Updated: 4/22/2014
Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Sub-Groups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References      Roots      Loans      Noise      Formosan      

Blust's
Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*l   

le    li    lo    lu    

26918

*la(m)bak slam something down

3383

PMP     *la(m)bak slam something down

WMP
Cebuano labákthrow something hard on the ground
CMP
Ngadha labadrum, to drum; strike, beat, hit, knock, batter
Buruese ef-lafaflap (wings)
OC
Motu lapastrike, as with sword or flat weapon

Note:   With root *-bak₂ sound of a heavy smack.

26861

*labak, labeqak, laqebak wide open

3323

PMP     *labak, labeqak, laqebak wide open

WMP
Cebuano lábakfor a sore or an infected wound to be opened wide
  labʔákget to have spaces or omissions in between; cause something to do so, skip
Sasak labakspacious, wide
CMP
Manggarai labakwide (of the mouth, the opening of a lamp-fly nest, etc.)

26919

*la(m)baŋ go beyond, go over, go past

3384

PWMP     *la(m)baŋ go beyond, go over, go past     [doublet: *labeŋ 'abundance, surplus']

WMP
Cebuano labaŋcross something, go across, bring across
Bare'e lambago past, go beyond, go through

30656

*labaw rat

8172

PAN     *labaw rat     [doublet: *balabaw, *kalabaw]

Formosan
Kavalan mə-rabawfield rat
Puyuma ku-ɭabawrat (generic term)
Paiwan ku-lavawrat, mouse
  ku-lava-lavav-enlarge number of rats (be overrun by rats?)
WMP
Lun Dayeh labomouse, rat, squirrel; nickname for growing boys
Kelabit (Bario) labomeat
  labo iikrat
  labo kətərsquirrel
Kayan lavawrat, mouse
CMP
Tetun lahoa rat (rodent)
  laho tilunan edible mushroom (lit. ‘rat’s ear’)

Note:   A disyllabic base *labaw has been extracted from Formosan forms that disagree in the initial syllable. It is unclear why there are so many variants of this word that differ only in the initial CV-.

26882

*lambayuŋ plant sp.

3344

PWMP     *lambayuŋ plant sp.     [disjunct: *rambayuŋ]

WMP
Cebuano lambáyuŋcreeping vine of seashore with purple morning glory-like flowers: Ipomoea pescaprae
Malay lembayoŋthe water hyacinth: Eichornea crassipes

26883

*lambaʔ go

3345

PWMP     *lambaʔ go     [doublet: *lampaq]

WMP
Maloh lambaʔwalk
Mandar lambago, walk
  mel-lambawalk

29864

*lambeg throw, cast

6512

PMP     *lambeg throw, cast

WMP
Maranao lambegthrow, cast
OC
Tongan lafothrow (rope, fishing line, net, etc.), or disks; disk-throwing game
Samoan lafothrow (with forearm), cast
Tuvaluan lafothrow or toss underarm (as of a quoit); game in which a segment of coconut shell is tossed onto a mat; a shell segment so used

Note:   Ambiguous for *lambeg or *lambeR; possibly a chance resemblance.

26863

*labeŋ abundance, surplus

3325

PWMP     *labeŋ abundance, surplus

WMP
Aklanon eáboŋgrow steadily, multiply, expand, be prolific
Cebuano lábuŋabundant and long, of growth; exaggerating for the sake of bragging
Maranao labeŋfill up, overcrowd
Kayan laveŋsurplus, excess (of food, etc.)

26862

*labeR wide

3324

PMP     *labeR wide

WMP
Palawan Batak ma-labegwide
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) ma-labelwide
Sangir ma-lambawide
CMP
Yamdena labarwidth
  mé-labarwide

Note:   Also Malay lébar ‘wide’.

26864

*labi excess; more than; surpass

3326

PAN     *labi excess; more than; surpass     [doublet: *labiq, *lebiq]

Formosan
Paiwan mu-laviqoverflow
WMP
Bikol lábimore than
Tiruray labimore than
Hanunóo lábiexcessiveness
Ngaju Dayak labihsurplus; more
Tae' laʔbimore
CMP
Manggarai labimore; excess; surpass

26920

*la(m)bug₁ throw out (of a container or enclosure)

3385

PWMP     *la(m)bug₁ throw out (of a container or enclosure)

WMP
Cebuano lábugthrow out (from a container, etc.)
Malay lambokthrow up (as dirt from a trench being dug)

26921

*la(m)bug₂ turbid

3386

PWMP     *la(m)bug₂ turbid

WMP
Tagalog lábogturbidity of liquid due to muddiness or colloidality
Iban lambokthe disturbed water in rapids

Note:   Also Tagalog labóʔ ‘(applied to liquids) turbidity’.

26884

*lambuk knock, pound, beat

3346

PMP     *lambuk knock, pound, beat     [doublet: *rambuk]

WMP
Proto-South Sulawesi *lambu(k)pound rice
OC
Nggela lambuhit, strike
Lau labustrike, hit with a blow, strike down
Arosi rabustrike, knock, hit, knock in a nail

Note:   With root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud, splash’.

26865

*labuR mix foods

3327

PWMP     *labuR mix foods

WMP
Hanunóo lábugrice gruel
Cebuano labúgdish consisting of shredded broiled fish mixed with pickled fish
Dairi-Pakpak Batak raburmixing up (foods); to mix

Note:   With root *-buR₁ ‘rice gruel; to mix’.

30268

*laCeŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.

7166

PAN     *laCeŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.

Formosan
Saisiyat kæ-lʸasəŋstinging nettle: Laportea spp.
  lʸ<om>asəŋto sting, of bees

7167

PMP     *lateŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.     [doublet: *zalateŋ, *zilateŋ]

WMP
Bisayan (Panay) latoŋTrema cannabina Lour. (Madulid 2001)
Bagobo latoŋa stinging plant: Urtica bullata Bl. (Madulid 2001)
Tiruray lateŋa tree: Trema orientalis Linn.
Gayo latoŋplant with stinging leaves, Laportea spp.
Karo Batak lateŋthe large stinging nettle shrub, of which several varieties are distinguished
  lateŋ manukvariety of stinging nettle
Toba Batak latoŋgeneric for herbs and trees with leaves like the stinging nettle
Nias latoa tree with stinging, pain-producing leaves
  lato manua plant like the stinging nettle
Javanese lateŋa certain grass with itchy leaves (Horne); stinging nettle (Pigeaud)
Balinese lateŋstinging nettle
CMP
Manggarai lanteŋkind of tree with fine stinging hairs on the leaves: Laportea spp.; caterpillar with hairs that cause itching when touched
Rembong lantoŋstinging nettle tree: Laportea; caterpillar with hairs that cause itching when touched
Ngadha ladékind of large tree that causes severe itching when touched

7168

POC     *latoŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.

OC
Gitua latobig stinging leaf, red underside
Sa'a nunu-laostinging nettle tree with large leaves used to cover a chief’s body exposed for burial
'Āre'āre ruru-raokind of nettle

7169

PMP     *la-lateŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.

WMP
Simalur lalateŋstinging nettle (several types are distinguished)
Old Javanese lalateŋstinging nettle
Tae' le-latiŋstinging nettle tree, the leaves of which cause severe itching: Laportea spp.

7170

POC     *la-latoŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.

OC
Lenkau lalatrstinging nettle: Laportea spp.
Wuvulu lalaʔostinging nettle: Laportea spp.

Note:   Also Buginese lallateŋ, Makasarese laʔlataŋ ‘stinging nettle’, Komodo hayu lantéŋ ‘stinging nettle: Dendrocnide sp.; jellyfish’, Nali nayat, Loniu ñalat, Leipon ñilet, Sori ñaraʔ, Seimat nalat ‘stinging nettle’, Bipi ñalak ‘kind of plant that causes itching for half a day after contact with the skin’.

I assume that PMP *la-lateŋ is a product of partial reduplication, and so classify it as an affixed form of *lateŋ rather than a doublet, as with *zalateŋ and *zilateŋ, but this remains provisional. This term, and the doublet forms that constitute a word-family with it evidently applied not only to various types of stinging nettles, but also to animals that have stinging hairs or tentacles, as various caterpillars, the Portuguese man of war and at least some jellyfish. Saisiyat appears to be unique in using the root as a verb meaning ‘to sting’.

26866

*ladiŋ cleaver, sword

3328

PWMP     *ladiŋ cleaver, sword

WMP
Cebuano lariŋkind of sword with a slight curve to the blade
Delang ladiŋknife
Malay ladiŋlong, sharp-edged cleaver of the parang type
Karo Batak ladiŋgeneric for curved knives and swords
Old Javanese ladiŋtype of cleaver or jungle knife

26930

*la(ŋ)gaʔ to heat food

3396

PMP     *la(ŋ)gaʔ to heat food

WMP
Cebuano lágaʔboil water or water with something in it: coffee, medicinal herbs and the like
Maranao laŋgahot, boiling, heated
CMP
Manggarai laŋgaroast fish wrapped in leaves
Rembong laŋgato roast; anything fried

26867

*lagi emphatic particle

3329

PMP     *lagi emphatic particle

WMP
Cebuano lagiparticle used to assert emphatically that something is what it is
  kay lagibecause, after all, that is what one would expect; expressing surprise at something contrary to one's expectations
Malay lagimore; yet more; still
Old Javanese lagicontinuously, constantly, again and again, always, usually; continuing for some time already, going on, keeping on, still
Sasak lagivery, extremely (generally with a denial)
CMP
Manggarai lagiwhile, whereas

Note:   Also Tagalog lagiʔ ‘always’, possibly a loan from Malay.

26868

*lagu way, manner; melody

3330

PWMP     *lagu way, manner; melody

WMP
Malay lagutune
Malay (Penang) lagustyle, way
Karo Batak laguway of handling, of behaving
Old Javanese laguuse, custom; behavior, bearing
Sangir laguway, manner; melody; manner of speaking, behaving

30206

*lahud downstream, toward the sea

7039

PAN     *lahud downstream, toward the sea

Formosan
Pazeh rahutwest; downstream, lower part of a river
  mia-rahutgo west, go downstream
  mu-rahutto flow, as water
Thao rausdownhill, downstream; in a downward direction from the mountains
  mana-rausgo downstream, go downhill, go toward the sea
  shi-raustyphoon
Tsou mua-rovcuto blow downhill
  moh-rovcuto flow downstream
Kanakanabu ʔama-laúcudownhill
Saaroa tala-la-laucuto look down
Rukai (Tona) aúDudownhill
Rukai (Mantauran) laududownwards
Paiwan lauzseaward, downslope, toward lower reaches of river
  lʸe-lauzto go downhill
WMP
Itbayaten xawodidea of being in the offing by the current
Ilokano láudwest
  ag-pa-laudgo to the west
  laúd-ento the west of
Bikol lawódthe open sea
Hanunóo láwudlowlands, coastal regions; down below, as opposed to up in the mountains
Aklanon eawódocean, sea
Waray-Waray lawódmidsea, high seas
Cebuano lawúddeep open sea
  lawud-láwudbe like a sea (as a vast wet rice field)
Mapun lūdgo downhill
  pa-lūdcause something to go downhill
  lud-lūr-anslope, downhill area of land
Mansaka lawuddownstream, seaward
Binukid laweddeep open sea; center area of a large clearing
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lawedin the middle of a vast area, such as the ocean; to finish planting half of a field
Maranao laodoffshore; far; body of deep water
Tausug l<um>ūdcome down from higher ground, travel downhill
  lūr-unslope, embankment, downhill area, falling ground
Ida'an Begak laudwind
Lun Dayeh loodtoward the sea, downriver
Kelabit (Bario) laʔuddownriver, toward the sea
Bintulu laudtoward the sea; outside
Ngaju Dayak lautdownstream, seaward; overseas
  olo lautpeople from across the sea
Iban lautsea; Malay, Muslim
Malay lautsea, ocean; north (in certain expressions only, as barat laut ‘northwest’, timur laut ‘northeast’)
Old Javanese lornorth
  maŋa-lorgo to the north, northward
  l<in>or-anto pass on the north side
Balinese lodsea
Sangir laudəʔocean
Bare'e laudirectional term indicating a place that lies at a lower elevation than the speaker, or at least not clearly at a higher elevation
  lauk-alow, as the sun in the sky or the level of water
Tae' lauʔsouth, downstream (southward, where the Land of the Dead is)
Buginese lauʔsea
  a-lauʔeast (in Bone)
Makasarese lauʔwest (in Goa); south (in Bantaeng)
Chamorro lagunorth (in Guam and Rota); west (in Saipan)

7040

PCEMP     *laur₁ toward the sea

CMP
Kambera laurasea; downstream, at a lower elevation
Hawu lousea
  dou louforeigner, stranger (lit. ‘sea person’)
  wini louof foreign origin (lit; ‘sea seed’, said of the mother if she has married in to Hawu; not of the father)
Wetan lorasea, used especially in contrast to land; go to the sea
  na-loraat sea, to the sea, from the sea; seaside
Dobel lawsea
Paulohi lautoward the sea
SHWNG
Buli lausea-side
  la-lautoward the sea and away from the speaker
  ma-lautoward the sea and toward the speaker
  po-lauon the sea-side

7041

POC     *laur₂ downriver, toward the sea

OC
Tolai lauthe open sea; horizon; the bush people apply this word to any place out of sight; distant, remote, inaccessible, invisible
Nakanai -lautoward the sea
Lakakai g-o-laugo seaward
Gedaged lauthe high seas, an open, unenclosed portion of the sea
Bugotu laubeach, seashore, seaward; south
Nggela lauseawards; to the shore, shorewards, from a speaker inland; shore; the sea, in koukomulau ‘an island in the sea’; the bank of a river; south, conventional use in translations
Lau launorth; open sea to the north
Arosi rauside, bank of stream; shore
  rau-na i asibeach
  rau-na i wairiver bank
Mota lauthe seaside as opposed to the inland, the beach as approached from the land
Fijian laueast; name of the Windward Islands

7042

PMP     *i-lahud (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Itbayaten i-xawodgo far from the shore (on water), be carried away by waves
Aklanon i-lawódthe seaward part of any town
  pa-i-lawódto go seawards
Masbatenyo i-lawóddownstream area, seaward place; towards town place
Cebuano i-láwudplace toward town and away from rural areas
Makasarese i-lauʔin the west, of the west
  i-lauk-annawestward, the west side of something

7043

POC     *i-laur (gloss uncertain)

OC
Manam i-laul-oseaward

7044

PWMP     *ka-lahud (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ka-lautfrom beyond the shores, foreign
Old Javanese ka-lorto the north of
Balinese ka-lodto the sea; north/south
Sangir ka-laudəʔat sea

7045

PWMP     *ma-lahud (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ma-lautleave the coast, put out to sea
Malay me-lautto put out to sea
Sangir ma-laudəʔof the sea, marine
  tau ma-laudəʔnavigator

7046

PAN     *Si-lahud wind from the sea (?)

Formosan
Thao shi-raustyphoon
WMP
Itbayaten hi-lawodnorth wind
  hi-lawr-endisease caused by north wind

7047

PWMP     *ka-lahud-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Cebuano ka-lawr-anseas
Bahasa Indonesia ka-laut-anthings connected with the sea

7048

PWMP     *lahud-an the high seas, far from land

WMP
Bahasa Indonesia laut-anvery wide sea, ocean
Sangir laur-aŋthe wide sea, the high seas

Note:   Also Paiwan lauḍ ‘seaward, downhill (form used in sacred songs)’, Itbayaten hi-lawod ‘north wind (risky fishing weather)’, Tagalog láot ‘mid-ocean, high seas; far out to (at) sea’, pa-láot ‘to get into the middle of things, sail far out to sea’ (semantics apparently native, but phonemic shape evidently influenced by Malay laut), Hanunóo lawúd ‘sea, mid sea, high seas’ (< Cebuano or some other Bisayan source), Kambera lauru ‘downstream’, Lau lou ‘north; open sea to the north’.

PAn *lahud was one of the key directional terms in PAn, opposed to *daya ‘upstream, toward the interior’. In many languages this term has since been reinterpreted in terms of a system of cardinal directions, probably through Western contact influence. The general semantic evolution of *lahud is quite rich. From an original narrow sense ‘toward the sea’ the marine element has been generalized to mean ‘sea’ in Central Philippine languages generally (Bikol, Aklanon, Cebuano, etc.), Binukid, the Malayic languages, Balinese, Sangir, Buginese, Kambera, Hawu, Wetan, and Tolai.

Moreover, in some of these languages, as those of the central Philippines, it refers specifically to the high or open seas as opposed to littoral waters. In other languages, especially those whose speakers came to reside in high inland regions, the contrastive elevation of *lahud was extended to encompass the general meaning of ‘lower, at a lower altitude’, in some cases entirely losing its marine associations. In Thao of central Taiwan, for example, raus refers to a downhill, or downward direction from the mountains, with no particular reference to the sea, in Hanunóo of the north-central Philippines láwud refers to the lowland regions, but so far as the available data indicate, not necessarily to the sea, and in Bare'e (or Pamona) of central Sulawesi lau refers to any place that lies lower than the speaker at the time of reference, evidently with no connection to the sea as a feature of orientation.

Finally, Ngaju Dayak olo laut, Hawu dou lou and no doubt similar collocations in other languages for which insufficient data is to hand suggest that once settled in a given location, AN speakers tended to conceive of anyone who arrived by sea as a foreigner, or stranger.

30392

*lajam familiar with, accustomed to

7492

PAN     *lajam familiar with, accustomed to     [doublet: *najam]

Formosan
Puyuma ɭadamfamiliar with, accustomed to
OC
Fijian lasaeasy, contented, tame, accustomed, amusing
Tongan latafeel at home or at ease
Samoan latatame; used to, familiar with
Hawaiian lakatame, domesticated, gentle; to tame, domesticate

26870

*laji tree with poisonous sap, (probably Antiaris toxicaria)

3332

PMP     *laji tree with poisonous sap, (probably Antiaris toxicaria)

WMP
Palauan iásmilky mangrove tree; a river poison tree (Excoecaria agallocha L.)
CMP
Kambera larikind of tree generally found in the estuaries of rivers
OC
Kwaio kwai-lasipoisonous tree (kwai = 'river, water', kwaikwai-na = 'juice, liquid, sap')
Sa'a lasia tree with juice causing sores
Mota lasa tree

26869

*lajih dolphinfish

3331

PMP     *lajih dolphinfish

WMP
Aklanon eáli(h)fish
Cebuano lálikind of amberjack
Samal lalidolphinfish, family Coryphaenidae
Palauan iásdolphinfish
Makasarese larisea fish with five stripes, much relished because it is not oily and has few bones
OC
Ere lasflat fish found in river mouths
Loniu lasflattish fish similar to a mackerel
Leipon laskind of flat, silvery fish
Gedaged laswhitish-grey marine fish about five feet long
Motu ladia fish
Arosi rasifish sp.
Pohnpeian lahdfish sp., jack: Atule mate
Mokilese lahdfish sp., kind of skipjack
Samoan laia fish: Scomberoides sp.

30549

*la(ŋ)ka far apart; rare

7848

PWMP     *la(ŋ)ka far apart; rare

WMP
Agutaynen pa-laka-ento become thinned out; to be spaced out, as to plant seed with spaces between
Iban lakafar apart, big; too large, as an opening or space (e.g. the space between the rungs of a ladder)
Sundanese laŋkarare, exceptional, unusual; seldom or never; scarce
  laŋka-laŋkavery rare
Muna laŋkarare(ly), scarce, seldom; spaced wide apart (of teeth, plants, etc.)
  laŋka-mispace something wide apart, thin out
  ka-laŋkakind of basket with big holes; low frequency; spacing, interval

7849

PWMP     *ma-laka far apart, rare

WMP
Agutaynen ma-lakarare, seldom; to be spaced or thinned out
Uma mo-lakararely, seldom

Note:   Also Hiligaynon ma-lakáʔ ‘scarce, rare, sometimes’, Aklanon eakáʔ ‘to put an interval, space, keep distance, make sparse’, Romblomanon lakaʔ ‘few (people, things), little (action, substance)’.

30550

*lakaj to stride, take a step

7850

PMP     *lakaj to stride, take a step     [doublet: *lakaw]

WMP
Ibanag lákagto walk
Ilokano ag-pa-lákadto go by land, walk
  lákad-lákadwalker, support for walking
Casiguran Dumagat lákadto walk, to travel, to go (as the walking of a person, the moving of a boat or truck)
Gaddang mel-lákadto walk
Ibaloy man-akad(of persons and animals) to walk
Kapampangan lákadto walk; gait, pace, course
  pa-lakar-anto send on an errand
Tagalog lákadwalk; gait; running condition of motors, machines, etc.; headway; a motion forward; march; start; a beginning to go; progress or current situation of some project, event, etc.; trend; manner of acting; mission; errand; goods for sale being carted around or peddled
  lakádbarefooted; walking, not riding; on foot
  ka-lakáda companion in taking a walk
  ma-lákadto be within walking distance; to be able to get something by negotiating or by using influence
  mag-pa-lákadto run, to make go (as a business)
  maka-lákadto be able to walk
  ma-pa-lákadto be able to get someone to walk or take a trip, to leave or to depart
  pag-lákadmanner of walking
Bikol lákadstep, stride; gait, pace
Aklanon eákadto step over (with big steps)
Cebuano lákadto step over something; go beyond, exceed; marry or wed ahead of big brothers
Maranao lakadstep, stride
Mansaka lákadto wade through
Binukid lakadstep, pace, stride; take a step, step over or across (something)
  paka-lakadable to take steps (as a small child just beginning to walk)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) laŋkada stride; the measure of a person’s step; to walk a step
CMP
Sula lakato walk
SHWNG
Numfor-Biak go
  rā macome
Ansus rato walk
Waropen rago on foot, go into the bush, walk

7851

POC     *lakar to stride, take a step

OC
Gedaged lato go (away, about on foot, a horse, bicycle, vehicle, boat, etc.); to walk, depart, march (get, pack, move, start) off, take leave, get underway, set out; to continue, keep on (with any kind of action), to keep up or maintain any course or series of actions; to carry on
Gitua lago
Mota lakato kick up the heels, as in dancing; to dance
Wayan lakago, move along, proceed
  laka-tigo to or over a place
Tongan lakato go or walk (esp. for a short distance only); to step; to march; to move on or forward, to proceed, progress, develop, or advance
  laka halato step incorrectly, to be out of step
Niue lakato step; to cross over
  fe-lakato step over a person or thing (formerly considered an insult or desecration)
  laka-aŋaa step, pace
  laka-fiastepped over, exceeded
Samoan laʔastep, march
  laʔa-siastep over, go beyond
Tuvaluan lakastep
  la-lakapress down with foot (as when firming soil)
Rennellese gakato step; to move, as to another district
Anuta rakato step over something
Maori whaka-rakawalk, step out

7852

PPh     *i-lákaj (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Dupaningan Agta i-lákadrun away with, kidnap
Tagalog i-lakádto use something in walking

7853

PPh     *maR-lákaj to step, to walk

WMP
Dupaningan Agta mag-lákadto walk
Tagalog mag-lákadto engage in trade or some form of business
  mag-lakádto walk; to tramp; to go on foot
  mag-lakád-lakádto pace; to walk with regular steps; to keep on walking
Bikol mag-lákadto step over; to pace off a particular area or distance
Tausug mag-lakadto step to (a place with big steps)

7854

PPh     *l<um>ákaj to step, to walk

WMP
Dupaningan Agta l<um>ákadto leave, to exit
Tagalog l<um>ákadto walk, to go on foot
  l<um>ákad-lákadto pace; to walk with regular steps; to keep on walking
Tausug l<um>akadto step to (a place with big steps)

7855

PPh     *lakáj-an to step on, walk on something (?)

