Updated: 6/9/2011
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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

 a    b    c    C    d    e    g    h    i    k    l    m    n    N    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    R    s    S    t    u    w    z   


ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    

*-i₁ imperative suffix


PAN     *-i₁ imperative suffix
Atayal -isuffix forming first passive negatable indicative and imperative from the reduced stem
Bikol -ialternant command suffix for verbs taking -an in the infinitive: taʔw-an mo siya or taʔw-i siya 'give him some'
Hiligaynon -iimperative benefactive-locative focus suffix
Lauje -iundergoer-oriented imperative: ugas-i 'do the dishes!'

Note:   Egerod (1965) describes three "passives'' for Atayal: (1) a "relational passive'', (2) an "indefinite passive'', and (3) a "definite passive''. The definite passive can occur in any of five aspects, of which the "neutral definite passive'' is marked by -an, while the "negatable neutral definite passive'' and the "imperative definite passive'' are marked by -i. The paradigmatic alternation of -an and -i thus appears to be common to at least Atayal and Bikol. The present affix evidently is identical to what Wolff (1973:73) called the "local passive dependent'' construction. It seems to have marked imperatives of a certain type, but may have been used with a wider range of construction types than I have indicated here.

*-i₂ local transitive suffix


POC     *-i₂ local transitive suffix
Malay -iverbal suffix used together with the prefix meŋ-. This affix has various functions, including iterative and allative (Macdonald and Soenjono 1967:90ff). Ex: petani itu me-nanam-kan padi di ladaŋ-ña 'the farmer planted rice in his field' vs. petani itu me-nanam-i ladaŋ-ña deŋan padi 'the farmer planted his field with rice'
Toba Batak -iverbal suffix used together with the prefix maŋ-. "This is a variant of the preposition di ... but as a suffix, it has broader meaning: it stands for the prepositions from, along, about, over, before, with, on, and to, and in this way relates the object to the verb" (van der Tuuk 1971:98)
Wolio -iverbal suffix. "Stems with suffix -i are all transitive. The suffix denotes a relation to the object. This relation is best described as local" (Anceaux 1952:21)
Nali -itransitive suffix
Loniu -itransitive suffix
Motu -itransitive suffix
Nggela -itransitive suffix
Lau -itransitive suffix
Sa'a -itransitive suffix
Proto-Micronesian *-itransitive suffix
Fijian -itransitive suffix

Note:   Pawley (1973) initiated the discussion of this affix, which he called a 'close transitive' suffix, by drawing attention to similar functions which it performs both in Oceanic and in non-Oceanic languages. Starosta, Pawley, and Reid (1982:155) suggest that it derives from the generic locative marker *i which under certain conditions lost its prepositional function and was incorporated into the preceding verb in the separate histories of many Austronesian languages. I concur with this interpretation, but note that it remains unexplained why the incorporation of such a preposition would not occur with intransitive as well as with transitive verbs.

Judging from its widespread use as a verbal affix in Oceanic languages, it appears that the preposition *i had already become a suffix in POc (though at the same time it continued to function as a generic locative marker). Because reflexes of *-i appear to be less common in non-Oceanic languages, and because they sometimes co-occur with an active verb prefix (as in Malay and Toba Batak), it seems likely the verbal functions of *-i in Wolio developed independently from those in Malay and Toba Batak -- in other words, that a suffix *-i 'local transitive', as distinct from the preposition *i, did not exist in PAn or PMP. Moreover, in Oceanic languages the local transitive suffix *-i so commonly co-occurs with the incorporated 3sg. object pronoun *-a that the entire sequence *-ia (q.v.) must be posited as a functional unit for POc. Starosta, Pawley, and Reid appear to conflate *-i 'local transitive' and PAn *-i 'imperative suffix', which I treat as separate.

*-ia transitive and imperative suffix


POC     *-ia transitive and imperative suffix
Wuvulu-Aua -iaimperative suffix: inu 'drink', inum-ia 'drink it!'; maʔa 'see, look', maʔa-ia 'look at it!'; uʔu 'submerge a container to fill it', uʔuf-ia 'fill it!'
Gitua -iaverb suffix, apparently related to definiteness of subject
Motu -a, -iatransitive suffix
Roviana -i, -iaforms of the objective suffix
Samoan -iatransitive suffix
Rennellese -iapassive or transitive suffix
Maori -iapassive imperative (Biggs 1973:60ff)

Note:   Pawley (1973:120ff) has suggested that this form contains two morphemes: 1. *-i 'close transitive' and *-a '3sg. object'. As partial justification for this analysis he points out that reflexes of *-a are suffixed directly to the verb in Bauan Fijian and, under certain conditions, in other Oceanic languages such as Motu and Roviana. While this analysis may be correct, the combined form *-ia is so widely reflected in such similar functions that it can be reconstructed independently of *-i or *-a.

Two facts associated with this etymon appear especially noteworthy:

(1) Apart from the well-known problems associated with the "thematic'' consonant that surfaces before reflexes of *-ia in many languages, Motu and Roviana agree in showing surface -ia only after stems that end in a; following stems that end in e, i, o, or u, the semantically similar surface form is -a (Motu: ita-ia 'to look at', but lare-a 'to shoot an arrow', isi-a 'to husk a coconut', hao-a 'to awaken, arouse', utu-a 'to draw water'; Roviana: asa-ia 'to grind, as an axe', lage-a 'to fix a parrot to a perch', gili-a 'to tickle gently', tapo-a 'to grope or feel for, as in the dark', vatua- 'to give'). I know of nothing which would produce such an agreement through convergence, and therefore assume that in POc there was an alternation between *-ia, following stem-final *a, and *-a, following other stem-final vowels. One or the other variant appears to have been generalized in various languages; for convenience the two will be referred to as *-ia.

(2) Reflexes of *-ia function both as transitive suffixes and as imperative markers in several widely separated Oceanic languages. In Eastern Polynesian languages reflexes of *-ia typically mark passive constructions, and also appear in certain types of imperatives (those that imply a goal or object). This association of passive and imperative appears to closely parallel the association of passive and 'polite' imperative associated with reflexes of *-en 'goal focus, direct passive focus' in many Western Malayo-Polynesian languages. While no one has yet argued that POc had a passive construction marked by *-ia, it apparently had an imperative construction marked in this manner. The fact that the dual function of passive and imperative is associated with reflexes of PAn *-en in some Western Malayo-Polynesian languages and with reflexes of POc *-ia in some Oceanic languages raises the question whether the passive function of *-ia might be far older than Proto-Eastern Polynesian.

*i₁ exclamation of wonder, disgust, etc.


PAN     *i₁ exclamation of wonder, disgust, etc.
Paiwan iinterjection of wonder or amazement
Cebuano iexpression uttered upon making an error or inadvertently breaking something; exclamation expressing surprise; particle expressing disgust
Toba Batak iexclamation of wonder
Javanese iexclamation of pain or fear
Manggarai iexclamation of longing, surprise, dismay (much used by women)
Ngadha iinterjection of fear, etc.
Kambera ishriek of pain
Gedaged iexclamation: whew! ugh!
Arosi iexclamation of disgust
Gilbertese iexclamation of pleasure, pain, or disgust
Mota iexclamation of excitement or refusal

Note:   Also Bunun ia 'exclamation', Lakalai hi 'exclamation of excitement' points to POc *qi, but is contradicted by the lack of an initial consonant in Paiwan i. The creation and shaping of the above forms clearly has been subject to the operation of universal human tendencies, but this by itself is no reason to assume that the forms compared have been independently invented in all daughter languages.

*i₂ generic marker of location in space or time


PAN     *i₂ generic marker of location in space or time
Amis igrammatical particle indicating place
Paiwan ibe at, be in
Aklanon iclassic noun prefix used to show locations
Cebuano iprefix added to roots referring to a place or direction to form nouns meaning "place of (so-and-so)"
Malagasy (Merina) iprefix used to make a noun into a preposition (e.g. maso 'eye', i-maso 'before the eyes', voho 'the back', i-voho 'at the back of')
Karo Batak igeneric prefix of location
Old Javanese iparticle with a prepositional function before nouns: in, on, by, through, with
Banggai igeneric prefix of location
Bare'e iparticle used before names of places and times
Molima iprefix to locatives
Bugotu ilocative preposition; at, from
Nggela ia prefix or article with nouns of place and time
Lau ilocative preposition, at (used before names of place, position, time)
'Are'are ilocative preposition: in, to, at, on; always used before names of places, and with words denoting time and direction
Proto-Micronesian *iprefix of time or place
Tongan i, ʔipreposition: at, on, in, than, etc.
Niue ipreposition: in, at, from
Samoan iparticle denoting position in space or time
Rennellese ilocative and temporal preposition: in, at, on, from, when, while
Maori iused with local nouns to form complex prepositions
Hawaiian iparticle and clitic preceding substantives and marking direct and indirect objects, with additional meanings: to, at, in, on, by, because of, due to, by means of ... while, at the time that, when

Note:   I take the glottal stop in Tongan ʔi to be secondary, as it disagrees with the cognate forms both in Rennellese and in Paiwan (for further discussion of the introduction of historically secondary glottal stop in Tongan grammatical formatives cf. Clark 1976 and Harrison 1991:135, fn. 5). PAn *i evidently was a generic marker of location which has become fossilized in most reflexes of *i-ni 'this, here', *i-tu 'that, there (2p.)', and *i-na 'that, there (3p.)', and in many reflexes of *i babaw 'above' and *i babaq 'below', but which continues to be used productively in many languages before other nouns. For further details cf. Blust (1989).

*i₃ personal article


PAN     *i₃ personal article [doublet: *si]
Atayal iprefix for persons
Paiwan iappositional particle for personal names and pronouns
Isneg ithe nominative and accusative of the personal article
Itawis ipersonal singular nominative and genitive particle
Malagasy (Merina) ipersonal article, generally joined to words making a proper noun
Balinese ia particle which makes nouns refer to definite persons
Sangir ipersonal article, marking personal names and kinship terms
Banggai ipersonal article
Kambera ipersonal article, used with proper names or words that function as proper names
Bugotu ipersonal article, seen in prefix to personal pronouns
Mota ipersonal article, making a noun into a proper name

Note:   Further documentation of *i 'personal article' is found in Blust (1977), where it is argued that *i and *si were in complementary distribution, at least when attached to pronouns (*si marking 3p., *i marking non-3p.). In many attested languages the distinction between this morpheme and *qi 'genitive marker' is obscure.

*i₄ numeral prefix


PCEMP     *i₄ numeral prefix [doublet: *e]
Fordat iprefix to numerals in counting (used with 1-9)
Lakalai iprefix to numbers in counting
Merlav inumeral prefix (used only with 2-4)
Makura inumeral prefix (used only with 2-5)
Leviamp inumeral prefix (used only with 2-9)

Note:   Also Bauro (Tryon and Hackman 1983) irua 'two' (the only Bauro numeral recorded with i-).

*ia₁ 3sg. personal pronoun: he, she; him, her, it


PAN     *ia₁ 3sg. personal pronoun: he, she; him, her, it
Itbayaten ia3sg.
Hiligaynon ía3sg. pre-position source pronoun
Kenyah ia3sg. subject and object
Malagasy (Merina) izy3sg. and pl.
Iban ia3sg.
Malay ia3sg.
Simalur ia3sg.
Karo Batak ia3sg. and pl.
Lampung ia3sg.
Balinese ia3sg. and pl.
Sasak ia3sg.
Tae' ia3sg.
Makasarese ia3sg. and pl.
Chamorro guiya3sg. (emphatic)
Palauan ŋíi3sg. (emphatic)
Selaru ia3sg.
Yamdena ie3sg.
Fordat ia3sg.
Kei i3sg.
Kamarian i3sg.
Koiwai i3sg.
Buli i3sg.
Numfor i3sg.
Gedaged i3sg. and pl.
Motu ia3sg.
Mussau ia3sg.
Raluana i3sg.
Bugotu i-iashe
Arosi ia3sg.
Marshallese e3sg.
Ponapean ih3sg.
Puluwat yiiy3sg.
Mota ia3sg.
Rotuman ia3sg.
Tongan ia3sg. and pl.
Samoan ia3sg.
Rennellese ia3sg.
Maori ia3sg.
Hawaiian ia3sg.


PAN     *si ia 3sg. personal pronoun: he, she, it
Atayal hia3sg.
Saaroa isa <M3sg.
Bunun siathe, those; he, it
Yami sia3sg.
Itbayaten sia3sg.
Kankanaey siá3sg.
Ifugaw hiá3sg.
Tagalog siá3sg.
Taosug siah3sg.
Bintulu isa <M3sg.
Kayan ihaʔ <M3sg.
Tunjung isa <M3sg.
Sangir sie3sg.
Proto-Minahasan *sia3sg.
Bolaang Mongondow sia3sg.
Bimanese sia3sg.

Note:   Also Malay dia '3sg.', Uma hiʔa '3sg.', Bare'e siʔa '3sg. and pl.'. For arguments supporting *si ia (rather than *s-ia), cf. Blust (1977). Although no reflexes of *ia are known in Formosan languages, reflexes of *si ia in Atayal, Saaroa, and Bunun clearly imply that *ia was present in PAn, and it is posited here on this basis.

*ia₂ demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here;


PMP     *ia₂ demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there
Aklanon here (near the speaker)
Malay (Sarawak) iathat
Kiput iehthat
Makasarese iademonstrative (postnominal), that
Sika ia-naover there
Lamaholot iahere
Rotinese iathis
Yamdena iethis
Kei ithis, these
Raluana iathere
Bugotu ia ani, ia enidemonstrative pronoun: this, here; follows a noun
Sa'a iedemonstrative pronoun: this, these (follows a noun)
Marshallese edemonstrative: this
Puluwat yiiydemonstrative: this
Lonwolwol iathus, in this or that way
Nguna wa-iathis
Tongan iademonstrative pronoun: that, those
Niue iademonstrative: that, those (referring to something already mentioned)
Samoan iademonstrative pronoun (post-basic): these, those
Rennellese iademonstrative: this, that, there, another, different
Maori iademonstrative pronoun: that, the said
Hawaiian ia, kē-iathis


PAN     *si ia demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there
Bunun siathe, those
Cebuano siáthis, that thing
Malay (Sarawak) s-iathere
Mentawai siathere

Note:   Also Sasak iaʔ 'this', Rembong iaʔ 'over there', Sika iʔa 'this', Rennellese ʔia 'here! here it is! take it! now!'. Like *ia 'exclamation', this item almost certainly is identical with the 3sg. personal pronoun. Historically pronouns often develop from demonstratives, but in the present case there can be little doubt that the primary sense of *ia was '3sg. personal pronoun', and that both the exclamatory and the demonstrative meanings are semantic extensions (cf. the last three items above, where the demonstrative meaning is found in a word containing the fossilized personal article *si).

*iag cry out, shout


PMP     *iag cry out, shout [disjunct: *iak]
Ifugaw íagshout some words to call people; a loud cry to give vent to one's excitement or contentment
Batad Ifugaw īagto shout yəhə əy in a long drawn out fashion by many people at a dance
Malay [iakto whine]
Manggarai [iakcry of children playing hide-and-seek]

Note:   Also Proto-Chamic *hia 'to cry'.

*iak cry out, shout


PMP     *iak cry out, shout [disjunct: *iag]
Tagalog iákcry (with tears), sob
Bikol íakcry out or shout
Cebuano íakchirp, cheep
  íak-íakkind of bird, the barred graybird: Coracina striata
Malay [iakto whine]
Manggarai [iakcry of children playing hide-and-seek]

Note:   Also Bontok iék 'to laugh, be laughing'.

*ian₁ dehortative: don't!


PWMP     *ian₁ dehortative: don't! [doublet: *dian]
Bario Kelabit iandehortative: don't
Makasarese iaŋmay not

Note:   Cense (1979) gives Makasarese ia 'may not', but notes that this item occurs only as a bound form in constructions with a suffixed pronoun, such as iaŋku, iannu, and ianna. His sole justification for positing a morpheme boundary before, rather than after the first nasal, appears to be that some vowel-final stems unpredictably show an "accretive nasal'' before the pronominal suffix (Mills 1975:1:78, 221). However, such vowel-final stems and stems that end in ŋ appear to exhibit identical suffixed forms. Phonemically, then, Cense's /ia/ could as well be /iang/.

*ian₂ dwell, reside, live in a place


PWMP     *ian₂ dwell, reside, live in a place
Isneg iānplace, location
Bontok iánto stay overnight
  i-ián-ana place where one can stay overnight
Ifugaw íanto stay overnight, or for a short time, at one of the houses of a given village, when traveling
Ilokano yanplace, location, situation, locality, spot, position
  ag-yánstay, dwell, abide, occupy a certain relative place or position
  um-yánpass the night, to lodge
Casiguran Dumagat iánstay, live, reside
Maranao iansource
Toba Batak ianlive, dwell, reside, stay
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ianreside, dwell
Bare'e iaplace of residence


PWMP     *ian-an place of residence
Bontok ián-anstay overnight
Kadazan izan-andomicile, living place, place of residence


PWMP     *paR-ian-an location, place where one stays
Ilokano pag-yán-anlocation, situation, position
Toba Batak par-m-ian-anplace where one stays or resides


PWMP     *um-ian to stay, dwell, reside
Bontok om-iánstay overnight
Ilokano um-yánpass the night, lodge
Toba Batak m-ianreside, stay

Note:   Also Kadazan izon 'to live in a place', izon-on 'domicile, living place, place of residence', Lamaholot iaʔ 'live, reside, dwell'.

*ian₃ that, there (probably 2p.)


PWMP     *ian₃ that, there (probably 2p.)
Isneg iānthat; there (near the person addressed)
Gaddang yanthat (2p.)
Agta yanthis
Tagalog iánthat (near the person addressed)
Bikol iánthat, those (nearer than itó)
Palawan Batak iánthere (2p.)
Western Bukidnon Manobo d-ianthere (2p. or 3p.)
Subanun (Siocon) d-ionthere (2p.)
Malay k-ianthis; thus; this much; this way; hither
Deli Malay yenthat (Lang. dial. ian 'that')

Note:   Also PC *hiã 'there'. Dempwolff (1934-38) attributed Tagalog ián 'that', Malagasy izani 'this', Sa'a ie 'this, these' to *ian 'that (one), demonstrative pronoun'. Although he did not note it, the Malagasy form is irregular, and can better be compared with Atayal iani 'this; here; now', Mansaka y-ani 'this', Nggela iani 'here', probably reflecting *ia-ni 'this; here'. The inclusion of Sa'a ie in Dempwolff's comparison is equally problematic. Many Oceanic languages which have lost original final consonants (e.g. Raluana, Bugotu, Mota, Tongan, Niue, Samoan, Anuta, and Maori) have a demonstrative pronoun reflecting earlier *ia. While some of these forms can plausibly be compared with reflexes of *ian, they can equally well be compared with e.g. Aklanon 'here' or Rotinese ia 'this; here', which cannot reflect a consonant-final etymon. As suggested by some grammarians and lexicographers (e.g. Churchward 1959) these demonstrative uses, like the widespread exclamatory and confirmatory forms of similar shape, probably represent semantic extensions of the 3sg personal pronoun *ia.

*iap kind of brown fish


PSHWNG     *iap kind of brown fish
Buli iafbrown fish
Waropen iabrown fish

*iaqi demonstrative marker of uncertain meaning


PMP     *iaqi demonstrative marker of uncertain meaning
Proto-Minahasan *iaʔithis
Waropen iaithat (of things)
Gilbertese iaithere, here

Note:   Also Rotuman ia ʔi 'this person here' (cp. ia ʔo 'that person there'). Ross (1988:208ff) reconstructs POc *iai as a "locative proform'', widely reflected in the Papuan Tip languages of southeastern New Guinea.

*ias₁ particle of doubt or interrogation


PMP     *ias₁ particle of doubt or interrogation
Kankanaey íastrue? yes? indeed? sure? An interjection used when doubting
Kayan iahinterrogative particle, sentence final
Lakalai iainterrogative used at the end of phrase or sentence to indicate question similar to French "N'est-ce pas?"

Note:   Possibly a product of convergence.

*ias₂ maggot, fly egg


PWMP     *ias₂ maggot, fly egg
Kayan iahmaggot
Iban iasmaggot
Sasak iaseggs of flies

Note:   It is unclear how the meaning of this term differed from that of *qulej. It is possible that *ias referred to the eggs of flies prior to hatching, whereas *qulej clearly referred to maggots, caterpillars, and other insect larvae that metamorphose into adults that fly.

TOP      ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    


*iba iba remainder, surplus


PMP     *iba iba remainder, surplus
Karo Batak ibaremainder
  iba-ibawhat is left over, surplus, remainder


POC     *iba iba remainder, surplus
Raluana iba-ibaresidue, excess, remainder, over and above

Note:   Also Bontok ibʔá 'remainder, rest'. Possibly connected with PAn *ibaS 'companion'.

