hold something in the mouth for awhile, as the saliva from the betel chew’ (< *emeR), Tae' ammo ‘put something in the mouth and conceal it by closing the lips’ (< *emuq). With root *-muR ‘gargle, rinse the mouth’. This comparison may be a product of chance.

TOP      ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

en

26111

*-en marker of direct passive

2381

PAN     *-en marker of direct passive

Formosan
Atayal -un2nd passive indicative
Pazeh -ənpassive suffix; e.g. sulih-ən be baked, kan-ən be eaten, ʔutaʔ-ən be vomited, ʔalaw kan-ən inaki lia The fish was already eaten by me; (Li 1978:570) Rubaŋ-en ni saw lia ki wazuʔ The dog was already buried by some person (Li 1978:574)
Bunun -ungoal focus
  kaun-uneaten; food
Paiwan kan-enfood
WMP
Itbayaten -endirect passive suffix; also used in imperatives; e.g. Kan-en mo a tattavoh o kanen awi Eat all of the food (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983:64)
Ivatan -ensuffix of direct passive; also used in imperatives; e.g. Pak-boal-en no tao qo danom The man is boiling the water (Reid 1966:53); Ovay-en mo pa o hovid Please untie the string (Yamada and Tsuchida 1983:59)
Pangasinan -enpassive, e.g. bása-en will be read ... -en is also often used in sentences with imperative force, e.g. Tawag-en moy Pedro (will-be-called by-you + subject marker Pedro = ) (You) call Pedro (Benton 1971a:130)
Sambal (Botolan) -enmarker of a subject derived from an initial direct object; also used in imperatives; e.g. Paty-en nin lalaki nin koyà ya damowag The carabao will be killed with a knife by the man (Antworth 1979:39); Itap-en mo ya demek throw away the trash (Antworth 1979:49)
Tagalog -indirect passive; also used in imperatives; e.g. Bibilh-in mo ba iyon para sa akin? Will you buy that for me? (Schachter and Otanes 1972:454); Kudkur-in mo aŋ niyog Grate the coconut (Schachter and Otanes 1972:297)
  kán-inrice (boiled or steamed)
Bikol -oncommand form used when the pronoun is stated; e.g. Hiliŋ-on mo an gámgám Look at the bird (cp. the alternative Hiliŋ-a an gámgám Look at the bird) (Mintz 1971:141); passive suffix which sometimes describes afflictions or blights: duldól scabies, duldól-on describing someone suffering from scabies; to contract or suffer from scabies; bukbók weevil, bukbók-on infested with weevils
Hanunóo -unmarker of direct passive, and polite imperative
  biláŋ-un nimúcount them (lit. 'be-counted by-you')
Aklanon -oncommon object focus verb suffix for future time; common adjective suffix showing the quality of a person or thing
Cebuano -undirect passive verb affix, future; suffix added to adjectives and nouns to form adjectives which mean 'of [such and such] a kind'; e.g. Palit-un ku aŋ bábuy I will buy the pig; Yagpis-un siyag láwas He has a thinnish body; balukbuk kind of weevil that bore in grains, like corn, balukbuk-un become infested with this type of weevil
Maranao -enobject focus; e.g. Tabas-en si Batua Batua will cut it
Kadazan -onpassive marker; e.g. oŋgom-on be held in the fist
Timugon Murut -onobject focus; also used in imperatives; e.g. Kubayaw-on i Kasuab ru lalaiŋ-rati The children will make friends with Kasuab (Prentice 1971:47); Alap-on (mu) laŋgut-no (You) take the coconut shell (Prentice 1971:40)
Kelabit -ennon-past passive suffix; also used in imperatives
Kayan kan-encooked rice
Melanau (Mukah) uaʔ kane-enspecial food, one's favorite food
Karo Batak -enverbal and nominalizing suffix; e.g. gagaŋ-en suffer from eruptions in the mouth; inum-en what is drunk, drink, beverage
Old Javanese -ennon-past passive suffix used primarily with bodily afflictions; e.g. bubuh-en to suffer from a tumor
Javanese -enpassive imperative suffix; suffix for a (generally negative) bodily process or condition; e.g. Deleŋ-en Look (at it!); Dridjiné getih-en His finger bled, Mata-né walaŋ-en His eyes bulged out; bubuk wood weevil, bubuk-en crumbling (from having been eaten by weevils)

Note:   *-en is one of the most important affixes that can be reconstructed for PAn, PMP and PWMP. Like other affixes in the ‘focus system’ it evidently marked voice in verbal constructions, and at the same time served to create deverbal nominals. Both functions are widely attested, the latter often fossilized in reflexes of *kaen-en ‘be eaten/what is eaten = cooked rice’. The use of *-en to mark passive imperatives has not been noted in Formosan languages to date, but is widespread in the Philippines and western Indonesia. In some languages, as Bikol, there is a synchronic contrast between imperative marking with a reflex of *-en, and an alternative marking with a reflex of *-a. The former alternative occurs when a short (agent/possessor) pronoun immediately follows the suffixed verb, while the latter occurs without the pronoun. In other languages (as Kelabit) imperatives which use a reflex of *-en are felt to be ‘softer’ or more polite than imperatives which do not make use of passive verb morphology (in this connection cp. also Malay passive imperatives/dehortatives in di-, as with Jaŋan di-gaŋgu guru-mu! ‘Don't disturb your teacher!’).

Since at least two forms of imperative marking can be reconstructed for PWMP, it would be worth trying to determine whether a similar contrast existed in PAn. In addition to the above uses several languages in the Philippines and western Indonesia use a reflex of *-en to mark various types of usually visible bodily afflictions (skin diseases and the like), as well as comparable conditions of decay or deterioration in non-human subjects (e.g. *bubuk-en ‘crumbling, of something infested with weevils’). Finally, reflexes of *-en are used in some kin terms to mark collaterality, as with *anak ‘child, offspring’, but *anak-en ‘niece, nephew’, *ama ‘father’ but *ama-en ‘uncle’, *ina ‘mother’, but *ina-en ‘aunt’, etc.

26103

*ena catch or get caught in a trap; hit mark with spear, etc.

2355

PMP     *ena catch or get caught in a trap; hit mark with spear, etc.

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) onacatch something by a trap; throw something accurately with the object of hitting a mark (as in throwing a spear, a stone)

2356

POC     *ona₂ spear; sharpened pitfall stake

OC
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka onato spear, throw a spear
Mono-Alu oneget caught
Nggela onastakes or spears fixed for enemy to tread on; sharp pointed stick to probe for enemy through stockade
Lau onastake in a hole to impale an enemy
Sa'a onastakes of puepue palm or areca palm set in a hole as an enemy trap
'Āre'āre onaposts, stakes, put in a hole -- used as a trap for humans

Note:   Ifugaw (Batad) ona may reflect *kena.