WMP
Dupaningan Agta lakad-ín-anleave someone, walk out on (from *lakad-an-an, with low vowel fronting)
Tagalog lakár-anto walk on something
  lakar-ánplace to walk on
Bikol lakád-anto pace off a particular area or distance
Tausug lakar-anto step over something

7856

PPh     *lakaj-en to walk a certain distance (?)

WMP
Ibaloy ekar-ento walk somewhere, something (as a distance)
Tagalog lakár-into walk a certain distance or to a certain place
  lakar-ínwalk, meaning the distance to walk; to tread; to be underway or in motion
Bikol lakád-onto step over
Tausug lakar-unto step from one place to another

7857

POC     *lakar-lakar (gloss uncertain)

OC
Mota laka-lakato rejoice, dance; a dance, a merry-making
Futunan laka-lakawomen’s dance performed while sitting
Samoan laʔa-laʔago step by step
Tuvaluan laka-lakatake several steps
Rennellese gaka-gakato step or move on, as with long steps; to step off, as to measure
Anuta raka-rakato walk taking large brisk steps; to walk quickly

Note:   Also Amis rakat ‘movement; walk’, Hiligaynon lakát ‘trip, walk, business trip’, mag-lakat ‘to walk, to go, to leave’, Masbatenyo mag-lakát ‘to walk, go away, leave; run away from home’, Waray-Waray lakát ‘to leave, depart’, Cebuano lakát ‘walk; for something to be going on; go away, depart; spread; follow up; trend, course or direction something is taking; errand; trip, journey; procedure for doing something’, pa-lakát ‘make something walk, go away, spread news’, Balinese laŋkar ‘step, stride, overstep, pass over’, Proto-Micronesian *laa ‘go, proceed; (as directional) away’. The similarity of the CEMP forms cited here to those in the Philippines may be due to chance, as no clear cognates have been found anywhere between these extremes, and a number of formally and semantically similar but non-corresponding forms must be recognized in any case.

26931

*la(ŋ)kas spirited, energetic

3397

PMP     *la(ŋ)kas spirited, energetic

WMP
Tagalog lakásstrength, vigor; efficacy; vehemence; healthiness
Malay laŋkasfiery (of a steed), spirited
OC
Nggela laŋgastrong, strength; energetic
Arosi ragastrong, strengthened, invigorated

Note:   With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile; energetic’.

26871

*lakat root

3333

PWMP     *lakat root     [doublet: *wakat]

WMP
Sebop lakatroot
Banggai lakatroot

30551

*lakatan banana sp.

7858

PPh     *lakatan banana sp.

WMP
Ilokano lakatána variety of sweet, thick-skinned banana
Tagalog lakatána well-known species of banana
Hanunóo lakatána tasty variety of eating banana (Musa sapientum lacatan [Blco.] Teodoro)
Masbatenyo lakatánlakatan banana, Musa sapientum var. lacatan
Romblomanon lakatanlacatan eating banana plant or fruit, Musa sapientum var. lacatan (commonly eaten raw as a snack food)
Cebuano lakatánkind of sweet yellow banana, longer than alitundan, very much like those sold in the United States; it is eaten raw, and is more difficult to digest than the alitundan: Musa sapientum var. lacatan
Yakan lakatana small variety of banana (similar to suley badju), Musa family

Note:   Possibly a Central Philippines innovation that has been borrowed into Ilokano and Yakan.

26917

*laŋkaw high, tall

3382

PMP     *laŋkaw high, tall

WMP
Tagalog laŋkáwelongated and thin (said of legs or neck)
Bikol laŋkáwtall, lofty, towering
Tiruray laŋkawtall
Ngaju Dayak laŋkawroof (of a boat)
Banggai laŋkoheight, altitude, elevation
Uma laŋkoheight, altitude
CMP
Manggarai laŋgagrow, get taller (of a person)

Note:   Mills (1975: 748) has Proto-South Sulawesi *laŋka(C) ‘high’. Miri kéw ‘tall’ suggests that this form contains a root *-kaw.

30552

*lakaw to be in motion; go, walk

7859

PMP     *lakaw to be in motion; go, walk

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) lakoto go
Bikol i-lakáwto take for a walk (as a dog)
  mag-lakáwto walk, to stride
  pa-lakáwmethod, procedure, process, system, way
  pa-lakaw-onto run (as a business, an organization)
  lakáw-anbum, hobo, tramp, vagabond, vagrant
  lakáw-onto walk for a certain distance or a certain amount of time
Hanunóo lakáwwalk, hike; walking, moving on; in vogue, current (among); circulation
Aklanon eakáwto amble, go around
Masbatenyo pag-lákawwalking
Cebuano lakáwto walk
Maranao lakawfootprint; killed with a weapon; go
  la-lakawwalk; trip; go; journey
  la-lakaw-anwalk over; group of travelers
Lun Dayeh lakolarge strides
  me-lakotaking large strides
Kayan lakawa step; a pace; to pace out
Kenyah (Long Wat) bə-lakawto walk
Penan (Long Labid) lakawto walk
Berawan (Long Terawan) lakawto walk
Narum ma-lahawto walk
Miri lahawto walk
Bintulu lakawto walk
Melanau (Balingian) mə-lakawto walk
Melanau (Mukah) lakawbusiness, doings; to walk
  l<ən>akawwas walked on
Toba Batak lahoto go (before a verb it means ‘to be about to, on the point of doing something)
  pa-laho-honmake something go, chase away
Proto-Minahasan *lakogo
Tombulu lakogo
Boano mo-lakoto walk
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *lakoto go
Tae' lakotowards, at
  taŋ lakonot come
  lako-iin a condition to
Proto-South Sulawesi *lakoto go
Mandar laoto, towards; until; already
Buginese laoto go; to, towards
CMP
Manggarai lakoto walk, go on a trip, go sailing; to move location; to die
Kambera lakuto walk, go, leave
Rotinese laʔoto go, depart, go away (by land or sea)
Helong lakoto walk
Atoni naoto walk, go
Tetun laʔoto walk, travel on foot, to go
Wetan laato go, to become
  la-laato roam about aimlessly

7860

POC     *lako to go

OC
Loniu lato go
Lou lakto go
Baluan lakto go
Likum lato go
Lindrou lato go
Sori rato go
Tigak lakgo up, enter
Wogeo lakoto go
Manam laʔoto go, go away
Gitua lagoto walk
Motu laoto go
  lao-laojourney
Nehan lakogo down a short distance, from inland to the road, village or beach; to away from speaker
Selau lato go
Eddystone/Mandegusu laγoto go
Proto-Micronesian *lakogo, proceed; (as directional) away
Gilbertese nakoto, towards, against
Woleaian -lagodirectional suffix, away from the speaker; thither
Raga laxoto walk
Fijian lakoto go; used for motion of any kind
  lako maicome
  lako yanigo away
  lako voligo about

7861

PWMP     *pa-lakaw (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Kanowit pə-lakawto walk
Sangir ia-pa-lakolet something go; be sent
Tae' pa-lakotake away, to place, put

7862

PMP     *l<um>akaw to go

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) makoto go
Hanunóo l<um>akáwto walk, will walk
Bilaan (Sarangani) maguto walk
Alumbis Murut (m)akowto walk
Melanau (Mukah) makawto walk
Toba Batak l<um>aho-lahomobile, moving about

7863

PMP     *lakaw lakaw wander about

WMP
Bikol mag-lakáw-lakáwto go for a stroll or walk
Toba Batak l<um>aho-lahomobile, moving about
Buginese ka-lao-laoto go here and there

7864

POC     *lako lako walking around

OC
Kove la-laoto walk
Manam lako-lakoto go, go away
Gitua lago-lagowalking around; alive
Fijian i lako-lakoaway, going, path; also fig. manner, method, the “run” of a thing

Note:   Also Aklanon lágaw ‘to go around, travel about’, Tiruray agew ‘to go, to walk’, Kayan lakoʔ ‘a pace, a step’, Chamorro lahu‘go, walk’, Rembong lakoʔ ‘to walk’. Unlike PAn *paNaw, PMP *panaw, which clearly meant ‘to walk’, PMP *lako appears to have meant something more like ‘to be in motion’, since reflexes refer to more abstract types of ‘motion’, as in ‘to run (a business)’, ‘in vogue, current among’, ‘business, doings’, ‘on the point of doing something’, and the like, as well as travelling in ways other than walking.

30553

*lakay grandfather

7865

PWMP     *lakay grandfather

WMP
Yami akaygrandfather
  me-hakayman, male, boy; husband
  mi-akaygrandfather and grandson
Ilokano lakáyold man; husband; colloquial term of address between males; old (of males)
  l<in>a-lakáysomething characteristic of old men
  l<um>akáyto grow old (said of males)
  lak-lakay-anvery old, ancient, antique
Isneg lakáyold man
Dupaningan Agta lá-lakayold man; husband
Casiguran Dumagat lakáyold man (also used as a vocative in addressing old men); to become old, of male humans; husband
Itawis lá-lakayold (of male); old man
Kankanaey ma-lakéygo grow old, of age
Ibaloy dakayold man
  d<al>akaycollective term for the old men, elders of the community
  me-dakayto become old
Pangasinan lákigrandfather, granduncle
Hanunóo lakígrandfather (in both nominative and vocative; grandchild of either sex; male ancestor
Melanau (Mukah) lakəyold, of people
Melanau (Dalat) lakəyold, of people

Note:   This reconstruction is very problematic. First, it is confined largely to the northern Philippines. Second the forms in Yami, Pangasinan, Hanunóo and Melanau are phonologically irregular. However, the irregularities in the last three languages appear to be caused by contamination with PMP *laki ‘male, masculine; man’. If Hanunóo lakí ‘grandfather’, and Mukah and Dalat Melanau lakəy ‘old, of people; are taken to reflect *lakay with contamination from *laki, there is a basis for attributing *lakay to PPh, but the evidentiary basis for this inference remains perilously slim.

26932

*la(ŋ)keb lie face down

3398

PWMP     *la(ŋ)keb lie face down

WMP
Itawis lakáblie face down
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) laŋkeblie face or front side down
Mansaka lakoblie face downward; place a thing face down; capsize, turn upside down
Karo Batak laŋkemlie on the stomach
Sasak laŋkeplie on the belly; lie front side down (of things)

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat sakeb ‘lie face down’, Maranao lekeb ‘turn upside-down’, Javanese ruŋkeb ‘fall face down’, uŋkeb ‘lie face down’, Balinese kakeb ‘lie forward, slope forward, fall forward’, pointing to a root *-keb₂.

26873

*lak(e)baŋ broad, wide

3335

PWMP     *lak(e)baŋ broad, wide

WMP
Bikol lakbáŋbreadth, width
Kayan labaŋbroad
Old Javanese lambaŋthat which is stretched out horizontally

Note:   The prenasalization in Old Javanese lambaŋ is assumed to be secondary.

26934

*la(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ spread the legs

3400

PWMP     *la(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ spread the legs     [doublet: *lekaŋ 'separate, disunite']

WMP
Cebuano lákaŋstep across
  lakʔaŋstand or squat with legs wide apart
Sasak laŋkaŋcrotch, space between the legs

26933

*la(ŋ)ket stick, adhere to; sticky, viscous

3399

PMP     *la(ŋ)ket stick, adhere to; sticky, viscous

WMP
Kelabit (Long Napir) laketsticky
Toba Batak alhot <Msap of a tree used to curdle milk
  m-alhotthick, viscous
Dairi-Pakpak Batak alket <Mviscous
OC
Ulawa la-lakosticky, to stick owing to glutinous nature
Nggela laŋgostick, stick to, adhere
  laŋgo-laŋgopaste, gum, sticking plaster
Lau lagosticky, viscous; pasty, as badly cooked bread

Note:   Tagalog lagkít ‘stickiness’, Agutaynen ma-laʔket ‘sticky’. With root PAn *-keC, PMP *-ket ‘adhesive, sticky’.

26872

*laki male, masculine; man

3334

PMP     *laki male, masculine; man     [doublet: *aki 'grandfather']

WMP
Ilokano lakí-enmasculine; manly (woman); tomboy; lesbian
Isneg lákimale
Bontok lákimale animal
Kankanaey lákimale; cock, he (applied only to animals)
Ifugaw lákimale quadruped; mostly applied to bigger pigs
Ifugaw (Batad) lākia male pig, domestic or wild, either castrated or uncastrated
Ibaloy dakiman, male, boy
  ma-lekiof a woman who regularly has illicit relations with men, promiscuous
  man-dekito have illicit relations with a man --- spoken of a woman
  e-dak-daki-anlesbian
  daki-tomale plant (the plant that doesn’t bear fruit)
Pangasinan lakímale; boy
Hanunóo lákimasculinity, quality of being male
  lakíancestor, male ancestor; in a general sense, any direct, distant male progenitor
Aklanon eákiman, male
  eakin-onmannish
Cebuano lakímale animal or plant; paramour
  l<in>ákiman’s bicycle; ride astraddle like a man
  lakin-una female that acts like a male, tomboy
  lákihave exceptional ability
  ka-lákido one’s best
Maranao lakibrother to a woman
Tiruray lageya male; term of reference used by a female to refer to a male of her own generation
  fe-lagey-lagey(of men) dressed up in one’s best clothes and ornamentation
Tboli logiman, boy, male; brother, a male sibling
  s-logito be a brother or a male relative to other females
Kelabit (Bario) laʔihmale
Kenyah (Long Anap) lakiman, male
Kenyah (Long Wat) lakəyman, male
Kayan (Uma Juman) lakiʔmale
Berawan (Long Terawan) lakkehman, male
Kiput laaymale, of humans, man
Narum lahayman, male
Miri lakayhman, male
Seru lakehmale
Samihim lakiman
Malagasy láhimale, masculine (much used in the names of plants, etc.)
  ana-dahia woman’s brother; used also of men when women are speaking
Iban lakimale; husband; male of a pair, e.g. of mortice and tenon joint, press-studs
  oraŋ lakia man
  manok lakicockerel
Malay lakihusband (less respectful than suami)
  ber-lakito take a husband
  laki-lakimale (usually more polite than jantan); manly; masculine
Acehnese lakòëhusband
Simalur laihusband
  si-laimale, masculine (men and animals)
Karo Batak lakivocative for ‘grandfather’
Toba Batak lahiyoung, of fruits
  si-lalahi-ana tree that has only male blossoms, like the papaya
  lahi-lahimanly, masculine
Rejang lakəyman, husband
Old Javanese lakiman, male, husband
  laki-lakiman, male, husband
  maka-lakito have a husband, be married to, have sexual intercourse with (of a woman)
  aŋ-laki-lakimaking a virile appearance, plucky
  l<um>aki-lakito incite to manly action, fire the fighting spirit of
Javanese lakisexual intercourse; husband
  a-lakito marry
  ŋe-lakito mate or breed (of animals)
Sundanese lakiman; male, masculine (only in combination); pestle (used with mortar)
Balinese lakimale; man; husband
Sasak lakiman; male, masculine
  se-lakiʔhusband of
Buginese laimale (of humans or animals)
Muna lakileading bull (of a herd of cows or buffaloes)
Chamorro lahiman, male, boy; also used in direct address among friends in the same way that lai (‘friend’, ‘man’) is used
  lahe-nson of, man of
CMP
Ngadha ata sakiman; husband
Palu'e ata lakiman, male
Sika laʔiman; husband
  laʔi-laʔimen
Lamboya laihusband
Lamaholot lakehusband; male

7866

PWMP     *di-laki male, man

WMP
Kelabit (Bario) də-laʔihmale
Malay (Kedah) de-lakimale
Karo Batak di-lakimale, masculine; boy, man; husband

7867

PWMP     *la-laki male

WMP
Ilokano lalákiboy; man; anything masculine; male
  ka-lalákithe larger part of a pair of two things
  ma-lalákimasculine; looking strong and responsible; daring; courageous; intelligent
  maki-lalákito have an affair with a man
  napa-lalákihandy at men’s work (women)
Isneg lalákimale
Isinay lalákiman, boy, male
  lallákimen, boys, males
Bontok lalákiman, male, boy
  lallákimen, boys
Kankanaey lalákiman, male; cock, he (applied to men and animals)
Ifugaw lalákiman
  l<in>a-lákimen
Dupaningan Agta lallákiman, male (historically a plural)
Kapampangan lalákiman, male
  la:lákimen, males
  magpaka-lalákiact like a man
Tagalog laláki, lalákeman, an adult male; male, masculine
  mag-lalákito act the role of a man (in a play or movie)
  man-lalákito take a common-law husband
  pagka-lalákimanhood; masculinity; virility; manliness
  pan-lalákimanly; suitable for a man; masculine; in grammar, of the gender of male names
Bikol lalákiboy, lad; man; male
  pagka-lalákimanliness, masculinity; virility
Hanunóo lalákiman, boy, male
Palawan Batak lalakiman, human male
Hiligaynon lalákimale, man, boy, male illicit lover
Aklanon l<in>a-eakíto act like a man (said of a woman)
Masbatenyo lalákimale, man (refers to animate beings)
Waray-Waray lalákiman, male
Cebuano lalákihuman male; turn out to be a boy; paramour
  paka-lalákiact like a man, consider, treat like a man
  tag-lakin-anthe groom’s relatives at the wedding
Malagasy laláhyman (provincial)
Iban le-lakimale
Malay le-lakimale; masculine
Sundanese la-lakimale; masculine
Bolaang Mongondow lo-lakiman; male, masculine; brother (woman speaking)
Wolio lalakilord, nobleman, king (chess)
  ka-lalakinobility, greatness
  ana lalakiperson of noble birth
  lalaki-akabe lord of, rule over

7868

PWMP     *ka-(la)laki-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Ilokano ka-laki-anthe male (of a pair of animals); masculine
Bontok ka-lalákiy-anbrother or male cousin of a female Ego
Ibaloy ka-leki-anbull, stallion, mature male carabao; (of deer) buck
Tagalog ka-lalakih-angroup of men or males; manhood; men; mankind
Masbatenyo ka-lalakih-ángroup of men
Cebuano ka-lalakin-anthe menfolk as a group
Tiruray ke-lagey-anthe persons on the man’s side in a legal dispute
Toba Batak ha-lahi-anthe season when the fruits are still young
Old Javanese ka-laki-laki(n)manliness, manly courage, virility

Note:   Also Itbayaten xakay ‘male, man, mister’, Romblomanon lyāki ‘a boy or man; a male animal, fish, mollusk’, pagka-lyāki ‘someone’s manliness’, Uma Juman Kayan akiʔ, Mukah Melanau lay ‘male’, Pendau Lauje laŋkai ‘man, male’, Bare'e laŋkai ‘male, of animals, masculine; husband’. This form is known only in languages that have been classified as WMP or CMP. Its meaning appears to be identical to that of PAn *RuqaNay, and the two clearly co-existed in PMP and later proto-languages, although to date no language has been found with reflexes of both. In addition to the basic meaning ‘male’ the simple form of this base (*laki) or the collocation *anak laki replaced PMP *ñaRa ‘brother’ (woman speaking) in a number of Malayo-Polynesian languages, evidently through transfer from the meaning ‘wife giver’ (‘male group’; cf. Blust 1993).

30554

*laklak to peel off skin, bark or leaves; excoriated, decorticated, defoliated

7869

PWMP     *laklak to peel off skin, bark or leaves; excoriated, decorticated, defoliated

WMP
Ilokano laklákto be skinned, flayed
  ma-laklak-anto be skinned, flayed
Bontok laklákdandruff
Kankanaey laklák-anto flay, to skin; to gall, to peel; to bark, to strip; to rub off the bark, to tear off the skin
  laklak-ídandruff
Ibaloy dakdak-ento peel something off that has adhered (as adhesive tape, paint, poster from wall, chewing gum from floor, skin of animal in skinning)
Cebuano laklákfor trousers, pants, underpants to be too loose
Ida'an Begak lallakremove bark of a tree
Melanau (Mukah) lalakbald
Ngaju Dayak lalakstripped of leaves, defoliated; peeled (as a banana, sugarcane)
Karo Batak laklakrind, peeling; bark of a tree
  ŋe-laklak-ito peel; strip bark from a tree
Toba Batak laklakbark, rind
  maŋa-laklah-ipeel off the bark

Note:   Also Karo Batak me-lak ‘come loose, of the skin; shaved, skinned’. Dempwolff (1938) included Fijian lala ‘empty, unoccupied, uninhabited’ in this comparison, but the semantic connection appears far-fetched.

30555

*laŋkuas a plant: Alpinia galanga

7870

PWMP     *laŋkuas a plant: Alpinia galanga

WMP
Ilokano laŋkuása kind of gingerlike herb, Alpinia galanga
Ida'an Begak ləŋkuasAlpinia galanga
Kadazan hoŋkuas(a type of) root, rhizome like a ginger
Ngaju Dayak laŋkuasa plant similar to ginger, but larger and milder in taste than lai, true ginger
Malay leŋkuasa ginger, Alpinia galanga; varieties: l. merah (red, used medicinally); l. puteh (white, used to spice curry)
Iban eŋkuaslarge rhizomatous herb used as a spice in cooking, Alpinia spp. (esp. the white A. galanga)

Note:   Also Tagalog laŋkáwasAlpinia pyrimidata Bl. Zingiberaceae, Zingiber zerumbet L.’ (Madulid 2001), Bikol laŋkáwas ‘plant in the ginger family possessing roots used as a seasoning, Alpinia galanga’, Aklanon eaŋkawás ‘spicy plant: Curcuma zedoaria’. Possibly a loan distribution due to borrowing from Malay.