*iba₁ self


PWMP     *iba₁ self
Toba Batak ibageneral pronoun; person, one, self, in the sense of "I"
Balinese ibabody, self

*iba₂ bad, evil


PPh     *iba₂ bad, evil
Kankanaey íbaominous, portentous, forboding evil; bad, ill
Bikol ibábewitched
Hanunóo ibábad! terrible! disagreeable, partly by being something other than that which is considered standard or acceptable
Tagabili ibamistake, blunder

Note:   Possibly also Iban antu iba 'demon, spirit (of the forest?)'. If the latter is included in this comparison the etymon might include an additional gloss 'bewitched'.

*ibak break or split off


PMP     *ibak break or split off [doublet: *ipak]
Malagasy (Merina) ivakabe disjointed, as boards or planks in a flooring; be apart
Tae' iʔbakopen forcefully, as the clenched teeth (< *i-r-bak)
Proto-South Sulawesi *i-r-bakcut, make an incision
Manggarai ibak, iwakpart, half of something split (as a coconut)
Rembong ibakpiece of a beehive; piece cut or split off

Note:   With root *-bak₃ 'split off, separate from'.

*imbaŋ weigh, balance, compare


PMP     *imbaŋ weigh, balance, compare
Banjarese imbaŋweigh, balance; compare
Bahasa Indonesia imbaŋweigh, balance; compare
Karo Batak imbaŋalter-ego, competitor, foe
Toba Batak imbaŋco-wife (only the first wife uses this expression)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak imbaŋfriend; compared with
Javanese imbaŋweight
  imbaŋ-anequal; in balance with each other
Balinese imbaŋcompare
Manggarai imbabalance; compare
  imbaŋto weigh, balance

Note:   Manggarai imba, imbaŋ may be a loan from Bahasa Indonesia.

*ibaS companion, close relative, other one


PAN     *ibaS companion, close relative, other one
Puyuma (Rikavong) ivaelder sibling, elder sibling's spouse, spouse's elder sibling


PMP     *ibah companion, close relative, other one
Ifugaw ibábrother, sister, cousin, companion, friend
Pangasinan íbacompanion; accompany; help
Casiguran Dumagat íbaanother, other, different, distinct, new
Tagalog ibáother, another; different, distinct
Bikol ibádifferent, distinct, dissimilar, otherwise; contrasting; strange, peculiar; to differ, be different; include, incorporate, enclose; join, belong to; associate with; accompany, go or come along with
  pag-ir-ibácompany, companions, society
Hanunóo íbacompanionship; accompanying, going along with someone
  ibáanother, another one; other, different, but not in the sense of being distinct or separate
Aklanon íba(h)go together, be companions
  ibá(h)accompany, go along with; different, other, another
Cebuano ibá(given as a dialect form of ubán) the other ones, additional ones; include in a group
Bolaang Mongondow iba-niaanother, other; some


PMP     *ibah-an companion, close relative, other one
Itbayaten ivanidea of being a companion
Ivatan ka-yvanfriend
Hiligaynon ibánother, some other
Timugon Murut iwanfather-in-law, mother-in-law
Bario Kelabit ibanparent-in-law, child-in-law
Bintulu ivanparent-in-law
  anak ivanchild-in-law
Murik ame ibanfather-in-law
  ine ibanmother-in-law
  anak ibanchild-in-law
Singhi ibanson-in-law, daughter-in-law
Iban ibanperson
Ma'anyan iwanwife's sister, brother's wife (m.s.)
Ngaju Dayak iwanhusband's sister, brother's wife
Toba Batak par-ibanMBD (the preferred spouse of a man); two sisters ... are each other's pariban, they are marpariban, and call each other haha and aŋgi and not iboto. Each sister is also marpariban to the husband of the other and both their husbands are marpariban to each other also. Sisters are always very attached to each other, and, as a rule, the same is true of their husbands. (Vergouwen 1964:47)
Nias iwatribe, clan; (in southern Nias) brother, sister
Bimanese iwafriend; close relative
Manusela iba, ifanpatrilineal clan (van Wouden 1968 [1935]:21 )


PWMP     *ka-ibah-an companion, close relative, other one
Itbayaten ka-yvancompanion, escort, associate, chaperone
  ka-ka-yvanfriend (because of frequent going together)
Ivatan ka-yvanfriend
Hanunóo ka-ʔibáh-ancompanion, fellow traveler
Aklanon ka-ibah-ancompanion
Penan k-ivanparent-in-law, child-in-law

Note:   Also Bontok ibʔá 'other; companions', ibʔa-an 'join with, put together with', Kankanaey ibʔá 'companion, fellow, associate', Tiruray iboʔ 'sister-in-law (m.s.), brother-in-law (w.s.)'. Based on the comparison Tagalog ibá 'other, another, different', Toba Batak iba 'person, self', leban (< *la-iba-an) 'other; excess, remainder, stranger', Javanese ébah 'to move', éwah 'to change', Ngaju Dayak iwa-n '(the other =) sister-in-law (w.s.)' Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *ibaq 'different; to change'. The present comparison includes the Tagalog and Ngaju Dayak members of Dempwolff's comparison, but not the Toba Batak and Javanese members.

Although I believe that it is an improvement on Dempwolff, the cognate set proposed here is difficult for two reasons: (1) in most reflexes the proposed suffix *-an is fossilized (whereas the prefix *ka- in *ka-ibah-an is fossilized only in Penan k-ivan); (2) the meaning of reflexes ranges over 'companion, friend', same generation consanguines, same and adjacent generation affines, 'clan', and (at least in Philippine languages) 'other, different'. I assume that all of these senses are related through the notion 'companion: the "other'' in a personal dyad which includes the self'. Dempwolff presumably would also have included forms that I assign to *iba iba 'remainder, surplus'. It is possible, but by no means certain,

*ibe mat


POC     *ibe mat
Nggela imbemat
'Are'are ipemat, bed
Fijian ibemat

*ibeR saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave,


PMP     *ibeR saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for
Pangasinan ibégcovet, desire, fall in love with (loanword)
Tagalog ibígwish, want, desire; objective; whim; darling, beloved; dream, ideal
Hanunóo íbugliking, desire, wish, love
Aklanon íbogattracted to, desire, like
Hiligaynon íbughave a passion for, crave for
Cebuano íbugattracted
Tiruray ibegappetite; saliva (loanword)
Kayan ivahvenom of snake, saliva of human
Ngaju Dayak iwæhsaliva (in the mouth; saliva that has been spat out is luja)
Malagasy (Merina) ivysaliva, drivel, slabber
Bolaang Mongondow ibogwish, desire; saliva
Palauan ŋíbesdrooling saliva
  ŋ-u-íbeshave desires for, lust after
  ole-ŋíbestempt, tease, seduce


POC     *ipoR saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for
Tongan ifotasty, lit. or fig. (interesting, etc.)
Niue ifofoam at the mouth; spittle


PWMP     *ibeR ibeR drool profusely (?)
Cebuano íbug-íbugtempt
Ngaju Dayak iwæh-iwæhdrool profusely (as a dog after running in the hunt)


PWMP     *ibeR-en drooling
Tagalog ibíg-inlove or desire someone or something
Bolaang Mongondow ibog-onuncontrollably watering at the mouth
Palauan ŋebok-ldrooling


PWMP     *ka-ibeR having desire for
Cebuano ka-íbugattraction to something
Ngaju Dayak ka-iwehthe flowing of saliva


PWMP     *ka-ibeR ibeR constant longing
Tagalog ka-íbig-íbigdesirable, lovable
Ngaju Dayak ka-iweh-iwehflow continuously, of the saliva


PWMP     *ma-ibeR desiring, craving
Tagalog ma-íbigbecome loved or desired; what is to be, or is being desired
Hiligaynon ma-íbughave a passion for, crave
Kayan m-ivahsalivate
Ngaju Dayak m-iwæhused after mipen 'desire' to add emphasis

Note:   Also Kapampangan ibug 'have a taste for, be eager to'. PMP *ibeR evidently referred both to saliva in the mouth and to strong desire associated with "watering at the mouth''. The meanings of most of the affixed forms are uncertain.

*ibit touch, grasp


PMP     *ibit touch, grasp
Kayan ivittouch; grasp by the hand, hold
Wetan iwtitouch; hold fast, clench, pinch (esp. between thumb and finger)

Note:   With root *-bit₁ 'hook, clasp; grasp with fingers'.

*ibo edible sea worm: Sipunculus spp.


POC     *ibo edible sea worm: Sipunculus spp.
Roviana ibosmall sea-worm, much used for bait in Koqa fishing
Gilbertese iboan edible worm found in sand on beach (called sea asparagus) -- resembles long piece of thick macaroni: Sipunculus indicus Peters
Fijian ibolarge edible sea-worm
Samoan ipoedible sea-worm: Sipunculus spp.
Nanumea iposp. of worm found on the beach

Note:   Gilbertese ibo may be a Polynesian loan, but the comparison can stand even if this form is eliminated. This item appears to be distinct from PMP *ibaw 'edible shellfish'.

*imbu stench, strong unpleasant odor


PMP     *imbu stench, strong unpleasant odor
Malagasy (Merina) imboa strong and offensive odor, but less strong than hantsina
Ngadha ibustink terribly

*ibu₃ container for liquids


POC     *ibu₃ container for liquids
Ulawa ipua hollow in a tree holding water
Tongan ipucup
Niue ipucup
Samoan ipu(coconut shell) cup; bowl; dish
Rarotongan ipugeneric for articles that serve as a basin, cup, etc., made in ancient days from coconut shells or a calabash
Hawaiian iputhe bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria, also called L. vulgaris); general name for vessel or container, as dish, mug, calabash, pot, cup, pipe

Note:   Gilbertese ibu 'calabash, gourd, toddy shell made of coconut shell' is assumed to be a Polynesian loan.

*ibuk dull, muffled sound


PMP     *ibuk dull, muffled sound
Iban imbokRed cuckoo-dove, Little cuckoo-dove, Spotted-necked dove
Karo Batak ibuksmall owl sp. (onom.)
Ngadha ibustrike, beat, hit, knock; sound of a blow

Note:   The Iban and Karo Batak forms permit a PWMP *ibuk 'bird with deep coo or hoot'. Apparently with root *-buk₂ 'pound, thud, heavy splash'.

*imbuk nature spirit


PMP     *imbuk nature spirit
Iban antu imbokfemale demon
Bare'e imbuwater spirit which appears in many forms
Ngadha ibuevil spirit that preys especially on pregnant women

*ibun bird sp.


PPh     *ibun bird sp.
Ilokano íbon(Obs.) large bird
Tagalog íbonbird; íbun-an aviary

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan in Ilokano, but the more specific gloss in the latter language, and the indication that it is obsolescent argue against this interpretation.

*imbuq increase, addition


PWMP     *imbuq increase, addition
Rejang imbuaʔincrement, increase, addition
Old Javanese imbuhincrease, addition
Javanese imbuhsomething in addition; supplement; a second helping
Balinese imbuhadd, increase, be heaped up
Sasak imbuʔincrease

Note:   Also Sundanese emboh 'include, add', Sasak imbuh 'increase'.

*imbuR scatter, strew


PWMP     *imbuR scatter, strew
Iban imburscatter or splash with the hands
Mandar émburscatter, sow, strew

Note:   With root *-buR₂ 'strew, sow; sprinkle'.

*ibus the gebang palm: Corypha gebanga


PWMP     *ibus the gebang palm: Corypha gebanga
Malay ibusa palm, Corypha gebanga, used in mat-making
Acehnese iboihthe gebang palm: Corypha gebanga Bl.
Balinese ibus, ibus-anleaf of the palm tree
Sasak ibusa tree from which the wood for making drums is obtained. The tree dies as soon as it bears fruit: Corypha gebanga

*ibut₁ pull out, uproot


PMP     *ibut₁ pull out, uproot
Cebuano ibútpull out something rooted, stuck into something; for copulating things to get apart; draw a weapon on one
Raluana ivut, iwutto pluck, as the feather of a fowl, etc.
Nggela ivu, ta-ivuuprooted, roots and all, by wind
Lau ifuto uproot or be uprooted by wind
Kwaio ifufall down by itself, of a tree

Note:   With root *-buC 'to weed, pluck, pull out'.

*ibut₂ breeze, draft of wind


PWMP     *ibut₂ breeze
Kadazan ibutdraught, breeze, air
  ibut topuodstorm, gale
Rejang ibutwind, breeze, air

Note:   Possibly a convergent resemblance. In Kadazan *-b- normally became v; alternatively, Kadazan ibut may be a reduced form of earlier *imbut.

TOP      ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    


*icak step, tread on


PWMP     *icak step, tread on
Javanese icakget stepped on; step on
Bolaang Mongondow itakstep on something; tread on

Note:   Also Balinese iŋsak 'trample on, rub the feet on the ground', Sasak icaʔ 'step on'. Dunnebier (1951) cross-references Bolaang Mongondow itak to yitak and ritak. Since r and y vary freely in many Bolaang Mongondow words, and the sequence yi- sometimes varies with i-, itak may simply be a phonologically advanced form of ritak, thus invalidating this comparison.

*icir creep, crawl


PWMP     *icir creep, crawl [disjunct: *iŋsiD]
Toba Batak [insircreep, crawl, slide, slip]
  [maŋ-insir-islink, creep]
Old Javanese icircrawl about? (of catfish and crayfish in the mud)

*icud budge, shift, move aside


PMP     *icud budge, shift, move aside [disjunct: *isu, isud]
Tagalog [ísodact of moving up or away in position]
Kadazan [insud-onthe place to which one moves]
Malay incutawry; out of position, as a strained limb; sidelong movement
Ngadha [isupress on, push away, press down]
'Are'are [isumove, remove, of persons and things]

TOP      ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    


*ida they, them


PMP     *ida they, them \cf */da/
Ilokano idáthey, them
Itawis iráthey, them
Kapampangan ilathey, them
Hiligaynon ílatheir, theirs
Cebuano ílatheir, by them; thing that's theirs
Maranao ira-ntheir
Bario Kelabit idehthey, them
Long Anap idathey, them
Maloh irathey, them
Old Javanese iraform in which the pronoun sira appears, when qualifying a noun (his, her; your) or the in-form of the passive verb (by him, by her; by you)
Balinese idahe, she, they; this is the pronoun for ksatriyas and brahmanas
  ida-nof him, of her
Sasak idahe
Mori irathey, them
Leti irathey, them
Wetan irathey, them
Fordat irathey, them
Watubela ilathey, them
Bonfia ile <Athey, them
Irarutu ire <Athey, them
Mussau ilathey, them
Bugotu i-irathey, used of women only
Arosi irathey, them
Proto-Micronesian *irathey, them
Mota ira3rd pl. suffixed to verb and preposition; never subject; the people, companions of
Peterara irathey, them
Fijian iracardinal pronoun, 3rd pl. objective: them. It is used after verbs and prepositions; as subject only in sa i ira 'it is they'. The normal subject is ko ira after the verb, and era before it


PWMP     *ni ida of them, by them
Itbayaten nirafor them
Tagalog nilátheir, theirs
Cebuano niláof them, by them
Old Javanese niraform in which the pronoun sira appears, when qualifying a noun (his, her; your) or the in-form of the passive verb (by him, by her; by you)


PMP     *si ida they
Itbayaten sirathey, them
Tagalog siláthey
Cebuano siláthey
Long Terawan silohthey, them
Toba Batak na-sidathey, them
Old Javanese sirathey, them
Bare'e sira3rd person singular and plural pronoun, used for genealogically elder families, by slaves of their masters, by children-in-law of their parents-in-law, etc.
Chamorro sihathey -- intransitive subject pronoun, transitive object pronoun, emphatic pronoun
Palauan tir3rd person plural emphatic: they, them
Rotinese silathey, them
Atoni sinthey, them
Erai hirathey, their, them
Selaru sirathey, them
Yamdena sir(e)they, them
Ujir sirathey, them
Kei hirthey, them
Paulohi silethey, them
Buru sirathey, them
Sekar sinathey, them
Buli sil(e)they, them
As sirethey, them

Note:   A number of languages in the Solomons and Vanuatu exhibit reflexes of earlier *kira. It is assumed that these derive from *ida (> *ira), with contamination from the other plural pronouns (*kita '1pl. incl.', *kami '1pl. excl.', *kamu '2pl.'). Tasiriki nira, Wailapa i-nira 'they' and similar forms in other languages of Vanuatu can be compared directly with *ni ida, but are assumed to be the result of an independent development.

*inda₁ exclamation of wonder, pain, etc.


PMP     *inda₁ exclamation of wonder, pain, etc.
Nias idáexclamation of wonder, etc.
Bimanese idaexclamation of pain
Manggarai idaexclamation
Sika ʔidacry of fright or shock
Savu idacry of fright or shock

Note:   Also Sundanese idɨh 'exclamation of pain, etc.', Bimanese ira 'exclamation of pain', Manggarai ide 'exclamation', Ngadha ide 'exclamation of wonder', Leti ide 'exclamation: ouch!'. The consonant in the above forms is the normal reflex of *-nd-, but may actually reflect *-d-, with irregularities due to the expressive character of the word.

*inda₂ mother


PWMP     *inda₂ mother [doublet: *indu]
Kapampangan indá-ʔmother
Tiruray ida-ymother (in address only)
Iban inda-imother, call mother, term of reference or address for woman of mother's generation
Ngaju Dayak inda-ŋmother
Old Javanese inda-ŋmother

Note:   Also Tiruray ideŋ 'mother', Simalur ində 'mother animal'. Tagalog indáy 'young girl', Aklanon indáy "Miss'' (common term of address for girls and ladies)', Hiligaynon índay 'girls of age one to fifteen; address term for girls chronologically younger than the speaker', Cebuano indáy 'title or term of address for a female the same age or younger than the speaker; female, girl' appear to form a distinct cognate set, restricted to Central Philippine languages. I assume that, like *indu, *inda is often reflected with a vocative suffix (Blust 1979).

*inda₃ no, not


PWMP     *inda₃ no, not
Toba Batak inda(ŋ), nda(ŋ)no, not (used in tag questions to elicit an affirmative reply)
Wolio inda(a)no, not

Note:   Also Tagalog hindíʔ 'no, not', Aklanon índiʔ 'no, not (used for negative future statements and for negative commands)', Penudjaq, Mamben ndeʔ 'no, not', Sasak edaʔ 'no, not', Banggai indai 'don't'.

*indaŋ inspect, examine


PWMP     *indaŋ inspect, examine
Ilokano indáŋoverseer, supervisor, superintendent, foreman, inspector; to mind, regard with attention
Acehnese indaŋwooden vessel in which gold is panned
Toba Batak indaŋtest, examine, observe
Old Javanese iṇḍaŋgo round in or among (in order to search, inspect, etc.)

Note:   Also Ilokano indág 'overseer, supervisor'.

*idas₁ affine of Ego's generation


PAN     *idas₁ affine of Ego's generation
Atayal irahsister-in-law; wife's elder sister, husband's elder sister, elder brother's wife (man or woman speaking
Casiguran Dumagat idásspouse of sibling-in-law; spouse's sibling-in-law
Bikol idásterm for spouses when two brother have married two sisters
Maranao idasbrother-in-law, sister-in-law
  pag-idasbrother-in-law when two men marry two sisters
Mamanwa ilasspouse's sibling-in-law
Western Bukidnon Manobo izasspouse's sibling-in-law
Kalamansig Cotabato Manobo idosspouse's sibling-in-law
Tiruray idoshusband of one's sister-in-law, wife of one's brother-in-law
Timugon Murut ilashusband's brother's wife (but not wife's sister's husband)
Mentawai irabrother-in-law, sister-in-law (woman speaking)

Note:   The meaning of this term is problematic. In PPh it apparently meant 'spouse of sibling-in-law = sibling-in-law of spouse', as this meaning is reflected both in Casiguran Dumagat of the northern Philippines, and in many of the Manobo languages and Tiruray of the southern Philippines. Both Timugon Murut of northern Borneo and Mentawai, spoken west of central Sumatra, reflect a usage that is restricted to female speakers. If this restriction is part of the original specification of the term, *idas may have meant 'husband's brother's wife', but the confirming evidence remains tantalizingly elusive.

*idas₂ a strand, as of rope


PWMP     *idas₂ a strand, as of rope
Kayan iraha strand of any cord or rope; a hair of the head
Malagasy (Merina) iraa hank of cotton or silk prepared for weaving
Karo Batak idasa "single strand" of yarn; dua idas-na two strands

Note:   Also Iban iraʔ 'fibre, strand'.

*idi then, at that time


PMP     *idi then, at that time
Ilokano idían adverb: formerly, in time past, at that time, then; a conjunction: when, at the time that, while
Kenyah idithen, not till then
Waropen irithen, next; however, but

Note:   Probably identical to *i-di 'that, there'.