26102

*enap scale of a fish

2354

PMP     *enap scale of a fish     [doublet: *qunap₁]

WMP
Maranao napscale
Bintulu napfish scale
Melanau (Mukah) napfish scale
CMP
Sika ena-ŋscales of a fish
Buruese ena-hto scale a fish

26107

*enem six

2361

PAN     *enem six

Formosan
Tsou noməsix
Kanakanabu u-nə'məsix
Saaroa ənəməsix
Proto-Rukai *enemesix
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) enemsix
Paiwan enemsix
WMP
Isneg annámsix
Itawis annámsix
Casiguran Dumagat enémsix
Bontok ʔənémsix
Kankanaey enémsix
Ifugaw onómsix
Kapampangan anámsix
Bikol anómsix
Hanunóo ʔúnumsix
Cebuano unúmsix
Palawan Batak ʔenemsix
Kalamian Tagbanwa enemsix
Maranao nemsix
Tiruray ʔenemsix
Tboli nemsix
Kadazan onomsix
Kelabit enemsix
Bintulu enemsix
Melanau (Mukah) nemsix
Berawan (Long Terawan) numsix
Kayan nemsix
Malagasy éninasix
Maloh anamsix
Iban namsix
Malay enamsix
Simalur nemsix
Karo Batak enemsix
Toba Batak onomsix
Nias õnõsix
Old Javanese enemsix
Javanese nemsix
Madurese ennemsix
Balinese enemsix
Sasak nemsix
Sangir ennuŋsix
Proto-Minahasan *enemsix
Bolaang Mongondow onomsix
Gorontalo olomosix
Uma onosix
Bare'e onosix
Tae' annansix
Mandar annaŋsix
Proto-South Sulawesi *ɨnɨmsix
Buginese enneŋsix
Makasarese annaŋsix
Palauan e-l-olmsix
Chamorro gunumsix
CMP
Manggarai enemsix
Rembong nensix
Hawu enasix
Wetan wonemsix
Erai nensix
Proto-Ambon *nemsix

7766

PEMP     *onəm six

SHWNG
Buli wonamsix
Numfor-Biak wonemsix
Ansus wonasix
Waropen ghonosix

7767

POC     *onom six

OC
Loniu ma-w-ono-hsix
Bipi w-ono-hsix
Mussau (o)nomosix
Mono-Alu onomosix
Roviana onomosix
Bugotu onosix
Nggela onosix
Lau onosix
Kwaio onosix
Sa'a onosix
'Āre'āre onosix
Arosi onosix
Gilbertese onosix
Kosraean onsix
Mokilese ohnsix
Chuukese woonsix
Woleaian wol(o)six
Puluwat woonsix
Raga onosix
Makatea onosix
Rotuman onosix
Fijian onosix
Tongan onosix
Niue onosix
Samoan onosix
Tuvaluan onosix
Rennellese onosix
Anuta onosix
Nukuoro onosix
Kapingamarangi onosix
Maori onosix
Hawaiian onosix

2362

PWMP     *iŋg-enem six times

WMP
Kadazan iŋg-onomsix times
Malagasy in-éninasix times
Bolaang Mongondow iŋg-onomthe sixth

2363

PWMP     *ika-enem sixth (ordinal)

WMP
Bontok ka-nʔémdivide into six; a sixth
Ifugaw n-i-ka-nʔómsixth
Casiguran Dumagat ika-enémsixth
Tagalog ika-ánimsixth
Bikol ika-anómsixth
Cebuano ika-unúmsixth
Kadazan ko-ʔonomsixth
Ma'anyan ke-enemsixth
Malay ke-enamsixth
Javanese ka-nemsixth
CMP
Rotinese ka-ne-ksixth

2364

POC     *ika-onom sixth

OC
Gilbertese ka-onosixth
Mokilese ka-wonowsixth
Fijian i-ka-onosixth

2365

PWMP     *ka-enem do six times

WMP
Bontok ka-nʔémdo six times
Cebuano ka-unúmsix times
Javanese ka-nemsix times, times six
Sangir ka-ennuŋ-esixth
Bolaang Mongondow ko-onomsix times, the sixth

2366

PAN     *maka-enem six times (frequentative multiplicative)

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) maka-nm-ensixty
Paiwan maka-nem-elʸsix times (days, occasions)
WMP
Tagalog maka-ánimsix times
Bikol maka-anómto have six
Cebuano maka-unúmsix times

2367

PMP     *pa-enem divide into six (?)

WMP
Toba Batak pa-onom-honthe sixth
CMP
Kambera pa-nomu-ŋusix times

2368

PMP     *paka-enem six times

WMP
Malagasy fah-éninasixth
Chamorro faha-unumsix times
  f-in-aha-unumsixth

2369

POC     *paka-onom six times

OC
Fijian vaka-onosix times
Samoan faʔa-onosix times
Rennellese haka-onodo six times

2370

PAN     *paR-enem-en do six times

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) paR-nem-endo six times
WMP
Bikol pag-anóm-ondivide into six; send six at a time; go six by six

2371

PPh     *enem-an group of six

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) onomm-ánthat which six people do together
Tagalog ánim-ansix for each; in groups of six

2372

PMP     *enem ŋa puluq sixty

WMP
Kelabit enem ŋeh puluʔsixty
CMP
Bimanese ini-m-purusixty

2373

POC     *onom ŋa puluq sixty

OC
Loniu ma-wono-ŋ-onsixty
Lou ono-ŋo-ulsixty
Mussau ga-onomo-ŋa-ulusixty
Fijian ono-sa-ŋa-vulusixty
Tongan ono-ŋo-fulusixty

2374

PMP     *enem enem six by six, six at a time

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) anem-anemsix by six
Tagalog ánim-ánimin groups of six
Maranao nem-nemonly six; group of six
Kadazan to-onom-onomsix by six, six at a time
Malagasy tsi-énina-éninasix by six, six at a time
Toba Batak mar-onom-onomby sixes (as in filling a boat)
Javanese ne-nemgroup or unit of six
CMP
Rotinese [dua-dua]two by two, two at a time
Tetun [rua-rua]two by two, two at a time

2375

POC     *onom onom six by six, six at a time

OC
Fijian ono-onoall the six

2376

PAN     *a-enem six (of humans)

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) aʔ-nemsix (of persons, but not animals or objects)
WMP
Itbayaten aʔ-nemsix (of things; also cardinal)
  haʔ-nemsix (of animals and humans)
Tagalog ánimsix
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) heʔ-enemsix
Nias [da-rua]two, of humans
Dampelas h-onoŋsix
Chamorro gwa-gunumsix (of living creatures)
CMP
Kambera [da-dua]two, as in counting children

Note:   Also Paiwan unem ‘six’, Balinese eŋem ‘six’, Banggai noom ‘six’, Komodo nemu ‘six’, Lamaholot neme ‘six’, Tetun neen ‘six’, Leti nema ‘six’, Selaru nem ‘six’, Yamdena nem ‘six’. I assume that the initial /h/ which appears in Itbayaten ha-ʔnem, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) he-ʔenem and Dampelas h-onoŋ is secondary, but it is possible that a contrast between *a-enem and *ha-enem was found in PMP (cf. Yamada 1991:124, where Itbayaten a-ʔnem signals ‘six’ with reference to things, while ha-ʔnem signals ‘six’ with reference to animals or humans). The morphological agreement of Paiwan ka-unem-an ‘a June typhoon (first of season)’ with Manobo (Western Bukidnon) k-enem-an ‘sixty’ is attributed to chance.