30556

*lakub enclosure; to enclose

7871

PPh     *lakub enclosure; to enclose

WMP
Ilokano lakúbenclosure; encirclement
  ma-lakúbto be surrounded
  lakub-ento surround, encircle; block
Bontok lakóbto cover completely, as a landslide covering a whole pondfield
Kalamian Tagbanwa lakubhalf coconut shell; to cover with a half coconut shell
Maranao lakobfence, enclosure
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) laŋkubin roofing, to finish a section or to finish the whole house
Sangir me-lakubeʔoverhang and at the same time overshadow (as vines, forest)

30557

*lakup cover, wrapping

7872

PAN     *lakup cover, wrapping

Formosan
Paiwan lakupa covering (as new bark which grows over scar on tree)
  l<m>akupto cover over (as with roof-shaped cover); to twine around (as vine)
WMP
Waray-Waray lakóp-lakópeyelid
Tboli lakufto include, be a part of, as an area
Malay te-laŋkupturned over; capsized; bottom-upwards
Karo Batak laŋkupcover, wrapping, casing; what covers or surrounds something; a strip of gold or brass that covers the teeth
Javanese t-lakupcovering leaf of a flower or bud; ear flaps; a hat with ear flaps

Note:   With root *-kup ‘enclose, cover’.

26874

*lalatu₁ kind of ant

3336

PWMP     *lalatu₁ kind of ant

WMP
Simalur lalatuant
Sangir lelatusmallest kind of ant

Note:   The comparison which supports this reconstruction was first recognized in print by Kähler (1961).

26875

*lalatu₂ sparks, burning ashes in the wind

3337

PWMP     *lalatu₂ sparks, burning ashes in the wind

WMP
Rungus Dusun lalatuashes that are flying about
Sundanese si-lalatuspark, small bit of burning matter that flies up from the fire
Old Javanese latu-latu, lalatusparks, flying parts of a burning object
Balinese latuspark, speck
  lalatuspark, speck
Tae' lalatusparks

Note:   Also Kambera latu ‘carbonized; charcoal’. Dempwolff (1924-1925) posited *latu ‘spark’, but cited little supporting evidence.

26876

*lalaw exceed, surpass, go beyond

3338

PWMP     *lalaw exceed, surpass, go beyond     [doublet: *lalu]

WMP
Maranao lalaosecond growth of rice (cp. lalo 'above, more, excess')
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lalewgrieve over something to the extent that one does not eat
Kayan lalawpast, gone; more than, exceed
Ngaju Dayak lalawpast (of time); exceed, too
Bare'e lalogo past, go beyond

Note:   For the comparison Tagalog laloʔ ( unexpl.), Ngaju Dayak lalao (-ao unexpl.), Malay, Malagasy lalu ‘go past, go over, go beyond’ Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *lalu. To account for the irregular Tagalog and Ngaju Dayak forms, Hendon (1964) suggested that this etymon be modified to *lalew. The fuller data presented here do not support Hendon's proposal, and are best explained through the reconstruction of doublets.

30429

*lalej housefly

7572

PMP     *lalej housefly

WMP
Bontok láleghousefly; fly
Ifugaw (Batad) lāloga common housefly (refers to most flying insects with transparent wings, including the large blowfly)
Kelabit (Bario) laledsmall black housefly
Berawan (Long Terawan) dilənhousefly
Kiput laləthousefly
Malagasy lálitraa fly
  lálitra ómbia cattle fly
  lalathousefly
Malay lalata fly, especially the common housefly
  lalat hijaubluebottle fly
Acehnese lalata fly
Old Javanese lalera fly
  l<in>aler-anfull of flies
Javanese lalerfly (insect)
Sundanese laleurcommon housefly
Balaesang lalehousefly
Pendau lalehousefly
Bare'e yalea fly
Tae' laliʔkind of large fly
Palauan yáyeshousefly
Chamorro laloʔhousefly
CMP
Palu'e lalea fly
Sika lalecommon housefly
Hawu larahousefly
  lara menilablowfly, botfly
Tetun lalarhousefly
Erai lalea fly
Selaru lalhousefly
Asilulu lalea fly, Diptera

Note:   Also Karo Batak laneŋ ‘a fly, especially the blue meatfly’, Toba Batak lanok ‘a fly’. Dempwolff (1938) also includes Fijian lalo ‘a fly (dialectal)’, but since no other Oceanic reflex is known, and a form of this shape is not found in Capell (1968) I assume that this is an error.

26877

*laluŋ cock, rooster

3339

PMP     *laluŋ cock, rooster

WMP
Isneg láloŋthe red cock that is tied securely to the tiebeam, immediately above the waldáy, before the tuŋtúŋ ceremony at a solemn sacrifice
Pangasinan lalóŋrooster, cock
Bikol láloŋrooster, cock
Melanau (Mukah) laloŋmale (nonhumans) (Anonymous)
Mentawai lalukcockspur
Tae' laloŋdauntless, courageous in combat
CMP
Manggarai laloŋmale (of birds), cock
Li'o lalumale (of birds), cock
Rotinese manu lalu-kcock

Note:   The penultimate segment is reflected irregularly in Isneg, Melanau (Mukah), Tae'’, and Manggarai. It is possible that this form contained a rare PMP mid-vowel *o.

26880

*lama lie on a surface, of water

3342

PMP     *lama lie on a surface, of water

WMP
Bare'e lamalie sticking to or smeared over something else (example sentence: there is water on the plank; don't sit there)
Tae' lammadew, mist
OC
Sa'a lamaspread over, cover over (as water covers the earth in a flood)

26878

*lamak mat

3340

PMP     *lamak mat     [doublet: *amak]

WMP
Malagasy (Provincial) lámakamat, mattress
Javanese lamakprotective pad
Sasak lamakmat
CMP
Yamdena lamakmat of lontar leaves (on which to dry tobacco, etc.)

Note:   Also Sundanese samak ‘pandanus mat’. Dempwolff (1934-38) gives *lamak ‘mat’ based on the comparison of Malagasy lámaka with Javanese lémék ‘lining, protective underlayer’, Sa'a lama ‘spread over, cover over (as water covers the earth in a flood)’. However, only the Malagasy and Sa'a terms exhibit a recurrent phonological correspondence, and only the Malagasy and Javanese terms exhibit a close semantic correspondence.

30088

*laman deep

6805

PCEMP     *laman₁ deep

CMP
Yamdena me-lamandeep
Fordata lamandepth
  ba-lamandeep; a depth
Kei lamandepth
SHWNG
Buli m-lamandeep (of bay, hole, sea)
Numfor-Biak ramenvery deep

6806

POC     *laman₂ deep, of the sea; deep sea beyond the reef

OC
Loniu lama-ndeep sea just beyond the reef
Penchal lamdeep sea beyond the reef
Tolai lamanadeep, of the sea; deep sea, ocean
Gitua lamandeep
Roviana lamanathe ocean; deep, of water
Eddystone/Mandegusu lamanasea, ocean; deep sea beyond the reef
Arosi rama-ramadeep water beyond the edge of the reef
Mota lamaopen sea

Note:   The only meaning that can confidently be inferred for this form in PCEMP is the generic sense ‘deep’. However, in POc it had clearly come to refer specifically to the deep sea beyond the reef.

26879

*lamaR, lamas slippery

3341

PWMP     *lamaR, lamas slippery

WMP
Kadazan hamaslippery
Malagasy (Merina) lamasmoothed, made slippery
Balinese lamasthin slimy membrane, mucus on fruit or fish
Bolaang Mongondow lamagslippery

26881

*lamaʔ old, former

3343

PAN     *lamaʔ old, former

Formosan
Atayal lamaʔfirst, do first, before
WMP
Pangasinan lámato age, lose polish, etc.
Iban lamaʔold, former, ancient; long (of time), long ago, formerly
Malay lamalength (of time)
  oraŋ lamathe people of long ago, the ancients
Old Javanese lamalength of time, duration
  a-lamalong, for a long time, already a long time, old; long ago
Balinese lamalong (time)

26885

*lamlam impetuous

3347

PAN     *lamlam impetuous

Formosan
Paiwan lamlamprecipitate, impetuous
WMP
Old Javanese lamlamcarried away by desire (longing); being a prey to one's emotions; feeling uncertain; acting according to one's own desire (whim)

26891

*lamu, lamut seaweed sp.

3353

PMP     *lamu, lamut seaweed sp.

WMP
Chamorro lamottype of seaweed
Malay lamua seaweed for making jelly: Cuhalus coenigii
CMP
Ngadha lamumoss, lichen, slippery as moss
Rotinese lamukind of seaweed

Note:   Also Manggarai ramut ‘moss, algae’.

26888

*lamug to mix

3350

PMP     *lamug to mix

WMP
Isneg lammúgmix rice pounded into powder, bran or flour with water
Kadazan h-in-amumixture (of food)
Toba Batak lamukmix together
CMP
Ngadha lamumix together

26889

*lamuk₁ vague, unclear

3351

PWMP     *lamuk₁ vague, unclear

WMP
Maranao lamokblur, shadow over the moon
Sundanese lamukdark, hazy, of the view
  ŋa-lamukappear vaguely in the distance
Old Javanese lamuk-lamukvaguely visible

30139

*lamuk₂ mosquito

6882

PMP     *lamuk₂ mosquito     [doublet: *ñamuk]

WMP
Ilokano lamókmosquito
  lamok-enbe bitten by many mosquitoes
Bontok lamókmosquito
Tagalog lamókmosquito
Hiligaynon lamúkmosquito
Cebuano lamúkmosquito; be infested with mosquitoes
Javanese lamukmosquito
Makasarese lamuʔmosquito
OC
Rotuman rɔmumosquito
Kapingamarangi lamuflies, mosquitoes

Note:   Also Manggarai lemok ‘small fly, fruit fly; also small mosquitoes that gather in swarms’, Manggarai lemuk ‘sandfly, small biting mosquito’.

26890

*lamun swamp grass

3352

PMP     *lamun swamp grass

WMP
Palauan iámlgrass in snapdragon family that grows in swampy areas: Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr.
Malay (Brunei) lamunriver weed
Sasak lamunduckweed (on the water)
CMP
Manggarai lamuŋaquatic moss

26916

*laña vegetable oil

3381

PMP     *laña vegetable oil

WMP
Pangasinan lanáfragrant coconut oil
Kapampangan lañaoil of sesame (Bergaño 1860)
Tagalog lánaoil of sesame
Hanunóo lánaoil, especially coconut oil, used occasionally for the hair
Cebuano lánaoil obtained from plants
Maranao lanaoil
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lanacoconut oil; oil from other vegetable sources
Simalur lanaoil
Sangir lanaoil
Bare'e lanaoil, especially coconut oil
CMP
Amblau lanaoil (van der Miesen)

Note:   Also Tiruray lanah ‘oil’. Dempwolff (1924-1925) posited *laña ‘oil’, but cited little evidence in support of his reconstruction.

26927

*lañut tough, as meat

3392

PWMP     *lañut tough, as meat

WMP
Cebuano lánuthemp for abaca; any kind of long, tough plant fibers
Kadazan hanuttough, pliant
Tontemboan lanuttough, as old meat
Proto-Minahasan *lanuttough (of meat, fibers)

Note:   With root *-ñut ‘stretchy, elastic’.

26914

*laŋaq₁ gape, open wide

3379

PMP     *laŋaq₁ gape, open wide

WMP
Chamorro laŋŋaʔ (gemination unexpl.)gape, hold mouth agape
Maranao laŋaʔstop sucking, as a baby does; release
Singhi Land Dayak ŋi-raŋahopen (of a fruit)
Malay laŋahopen, agape, ajar
CMP
Ngadha saŋa laŋaopen the mouth

Note:   With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gaping, wide open’.

26915

*laŋaq₂ simple-minded

3380

PWMP     *laŋaq₂ simple-minded

WMP
Cebuano laŋaʔstupid, foolish, silly, dull, simple
Sundanese laŋahcareless, inattentive

30430

*laŋaw housefly

7573

PAN     *laŋaw₁ housefly     [doublet: *baŋaw, 'paddy bug', *beRŋaw 'bluebottle']

Formosan
Saisiyat (Taai) lʸaŋawsmall fly
Pazeh raŋawa fly (big or small)
  raŋaw nuaŋhorsefly
Thao ranawhousefly, black fly common in houses
Kavalan raŋawfly (insect)
Paiwan laŋaw ~ la-laŋawa fly (insect)

7574

PMP     *laŋaw₂ bluebottle, blowfly, horsefly

WMP
Itbayaten xaŋawbig housefly, bluebottle
Isneg láŋawa fly
Casiguran Dumagat laŋöa fly; many flies
Dupaningan Agta láŋawhousefly
Itawis láŋawfly (insect)
Kankanaey láŋewa very small winged insect, mostly found around slops, wine, etc.
Ifugaw láŋo ~ láŋawvery small winged insects that sip rice wine (if the jar is not covered)
Ifugaw (Batad) láŋawa rice-beer fly (a small brown fruit fly that is partial to rice beer and breeds and multiplies in wine jars if not tightly covered
Tagalog láŋawhousefly
Bikol láŋawa fly
  ma-láŋawhaving many flies; be covered with flies
Hanunóo láŋawthe common housefly
Hiligaynon láŋawa fly
Aklanon eáŋawfly (general term for this family of insects)
Masbatenyo láŋawa fly
Waray-Waray láŋawa fly
Cebuano láŋawhousefly
Maranao laŋaogadfly, horsefly
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) laŋewa fly
Mansaka laŋawa fly
Binukid láŋawgeneric for flies; for flies to infest an area
Mapun laŋawa fly
  ka-laŋaw-anto have a fly or flies stuck or dead in something
  laŋaw-anhaving flies
Yakan laŋewa fly, housefly
Tausug laŋawbotfly, a species of large fly
Ida'an Begak laŋowhousefly
Tombonuwo laŋowfly, housefly
Kelabit (Bario) laŋolarge bluish-green fly, horsefly
Kayan laŋawcommon housefly
  laŋaw pusahgreen paddy bug
  laŋaw toʔlarge blowfly
Ngaju Dayak laŋawa fly
  laŋaw hantularge gadfly (lit. ‘ghost fly’)
  ma-laŋawto catch flies
Iban laŋaubluebottle, or meat fly
Malay laŋaubiting fly of the stable-fly type (Stomoxydae)
Rejang laŋeuwa bluebottle fly
Sangir laŋoa fly
  me-laŋocome to a feast uninvited
Bolaang Mongondow laŋowcommon housefly
SHWNG
Buli laŋa fly
  laŋ ŋiŋilawbluebottle, horsefly
Numfor-Biak rankind of small fly

7575

POC     *laŋo housefly

OC
Lenkau laŋlaŋhousefly
Penchal lallaŋ (< *laŋlaŋ)housefly
Seimat laŋhousefly
Wuvulu laohousefly
Mussau laŋohousefly
Mendak ləŋhousefly
Vitu laŋohousefly
Wogeo laŋohousefly
Manam laŋohousefly
Motu laoa fly
Nehan laŋhousefly, generic for flies, Diptera, family Muscoidea; fly and similar small insects
Selau loŋohousefly
Eddystone/Mandegusu laŋoa fly
Nggela laŋoa fly
  laŋo ni mbolospecies of large fly (lit. ‘pig fly’, presumably because they frequent pigs)
Kwaio laŋolarge fly
  laŋo bulublowfly
Lau laŋofly, mosquito
  laŋo bulucommon fly, bluebottle
Toqabaqita laŋogeneric for large flies, bluebottles, blowflies
Sa'a laŋothe bluebottle fly
Arosi raŋoa fly
  raŋo buruthe bluebottle fly
Mota laŋothe bluebottle fly
Central Maewo laŋoa fly
Raga laŋoa fly
Araki laŋoa fly
Rotuman laŋaa fly
  laŋ foraubluebottle (lit’ ‘foreign, or introduced fly’)
Wayan laŋohouseflies and other Brachycera flies
  laŋo-laŋobe fly-infested, full of flies
Fijian laŋoa fly
  laŋo kataa wasp
Tongan laŋofly (insect)
  faka-laŋo-ato attract flies, encourage flies to come about
Futunan laŋohousefly
  laŋo ʔusibluebottle (lit. ‘blue fly’)
  laŋo-afull of flies, swarming with flies
Rennellese gaŋohousefly
Anuta raŋofly (insect)
Samoan laŋoa fly
  laŋo-iabe covered with flies
Tuvaluan laŋoa fly
Nukuoro laŋofly, flying ant, wasp, or other similar flying insect
Rarotongan raŋogeneral name for flies
Maori raŋoblowfly
Hawaiian nalo <Mthe common housefly and other two-winged insects

7576

PAN     *laŋaw-en infested with flies, covered with flies

Formosan
Thao ranaw-inbe covered with flies
WMP
Tagalog laŋáw-inbe infested or covered with flies
Bikol laŋáw-onbe covered with flies
Masbatenyo laŋáw-onswarming with flies
Waray-Waray laŋáw-onfly-infested
Cebuano laŋáw-unbe infested, swarm with flies
Tausug laŋaw-unbe infested with laŋaw (botflies)

Note:   Also Ilokano ŋílaw ‘housefly’, ŋílaw ti nuaŋ ‘horsefly’. In the absence of other known evidence I take the apparent correspondence between this Ilokano form and Buli laŋ ŋiŋilaw ‘bluebottle, horsefly’ to be a product of chance convergence. PAn *laŋaw appears to have meant ‘housefly’, with qualifying words needed to designate the bluebottle or other types of flies. However, in PMP *lalej evidently replaced *laŋaw in this meaning, and *laŋaw came to refer to the bluebottle, botfly or horsefly without the need for a qualifying term. No doubt because houseflies are the most frequently encountered pests in the family Diptera reflexes of *laŋaw have shifted back to the meaning ‘housefly’ in many languages.

30032

*laŋen rollers for beaching a canoe

6729

PMP     *laŋen rollers for beaching a canoe

WMP
Kankanaey laŋéntwo big pieces of greenwood on which the hogs that are to be sacrificed at home are stretched out
Ifugaw laŋónsticks between which (two below and two above) pigs are strongly tied when they must be sacrificed or transported
Maranao laŋenroller
  laŋen-andrydock
CMP
Yamdena n-laŋanplace rollers under, as under a canoe
  la-laŋanroller for beaching a canoe

6730

POC     *laŋon rollers for beaching a canoe

OC
Gedaged luŋa slip, a sloping ramp or pier, dock; the pieces of wood put on the beach over which the canoe slips when pulled up
Eddystone/Mandegusu laŋonoa log on which a canoe rests when it is hauled ashore
Arosi i-raŋoroller for a canoe; place rollers for a canoe (with instrumental prefix i-)
Woleaian laŋ(o)canoe roller, fulcrum; to be rolled, raised with supporters (as a canoe)
Fijian laŋoplace rollers under a canoe
  laŋon-aplace rollers under a canoe (trans. form)

26929

*laŋ(e)si unpleasant odor

3395

PAN     *laŋ(e)si unpleasant odor

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) laŋsistinking, of over-cooked (burnt) rice
WMP
Cebuano laŋsihaving fishy smell or the taste of blood

30407

*laŋiC sky

7528

PAN     *laŋiC sky

Formosan
Saaroa laŋicasky
Puyuma ɭaŋiʈsky

7529

PMP     *laŋit sky

WMP
Itbayaten xañitheaven, sky
Ibanag láŋiʔsky
Ilokano láŋitsky, heaven
  i-láŋitto raise to the sky, lift up toward heaven
  maŋ-láŋitto daydream
Isneg láŋitheavens, sky
  i-láŋitspirits of the sky (usually favorable to reapers; when they want to possess a shaman they use a bridge or ladder to come down)
Dupaningan Agta láŋetsky
Casiguran Dumagat laŋetsky, heaven (thought of as a huge, round, blue dome which is cupped over the earth)
Itawis láŋitsky
Ifugaw laŋítheaven, skyworld; currently used by the Ifugaw, but borrowed from Ilokano or other languages
Ifugaw (Batad) lāŋitheaven
Gaddang láŋitsky
Sambal (Botolan) láŋitsky
Ibaloy daŋitheaven
Tagalog láŋitsky
  taga-láŋitheavenly; of or in heaven
Bikol láŋitsky, heavens
  ka-laŋít-anthe heavens
  laŋít-nonheavenly, celestial
Hanunóo láŋitsky, heavens
Palawan Batak laŋítsky, heavens
Hiligaynon láŋitheaven, sky, outer space
Aklanon eáŋitsky, heaven
  ka-eaŋít-anthe heavens; Heaven
Masbatenyo láŋitsky, heaven, firmament, atmosphere
Waray-Waray láŋitsky, space, heaven; eternity
Cebuano láŋitheaven, sky; joy, happiness
Mapun laŋitthe sky
Mansaka laŋitheaven, sky
Binukid laŋitsky, heaven
Maranao laŋitsky, heaven
Tboli loŋitsky, heaven
Tausug laŋitthe sky
Yakan laŋitsky
Ida'an Begak laŋitsky
Tombonuwo laŋitsky
Lun Dayeh laŋitsky, heaven
Kelabit (Bario) laŋitsky
Kenyah (Long Anap) laŋitsky
Kayan laŋitsky
Murik laŋitsky
Bintulu laŋitsky
Melanau (Mukah) laŋitsky
Ngaju Dayak laŋitsky; vault of heaven
  la-laŋitthe ceiling of a room
Malagasy lánitrasky, heaven
Iban laŋitsky, heavens; the Heavens, as distinct from Earth; World of the Dead, and the land of the serpent deities…The hornbill, Segadu’, represents the manang (shaman), of whom the chief is Menjaya or Ini’ Manang, living in the seventh heaven
Jarai ŋitsky
Malay laŋitsky
  le-laŋitpalate
Bahasa Indonesia me-laŋitto go “sky high” (of prices)
Gayo laŋitsky
Karo Batak laŋitsky
Toba Batak laŋitdome of heaven, sky
Nias laŋiatmosphere, sky
Mentawai laŋitred sky of morning and evening
Lampung laŋiʔsky
Old Javanese laŋitsky, firmament
Javanese laŋitsky; ceiling; facial expression
  laŋit-anceiling; canopy; palate
Sundanese laŋitsky, atmosphere, firmament
  laŋit tujuhthe seven heavens
  la-laŋitcanopy; palate
Balinese laŋitsky, heavens, air
Sasak laŋitsky
Tontemboan laŋitsky, atmosphere
Uma laŋiʔsky
Tae' laŋiʔsky, heaven
  randan laŋiʔhorizon
Makasarese laŋiʔsky, firmament
Muna lanisky
Palauan yáŋdsky; weather
Chamorro laŋetheaven, sky, outer space
CMP
Bimanese laŋisky; canopy of a stage
Waiyewa laŋitasky
Lamboya laŋtasky
Galoli lanitsky
Leti liantisky
Wetan liantisky
Yamdena laŋitsky, heaven
  laŋit sepanhorizon
Asilulu lanitsky
Bobot lakitsky
Buruese laŋitsky
Kayeli laŋitsky
Soboyo laŋisky
SHWNG
Buli laŋitsky, heaven
OC
Nali yaŋsky
Ere laŋsky
Loniu laŋsky
Titan laŋlight
  kole-laŋsky (‘place of light’)
Tigak laŋitrain
Duke of York laŋitsky, heavens
Vitu laŋisky
Nakanai la lagisky
Wogeo laŋsky
Manam laŋsky
Motu laibreeze, wind
Nehan laŋitsky
Mono-Alu laitirain
Eddystone/Mandegusu laŋitesky
Varisi ranisky
Talise laŋirain
Sa'a läŋiup
  haʔa-laŋia house on piles
  i-leŋisky, heaven
  läŋi-leŋi-ʔealoft, lifted up; tall and strong, of a person
Arosi raŋito rain; rain
Gilbertese te naŋa cloud; fig. hindrance, annoyance, obstacle, worry
  naŋi-naŋwith a few clouds, cloudy
Marshallese lañsky; weather; heaven
Kosraean lucŋsky, heaven
Pohnpeian lahŋsky, heaven; bad weather
  laŋi-laŋi-hhonorific: to give a title, to crown; to wear a garland
Mokilese loaŋsky
Chuukese nááŋheaven, sky (early German sources report that it has several tiers or levels, of which five were named by distinct terms)
Puluwat láŋrain; sky
  láŋi-láŋrain with symbolic portent, as of a canoe coming, death, birth, bad weather; to have portent, of rain
Woleaian laŋ(i)sky; typhoon, rain-storm, wind; be struck by a typhoon; compass
Merlav laŋwind
Raga laŋiwind
Araki laŋiwind
Cape Cumberland laniwind
Namakir na-laŋwind
Nakanamanga na-laŋiwind
Central Maewo tae-laŋisky
Mafea tai-laŋisky
Makatea raŋisky
Rotuman lɔŋisky, heaven; wind, air, weather
  la ne lɔŋihorizon
Wayan laŋisky, atmosphere
Fijian lomā-laŋithe sky, heaven (lit. ‘inside of sky’)
  vū ni laŋias though one who comes from the horizon
  laŋi-laŋibeautiful, magnificent, glorious
Tongan laŋisky, heaven; eyes, face, mouth, ears, or head (of king or queen)
  lāŋi-laŋisplendor, glory, honor
  laŋi-laŋi havilito look as if it is going to be windy
Niue laŋisky, heaven; thunder; head, hair
Samoan laŋisky, heaven; funeral ceremony
  laŋi lelei(of the weather) be fine
  laŋi faʔatafasickness of a high chief
  faʔa-laŋiaddress or refer to someone by his ceremonial title
  laŋi-ābe cloudy
  laŋi-laŋi-ābe stormy
Futunan laŋisky; mythical residence of persons after their death
Kapingamarangi laŋisky
Nukuoro laŋirain; heaven, sky
  laŋi haanaua certain kind of rain [an omen of an impending childbirth]
Rennellese gaŋisky, heaven
  haka-gaŋito put up a flat ceiling
Anuta (vae)-raŋiheavens, sky
Rarotongan raŋimyth: the ethereal space, the not-earth region; sky, firmament (this definition was a meaning quite unknown to the ancient people); the sky sphere; supreme in authority, a crown, supremacy, the paramount high chief, highest authority or power, etc.; an emblem of arikiship worn on the head of chiefs
Maori raŋisky; heaven, upper regions, abode of supernatural beings; weather; day, period of time; chief, generally in the form of respectful address: e raŋi ‘sir’
Hawaiian lanisky, heaven; heavenly, spiritual; very high chief, majesty; royal, exalted, high born, aristocratic
  hoʔo-lanito treat one as a chief; to act as a chief; to enjoy the position and prestige of a high chief