*indu mother animal; leader; large one of a class


PWMP     *indu mother animal; leader; large one of a class [doublet: *inda₂]
Kapampangan indúmother
Ngaju Dayak indumother; a ghostly woman who plagues small children so that they cry often; she is then given a fowl in offering
Minangkabau indumother


PWMP     *indu-ŋ mother animal; leader; large one of a class
Banjarese indu-ŋmother
Malay indo-ŋmother
Moken èno-ŋmother
Karo Batak indu-ŋmother animal; in general, larger one of the same class
Dairi-Pakpak Batak indu-ŋmother animal
Sundanese indu-ŋmother
  garuda induŋmother eagle
  induŋ-induŋsing a child to sleep
Old Javanese indu-ŋmother; familiar or affectionate address to a woman (beloved, daughter): my good woman, my dear girl
Javanese indu-ŋmother


PWMP     *indu-q mother animal; leader; large one of a class
Botolan Sambal indóʔmother
Maloh indu-ʔmother
Selako inu-ʔmother
Iban indu-ʔwoman, mother, female, feminine; female of a pair; sacred plants set with the stones as the "centre" of a padi field; principal, chief, main or bigger member of a class
Malay indo-kmother, dam (of animals), base or home in certain games
  indo-k ayamlaying hen
Simalur ində_-ʔmother animal
  ində_-xmother (as address)
Toba Batak indu-kleader, head (Malay loan)
Rejang indoʔmother, matrix, dam
Bare'e indomother (animal); big
Tae' indo-ʔmother; as a term of address generally shortened to ndoʔ; indoʔ is often an element in teknonyms, e.g. indoʔ Sampe 'mother of Sampe'; in a number of expressions indoʔ occurs in the sense of 'leader, head, predecessor'
Buginese indo-ʔmother, mother animal

Note:   Manggarai indu 'Miss (title)' is assumed to be a loan. Wilkinson (1959:425) describes this as "Etym., an ancient Indonesian word for mother.'' While this assessment may be true for *indu in relation to Malay ibu 'mother', it clearly is not true in relation to *ina, which is the only PAn or PMP candidate for 'mother'. Reflexes of *indu in a number of languages look suspiciously like Malay loanwords, and the entire comparison may be nothing more than a product of borrowing over the past two millenia. I assume that forms in * and *-q reflect vocative suffixes (Blust 1979), although the use of vocatives is difficult to reconcile with the reconstructed gloss.

*idus nasal mucus, snot


PMP     *idus nasal mucus, snot
Sasak idussnot
Palauan ŋirtmucus (from nose only)
Komodo irusnasal mucus, snot
Manggarai irusnasal mucus, snot

Note:   Also Malay (h)iŋus 'snot; mucus from the nose'.

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*ieq this


PMP     *ieq this
Bintulu ieʔthis
Sasak iaʔthis
Rembong iaʔover there


PWMP     *di-ieq here
Ivatan diaʔhere
Dibabawon Manobo diaʔthere (2p, 3p)
Bintulu d-ieʔhere

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*ígat eel


PPh     *ígat eel
Isneg íxāteel
Itawis ígateel
Ilokano ígateel
Pangasinan igáteel
Aklanon ígateel

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat iget 'fresh water eel'.

*i(ŋ)git anger, resentment


PWMP     *i(ŋ)git anger, resentment
Tagalog iŋgítenvy, spite, grudge
Javanese igitexasperated with; exasperation, resentment

Note:   With root *-git 'anger, resentment'.

*iŋguk deep throaty sound


PPh     *iŋguk deep throaty sound
Kankanaey igókto swallow
Hanunóo íŋgukgrunting of pigs

Note:   With root *-guk 'deep throaty sound'.

TOP      ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    


*ihap count, calculate


PMP     *ihap count, calculate
Bontok iápcount
Balangao iápcount; read
Cebuano ihápcount
Maranao iapaccount for; count; figure out
Mukah Melanau iapcount
Singhi n-iapcount
Proto-Chamic *iāpcalculate
Proto-Minahasan *iapcount
Bolaang Mongondow iapcount, calculate
Tae' iaʔcount, calculate
Sekar iafcount
Onin iafcount


PPh     *ihap-en be counted, be calculated
Bontok iap-enbe counted
Bolaang Mongondow iap-onbe counted

Note:   Also Ifugaw uyáp 'act of counting, reckoning, computing', Bolaang Mongondow iab 'count, calculate'. The semantic distinction between this item and *bilaŋ 'count' remains somewhat vague. What few indications we have suggest that *bilaŋ meant 'count' (viz. 'recite numerals in sequence'), whereas *ihap meant 'calculate' (viz. 'manipulate numerals to determine an amount'). Both of these clearly distinguishable senses are commonly conflated as 'to count' in English despite the availability of lexical resources for distinguishing them ('count' vs. 'calculate').

*ihi exclamation of surprise, etc.


PMP     *ihi exclamation of surprise, etc. [disjunct: *iqi]
Cebuano ihíexpression of surprise or warning
Uma iiexclamation, ouch!
Kapampangan iioh! sound indicating surprise or curiosity
Ngadha iicry, whine
Rarotongan iian interjection made as when setting a dog at a cat

TOP      ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    


*iit scraped or filed down


PPh     *iit scraped or filed down
Kankanaey iitto file
Gorontalo iitoscraped down

Note:   Also Bolaang Mongondow iid 'scour, scrub'.

TOP      ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    


*ijan when?


PAN     *ijan when?
Proto-Rukai *ko-igan-əwhen?
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) a-ydanwhen?
Pangasinan kap-igánwhen?
Kapampangan kap-ilánwhen?
Tagalog ka-ilánwhen?
Tiruray ked-ironwhen?
Tagabili k-ilónwhen?
Timugon Murut saŋg-ilanwhen?
Ida'an Begak nu k-idanwhen? (future)
Bario Kelabit idanwhen?
Kayan iran, h-iranwhen? at what time?
Karo Batak nd-iganwhen? (future)
  nd-igan naiwhen? (past)
Mono-Alu ro-isawhen?
Fijian na-icatime when


POC     *ana-ŋa-ican when? (past)
Duke of York na-ŋa-ianwhen? (past)
  u na-ŋa-ianwhen? (future)
Mota ŋa-isatime when
  ana-ŋa-isawhen? (past)


PMP     *ŋa-ijan when?
Chamorro ŋa-iʔanwhen?
Nggela ŋ-ihahow many? how much? when?
Lau a-ŋ-itawhen? (past or future, and not always interrogative)
Mota ŋa-isatime when
Tangoa ŋ-isawhen?


PMP     *p-ijan when?
Kallahan p-iganwhen?
Balinese p-idanwhen? what time? whenever
Bare'e piawhen?
Tae' piranwhen (future)


PCMP     *pijan when?
Riung pizanwhen?
Kambera piranwhen?
Rotinese fai hidawhen (future)

Note:   Also Paiwan ŋida 'when?', Hanunóo kapirá 'when? when', Maranao igira 'when, while, during; whenever', Sika rema pira 'when?', Tetun wen hira 'when?', Masiwang bot fila 'when?', Buru beton pila 'when?', Buli ma-fis 'when? (future)', op-fis 'when? (past)', Dobuan ma-isa 'when?'. Tagalog ka-ilán, Tagabili k-ilon, Santa Catalina ka-ita 'when?' may point to an additional affixed form *ka-ijan. In any event, it is clear that the initial consonant of Tagabili kilon is a fossilized affix rather than evidence for *qijan, since both Puyuma (Tamalakaw) a-ydan and Chamorro ŋa-iʔan contradict initial *q.

The reconstruction of *p-ijan is problematic. In many languages reflexes of *ijan are confused with reflexes of *pija 'how much? how many?' (see above), and it is possible that *p-ijan is a monomorphemic product of contamination. Whatever the case, *p- does not appear to be separable in any Central Malayo-Polynesian language. Similarly, the great majority of Oceanic languages (like Chamorro) reflect a form with prefixed *ŋa-, suggesting that POc *ŋaijan was monomorphemic. Contrary to this interpretation, a few languages in the Solomons (Mono-Alu, Santa Catalina) reflect *ijan without *ŋa-. Finally, both in Karo Batak and in Chamorro a reflex of *ijan is commonly used together with a morpheme nai. Attention to the glosses (Karo Batak nai 'marker of past time', Chamorro nai 'where (relative), when (relative)', however, suggests that this agreement is convergent, as apparently is that of Buli ma-fis 'when (future)', Dobuan ma-isa 'when?'.

*ijuŋ nose


PMP     *ijuŋ nose [doublet: *ejuŋ, ŋijuŋ, ujuŋ]
Ibanag igúŋnose
Isneg ixóŋnose
Tagalog ilóŋnose
Hanunóo irúŋnose
Cebuano ilúŋnose
Western Bukidnon Manobo izuŋnose
Tiruray iruŋnose
Tagabili iluŋnose
Iban idoŋnose
Jarai aduŋnose
Moken yoŋnose
Acehnese idoŋnose
Karo Batak iguŋnose
Toba Batak iguŋnose
Nias ichunose; snout, trunk, proboscis
Lampung ixuŋnose
Sundanese iruŋnose
Javanese iruŋnose
Balinese iruŋnose
Sasak iduŋnose
Chamorro guiʔeŋnose
Manggarai isuŋnose; snot
Li'o ijunose
Sika ʔirunose
Lamaholot irunnose
Rotinese idunose
Tetun inur <Mnose, trunk, snout
Leti irnunose
Kisar irunnose
Yamdena iri <Anose
Proto-Ambon *ilunose
Kairiru isu-nose
Suau isu-nose
Roro isu-nose
Tigak isu-nose
Teop ihu-nose
Nduke isu-nose
Nggela ihu-nose; beak; cape of land
Lau isuprow and stern erections of a canoe
Arosi isu-isunose ornament, made of clam shell
Rotuman isu-nose; projection, cape of land; point, tip, head of match
Tongan ihu-nose, (of an elephant) trunk
Samoan isu-nose
Rennellese isu-nose, beak, swelling on top of beak of doves; axe handle top, beneath the butt end of the blade
Maori ihu-nose; bow of a canoe, etc.
Hawaiian ihu-nose, snout, beak, bill, trunk of an elephant, toe of a shoe; a kiss, prow or bow of a canoe or ship; thick end of pearl-shell shank


PCEMP     *ijuŋ mata face
Wetan irna mataface
Roviana isuface


PWMP     *ijuŋ-an fish sp.
Aklanon ilóŋ-anfish sp.
Iban duŋanfreshwater fish sp.

Note:   Also Bario Kelabit idʰuŋ 'nose', Malay hidoŋ (expected **idoŋ) 'organ of smell. Esp. of human noses, not animal snouts (monchoŋ)', Old Javanese (h)iruŋ 'nose', Madurese eloŋ 'nose', Sasak eduŋ, eroŋ 'nose', Proto-Sangiric *idun 'nose', Tae' illoŋ 'nose', Palauan íis 'nose', isŋ-el 'his or her nose'. Bimanese ilu 'nose', Wetan irna 'nose', Kamarian hiru 'nose', Lakalai ma-isu 'nose', Roviana isu (expected **isuŋu) 'nose', Peterara lisu- 'nose'.

PWMP *ijuŋ-an probably had meanings other than that reconstructed here, as is suggested by Tagalog ilóŋ-an 'big nosed', Cebuano ilúŋ-an 'having a nicely-shaped nose', Western Bukidnon Manobo izuŋ-an 'grow hard (rice grains)', Javanese iruŋ-an 'pipe linking blacksmith's bellows to a fire-box; nose-shaped latch on a folding door'. It is also possible that a verbal form *maŋ-ijuŋ was found in PWMP, as is suggested by Toba Batak maŋ-iguŋ-iguŋ 'sniff at (of a dog)', Sundanese ŋ-iruŋ 'talk through the nose'. The reduplication in the foregoing Toba Batak form and in Samoan isu-isu 'be inquisitive, put one's nose into other people's affairs', on the other hand, probably is convergent. Finally, in POc, *ijuŋ apparently was extended metaphorically to capes of land (Nggela, Rotuman), and to prows of canoes (Lau, Maori, Hawaiian).

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*ika- prefix for ordinal numbers


PPh     *ika- prefix for ordinal numbers
Itbayaten icha-prefix for ordinal numbers
Kankanaey ika-a prefix added to cardinal numbers to form ordinal ones
Tagalog ika-prefix for ordinal numerals
Hanunóo ika-prefix for ordinal numerals
Cebuano ika-prefix for ordinal numerals
Maranao ika-prefix for ordinal numerals

Note:   This item appears to be morphologically complex (cf. PMP *ka- 'ordinal prefix').

*iŋkab to open, uncover


PWMP     *iŋkab to open, uncover
Bario Kelabit ikabopening in the longhouse roof for the entrance of light and air, and for the exit of smoke from the cooking fire
Old Javanese iŋkabbe blown up, blown open

Note:   With root *-kab 'open, uncover'.

*ikamen mat


PPh     *ikamen mat
Ilokano ikaménmat. A coarse fabric made by weaving strips of the leaves of the screw pine, strips of the petioles of the silag or buri palm, or similar material, and universally used to sleep on
Palawan Batak ikamɨnmat
Aborlan Tagbanwa ikamɨnwoven mat, used for sleeping

Note:   Also Iban (Lemanak) kamɨn 'mat', Kalagan kamɨn 'mat', Mansaka kamɨn 'mat'. Possibly a suffixed form of *Sikam 'mat'.

*iŋkaŋ walk with legs wide apart


PWMP     *iŋkaŋ walk with legs wide apart [disjunct: *eŋkaŋ]
Ifugaw ikáŋgreat step
Tagalog íkaŋslight gap formed between joints or junctures
  iŋkáŋunbalanced (in walking)
Ngaju Dayak iŋkaŋstep, pace, stride
Minangkabau éŋkaŋwalking with legs wide astretch
Karo Batak iŋkaŋstand up from sitting
Sasak éŋkaŋsit or stand with legs wide apart

Note:   With root *-kaŋ₁ 'spread apart, as the legs'.

*ikej cough


PWMP     *ikej cough
Ibanag ikegcough
Isneg íkāgcough; the root of a tree that relieves cough, when chewed for five consecutive days
  max-íkāgto cough
Bontok íkegtuberculosis
Itawis íkagcough
Casiguran Dumagat ikehcough
Aborlan Tagbanwa ikɨdcough
Kadazan ikod-onto cough
Bintulu ikeda cough
  p-ikedto cough
Kayan ikena cough
  n-ikedto cough
Kayan (Uma Juman) ikera cough
  n-ikerto cough

*ikel curly, wavy (as the hair)


PWMP     *ikel curly, wavy (as the hair)
Kapampangan ikalcurly, crisp, of the hair (like a Negro)
Ngaju Dayak ikal-ikalcurly (of the hair)
Malay ikalcurly (of hair)
Rejang ika, ikeacurled, curly
Old Javanese ikelcurled, wavy (as hair)
Sasak ikelcurly (of the hair)

Note:   Also Balinese iŋgel 'curl, be curly; twisted; coil'. With root *-kel 'bend, curl'.

*iŋkem to close, shut


PWMP     *iŋkem to close, shut
Isneg ikkámseize, take hold of; examine a patient
Kankanaey ikémto close; to shut up; to close up
Javanese iŋkemclose one's mouth


PWMP     *maŋ-iŋkem to close, shut
Isneg maŋ-ikkāmto seize, take hold of
Javanese ŋ-iŋkemto close one's mouth

Note:   With root *-kem₁ 'enclose, cover; grasp'.

*i(ŋ)kes bound firmly


PMP     *i(ŋ)kes bound firmly
Sasak iŋkesfirm, well-bound, well-packed (of things)
Manggarai ikestethered, tied to
Paulohi ikewind a thread on a spool

Note:   Also Isneg irkát 'to tie, to bind'. With root *-kes 'encircle, wrap firmly around'.

*iŋkiŋ little finger


PWMP     *iŋkiŋ little finger [doublet: *kiŋkiŋ]
Ifugaw ikíŋ, ik-ikíŋsmall finger (sometimes applied to the small toe)
Aklanon íŋkiŋtrifling, trivial, insignificant
  k-um-a-íŋkiŋlittle finger, "pinky"
Kenyah ikiŋlittle finger

*i(ŋ)kit bite


PWMP     *i(ŋ)kit bite
Cebuano iŋkitbite off a small piece with the front teeth
Dusun Deyah ŋ-ikitbite
Ma'anyan ŋ-ikitbite

Note:   Also Western Bukidnon Manobo kiʔit 'bite off something with the front teeth'. With probable root *-kit₁ 'bite'.

*ikuD to follow


PAN     *ikuD to follow [doublet: *ikut]
Amis ikorafter, behind
Cebuano ikúdfollow immediately behind someone
Tiruray igorkeeping one's eyes on someone, even though one's head is turning away
Iban ikurfollow

Note:   Iban ikur 'follow' may reflect *ikuR 'tail' (cf. Aklanon íkog 'tail (of any creature); to follow, trail behind, "tail'''). If so, the Amis, Cebuano and Tiruray forms can be taken to reflect *ikud.

*iŋkul bent into a curve


PWMP     *iŋkul bent into a curve
Balinese éŋkolrest the hand on the body with bent arm; an arm thus bent; form a corner, an angle
Tontemboan éŋkolbent into a curve
Sangir éŋkoleʔcurved wooden support used in roof construction

Note:   With root *-kul₁ 'curl, bend', and unexplained lowering of both vowels in all three languages.

*ikuŋ tail


PMP     *ikuŋ tail [doublet: *ikuR]
Tagabili ikoŋtail
Malay (Brunei) ékoŋtail
Makasarese iŋkoŋtail
Manggarai ikoŋextremity, tip
  ikoŋ tanacape, promontory

Note:   Also Maloh iŋko 'tail'. The mid-vowel reflex in all of these forms is unexplained, and may point to a rare PMP phoneme *o.

*ikuR tail


PAN     *ikuR tail [doublet: *ikuŋ]
Bunun ikultail (of a mammal)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ikuRtail
Paiwan ikutail (of animal, bird)
Bontok íkoltail of an animal
Pangasinan ikóltail
Bikol íkogtail
Hanunóo íkugtail, as of an animal
Aklanon íkogtail (of any creature)
Cebuano íkugtail, or analogous structure
Palawan Batak ikógtail
Maranao ikogtail
Western Bukidnon Manobo ikugtail
Tiruray igortail
Bario Kelabit iurtail of an animal
Bintulu ikuytail
Kayan ikohtail of an animal
Ngaju Dayak ikohtail
Iban ikoʔtail
Malay ékortail; tail-like extremity
Karo Batak ikurtail, esp. of mammals
Toba Batak ihurtail
Nias iʔotail
Rejang ikoatail
Old Javanese ikū, ikuhtail
  aŋ-ikūto follow
Balinese ikuhtail
Uma ikutail
Bare'e ikutail
Tae' ikkoʔtail
Rembong ikoʔtail, rear; extremity
Rotinese ikotail (of mammal, fish, etc.)
Tetun ikuthe last, the latest
  iku-ntail, buttocks; final
  iku-slast, final, behind
Lamaholot iku-ntail
Wetan ikratail
Yamdena ikurtail
Proto-Ambon *iku-tail
Buru iku-ntail
Soboyo ikutail
Leti ikrutail (in combination forms: in-ikru 'fish tail', etc.)
Wogeo ikutail
Gitua igutail
Motu iutail (of animals)
Nggela igutail
Longgu iku-ikutail
Lau kiu <Mtail of animal, fish (not bird)
Proto-Micronesian *ikutail
Ponapean ikitail, end, extreme
Chuukese wuuktail, rear end
Tongan ikutail (esp. of a quadruped); to end, terminate, culminate; issue, result; finish up
Samoan iʔube finished, ended; tail (as of a fish); tail of a shark (as a portion) when it is divided according to custom; result, effect


PMP     *ikuR ni mata outer corner of the eye
Malay ékor mataouter corner of the eye
Rotinese mata iko-kouter corner of the eye


PMP     *ikuR ikuR trailing behind
Hanunóo ikug-ʔíkugalways going together, as of close friends
Bario Kelabit iur-iuralways behind in one's work
Nggela igu-iguthe last in a dance


PMP     *ikuR ikuR ni asu a plant with flowers the shape of a dog's tail, used to treat abscesses
Karo Batak ikur-ikura creeping plant with clover-like flowers, used as medicine for cattle
Toba Batak si mar-ihur-ihur ni asu(lit. 'the one with a dog's tail') a small plant the leaves of which are applied to abscesses
Bare'e iku asu('dog's tail') an herb the scrapings of which are applied to abscesses to draw out the pus
Tae' ikkoʔ-ikkoʔa plant with white flowers the shape of a dog's tail, and leaves used in treating skin diseases
Kambera kikuahu('dog's tail') kind of vegetation


PWMP     *maŋ-ikuR be at the rear
Cebuano maŋ-íkugto put or be at the rear
Malay meŋ-ékorto hang (like a tail); to follow


PWMP     *maR-ikuR have a tail
Bikol mag-íkogput a tail on something
Malay ber-ékorhave a tail
Bare'e mo-ikuhave a tail

Note:   Also Kankanaey íko 'tail', Malagasy ihi, uhu 'tail', Kambera kaiku, kiku 'tail', Dobuan iu-iu-na 'tail', Eddystone ikutu 'tail', PPn *siku 'tail'. Paiwan iku-iku 'coccyx (of person)' may belong to the cognate set here assigned to *ikuR ikuR, but this is by no means clear. Cebuano ikug-ikug sa iriŋ (lit. 'cat's tail') 'kind of ornamental aerial plant consisting of long branches with fine leaves resembling a cat's tail' or Cebuano ikug-íkug sa iriŋ 'kind of ornamental bush bearing small flowers in dense purple, hanging spikes' or both may be related to Malay ékor kuchiŋ (lit. 'cat's tail') 'generic for plants with close spikes of flowers', though a reconstruction is presently unattainable.