26112

*enép keep to oneself

2382

PPh     *enép keep to oneself

WMP
Ilokano ennépkeep, conceal (one's feelings, esp. rancor)
Tontemboan enepone who keeps to himself, uncommunicative person

Note:   Also Balinese enek ‘be silent’.

TOP      ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

26154

*eñat stretch

2434

PWMP     *eñat stretch

WMP
Ifugaw onátto draw, pull out something in order to use it
Sasak ñatstretch, spring up
Bolaang Mongondow onatunroll, draw out (of a ball of yarn or string); stretch oneself
Mandar enneʔstretch, as rubber, spring, etc.

Note:   Also Bintulu p-enat ‘stretch oneself’. With root *-ñat ‘stretch’.

26155

*eñep sunken, submerged

2435

PMP     *eñep sunken, submerged

WMP
Bolaang Mongondow onopsunken in or covered with water; saturated, as cooked rice in a cooking pot which still contains water
CMP
Rotinese enesubmerge something in or under water, soak in water

Note:   Also Old Javanese (he)neb ‘that which has settled on the bottom, is precipitated’. With root *-ñep ‘dive, sink, disappear under water’.

TOP      ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

26152

*eŋap gasp for breath

2432

PMP     *eŋap gasp for breath     [disjunct: *heŋak, etc.]

WMP
Sundanese eŋapgasp for breath
  ɨŋapstifled, oppressed in the chest
OC
Nggela oŋabe out of breath with running, as in bringing news

Note:   With root *-ŋap ‘open, of the mouth; gaping’.

26153

*eŋaq wide open (mouth)

2433

PWMP     *eŋaq wide open (mouth)

WMP
Bontok ʔəŋŋáto cry, of a newborn baby
Cebuano uŋáʔlowing, mooing sound of cows and buffalos
Maranao ŋaʔmoo, baa
Malay eŋahpanting
  ter-eŋah-eŋahpuffing and blowing
Sundanese eŋahopen the mouth (so as to speak)

Note:   Also Tagalog hiŋá ‘respiration’, Sangir éŋa ‘beginning stages of asthma’. With root *-ŋaq ‘gape, open the mouth wide’. Possibly a convergent development.

26157

*eŋeŋ buzz, hum

2437

PWMP     *eŋeŋ buzz, hum     [disjunct: *qeŋqeŋ]

WMP
Tiruray ʔeŋeŋbuzzing sound, as of flies or mosquitoes
Old Javanese (u)m-eŋeŋcausing a state of drowsiness or dazedness (of buzzing bees, etc.); deafening (of trumpets)
Javanese m-eŋeŋbuzzing sound

Note:   With root *-ŋeŋ ‘buzz, hum’.

26156

*eŋes sniffle, snore

2436

PPh     *eŋes sniffle, snore     [disjunct: *eŋus]

WMP
Cebuano uŋús-uŋússniffle, whine
Tontemboan eŋesbreathe heavily, snore lightly

26160

*eŋik high-pitched sound of complaint

2441

PWMP     *eŋik high-pitched sound of complaint

WMP
Minangkabau eŋékcrying of a child
Simalur eŋiʔweep, cry (children)
Tontemboan eŋékpeep, cheep, chirp, squeak

Note:   With root *-ŋik ‘shrill throaty sound’. Both Minangkabau and Tontemboan show unexplained lowering of *i, but the root *-ŋik (with *i) is otherwise well attested.

26170

*eŋus sniffle, pant

2452

PPh     *eŋus sniffle, pant     [disjunct: *eŋes]

WMP
Cebuano uŋús-uŋússniffle, whine
Tontemboan eŋosbreathe heavily, pant

Note:   Probably with root *-ŋus ‘snout’.

26171

*eŋut complain loudly

2453

PMP     *eŋut complain loudly

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) eŋutburst out into loud speech
Iban ŋutgrunt, grunting (pigs)
CMP
Kambera àŋuhowl, bark

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) eŋit ‘laugh aloud’. With root *-ŋut ‘mumble, murmur, mutter’.

TOP      ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

ep

26113

*epak break, crack, split

2383

PWMP     *epak break, crack, split

WMP
Cebuano upákbreak or cut off a piece for someone
Kelabit epaksplit
Kayan pakthe fallen sheath from palm frond or bamboo; husk of sugarcane
Kenyah (Long Wat) paksplit
Miri pakfork of a road
Balinese empakbreak, break off of itself (e.g. a branch)

Note:   With root *-pak₂ ‘break, crack, split’.

26114

*epan start a fire

2384

PWMP     *epan start a fire

WMP
Toba Batak maŋ-opanmake a fire by fetching glowing coals and blowing on them
Old Javanese aŋ-empan-ito light, start a fire
Javanese empansomething used for igniting

26116

*epaŋ notch; notched

2386

PMP     *epaŋ notch; notched

WMP
Sasak empaŋnotched, chipped (of any cutting implement)
CMP
Manggarai paŋnotch (in a tree trunk)

26115

*epap clap, flap, slap

2385

PWMP     *epap clap, flap, slap

WMP
Kenyah epapclapping of hands
Malay empapflapping against; flopping down upon; clapping the hand on; striking water with the flat of the paddle
  meŋ-empaplay or drop one flat object on another

Note:   Also Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) bab ‘flapping sound (as on a flat surface)’, bap ‘flop, dull sound’.

26096

*empas fall away, crumble (as a wall)

2338

PWMP     *empas fall away, crumble (as a wall)

WMP
Cebuano umpásfall away, crumble down (as an embankment after heavy rain)
Sasak empasbroken off, crumbling (of a wall)

26097

*empeŋ block, obstruct, dam a stream

2339

PMP     *empeŋ block, obstruct, dam a stream     [doublet: *embeŋ]

WMP
Tiruray ʔefeŋa plug for a hole; to plug a hole
Iban empaŋfish weir or dam of stakes and cane set upright, in which traps may be set
Malay empaŋblocking with a net or barrier; damming dam; barrier net; weir
Sasak empeŋfor someone to obstruct the way
Bare'e ompoobstruction, dam, barrier
CMP
Manggarai empeŋrestrain a person who wants to fight; block a stream, dam up

Note:   With root *-peŋ ‘plug up, dam; cover’. Dempwolff (1934-38) included Fijian ‘fish fence’, Samoan ‘fence’, but it now seems clear that these forms are not to be compared with reflexes of *empeŋ.