7530

PWMP     *laŋit laŋit palate; canopy

WMP
Ilokano láŋit-láŋitcanopy
Tagalog láŋit-láŋitpallium; canopy; vault roofing
Cebuano láŋit-láŋitegg white; canopy of an altar or bed
Mapun laŋit-laŋita cloth or drapery used to decorate the ceiling of a house during a celebration
Malay laŋit-laŋitceiling cloth put up at weddings and other great festivities; canopy on posts over a grave in honor of the dead; palate
Simalur laŋiʔ-laŋiʔcanopy
Karo Batak laŋit-laŋitcanopy; palate
Toba Batak laŋit-laŋitcanopy
  laŋit-laŋit ni dilapalate
Nias laŋi-laŋimaterial for making clothing
Old Javanese laŋit-laŋitcanopy
Balinese laŋit-laŋitpalate, roof of the mouth; the ceiling or roof-ridge of a house or bale
Sasak laŋit-laŋitcanopy, as over a bed
Makasarese laŋiʔ-laŋiʔpalate
Wolio laŋi-laŋicanopy; palate

Note:   Also Puyuma ɭaŋis ‘sky (ritual term)’, Sasak le-laŋit ‘canopy, as over a bed’, Muna laŋi-laŋi ‘a white cloth wound around the top of a tombstone (sometimes draped like a tent) to ward off the disturbing influence of the spirit of the dead person’, Buruese lanit ‘sky’, Arosi daŋi ‘the light; the wind; daylight, the day, a day’, Kapingamarangi laaŋi ‘day’.

This word has a wide range of associations. In most languages it seems to have referred not only to the physical sky, but also to a mythological realm of spirits, and reflexes in at least Iban and Sundanese suggest that the concept of a celestial spirit realm embodied the notion of seven levels, a concept that was reported in a slightly different form in early sources on Chuukese. In many parts of the Pacific reflexes of this term refer to weather phenomena, such as rain or wind, either together with the meaning ‘sky’ or without it. Forms in some languages of Vanuatu, as Central Maewo tae-laŋi and Mafea tai-laŋi apparently reflect *taqe laŋi ‘cloud’ (lit. ‘feces of sky’). Finally, in both Micronesia and Polynesia reflexes of *laŋi were used to refer to high chiefs and perhaps others of aristocratic rank.

26928

*laŋu vertigo

3393

PAN     *laŋu vertigo

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat laŋodrunk, intoxicated
Tagalog laŋótipsy
Nias laŋupoison
Javanese laŋu(of odors, taste) strong, acrid, disagreeable, overpowering
Balinese laŋuheavy-headed, giddy
Bare'e ma-yaŋudizzy, intoxicated
  ma-yaŋu ntasiseasick
Sangir laŋu(mentally) dull, far-away (in thought)
Chamorro lá-laŋuunconscious; faint, fall in a swoon
CMP
Manggarai laŋudizzy, drunk
Rotinese laŋulangu-dizziness: term in ritual language for serious illness (Fox, J. 1993)
Tetun lanuto intoxicate, to inebriate, to be drunk; to poison
  lanu-kintoxicated, drunk
Yamdena laŋubitter, poisonous

3394

PAN     *ma-laŋu dizzy, drunk

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ma-laŋusurfeit (with food)
WMP
Bolaang Mongondow mo-lo-laŋudrunk; dizzy; queasy
Banggai ma-laŋudrunk
CMP
Soboyo mba-laŋudrunk

Note:   Also Cebuano laŋuʔ ‘dizzy due to poisoning; drunk (slang)’, Maranao laŋot ‘dizzy, dizziness’. Mills (1981) posits "Proto-Indonesian" *laŋu(ho) ‘nausea, nauseating’, but cites cognates only from WMP languages. The present etymon is possibly identical with *laŋu ‘unpleasant taste’ in Blust (1970). For a semantic parallel with a different root, compare Samoan ʔona ‘poisonous’, ʔo-ʔona ‘sour, bitter; (of drink) strong’, Hawaiian ʔona ‘drunk, dizzy and unsteady, intoxicated’; note also the etymology of intoxicated.

30738

*laŋuy to swim

8378

PWMP     *laŋuy to swim     [doublet: *naŋuy, *taŋuy]

WMP
Ilokano laŋóyswim
  ag-laŋóyto swim
  i-laŋóyto swim something over, carry by swimming
  pag-laŋóy-anplace where one swims, swimming pool
Isneg mag-laŋóyto swim
  maŋ-laŋóyto swim
Dupaningan Agta mag-laŋoyto swim
Kankanaey men-laŋóyto float; to waft
Pangasinan laŋóyto swim
Tagalog laŋóyswimming
  mag-laŋóyto swim
  ma-laŋóyto be able to swim over something
  pag-laŋóyswimming
  pa-laŋóyswimming party
  laŋuy-ínto swim a certain distance, or to a certain place, etc.
Bikol mag-laŋóyto swim
  laŋuy-ána place for swimming, swimming pool, swimming hole
  laŋuy-ónto swim for a particular distance or across a particular place
Hanunóo laŋúyswimming
Hiligaynon mag-laŋúyto swim
  laŋuy-únto swim
Aklanon eaŋóyto swim (after/the length of)
Waray-Waray laŋóyswimming
  pag-laŋóyswimming
  laŋoy-áto swim across
Masbatenyo mag-laŋóyto swim, bathe
  para-laŋóyswimmer
  laŋúy-answimming pool
Romblomanon laŋuysomeone swims
  pag-laŋuysomeone’s swimming
  laŋūy-ana swimming place
Cebuano laŋúyto swim; float as if swimming
  l<in>aŋy- ánstyle of swimming
Maranao laŋoyswim
Mansaka laŋoyswim
Binukid laŋuyto bathe, take a bath; to go swimming; to bathe (someone)
Tiruray loŋuyto swim
Mapun laŋiswim
  laŋi-unto swim
Yakan mag-laŋito swim
  pa-laŋito cause to swim, to let swim
  mag-laŋi-hanto swim (repetitive)
Tausug mag-laŋuyto swim (to a destination)
  laŋuy-unto swim out to something
Kelabit (Bario) laŋuyswimming
  laŋuy-laŋuydog-paddle in the water
Malagasy lanuswimming
  man-danuto swim
  lanus-inato be swum in
Nias mo-laŋito swim
Lampung laŋuyto swim
  laŋuy-laŋuy-anto be in the habit of swimming; (several) to be swimming
Javanese laŋiact of swimming
  ŋ-laŋito swim
Balinese laŋito swim
  ŋa-laŋimake something swim
Bolaang Mongondow laŋuyswim
Buginese laŋeto swim
Makasarese aʔ-laŋeto swim
  laŋe-iswim toward something, swim in something

8379

PWMP     *l<um>aŋuy to swim

WMP
Ilokano l<um>aŋóyto swim
  l<um>a-laŋóyswimmer
Tagalog l<um>aŋóyto swim
Hanunóo l<um>aŋúyto swim; will swim
Romblomanon l<um>aŋuyto swim
Mansaka l<om>aŋoyto swim
Mapun l<um>aŋito swim; to swim to a destination; to swim to an object and bring it back
Tausug l<um>aŋuyto swim (to a destination)
Bonggi l<əm>oŋito swim
Kelabit (Bario) l<um>aŋuyto swim for fun or enjoyment; float
Malagasy l<um>anuto swim
Bolaang Mongondow l<um>aŋuyto swim
Koroni l<um>aŋito swim
Muna lenito swim
  leni-fiswim towards, swim to get something

Note:   Also Ida'an Begak luŋuy, gə-luŋuy ‘to swim’, Old Javanese laŋhuy ‘to swim’, laŋhuy-i ‘to swim to’. Although reflexes of PAn *Naŋuy ‘to swim’ are found in Formosan, WMP and CMP languages, reflexes of *laŋuy are restricted to WMP.

30539

*lapa₁ fish sp.

7823

POC     *lapa₁ fish sp.

OC
Gedaged labagrey marine fish about three feet long
Arosi rahspecies of fish
Samoan lafaa fish (Ambassis sp.)

Note:   Possibly identical with POc *lapaq ‘various flat fishes, including sole and flounder’ (Osmond 2011).

30610

*lapa₂ a skin disease: ringworm

8071

POC     *lapa₂ a skin disease: ringworm

OC
Arosi rahaa skin disease
Tongan lafa(to be affected with) ringworm
Samoan lafaringworm
  lafa-lafābe spotted with ringworm; (of bananas, etc.) be scarred, bruised
Tuvaluan lafaringworm
Rennellese gahaa fungus disease that kills trees; a skin disease known in the Solomons as bakua, named for the fungus
Anuta rapaa kind of skin fungus marked by severe itching, and very difficult to cure

26887

*lampaŋ go

3349

PMP     *lampaŋ go     [disjunct: *lampaq]

WMP
Tboli lafaŋwalk around
Karo Batak lapaŋtrail, path made by animals
Toba Batak lapaŋpath
Bolaang Mongondow lampaŋto step, step over something
Proto-Minahasan *lampaŋwalk
CMP
Bimanese lampawalk

Note:   Also Sundanese lɨmpaŋ ‘walk’, Lauje me-lempaŋE.

26886

*lampaq walk, go

3348

PMP     *lampaq walk, go     [disjunct: *lampaŋ]

WMP
Javanese lampahwalk
Sasak lampaʔwalk, go
Sangir lampastride or step over
Balaesang me-lampato walk
Pendau me-lampato walk
CMP
Bimanese lampawalk

30431

*lapaR hungry

7577

PMP     *lapaR hungry

WMP
Iban laparhungry, famished
Malay laparhunger; craving for food (less correctly of ‘hungering for water’)
  lapar mata‘eye-hungry’: helping oneself to more than one can eat
  lapar susucrying for milk (of a baby)
Karo Batak ŋe-lapar-ito make a child go hungry (as a punishment)
Toba Batak raparsuffer from hunger
  ha-rapar-ondeficiency, scarcity
Old Javanese lapāhunger (also thirst?)
Javanese lapahunger
Sasak lapahhungry
Banggai laalhunger
  ma-laalhungry
CMP
Tetun lahahunger
Yamdena lafarhunger
  na-m-lafarbe hungry
Fordata lafarhunger
  na-b-lafarbe hungry, suffer hunger pangs
Selaru larhungry

Note:   Also Nias lofo ‘hunger’, Sundanese lapar ‘hungry’ (< Malay), Balinese (High) lapa ‘hungry’ (< Javanese).

26922

*la(m)paw exceed, excess

3387

PWMP     *la(m)paw exceed, excess

WMP
Hanunóo lápawexcessive depth (in an agricultural sense this means excessive cultivation)
Aklanon eapáwsurpass, exceed, excel
Cebuano lápawgo above or beyond a certain amount
Malay lampauexcess; too much

26894

*laplap loose (as of clothing)

3356

PAN     *laplap loose (as of clothing)

Formosan
Paiwan laplaploose skin on baby after birth
WMP
Bontok laplapto peel off, as the skin of an orange; make a flap
Cebuano laplápfor clothing to be loose and flapping

26923

*la(m)pus₁ gone, vanished, terminated

3388

PWMP     *la(m)pus₁ gone, vanished, terminated

WMP
Kankanaey lápusgone, vanished, disappeared, out of sight
Javanese lampusdead

Note:   Also Iban lempus ‘over, finished’, Maranao pos ‘end, finish’ suggests the presence of a root *-pus₁.

26924

*la(m)pus₂ pierce, penetrate

3389

PWMP     *la(m)pus₂ pierce, penetrate

WMP
Ilokano lápusexceed, go beyond, pass over, pass through, move past
Cebuano lapuspenetrate, pierce through the opposite side
Maranao laposentirely, wholly
Kadazan hapuspierce, get through
Minangkabau lampusthrough and through
Malay lapusto shoot (sandy) rapids

26895

*laqaD dry stream bed

3357

PWMP     *laqaD dry stream bed

WMP
Hanunóo láʔadbrook or stream which may run dry in the dry season; dry streambed; arroyo
Malay (Kedah) laharpool, mere
Malay (Kelantan) laharpool, mere
Javanese laharhot mud and lava flow
  lahar-anlava-bed

26897

*laq(e)lu rice pestle

3359

PWMP     *laq(e)lu rice pestle     [doublet: *qaSelu]

WMP
Ifugaw lalurice pestle
Kallahan (Kayapa) laʔlurice pestle
Aborlan Tagbanwa laʔlurice pestle
Karo Batak lalurice pestle

30174

*laqia ginger

6972

PMP     *laqia ginger

WMP
Ilokano layáginger, Zingiber officinale, used in native medicine to cure rheumatism, wounds, cough and stomach ache
Dupaningan Agta layáginger, Zingiber officinale
Casiguran Dumagat layáginger, Zingiber officinale (a spice used to flavor viands)
Isneg layáginger
Itawis layáginger
Bontok láyaginger, Zingiber officinale Rosc.
Kankanaey layáginger
Ifugaw láyaginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe. This is extensively cultivated by the Ifugaw; the root only is eaten by them, sliced and boiled in water
Ifugaw (Batad) lāyaginger (grows chiefly in upland fields); ginger root, i.e. the rhizone (used chiefly as a food condiment, and sometimes as a side dish)
Kapampangan láyaginger
Bikol láʔyaginger
Tboli leʔiyeginger, Zingiber officinale
Ida'an Begak ləjoginger
Tombonuwo layoginger
Kadazan hazoginger
Lun Dayeh liəhginger
Kelabit (Bario) lieha small variety of ginger: with ləkoa ‘a large variety of ginger: Alpinia galanga
Kenyah (Long Anap) liaginger
Kenyah (Òma Lóngh) ləzóginger
Berawan (Long Terawan) ləjəhginger
Murik liaʔginger
Kiput ləcihginger
Narum ləjiəhginger
Miri ləjehginger
Bintulu ləzaginger
Singhi Land Dayak roiʔiginger
Iban liaʔginger, plant or rhizome of Zingiber officinale
Jarai rəyaginger
Malay halia <Mginger, Zingiber officinale; used as a drug and as a flavoring for curries
Sangir liaginger, used as a spice with food, and as an ingredient in most medicines, charms and spells, where it is chewed with sirih leaves and then sprayed from the mouth onto the afflicted part
Tontemboan liaSpanish pepper
  lia tanaʔginger
Balaesang láiaginger
Tialo loíaginger
Bare'e leʔiaginger
Tae' laia ~ layakind of ginger which has a somewhat musty odor when the main root is very large
  laya panaʔkind of ginger that has a sharper taste than others
Makasarese laiaginger, Zingiber officinale
  niaʔ laiana(‘he sits in ginger’) = ‘He is of noble descent’
Muna loghiaginger
  loghia ŋkaputewhite ginger
  loghia ŋkadeared ginger
CMP
Bimanese reaginger, Zingiber officinale
Manggarai liaginger, Zingiber officinale
Rembong reaginger, Zingiber officinale
Ngadha leaginger; kind of vegetable used as a remedy
Sika leakind of ginger
Kambera layiaginger
  wai layiaginger water, infusion of ginger used as a stimulant
Rotinese liaginger; spew with (chewed) ginger to make more effective, as a dog to make it bite, a cat to make it a more ferocious mouser, or a net to make it catch more fish
Lamaholot liaginger, Zingiber officinale
Wetan liaginger
Erai liaginger
Leti liaginger
Kei leiiginger, Zingiber officinale; people give pieces of ginger to the dogs to make them more spirited in hunting
SHWNG
Kowiai raʔiaginger
OC
Wuvulu laiaginger
Sori leiginger
Lindrou leyginger
Drehet lipginger
Kuruti liyginger
Penchal laiginger
Lou leiginger
Mussau laiaginger
Tanga laeginger, Zingiber officinale
Nakanai la lahiacultivated ginger (Zingiber sp.); by extension, a warrior
Kairiru leiginger
Gitua laeakind of edible ginger, flower like Phameria magnifica
Nehan laiaplant species, family Zingiberaceae; several types
Kwaio liaginger
Toqabaqita la-laiaginger
Sa'a lieginger, called ‘äi ha‘angäu keni, tree given to women to eat (to enlist their affections); used in malevolent magic it causes boils when put down on a man’s path for him to pass over
'Āre'āre riaa ginger with perfumed roots, used as a medicine by witch doctors; there are several varieties for different diseases
  ria ni marutanaa ginger used to enlist the affections of women
Arosi riaginger, much used in charms

Note:   Also Tagalog lúya, Hiligaynon lúyʔa, Aklanon eúyʔa, Waray-Waray luyʔáʔ, Mansaka loya, Binukid luyʔa ‘ginger, Zingiber officinale’, Masbatenyo lúyʔa ‘ginger root’, Cebuano luyʔá ‘ginger, Zingiber officinale’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) luya, ‘ginger, Zingiber officinale. The rhizomes of the ginger plant are used for flavoring stews’, Tiruray giya ‘ginger’, Tausug luuya, Ngaju Dayak lai, Tae' laa, Kove haia ‘ginger’. Reconstruction of this word raises several formal issues, and suggests cultural practices that reach beyond linguistic reconstruction.

Dyen (1947, 1953) posited PMP *leyqa ‘ginger’ in order to account for the penultimate vowel of forms such as Cebuano luyʔá, but this proposal confuses an innovative doublet *luqia in Proto-Greater Central Philippines with reflexes of *laqia. Apart from these deviant forms, a number of languages have disyllabic words that appear to reflect *lia. In some cases (Kelabit (Bario), Kenyah, Bintulu, Iban, etc.) these can be derived by regular change from *laqia through reduction of the first-syllable vowel to schwa, which then deleted along with the following glottal stop, but in Oceanic languages such as Kwaio or Sa'a this does not work, and forms such as Kwaio lia or Sa'a lie must therefore be regarded either as irregular reductions of *laqia, or as evidence for a possible doublet *lia.

The cultural role of ginger is particularly interesting. Apart from its use as a condiment in cooking, the glosses in several languages show that this plant was used for medicinal purposes from an early time. In this function it evidently was chewed and spewed with saliva onto the afflicted part, as shown in the glosses for Sangir and Rotinese lia. Similar descriptions appear in ethnographic accounts. Fortune (1963:295), for example, notes that among the Dobuans of western Melanesia sorcerors regularly chew ginger and spray it out in practicing sorcery as well as curative medicine: “It is chewed with many healing incantations, apart from the tabu exorcisms which are breathed into water for bathing the patient. With other healing spells it is spat on the seat of illness. The sight of a magician chewing ginger, spitting it onto the object charmed at intervals, and muttering his spell at the same time is a common one at Dobu … It is chewed in all the incantations to ward off a squall at sea and spat towards the lowering squall. It is chewed and bespattered over the canoe, in lashing it with incantation, making it speedy and seaworthy…”.

The puzzling Nakanai gloss, which combines ginger with prowess as a warrior is further illuminated by remarks in Codrington (1972:133) regarding cultural practices on the island of Florida in the central Solomons. A man who is about to go out on a vendetta against his private enemy “will pull up his ginger-plant, and judge from the ease with which it comes out of the earth whether he shall succeed or not; he will make his sacrifice, and with the ginger and leaves on his shield and in his belt and right armlet will go to fight.” As in Dobu, a curer (195) “will chew ginger and blow into the patient’s ears and on that part of the skull which is soft in infants, will call on the name of the tindalo, (ghost) and beg him to remove the sickness.”