*ikut to follow, join with


PMP     *ikut to follow, join with [doublet: *ikuD]
Ngaju Dayak ikutbe subjugated
Iban ikutfollow, go after, accompany; agree, join in opinion with
Malay ikutcoming after (in space, not time); according to
  ikut jalantaking a certain route
Karo Batak ikutincluded, counted among
  ŋ-ikutto follow, accompany, connect oneself with a person or party
Toba Batak ihutto follow
Old Javanese ikutto follow; be attached to
Rembong ikutto follow
Buru iku-htake, as a path, etc.
  iku-kfollow, take

Note:   Also Manggarai ikot 'follow', Buru iko-h 'follow, go by way of'. Some of the above items may be loans from Malay, but the comparison appears to stand nonetheless. The meaning of this form appears to have been 'follow', not in the sense of 'pursue' or 'trail someone', but rather in the sense of 'join with'.

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*ilah₁ see (abstract things), foresee, know


PWMP     *ilah₁ see (abstract things), foresee, know
Bontok ílato see; to divine the cause of a sickness
Kankanaey ílalook at, look on, behold, see, observe, view, inspect; know well, foresee (applied to any knowledge of hidden things or facts); curious, inquisitive
Ifugaw ílaknowing, seeking, finding. Exceptionally, ila may convey the meaning of "seeing, looking"
Cebuano ílaidentify, distinguish which is which; recognize who a person is; know a person; acknowledge, consider someone as something; experience, taste
  ilh-ánanidentifying mark or sign
Lun Dayeh ilehknowledge
Bario Kelabit ilehcleverness, intelligence, wisdom
  m-ilehclever, intelligent
Simalur ilaknow, be acquainted with, understand; cunning, craft
Nias ilasee, know, be able; foresee

Note:   The meaning of this term differed from that of *kita, which referred to physical seeing (the perception of concrete objects), *kilala, which referred to personal recognition or acquaintance and *taqu, which evidently referred to acquired knowledge. The nearest English equivalent is perhaps 'to grasp, have insight into', although *ilah apparently carried the additional notion of insight into the future.

*ilah₂ wild, timorous, shy


PWMP     *ilah₂ wild, timorous, shy [doublet: *gila]
Hanunóo ilástate of being wild, untamed, undomesticated, with reference to animals
Aklanon ilá(h)wild, untamed, undomesticated (fowl)
Hiligaynon iláelusive, untamed, undomesticated
Cebuano iláshy, afraid to approach someone unfamiliar
Maranao ilawildness
Western Bukidnon Manobo ilaof people, but esp. of animals that are skilful in escaping from and avoiding humans, to be wary
Sasak ilaʔbashful, shy
  ilaʔ-ilaʔ-anshy by nature
Bare'e ilawild; shy
Tae' ilaafraid and regretful on hearing a rebuke, fed up with admonitions


PWMP     *ilah-an shy, ashamed
Cebuano ilah-ánshy
Sasak ilaʔ-anfeel ashamed


PWMP     *ma-ilah wild, shy, skittish
Hanunóo ma-ʔiláwild, untamed
Aklanon ma-ilá(h)wild, untamed
Cebuano ma-iláshy (as chickens)
Bare'e ma-ilawild, skittish (as a horse)

Note:   Also Makasarese ilaʔ-ilaʔ 'wild (as in playing); headlong, hot-headed (as in riding a horse)'. PAn *ma-Seyaq 'shy, embarrassed, ashamed' referred to shyness in humans; *ma-ilah appears to have applied primarily to animals.

*ilap₁ flicker, of flames


PMP     *ilap₁ flicker, of flames
Cebuano iláp, ílapfor flames to lick at something; touch lightly
Sasak élapflame, light
Mono-Alu ila-ilafalightning

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat ilep 'to reflect (of something shiny which is reflecting in the sunlight)'. With root *-lap 'flash, sparkle'.

*ilap₂ silhouette, shadow; glimpse of something


PMP     *ilap₂ silhouette, shadow; glimpse of something
Karo Batak ilapapparition, shadow, silhouette (of something one perceives only momentarily)
Manggarai ilapvague outline, silhouette, shadow

*ilaw look at (a reflection, etc.)


PMP     *ilaw look at (a reflection, etc.) [doublet: *qiro]
Old Javanese ilolook at oneself (in the mirror, etc.); see, watch
Javanese ilolook at oneself in the mirror; devote one's attention to
Gedaged illook at, behold, discern, perceive; sight, view
Mota ilosee; know
Rennellese igo-igolook, esp. at a reflection

*ileŋ turn, rotate


PMP     *ileŋ turn, rotate [doublet: *iliŋ]
Tiruray ileŋto twirl, rotate
Kayan ileŋshaking the head in refusal
Long Anap ileŋturn the head

*ileR having defective eyes


PWMP     *ileR having defective eyes
Maranao ilegcross-eyed, wall-eyed
Kayan ilahsquint (of eyes); eyes turned up in severe illness

Note:   With probable root *-leR 'blind'.

*ilet tight


PWMP     *ilet tight [doublet: *silet]
Ilokano ilétnarrow, strait, constricted, tight, giving little room (openings, garments, etc.); difficult, labored (breath)
Kayan ilettight-fitting -- of a small hole or clothing; crowded; tightly packed, of goods

Note:   Also Kayan hilet 'tight fitting; crowded'. Bontok ilet 'bind, tighten, make taut' probably belongs with *hiRet 'tighten; constriction, belt'.

*ili thwarts of a canoe


POC     *ili thwarts of a canoe
Lakalai ilithwarts of a canoe
Molima iliplain uncarved thwart; rod connecting to boom
Sa'a ilithe second plank of a canoe

Note:   Also 'Are'are ire 'the second plank of a canoe'.

*iliŋ₁ pour


PMP     *iliŋ₁ pour
Malagasy (Merina) idinăpoured out, let down, taken out
Javanese iliŋto pour something
Arosi iri, iriŋ-ito pour

Note:   Also Lau igi, Arosi iris-i 'to pour'.

*iliŋ₂ see, examine, look at closely


PWMP     *iliŋ₂ see, examine, look at closely [disjunct: *hiliŋ]
Western Bukidnon Manobo iliŋ-ʔiliŋexamine or investigate an object carefully
Tiruray [iliŋ-ʔiliŋlook around, scan]
Bikol hilíŋa look; look at, look over, admire
Old Javanese [iliŋlook at (regard, observe) with attention (affection, love)]
Balinese [iliŋsee, look]

*iliŋ₃ shake the head in negation, shake the head


PWMP     *iliŋ₃ shake the head in negation, shake the head from side-to-side [doublet: *ileŋ]
Tagalog ilíŋshaking of the head in denial or disapproval
Long Anap iliŋturn the body
Malay éléŋheel over, list to the side
Toba Batak iliŋbend to the side
Tae' iliŋshake the head as a sign of refusal
Mandar iliŋshake the head in negation
Makasarese iliŋturn the head sideways, bend the head to left or right

Note:   With root *-liŋ₃ 'turn, revolve'.

*íliw homesick; long for something that is missed


PPh     *íliw homesick; long for something that is missed
Bontok íliwhomesick; lonely for someone
Ilokano íliwremember (an absent friend, relative, etc.) with affection; long to see; be homesick, nostalgic
Pangasinan íliwhomesickness; be homesick
Cebuano íliwlong for something, miss something that one loves

*iliʔ flow, current


PWMP     *iliʔ flow, current [doublet: *iliR]
Ilokano ilimenstrual flow
Iban iliʔdownstream
Javanese iliflow, current
Bolaang Mongondow iliʔflow, current

*ilo inside, interior; thoughts, emotions, memories


POC     *ilo inside, interior; thoughts, emotions, memories
Gedaged ilo-ninterior, midst, inside, core, inlet, pith; the seat of thought, will and emotions; heart, mind, self, soul, contents of memory
Manam ilothe interior, inner life; remember, think of somebody
Lakalai ilothe inside, the interior; interior of the body, interpreted as the seat of emotions

*ilu orphan; orphaned


PWMP     *ilu orphan; orphaned
Bikol ílobe orphaned
  ílo-ŋ lubósan orphan
Hanunóo íluorphan
Aklanon ílo(h)orphan; to be left an orphan
Hiligaynon íluorphan
  ma-ilubecome an orphan, be orphaned
Cebuano íluone who has lost a parent
Maranao iloorphan
Western Bukidnon Manobo iluorphan
Tagabili iluorphan
Uma iluorphaned
  ana iluorphan
Bare'e iluorphaned
  anaʔ iluorphan

Note:   Also Hanunóo íluʔ 'orphan', Kenyah ilu-n 'mother dead', Iban iru 'adopted', ŋ-iru 'to adopt', anak iru 'adopted child, step child'.

*iluR₁ spittle, saliva


PMP     *iluR₁ spittle, saliva
Malay liur <Msaliva
Simalur ilulspittle, slaver
Nias ilospittle, slaver
Lampung iluysaliva, spittle
Old Javanese ilūsaliva
Bare'e iludesire, arouse a desire for something
Tae' iloʔ, iludesire something
Makasarese iloroʔmoisture in the mouth
Komodo iluto spit (at)
Manggarai ilursaliva
Sika ʔilursaliva
Lamaholot ilusaliva
Savu ilusaliva, spittle

Note:   Also Malay (Jakarta) iler 'saliva'. Possibly with root *-luR 'flow'.

*iluR₂ river channel


PAN     *iluR₂ river channel
Kavalan iRuRsmall stream, creek
Ilokano ílogcreek (of salt water); river
Pangasinan ílogriver
Kapampangan ílugriver
Tagalog ílogriver
Bikol mag-ílogto travel via the main channel or deepest part of a river
  ka-ílog-anthe main channel or deepest part of a river
Aklanon ilógto flow
Palawan Batak ilógriver
Mukah Melanau iluhchannel between the roots of trees in a mangrove swamp

Note:   With root *-luR 'flow'. Dempwolff (1934-38) compared Tagalog ílog with Javanese ilu, Malay liur 'spittle', Malagasy ilo 'the purest portion of oil or grease'.

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*ima₁ five


PMP     *ima₁ five [doublet: *lima]
Isneg ímahand; arm; foreleg of quadrupeds (cp. limmá 'five')
Itawis ímaarm, hand (cp. limá 'five')
Kankanaey ímahand, arm (cp. limá 'five')
Ilokano ímahand sleeve (cp. limá 'five')
Sasak imahand (cp. lima 'five')
Ngadha ima, limahand, arm; five

Note:   In both PAn and PMP the meanings 'hand, arm' and 'five' were represented by the same morpheme, *lima. To distinguish the two a rare body-part prefix *qa- (found also in *qabaRa 'shoulder' and perhaps *qaqaqi 'foot, leg') was sometimes added to the word for 'hand, arm'. Palauan chim 'hand, arm, front paws (of animals)' appears to reflect *qa-lima. Since the languages cited above, which fall into three widely divergent groups, all exhibit doublets with and without l-, it is possible that the ima variants are irregularly altered forms of *qa-lima rather than of *lima.

However, neither the reconstruction of *lima, nor of *qa-lima makes it possible to explain the above data through regular sound change, and it appears necessary either to recognize widespread convergence of a seemingly unmotivated type, or to reconstruct a vowel-initial doublet. Superficially similar forms in Taiwan (Saisiyat, Pazeh, Bunun ima 'hand') and in Melanesia (Motu ima 'arm, hand; five' and the Central Papuan loan in Mailu ima 'hand; five'), unlike the forms cited here, can regularly reflect *lima.

*ima₂ kind of pandanus with leaves useful for


PCEMP     *ima₂ kind of pandanus with leaves useful for plaiting
Fordat imatree sp.
Paulohi imapandanus sp.
Buli imtree with leaves used to make mats
Gedaged imkind of screw pine (pandanus); has aerial roots, and its leaves are used to make rain capes
Tanga imtall shrub with many stalks, the leaves of which provide wrapping material for a corpse prior to burial

*imit use sparingly


PWMP     *imit use sparingly [doublet: *ímut]
Kankanaey immiteat, take, etc. by little bits
Javanese ŋ-imitconserve, consume sparingly
  sa-imitbit by bit, a little at a time

*imún jealous, envious


PPh     *imún jealous, envious
Casiguran Dumagat imónsuspicious, jealous (of one's spouse, that he or she has been unfaithful
Bontok ìmonjealous over a person of the opposite sex
Bikol imónenvious, covetous, jealous
  mag-imónbe jealous of, covet, envy, begrudge
Aklanon ímonbe possessive (of), hold on to
  ka-ìmonpossessiveness, jealousy
  ma-ímonpossessive, overly protective, selfish
Hiligaynon ka-ímunjealousy, envy
  ma-ímunfeel jealous

*ímut stingy, selfish


PPh     *ímut stingy, selfish [doublet: *imit]
Bontok ímotselfish
Ilokano ímutavaricious, stingy, tight-fisted, niggardly, miserly
Kapampangan imútstingy
Bikol ímotselfish, stingy, miserly, niggardly; a tightwad
Aklanon imótmiserly, thrifty, penny-pinching
Cebuano imut-imútbe financially hard-up on a long-term basis

Note:   Also Rejang imeut 'thrifty, careful, meticulous', Javanese imet 'a tiny bit, very few'.

TOP      ib    ic    id    ie    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in            io    ip    iq    ir    iR    is    iS    it    iu    iw    iz    


*-in- past tense marker; marker of deverbal nouns


PAN     *-in- past tense marker; marker of deverbal nouns
Atayal (-)in-infix or prefix forming the passive perfect; infix forming nouns
Bunun -in-past tense infix
Paiwan (-)in-past tense; action has already begun or been done
Bontok -in-completive aspect infix
Kankanaey in-a prefix; the past form of the suffix -en and of the prefix -i-
Tagalog -in-marker of perfective aspect
Mukah Melanau -en-, -i-(in ablauting verbs) marker of the preterite passive
Toba Batak -in-marker of the passive and deverbal nouns
Mentawai -in-passive marker
Bolaang Mongondow -in-infix which forms passives from underived verbs, thereby indicates that something or someone has entirely undergone the action described by the verb; past tense
Wolio -in-marker of deverbal nouns
Wetan -in-infix, used mainly to form nouns from verb-stems
Raluana -in-infix, inserted after the first letter of a verb to form a noun
Roviana (-)in-a prefix or infix used to form nouns from verbs and adjectives

Note:   Both Wolff (1973) and Dahl (1976) reconstruct PAn *-in- as a past tense marker which co-occurred with the active infix *-um-, the instrumental passive *Si- and the local passive *-an. In the direct passive the relationship of *-in- to the verb is more complex. Whereas the direct passive of non-past verbs was formed with *-en, the direct passive of past verbs was formed with no suffix. As a result the infix *-in- in the past tense of direct passive verbs acquired a kind of portmanteau function, signalling both the past tense and the passive voice inseparably. This portmanteau function of *-in- is widespread in Austronesian languages, and was noted early in the 20th century by the Dutch linguist Hendrik Kern (Kern 1913-28).

In contrast to Wolff and Dahl, Starosta, Pawley, and Reid (1982) argue that *-in-, along with other reconstructed affixes that function both as voice markers and as nominalizers in contemporary languages, were originally markers only of various types of nominalization. To them it follows, then, that the widespread verbal uses of these affixes are historically secondary.

In my view there is merit both in the position taken by Wolff and by Dahl (that the affixes in question were verbal inflections in PAn), and in the position taken by Starosta, Pawley, & Reid (that the same affixes were derivational devices for creating deverbal nouns). If there is a shortcoming that is shared by the two approaches it is perhaps the implicit assumption that the PAn affixes *Si-, *-in-, *-an, and *-en were exclusively verbal or nominal. In fact, straightforward application of the comparative method seems to require the reconstruction both of verbs and of nouns marked with the same set of affixes in PAn. This leaves open the question whether at some still earlier period one of these functions might have developed out of the other.

In PAn and PMP it is clear that at least pronominal agents (if not also nominal agents) and possessors were marked the same: e.g. PAn *k-um-aen aku 'I am eating', but *kaen-en (ni) ku 'is eaten by me, my eating', *k-in-aen (ni) ku 'was eaten by me, my eating', *maCa (ni) ku 'my eye'. Given this identity of marking it would not be surprising for pattern pressure to favor the reinterpretation of oblique verbal constructions as possessive nominals. Since no such pressure would favor the reinterpretation of possessive nominal constructions as oblique verbals, I cannot agree with Starosta, Pawley, & Reid that the focus systems of modern Formosan and Philippine languages probably evolved from earlier systems of nominalization.

*ina mother, mother's sister


PAN     *ina mother, mother's sister
Tsou inómother
Saisiyat inamother
Pazeh inamother
Rukai (Budai) iná-amother (address)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) inamother, MZ, FZ (ref)
Amis inamother
Paiwan inamother! (vocative)


PMP     *ina mother, mother's sister; female animal
Itbayaten inaM (referential or vocative)
Isneg ināmother (sometimes: aunt or any relative whose relationship is similar to that of a mother)
Itawis ináM
Bontok ínaterm of address for one's female relatives at the first ascending generation level; mother; aunt; mother-in-law
Kankanaey ínamy mother
  inámother, parent
Ifugaw ínamy mother
Pangasinan ináM
Casiguran Dumagat ínaM (ref)
Tagalog ináM
Bikol ináM
Aklanon ináM
Cebuano ináold word for 'mother' that is confined to set phrases
Kadazan inaM (addr)
Iban inaM
Toba Batak inaM, MZ, FBW
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ina-inamother animal
Simalur inaM
Nias inamother, aunt
Mentawai inaM
Balinese inamother (animals)
Sasak inamother animal; brooding hen
Bare'e ineM, MZ, FZ
Buginese inaM
Makasarese inaM (poetic)
Wolio inaM


PCEMP     *ina mother, mother's sister; female animal; largest member of a set
Bimanese inaM
Komodo inaM
Ngadha inaM
Sika inaM
Kambera inaM
Savu inaM
Rotinese ina(k)woman; mother; mother's sister; wife; female (animal); large
Tetun ina-kfemale (of animals)
  ina-nM, MZ; female (of animals)
Lamaholot (dialectal) inaM
  ina-nfemale (of animals)
Erai ina(n)mother, mother's sister, and the other female members of mother's lineage and generation
  ina-nfemale (of animals)
Leti inaM
Wetan inaM, MZ, FZ, MBW, FBW
Proto-Ambon *inaM
Paulohi inaM
Buru inaM
Soboyo inamother; most prominent or largest member of a set
Serui-laut ina-M
Numfor inaM (obsolescent term)
Mor inaM
Motu inaaddress of a child to its mother; ina used also when speaking to a child of its mother
Titan inaM (addr. and ref.)
Nauna inaM (addr. and ref.)
Raluana inăM (rare)
Ponapean ihnmother; any person one's mother or father would call sister
Mokilese ina-hhis mother
Chuukese iinmother, aunt, grandmother, kinswoman of any senior generation, kinswoman of one's father's lineage or clan, any such kinswoman of one's spouse


PMP     *ina ama parents
Hanunóo ínaʔ-ámaʔ guraŋunparents
Mukah Melanau tina tamaparents
Manggarai iné-améwife's parents
Ngadha iné-emaparents, ancestors
Kambera ina-amatitle of authority; also: title of wife-givers
Tetun ina-ama-nname by which some important kingdoms are known, mostly those with special privileges
Lamaholot ina-ama-nparents
Gedaged tina-tamamother and father; parents
Motu ina-mamaaddress of child to its mother and father


PWMP     *ina ina foster mother, stepmother
Hanunóo inaʔ-ináthumb or great toe of man or of animals in general
Aklanon ína-ínafoster mother; stepmother
Cebuano ina-ínastepmother; foster mother
Dibabawon Manobo inoy-ʔinoystepmother
Toba Batak ina-inamarried women
Dairi-Pakpak Batak kerbo ina-inamother carabao
Tialo ina-inaaunt (addr.)
Wolio ka-ina-inaadopted mother


PMP     *ina ni lima thumb
Toba Batak [ina ni taŋanthumb]
Balinese ina limathumb
Sangir ina-ŋ u limathumb
Bimanese ina rimathumb
Komodo ina limathumb
Paulohi rima ina-ithumb


PWMP     *ina-en aunt
Itbayaten ina-enfemale animal with offspring; foster mother; mother-in-law; one considered as mother
Amganad Ifugaw ina-onMZ, FZ
Tagalog inah-ínhen or mother animal
Cebuano ina-úngodmother; act as godmother
Taosug inaʔ-unaunt
Kadazan ina-onpassive of monoŋ-ina, to say "mother"