26117

*epeŋ make a dull sound in the ears

2387

PMP     *epeŋ make a dull sound in the ears

WMP
Balinese empeŋmake confused sounds, be noisy, have a humming or roaring in the ears
CMP
Manggarai peŋsound of a fart, a blow against the flesh, etc.

26118

*epid braid, intertwine

2388

PWMP     *epid braid, intertwine

WMP
Kelabit epidact of intertwining or braiding
  ŋ-epidto braid, intertwine
Iban pitplaiting; plait
  tali pitbraided cord
Makasarese appiʔsplice together (rope strands)

Note:   With root *-pid ‘braid, wind together’.

26119

*epiq burnt food which adheres to the pot

2389

PMP     *epiq burnt food which adheres to the pot     [doublet: *epit₁, *etip]

WMP
Sasak empiʔburnt rice which adheres to the pot
CMP
Kamarian epiburnt food which adheres to the pot

26120

*epit₁ burnt food which adheres to the pot

2390

PMP     *epit₁ burnt food which adheres to the pot     [doublet: *epiq, *etip]

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) epitfood which has burned in cooking and has stuck to the pot
Maranao pitbottom-most part of pot of rice
Sasak empitburnt rice which adheres to the pot
CMP
Kamarian epitburnt food which adheres to the pot

Note:   Also Cebuano húpit ‘have something sticking to it such that it is hard to get off (as feces on rump)’.

26121

*epit₂ fibrous material at base of coconut frond; bag

2391

PPh     *epit₂ fibrous material at base of coconut frond; bag or lining made from this

WMP
Isneg appítthe tawny, netlike appendages at the base of the leaves of the coco palm; sack, kind of bag
Bolaang Mongondow opitsubstance between the leaves and stem of a coconut palm, something like the idup (horsehair-like fibers) of an areca palm; a few interwoven pieces are commonly used as the inner lining of baskets used to carry sago

26098

*empu grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor; lord, master, owner

2340

PMP     *empu grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor; lord, master, owner     [doublet: *ampu, *impu₂, *umpu]

WMP
Isneg appógrandfather, grandmother
Tagalog impógrandmother
Kelabit epu-ngrandparent of
Bintulu t-epewgrandparent
Maloh ampugrandchild
Iban empupossess, own, take as one's own
Malay empumaster. The title empu is associated in Malaya with old makers of krisses and is given in Java to personified krisses; it suggests a master-craftsman
Karo Batak empulord; owner
Toba Batak ompugrandfather, grandmother; ancestor
Old Javanese (e)mpudistinguished person, "master", "lord"; often, but by no means exclusively, of religious persons (brahmans and others) and joined to a proper or categorical noun ("sir", "lord", "master", "the honorable or reverend")
Javanese empuancient title for scholars, poets, outstanding artists, master craftsmen
Balinese empupandit, scholar, craftsman; carpenter
Sasak empugrandchild
Tontemboan ka-emputitle which shamans give to one another
Bolaang Mongondow ompulord, ruler, head; ancestor; grandfather; grandchild
Bare'e makumpu ompugreat grandchild
Bare'e (Luwu) oputitle of nobility
Tae' ampograndchild
  appograndchild (child language)
Mandar appograndchild
Proto-South Sulawesi *ɨmpugrandparent/grandchild
Buginese eppograndchild
Makasarese ampuowner, possessor
Makasarese (Salayar) ampugrandchild
CMP
Bimanese ompugrandparent, respected person, village headman; grandson
Manggarai empoancestor, grandchild; grandmother (W. MGG); taboo for a given clan (as certain animals); name for calling the spirits; nickname for crocodile; refined term for male and female genitals; very old
Ngadha ebu, epugrandfather, ancestor
Kambera àpugrandmother (FM, MM)
Hawu epugrandparent/grandchild
Kédang epuFF, FM, MF, MM, MB, WF, WM, etc. (see Barnes 1974:266 for full listing)
Yamdena embugrandparent/grandchild
SHWNG
Buli bugrandparent/grandchild

2341

PWMP     *empu-an object of respect; distinguished or respected person

WMP
Malay empu-anlady -- in titles such as eŋku empuan, teŋku empuan (queen)
  puanlady; short for perempuan, in titles
Old Javanese empo-ndistinguished person, "master", "lord"
Tontemboan empu-antitle which shamans give to one another
Bolaang Mongondow ompu-anthat toward which respect is shown; that which is respected or honored

2342

PWMP     *empu-ni-a owner, possessor

WMP
Karo Batak (em)pu-nalord, master, owner of something
Malay empu-ñapossession; to own; owner
  pu-ñaownership, possession
Makasarese (am)pu-nnathe owner of
  pu-nna-ihave or possess something

2343

PWMP     *empú-ŋ grandfather, grandmother; ancestor (vocative)

WMP
Karo Batak empu-ŋ(vocative of empu?) Great-great-great-grandfather; ancestor of the fifth ascending generation
Toba Batak ompú-ŋgrandfather, grandmother; ancestor (vocative)
Sangir empu-ŋforefather, ancestor
Tontemboan empu-ŋLord, name with which the gods were addressed in ancient times

2344

PMP     *empu-q grandfather, grandmother, ancestor (vocative)

WMP
Cebuano umpú-ʔgrandparent or grandparent's sibling or cousin of the same generation; term of address for a relation of the grandparent's generation
Sangir empofather-in-law, mother-in-law
Bolaang Mongondow ompu-ʔopening word in the solemn invocation of the higher powers, as when swearing an oath, treating the sick with medicine, in uttering blessings, congratulations, etc.; O gods!
CMP
Rembong embo-ʔgrandparent/grandchild
  epo-ʔgrandchild

2345

PMP     *maki-empu grandchild

WMP
Karo Batak k-empugrandchild
Rejang kepewgrandchild
Bolaang Mongondow moki-ompusubject oneself to or put oneself in the service of a lord

2346

POC     *mokobu grandchild

OC
Pak mok-opu-grandchild
Tongan mok-opu-nagrandchild
Nukuoro mog-obu-nagrandchild, descendant of
Maori mok-opu-nagrandchild, descendant
Hawaiian moʔ-opu-nagrandchild, great-niece or -nephew

2347

PWMP     *paki-empu (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Toba Batak pah-ompugrandson
Bolaang Mongondow poki-ompusubject oneself to the authority of another (as to a prince)

2348

PWMP     *paŋ-empu-an what is honored, object of honor or respect

WMP
Old Javanese paŋ-empw-an"he who is considered as (addressed with) mpu", his (your) lordship or reverence
Sasak peŋ-empo-nthe first nine riceplants that are planted in three rows of three, and which later become the "rice mother" (inan pare)

2349

PMP     *t-empu grandparent/grandchild (ref.)