Judging from the glosses in Rotinese and Kei in eastern Indonesia ginger provided a stimulant for various kinds of purposes. In particular it evidently was given to dogs to make them more vigorous in hunting. The gloss in Rotinese and the above quote from Fortune on the Dobuans suggest that it was also chewed and spat upon inanimate objects, as a fishing net or canoe to make them more efficacious. These varied uses are all perhaps united by a common thread: given its stimulating taste ginger evidently was conceived as a plant that could impart vitality to other objects, either when chewed and expectorated upon them, as in healing or improving the efficacy of tools such as nets or canoes, or when fed directly to an animal, as in improving the hunting acuity of dogs. When used to confront something negative, as a storm, its supposed supernatural powers act to counter the undesirable effects.

26896

*laqu thirst, hunger

3358

PWMP     *laqu thirst, hunger     [doublet: *daqu]

WMP
Binukid laʔuthirst
Manobo (Sarangani) laʔothirst
Kelabit (Bario) laʔuhhunger
Kenyah (Long Wat) laʔewfamine
Bintulu me-laʔewhungry

26898

*laRaŋ to forbid

3360

PAN     *laRaŋ to forbid

Formosan
Amis lalaŋto forbid, refuse permission
WMP
Malay laraŋto forbid -- of prohibition affecting a person or class of persons

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *laraŋ ‘forbid’, but based his reconstruction entirely on western Indonesian (including Malagasy) evidence.

26899

*laRiw run, run away, flee, escape

3361

PAN     *laRiw run, run away, flee, escape

Formosan
Kavalan m-RaRiwrun, run away
Amis laliwleave behind; desert, escape
WMP
Hanunóo lagíwrunning
Cebuano lagíwrun away, escape from a place
Maranao lagoy <Mrush, hurry
Tboli meloy (< *l-um-aRiw) <Mrun
Samal lahi-lahito run
Iban larirun away, make off, cause to run away, take away
  rari <Arun away, escape
Malay larigo at a run; escape; evasion
Old Javanese a-layūrun, run away, take flight, flee
Sasak rariʔ (with secondary final glottal stop) <Atake something and flee
Bolaang Mongondow laguyflee, run away, escape
Makasarese larirun, run away, flee
CMP
Hawu rairun, run away, flee
Rotinese lairun away, flee
Kambera laito run (only in the expression njara lai 'a racing horse')
Leti larirun
Wetan larirun
Soboyo lahirun, run away, flee

3362

PAN     *ma-laRiw run, run away, flee

Formosan
Pazeh ma-raxiwflee, escape, run away
Kavalan m-RaRiwrun, run away
WMP
Hanunóo ma-lagíwrun, will run
Old Javanese ma-layūrun, run away, take flight, flee
CMP
Rotinese ma-lairun away, flee

3363

PMP     *pa-laRiw run away, flee; flight, escape; fugitive

WMP
Aklanon pa-eagíwrun away and hide, avoid
Maranao pa-lagoyrun away, escape; flight; elope
Tiruray fe-rareyrun away, escape or flee
Malay pe-larifugitive
  pelari aŋinthe sport of the wind
  budak pelariboy who keeps playing truant
Old Javanese pa-layūrunning, running away, flight
Javanese p-layurunning pace
Sasak pe-lairun, flee
  pe-rariʔflight
Bolaang Mongondow po-laguyflight
Makasarese pa-larirunner, running, flight
Wolio pa-laiflee, run away
Chamorro fa-lagurun (imper.), move swiftly, hasten, go rapidly; elope, escape, flee
CMP
Hawu pe-rairun, flee, run away
  dou do peraifugitive
Kambera pa-lairun, run away, flee
Tetun ha-laiflee, run away
Wetan w(a)-lariflee
Leti wa-larirun
SHWNG
Numfor-Biak f-rārrun, run away, flee

3364

PWMP     *pa-laRiw-an running, running away, flight

WMP
Malay pe-lari-anact of running fast
Old Javanese pa-layw-anrunning, running away, flight
Makasarese pa-lari-aŋrunning, running away

Note:   Also Itbayaten ma-yayuh ‘to run’, Itawis pa-ladyaw ‘run’, Bontok layaw ‘flee, run away, clear out’, and Tagalog lagyóʔ ‘spirit’ (the latter included under *laRiw ‘flee’ by Dempwolff (1934-38), but excluded here). As with the parallel discrepancy in PAn *balija or *baRija ‘weavers sword’ the Formosan languages indicate *R as the initial consonant of this item, while the MP languages indicate *l. I have posited several morphologically complex forms of *laRiw, although a distinctive meaning is not always apparent for these, as with *ma-laRiw. The form *pa-laRiw requires special comment, as its reflexes have survived in some languages when a reflex of *laRiw has not. In languages such as Tiruray, Wolio and Chamorro (Koroni), Tetun (CMP), and Numfor-Biak (South Halmahera-West New Guinea), the morpheme boundary that is recognized is purely historical, and is marked by = to distinguish it from the similar synchronic morpheme boundary in forms such as Malay lari, pe-lari.

It is an interesting question why the morpheme boundary should have been lost more commonly in reflexes of *pa-laRiw than in reflexes of other morphologically complex forms of *laRiw. One might argue that affixes differed in how tightly they were bound to the stem. However, this should be generally true and not specific to particular lexical items. Moreover, just what tightness of binding might mean is obscure except in terms of text frequency. Perhaps *pa-laRiw occurred with particularly high text frequency because it not only signaled the abstract notion of flight or escape, but also the actor ("fugitive; one who has eloped"). In some descendants of PMP reflexes of *pa-laRiw may have occurred with higher text frequency than reflexes of *laRiw, thus favoring the survival of the bi-morphemic word even when the stem itself passed out of use.

30196

*lasa tame, accustomed, used to

7023

POC     *lasa tame, accustomed, used to

OC
Tolai tame, domesticated, of animals; be accustomed, be acclimatized
Fijian lasaeasy, contented, tame, accustomed
Tongan latato feel at home or at ease, to be comfortable or happy and contented; to be friendly or at ease with
Rennellese gatato be tame, unafraid, as a pet or child
  haa-gatato tame
  he-gata-ʔakibe congenial, accustomed to one another
Futunan lataused to, familiar with
Samoan latabe tame; be used to, familiar with; close to, close by
  faʔa-latadraw near (in order to get something); tame
  lata-latabe near; to approach, come close to
Tuvaluan faka-latatame
Kapingamarangi gai dala <Mtame
Nukuoro dala <Mtame; not be timid or uneasy in another’s presence
Maori ratatame, quiet; familiar, friendly
Hawaiian lakatame, domesticated, gentle; attracted to, fond of; to tame, domesticate, attract
  hoʔo-lakato tame, domesticate; to treat with kindness, as a child or animal, so as to familiarize with one

Note:   This form may have been *lacam, but the available reflexes do not allow the reconstruction of a final consonant or disambiguate the medial obstruent.

26900

*lasaŋ bare, bald

3365

PWMP     *lasaŋ bare, bald

WMP
Tboli lasaŋmoulting fowls; dry, dead tree without leaves
Kayan (Uma Juman) lasaŋbare, of a field without grass; bald

26901

*lasem sour

3366

PWMP     *lasem sour     [doublet: *qasem]

WMP
Isneg lassámvinegar, sour
Casiguran Dumagat lasemsour
Maranao ma-lasemsour
Kelabit (Bario) laamsour

30432

*laseR scrotum and testicles

7578

PMP     *laseR scrotum and testicles

WMP
Ida'an Begak lasogtesticles
Banggai lasopenis; young boy
CMP
Li'o ae lasetesticles
Erai lasarpenis
Selaru lasapenis
Asilulu lasescrotum
  lase hatutesticle (lit. ‘scrotum stone’)

7579

POC     *lasoR testicles

OC
Mussau lasotesticles
Mota laso-itesticles; a big boar pig
Central Maewo lasotesticles
Araki laso-testicles
Tonga na laho-ntesticles
Nakanamanga na-lasotesticles
Tongan lahoscrotum and testicles
Niue lahoscrotum
  teŋa lahotesticle (lit. ‘seed of scrotum’)
Futunan laso-fuaelephantiasis of the scrotum (lit. ‘fruit scrotum/testicles’)
Rennellese gasoscrotum
  kai gasoscrotum eater (a curse)
Anuta raotesticle
Samoan lasoscrotum
  laso mimihydrocele
Tuvaluan lahotesticle; scrotum
Rarotongan raʔotesticle; the scrotum and its contents
Maori rahotesticle; labia majora
Hawaiian lahoterm of abuse; male, as pipi laho ‘bull’, pua’a laho

Note:   Also Sasak (Jantuk) laso ‘penis’. It is unclear whether this term referred to the scrotum and the testicles or just to the scrotum, since the word for testicles in some languages is ‘seed’ or ‘fruit’ of the scrotum, where the latter is a reflex of *laseR.

26893

*lantaŋ take one's time

3355

PWMP     *lantaŋ take one's time

WMP
Hanunóo lántaŋduration of time
  lantaŋ-ánlong time
Iban lantaŋunhurried, take one's time

Note:   Also Sasak lantan ‘long, protracted’.

26892

*lantaw to float

3354

PWMP     *lantaw to float     [disjunct: *le(ŋ)taw]

WMP
Bikol latáwbuoyant
Bisaya (Bukit) lantaw-lantawbob on the surface of the water
  l-em-antawfloat
Kayan lataua float (large or small)
Wolio lantofloat

Note:   Also Tiruray rantaw ‘float’.

26926

*la(n)t(e)qas go directly, take a shortcut

3391

PWMP     *la(n)t(e)qas go directly, take a shortcut

WMP
Aklanon eátʔastry to get to some place by a route not ordinarily taken
  pa-eatʔas-anshortcut
Cebuano latáscross or pass through
  latʔásgo straight across something; take a shortcut
Malay lantasproceeding forthwith to
Karo Batak lantascross a river

30048

*lantiŋ tie together, of floating objects

6748

PWMP     *lantiŋ tie together, of floating objects

WMP
Cebuano lántiŋfor boats with no anchor or floats to tie up to or together with another boat
Kayan (Uma Juman) ŋə-lantiŋto float
Iban lantiŋanything used for support in water
Malay lantiŋhouse built on a raft

26902

*latiq swampy ground

3367

PWMP     *latiq swampy ground

WMP
Tagalog látiʔswamp
Bintulu latiʔriverbank

Note:   Also Kiput ladeiʔ ‘swampy forest’. Blust (1973:48) assigned Tagalog latiʔ to *latiq ‘swidden farm’. Zorc (1985) unites these etyma as "PHes" *latiq ‘swidden; wetland’, but the meanings he combines would appear to be mutually incompatible.

26925

*la(n)tuk curved, bowed

3390

PAN     *la(n)tuk curved, bowed

Formosan
Bunun latukbow-like musical instrument
WMP
Tiruray lontuk <Aconcavely curved

Note:   With root *-tuk₁ ‘bend, curve’.

26903

*latuq edible seaweed sp.

3368

PMP     *latuq edible seaweed sp.

WMP
Cebuano látuʔbranching, semitransparent seaweed, greenish in color and edible
Malay latohedible sea-worm or seaweed, sp. unident.
CMP
Rotinese latukind of edible seaweed
Yamdena latuseaweed sp.

26905

*lauŋ howl

3370

PMP     *lauŋ howl     [disjunct: *rauŋ]

WMP
Malay lauŋa call or summons in loud tone
CMP
Buruese launcry out
SHWNG
Buli lauto howl, of dogs

26904

*lauR circular opening

3369

PWMP     *lauR circular opening

WMP
Ilokano láogloop, eye, hole (of a noose, link, ring, etc.)
Malay laurcurve; numerical coefficient for ring-shaped objects

26908

*lawa₁ wide

3373

PAN     *lawa₁ wide     [doublet: *lawas₁]

Formosan
Paiwan me-lawawide
WMP
Isneg láwalarge, broad, wide (used in songs)
Casiguran Dumagat lawawide, loose, big
Ilokano láwawide, spacious, extensive, broad, large, roomy, loose, ample
CMP
Palu'e lawalong
Fordata lawalength

Note:   Also Yamdena lawas ‘length’, Kei lawar ‘breadth’.

30662

*lawa₂ spider

8180

PWMP     *lawa₂ spider     [doublet: *lawaq₂]

WMP
Tagalog lawa-lawáspiderweb; species of spider
Hanunóo láwaa generic term for spiders, very few of which are given specific names
  lawa-láwasimple string figures, or cat’s cradles, made with strings of seed beads
Mamanwa lawaspider
Kenyah kə-lawaspider
Kayan te-lawaʔspiders of various species
Kayan (Uma Juman) tə-lawaʔspider
Malay lawa-lawaspider
Rejang laweaspider

Note:   Also Malay laba-laba, labah-labah ‘spider; generic for all spiders’

26909

*lawan kind of long fishnet

3374

PMP     *lawan kind of long fishnet     [disjunct: *lawaq₁]

WMP
Moken lawanfish with a net (large); throw a line, angle
CMP
Kambera lawaŋuspiderweb
OC
Loniu lawkind of long, narrow fishnet
Arosi rawasmall net
  rawa-rawacatch fish or turtles with a net
Fijian lawathe Fijian fishing net

Note:   Proto-Ambon *lawar ‘fishing line’ is apparently distinct.

30233

*lawaq₁ dip net, scoop net

7101

PMP     *lawaq₁ dip net, scoop net     [disjunct: *lawan]

WMP
Kayan lawaʔhand net made from bark twine
Kayan (Uma Juman) lawaʔdip net
Chamorro laguaʔscoop net, hand net
OC
Loniu lawkind of long, narrow fishnet
Arosi rawasmall net
  rawa-rawacatch fish or turtles with a net
Fijian lawathe Fijian fishing net

30661

*lawaq₂ spider; spiderweb

8177

PAN     *lawaq₂ spider; spiderweb     [doublet: *lawa₂]

Formosan
Siraya rawaspider
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) waraH <Mspiderweb

8178

PMP     *lawaq₂ₐ spider; spiderweb

WMP
Itbayaten ax-xaawaspider
Ilokano lawwa-lawwáspider
Bikol láwaʔspider
Kalamian Tagbanwa lawakspider
Palawan Batak láwaʔspider
Hiligaynon láwaʔspiderweb
Aklanon eáwaʔspider
Masbatenyo láwaʔspider
Waray-Waray láwaʔspider
Romblomanon lāwaʔspider
Cebuano láwaʔspider
Mapun lawaʔspider
Maranao la-lawaʔspider
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kele-lawaʔspider
Mansaka lawaʔspider; spiderweb
Binukid la-lawaʔspider (generic)
Tausug lawaʔspider
Lun Dayeh (te)ke-lawaʔspider
Kayan (Uma Juman) tə-lawaʔspider
Ngaju Dayak lawasmall yellow spider that is eaten, and which tastes like a sea crab; spiderweb
Ma'anyan lawaʔspider
Kapuas ganda-lawaʔspider
Nias lawaspider
  mo-lawato overcome
Sundanese lancahspider
  ŋa-lancahdo as a spider does (not work, wait around expecting that the means of subsistence will arrive on their own)
  imah lancahspiderweb (lit. ‘house of the spider’)
Tajio paŋga-lafaspider
Tae' laaspider
Bolaang Mongondow tonto-ḷawaʔspider
CMP
Dobel llakʷa (< *la-lawaq)spider
Alune kʷala <Mspider
SHWNG
Buli kopo-lawspider
OC
Nali ŋo-yawspiderweb
Loniu wɨ-lawspider
  umʷe-n wɨ-lawspiderweb
Bipi wi-lawspiderweb, net
Titan ñakapʷe-lawspider
Likum kaano-lewspider
Leipon we-lawspiderweb
Ahus we-lawspiderweb
Kuruti oh-lowspider
  omʷe-n oh-lowspiderweb
Lele drak-lowlarge spider
  ŋo-yawspall spider
Kele ka-lew-lewspider
Penchal tantan-lawspider
Nauna canda-lawspider
Wogeo lawaspider
Wedau nawacobweb
Talise laospider
Lau lakʷaspecies of large yellow spider and large web
Toqabaqita lakʷaspecies of spider, very large
Sa'a lawaspider’s web, spider
'Āre'āre rawaa spider; cobweb
Arosi rawaa small net; a cobweb (used in fishing with a kite); a spider
Bauro rawaspider
Lelepa laospiderweb
Pwele ka-laospiderweb

8189

PMP     *ka-lawaq spider

WMP
Lun Dayeh kə-lawaʔ ~ kəkə-lawaʔspider
Berawan (Long Terawan) kə-lawaʔspider
Tiruray ke-lawaʔ-lawaʔany kind of spider that makes a web
CMP
Manggarai ke-lawakind of spider that nests underground


Note:   Possibly a reduction of earlier kələ-lawaʔ (cp. Kelabit (Bario) kələ-lawaʔ ~ kə-lawaʔ ‘spider’.

8190

PWMP     *kala-lawaʔ spider

WMP
Aborlan Tagbanwa kala-láwaʔspider
Kelabit (Bario) kələ-lawaʔspider


Note:   Probably with a variant of the *qalikali- prefix found on the names of many ‘creepy-crawly’ creatures that evidently were protected by a taboo against random killing (Blust 2001).

8179

PMP     *lawaq-lawaq spiderweb

WMP
Ibanag a-lawa-lawaspider
Aklanon eawáʔ-eawáʔcobweb, spiderweb
Masbatenyo lawaʔ-láwaʔcobweb, spiderweb
Cebuano láwaʔ-láwaʔspiderweb
Yakan lawaʔ-lawaʔspiderweb, cobweb
Simalur awal-awalspider
Karo Batak lawah-lawahspider, spiderweb
Wolio lawa-lawakind of small spider
Proto-South Sulawesi *lawa-lawaspider
Mandar lawa-lawaspider (Mills 1975)
Nias lawa-lawaspider
CMP
Asilulu lawa-lawaspider
  lawa-lawa taispiderweb (lit. ‘spider feces’)
Hotti/Hoti lawa-lawaspider
OC
Fijian (tā)-lawa-lawacobweb

8191

PWMP     *la-lawaq spiderweb

WMP
Sangir lə-lawaspiderweb
Ngaju Dayak la-lawaspider

Note:   Also Bontok kawá, Ibaloy ka-kawa ‘spider’, Simalur lawal-lawal ‘spider’, Lau lagwa ‘spider; spider web’, Mota marawa ‘spider’. In many languages this base is embedded in a larger word. In a few cases, as with Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kele-lawaʔ the first two syllables may reflect the *qalikali- prefix, but in many others the preceding phonemic material has no known meaning or function.

It is possible that *lawaq₁ ‘dip net, scoop net’ and *lawaq₂ ‘spider, spiderweb’ are the same form, in which the meaning ‘spiderweb’ has been extended to include other similar-sized weblike structures, such as the hand nets or dip nets used to catch small aquatic prey.

26906

*lawas₁ wide, broad

3371

PAN     *lawas₁ wide, broad     [doublet: *lawa₁]

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) rawaswide, broad
CMP
Yamdena lawaslength

Note:   Also Singhi Land Dayak tawas ‘wide (spacious)’, Malay luas ‘spacious, broad’.

26907

*lawas₂ body

3372

PWMP     *lawas₂ body

WMP
Bilaan (Koronadal) lawɨhbody
Mansaka lawasbody
Maranao laoasbody
Kejaman lagwabody
Melanau (Mukah) lawaihnumeral classifier for people

Note:   Zorc (1971) posits PPh *lawas ‘body’.

26910

*lawaʔ to drop by, pay a visit

3375

PWMP     *lawaʔ to drop by, pay a visit

WMP
Tboli lawaa friendly visit
Iban lawaʔcome, go to (to visit) (Scott 1956)

30200

*lawi₁ long tail feathers of bird or rooster

7029

PMP     *lawi₁ long tail feathers of bird or rooster

WMP
Ilokano lawíplume, showy feathers in a cock’s tail
Isneg lawíthe sickles or sickle feathers of a fowl
Bontok lawísickle feathers of a rooster’s tail, used as a hat decoration and also as packing on the plungers of bellows
Tagalog lawítail feather of roosters
Bikol lawíthe long tail feather of a fowl; quill, plume
Hanunóo lawítail feather(s); specifically, those of the wild jungle fowl; frequently bound together and used as plume decorations stuck in men’s arm bands
Cebuano láwisickle feather, one of the long curved feathers in the tail of domestic cocks
  lawí-an ~ lawí-hanname given to fish of various families that have filamentous projections, usually from the fins
Maranao lawitail
  lawi a alawground orchid: Habenaria sp.
  lawi a manokplants: Digitaria Argyrostachya A. Camus, Sporobolus diandrus Retz./Beauv.
  lawi-antail
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lawithe long tail feather of a rooster
Binukid lawisickle feathers, one of the long curved feathers in the tail of a rooster
Mansaka lawitail feathers of a rooster (used to decorate hats)
Malay lawicurving feather or fin
  lawi ayamtail feather of fowl
  ikan lawi ayamsmall anchovy
  lawi parifin under a ray’s tail
Gayo lawitail feathers of a rooster
Bare'e laithe long tail feathers of birds, especially of fowls
CMP
Manggarai lawilong tail feathers of a rooster; various plants, including Justicia procumbens, Asystasia intrusa, Dicliptera sp., Peristrophe sp., Lepidagathis sp.
Rembong lawe ~ lawithe two long feathers in the tail of a rooster
Tetun manu lai-nthe long tail feathers of a rooster
Hawu (ru)laitail
OC
Vitu la-lawitail feather
Fijian lawe-nathe larger feathers of a bird (the smaller feathers are vuti-na)
Tongan lavefeeler, antenna, as of a lobster; long tail feather, as of a rooster or a tavake (tropic bird)
  faka-la-lavetry to find out in an indirect way; to ‘put out feelers’

7030

PWMP     *lawi-lawi something that resembles a tail feather (?)

WMP
Ilokano lawi-lawiplume, showy feathers in a cock’s tail
Isneg law-lawí, lawí anúʔa common herb whose green leaves resemble the sickle feathers of a cock
Cebuano lawi-láwisomething like a tail feather
  lawi-láwi sa kúgunthe flower of the cogon grass
Bahasa Indonesia (lawi)-lawilong curved tail feather of rooster or bird
Toba Batak lai-laithe long tail feathers of birds
  eme na paŋa-lai-lai-onriceplant that stands tall and beautiful like the tail feathers of a cock, but is empty of grain
Mentawai lei-leitail feathers of a fowl

Note:   Also Itbayaten rawi ‘tail feather’.