PMP     *iná-i mother, mother's sister (address, vocative)
Tagalog iná-yM (addr.)
Bikol iná-ymom (informal)
Kalamian Tagbanwa ine-yMZ, FZ; stepmother
Binukid ina-yM
Western Bukidnon Manobo ine-yM (ref.)
Murik na-yM (addr.)
Long Atip ina-yM, MZ, FZ (addr., voc.)
Long Dunin ina-yM, MZ, FZ (addr., voc.)
Dusun Malang ina-iM
Komodo ineM (voc.)
Manggarai ineM
Rembong ineM
Ende ineM
Tetun na-iM, MZ, FZ (Lebar 1972)


PMP     *iná-ŋ mother, mother's sister (address, vocative)
Tagalog iná-ŋappellation for iná, mother
Hanunóo iná-ŋM (voc.)
Siang ina-ŋMZ, FZ
Iban ina-ŋnursing; nurse, rear (animals)
Malay ina-ŋduenna; governess of an unmarried girl of high rank. Etymologically the word suggests "mother" but in a way implying low rank
Toba Batak iná-ŋM (voc.)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ina-ŋM
Old Javanese ina-ŋmother, elderly woman
Sangir ina-ŋM
Proto-Minahasan *ina-ŋM
Totoli ina-ŋM
Buginese ina-ŋM
Manggarai ina-ŋFZ, SpM, MBW
Sika ina-ŋM; female of animals


PAN     *iná-q mother, mother's sister (address, vocative)
Saaroa inaʔ-aM (ref.)
Bikol iná-ʔM
Palawan Batak ina-ʔM
Maranao ina-ʔM
Western Bukidnon Manobo ina-ʔM (addr.)
Dibabawon Manobo ina-ʔM (addr.)
Subanun gina-ʔM
Tiruray ina-ʔaunt, female of next ascending generation other than one's mother
Minansut ina-ʔM
Bario Kelabit ina-ʔmy daughter (addr.)
Long Wat ina-ʔM (addr., voc.)
Sasak ina-ʔmother (of commoners)
Sangir ina-ʔM
Proto-Minahasan *ina-ʔM
Bolaang Mongondow ina-ʔmother (in general)
Uma ina-ʔmother, aunt


PWMP     *kam-ina-en mother's sister, father's sister
Itbayaten kam-na-naunt
Aborlan Tagbanwa m-ina-nMZ, FZ
Rungus Dusun kom-ina-nMZ, FZ
Timugon Murut kam-ina-nMZ, FZ
Kiput kem-ina-nMZ, FZ
Long Jegan kem-æna-nMZ, FZ
Lampung m-ina-naunt, parents' younger sister


PAN     *maR-ina to be mother and child
Amis mal-oinafamily with the mother (< wina 'mother')
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) maR-taynamother and son or daughter (< ta-yna 'mother, aunt')
Isneg max-ināmother and child(ren)
Bikol mag-ináʔmother and child
Aklanon mag-ináto be mother and child (relationship)
Toba Batak mar-inahave a mother


PWMP     *paR-ina-an aunt
Toba Batak par-ina-anmates (of animals); female, of domesticated animals
Old Javanese pénanaunt
Boano pog-ina-ŋ-anaunt


PMP     *ra-ina mother
Malagasy (Merina) renymother
Old Javanese renamother
Savu renafemale, of animals; large woman; broad, heavy


PAN     *ta-ina mother (ref.)
Kavalan tinaM (ref.)
Rukai (Budai) t-inaM
Bunun tinaM
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ta-ynaM (ref., respectful)
Paiwan tja-inaM (affectionate term, most frequently used in speaking to children)


PMP     *t-ina mother (ref.)
Bario Kelabit sinaʔM, MZ, FZ (addr., voc.)
  sinehtitle for married women: Mrs.
  te-sinehM (ref.)
Kiput tinahM
Miri tinahM
Bintulu tinaM
Mukah Melanau tinaM; female (animals)
Siang tina-iM
Malay be-tinafemale (an insult when used of human beings ... of animals it is always correct)
Banggai tinaM
Palauan che-dilM (addr.)
Buli hñeM (ref.)
Biak snaM (ref.)
Wogeo tina-M (ref.)
Gitua tina-M, MZ, FBW
Tanga tina-M (ref.)
Raluana tinaM
Nali tina-M (ref.)
Bipi tina-M
Varisi sina-M
Roviana tina-naM
Nggela tinaM (voc.); a woman of her standing in one's clan; large of its kind
Gilbertese tinamother, adopted mother
Marshallese jine-mother; aunt; older sister; female cousin
Woleai sila-M
Fijian tina-M, MZ, FBW
Samoan tina-aM
Rennellese tina-naclassificatory mother; to have a classificatory mother
Rarotongan tina-naa female parent: used only in respect of animals, birds, etc.; is sometimes used or applied in respect of a woman in a joking manner
Nukuoro dina-namother, aunt; senior female relative, person in a mothering, or motherly, relationship
Hawaiian kīna-namother hen or bird and her brood; a brooding place

Note:   Also Taroko ina 'beautiful girl', Kanakanabu cina, Paiwan kina, Amis wina 'mother', Yami kam-ina-ŋ 'MZ, FZ', Bintulu kem-ina 'MZ, FZ', Mentawai kama-ina-n 'MB, MZ', Yamdena ene 'M, MZ, FBW'. This comparison exibits a number of morphological and semantic complexities. Particularly salient is the richness of morphological devices used to mark the vocative (for discussion see Blust 1979). In addition to meaning 'M' and 'MZ', reflexes of PAn *ina in various Western Malayo-Polynesian and Central Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages mean 'female animal' or 'mother animal', with particular reference to the domestic hen as a prototypical mother animal (probably because of its highly visible flock of trailing chicks).

Moreover, in various Central Malayo-Polynesian and Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages reflexes of PAn *ina also mean 'largest member of a class' (prototypically examplified in the word 'thumb'). Other noteworthy observations are as follows:

1. in some languages a reflex of *ina plus the word for 'old' means 'grandmother' (e.g. Aklanon ina-ŋ-gueaŋ 'GM', Bimanese ina-tua 'GM', Toba Batak ina-ŋ tua 'FeBW). This construction appears to be a product of convergence;

2. constructions such as Motu ina wai, Nggela mbeti tina 'river' (both lit. 'mother of waters') suggest a POc genitive compound *tina ni waiR. However, since similar compounds are known from other language families, and the Austronesian comparisons are not strictly cognate, the similarity of the Motu and Nggela compounds may be due to convergence (for discussion of related issues cf. Blust (1974a));

3. Ngadha ine-veta (< *ina + *betaw 'Z (m.s.)') 'family relations', Wetan ina-nara (< *ina + *ñaRa 'B (w.s.)') 'female kindred in general' suggest a compound containing *ina plus either *betaw or *ñaRa (or, perhaps two related compounds) in an immediate ancestor of many of the Central Malayo-Polynesian languages.

Finally, Waropen ina-i probably contains a generic possessive suffix, making it distinct from PMP *ina-i, and, the reduplication in Puluwat yina-yin 'have a classificatory mother' appears to be independent of that seen in the reflexes of *ina ina collected here.

*inap sneer, laugh in derision


POC     *inap sneer, laugh in derision
Patep inaplaugh (Hooley 1971)
Nanumea faka-ina-inamocking action to taunt enemy
Tongan inashow the teeth, grin or laugh (esp. in derision or ridicule)

*inaR rays of the sun


PWMP     *inaR rays of the sun
Ilokano ínarscorching heat of the sun
Sangir inahĕʔred glow of evening, with reference both to the color and to the optical effect observed at the setting of the sun

Note:   With root *-NaR 'ray of light'.

*inem drink


PWMP     *inem drink [doublet: *inum]
Kalagan inɨmto drink
Mamanwa inɨmto drink
Mansaka inɨmto drink
Tiruray inemto drink
Karo Batak inemto drink
Simalur inəmto drink
Balinese inemto drink (High Balinese; = inum in Low Balinese)
Sasak inemto drink

Note:   Also Rejang m-éném 'drink'.

*insan union, unity


PWMP     *insan union, unity
Hanunóo insáncousin, friend (esp. in the vocative)
Maranao insanjoin forces and effort, gather together
Kadazan insanonce
  insan-iat once, forthwith
Iban insan, isanrelationship between the parents of those who have married

Note:   Probably derived from *isa (cp. Tagalog ísa-han 'unit of one each time, one by one').

*inu where?


PAN     *inu where?
Atayal inuwhere? anywhere
Taroko inowhere? in what place?
Saisiyat ha-ynowhere?
Proto-Rukai *inowhere?
Paiwan inuwhere?
Mukah Melanau inewwhat?
Kayan h-inoʔwhere?
Murik t-inuʔwhere?
Kenyah inuwhat?
  inu-inuwhatever, anything
Lepu Tau inuwhere?
Malagasy (Merina) ino-nawhat? how?
Malagasy (Provincial) inowhat? how?

Note:   Also Itbayaten d-inuh 'where?', Maranao ino 'why?'. At some point in its history this item consisted of two morphemes: the generic locative marker *i (reflected also in *ini 'this; here', *itu 'that, there (2p)', *ina 'that, there (3p)' etc.), and a marker of uncertainty, *nu (cp. *anu 'whatchamacallit, word one is searching for'). Whether *inu and similar forms with a reflex of *i were still bimorphemic in PAn is a moot point, but a number of reflexes have acquired historically secondary generic locative markers following the fossilization of *i.

*inum act of drinking


PMP     *inum act of drinking [doublet: *inem]
Itbayaten inomidea of drinking; drink
Isneg inúmto drink
Itawis inúmto drink
Bontok inómto drink
Kankanaey inúmto drink, to tipple
Ifugaw inúmto drink
Casiguran Dumagat inómtake a drink (of water or liquor)
Ilokano inúmto drink (water)
Pangasinan inómto drink
Kapampangan inúmto drink
Tagalog inómact of drinking
Bikol inómto drink
Hanunóo inúmto drink, drinking
Aklanon inómto drink (up)
Hiligaynon inúmdrink, beverage, liquor
Cebuano inúmdrink, drink liquor
Maranao inomto drink
Western Bukidnon Manobo inumto drink
Kadazan inumto drink non-strong drinks
Toba Batak inumto drink
Nias inuto drink
Lampung inumto drink
Sundanese inumto drink
Old Javanese inumdrinking (subst.)
Javanese inumto drink
Proto-Sangiric *inumto drink
Sangir inuŋto drink
Banggai inumto drink
Uma inuto drink
Bare'e inuto drink
Proto-South Sulawesi *inumto drink
Buginese inuŋto drink
Makasarese inuŋto drink
Komodo inuŋto drink
Manggarai inuŋto drink
Ngadha inuto drink
Rotinese inuto drink
Kei indrinking, consumption of liquids
Proto-Ambon *inuto drink
Buru inu, inu-hto drink
Soboyo inuŋto drink
Geser inuto drink
Hitu inuto drink
Biga inimto drink
Biak inĕmto drink
Motu inu-ato drink
Wuvulu-Aua inuto drink
Penchal into drink
Tigak inumdrink
Nggela inuto drink; drinker
  inu-gambuceremony, drinking blood of slain enemies
Sa'a inuto drink
Motlav into drink
Tangoa inuto drink
Tongan inuto drink; to take (liquid medicine); drinking; drinking water or other beverage
Samoan inudrink
Anuta inuto drink
Maori inudrink
Hawaiian inuto drink; a drink, drinking


PWMP     *inum-a drink it! (imper.)
Itbayaten inom-adrink (imper.)
Aklanon imn-a <Mdrink (imper.)
Malagasy (Merina) inóm-ydrink (imper.)


PWMP     *inum-an drink, beverage
Itbayaten inom-andrink from
Kapampangan inum-anplace to drink; thing to drink
Cebuano inúm-andrinking container; place where one habitually drinks
Malagasy (Merina) inóm-anato drink (relative form)
Malay minum-andrink, beverage
Sundanese inum-anwhat is drunk: drink, beverage
Old Javanese inum-andrink(s)
Bolaang Mongondow inum-andrink from, drink some from (not all)
Makasarese inuŋ-aŋdrink something with something else
Palauan ilúm-eldrink, beverage


PWMP     *inum-en be drunk by; what is drunk: drink, beverage
Itbayaten inom-endrink; to drink
Bontok inom-énto drink (object focus)
Ilokano inum-énto drink; beverage, drink (wine, beer, gin, tea, coffee, etc.; more especially: water)
Tagalog inum-índrinking water; to drink (something)
Bikol inom-óna drink, beverage
Hanunóo inum-úndrinking water
Cebuano imn-ún-un <Malcoholic liquor or beverage; any liquid for drinking; folk medicine consisting of boiled herbs and roots taken orally
Kadazan inum-onto drink (passive)
Malagasy (Merina) inòm-inato be drunk by
Toba Batak inum-ondrink, beverage
  aek inum-ondrinking water
Sundanese inum-ɨnsomething to drink; drinkable
Bolaang Mongondow inum-onwhat is drunk, drink, beverage


POC     *inum-ia drink it! (imper.)
Wuvulu-Aua inu-miadrink it! (imper.)
Tongan inu-miaconsume by evaporation or by absorption
Samoan inu-miadrunk (passive verb and adjective)
Kapingamarangi inu-miadrink it! (imper.)
Hawaiian imu-miadrink (passive and imperative)


PPh     *in-inum drank (past)
Itbayaten ni-inomdrank (as to direct object), was drunk
Bolaang Mongondow in-inumwhat is drunk


PWMP     *ma-inúm (gloss uncertain)
Itbayaten ma-ynomcan drink
Ifugaw ma-inúmdrinkable
Cebuano ma-inúmsomething to drink, esp. alcoholic
Bare'e ma-inuto drink (trans.)


PMP     *maŋ-inum to drink (trans.)
Ifugaw maŋ-inumhe (she) actually drinks
Kadazan moŋ-inumto drink non-strong drinks
Toba Batak maŋ-inumto drink
Sundanese ŋ-inumto drink
Javanese ŋ-inumto drink
Sangir maŋ-inumto drink
Bolaang Mongondow moŋ-inumto drink
Banggai moŋ-inumto drink
Uma ŋ-inuto drink
Bare'e maŋ-inuto drink (tr. and intr.)
Kambera [ŋ-unuŋuto drink]
  [maŋ-unuŋudrenched, saturated]
Savu ŋ-inuto drink
Elat ŋ-inuto drink


PWMP     *maR-inum to drink (habitual)
Isneg max-inúmto drink
Casiguran Dumagat mag-inómto get drunk, to drink a lot of liquor
Bikol mag-inómto drink
Cebuano mag-inúmto drink
Bare'e ma-inuto drink


PMP     *pa-inum give someone something to drink
Isneg p-enúmto let drink (water, etc.)
Bontok pa-inomto give to drink
Aklanon pa-inomto give to drink
Toba Batak pa-inumlet someone drink
Nias fa-ʔinulet someone drink, give drink to, to water (animals)
Makasarese pa-inuŋa drinker -- someone who regularly imbibes alcohol
Kambera [pa-unuŋuwhat is drunk: a drink, beverage; give someone something to drink]
  [wai pa-unuŋudrinking water]


PWMP     *pa-inum-en give (him, her, it) something to drink (command)
Itbayaten pa-ynom-engive something to drink
Isneg p-enum-ángive (somebody) to drink
Malagasy (Merina) f-inom-anadrinking (in Imerina it only means to drink the taŋena ordeal)
Bolaang Mongondow po-ʔinum-ongive (him) something to drink!
Makasarese pa-inuŋ-aŋgive someone something to drink


PMP     *paŋ-inum (gloss uncertain)
Bolaang Mongondow poŋ-inum pahave a drink first, drink a bit more (invitation)
Bare'e paŋ-inua drink, beverage; drinking vessel; time, place or manner of drinking
  to paŋ-inudrinking companion
Kambera [paŋ-unuŋuto water animals]


PWMP     *paŋ-inum-an drinking vessel
Toba Batak paŋ-inum-andrinking vessel
Old Javanese paŋ-inum-andrinking-bout
Makasarese paŋŋ-inuŋ-aŋanything used for drinking, as a drinking glass or beaker


PWMP     *paR-inum drunkard
Tagalog pag-inómact of drinking
Toba Batak par-m-inumdrunkard
Buginese par-inuŋdrunkard


PMP     *um-inum to drink
Itbayaten om-inomto drink
Isneg um-inúmto drink
Itawis m-inúmto drink
Bontok om-inómto drink
Kankanaey um-inúmto drink; to tipple
Ifugaw um-inúmto drink
Casiguran Dumagat um-inómtake a drink (of water or liquor)
Ilokano um-inúmto drink (water)
Kapampangan m-inúmto drink
Hanunóo um-inúmto drink
Samihim m-inumto drink
Malagasy (Merina) m-ìnonato drink
Jarai m-eñumto drink
Malay m-inumto drink; (sometimes) to smoke
Toba Batak m-inumto drink
Old Javanese (u)m-inumto drink


POC     *inum-inum to drink (repetitive, frequentative, etc.)
Sa'a inu-inuto drink
Tongan inu-inuto drink (repetitive, continuative)
Maori inu-inudrink frequently


PMP     *inum-inum-an various drinks
Sundanese inum-inum-anall kinds of drinks; drink on and on, debauch
Old Javanese inum-inum-andrinks
Bolaang Mongondow inu-inum-anvarious drinks
Makasarese inuʔ-inuŋ-andrinks, ususally applied specifically to liquor
Paulohi [unu-unu-adrink, beverage]

Note:   Also Chamorro gimen 'drink, imbibe, sip, lap, quaff; beverage, drink', Yamdena énum, Bonfia nimin, Sekar nim, Arguni umun, As nim, Irarutu gin(e), Dobuan, Molima numa, Lou im, Tanga imin, Raluana inim, Vao muni, Bonkovia munia, Makura munum, Ponapean nim, Kusaie nihm, Fijian gunu 'to drink'.

Additional morphologically complex forms of *inum which are suggested, but not strongly supported by the material available to me are:

(1) *inum-i (Lampung inum-i 'keep on drinking something; drink several things', Makasarese paŋŋ-inuŋ-i 'make use of something to drink out of');
(2) *paki-inum (Itbayaten ipachi-inom (no gloss given), Bolaang Mongondow poki-ʔinom 'let him drink it');
(3) *paka-inum, as a variant of *pa-inum (Ujir pek-dui 'offer something to drink', Niue faka-inu 'give drink to', Samoan faʔa-inu 'to water (animals), give someone a drink or a meal', Maori whaka-inu 'give drink to');
(4) *maŋ-inum-an (Sundanese ŋ-inum-an 'give (someone) something to drink (as a medicine)', Banggai moŋ-inum-an 'drinking vessel');
(5) *ka-inum (Itbayaten ka-ʔinom, ka-yom 'drinking', Old Javanese ké-num 'to drink, hold a drinking-bout');
(6) *maŋ-inum-ken (Malay me-minum-kan 'give drink to , as medicine; to water (animals), Sundanese ŋ-inum-kɨn 'give drink to, to water (animals), give something to someone to drink', Bolaang Mongondow moŋ-inum-kon 'to drink (water), drink from the water').

Forms such as Palue, Rotinese ninu, Lenkau nin, or Sika, Watubela minu, Nasawa min 'to drink' can be interpreted as Central Malayo-Polynesian and Oceanic reflexes of *in-inum and *um-inum respectively. The problem with this interpretation is that independent sources of the nasal are available, most notably the proclitic subject markers *m- '2sg' and *n- '3sg' in many Central Malayo-Polynesian languages, and similar markers in some of the languages of western Melanesia (cp. also Alune k-inu 'to drink', where k- may reflect the 1sg subject marker *k-). The labiovelar nasal in Bipi mwin, Raga mwinu 'to drink' is attributed to convergence.

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*iñat stretch, pull something that stretches (as a


PWMP     *iñat stretch, pull something that stretches (as a rope)
Bontok ínatto stretch, as an elastic band or a sweater; to pull tight, as a loose thread
Kankanaey ínatto stretch, lengthen, extend
  in-ínatelastic; rubber, gutta percha
Ifugaw ínatto draw out, stretch out, lengthen, extend something by pulling
Kallahan inatpull a rope
Ilokano ínatstretch, stretch oneself (as persons or animals after awakening)
Cebuano ínatstretch, cause to extend farther in length or time
Bario Kelabit inata pull, tug
  ŋ-inatto pull, tug


PPh     *iñát-en be stretched by
Kankanaey inát-enbe stretched by
Cebuano inát-unbe stretched by

Note:   With root *-ñat 'stretch'.

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*iŋaR loud, unpleasant noise


PMP     *iŋaR loud, unpleasant noise [doublet: *qiŋeR]
Ifugaw íŋalshouting noise made by children who are playing
Pangasinan iŋálnoise, shouting, altercation; make noise, shout
Kapampangan íŋenoise
Hanunóo íŋaynoise, commotion, disturbance, clamor (loanword)


PCEMP     *iŋaR loud, of the voice; voice
Manggarai iŋarclear, of the voice
Buru iŋa-nvoice; words
Raluana iŋavoice; to shout

Note:   Also Yamdena iŋat 'to fight, make a commotion'.