WMP
Penan (Long Merigam) tepu-ngrandparent (ref.)
Bintulu t-epewgrandparent
Ngaju Dayak t-empolord, master, owner
SHWNG
Numfor-Biak k-epugrandparent/grandchild; totemic animal or plant (may not be eaten out of a kind of piety)

Note:   Also Tagalog poʔ ‘honorific, Sir, Madam’. This comparison is complex in a number of respects. First, although it is the most common, it is only one of four stem variants: *ampu, *empu, *impu, and *umpu. Second, an unusual number of affixed forms can be reconstructed next to the simple base. Some of these, as *empu-ŋ, *empu-q, and *t-empu evidently involved distinctions of vocative/address and referential forms (Blust 1979). Another, *empu-ni-a, involves what appears initially to be a possessed kinship term (cp. *ama-ni-a ‘his/her father’) which on closer inspection turns out to function very differently from other kinship terms followed by the genitive marker *ni and the 3sg. object pronoun *-a. The common reflex of *-i ‘local transitive’ in Malay mem-pu-ña-i and Makasarese punnà-i ‘have, possess’, suggests an etymon *empu-ni-a-i. However, since *empu-ni-a evidently meant ‘its owner’ (lit. "owner-of-it"), the Malay and Makasarese constructions in -/i/ must have arisen after the reanalysis of *empu-ni-a as a verb *empuña, and hence is a product of independent parallel changes. Likewise, the morphological similarity of Malay per-empu-an ‘woman; feminine; womanly (courtly, and in titles)’ and Bolaang Mongondow pog-ompu-on ‘children and grandchildren’ appears to have ho historical basis (cp. Malay (Jakarta) perempuan ‘woman’, with last-syllable vowel indicating *-an, not *-en).

Perhaps most problematic are the forms assigned to *maki-empu and *paki-empu. With regard to the first of these Bolaang Mongondow clearly reflects a prefix *maki- which remains a functional (non-fossilized) affix in such languages as Ilokano (/maki/- ‘prefix used to indicate that something is done with others, etc.’), Tagalog (/maki/- ask for or make a request for; join in company; imitate’) and Timugon Murut (/maki/- ‘petitive’; also /amaʔ/ ‘father’:/maki-amaʔ/ ‘subject calls object "father" ‘, cited in Prentice 1971:135). Since the Bolaang Mongondow form is supported by the parallel but unglossed Itbayaten form machi-apo, cited under apo ‘GP/GC’ (reflecting the variant *ampu), the total comparison appears to be explained most simply by assuming loss of the last prefixal vowel independently in POc *mokompu ‘grandchild’ (with regressive assimilation of the remaining first syllable vowel), and in such WMP forms as Bare'e makumpu opu ‘GGC’ and Dampelas maʔupu ‘GC’. Foreshortened forms such as Karo Batak k-empu ‘GC’, Rejang k-epew ‘GC’ and Uma k-umpu ‘GC’ can be assigned arbitrarily to forms that begin either with *maki- or with *paki-. Semantically, *empu and its variants also present a complex picture.

Among relatively uncontroversial PMP meanings for all four variants are: (1) GP/GC (recipr.), (2) ancestor, and (3) lord, master, owner. Meaning (1) places *empu among the set of kinship terms, but it is the only reciprocal term that can be reconstructed for PMP. Meaning (2) appears to underlie references to totemism in Manggarai empo, Numfor-Biak k-epu, and perhaps in some other languages (see below), while meaning (3) probably underlies at least two seemingly unrelated semantic developments: the meaning ‘parent-in-law’ and the meaning ‘crocodile’. Reflexes of *empu or one of its variants mean ‘parent-in-law’ in such widely separated languages as Ngaju Dayak ((h)empo), Sangir (empo), Kédang (epu), Tolai (tabu-na), and Kilivila (tabu). Among the Kédang, who practice matrilateral cross-cousin marriage, the term also refers to the mother's brother, and among the Kilivila, who practice patrilateral cross-cousin marriage, it refers to the father's sister.

I have found no generally accepted explanation for the grouping of terms for grandparents and parents-in-law under reflexes of the same etymon in Austronesian languages, but the alignment follows naturally from a hypothesis that PMP speakers practiced matrilateral cross-cousin marriage, since under such an arrangement the wife-giving group is universally regarded as ‘lord, master, owner’ of the wife-taking group (Blust 1993, and references therein). The term *empu (and its variants) in meaning (3), then, could have acquired its affinal sense through its use as a title reflecting the higher status of the descent group represented by the MB/WF as against that of the ZS/DH. The recurrent association of grandparents or ancestors with crocodiles and/or other large, dangerous animals is seen in e.g. Tiruray bébéʔ ‘GP/GC; kind of large, black, extremely poisonous snake, considered by the Tiruray to be the original kind of snake, and to have been born of human parents as a twin to a Tiruray child’, Manggarai empo ‘nickname for the crocodile’ (in West Manggarai = ‘crocodile’), Rembong empoʔ ‘GP/GC; crocodile’, Kedayan bapa ‘term of address for the category epu; crocodile’ (Barnes 1974:246-47), and in general anthropological references to the Berawan (Metcalf 1982:254, 257), Malagasy (Frazer 1960:601ff), Mentawai (Loeb 1972 [1935]:166), Atoni (Schulte Nordholt 1971:323), where the crocodile is regarded as the ancestor of the ruler of Kupang), and various societies of the southeastern Solomons (Codrington 1891:178ff). Such widespread associations may be products of convergent development, but are more likely to reflect totemic ideas that were present in PMP social organization, together with a mixture of fear and respect for the crocodile as the ‘lord, master, owner’ of the all-important rivers around which Austronesian speakers so often settled. Finally, the semantic connection of Sasak peŋ-empo-n with Old Javanese paŋ-empw-an is clarified by the discussion of the ‘rice mother’ in Frazer (1960:479-87).

26122

*epuk make a popping sound

2392

PMP     *epuk make a popping sound

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) epukknock the breath out of someone
Kayan pukan impact; to fall on
  m-epukto fall down on to (as a tree on to something)
Iban pukcall of any bird of prey with plaintive note, as opp. to screechers
Javanese empokdischarge stomach gas or flatus
Sasak empokbang, detonation; pop, burst out, explode
  empok-empokpopped rice, used as an offering
CMP
Manggarai puksound of a fart

Note:   With root *-puk₁ ‘throb, thud, clap, break’.