30201

*lawi₂ top of a tree, tip, extremity

7031

PWMP     *lawi₂ top of a tree, tip, extremity

WMP
Ngaju Dayak lawitip, end, top (of a tree, etc.)
Angkola-Mandailing Batak lai-laitip, extremity
Nias laipeak, crown, as of a tree

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) assigned Ngaju Dayak lawi to *lawi ‘long tail feathers of a rooster’. However, the evidence to hand suggests that *lawi₁ and *lawi₂ are distinct comparisons, and until cognates are available that allow the semantic gap between them to be bridged more convincingly the similarity between them will be treated as a case of homophony rather than polysemy.

26911

*lawit hook

3376

PMP     *lawit hook     [doublet: *kawit]

WMP
Tagalog lawitsickle, hook
Chamorro laguetcatch with a hook
CMP
Buruese lawitsingle-barbed harpoon; barbed spear

26912

*layak purpose, intention

3377

PWMP     *layak purpose, intention

WMP
Maranao layakpurpose, intention, desire
Karo Batak layakstate, condition; nature of one's mind or heart

26913

*layap to fly

3378

PAN     *layap to fly

Formosan
Saisiyat lʸ<om>ayapto fly
Paiwan layapto fly
WMP
Manobo (Ilianen) layapto fly
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) layapbe blown by the wind

Note:   Also Itbayaten s-um-ayap ‘to fly, soar’, Ifugaw táyap ‘flight of birds, bats, insects that can fly’, Ilokano tayáb ‘to fly’.

30369

*layaR sail

7409

PAN     *layaR sail

Formosan
Kavalan RayaRsail of a raft or boat; cloth around a threshing machine
Paiwan la-layaa flag, banner
  pu-la-layato raise a flag, fly a banner
WMP
Casiguran Dumagat layágsail; sailboat; to sail, to travel by sailboat
Tagalog láyagsail of a boat
Bikol láyagsail
  para-láyagone who sails, a fisherman
Hiligaynon láyagsail (for a boat)
Aklanon eayágsail [of boat]
Masbatenyo láyagsail
Waray-Waray láyagsail
Cebuano láyagsail of a boat; put up the sail
Maranao layagsail
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) layagthe sail of a water craft; to sail in a sailing craft
Mansaka layagto sail, to set sail
Mapun a sail (on a boat)
Tausug layaga sail (the square sail used on small boats)
Ida'an Begak layaga sail
  gə-layagto sail
Kadazan hazagsail
Tombonuwo layagsail
  l<um>ayagto sail
Bintulu lazəhsail
Melanau (Mukah) layahsail
Malagasy laya tent; a sail
Iban layarsail
Malay layarsail
Acehnese layeuësail
  meu-layeuëgo on a trip, to sail, be under sail, at sea
Simalur laealsail
  ma-laealto sail, set out on a voyage
Toba Batak rearsail
Nias loyosail
  mo-loyoto sail, travel over the sea
Rejang layeasail
  be-layeato sail
Sundanese layarsail; to sail, make a voyage
  pa-layar-ansea voyage
Balinese layahsail of a boat; to sail in a boat
Sasak layarsail
  be-layarto sail
Bolaang Mongondow leagsail
  l<um>eagto sail
Totoli leagsail
  mogu-leagto sail
Lauje layagsail
  mo-layagto sail
Palauan yarssail
Chamorro layakmast; sails
CMP
Komodo lajahsail; to sail
Manggarai lajarsail; to sail
Rembong lazarsail (of a boat)
Kambera lírusail; banner
Rotinese lathe sail of a boat
Tetun laa-nsails (of boat)
  ro laa-nsail a boat
Lamaholot lajasail
Leti larasail
Wetan larasail; to sail
Dobel ʔa-larto sail
OC
Yapese laaysail
Motu laraa large mat sail of lagatoi, a ship’s sail
Dobuan naiasail
Proto-Micronesian *leasail
Vowa n-laisail
Nakanamanga na-laesail
Rotuman läesail; canvas
Wayan lacasail of a boat
  vaka-lacahave a sail, with sails
Fijian lacaa sail
Tongan sail; canvas
Niue sail
Samoan sail
Tuvaluan laasail
Futunan sail; sheet
Rennellese gaasail
Kapingamarangi laasail
Nukuoro laasail
Anuta raasail
Rarotongan the name of the ancient mat-sail that was used on ocean-going canoes
Maori sail
Hawaiian sail; dorsal fin

7410

PWMP     *maR-layaR to sail, set sail

WMP
Tagalog mag-láyagto sail, set sail
Masbatenyo mag-láyagto sail, set sail
Tausug mag-layagto sail (to a place)
Malagasy mi-layto go upon the sea, as a ship or canoe carried by sails
Malay ber-layarto sail
Toba Batak mar-rearto sail

7411

PCEMP     *pa-layaR to sail

SHWNG
Buli fa-laisail; to sail, go on a trip
OC
Penchal pa-leysail
Loniu pe-leysail
Sori ba-reysail
Lindrou ba-leysail
Bipi pa-leysail
Mussau pa-lesail

Note:   Also Ilokano láyag ‘sail (of a ship)’, ag-láyag ‘to sail’, Dupaningan Agta layag ‘sail of a boat’ (from Ilokano), Kapampangan láyag ‘sail’, mag-láyag ‘to sail’ (probably from Tagalog), Hanunóo láyag ‘sail (not currently used by the Hanunóo)’, mag-láyag ‘to sail’ (probably from Tagalog), Tiruray layag ‘a sail; to sail’ (< Maranao or another Danaw language), Karo Batak layar ‘sail’, er-layar ‘to sail’ (probably from Malay), Chamorro laʔyak ‘mast, sails’.

30240

*layu wither, wilt

7111

PAN     *layu wither, wilt

Formosan
Saisiyat lʸay-lʸayowither
WMP
Itbayaten xayoidea of withering
Mapun layuwilted or withered (as plants, leaves, etc.)
  ŋa-layubecome wilted or withered
Kelabit (Bario) layuhwither
  ŋe-layuto make something wither, as by putting it close to the fire
  l<em>ayuhto wither (as a plant withering of its own accord)
Kayan l<em>ayoʔdevastated; ravaged; completely destroyed
Ngaju Dayak layuwithering; what is withered or wilted
  la-layuwilted a bit
  mampa-layuto wither plants (by a fire)
Malagasy layofading, withering (leaves, grass, wood)
  vua-lazofaded, withered
Iban layuʔwither, scorched, dry (as leaves because of a long drought)
Malay layusere; yellowing; to fade and die; a polite expression for growing pale and ill, and even for death
  padi layu-layu-anrice losing its bright green color
Gayo layuwilted; pale, as a person’s face
Sundanese layuto pine away; wilt, wilted
  le-layu sekarhalf worn-out (poetic: ‘wilted flower’)
  layu-andead body, corpse
Old Javanese a-layulanguishing, withering
  layw-anfallen (picked) and fading flower
Javanese layuto wither, fade
  ke-layuto feel one has been deserted
  le-layudeath
Balinese layufade, wither
Sasak layuwilted; worn out (of clothing)
Tae' layuwilted, withered; to wither something (as by placing it near a fire); a corpse of trifling importance, for which the minimal death ritual is performed; used euphemistically of a corpse that has been interred without first performing the death ritual
  taŋ ka-layu-anof an entire family, not affected by the death of someone in his youth (used in the supplication for long life)
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *layuwither
Muna leuwither (as vegetables that are not cooked soon after picking)

7112

PMP     *ma-layu wilted, withered

WMP
Itbayaten ma-xayoto be dried, to dry, to wither, to wilt
Mapun ma-layuwilted, withered
Tae' ma-layuwilted, withered
Chamorro ma-layuwilted, dry (leaves), showing lack of fluid
CMP
Mamboru ma-layuwilted, withered

7113

PWMP     *pa-layu make something wither, let something wither or wilt

WMP
Mapun pa-layuallow something to wilt or wither
Ngaju Dayak pa-la-layumake something wither a little

Note:   Also Bontok leyáw ‘to be withered, of plants’, Cebuano layʔú ‘for plants to wither from being in the heat after being uprooted or damaged by wind’, Bintulu layuʔ ‘wither’, Ngaju Dayak ma-layoh ‘wither, withered (of trees)’, Iban layus ‘wither, scorched, dry’, Kambera laï ‘withered, wilted’, Arosi marasi ‘withered’ (*ma-layu would regularly yield Arosi **marasu).

The basic meaning of this term seems clearly to have been ‘to wilt, wither’ with respect to the natural process of gradual desiccation that takes place in plant material that has been plucked, or with leaves on deciduous trees in the season of death, or falling leaves. The parallel between this process and that of a declining life force and eventual death in humans was seen and elaborated in several parts of western Indonesia, as seen in the glosses of the Malay, Sundanese, Javanese, and especially Tae' (southern Toraja) forms. Only a portion of the layu-expressions relating to death in Tae' have been cited here, and it is quite clear that this group, which is known for its elaborate mortuary rites, maintained a rich association of the idea of withering or wilting in the plant world with that of death in the human world, perhaps initially through euphemism.

TOP      le    li    lo    lu    

le

30505

*lemba to carry on a shoulder pole

7734

PCMP     *lemba to carry on a shoulder pole

CMP
Tetun lebato carry or transport any object from the ends of a pole with the center supported by the shoulder
Buruese leba-hto carry on a carrying pole

Note:   Also Tetun lebo ‘to carry or transport any object from the ends of a pole with the center’.

26979

*le(m)baŋ valley, watercourse between hills

3445

PWMP     *le(m)baŋ valley, watercourse between hills     [disjunct: *le(m)beŋ]

WMP
Iban lembaŋvalley, stream between two hills
Dairi-Pakpak Batak lembaŋvalley, watercourse between two hills or mountains

Note:   Also Ilokano lúboŋ ‘valley’.

26978

*le(m)baq valley, watercourse between hills

3444

PWMP     *le(m)baq valley, watercourse between hills     [doublet: *le(m)bak]

WMP
Malay lembahmeadow-land; low-lying land
Old Javanese lembahlow-lying ground, valley
Javanese lembahlow-lying ground (Pigeaud 1938); valley (Horne 1974)
Balinese lebahdecline (ground), slope downwards; valley, hollow
Sasak lebahvalley
Palauan ióbeʔravine, valley

Note:   Nothofer (1975:135) posits "Proto-Malayo-Javanic" *ləbah ‘meadow-land, low-lying land’.

26937

*lebék to pound (rice, etc.) in a mortar

3403

PPh     *lebék to pound (rice, etc.) in a mortar

WMP
Ilokano lebbéksmash, pound in the mortar (with a pestle). Cooked rice, bananas, dodomén or roasted immature rice, etc.
Palawan Batak lībīkpound rice
Kalamian Tagbanwa lībīkpound rice; wreck, demolish
Mansaka lībīkpound rice

Note:   With root *-bek ‘sound of breaking, etc.’.

26980

*le(m)beŋ valley

3446

PWMP     *le(m)beŋ valley     [disjunct: *le(m)bak, *le(m)baŋ, *le(m)baq]

WMP
Iban lembaŋvalley, stream between two hills
Bolaang Mongondow loboŋvalley, low-lying area

30269

*lebeŋ to bury

7171

PAN     *lebeŋ to bury

Formosan
Saisiyat lʸ<om>əbəŋto bury
WMP
Casiguran Dumagat ləbəŋgrave; to bury a dead person or animal
  pəg-ləbŋ-anburial place
Tagalog libíŋburial; act of burying; interment
  mag-libíŋbury, lay to rest
  libíŋ-angrave, tomb
Bikol mag-lubóŋbury a corpse; inter, entomb
  maki-lubóŋto attend a funeral
  pag-lubóŋfuneral
  lubuŋ-áncemetery, graveyard
  l<in>ubŋ-ángrave, tomb
Hanunóo lúbuŋgrave; ground burial as opposed to cave burial
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) leveŋgrave; to bury
Maranao lebeŋbury; burial; grave
Malagasy mi-levinaburied; to stay for a long time
  tafa-levinaburied unintentionally
  voa-levinaburied, interred
  leven-anaa funeral
  fan-deven-anafuneral, funeral ceremonies (used more frequently than leven-ana)
Karo Batak lebeŋhole made with a dibble stick for sowing seed
Toba Batak loboŋthe hole one makes in the earth in order to sow maize or rice
Bolaang Mongondow i-loboŋ-angrave, tomb
  loboŋ-onit must be buried, bury it!
Totoli mo-loboŋto bury
CMP
Paulohi lohonehole in the ground

7747

POC     *lopoŋ to bury

OC
Gedaged lofa pit, hole, grave, mine
Vitu lovograve

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) also included Fijian lovo ‘native pit oven’, but it is not at all clear that this form belongs with the other cited here.

26935

*lebet set close together, dense, luxuriant

3401

PMP     *lebet set close together, dense, luxuriant

WMP
Ilokano labbétflock together, gather in crowds
Iban lebatdense (foliage), abundant (fruit), heavy (rain)
Malay lebatset closely together, dense; heavy (of rain)
Sundanese lɨbɨt(of a fruit tree) bear much fruit; be richly laden
CMP
Manggarai lebetdense, luxuriant (of vegetation)

26974

*le(b)leb forfeit (a pledge, etc.)

3440

PWMP     *le(b)leb forfeit (a pledge, etc.)

WMP
Maranao leleblose property pawned due to failure to pay; foreclosure
Malay lelapforfeit (a pledge)
Old Javanese lelebexpired, lapsed, forfeited
Balinese leblebbe forfeited (a pledge)

26936

*lebug mud, muddy water

3402

PWMP     *lebug mud, muddy water

WMP
Maranao lebogmuddy water
Old Javanese lebugmud

Note:   Maranao lebog may reflect *lebuR ‘dirty (of water), murky’.

26938

*lecik fly off, of solid bits or water droplets

3404

PAN     *lecik fly off, of solid bits or water droplets

Formosan
Amis lciksmall broken pieces that have flown and landed someplace
WMP
Buginese lessikspattered

Note:   With root *-cik ‘fly out, splash, spatter’.

26939

*lecit, lesit squeeze out, squirt out

3405

PMP     *lecit, lesit squeeze out, squirt out     [doublet: *lecut 'slip away, escape']

WMP
Tiruray lesitslip or force something out a hole in its container
Malay lecitbe squeezed into squirting out, as a pip out of certain fruits, or of matter from a boil
Bahasa Indonesia me-lesitsquirt out
Iban lesittake out the kernel
CMP
Manggarai lesitslippery

Note:   Also Kelabit (Bario) besit ‘squirt out (as pus from a pimple)’, Kiput luséːt ‘come out, go out’. Mills’ (1975: 759) Proto-South Sulawesi ?*lɨssu(C) ‘be born, set free’ almost certainly is identical with *lecut ‘slip away, escape’.

26940

*lecut squeeze out, slip out

3406

PWMP     *lecut squeeze out, slip out

WMP
Iban lecut(of knots, ropes, etc.) slip, become loose, come off
Malay lecutsqueeze out the contents of anything
Tae' lessuʔloose, free
Mandar lassuʔfree (from a cage, fetters)
Makasarese lassuʔbe born

Note:   With root *-cut ‘slip out or off’.

26985

*le(ŋ)gur thunder

3451

PMP     *le(ŋ)gur thunder

WMP
Karo Batak leŋgurthunder
CMP
Rembong legurthunder

Note:   With root *-gur ‘purr, rumble’.

26986

*le(ŋ)kab open, uncover

3452

PWMP     *le(ŋ)kab open, uncover

WMP
Maranao lekabtake off, as petiole of banana leaf, separate
Sangir lekabeʔpull off, take off (as a piece of paper that has been glued on to something)
Bare'e lokaopen, undo fastenings, uncover
Wolio loŋkaget loose, come off, become detached, peel off

Note:   With root *-kab ‘open, uncover’.

26988

*le(ŋ)kaŋ separate, disunite

3454

PMP     *le(ŋ)kaŋ separate, disunite

WMP
Ilokano lekkáŋseparate, disunite, sever, sunder
Kayan lekaŋa gap
Iban lekaŋ lekaŋwide open
Malay lekaŋbursting or cracking, as under the influence of heat; easily shelled, of fruit of which the outer shell does not adhere to the flesh
Bolaang Mongondow loŋkaŋloosening of the outer skin
CMP
Manggarai lekaŋuntie, open, separate (as two people who are fighting)

26987

*le(ŋ)kaq to split open

3453

PMP     *le(ŋ)kaq to split open

WMP
Maranao lekaʔto open
Muna leŋkato open
Malay lekahsplitting, to crack
Tae' lakkasplit, burst
CMP
Manggarai lehaseparate
Sika lekasplit small pieces of wood
Bimanese lekaforce open
Ngadha lekaopen, unfold, untie
OC
'Āre'āre rokaopen, unfolded

Note:   With root *-kaq₁ open forcibly.

26941

*lekas open, undress, remove, release

3407

PMP     *lekas open, undress, remove, release

WMP
Maranao lekasundress
Tiruray lekaschange clothes, undress
CMP
Manggarai lekasopen something that is rolled up
Ngadha lekaopen up, unfold, loosen, untie; undress

Note:   With root *-kas₂ loosen, undo, untie.

26989

*le(ŋ)keb cover, shut in

3455

PWMP     *le(ŋ)keb cover, shut in     [disjunct: *lekep]

WMP
Hanunóo lukúbskin, bark, cover, outer layer
Cebuano lukúbenclose something in an area, or by putting something over it; shutter, cover
Maranao lekeblid, cover
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lekebdoor, shutter
Melanau (Mukah) lekeblid, cover
  lekeb mataeyelid
Simalur loŋkobcover; door
Sichule löŋkobshut, cover

Note:   Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *lekeb ‘close (shutter, door)’. With root *-keb₁ ‘cover’.

26942

*leken coil

3408

PMP     *leken coil     [disjunct: *reken]

WMP
Cebuano lúkuncoil up, coil something up, usually in several coils
CMP
Buruese leke-to coil
  leke-na coil

26943

*lekep cover, shut in

3409

PWMP     *lekep cover, shut in     [disjunct: *le(ŋ)keb]

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat lekepfor a hen to cover its baby chicks with her wings
Malay lekapto cuddle up or lie flat against. Of a child, a stamp adhering to a letter, etc.

26944

*lekes roll, curl up

3410

PMP     *lekes roll, curl up

WMP
Balinese lekesroll something up; a rolled up object
CMP
Manggarai lekescurling this way and that, twisted around (as the body of an eel)

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.

26976

*leŋkiq scream

3442

PMP     *leŋkiq scream

WMP
Kelabit (Bario) lekiʔhigh-pitched (of voices, as a girl's voice)
CMP
Manggarai leŋkiscreech, scream

Note:   With probable root *-kiq ‘high-pitched throaty sound’. Cf. *tekiq.

26977

*leŋkuk bend, curve

3443

PWMP     *leŋkuk bend, curve     [disjunct: *laŋkuk]

WMP
Ilokano laŋkóklower part of the thumb, including the adductor pollicis and the first phalanx
Malay leŋkoka bend, curve or twist

26945

*lekuʔ bend, fold, folding part of the body; curl up on the ground, of an animal

3411

PMP     *lekuʔ bend, fold, folding part of the body; curl up on the ground, of an animal     [doublet: *deku]

WMP
Isneg lakkócurl up and sleep, said of dogs
Ilokano lakkóham, popliteal space; part of the arm opposite the elbow
Cebuano lúkuʔbe curled up (as the body); loaf in bed; fall down in a curled up position
  lúkuʔ lúkuʔinside of the knee joints
Maranao lekolie down
  leko-aʔanimal lair; mudhole for carabao
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lekuof an animal, to lie down
Iban lekuʔcoil, convolution
  pe-lekuʔbend; curl up (as a dog)
Lawangan lokuʔlie down
Malay lekurest the elbows on any surface
  telekurest the elbows on any surface
CMP
Li'o lekufold
Proto-Ambon *lekufold, bend
OC
Nggela logubend, fold double, as bamboo tongs
  lokufold, make a roll of, reef a sail

30728

*lem in, inside

8333

PMP     *lem in, inside     [doublet: *dalem]

WMP
Kelabit (Bario) ləmat, in
  ləm uaŋinside

8334

POC     *lom in, on, at

OC
Tigak loin, into, to, on
Mota lowhat is inward, and thence place; in, at; as in compound preposition alo (‘in, on’), ilo (‘into’), talo (‘of or belonging to’); in names of places, as Lo Sepere
Araki loin, on, at; locative preposition referring to space

26946

*lemek₁ soft

3412

PAN     *lemek₁ soft

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) a-lmeksoft, flexible, as of rice-cake, calf of the leg
WMP
Pangasinan lemékbecome soft
Maranao lemeksoft
Melanau (Mukah) lemeksoft

Note:   Mills (1975:757) posits PAn *lemaq ‘weak, soft’.

26947

*lemek₂ fertile, of soil

3413

PMP     *lemek₂ fertile, of soil

WMP
Iban lemakanimal fat, lard, suet, grease; (of food, land) fat, rich
Balinese lemekfertile, good (soil)
CMP
Manggarai lemekfertile (of soil)

Note:   Possibly the same morpheme as Dempwolff's (1934-38) *lemek ‘fat, oily, greasy’; cp. Bikol tabá ‘greasy (food); rich (soil), fertile’ which, like Iban lemak, includes both meanings.

26949

*lemeŋ wet, of soil

3415

PMP     *lemeŋ wet, of soil

WMP
Cebuano lúmuŋfor water to collect and form a pool
CMP
Manggarai lemeŋoozing, wet (of soil)

26948

*lemer soaking wet

3414

PMP     *lemer soaking wet

WMP
Karo Batak lemersoak, wet through from the rain
CMP
Manggarai lemerooze a little

26953

*lem(e)tub blister

3419

PWMP     *lem(e)tub blister

WMP
Tboli lemtubblister
Malay letupblister on the skin

26951

*lemi soft, weak

3417

PWMP     *lemi soft, weak     [disjunct: *lemuy]

WMP
Ilokano lámisoft, flabby, flaccid, frail, weak
Iban lemisoft, weak

26950

*lemiq dent, dimple

3416

PWMP     *lemiq dent, dimple

WMP
Maranao lemiʔpress, dent
Bare'e lomidimple in cheek or chin (considered a mark of beauty in girls)

Note:   Also Maranao kemiʔ ‘dent’, Malay kemék ‘dent, e.g. in a metal surface’.

26952

*lemlem dark, of weather; overcast

3418

PAN     *lemlem dark, of weather; overcast

Formosan
Saisiyat (Taai) lʸemlʸemcloud
Thao ma-rumrumdim (because of insufficient light)
Bunun humhumtwilight
WMP
Bontok lemlémtyphoon; period of wet weather lasting for several days
Kankanaey men-lemlémrain continuously, drizzle the whole day
Ifugaw lomlómdrizzling rain
Tagalog limlímimpending darkness
Toba Batak lomlomdark, black

Note:   Also Thao humhum ‘twilight’ (< Bunun). With root *-lem₁ ‘dark’.