*iŋas tree with poisonous sap


PWMP     *iŋas tree with poisonous sap
Bikol iŋástree with leaves that cause itching when they come into contact with the body
Javanese iŋasa certain tree with poisonous sap

*iŋat to note, remember; care, attention, caution


PMP     *iŋat to note, remember; care, attention, caution [doublet: *iŋet]
Casiguran Dumagat íŋatbe careful, take care
Kapampangan íŋatbeware, watch out for
Tagalog íŋatcarefulness; something taken care of for safekeeping
Bikol íŋatcareful; be careful; to look out or be on the lookout; take care in doing something
Maranao iŋatcareful; to treat with respect
Tiruray iŋatwatch out, be careful, be ready
Kadazan iŋattake care, look out, heed, bear in mind, pay attention, be careful, beware
Iban iŋatremember, recollect, remind, be mindful of
Ngaju Dayak iŋatthinking, recollection, caution, awareness
Malay iŋatgiving attention to; recalling; remembering
Sangir iŋaʔwatch out, be careful
Bolaang Mongondow iŋatthink about; remember
Banggai iŋatthink about; remember
Bare'e iŋathink about, take care of , watch out for
Tae' iŋaʔremember, think about
Makasarese iŋaʔmindful of; remember; return to consciousness
Rembong iŋatremember! don't forget!
Fordat iŋatremember
Kei iŋatremember, think about; be absorbed in doing something (so as to give it one's full attention)


PWMP     *iŋat-an what is kept in mind
Kapampangan iŋat-anthat which one looks after with care (Bergaño 1860)
Bikol iŋat-anbe careful with; take care of
Malay iŋat-anwhat is remembered or recalled; what is reflected in one's thoughts
Balinese [iŋet-anmemory, remembrance; memorial]


PWMP     *ma-iŋat mindful, careful, attentive
Bikol ma-iŋatcareful
Tae' ma-iŋaʔthink about, pay attention, look after
Buginese [ma-iŋeʔhaving vivid memories]
Makasarese ma-iŋaʔmindful of, remember


PWMP     *maŋ-iŋat remember, think about
Malay meŋ-iŋatremember, pay attention, think about
Banggai moŋ-iŋatthink about, remember


PWMP     *maR-iŋat take care, be careful
Bikol mag-iŋatbe careful; look out or be on the lookout; take care in doing something
Kadazan mog-iŋattake care, look out, heed, bear in mind, pay attention, be careful, beware
Malay ber-iŋattake care
Bolaang Mongondow mog-iŋatthink about something; remember


PWMP     *pa-iŋat to warn, admonish
Makasarese pa-iŋaʔmake mindful, warn
Toba Batak [pa-iŋotfor someone to be reminded of something; to warn or admonish]


PWMP     *paR-iŋat (gloss uncertain)
Maranao pag-iŋatbe careful
Sasak [per-iŋetremind; guess]


PWMP     *iŋat-iŋat think about, think over
Malay iŋat-iŋatbe careful (said in warning)
Old Javanese [iŋet-iŋetthinking over, revolving in one's mind; souvenir, keepsake]
Balinese [iŋet-iŋetunawares]
Sasak [iŋet-iŋetthink of it!]
Bare'e iŋa-iŋathink about

Note:   Also Sangir iŋateʔ 'think about, remember', Kambera iŋa 'think about, pay attention to, be concerned about'. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *iŋet 'notice, remember', and although this etymon can be justified, a number of languages point instead to *iŋat. Some of the material taken to support the latter variant may be due to borrowing from Malay, but it appears unlikely that all forms assigned to *iŋat are loans.

*iŋel₁ hard of hearing


PWMP     *iŋel₁ hard of hearing
Maranao iŋelhard of hearing, deaf
Toba Batak iŋolhard of hearing

Note:   With root *-ŋel 'deaf'.

*íŋel₂ be angry, growl at


PPh     *íŋel₂ be angry, growl at
Ifugaw íŋolanger; use abusive talking, scold somebody
Casiguran Dumagat iŋélanger, be angry
Tagalog íŋilgrowl, snarl

*iŋet remember


PWMP     *iŋet remember [doublet: *iŋat]
Malay (Jakarta) iŋetremember; aware
Karo Batak iŋetremember, bear in mind
Toba Batak iŋotremember, recollect
Rejang iŋeutremember
Sundanese iŋetthink about, be mindful of; remember
Old Javanese iŋetawareness, memory
Javanese iŋetwatch or stare at each other
Balinese iŋetremember, think about, come to one's self, awaken
Sasak iŋetremember
Proto-South Sulawesi *iŋɨtremember

*iŋqiiŋ shrill sound


PPh     *iŋqiiŋ shrill sound
Kankanaey iŋíiŋroar, rumble, bellow, bawl, hum noisily
Ifugaw iŋíiŋa bamboo flute
Tagalog íŋʔiŋsound of the violin
Cebuano iŋʔiíŋonomatopoetic for the sound of the music to suspenseful portions of movies, used by children to indicate the part that is suspenseful

*iŋsiD move slightly, budge


PWMP     *iŋsiD move slightly, budge [doublet: *isud; disjunct: *icir
Iban insitmove, move slightly, budge, shift
Toba Batak [insircreep, crawl, slide, slip]
  [maŋ-insir-islink, creep]

Note:   Also Ilokano ísin 'move, shift; go, etc. aside, out of the way', Kadazan insi 'move, shift'.

*iŋsuŋ wooden rice mortar


PAN     *iŋsuŋ wooden rice mortar [doublet: *esuŋ]
Kavalan iŋsuŋmortar
Tae' issoŋwooden rice mortar

*iŋus moan or groan


PMP     *iŋus moan or groan
Bikol iŋós-iŋósto whimper
Aklanon íŋosmoan in sadness; purr
Cebuano íŋuswhimper (as a puppy)
Kambera iŋusound of sighing or moaning; to pant or groan from burdens of pain

Note:   Also Maranao iŋes 'sob'.

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*io spear


POC     *io spear [doublet: *iu]
Manam iospear
Motu iospear
Nguna na-iospear

Note:   Also Gitua izo 'spear thrown with hand', Lau īo 'war arrow, with barbs of human bone; poisoned spear'.

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*ipa- verb prefix: third-party causative-command


PPh     *ipa- verb prefix: third-party causative-command
Ilokano ipa-verbal prefix
Kankanaey ipa-prefix equivalent to pa-: 1. used with verbs to express an order, 2. with adjectives to form the absolute superlative, 3. with numbers to express the worth of something, 4. with the suffix -an to form a kind of substantive indicating location or place
Ifugaw ipa-prefix meaning: 1. let something be done, achieved, etc. by the intermediary of somebody, 2. cause that something be used for another purpose than that for which it is made, 3. that something be put above, under, in, or on that which is implied by the particular word-base
Tagalog ipa-verbal prefix meaning to cause (something) to be done by someone else
Aklanon ipa-causative verb prefix used in giving commands about direct objects
Cebuano pa-derivative verb-forming affix to which inflectional affixes are added without morphophonemic alternation: 1. referring to actions one has caused someone to do (either to something else or to oneself), 2. added to adjectives, have someone make something (adj.); have something become (adj.), 3. added to nouns, cause someone to do the action that verbs derived from the noun refer to, 4. added to doubled adjectives, pretend to be, 5. added to nouns, go to (noun)

Note:   This affix perhaps is best analyzed as containing an unidentified element *i- plus the causative prefix *pa-. Some lexicographers (as Wolff 1972, for Cebuano) list it under a base pa-, but the combination is so commonly given as a unit in the available sources that it is most convenient to treat it as a single morpheme. PPh *ipa- evidently was used with verbs to express a command that the hearer cause some third party to perform the stated action. It might thus be described as a third-party causative-command form. Judging from the Kankanaey and Cebuano glosses *ipa- could also be used with adjectives, although its function in these constructions remains unclear.

*ipak₁ sound of smacking or slapping


PWMP     *ipak₁ sound of smacking or slapping
Toba Batak ipakthe impact of the shuttle as it is brought down hard on the weft threads in weaving
Old Javanese ipakto lap, splash, wash (waves)

Note:   With root *-pak₁ 'slap, clap'.

*ipak₂ split


PWMP     *ipak₂ split [doublet: *ibak]
Cebuano ipáksplit, break a piece off of something hard; divide into pieces
Bintulu ipakbranch of a river

Note:   Possibly also Kankanaey ípak 'female pudenda'. With root *-pak₂ 'break, crack, split'.

*ipen tooth


PMP     *ipen tooth [doublet: *lipen, nipen, ŋipen]
Kapampangan ípantooth
Taosug ipuntooth
Limbang Bisaya ipontooth
Kayan (Uma Juman) ipeʔtooth (back-formation from misanalyzed ipe-n 'tooth of')
Simalur ixəntooth
Karo Batak ipentooth
Toba Batak iponincisor teeth
Nias ifõincisor teeth
Proto-Minahasan *ipentooth
Lamaholot ipentooth

*impes deflate, subside (of a swelling)


PWMP     *impes deflate, subside (of a swelling) [doublet: *kempis]
Tagalog impísshrunken, deflated
Javanese di-impes-akébe reduced (of a swelling)

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat epes 'retract, shrink (as a balloon when the air is let out; a boil when it begins to heal; a woman's stomach after she has given birth)', Ilokano eppés 'reduce, subside, unswell (abscess, etc.)'.

*i(m)pes₂ empty, deflated, shrunken


PMP     *i(m)pes₂ empty, deflated, shrunken
Tagalog impísshrunken, deflated
Javanese impesreduce a swelling
Manggarai ipesempty rice husk; rice chaff

Note:   With root *-pes 'empty, deflated'.

*ipi₁ to blow


POC     *ipi₁ to blow
Raluana ipi(to) blow, of the wind
  ifi-ʔito blow (trans.)
Tongan ifiblow with the mouth; blow or blow into or play (a whistle, or wind instrument)

Note:   Also Mono-Alu ifu 'play pan-pipes, blow conch', Roviana ivu-a 'to blow, as a conch shell', Eddystone ivu 'play on a musical instrument, esp. a flute', ivu-a 'to blow, as a flute or bassoon', Bugotu ifu 'to blow (fire, pan-pipes)'.

*ipi₂ the ``Tahitian chestnut'': Inocarpus fagiferus, Inocarpus edulis


POC     *ipi₂ the "Tahitian chestnut'': Inocarpus fagiferus or I. edulis
Gitua ipikind of nut tree: Inocarpus fagiferus
Eddystone ivisp. of edible fruit, Inocarpus edulis, the so-called Tahitian chestnut, which is in fact a bean with solitary large seeds which are boiled or roasted
Fijian ivithe native chestnut tree, Inocarpus fagiferus, Leguminosae. The fruit is eaten either baked or boiled, and without any further treatment, or it may be grated on mushroom coral and made into bread or pudding
Tongan ifikind of tree bearing edible nuts about 3 inches long: the Tahitian chestnut, Inocarpus edulis
Niue ifithe Tahitian chestnut, Inocarpus fagiferus (introduced)
Samoan ifia tree (Inocarpus sp.), the Tahitian chestnut; the nut of that tree
Nanumea ifinut which drifts ashore
Anuta ipia tree: Inocarpus fagiferus
Rarotongan iʔithe chestnut tree and its fruit: Inocarpus edulis

Note:   Also Rotuman ʔifi 'tree bearing edible nuts about 3 inches long, the Tahitian chestnut: Inocarpus edulis'. Dempwolff (1934-38) treated the Fijian, Tongan, and Samoan forms cited here as reflexes of *qipil 'a tree: Intsia bijuga'. However, the referents assigned to PMP *qipil appear to be distinct from those assigned to POc *ipi. On formal grounds Chamorro ifet points to initial *q- in *qipil, while Tongan ifi points to an initial vowel in POc *ipi. Against this formal criterion we can set the anomalous Rotuman form, which clearly is a Polynesian loan. If Rotuman ʔifi was borrowed from Tongan, and a native Tongan ʔifi was later replaced by ifi (from Samoan?) it remains possible that the POc word for the Inocarpus fagiferus began with *q-, but the distinctness of the referents would still appear to justify two independent etyma.

*ipil ipil a leguminous shrub: Leucaena glauca


PPh     *ipil ipil a leguminous shrub: Leucaena glauca
Ifugaw ipil-ípilleguminous tree bearing small leaves (often planted in coffee plantations, because they shade the coffee plants better than other trees)
Bikol ipíl-ípilsmall tree used as a border for plots of land, its seeds woven into bags and necklaces: Leucaena glauca
Cebuano ipil-ípilsmall rapidly growing tree of waste places or cultivated, extensively used for firewood. The leaves are used as animal feed and medicinally. It bears beans also used medicinally: Leucaena glauca
Maranao ipil-ipila leguminous shrub: Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth.
Tiruray ifil-ʔifilthe ipil ipil tree: Leucaena glauca L. Benth.

Note:   Samoan ifi-ifi 'small tree (Parinarium sp.) with large brown oval fruits yielding oil' appears to be distinct (cp. Nanumea ipi-ipi 'soft, oily coconut kernel', Tongan ʔipi-ʔipi 'layer of fatty substance between soft kernel of sprouting coconut and the flesh').

*ipit near, come near; edge, border


PMP     *ipit near, come near; edge, border
Rejang ipitget close to something; touch; near
  ipit-ipittight together, close together
Gorontalo ipitoclinging (of a small child that does not want to be left alone)
Bare'e impiwalk along the edge (so as to make room for someone passing)
Ngadha ipiedge, border, shore; approach, come near

Note:   Also Karo Batak impet 'come near to something, approach'.

*ipu- hair, feather


POC     *ipu- hair, feather
Lakalai la-ivu-lahis head hair; plumage of a bird
Label ih(i)-hair
  ih-a-manifeather of a bird
Raluana ivu-nahair of the human body or of animals; fur, feathers, plumage, bristle
Lau ifu, ifu-nahair
  ifu-lahairy, covered with cast hairs
Kwaio ifu-nahair
  ifu-ʔailet hair grow long in mourning
'Are'are ihu-nahair, feather
Sa'a ihuhair, feather; used with genitive i
  ihu-i menua bird's feather
  ihu i pweua hair of the head

*impu₁ collect, heap up


PMP     *impu₁ collect, heap up
Toba Batak impucollect, gather
Manggarai impuheap; to heap up

Note:   Apparently distinct from *qipun, *qimpun.

*impu₂ grandparent


PMP     *impu₂ grandparent [doublet: *ampu, empu, umpu]
Tagalog impógrandmother
Matu ipewgrandparent


PMP     *t-impu grandparent
Mukah Melanau t-ipewgrandparent
Rembong ipo-ʔgrandparent


POC     *tibu ancestor, grandparent
Gedaged tibu-nancestor, grandparent, grandchild
Tanga tibu-grandparent (listed only in the English index)
Maori tipu-naancestor; grandparent

Note:   Also Selaru ébu 'grandparent, grandchild'. For the history and function of the prefix *t- and the suffix *-q in Austronesian kinship terms, cf. Blust (1979). From the discussion in that article it will be apparent that the PMP status of *t-impu implies a PMP form *impu, even if direct attestation of the unaffixed form in both Western Malayo-Polynesian and Central Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages is lacking.

*ípun rice variety


PPh     *ípun rice variety
Kankanaey ípona variety of dark-colored palay (rice) with awns
Tiruray ifuna nonglutenous rice, a variety of farey

*ipus tail


PPh     *ipus tail
Itbayaten ipostail; one who tags along
Isneg íputtail; stern (of a canoe); hind part (of a G string)
Itawis ífuttail
Ilokano ípustail; back part of a G string
Bontok ípostail of an animal
Casiguran Dumagat ípostail (of animals, fish, birds, snakes)
Proto-Minahasan *ipustail
Bolaang Mongondow iputtail; conclusion

Note:   Also Bolaang Mongondow ipus (expected **iput) 'tail'. Possibly with root *-pus₁ 'end, finish'.

*imput tail-bone of animals


PWMP     *imput tail-bone of animals
Karo Batak imputtail end, esp. of a chicken
Sasak imput-imputtail-bone (of animals)
  iputthe thick part of the tail (by the back)

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak keput 'tail of a turtle'. This word may have referred to the thick, basal portion of an animal's tail rather than to the coccyx proper.

*iput narrow


PMP     *iput narrow [doublet: *kiput]
Bare'e ipunarrow, hemmed in
Sika ipot-kipotnarrow; close together

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*iqi exclamation of surprise, pain, etc.


PMP     *iqi exclamation of surprise, pain, etc.
Kankanaey no! nonsense! interjection of disbelief
Ifugaw íiutter sharp cries because of anger, or to express astonishment and surprise because something disagreeable suddenly happened
Ilokano interjection: expressing wonder
Cebuano particle showing disbelief
Javanese ihiexclamation of disgust, anger
Uma iiexclamation, ouch!
Ngadha iicry, whine
Buru i-iiwhimpering
Rotuman ībewail, fret about
Nanumea iiexclamation of assent
Rarotongan iian interjection made as when setting a dog at a cat
Kapingamarangi iioh! sound indicating surprise or curiosity

Note:   Also Tagabili ihi 'exclamation of self satisfaction', Kayan iʔi 'expression of longing for', Malay ih 'hey!', Acehnese hihi 'whinny', Karo Batak ihih 'shrill call', Sundanese hih 'phooey!', iih 'exclamation of surprise', Javanese ih 'exclamation of disgust or fear', Balinese ih 'vocative particle', Rembong ie 'exclamation of surprise', ieʔ 'cry to chase off a dog', Ngadha ie 'neigh, whinny'. The creation and shaping of the above forms clearly has been subject to the operation of universal human expressive tendencies, but this alone is no reason to assume that the forms compared have been independently invented in all daughter languages (cf. Note to *i₁).

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*iraŋ₁ redness; embarrassment


PWMP     *iraŋ₁ redness; embarrassment
Ngaju Dayak ira-iraŋbright red
Old Javanese iraŋshame, embarrassment
Balinese éraŋashamed, blush; be angry
Tombulu iraŋshame


PWMP     *ma-iraŋ red; embarrassed
Ngaju Dayak ma-hiaŋ <Mred
Malay mérah m-éraŋfiery red; bright red
Tombulu ma-iraŋashamed

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) included Tagalog igáŋ 'dried up, dehydrated' with the Ngaju Dayak, Malay and Javanese members of this comparison, and reconstructed *iRaŋ 'bright red'. The Tagalog form, however, contains a root *-gaŋ 'dry near a fire', and cannot be compared with the forms cited here. Ngaju Dayak ira-iraŋ and ma-hiaŋ presumably belong to different 'speech strata' (cf. Dyen 1956).

*iraŋ₂ slope of a mountain


PWMP     *iraŋ₂ slope of a mountain
Bario Kelabit iraŋslope of a mountain
Bolaang Mongondow iraŋvery steep rocky slope, abyss

Note:   Also Kenyah iaŋ 'hillside'; m-iaŋ 'steep'.

*irid₁ fan; to fan


PMP     *irid₁ fan; to fan
Old Javanese irirfan
Javanese ilirlarge woven-bamboo fan (to fan the fire, etc.)
Tae' iriʔto fan, blow against
Mandar iriʔwind
Makasarese iriʔto fan, to blow (of the wind)
Yamdena iritfan for fanning the fire
Ponapean ir-ihrto fan (intr.)
  iri-pto fan (tr.)
Rotuman irito fan; to blow (wind)
Fijian irito fan; a fan
Tongan īfan
Niue ilito fan; to swing, as a weapon
Samoan ilito blow; fan
Rennellese igifan, as of coconut leaves; to fan

Note:   Also Balinese ilih 'kind of fan; to fan', Buginese iriŋ 'to blow', Selaru siri 'to fan', sir-sir 'a fan', Yamdena ndiri 'to fan', Paulohi hiri 'to fan', Numfor ir 'cool oneself by fanning'. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *iriR, but his inclusion of Tagalog ílig 'shaking a container to cause the contents to set or mix' is difficult to accept.

*irid₂ pull, draw, drag


PWMP     *irid₂ pull, draw, drag
Iban iritdraw, drag, haul
Old Javanese iridpull, draw, drag along; carry away, lead off, to lead
Sasak iritpull, drag


PWMP     *ŋ-irid to pull, draw, drag
Iban ŋ-iritto draw, drag, haul
Sasak ŋ-iritto pull, drag

*iriŋ₁ follow; accompany


PMP     *iriŋ₁ follow; accompany
Ngaju Dayak m-iriŋfollow, follow after
Iban irin, iriŋlead by the hand
Acehnese iréŋwalk single-file, follow, accompany, form a procession
Toba Batak iriŋlead someone
Dairi-Pakpak Batak iriŋto lead, guide
Malay iriŋIndian file. Of ants following in line one behind the other, etc.
Javanese iriŋescort, accompany
Sundanese iriŋfollow someone
Balinese iriŋaccompany, follow a superior
Sasak iriŋfollow
Bare'e irito hunt, chase off or away
Mandar iriŋdrive animals before one (as in driving a flock of ducks to some location)
Buginese iriŋdrive animals before one
Gilbertese irifollow, accompany


PWMP     *maŋ-iriŋ follow; drive animals before one
Iban ŋ-iriŋ capito herd cattle
Toba Batak maŋ-iriŋ horbodrive a water buffalo before one
Sasak ŋ-iriŋto follow


PWMP     *paŋ-iriŋ follower
Karo Batak peŋ-iriŋfollower of a leader
Sasak peŋ-iriŋfollower, adherent

Note:   Also Malay giriŋ 'directing a stampede; driving animals in a desired direction, shepherding', Buginese iriʔ 'drive animals before one'.