26123

*epus stump, stub; finish, complete

2393

PMP     *epus stump, stub; finish, complete

WMP
Bikol apósbutt (cigarette), stump (candle); coals
Maranao posstub, butt, cinder, unconsumed part of firewood; end
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) epuslast embers from the fire; fig., to consume completely
Tiruray ʔefuscigarette or cigar stub; continue up to the end of a task
Kadazan ompuscontinue, complete
CMP
Rembong emposstump, fag-end of anything stiff, as a smouldering log
OC
Arosi ohucomplete, finish; completely

Note:   With root *-pus₁ ‘end, terminate, finish’.

26124

*eput puff, blow suddenly

2394

PWMP     *eput puff, blow suddenly     [disjunct: *put₁]

WMP
Maranao potpuffing sound, as from exhaust
Kelabit eputblowpipe
  ŋ-eputshoot with a blowpipe
Kenyah putto blow out

Note:   With root *-put ‘puff’.

TOP      ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

er

26125

*erak harsh loud sound

2395

PWMP     *erak harsh loud sound

WMP
Tiruray ʔerokthe sound made by falling water; falling water
Malay rak(onom.) cracking sound
  rak-rok, rok-rakrepeated cracking; the crash of an animal through dry brushwood; the crackle of wood in a fire
Tae' arrakshout of joy, cheer
Mandar arraʔweep, cry; owl
  meʔ-arraʔto shout

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) erak-ʔak ‘of a pig, to make the loud grunting sound which characterized anger in pigs’.

26129

*erit scratch, scrape

2400

PCEMP     *erit scratch, scrape

CMP
Ngadha erimake a stroke or line, scratch
Kamarian erishave, scrape off

2401

POC     *orit scratch, scrape, peel

OC
Motu ori-agrate coconut
Mono-Alu oli-oliscrape coconuts
Sa'a ori-oriscrape the charcoal off yams or taro roasted on the coals; peel yams
'Āre'āre ori-ato skin, peel, scrape (of roasted food)

Note:   With root *-rit ‘scratch a line’.

26130

*erut rumbling sound

2402

PWMP     *erut rumbling sound

WMP
Malagasy érotraa snore
  mi-èrotrato snore
Proto-Minahasan *erutroar, rumble; thunder
Tontemboan erutthunder
Bolaang Mongondow oyutnoise, reverberation; growl

Note:   Also Fordata erit ‘cry, wail’.

TOP      ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

eR

26126

*eRes shrink (of living things)

2396

PMP     *eRes shrink (of living things)

WMP
Ilokano errésdroop, decline, languish (persons, animals, plants); to shrink, contract (wood)
Balinese ehesshrunken, dwindled, made lower; fallen in (burnt roof)
CMP
Manggarai eresshrinkage, lessening, thinning (of the body)

26128

*eRiq sword grass: Imperata cylindrica

2399

PAN     *eRiq sword grass: Imperata cylindrica     [doublet: *Riaq]

WMP
Maranao giʔcogon grass, Imperata cylindrica L.
Karo Batak rihlong sharp-edged grass, Imperata cylindrica L.
Sundanese ɨrihsword grass: Imperata cylindrica L.
Proto-Sangiric *əRetall grass sp.: Imperata cylindrica L.
CMP
Riung risword grass: Imperata cylindrica L.
Kamarian erilong grass: Imperata cylindrica L.

Note:   Also Kavalan erek ‘swort grass: Imperata cylindrica’, Tsou vrio, Saaroa ərəlha, Sasak re, Dampelas gio, Bare'e le, Makasarese rea, Rotinese li, Ngadha kéri, Li'o kiʔi, Numbami rei ‘sword grass: Imperata cylindrica L.’. Part of this comparison was first recognized in print by Verheijen (1967-70). In addition to PAn *Riaq, PMP *eRiq, and PCEMP *Riqi, there are numerous other phonologically similar but non-corresponding forms meaning ‘sword grass’ in Austronesian languages. The reasons for the rather chaotic comparative picture relating to this form remain unclear.

TOP      ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

es

26132

*esa one

2406

PAN     *esa one     [doublet: *asa₁, *isa₁]

Formosan
Paiwan etaone
  ta-one
WMP
Bontok ʔəsáone, be one
Kankanaey esáone; a, an
Ifugaw oháone
Ifugaw (Batad) ohado something alone, do something with one item
Hanunóo ʔusáone (cardinal number)
Palawan Batak ʔesáone
Cebuano usáone
Malay esaunity, one; sa- is the usual form, but esa is used of God's unity
  se-pulohten
  se-ratusone hundred
Toba Batak sa-daone
Simalur sa-one
  sa-rəpaone fathom
Nias õsasome, a part
Sundanese esaone, uniqueness (of God)
Proto-Sangiric *esaone
Sangir esaone (in combinations)
Proto-Minahasan *esaone
Tontemboan esaone, other, sole, only; self
CMP
Ngadha esaunity; one (general numeral)
Kambera ha-prefix for measure words and numerals, used to express unity
Hawu ehione (in serial counting only; otherwise 'one' is hèhi)
Rotinese esaone (in serial counting)
Erai ehaone, some, a certain; only, alone; other
Yamdena sa-one (in serial counting); other; indefinite article
Proto-Ambon *esaone
Alune esaone
Geser saone
Watubela haone
SHWNG
Buli sa-one
Moor ta-taone
OC
Ghari ke-saone
Lau e-taone
  e-ta-nafirst
Arosi e-taone (in counting only
  e-ta-nafirst
Woleaian ye-taone (enumerative counter)
Puluwat yee-tone (sequential)
Tongan haindefinite article: a, an, some, any
  ho-ŋo-fuluten
Niue hasingular indefinite article: a, an
Samoan seindefinite article (used mainly in questions and negative statements)
  se-fuluten
  se-lauone hundred
Tuvaluan hesingular indefinite article
Rennellese heindefinite article: a, an, any
Rarotongan eindefinite article
Maori heindefinite article, both singular and plural: an, any, some

2407

PAN     *a-esa one (of humans)

Formosan
Saisiyat ʔæhæone
WMP
Itbayaten aʔsaone

2408

PCEMP     *asa₂ one (of humans)

CMP
Batu Merah w-asaone
SHWNG
Buli asaone

2409

PPh     *maka-esa once

WMP
Cebuano maka-usáonce
Tontemboan maka-(e)saone time, once

2410

PMP     *esa esa one by one

WMP
Bontok ʔəssa-ʔəssabe in units of one
Hanunóo ʔusa-ʔusáonly one, one only
CMP
Rotinese esa esaone by one, each in its turn
Erai eha ehaeach one

Note:   Also Paiwan maka-ta-lʸ ‘one (time, day, occasion)’, Malay satu, suatu ‘one’, Madurese essaʔ ‘one’, Fordata i-saa ‘one, a; someone; other’, fa-saa ‘one time’, iki-saa ‘only one’. The following morphologically complex comparisons are assumed to be products of convergent development: 1) Paiwan ka-ita-n ‘only’, Bontok ka-sʔá ‘first, be first’, Cebuano ka-usá ( = maka-usá) ‘once’, Sangir k-esa ‘one (unbound form)’, 2) Paiwan me-ita ‘become one (whole)’, Tontemboan ma-esa ‘become one’, 3) Kankanaey esá-ka ‘always, only, nothing but’, Cebuano usáka ‘a certain (unnamed) one’, Rotinese esak-a ‘the one, the other’.