26973

*leñab sound, of sleep

3439

PWMP     *leñab sound, of sleep

WMP
Malay leñapsound (of sleep)
Sangir lennabeʔsound asleep

26975

*leñeb disappear under water

3441

PWMP     *leñeb disappear under water     [doublet: *leñed, *leñeD]    [disjunct: *leñep]

WMP
Palauan iélebflood (of major proportions)
  me-lélebcover, submerge; flood over; cover (person) with blanket, etc.
Malay leñapgone, vanished

Note:   Also Ilokano nebnéb ‘sink, founder (of ships)’, Cebuano lánap ‘overflow or flood an area’, Tiruray leneʔ ‘drown’.

29865

*leñej sink, disappear under water

6513

PWMP     *leñej sink, disappear under water

WMP
Ilokano lennédsink, be flooded, engulfed
Pangasinan lenérdrown
Hanunóo lúnudcovering up; drowning
Aklanon eúnudsink, go under water
Cebuano lúnudsink something
Maranao ga-lenedsink
Melanau (Mukah) leñedsink
Kayan leñendrown

30521

*leŋen forearm, lower arm

7763

PMP     *leŋen forearm, lower arm

WMP
Kadazan hoŋonarm, hand, forearm
Tombonuwo loŋonarm, hand
Lun Dayeh leŋenarm
Kelabit (Bario) leŋenarm
Kenyah leŋenlower arm
Kayan leŋenupper arm
Kayan (Uma Juman) leŋenarm
Murik ləŋənarm from elbow to shoulder
Melanau (Mukah) leŋenarm
Seru loŋonarm
Ba'amang leŋearm
Paku loŋunhand
Malay leŋanarm; sleeve of garment; foreleg of animal; arm or forethigh of horse
Sundanese leuŋeunhand; forelegs of an animal that can grasp or strike with the forelegs
Old Javanese leŋenarm
Javanese leŋenlower arm
Balinese leŋenarm, forearm
  la-leŋendoorpost, gatepost
CMP
Selaru lenaupper arm

Note:   The loss of the final nasal in Ba'amang leŋe and similar forms in other languages of southeast Borneo probably is due to metanalysis, where –n was taken to the be the third person singular possessive suffix, much as in Kayan (Uma Juman) forms such as utiʔ < PMP *qutin ‘penis’ (Blust 1977).

26981

*le(m)pag strike, hit

3447

PWMP     *le(m)pag strike, hit

WMP
Isneg lappágto slap, to buffet
Itawis lappágspanking, slap
Old Javanese lempagto deal a blow
Balinese lempagstrike, hit with something

Note:   With root *-pag ‘strike, beat’.

26954

*lepak₁ break, crack off

3420

PMP     *lepak₁ break, crack off

WMP
Ilokano leppákseparate at the joints (bones, roasted chickens, palm spines, etc.)
OC
Arosi rohabreak something brittle

Note:   With root *-pak₂ break, crack, split.

26955

*lepak₂ thud

3421

PWMP     *lepak₂ thud     [doublet: *depak]

WMP
Maranao lepakbeat; dull sound
Malay lepak(onom.) fall with a thud

26956

*lepap flattened

3422

PWMP     *lepap flattened

WMP
Ilokano leppápcompressed, oblate, flattened (at the poles), of tomatoes, etc.
Malay ter-lepapflattened against the ground, fallen on one's face
  perahu lepapa flat-bottomed dinghy

Note:   Perhaps also Malay te-lempap ‘laying the palm of the hand on any surface’.

26957

*lepaw hut

3423

PAN     *lepaw₁ hut

Formosan
Kavalan repawhouse

7769

PMP     *lepaw₂ field hut, granary

WMP
Samihim lampauhouse
Kelabit (Bario) ləpohut in the jungle where one can stay overnight when travelling away from the village
  ləpo paderice granary
Kenyah lepawa shelter, a house in the paddy field
Kayan lepawa hut
  lepaw pareya storehouse for rice
Kayan (Uma Juman) lepohut, building other than a longhouse
Malay lepauback-veranda or kitchen-veranda of a Malay house
Ngaju Dayak lepawsmall hut raised on four to six posts that have round, smooth rat guards; rice is stored in the lepaw
Gayo lepoveranda
Rejang lepawfoodstall, coffee shop
CMP
Sika lepohouse
Atoni lopothe lopo is the village granary and meeting-place; it is a house without walls, with four pillars in addition to a maternal pillar (ni ainaf) in the center (Schulte Nordholt 1971:96)

Note:   Also Rejang lempaw ‘small shop, kiosk, food stall’. Although reflexes of *lepaw are found in Formosan, WMP and CMP languages in the meaning ‘house’, this was not the meaning of this term in PAn or PMP (Blust 1987). The other options that appear viable are ‘field hut’, a meaning that shows up in several of the languages of Borneo, and ‘rice granary’, a meaning that shows up in several of the languages of Borneo, and in Atoni of west Timor. Given this distribution the only meaning that can plausibly be assigned to PMP *lepaw is ‘granary’.

Both ‘field hut’ and ‘granary’ also occur with reflexes of PAn *sapaw, but the distribution of meanings across major subgroups clearly favors *sapaw in the meaning ‘field hut’. Reflexes in Kelabit (Bario) and Kayan raise the prospect that PMP *lepaw could have referred both to field huts (when unqualified) and to granaries (when qualified by a word for ‘rice’). However, since this inference is not supported by converging lines of evidence from both WMP and CMP languages it is best treated as a speculation. The similar semantic profiles of *lepaw and *sapaw strongly suggest that rice granaries were simple structures that did not differ significantly from field huts which were used for temporary residence when working in the fields away from the village for several days in succession.

26958

*lepet plug, stop up

3424

PWMP     *lepet plug, stop up

WMP
Isneg lappátstopper; anything which stops, fills up, closes, shuts
Old Javanese lepettight, tightly bound, compressed, compact

Note:   With root *-pet ‘plugged, stopped, closed off’.

26959

*lepik snap, break off (twigs, etc.)

3425

PMP     *lepik snap, break off (twigs, etc.)

WMP
Malay lepéka dull squelching sound
CMP
Manggarai lepékbreak wood with the hand; pluck, snap with the fingers (shoots of tobacco or vegetables), snap off

Note:   With root *-pik pat, light slap.

26960

*lepit thin layer

3426

PMP     *lepit thin layer

WMP
Maranao lepitthin, flat
CMP
Manggarai lepitlayered

Note:   Possibly equivalent to Dempwolff's (1934-38) *le(m)pit ‘fold’. With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.

26984

*le(p)lep₁ submerge, sink

3450

PMP     *le(p)lep submerge, sink

WMP
Javanese lelepsink below the surface; drown
CMP
Manggarai lelepimmerse, as a blade in tempering it

Note:   Possibly with a variant of the root *-leb ‘sink, disappear under water’. Cp. Javanese ilep ‘put under water; soak’, silep ‘submerged in water’.

26961

*leplep₂ deep silence

3427

PWMP     *leplep deep silence

WMP
Ilokano leplepabsolute silence, e.g. when someone has shouted; hush, silence, be still
Malay lelaplapse into deep slumber (of a person)
  tidur lelapdeep sleep

26965

*lepu, lepuq fish with poisonous dorsal spines

3431

PMP     *lepu, lepuq fish with poisonous dorsal spines     [doublet: *nepuq 'stonefish']

WMP
Aklanon eupóʔpoisonous fresh water fish
Cebuano lúpuʔsmall blackish fish with lightly toxic dorsal spines, often found on the bottom in fresh or brackish waters: Gymnapistes niger
Iban le-lepufish with venomous fins, Angler and Goblin fish
Malay ikan lepugeneric for a number of fishes with venomous fins, angler fish and goblin fish (Antennaridae and Scorpaenidae)
Sasak lepoʔspiny sea fish
CMP
Manggarai lepukind of short-bodied sea fish
OC
Mota lowcheckered swinefish

Note:   Also Malay (Kedah) ikan depu ‘angler fish, goblin fish’.

26962

*lepuk fall with a thud

3428

PWMP     *lepuk fall with a thud

WMP
Hanunóo lupúkstamping of the feet, or of a single foot
Hiligaynon lupúkto burst, blow out, erupt
Malay lepok-lepakfall with a thud, of fruit dropping continuously

Note:   With root *-puk₁ throb, thud, clap, break.

26963

*lepuq crooked, of limbs; bone fracture

3429

PWMP     *lepuq crooked, of limbs; bone fracture     [doublet: *lumpuq 'lame']

WMP
Maranao lepoʔcripple, lame
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lepuʔbreak a bone or a limb of the body
Tiruray lefoʔa bone fracture; to fracture a bone
Malay lepohcrooked (of a limb); twisted, bent

26964

*leput blow out, force out

3430

PMP     *leput blow out, force out

WMP
Hiligaynon lupúthave loose bowel movement, have diarrhea
Maranao lepotforce out, cough off
Kiput lepuːtspit out
Kenyah ŋa-leputuse the blowpipe
  tai leputgo hunting with blowpipe
OC
Nggela lovu-lovuto puff

Note:   Also Tiruray lefuk ‘blowgun; blow a dart out of a blowgun’. With root *-put ‘puff’.

26966

*leq(e)guk gulp, swallow

3432

PWMP     *leq(e)guk gulp, swallow

WMP
Bikol laʔgokgulp down, wolf down
Sundanese leguka swallow (of liquid), draught
Sasak legukgulp, swallow

Note:   With root *-guk ‘deep throaty sound’.

30069

*leqo voice

6772

POC     *leqo voice     [doublet: *liqo]

OC
Roviana leo-nathroat
Eddystone/Mandegusu leo-nathyroid cartilage, Adam’s apple; throat
Nggela leo-leodialect, foreign language; speak a foreign language
Lau leospeech (only in names in genealogies)
Mota leoword, report, law
Tongan leʔovoice, sound
Samoan leovoice, sound
Rennellese geʔovoice, sound; noise; pronunciation; accent
Rarotongan reovoice; tone; speech; utterance; language; dialect; form of words
Hawaiian leovoice; tone; tune; sound; command; advice; syllable; plea, verbal message; speak, make a sound

Note:   Also Nggela leu, leuleu ‘dialect, foreign language; speak a foreign language. PCEMP *liqə evidently became POc **liqo ~ *leqo (free variants). Given the semantic reflexes in Roviana and Eddystone/Mandegusu, it is tempting to compare this form with PAn *liqeR ‘neck’, but PAn *liqeR would regularly yield Roviana, Eddystone/Mandegusu **lioro. Since schwa did not occur word-finally in earlier proto-languages, and there is little other evidence that it could occur in this position in PCEMP, this form may have had some other final consonant that has been lost in all available reflexes. The most likely candidate for this segment is *q.

26967

*leseq nit, egg of a louse

3433

PMP     *leseq nit, egg of a louse     [doublet: *liseSeq]

WMP
Cebuano lusáʔnit, egg of a louse
SHWNG
Buli loas <Mnit, egg of a louse

Note:   Also Proto-Minahasan *ləseʔa ‘nit, louse egg’. Zorc (1985) posits PCPH *lesaq ‘nit’. Like Buli loas, reflexes of *liseSeq frequently show metathesis. This variant was first noted in print by van der Tuuk (1897-1912).

30506

*lesi excess; excessive

7735

PCMP     *lesi excess; excessive

CMP
Tetun lesi(k)an overabundance; he who has things in overabundance (i.e. a noble or lord)
Buruese lesiexcessively
  lesi-hto exceed
  lesi-nexcessively

26968

*lesu₁ punctured, having a hole

3434

PWMP     *lesu₁ punctured, having a hole

WMP
Maranao lesobore, hole bored through
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lesumake a hole in something
Uma lohuleaky, punctured

30516

*lesu₂ come out, take out

7745

PCMP     *lesu₂ come out, take out

CMP
Rotinese lesucome out (of a hole); become visible
  le-lesudoor, entrance
Yamdena lesiremove, as a door from the hinges, knife from a sheath, etc.
Kei lespull out, fall out, of the teeth

26969

*letak split, crack

3435

PWMP     *letak split, crack     [disjunct: *retak]

WMP
Pangasinan letaksplit
Cebuano lutakcrack, a break without complete separation of parts
Malay letakcrack, split

26982

*le(n)tak clack the tongue

3448

PMP     *le(n)tak clack the tongue

WMP
Maranao letakclapper used to frighten birds
CMP
Manggarai lentakcall a dog (by clicking or clacking the tongue); urge a horse on by clicking the tongue

Note:   The essential features of this comparison were first noted in print by Verheijen (1967-70).

26983

*le(n)taw to float

3449

PWMP     *le(n)taw to float     [doublet: *lantaw]

WMP
Pangasinan letáwfloat (of an object being cooked)
Maranao lataoto float
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) letewfloat on top of the water
Mori lontoto float

Note:   With root *-taw ‘float’. Zorc (1971) reconstructs PPh *letaw ‘float’.

30507

*letay₁ above

7736

PCMP     *letay₁ above

CMP
Tetun lette-nabove
Bonfia leteabove
Paulohi leteabove
Hitu lete hahaabove

Note:   Also Manggarai eta, Kambera d-íta, Hawu d-ida ‘above’.

30508

*letay₂ bridge

7737

PCMP     *letay₂ bridge

CMP
Kambera líndibridge
Rotinese leteto bridge; to walk a narrow path; to cross over
Fordata letabridge
Kei letplank bridge
  en-leta-rwalk over something narrow

26970

*letiq thunder and lightning together

3436

PWMP     *letiq thunder and lightning together

WMP
Maranao letiʔthunder
Tiruray letéʔthunder and lightning
Berawan (Long Terawan) lettéthunder
Bugis (Soppeng) lettélightning and thunder (simultaneously)

Note:   Also Tagalog lintík ‘lightning’, Aklanon líntiʔ ‘thunderclap, crash of thunder’, Cebuano lítiʔ ‘thunderbolt’, Mansaka lintiʔ ‘thunder’.

26971

*letlet wind around, roll up

3437

PWMP     *letlet wind around, roll up

WMP
Kankanaey letlétturn round, wind, wind round, roll, roll up
Bontok letletplace a tie on something, as to tie a cloth around one's arm
Javanese leletturn, revolve, spin (of a top)
  di-lelettwisted, rolled (of cord, rolled cigarettes, etc.)

30522

*letub blister

7764

PWMP     *letub blister

WMP
Cebuano lútubform a blister from burning or rubbing; for blood to form a black spot under a finger or toe that has been injured
Iban letupblister, as on the hands from hard work
Malay letupblister on the skin
Toba Batak lotuperuption on the scalp, of children
Sangir l<um>ətubəʔform bubbles, as when boiling milk

Note:   Also Karo Batak me-letup (expected **letum) ‘blistered; have a blister on the skin from burns, etc’. Since the Iban, Malay and Toba Batak forms could all reflect *letup it is possible that *letub can be assigned no higher than PPh.

26972

*lezep submerge, disappear under water

3438

PAN     *lezep submerge, disappear under water     [doublet: *leñep]

Formosan
Paiwan ledepdive, plunge
WMP
Casiguran Dumagat ledep, l-om-depswim under water
Kayan lejepsubmerged by rising flood
Sundanese lejepto close (of the eyes, due to drowsiness)

Note:   Also Bontok letep ‘dive into water, dive for something’, Chamorro liʔof ‘dive, submerge’, Iban, Malay lesap ‘disappear’, Malay resap ‘disappear by slow degrees’. For similar semantics, compare Isneg lannáp ‘overflow; flooded’, Ujir leñep ‘covered by water (as a boulder by rising water in the river)’, Malay leñap ‘gone, vanished’.

TOP      le    li    lo    lu    

li

26990

*lias deflect, divert

3456

PWMP     *lias deflect, divert

WMP
Ilokano liásdeviate, stray, swerve, deflect
Malay liascharm to secure invulnerability by diverting magically any weapon or projectile that may be aimed at you

30525

*libas kind of sour edible fruit, possibly fruit of rattan

7782

PWMP     *libas kind of sour edible fruit, possibly fruit of rattan

WMP
Ilokano libáskind of vine with white flowers and edible shoots: Momordica ovata
Cebuano libáswild tree with sour leaves and fruits: Spondias pinnata; the leaves and fruits are used in stews, and the leaves have medicinal uses
Mapun libas(for fruit to be) characterized as having lost some of its flavor due to being overripe; for a woman’s beauty to become less or to fade (due to her makeup running, her hair getting messed up, clothes getting wrinkled, etc.)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) livasgeneric for citrus fruits and rattan fruits
Mansaka libassour food
Binukid libassour fruit of rattan
Tiruray libosa tree bearing edible fruit, known in the Philippines as the “Spanish plum,” Spondias purpurea Linn.
Iban libasguava (Scott 1956); fruit tree, unident. (Richards 1981)

30113

*libej coil around, wrap with rope

6842

PWMP     *libej coil around, wrap with rope

WMP
Tagalog libídcoiling
Maranao libedwind around
Bahasa Indonesia me-libatto bandage, wrap up

Note:   With root *-bej ‘wind around repeatedly’.

26991

*libet turn, revolve

3457

PWMP     *libet turn, revolve

WMP
Aklanon líbotturn, spin, revolution
Tausug libuttwist, as a jar lid
Berawan (Batu Belah) se-libetturn

27002

*limbun heap up, pile up (as earth); dam

3469

PMP     *limbun heap up, pile up (as earth); dam

WMP
Hanunóo limbúndam
Kayan libun, ke-libuna covering; to spread over a surface
Sangir limbuŋpiled up (of soil, etc.)
Tae' ta-limbuŋgather around, swarm around something
CMP
Manggarai limbuŋgather, collect
Tetun lihundam or pond; small body of still water
  ha-lihundam up

Note:   With root *-bun ‘heap, cover with earth; collect, assemble’.

26992

*libuR murky, clouded, turbid

3458

PMP     *libuR murky, clouded, turbid

WMP
Bikol líbogcloudy water, murky water
CMP
Buruese libo(of water) murky, clouded

Note:   With root *-buR₃ turbid.

26993

*libut surround, encircle, as game

3459

PWMP     *libut surround, encircle, as game

WMP
Tagalog líbotsurroundings, environment
Bikol mag-líbotwalk around, rove
Cebuano líbutgo, bring, put something around a place; surround
Maranao libotdragnet; surround, catch
Tboli libutsurround, around
Lun Dayeh ŋe-libutsurround game with people and dogs
Kelabit (Bario) libutcircle
Mori mo-limbusurround, encircle
Tae' libuoblong enclosure, oval

3460

PWMP     *pa-libut surround, encircle

WMP
Tagalog pa-líbotsurroundings, environment
Bikol pa-libot-anto enclose, surround, ring
Cebuano pa-libutsurroundings
Kelabit (Bario) pe-libutcatch game by encirclement

Note:   Also Isneg lipu-lipút ‘surrounded by’. Mills (1975:762) posits Proto-South Sulawesi *limbo ‘gather round’.

26994

*licin smooth, slippery

3461

PWMP     *licin smooth, slippery

WMP
Gaddang ma-lisinsmooth
Malay licinsmooth, slippery; bare, unadorned
Old Javanese licinfree(dom) from any encumbrances, free(dom) from passions ... complete perfection

27003

*lindag toss about

3470

PWMP     *lindag toss about

WMP
Cebuano lindagtoss about restlessly in bed
Iban lindak-lindak(of sun-hats, umbrellas), bobbing (Scott 1956)

27024

*li(n)dem, li(ŋ)jem dark

3494

PWMP     *li(n)dem, li(ŋ)jem dark

WMP
Kankanaey lidémblack (applied to hogs, carabaos, etc.)
Tagalog lílimshade
Kayan (Uma Juman) lidemdark
Karo Batak liŋgemshadow
Toba Batak liŋgomshadow

Note:   Also Ilokano lítem ‘livid black and blue’. Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Tagalog lílim to *DeDem ‘dark’, but most diagnostic witnesses suggest that Dempwolff's reconstruction should be *demdem. Since Panganiban (1966) also gives Tagalog limlím ‘impeding darkness’, lílim is perhaps best assigned to the present etymon.

26995

*lidik cutting or clearing of undergrowth

3462

PWMP     *lidik cutting or clearing of undergrowth

WMP
Maranao ririkcut down (small trees); mow (grass)
Kelabit (Bario) lidikcutting of undergrowth
  l-em-idikto cut undergrowth
Kayan lirika clearing, land cleared
  l-em-irikto clear land

27025

*li(n)dis crush, roll over

3495

PWMP     *li(n)dis crush, roll over     [doublet: *li(ŋ)gis]

WMP
Kankanaey lidis-éncrush, squash
Minangkabau pe-lindisroller (for smoothing soil)

30386

*lindur earthquake

7475

PWMP     *lindur earthquake     [doublet: *linuR]    [disjunct: *linduR]

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat lindulearthquake; to shake (of ground during an earthquake)
Tagalog lindólearthquake; quake
Sasak lindurearthquake
  be-lindur-anto shake

30387

*linduR earthquake

7476

PMP     *linduR earthquake     [doublet: *lindur, *linuR]

WMP
Old Javanese linḍūto shake, quake; earthquake, tremor
Javanese linḍuearthquake
Pendau lindugearthquake
Tialo lindugEearthquake
Muna linduhave a shaking or spinning pain inside (as when the head is ‘spinning’)
CMP
Dobel rirearthquake

7488

POC     *lidruR earthquake

OC
Mota rirearthquake
Merlav rirearthquake
Namakir na-rirearthquake

Note:   Also Sundanese lindu ‘earthquake’, ka-lindu-an ‘be struck by an earthquake’, Bare'e líndugi ‘earthquake; also the name of the spirit that causes earthquakes’. It is unclear from the evidence found so far whether POc had *lidruR or *ridruR. Ross, Pawley and Osmond (2003) do not include this term in their treatment of the POc vocabulary for the natural environment, and cite Mota rir under Proto-North-Central Vanuatu *ruru ‘to shake; earthquake’.

26996

*liget turn, rotate

3463

PWMP     *liget turn, rotate

WMP
Manobo (Dibabawon) ligɨtturn
Berawan (Long Teru) ligətturn
Kelabit (Bario) ligetturning around
Malay ligatspinning around, rotating very rapidly

27033

*li(ŋ)get gnash the teeth in anger or impatience

3503

PWMP     *li(ŋ)get gnash the teeth in anger or impatience

WMP
Bontok ligétangry
Sasak liŋgetbite hard on something; gnash the teeth (in impatience or anger)

Note:   Also Aklanon ugót ‘be angry, get peeved’, Manggarai jeget ‘angry’.