*iriŋ₂ similar; imitate


PPh     *iriŋ₂ similar; imitate
Ilokano íriŋbe similar, differ slightly
Maranao iriŋimitate, emulate, follow
Western Bukidnon Manobo iriŋdo or be the same; the same
Tiruray iriŋcopy, imitate

Note:   Also Ilokano aríriŋ 'be similar, differ slightly', Kankanaey ílig 'same, alike, equivalent', Lau ili 'copy, imitate', Kwaio ili 'compare with, illustrate by, imitate'. This comparison may be identical to *iriŋ₁.

*iro iro reflect, shine


POC     *iro iro reflect, shine
Aua iro-iroshine, reflect (Hambruch 1908)
Bwaidoka eno-ilo-ilo-ina(of a star) to twinkle
Lau iro-irotranslucent pool, still and clear; looking glass, pearl shell of nautilus
  iro-iro-areflected light, dazzling, silver light of the moon on white clouds, moonshine
Arosi iro-iroclear pool in the reef in which one can see one's reflection

Note:   Also Arosi kiro-kiro 'clear pool in the reef in which one can see one's reflection'.

*iruq feel sad about, deplore


PWMP     *iruq feel sad about, deplore
Sasak iroʔ, éroʔsad, saddening
Sangir iroregret, deplore

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*iReteŋ stretched tightly


PWMP     *iReteŋ stretched tightly
Ilokano irtéŋto stretch, to strain (a rope, wire, etc.)
Tagalog igtíŋtightness (of tie or knot); tautness
Malay rentaŋhorizontal extension (of clouds stretching in lines across the sky, stretching a cord to its full length, using a surveyor's chain)


PWMP     *iReteŋ-en to stretch tightly
Ilokano irteŋ-ento stretch
Malay rentaŋ-an talistretching a cord to its full length

Note:   With root *-teŋ₃ 'stretch; taut'.

*iRik thresh with the feet (as rice)


PAN     *iRik thresh with the feet (as rice) [disjunct: *qiRik]
Kanakanabu um-a-iríkithresh by scraping with the soles of one's feet
Tsou [m-irʔi, riʔ-athresh by scraping with the soles of one's feet]
Rukai (Maga) [u-íkithresh by scraping with the soles of one's feet]
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) m-a-iRik, iRik-uscrape off with feet, thresh with feet (as millet)
Kankanaey ilíkto shell (rice) with the feet
Ilokano iríkthe grains or kernels of rice when separated from the stalk
  irik-irik-énto trample (a person)
Pangasinan ilíkunhusked rice
Tagalog giʔík <Mthreshing of rice
Ngaju Dayak ihikwhat is trodden upon (rice, in threshing)

Note:   Also Kayan ilik 'sieve'. Kanakanabu and Puyuma reflect a form with initial vowel, but Malay (h)irek points to *qiRik. Since all other languages are ambiguous for the zero vs q distinction, it is impossible to determine whether Malay (h)irek shows an isolated irregularity, or whether *q- was already present in the PMP form. Tentatively I adopt the latter interpretation.

*iRimo a tree: probably Octomeles spp.


POC     *iRimo a tree: probably Octomeles spp.
Motu irimoa tree from which canoes are generally made
Mailu ilimobig, softwood tree from which some small canoes are made
Label irimutree sp.: Octomeles sumatrana

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*isa₁ one


PAN     *isa₁ one [doublet: *esa]
Kavalan issaone
Rukai (Budai) iθaone
Paiwan itaone
Isneg isáone
Itawis isáone
Pangasinan isáone
Tagalog isáone; another
Bikol isáone
Hiligaynon isáone
Maranao isaone; a, an
Western Bukidnon Manobo isathe number one, used in counting
Samal isaone (in counting)
Kadazan isoone
Malagasy (Merina) isaone
Bare'e isaone
Manggarai icaone
Kambera d-ihaone
  ihaalone, separate
Tetun ida < *insaone; a
Leti ida < *insa'one; each, every'
Kamarian isaone
Buli isaone


PWMP     *isa-q one
Ma'anyan isaʔone
Tae' issaʔone
Bolaang Mongondow intaʔone


PWMP     *i-ka-isa first
Hiligaynon i-ka-isáfirst
Kadazan ko-isafirst


PAN     *isa-ŋa the remaining one
Paiwan ita-ŋathere is one left
Cebuano [usá-ŋathe other one of two or more]


PAN     *isa isa distributive; one-by-one, one at a time
Paiwan ma-ita itaone by one, one after the other
Tagalog isa isaone by one, one each time
Maranao isa isaalone, only
Kadazan to-isa isaone by one, one at a time
Malagasy (Merina) tsi-isa isaone by one
Tetun ida idaone by one, each one


PMP     *ma-isa alone
Hanunóo maysáoneness, aloneness
Sasak mésaʔself, alone
Tae' misaone, alone, on its own
Chamorro maysaone (of living things)
Tetun missa-kalone, one
  oan missa-konly child
Yamdena mésa-nsingle, alone (of only children)


PAN     *paR-isa-an to unite, combine in one
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) [paR-asa-nto do once]
Tagalog pag-isah-ínto combine (many things) into one

Note:   The number 'one' is unique among numerals universally in that it alone tends to develop into an article. Moreover, semantically the number 'one' carries something of the "antithetical sense of primal words'' (to borrow a phrase from Freud): morphological derivatives in many languages refer both to unity ('one with') and to aloneness ('one apart from'). The number 'one' is unique among Austronesian numerals in that it alone has reconstructed doublets (*esa and *isa). Moreover, in addition to these apparent stem variants a clitic form *sa- is found in some languages, including languages that lack the full numeral (e.g. Malay se- formative in se-puluh 'ten', se-ratus '100', se-ribu '1000', etc., next to satu 'one'; Tongan ha 'indefinite article: a, an, some, any', next to taha 'one').

The following additional points should be noted: 1. it is unclear whether *isaq should be treated as morphologically complex (*isa-q) or as a doublet (*isaq), 2. *ma-isa 'alone' appears to contain the stative or attributive prefix *ma-; Tagalog mag-isá 'be alone, do something alone', however, suggests that Hanunóo maysá may reflect *maR-isa. Such an interpretation is not available for Sasak, Tae', Chamorro, or Yamdena, where *R did not regularly disappear, 3. the nasal grade reflexes of *s (*insa) in Sulawesi and the Lesser Sunda islands are assumed to be a product of independent changes, 4. it is not clear whether a reflex of *esa or *isa survived in POc, although the clitic form *sa- evidently did. Possible reflexes of the full stems invariably appear subject to a morphological analysis which disqualifies them: Lakalai isasa (according to Chowning (n.d. a.) = i-sasa), Lamogai isawala (POc *tolu > Lamogai itlu 'three' suggests i-sawala 'one'), Kilokaka kaʔisa (but kai-keu, kai-ke, kaʔi-sei, and the like in other languages of Ysabel, hence Kilokaka kaʔi-sa), TandaiI, Ghari kesa, Marau, Lau, Sa'a, Arosi eta 'one', where *esa would be reflected with initial o, and *isa with initial i; Sa'a ite 'one, another', but Arosi ta- 'one, only'.

*isa₂ name


POC     *isa₂ name
Tigak isa-name
Lakalai isa-name, identity
Woleai it(a)name, personal name
Puluwat yiitname, kind (as of a plant)
Raga iha-name
Tutuba isa-name
Lonwolwol ih-name
Southeast Ambrym isEname

Note:   Also Raluana iaŋ, Hukua hisa-, Nokuku kise- 'name'.

*isaŋ gills


PWMP     *isaŋ gills [doublet: *hansaŋ]
Malay isaŋ, iŋsaŋgills of a fish
Acehnese iseueŋgills
Karo Batak isaŋchin
Toba Batak isaŋ-isaŋlower jaw, chin

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak risaŋ 'inner gills of fish', Malagasy hisana 'gills of fishes', Nali isa-n, Loniu wosa-n, Lou lisa-n, Likum nise-n, Levei keseŋ 'red inner gills of fish'. These items may share a common root *-saŋ. Dempwolff (1934-38) also included Tagalog síhaŋ 'maxilla, jawbone', a form which I regard as unrelated to reflexes of *isaŋ.

*isaw intestines


PWMP     *isaw intestines
Tagalog ísawsmall intestine; blind intestine
Lampung isawintestines
Javanese isolarge intestine, esp. of an animal slaughtered for a feast
Balinese isobelly, entrails (of animals)
Sasak isokidneys

Note:   PMP, PWMP *bituka, *t-in-aqi evidently meant 'large intestine' and 'small intestine' respectively. PWMP *isaw may have referred exclusively to the intestines of animals.

*ised budge, shift, move aside


PMP     *ised budge, shift, move aside [disjunct: *iseR, isud, isuR]
Sundanese isedmove up, push up, make room, move over
Old Javanese [iŋsershift, change place, move aside, move away]
  [isermove aside]
Javanese iŋsedshift, budge
  [iŋserto have been moved or shifted; (of joints) sprained]
Numfor [isermove, push (a table, chair, etc.)]

Note:   Also Bikol ugsód 'pushed or carried along by the wind or current', Iban ansat 'shift, move', ginsit 'move, budge', iŋgut 'move a little', Malay aŋsur-aŋsur 'a little at a time in action or in motion', Minangkabau ansut 'move a little', ter-kaŋsur 'edged aside', Old Javanese aŋseg 'to advance, push forward', Javanese uŋsed 'move (in some direction), inch over', Madurese aŋset 'change place by pushing aside someone else; budge', lerset 'edging towards', Manggarai (West) hisut 'move a little, budge.'

*isek cram, crowd, be compressed or congested


PWMP     *isek cram, crowd, be compressed or congested
Kadazan moŋ-insoktrample down
Toba Batak isokillness in the chest
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ésektightness in breathing, e.g. of asthma
Tontemboan isekpress something down to make it more compact

Note:   With root *-sek₁ 'cram, crowd'.

*isem₁ smile, to smile


PWMP     *isem₁ smile, to smile
Ilokano isemto smile
Javanese ésemto smile

*isem₂ sour


PWMP     *isem₂ sour [doublet: *qalesem]
Nias isõsour fruits
Mandar ma-issaŋsour
Proto-South Sulawesi *insɨmsour

*iseR budge, shift, move aside


PMP     *iseR budge, shift, move aside [disjunct: *ised, isuR]
Cebuano [isúgmove, cause something to do so; budge from one's belief]
Western Bukidnon Manobo isegmove over or move along
Maranao isegmove
  iseg-isegmove farther
Tiruray iseg, insegmove something, move oneself a short way
Sundanese isermove, push
Old Javanese [iŋsershift, change place, move aside, move away]
  [isermove aside]
Javanese [iŋserto have been moved or shifted; (of joints) sprained]
Sundanese isermove, push
Numfor [isermove, push (a table, chair, etc.)]

*isi₁ tooth


PWMP     *isi₁ tooth
Kalamian Tagbanwa isitooth
Maloh isitooth
Sangir isitooth
Tae' isitooth
Buginese isitooth

Note:   Reid (1971: 225) gives Kalamian Tagbanwa isi with the meanings 'tooth'; also 'flesh, meat, tuber'. Since far better candidates than *isi are available for the general category 'tooth' in PAn, PMP, and PWMP (notably *ipen, *lipen, *nipen, and similar variants), there is perhaps reason to suspect that the present comparison is a product of parallel semantic shifting from a form that originally did not mean 'tooth'. The best candidate for such a source would appear to be *isiʔ 'flesh, meat; pit of a fruit'. For the present, however the matter remains unresolved.

*isi₂ to peel, strip off


PCEMP     *isi₂ to peel, strip off
Rotinese isito peel, as an onion; to scale a fish
Fijian isito tear out in small pieces; cut lengthwise as bamboo, cut or tear off the inner part of vau (hibiscus) bark to be used as string
Niue īhi, ihi-ihisplit, divide, rip open
Samoan isisplit
Nukuoro isipeel off in long, thin strips
Maori ihistrip bark off tree
Hawaiian ihito strip, peel

Note:   Also Kei isin 'peel off, skin'. Rotinese isi may belong under *isi₃ 'to scrape, as coconut meat from a shell'.

*isi₃ hiss


POC     *isi₃ hiss
Nggela isihiss to chase off a dog
Ponapean isihhiss at
Rotuman isihissing noise to attract attention, or as a request to keep silent
Maori ihimake hissing or hushing noise

Note:   Also Ngadha esi 'hiss at, chase off (as a dog)', Paulohi ii 'rushing of water'. Kambera ihi 'sound of sighing or groaning; utterance of worry or pain', ʔihiku 'moan, groan' may be connected, but probably is a product of convergence.

*isi₄ to scrape, as coconut meat from a shell


POC     *isi₄ to scrape, as coconut meat from a shell; to grate, as coconut meat
Lakalai isiscrape, grate (as coconut); to scrape wood smooth
Molima isi, isi-ato grate, as on a grater, to rub (it)
Rennellese isito scoop, scrape, as coconut meat from a shell

*ísip thinking, thoughts; opinion


PPh     *ísip thinking, thoughts; opinion
Kankanaey ísipthink, deem, be of opinion
Ilokano ísipintellect, mind, intelligence; consider, think on, study, ponder
Casiguran Dumagat ísipthought, understanding, judgement, sense, opinion, think, think deeply, plan
Pangasinan ísipmind; to think
Kapampangan ísipthink
Tagalog ísipthought, understanding, judgment, sense; criterion, opinion; discernment; idea; plan, intend
Bikol ísipmind, opinion, judgment; think about, mull over
  isípselfish; an egoist or egotist
Hanunóo ísipthoughts, thinking; perception, feeling; think
Aklanon ísipegoistic, selfish, always considering oneself; think of, consider, reckon, ponder; thought, consideration
Hiligaynon ísipnumber, count
Cebuano ísipcount something; consider, treat something or someone as something
Western Bukidnon Manobo isipthe mind; to think
Maranao isipcount; number


PPh     *isip-en think (goal focus)
Kankanaey isíp-enthink, deem, be of opinion
Ilokano isíp-enconsider, think on, study
Kapampangan isíp-anthink
Tagalog ísip-inthink (of something)
  isip-ínmatter for thought; things to be thought of
Bikol ísip-onthink about, mull over, ponder
Aklanon isíp-onthink over
Hiligaynon ísip-unto count, reckon, enumerate
Cebuano isíp-unto count


PPh     *ka-ísip (gloss uncertain)
Kapampangan ka-ísipone who thinks the same
Aklanon ka-ísipegoism, selfishness, self-consideration


PPh     *ka-ísip-an thought, opinions
Pangasinan ka-ísip-ánvoice, opinion
Bikol ka-ísip-anthoughts
Cebuano ka-ísip-anmind, seat of consciousness, intellect


PPh     *ma-ísip wise, thoughtful
Ilokano ma-ísipunderstand, comprehend
Bikol ma-isípselfish
Aklanon ma-ísipegoistic, selfish
Cebuano ma-ísipwise, learned; prudent, thinking before acting

Note:   Also Mentawai isi 'think about something, desire'.

*isiʔ flesh (of humans, animals, fruits, tubers);


PAN     *isiʔ flesh (of humans, animals, fruits, tubers); contents; blade of a knife; inhabitants, residents [doublet: *hesi]
Saaroa maa-is-an-acontent (Tsuchida 1976:251)
Kanakanabu ʔa-ísiexist
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) isimeat, flesh
Kalamian Tagbanwa isiflesh, meat; tuber
Palawan Batak isímeat, flesh
Ngaju Dayak isiflesh (of humans, animals, fruits); blade (of knife, dagger, etc.)
Banjarese isicontents
  ba-isihave, exist
Maloh isiʔmeat, flesh
Malagasy (Merina) ísybe, exist; there is
Malay isicontents; component parts. Etymologically, the "flesh" of anything
Iban isiʔcontent; capacity; interior; fill
Simalur isicontents, inhabitants; flesh
  maŋ-al-isito fill
Karo Batak isicontents; residents of a house, of a village, etc.
Toba Batak isicontents; inhabitants
Nias isicontents
Rejang iseycontents
Lampung isifill something
Old Javanese isicontents, what is found (lives, etc.) in a place; the special content, the core or essence
Javanese isiinsides, contents; full (of), filled (with)
Balinese isicontain, be contained in, be filled with; contents, filling, kernel (nut), produce (of a field or garden); flesh (as opposed to fat and bone)
Sasak isicontents; flesh (of animals, fruits)
  isi-n balemembers of the household
  isi gigigums
  b-isi, ber-isicontain
  isiʔto fill; to place food on a wooden dish in order to serve a meal
Uma ihiflesh
Tae' issicontents, stuffing; the soft parts of a body as against the bones, the soft parts of a fruit as against the pit
Mandar issicontents
Bimanese isicontents; seed
Komodo isimeat
  isi waragums
Manggarai iciflesh
  ici-ŋto fill
Ngadha isiflesh without bones and fat; tuber; residents, people; corpulent
Sika ʔisicontents
Kambera ihicontents
Savu ihicontents
Rotinese isiinsides, content; flesh, pulp; what is loaded into a gun; an arrow to a bow
  nusak-a isi-n(a)the inhabitants of a country
  uma-isimembers of a household; the servants, taken as a whole; point of an arrow; point, sharp part of a lance
Tetun isi-nbody or torso, the product, the internal part, the contents, the useful part, a layer; a keen cutting edge of a knife, etc.
  talas isi-n, uhi isi-nyam roots or sweet potatoes
  isi-n onasaid when plants have produced tubers, or when fruit is nearing maturity
Erai ihi(n)contents; body; rice out of the ear
Leti isicontents; flesh
Yamdena isi-nflesh, contents; blade of knife, point of an arrow, etc.; harvest of the crops; have a plentiful yield, of tubers
Fordat ihi-nflesh, contents; flesh of tubers, pit of a nut, yield of the crops
  nahi-n ihi-nblade of a knife or other weapon
Kei ihi-nflesh of people, animals and fruits, and in general the edible, useful or most prominent part of something
Paulohi isi-niflesh; contents
Soboyo isiput in, fill up
  isi-nflesh, contents, juice, milk
  mboa n-isi-npork
  jubi n-isi-narrow of a bow
Buru isi-nmeat, flesh; contents, usable part


PWMP     *isiʔ-an what is filled; container
Malay isi-anwhat is filled
Toba Batak isi-anvessel, receptacle, container
Old Javanese isy-anfilling
Mandar isi-aŋfilled


PMP     *ka-isiʔ well-filled
Ngaju Dayak ka-isirichness, wealth
Old Javanese kesimade the contents (core, essence) of something, kept in, treasured in
Tae' ke-issiwell-filled, fruitful or abundant, as a rice crop
Rotinese ka-isi-khave contents, flesh, muscles


PWMP     *ma-isiʔ filled with
Old Javanese ma-isi, mesifilled with, containing, possessing; full, meaningful, pregnant, full of love
Tae' ma-issiwell-filled; fleshy, stout
Mandar ma-issiold (of bananas nearly ripe on the stalk); having plenty of content
Rotinese ma-isi-khave contents, flesh or muscles


PWMP     *maŋ-isiʔ to fill
Malagasy (Merina) man-ìsycreate, produce, make, put into something
Malay meŋ-isito fill, fill up
Karo Batak ŋ-isito fill
Toba Batak maŋ-isito fill
  maŋ-isi bodilload a gun
Javanese ŋ-isito fill, put something into
Tae' maŋ-issito fill


PWMP     *maR-isiʔ to contain
Ngaju Dayak m-isihave flesh
Banjarese ba-isihave, possess; exist
Malay ber-isihave contents, contain
Karo Batak pagé mar-isirice variety
Toba Batak mar-isihave contents, be filled
Simalur mal-isifull, filled


PMP     *pa-isiʔ contents
Toba Batak paŋ-isiinhabitants
Old Javanese paŋ-isicontents; core, essence
Tae' paŋ-isisickness in which one urinates only a few drops

Note:   Also Itbayaten aʔsi 'fruit, meat of fruit, meat, flesh, rice ears, corn ears', Kenyah isé 'content', ŋ-isé 'to fill', Uma ihiʔ 'content' (cp. ihi 'flesh'), Rembong isiʔ 'contents', isiʔ ŋ tanaʔ 'original inhabitants, aborigines', Ngaju Dayak hisi 'have flesh', Old Javanese hisi 'contents'. The appropriateness of including some morphologically complex forms (as Mandar ma-issi and Tae' paŋ-issi) under *isi is questionable, but in these respects I have followed my sources. Perhaps the most interesting feature of this comparison is its gloss.

Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *isi with the rather bland meaning 'contents'. Abstract ideas generally have their foundations in sense perceptions, and we might therefore expect the idea of 'contents' to be rooted in something more concrete. This is the case with *isiʔ, which meant 'flesh' in addition to 'contents'. Moreover, it is clear from witnesses as diverse as Ngaju Dayak, Sasak, Tae', Rotinese, and Kei that 'flesh' must be taken in its broadest English sense: the meat of humans or animals (in contradistinction to the bone and fat) and the flesh of fruits (in contradistinction to the pit), or of vegetables.

One recurrent reference to vegetable flesh is seen in Kalamian Tagbanwa isi 'flesh, meat; tuber', Ngadha isi 'flesh without bones and fat; tuber', Tetun talas isi-n 'sweet potato roots', ubi isi-n 'yam roots', isi-na ona 'said when plants have produced tubers or when fruit is nearing maturity', Fordat ihi-n 'flesh of tubers', and the Malay proverb diam ubi ada-ña ber-isi "resting like a tuber that puts on flesh by rest'' = recuperative and profitable rest.

From this broad sense of 'flesh' it appears that PMP *isiʔ referred to the useful part of a thing, or its "essence''. Intriguingly, this notion is extended to the blade of a knife or the point of an arrow both in Western Malayo-Polynesian and in Central Malayo-Polynesian languages, where the extended referential range of *isiʔ appears to have competed with that of *mata 'eye; focal point; most prominent part'. In a similar vein the arrow is the isi of the bow in Soboyo, and the bullet the isi of the gun in Toba Batak.

In striking contrast with semantic categories typical of Indo-European languages (cf. e.g. Buck 1949), reflexes of *isiʔ also referred to humans in two related senses: (1) residents (the *isiʔ of the house), (2) inhabitants (= the *isiʔ of the land). Finally, it is noteworthy that although PMP *penuq meant 'full (as a container)', the common verb meaning 'to fill' evidently was not based on *penuq, but rather on *isiʔ. The existential meanings of reflexes in Kanakanabu, Banjarese, and Malagasy are assumed to be products of convergence.

*isu₁ budge, shift, move aside


PMP     *isu₁ budge, shift, move aside [doublet: *ised]
Sangir isumove up, push aside, budge; shoving motion
Ngadha [isupress on, push away, press down]
Numfor isslide oneself over the ground, as someone who is lame

*isu₂ interjection used to chase off animal


PMP     *isu₂ interjection used to chase off animal
Isneg issúto shoo pigs
Bimanese isoshout to chase off chicken

Note:   With unexplained o for expected u in Bimanese.

*isud budge, shift, move


PMP     *isud budge, shift, move [disjunct: *icud, isu]
Tagalog [ísodact of moving up or away in position]
Kadazan [insud-onthe place to which one moves]
Malay éŋsutpushing away gently; edging a child off a seat; (of a wind) just making the boat move; edging towards or away
Acehnese isotshove
Ngadha [isupress on, push away, press down]
'Are'are [isumove, remove, of persons and things]
  [isu maimove here, nearer]
  [isu woumove away a bit]

*isul retreat, move backwards


PPh     *isul retreat, move backwards
Casiguran Dumagat isóltake a step backwards; step back
Aklanon ísoemove backwards
Hiligaynon ísulretreat, move back so as to make way
Cebuano ísulmove backwards without turning around

Note:   Also Itbayaten iso 'idea of going backward', Banggai isul 'cease, stop, desist'.

*isuR budge, shift, move aside


PMP     *isuR budge, shift, move aside [disjunct: *ised, iseR]
Bikol [ísogmove nearer or farther]
  [mapa-ísogget unintentionally shoved (as when something is bumped into)]
Cebuano [isúgmove, cause something to do so; budge from one's belief]
Iban insurmove, adjust
Ngadha [isupress on, push away, press down]
Numfor [isermove, push (a table, chair, etc.)]

Note:   Also Hanunóo ísul 'movement on one's buttocks, as in changing one's sitting position', Fordat isuk 'push to the side, set to the side', Buru isuk 'budge, touch, upset, move'.

*isut₁ little, small


PWMP     *isut₁ little, small [doublet: *iut]
Aklanon isótbecome smaller; almost, barely, nearly
Ngaju Dayak isuta little; short time
Buginese iccuʔlittle


PWMP     *ka-isut little bit
Aklanon ka-isótlittleness, tininess; triviality
Ngaju Dayak ka-isut, k-isutthe least
Mandar keccuʔlittle, little bit, few


PWMP     *ma-isut little
Aklanon ma-isótlittle, tiny, small
Ngaju Dayak m-isut, ma-m-isutalways only a little bit (in giving, receiving, etc.)

Note:   Also Bugotu iso 'small, little; few'.

*isut₂ rub, scour, scrub


PWMP     *isut₂ rub, scour, scrub
Ngaju Dayak isutwhat is scrubbed or scoured
Rejang butew isutmortar (for grinding food)
Bare'e isurub; scrub or scour gently
Numfor isukrub, scour something until it breaks in two

Note:   Ifugaw íhu 'washing of one's face (and hands)' appears to be distinct.

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*iSeq urine, urinate


PAN     *iSeq urine, urinate [doublet: *iSiq]
Bunun isahurine (Tsuchida 1976: 162)
Nias urine
Lampung iohurine

Note:   Also Toba Batak eo 'urine'; tar-eo-eo 'urinate'. Dempwolff (1934-38) compared only the Tagalog and Toba Batak forms, and reconstructed last-syllable shwa. Tsuchida (1976: 162) suggests that the Rukai, Amis, and Paiwan forms reflect *iSeq with sporadic assimilation of the last vowel, but in view of the unambiguous evidence, for a variant *iSiq, this seems unnecessary. Toba Batak tar-eo-eo 'urinate' and Aklanon tag-íhiʔ 'feel like urinating' (cf. *iSiq) probably can be taken as support for a morphologically complex word *taR-iSeq, *taR-iSiq.

*iSiq urine, urinate


PAN     *iSiq urine, urinate [doublet: *iSeq]
Rukai (Maga) isíiurine
Favorlang isiurine
Amis isiʔurine, urinate
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) isiHurine
Paiwan isiqurine
Kapampangan urine
  m-iʔ, mim-iʔurinate
Tagalog íhiʔurine
  ihíʔsuffer from frequent urination
Bikol íhiʔurine
Hanunóo íhiʔurine
  um-íhiʔurinate; always done in a squatting position by men as well as women
Aklanon íhiʔurine, urinate
  il-ihiʔ-ánurinal, place to urinate
  tag-íhiʔfeel like urinating
Cebuano íhiʔurinate
  ka-íhiʔ-unfeel like urinating
Western Bukidnon Manobo ihiʔurine, urinate

*iSu 2sg. personal pronoun: you


PAN     *iSu 2sg. personal pronoun: you
Atayal isunominalized pronoun II; you sg.
Seediq iso2sg.
Kavalan a-isu2sg.
Amis iso2sg.


PMP     *iu 2sg. personal pronoun: you
Kankanaey yoyour, you, ye
Tagalog your, yours
Maranao ioyou (plural)

Note:   Also Saisiyat soʔo '2sg.', Bunun isuʔu 'your (before a noun)'. This item apparently underwent sporadic loss of *S (for expected **h) in PMP. For a discussion of the possible historical connection of *iSu and *kaSu cf. Blust (1977).

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*ita₁ we (incl.)


PAN     *ita₁ we (incl.)
Atayal itaʔnominalized pronoun I + II; we (I and you)
Seediq itawe inclusive (you with us), in the emphatic form
Bunun itawe (inclusive, objective)
Amis itaus, we, including both the speaker and hearer
Itawis ittáwe, 1 +2 person plural nominative and long-nominative pronoun
Pangasinan (i)táwe two (topic pronoun, which includes only speaker and a single addressee)
Kayan itaʔa collective, impersonal, 1st person pronoun, expressing humility
  ita-mwe, us (includes more than ten people)
Ngaju Dayak itawe (inclusive address form)
Karo Batak (k)ita1st person plural inclusive; we, us; also polite pronoun for the 2nd person
Toba Batak (h)ita1st person plural inclusive pronoun
Mentawai itawe (inclusive address form)
Sasak ita1st person pronoun, now used for the singular as an impolite gesture, but still normally used for the plural
Palauan -ŋid1st person plural inclusive; us (including you)
Bimanese ita2nd person pronoun used by younger to older persons
Manggarai itewe (plural inclusive)
Alune itewe, us (inclusive)

*ita₂ come on! let's go!


PWMP     *ita₂ come on! let's go! [disjunct: *itaq]
Casiguran Dumagat [itágo ahead (on a path), imperative (probably a shortening of kitá)]
Pangasinan [itágo ahead of someone, invite to follow]
Maranao italet's go!
Bolaang Mongondow intacome on! let's go!
Bare'e [intaforward! come on! let's go!]

*itaq come on! let's go!


PWMP     *itaq come on! let's go! [disjunct: *ita]
Casiguran Dumagat [itágo ahead (on a path), imperative (probably a shortening of kitá)]
Pangasinan [itágo ahead of someone, invite to follow]
Dairi-Pakpak Batak itahexpression inviting or inciting someone to leave together with the speaker; come on! let's go!
Bare'e [intaforward! come on! let's go!]

Note:   Also Makasarese iti 'come on! let's go!'; ta 'adhortative prefix of the 1p and 2p plural, sometimes in combination with person marking suffixes'. It is tempting to consider this item as containing the pronominal element *-ta '1p dual, 1p plural incl.' All Philippine evidence is consisitent with this interpretation, but Dairi-Pakpak Batak itah is not. The latter form may contain a reflex of the vocative suffix *-q, found in a number of reconstructed kin terms (Blust 1979).

*itek be small, become small


PMP     *itek be small, become small [doublet: *ituk, qitik]
Aklanon íntokbecome smaller, shrink
Sarangani Manobo de-ʔiteksmall
Kayan itekimmature; small fruits still green
Simalur itoʔsmall
  a-itoʔmake small, reduce in size
  maŋ-a-itoʔmake small, reduce in size
Bolaang Mongondow intoksmall, young; be or become small
Manggarai iteksmall in amount, often used of liquids


PPh     *ma-intek small
Aklanon ma-intoksmall, short, tiny
Bolaang Mongondow mo-ʔintoksmall, young

Note:   Also Western Bukidnon Manobo de-ʔisek 'small, make smaller'.

*iten 1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours


PAN     *iten 1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.)
Paiwan itjenwe, us, our


PMP     *aten 1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.)
Yami (Imorod) n-atenours
Yami (Iranomilek) y-atenours
Tagalog átin, n-átinour, ours (incl.); us (object of preposition)
Aklanon n-átonour; we (incl.)
Hiligaynon n-átunour, ours (incl.)

Note:   For the argument supporting the reconstruction of PAn *iten see Blust (1977).

*itik₁ drop of liquid


PWMP     *itik₁ drop of liquid
Sasak itikdrip
  ŋ-itikto drip, dribble
Buginese ittiʔdrop of water (as a teardrop forming in the corner of the eye)

Note:   Also Malay titék 'drop, liquid particle; dot or spot left by a liquid particle such as a drop of ink', Tae' iʔtiʔ 'let drip off, pour off the water of rice that has been cooked', maŋ-iʔtiʔ 'pour something off'.

*itik₂ duck, Anas spp.


PWMP     *itik₂ duck, Anas spp.
Itbayaten itika sp. of fowl, duck (black, smaller than paato)
Ifugaw ítikkind of small duck which lays her eggs anywhere
Ilokano ítikkind of freshwater duck with speckled plumage, yellow, brown, etc. It is not very common
Pangasinan ítiknative duck
Tagalog ítiksp. of duck which produces eggs made into balót
Bikol ítikdomesticated sp. of duck
Aklanon itíkduck
Hiligaynon ítikduckling
Cebuano ítikwhite duck
Maranao itikduck -- animal
Mukah Melanau itikduck (bird)
Ngaju Dayak itikduck
  ha-itikraise ducks, keep ducks
Iban ititduck, Anas sp.
Malay itékduck. Domesticated ducks include the muscovy duck and the mandarin duck. Wild iték include the cotton teal and the mallard
  ayam itékpoultry
Karo Batak manuk itikduck
Simalur étiʔwild duck
Nias itiwild duck
Old Javanese itikduck, young bird
  a-itik-anto keep, as a young bird
Buginese itiʔduck

Note:   Also Maranao itit 'chick', Iban anak itik, 'chicken, chick, hen'. Some examples of this word appear to be loans. Thus Yamada (1976) explicitly marks Itbayaten itik as a borrowing from Tagalog, and it is likely that Buginese itiʔ derives from Malay. However, the word seems to be directly inherited in many languages, as it refers to native or to wild ducks, sometimes in contradistinction to introduced types.

*itik₃ vine, creeper sp.


PWMP     *itik₃ vine, creeper sp.
Cebuano itikkind of ornamental vine: Aristolochia elegans
Iban daun ititherb, unid.
Nias itiʔ-iticlimbing plant, creeper

*itil clitoris


PWMP     *itil clitoris
Kankanaey itílLatin: Muliebria, verenda feminae
Bikol ítilclitoris
Cebuano intílclitoris
Banjarese itilclitoris
Malay itilclitoris
Dairi-Pakpak Batak itilclitoris
Sundanese itilclitoris
Javanese itilclitoris

Note:   Also Bikol ítin 'clitoris', Toba Batak itit 'clitoris', Makasarese dittiʔ 'clitoris'. With root *-til 'small protruding part'.

*itíp hard crust of rice that adheres to the bottom


PPh     *itíp hard crust of rice that adheres to the bottom of the cooking pot
Ilokano ittípcrust of rice; the rice that adheres to the bottom of the earthen jar when it is cooked
Aklanon itíphard-cooked rice (at the bottom of the pot)

*ituk small in amount


PMP     *ituk small in amount [doublet: *itek, qitik]
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ituklittle, not much
Ngadha itusmall, small in amount

*ituq a climbing fern: Lygodium circinatum


PWMP     *ituq a climbing fern: Lygodium circinatum [doublet: *ni(n)tuq]
Kankanaey ítoLygodium sp. Twining ferns used in the manufacturing of hats, etc.
Palauan ŋídechclimbing fern: Lygodium circinatum (Burm.f.); large food basket made from ŋídech plant

Note:   As noted by Verheijen (1984), the bark of this fern is used for binding and plaiting, and the tips are eaten. Since the doublet *ni(n)tuq can be reconstructed for PMP, and since variants with initial m- are found in several Central Malayo-Polynesian languages of Flores, it is likely that *ituq was also found in PMP.

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*iu₁ bathe


POC     *iu₁ bathe
Raluana iubathe
Eddystone iuto wash, esp. the body

Note:   Raluana iu may reflect PMP *hisuq 'clean oneself by scrubbing'.

*iu₂ spear


POC     *iu₂ spear [doublet: *io]
Kairiru iuspear
Tanga iuspear

*iuk cluck, squawk


PMP     *iuk cluck, squawk
Tagalog iókshriek of poultry
Sundanese hiukthe sound or howl of the wind, or of something that moves forcefully through the air
Manggarai éokclucking of a chicken; cracking sound of a tree about to topple; growling of the stomach in hunger
  iokcheep, chirp, peep
  iuksound of sword being drawn, etc.; sound of sick stomach
Ngadha ioscream, cry, shriek (as an eagle)
Yamdena iukall birds that make the sound "iuk!"

*iuŋ shake, sway


PWMP     *iuŋ shake, sway
Karo Batak iuŋshake, undulate, of the ground in an earthquake
Balinese iuŋbe in commotion (country), be unrestful;
  yuŋdamaged, destroyed, upset, in confusion; swing
  yuŋ-yuŋ-aŋbe made to swing, be given a swing (of a child)
Sasak ioŋcradle; to rock

Note:   Probably with root *-yuŋ 'shake, sway'.

*iut little, small, trifling


PMP     *iut little, small, trifling [doublet: *isut]
Kenyah iutlittle, small in quantity
Ngadha iulittle bit, trifle, small matter

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*iwa put in the lap


PMP     *iwa put in the lap [disjunct: *iwaq]
Sasak iwahold something in the lap
Bimanese [iwaput in the lap]
Rotinese [ifahold in the lap]

*iwaq put in the lap


PMP     *iwaq put in the lap [disjunct: *iwa]
Sasak iwaʔlap
Bimanese [iwaput in the lap]
Rotinese [ifahold in the lap]

*iwas avoid, evade (as people one does not wish to


PPh     *iwas avoid, evade (as people one does not wish to be with)
Casiguran Dumagat iwásavoid, evade (as to avoid meeting someone on the trail by turning aside, or to avoid going to a village where there are drunks being rowdy)
Ilokano íwasramble, rove, roam, range; to move from side to side; to turn to the left, to the right
  iwas-ento move aside, toward the side (a log, a stone, etc.)
Pangasinan íwasshift one's position, shift something, but not away from the general area in which it is situated
Tagalog íwasavoidance, evasion
Cebuano iwás, íwasslip away from, get out of the way (as someone slipping away from his drunken companions)

*íwik to squeal


PPh     *íwik to squeal
Ifugaw íwikexclamation to express one's disgust, disapproval, criticism
Hanunóo íwiksquealing, as of pigs
  mag-ʔíwikto squeal
Aklanon iwíkto squeal, howl (said of a pig)
Cebuano íwikfor pigs to squeal

Note:   Also Cebuano iwígik 'for pigs to squeal'.

*íwit rear part


PPh     *íwit rear part
Kankanaey in-íwit-anhind part of a G-string
Ifugaw iwíttail
  iwit-anloose end of a G-string that hangs down at the back
Cebuano iwítlast in a race, class, or anything where things are compared

Note:   Also Isneg íwid 'to follow, to accompany'.

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*inzak step on, tread on, trample


PMP     *inzak step on, tread on, trample
Tagalog indákjig dance; gambol; skip and dance; tap dancing
Minangkabau injakstep, tread
  injak-injakpedals, stirrups
Toba Batak injakstep on
Javanese idak, ijakget stepped on
Banggai idak, indaktrample down
Bare'e ijastep, tread, trample on
Mandar indaʔstep, tread on
Ngadha idhastep, tread, walk
Buru idakto blaze, as a trail


PWMP     *maŋ-inzak to step on
Minangkabau meŋ-injakto step, tread
Banggai moŋ-idakto trample down

*izap wink, blink


PWMP     *izap wink, blink [disjunct: *izep]
Iban [ijapwink the eye, blink]
Gorontalo ilapowink
Bolaang Mongondow irap, iapwink, blink

*izep wink, blink


PWMP     *izep wink, blink [disjunct: *izap]
Iban [ijapwink the eye, blink]
Karo Batak idepnot clearly visible, as a small star that now is seen and now is not
Toba Batak irdopto blink

Note:   With root *-zep 'wink, blink'. The semantic connection between flickering (intermittent light at the source) and blinking (intermittent light at the receptor) is well-established (cf. Blust 1980: 92-93)

*izig step, stride


PWMP     *izig step, stride
Javanese aŋ-ijig-ijigwith quick steps
Sangir indigeʔstride forward slowly and solemnly, with the legs moving and the upper torso motionless

Note:   Also Iban indik 'tread, step on, trample; standing on, supported by', Malay hindék 'leverage with the foot; the use of a pedal', Simalur indiʔ 'rice pounder with foot drive', Old Javanese indik-indik 'walk slowly and cautiously', Javanese iṇḍik 'sneak toward something in order to seize it', Balinese ijik 'to trot (horse)', Sasak ijik 'a certain way of trotting (of a horse)'.

*izuk the sugar palm Arenga saccharifera, Arenga pinnata


PWMP     *izuk the sugar palm Arenga saccharifera, Arenga pinnata
Tagalog irokthe sugar palm: Arenga saccharifera
Iban ijoka palm: Arenga saccharifera (Wurmb.) Merr. (formerly A. saccharifera Lab.). It yields a toddy, soft brown sugar, and good black cordage
Malay ijoksugar-palm fibre. A dark substance resembling horse-hair, obtained from Arenga saccharifera and used for making string and thatch
Karo Batak ijukblack fibres of the sugar palm used as roofing material
Toba Batak ijukfibres of the sugar palm which resemble horse hair, and which are used in making cordage and roofing
Rejang ijuʔsugar palm fibres, used to make roofing and twine
Sundanese injukthe black and hairy tissue of the sugar palm which grows where the leaves come out
Sasak ijukfibrous substance from the sugar palm
Tae' indukthe sugar palm: Arenga saccharifera
Makasarese inruʔthe sugar palm: Arenga saccharifera; the flower spadix is tapped to make palm wine

Note:   Also Hanunóo iyúk 'sugar palm (Arenga pinnata (Wurmb.) Merr.); sago is occasionally extracted from the bole', Maranao idiok 'sugar palm', Proto-Sangiric *idup 'palm fibre', Bolaang Mongondow idup 'hairy fibres of the sugar palm'. The Hanunóo and Maranao items seem clearly to be loanwords from Malay, and the same may be true of a number of other forms cited here. Despite the widespread dissemination of this term through borrowing there appears to be sufficient evidence to justify a PWMP etymon.

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