Most affixes that *esa probably took are attested under *isa (q.v.). The principal issue associated with *esa is perhaps whether the clitic form *sa- already existed in PMP, or whether it developed independently in a number of the modern languages. There appears to be good comparative evidence for reconstructing *sa-ŋa-puluq ‘ten’, and *sa-ŋa-Ratus ‘one hundred’, with clitic *sa- rather than the full form *esa-. Moreover, this monosyllabic element appears as a free morpheme in the Polynesian languages, where it was reinterpreted as an indefinite article (with irregular phonological change *sa > *se in Proto-Nuclear Polynesian ).

26131

*esak cooked, ripe

2403

PMP     *esak cooked, ripe

WMP
Kayan (Uma Juman) sakcooked, ripe
Melanau (Mukah) sékred

2404

PMP     *ma-esak cooked, ripe     [doublet: *ma-asak]

WMP
Malagasy másakaripe, cooked
Malay masakripe (fruit or grain), cooked (food)
Toba Batak masakcooked, ripe (fruits and rice), seasoned (wood)
Sasak masakcooked, ripe
Palauan márekripe (i.e. ready to eat); cooked
Chamorro masaripe, cooked
CMP
Kamarian masa-ecooked, ripe
SHWNG
Buli masacooked, ripe, complete

2405

POC     *maosak cooked, ripe

OC
Lakalai maosacooked, ripe
Nggela mo-mohacooked
Rotuman ma-mosacooked, ripe

Note:   Also Soboyo meseʔ ‘cooked’, Motu maeda (sporadic fronting of POc *o) be done, of things cooked’, Nggela moa-moha ‘cooked (of food)’, Tongan moho ‘ripe’.

26133

*esek crowded; crowd together

2411

PMP     *esek crowded; crowd together

WMP
Bare'e osoclose together, crowded, with little room between
  oncosqueeze between others when there is not enough room
Makasarese assaʔpress against something, push something into a place, forcefully cram something in
OC
Fijian osonarrow, crowded; strait
  vaka-osooso-takacrowd together
  vaka-oso-rato fill, as a crowd does

Note:   With root *-sek₁ ‘cram, crowd’.

26134

*esem sour

2412

PWMP     *esem sour     [doublet: *qalesem]

WMP
Kadazan onsomsour
  moŋ-onsomto make sour, to pickle;
  um-onsomto become sour
Bintulu semkind of sour fruit obtained from a thorny palm tree
Berawan (Long Terawan) cemsour
Kayan semsour
Kenyah (Long Wat) semsour
Proto-Minahasan *esemsour
Tontemboan esemsour, vinegary
  ese-esemslightly sour

2413

PWMP     *ma-esem sour

WMP
Subanun (Siocon) m-osomsour
Malay m-asamacid, sour

26135

*eseŋ blow the nose by pinching off one nostril

2414

PMP     *eseŋ blow the nose by pinching off one nostril

WMP
Malagasy ésinabreathe hard through the nose, sniff
Malay esaŋblow the nose in the Malay way (without a handkerchief)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak e-r-seŋblow the nose
CMP
Manggarai enceŋblow the nose (without a handkerchief)

Note:   Also Iban ensiŋ ‘blow the nose’, Malay kesaŋ ‘blow the nose in the Malay way’, Malay kesiŋ ‘blow the nose gently with the hand’, Manggarai nceŋ ‘blow the nose (without a handkerchief)’. Dempwolff's (1934-38) attempt to unite the Malay and Malagasy words with such additional forms as Fijian oso ‘to bark, of a dog’ under an etymon *eseŋ ‘breathe loudly’ is rejected here.

26136

*esuŋ rice mortar

2415

PMP     *esuŋ rice mortar     [doublet: *lesuŋ, etc.]

WMP
Kapampangan ásuŋmortar
Tiruray ʔesuŋvessel in which things are pounded, mortar
Tboli suŋmortar made from hollowed-out log
Bisaya (Bukit) asuŋmortar
Kayan suŋlarge wooden rice mortar (cp. hula 'small mortar made of stone for grinding spices')
Mandar essuŋmortar (of wood or stone)
Makasarese assuŋmortar, rice mortar
CMP
Kamarian esunmortar for pounding rice

Note:   Also Bunun nusuŋ, Pazeh ɬuzuŋ, Puyuma (Tamalakaw) lusuŋ, Tae' issoŋ, Rotinese nesu(k), Buruese resu-n ‘mortar’. Mills (1975:698) gives Proto-South Sulawesi *ɨ(n)suŋ ‘rice mortar’. The contrast between Kayan suŋ and hula may be indicative of a distinction which is more widespread than I have been able to document here. In any event the *esuŋ appears to have referred to mortars made from hollowed logs, and used to loosen the husk from grains.

TOP      ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

et

26137

*etak notch, as in a tree trunk; notch-shaped area under the glans penis

2416

PWMP     *etak notch, as in a tree trunk; notch-shaped area under the glans penis

WMP
Kayan taka notch, steps in a notched log ladder; the ridge on the penis after circumcision, or with the foreskin withdrawn
Makasarese attaʔnotch; area under the glans penis
  aŋaŋ-attaʔmake notches in (as a coconut palm to climb it)

Note:   Also Makasarese atteʔ ‘notch in a post or pole, notch in a coconut palm, as for climbing’.

26148

*eták bush knife, machete

2429

PPh     *eták bush knife, machete

WMP
Ifugaw otákIfugaw long knife having a single-edged blade of approximately two daŋan (handspans) in length
Tagalog itákshort, wide bolo with long handle
Aklanon utáka blunted knife (used for weeding)
Hanunóo ʔutáklarge bush knife, machete, bolo; an implement owned by every Hanuno'o and used constantly for cutting, hacking, chopping, etc.

26138

*etas slash, chop away

2417

PWMP     *etas slash, chop away     [disjunct: *utas]

WMP
Aklanon utásslash, cut off (with a blade)
Sasak entaschop through (forest, hedge)

Note:   With root *-tas ‘sever, rip, cut through; short cut’.

26139

*eteb cut off, prune

2418

PWMP     *eteb cut off, prune

WMP
Kelabit etebact of cutting; the mark left by cutting
  k-etebeither of the two pieces of wood produced by a splitting cut
Balinese entebcut off, prune, top (trees), poll

Note:   With root *-teb ‘prune, graze’.

26140

*etek sound of light knocking

2419

PWMP     *etek sound of light knocking

WMP
Maranao teksound of dropping something hard
Kelabit etekpopcorn
Madurese etekto pound, of the pulse (in fear)
Sasak entekknock, pound, beat

2420

PWMP     *ŋ-etek knock lightly

WMP
Kelabit ŋ-etekmake popcorn
Sasak ŋ-entekknock, pound, beat

Note:   With root *-tek₁ ‘clicking or light knocking sound’.

26141

*etel constipation; packed hard and firm

2421

PMP     *etel constipation; packed hard and firm

WMP
Pangasinan etélconstipation; difficulty or hardness in bowel movements
Toba Batak otolexert, strain oneself (without reaching one's goal)
Balinese entelthick, close, dense, solid
  entel-incrammed, stuffed
Sasak entelmake something full, stamp down
CMP
Manggarai telpacked, hard and firm

26168

*e(n)teŋ stare, look fixedly at

2450

PMP     *e(n)teŋ stare, look fixedly at

WMP
Sundanese ɨntɨŋmirror; glass
  ŋ-ɨntɨŋlook in a mirror
Bolaang Mongondow ontoŋsee, look at
CMP
Hawu etestare at something
OC
Nggela otoset face to do, stare straight at

Note:   With root *-teŋ₂ ‘stare, look fixedly’.

26142

*eter shake, vibrate, tremble

2422

PMP     *eter shake, vibrate, tremble

WMP
Maranao tervibrate; vibration
Sundanese enter-entervibrate, shake, tremble
Javanese eterearth-shaking; causing something to tremble
CMP
Manggarai tertremble violently; stamp the feet on the floor

Note:   Also Karo Batak entur ‘shake someone back and forth in a fit of anger’. With root **-ter ‘shiver, tremble’.

26143

*etes₁ chop, hack, cut off

2423

PMP     *etes₁ chop, hack, cut off     [disjunct: *qetes]

WMP
Dairi-Pakpak Batak eteshack a path by felling trees and brush
Nias õtõchop to pieces, cut down
  fa-ʔotocut with a sword
CMP
Hawu etecut, cut off

Note:   Also Hawu eta ‘cut, cut off’. With root *-tes ‘tear, rip’.

26144

*etes₂ cross a river

2424

PWMP     *etes₂ cross a river

WMP
Maranao m-etescross (as a lake)
Nias õtõcross over (a river); step over

Note:   Also Singhi Land Dayak matas ‘cross a river’. Possibly identical to *etes ‘chop, hack, cut off’ (cp. Malay rintas ‘take the shortest way, cut across’).

26145

*etik little, few; small amount

2425

PWMP     *etik little, few; small amount

WMP
Toba Batak otiklittle, few, small in amount
Sundanese ɨtika little bit, few, a small quantity
Makasarese attiʔa droplet, a little, a very small amount
  attik-idrip on, to drip

2426

PWMP     *sa-etik a little bit

WMP
Toba Batak sa-otika little bit
Sundanese sa-ɨtika little bit

Note:   Also Toba Batak otiŋ ‘little, few, small in amount’.

26146

*etip burnt rice which adheres to the pot

2427

PWMP     *etip burnt rice which adheres to the pot     [doublet: *epiq, *epit₁]

WMP
Isneg assípcrust; that part of cooked rice which is next to the pot and has become brown and hardened
Balinese entipcrust of rice stuck on the bottom of a pan
Sasak entipburnt rice stuck to cooking pot

Note:   Also Makasarese atti ‘crust of rice in cooking pot’, Muna ghoti ‘food, cooked rice’. Probably *qetip.

26147

*etuk knock, pound, thud

2428

PMP     *etuk knock, pound, thud

WMP
Maranao tokthud, sound of dropping hard object
Kelabit etukheartbeat
Kayan tukpounded dry fish or flesh
  n-etukpound dry materials into powder
Simalur entuʔknock, pound, beat
Buginese ettoʔmake the sound "/toʔ, toʔ/"
CMP
Manggarai tukpound (rice, coffee beans)

Note:   With root *-tuk₂ ‘knock, pound, beat’.

26108

*entul bounce, rebound

2377

PWMP     *entul bounce, rebound     [disjunct: *untul]

WMP
Cebuano untúlbounce, cause something to do so; rebound
Javanese entulbounce up and down (on)

TOP      ed    eg    ej    ek    el    em    en            ep    er    eR    es    et    ez    

ez

26109

*enzak step, tread; stamp

2378

PWMP     *enzak step, tread; stamp

WMP
Tagalog indákjig, dance; gambol; skip and dance; tap dancing
Cebuano undákjounce in riding; stamp the feet, walk with heavy footfalls
Mansaka ondak-ondakjounce; jolt up and down (as a truck on rough road)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak e-r-jakstep, tread on
  enjakplace the foot on
Malay enjakstep, tread
Old Javanese enjakstep on

Note:   With root *-zak ‘step, tread’.

26149

*ezan notched log ladder

2430

PMP     *ezan notched log ladder     [doublet: *haRezan]

WMP
Miri asennotched log ladder
Narum ciːnnotched log ladder
Kelabit edʰannotched log ladder
Bintulu k-ejannotched log ladder
Tae' eranladder
CMP
Proto-Ambon *edanladder
Kamarian elanladder

Note:   Also Tae' endaʔ ‘ladder’. Possibly a product of convergent irregularities in reflexes of PMP *haRezan.

26110

*enzi term of address to girls

2379

PWMP     *enzi term of address to girls

WMP
Sundanese enjia friendly name for girls used in address

2380

PWMP     *enzi-q term of address to girls

WMP
Tiruray ʔedi-ʔterm of address used to females of the same or a younger generation by persons of either sex; it implies that their name or teknonym is not known to the speaker
Kelabit edʰi-ʔterm of familiarity used among females
Bolaang Mongondow ondi-ʔterm used by elders to address girls up to about seven years of age (obsolescent); also used as a proper name

Note:   Also Ngadha edzi ‘too friendly, affable, flirting too much with others’. The absence of final -/h/ in Sundanese could be treated as an irregularity, and the etymon of this cognate set reconstructed as *enziq. However, given the known use of *-q in PMP terms of address/vocatives (Blust 1979), I have chosen instead to interpret Sundanese enji as the only known reflex of the simple stem.

26169

*e(n)zuk proffer, offer

2451

PWMP     *e(n)zuk proffer, offer

WMP
Tagalog alókproffer, offer
Bikol alókinvite, ask to come
Iban enjokproffer, hand to, give

Note:   The expected Tagalog reflex is **ulok. This item may be a loan.

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z    a b c C d e g h i k l m n N ñ ŋ o p q r R s S t u w z


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 7/25/2014
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)