27034

*li(ŋ)gis crush, roll over

3504

PWMP     *li(ŋ)gis crush, roll over     [doublet: *li(n)dis]

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat ligisget hit or run into by something rolling (as for a rolling log to hit you and smash your foot, or to get run over by a truck)
Tagalog ligísground, milled, made into grist
Aklanon lígisharrow (farmer's tool)
  ligísroll over, smooth out (by rolling); harrow, run over
Cebuano ligisflatten or smash something into powder by pressing something heavy on it
Tiruray ligisheavy roller
Malay (Jakarta) liŋgisspike or pointed crowbar for digging up the soil
Old Javanese liŋissharp-bladed crowbar

Note:   Also Tagalog ligí ‘powdered by crushing or pounding’. Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *ligis ‘trample, run over’.

27035

*li(ŋ)ji batten of a loom

3505

PWMP     *li(ŋ)ji batten of a loom

WMP
Ilokano liŋgílathe, lay, batten of a loom
Iban lidilaze-rod in weaving
Malay (Brunei) lidipart of a loom
Malay (Sarawak) lidipart of a loom

30437

*likab to open, uncover

7587

PWMP     *likab to open, uncover

WMP
Lun Dayeh likabtaken off, turned over by someone
Berawan (Long Terawan) ŋə-likamto open
Javanese liŋkabto open, as mat, or clothes (Pigeaud)

Note:   With root *-kab ‘open, uncover’.

30316

*likaC lightning

7276

PAN     *likaC lightning

Formosan
Proto-Rukai *ɭikacəlightning
Siraya rikatlightning
Kavalan qilatglitter
Amis likatlight from a source
  ma-likatto be burning, glowing
Amis (Kiwit) likatlight, ray; lamp
  likat nu tsiɬalray of sunlight

7277

PMP     *kilat₁ lightning

WMP
Itbayaten cilatlightning, thunderbolt
Ibanag kilaʔlightning
Isneg kilāta flash of lightning
Dupaningan Agta kilátlightning
Casiguran Dumagat kilátlightning; for lightning to strike
Kankanaey men-kilátwhite, hoar, clean; silvery, silver, snowy, argentine, gray; light-colored, light, lightsome
Sambal (Botolan) kílatlightning
Bikol kit-kilátlightning
  ma-kilat-ánto be struck by lightning
Hanunóo kílatlightning
Hiligaynon kilátlightning
Aklanon kilátflash of lightning, lightning bolt
  pa-ŋilátto be lightening, flashing, of lightning
Masbatenyo kilátlightning
Waray-Waray ki-kilátlightning
Cebuano kílatlightning
  kilat-ancurse hoping lightning strikes someone, especially for doing something immoral (as committing incest); have a lucky break in a seemingly impossible situation
  pa-ŋilátfor lightning to be flashing intensely
Maranao kilatfast; glimpse; lightning
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kilatlightning; to lighten, flash, of lightning
Binukid kilatlightning
  pa-ŋilatfor lightning to flash
Mansaka kilatto lighten, flash, of lightning
Tiruray kilota lightning flash; (of lightning) to flash
Tausug kilata (slight) streak of lightning without thunder; heat lightning; any flash of light
Lun Dayeh kilatflames of a fire
  me-kilatin flames
Kelabit (Bario) kilatlightning
Kiput kicətlightning
Bintulu kilatlightning
  bə-kilatto shine, glitter
Ngaju Dayak kilatlightning
  ma-ŋilatto gleam, flash, of lightning
Iban kilatlightning; flash, gleam
Malay kilatlightning, explained as the flash of the whip with which the Angel of the Thunders drives the clouds before him
  me-ŋilatlike lightning, lightning-fast
Karo Batak kilatglittering, shining
Old Javanese kilatlightning, flash of lighting
  ka-kilat-anto illuminate with flashes of lightning, shine on
Sangir kilaʔlightning
Tontemboan kilatlightning; flash, shine
  kilat-a im pisowthe sparks that fly from the blade of a machete that is being sharpened on a whetstone
Bolaang Mongondow kilatlightning
Tae' kilaʔlightning
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *kilaQlightning
Makasarese kilaʔlightning
  kilak-ilightning is flashing
Wolio kilalightning
  ko-kilaflash (also of lightning), shine, gleam, glisten, glitter
Muna ko-kilato sparkle, glitter
CMP
Bimanese kilalightning
Komodo kilalightning
Manggarai hilatlightning
Rembong kilatlightning
Ngadha kilafast, rapid
Tetun kilata gun, firearm of any type
  kilat letenthunder
OC
Niue ki-kilato shine; brightness; smooth
Samoan ʔi-ʔila(of reflected light on water, glass, or polished surface, etc.) shine, glisten, sparkle, twinkle; bright, shiny

7278

PWMP     *maR-kilat to flash, of lightning

WMP
Bikol mag-kit-kilátto have lightning; to strike (lightning)
Masbatenyo mag-kilátto flash, of lightning
Tausug mag-kilatfor a flash of lightning to occur
Malay ber-kilat-(kilat)to flash, of lightning

7279

PWMP     *k<um>ilat to lighten, to flash, of lightning

WMP
Cebuano mu-kílatfor lightning to flash
Old Javanese k<um>ilatto flash, of lightning
Tontemboan k<um>ilatto flash, of lightning
Bolaang Mongondow k<im>ilatto flash, of lightning

7280

PMP     *kila-kilat shine, flash repeatedly

WMP
Itbayaten om-cila-cilattwinkle brightly, glitter, sparkle (shiny surface)
Itawis kili-kilátlightning
Yogad kila-kilatlightning
Maranao kila-kilatlightning; fast as lightning
Lun Dayeh kilat-kilatfull of flames
Karo Batak er-kilat-kilatglittering, sending out sparks
Tontemboan kila-kilat-anplace where there are many lightning flashes
Tae' maʔ-kilaʔ-kilaʔlike lightning, meaning very hot, of the sun, very fierce, fiery, of actions; be lucky, luck out
Muna kila-kilashine, radiate
CMP
Ngadha kila-kilaquick, fast (as in walking)
OC
Gitua kila-kilalightning
Anuta kira-kirashiny

Note:   Also Kankanaey kimát ‘lightning, flash of lightning’, Itawis kilád ‘shininess’, Bontok kelyat ‘lightning; to flash, of lightning’, Ifugaw kilʔát ‘lightning, lightning flash’, muŋ-kilʔát ‘it discharges lighting flashes; glittering, sparkling (as sun rays flashing in a mirror)’, Ifugaw (Batad) īlat, Kapampangan kíldap, Tagalog kidlát ‘lightning’, Aklanon kídlat ‘flash of lightning’, Mapun maŋirat ‘lightning; for lightning to flash’, Mansaka silat ‘shine; to rise (as sun or moon)’, Maranao kindat ‘shine; radiance’, Yakan lalat ‘lightning, flashes of lightning’, Tombonuwo kudilop ‘lightning’, Singhi Land Dayak kijat ‘lightning’, Malagasy helatra ‘lightning; (fig.) swift, quick’, manelatra ‘to lighten, to flash; (fig.) angry, hasty in temper’, Talise pila-pila ‘lightning’.

The most striking feature of this comparison is the apparent metathesis of the first two consonants in Malayo-Polynesian languages and in Kavalan. This might be taken as evidence that the East Formosan languages (Basai, Trobiawan, Kavalan, Amis, Siraya) subgroup immediately with Malayo-Polynesian, but the order of consonants in Amis likat agrees with that of the PAn form, and so suggests that the metatheses in Kavalan qilat and PMP *kilat are historically independent changes.

30408

*likaw curve, bend, winding

7531

PAN     *likaw curve, bend, winding

Formosan
Kavalan m-rikawto bend, as a wire or stick, crooked, curved
  m-rik-rikawto curve (as a bay); to wind (as river or road); to coil up; bent
Puyuma ɭikawcurve, bend, winding
WMP
Ilokano na-líkawcrooked, curved, meandering, roundabout
  ag-líkawto go around
  ag-líkaw-líkawto go in circles, zigzag
Bontok likáwto make a loop or circle out of something, as a rope or a length of thread; to coil
Kankanaey na-líkawtortuous; winding; bending in and out; sinuous; meandering
Ibaloy dikawroundabout, circuitous route, the long way to a place, detour
Pangasinan likáwto go around looking without definite purpose, meander
Tagalog líkawcoil; roll; a ring or series of rings formed by winding; hank, a coil
Bikol mag-líkawto make a turn, detour, deviate; to meander; to avoid, to take the long way around
Hiligaynon mag-likáwto shun, avoid, to detour
Aklanon likáwto avoid, veer away from
Masbatenyo likáwthe act of denying or telling a lie
  ma-likáwprone to denying or telling a lie
Kadazan hikoucoil
Lun Dayeh likopassing by, not taking something into account; take an alternate way
Iban likawstreaks, wavy or zigzag lines; streaky, striped
Tamuan ba-liŋkouto turn
Rejang likawa bend, a curve (as in a road)
Tae' likotwist, turn; cross one leg over another; be in a curving line, as a mountain range
CMP
Li'o likoaround, round about, encircle

7532

PAN     *pa-likaw (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Kavalan pa-rikawto cause to bend
WMP
Ilokano pa- líkawcircumference

7533

PPh     *likáw-en to coil

WMP
Ilokano likaw-ento surround
Bontok likaw-ento make a loop or circle out of something, as a rope or a length of thread; to coil
Tagalog likaw-ínto coil, to wind into a coil, but not around any object

7534

PPh     *likáw-likáw (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Pangasinan likáw-líkawto go around looking without definite purpose, meander
Tagalog likáw-likáwformed into coils

Note:   Also Itbayaten ma-liko-liko ‘zigzag; not straight; winding’, Agta (Eastern) likóg ~ pa-likóg ‘bend at ninety-degree angle; riverbend’, Casiguran Dumagat likó ‘bend in a path’; liku-likó ‘crooked path; to turn and walk in a different direction’, Masbatenyo mag-likóʔ ‘turn and go’, liku-likóʔ ‘winding, curving, twisting, zigzag (refers to roads or paths)’, Mapun likoʔ ‘a curve or bend (in a road or path)’, Mansaka liko-liko ‘to zigzag; to weave in and out; to wind’, Maranao likoʔ ‘curve, swerve, detour’, Binukid likuʔ ‘to return, to go or come back; to return (to a former state)’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) likuʔ ‘to return’, Kadazan hiku ‘to bend (a branch)’, Acehnese liŋkoʔ ‘bend, curved; bay’, Minangkabau liku ‘bend; angle of road; turning’, Old Javanese liku-liku ‘twists, bends; twisted, bending, winding’, Javanese liku-liku ‘complex, many-faceted (as a problem)’, Makasarese liku ‘eddy in a river; maze (as in the alleyways of a night market)’, Asilulu liʔu ‘to bend, to curve’, Buruese liku ‘to bend’.

27037

*li(ŋ)keD turn, wind

3507

PWMP     *li(ŋ)keD turn, wind

WMP
Yami mi-like-likédturn round
Ilongot likɨdturn
Malay liŋkarcoil -- of a snake's coil

27038

*li(ŋ)keŋ curvilinear

3508

PWMP     *li(ŋ)keŋ curvilinear     [doublet: *li(ŋ)kuŋ]

WMP
Kankanaey likéŋcurved; bent; crooked; tortuous; winding (used only in tales)
Malay léŋkaŋ, liŋkaŋcircumference; ring-shaped; numeral coefficient for bracelets and other ring-like objects

26997

*liket sticky, adhesive

3464

PMP     *liket sticky, adhesive     [doublet: *riket]

WMP
Bontok líketsticky sap exuding from pitch-pine
Iban likat(of liquids) thick, sticky
Sundanese liketadhesive, sticky
Old Javanese liketglutinous, syrupy, sticky, thick
CMP
Manggarai liketviscous, sticky

Note:   Also Isneg níkat ‘resin’.

30022

*liko commit suicide by hanging

6718

POC     *liko commit suicide by hanging

OC
Gitua liosuicide by hanging
Sa'a liʔocommit suicide by hanging

26999

*liku deep place in a river

3466

PMP     *liku deep place in a river

WMP
Miri likauhriver
Tae' likudeep place in a river or lake
Makasarese likueddy, whirlpool in a river
CMP
Buruese liku-npool; deep

Note:   Mills (1975:766) gives Proto-South Sulawesi *liku ‘deep’. This cognate set may reflect *likuʔ (Blust 1970) in the more specific meaning ‘deep eddy, whirlpool’.

30409

*likud back

7535

PAN     *likud back

Formosan
Saisiyat lʸikorback, behind
Thao rikusback (anatomical)
  ki-rikus-anget a pain in the back
  masha-na-rikusturn the back toward someone or something
  masha-riku-rikusbe back to back
  pat-rikuscome from behind, come after someone
Bunun hikuback
Siraya rikosback
Puyuma ɭikuɖbehind
  pia-ɭikuɖturn one’s back
  a-ɭikuɖ-ana person behind
Paiwan likuzbehind, in back of
  i-likuzbehind (when stationary)
  ki-likuzto slip away by back way
WMP
Ilokano likúdback
  iti likúdbehind
  pag-likud-anturn one’s back on; renounce; retract
Isneg likúdthe whole hinder part or surface of the trunk
  ka likúdbehind
Itawis likúdback, behind
  mal-likúdto turn one’s back
Bontok líkodturn the back on something
Ifugaw likódyard behind a house; granary, or hut (even a narrow yard)
Tagalog likódthe back of the body of man or animal; back, meaning the reverse side, the part opposite the front
  pá-likur-antoilet (especially a public one)
Bikol likódthe back, the rear
  sa likódat the back, in the rear; behind
Hanunóo likúdthe thick, flattened side of the back of a knife blade
Hiligaynon likúdback
Aklanon likódback (as of a building, one’s body)
Masbatenyo likódback, rear
Cebuano likúdbehind, at the back of; coming after
Mansaka likodback (as of an animal)
Maranao likodback, rear
Kadazan hikudthe back
Tombonuwo likudback
  so likudbehind
Kenyah (Long Anap) likutback
Bintulu likudback
  may likudbehind
Ngaju Dayak likutback (anat.); behind

7536

PAN     *pa-likud (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Paiwan pa-likuzto look back
Paiwan (Western) pa-likuzto turn one’s back to
WMP
Ilokano pa-likúdsubstitute, proxy; the back door of a truck
Tagalog pa-likódbackwards, toward the back

7537

PMP     *ta-likud turn the back on

WMP
Tagalog t<um>a-likódto turn one’s back
  ta-likur-ánto turn one’s back on
Aklanon ta-likódto turn one’s back to; turn one’s back on, refuse help; give up
  pa-ta-likódto make someone turn around; to do behind one’s back
Kadazan to-hikudto turn backwards; to turn one’s back to
  to-hikud-anto turn one’s back on
Kayan te-likunto sit back to back; to turn the back to someone
Ngaju Dayak ha-ta-likutturn one’s back to someone
Acehnese likōtbehind; rear part; back (anat.)
Tontemboan t<um>a-licurturn the back to someone
  ta-licur-anwest
  t<um>a-licur-ango westward
Tae' ta-likur-anwaist ‘yoke’ used to support the back of a weaver (who sits to weave on a back loom)
Bare'e ta-likuback (anat.), back side of something (as a person, sword)
  man-ta-liku-siturn the back on someone
CMP
Yamdena na-t-liurturn the back to someone

7538

POC     *ta-likur turn the back to someone

OC
Tolai taliurback, backwards, with the head facing backwards; upside-down
Eddystone/Mandegusu taliʔuruto turn round, especially in order to throw out a fishing-line

7539

PAN     *likud-an back area, place at the back?

Formosan
Puyuma ɭikuɖ-anback (anatomical)
WMP
Isneg likud-ānto turn one’s back upon one
Tagalog likur-ánback, meaning the space at the back
Bikol likud-ánthe back; background
Masbatenyo likud-ánrear area, back yard
Cebuano likur-ánplace in back of something
Old Javanese likur-anside?

7540

PAN     *liku-likud (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Thao riku-rikusto follow after (someone)
Paiwan liku-likuzthe back of the skull
WMP
Cebuano likud-líkudeve before a wedding

7541

PAN     *liku-likud-an (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Thao riku-rikus-anto catch up with someone who has gone ahead
Paiwan (Western) liku-likuz-anthe backmost

Note:   A peculiarity of this comparison is that reflexes of the simple base are unknown in CEMP languages, yet reflexes of *ta-likud ‘turn the back to someone’ persisted, evidently as an unanalyzed base, long after *likud had been replaced by other forms. Under his *likuD Dempwolff (1938) also included Fijian talikura ‘warm oneself at a fire’ (< *ta-likuD-an), but the proposed connection with this reconstruction is questionable. Pawley and Sayaba cite Wayan taliku ‘warm oneself (usually by a fire but also by blankets, etc.), showing even more clearly that the semantic grounds for a judgement of cognation in this case are quite weak.

26998

*likut curled up

3465

PMP     *likut curled up

WMP
Bontok líkotcurled up, as a person sleeping or a snake'
CMP
Yamdena likutbend, of arms and legs; lie folded up

Note:   With root *-kut ‘hunched over, bent’.

30705

*lileq whirlpool

8284

PMP     *lileq whirlpool

WMP
Cebuano líluʔwhirlpool; form a whirlpool; be agitated as if swirled in a whirlpool

8285

POC     *liloq whirlpool

OC
Roviana lilowhirlpool, eddy

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.

30026

*lilim run amuck

6722

POC     *lilim run amuck

OC
Gedaged lilimmadness, insanity, running amuck
Tongan lilibe very angry, boil with rage, be furious; seethe with anger or discontent
Samoan lilieager, burning with the angry desire to do something
Nukuoro lilimad at, angry
  lili mahaŋahaŋamad as the devil
  lillilieasily angered, short-tempered
Rarotongan ririanger; a strong emotion excited by a real or fancied injury or wrong and involving a desire for retaliation or revenge
Maori riribe angry; quarrel, fight; urge with vehemence; chide, scold; anger; strife, quarrel, hostility; combat, fight, battle; hostility, angry feelings
  whaka-ririprovoke
Hawaiian lilijealous; highly sensitive to criticism; jealousy; anger and mental anguish felt if one’s loved ones are criticized
  hoʔo-liliprovoke jealousy

27000

*lilin beeswax

3467

PMP     *lilin beeswax

WMP
Isneg lilínthe wax from bees
Kankanaey lilínkind of black wax used to coat basketwork to make it water-tight
Ifugaw lilínbeeswax. Used in weaving, i.e., when the weaver has some difficulty to raise the warp threads of her chain, etc. she rubs them a little with lilin
Casiguran Dumagat lilénbee's wax; honeycomb with honey in it
Ngaju Dayak lilinwax
Iban lilin mañiʔbeeswax
Malay lilinbeeswax, wax; wax candle
CMP
Manggarai lilinwax
Tetun lilinwax
Ngadha liliwax, candle; smear with wax, as twine
Erai lilinbee-wax
Soboyo liliwax of wild bee

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *lilin ‘wax candle’, citing cognates only from western Indonesia. The Ifugaw and Ngadha cognates suggest that the use of beeswax to stiffen threads or twine has a long history in MP languages.

27001

*liliŋ askew, in a slanting direction

3468

PMP     *liliŋ askew, in a slanting direction

WMP
Iban liliŋlop-sided, askew (as a head that leans to one side)
OC
Arosi ririgo off in a slanting direction, go aside

30033

*liliu turn around, turn over

6731

POC     *liliu turn around, turn over

OC
Eddystone/Mandegusu liliuturn over
Roviana liliuturn around with the same movement, as clock hands
Tongan liliuturn around; turn or change into something else

30365

*lima five

7384

PAN     *lima five

Formosan
Proto-Atayalic *limafive
Seediq limafive
Basai cimafive
Kavalan rimafive
  saqa-rimathe fifth
Thao rimafive
Hoanya limafive
Amis limafive
  saka-limathe fifth
Bunun himafive
Tsou eimofive
Kanakanabu rimafive
Proto-Rukai *ɭimafive
Siraya rimafive
Puyuma ɭimafive (ɭima is only used to refer to the number five; in counting objects or any derivations the base for five is luaʈ)
Paiwan limafive
WMP
Yami limafive (in serial counting)
Itbayaten limafive
Ilokano limáfive
Isneg limáfive
Casiguran Dumagat limáfive
Dupaningan Agta límafive
Itawis limáfive
Bontok limáfive; to be five
  li-lmaa unit of five, five each
Kankanaey limáfive
Ifugaw limáfive
Ifugaw (Batad) lemathe number ‘five’
  pa-lemathe fifth time; to do something five times
Ibaloy dimafive
Pangasinan limáfive
Kapampangan limáfive
Tagalog limáfive
Bikol limáfive
Hanunóo límafive
Palawan Batak límafive
Hiligaynon limáfive
Aklanon limáfive; make into five, raise or lower to five
Masbatenyo limáfive
Waray-Waray limáfive
Cebuano limáfive
Maranao limafive
Mansaka límafive
Mapun límafive
Tiruray límofive
Tboli límufive
Yakan límefive
Tausug limafive
Ida'an Begak límofive
Kadazan himofive
Tombonuwo límofive
  iŋ-gimofive
Lun Dayeh liməhfive
Kelabit (Bario) límehfive
Sa'ban eməhfive
Kayan limaʔfive
Kayan (Uma Juman) limaʔfive
Murik limaʔfive
Berawan (Long Terawan) dimməhfive
Kiput limahfive
Miri limahfive
Bintulu limafive
Melanau (Mukah) limafive
Tunjung limaʔfive
Ngaju Dayak limæfive
Ma'anyan dimefive
Malagasy dímyfive
Malay limafive
Jarai rəmafive
Simalur limafive
Gayo limefive
  mu-lime-nfive times
Karo Batak limafive
Toba Batak limafive
Dairi-Pakpak Batak limafive
Nias limafive
Mentawai limafive
Rejang lemofive
Lampung limafive
Old Javanese limafive
Javanese limafive
Sundanese limafive
Balinese limafive
Sasak limafive
Sangir limafive
Tontemboan limafive
Bolaang Mongondow limafive
Gorontalo limofive
Banggai limafive
Totoli limafive
Bare'e limafive, in combination forms
  a-limafive (independent form)
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *limafive (bound numeral)
  *o-limafive (independent numeral)
Uma limafive
Tae' limafive
Mandar limafive
Buginese limafive
Makasarese limafive
Wolio limafive
Muna limafive (form used in counting and prefixed to nouns)
Palauan e-ímfive (units of time)
  o-ímfive (used when counting in sequence)
Chamorro limafive (Costenoble 1940)
CMP
Bimanese limafive
Komodo limafive
Manggarai limafive
Rembong limafive
Lamboya limafive; hand
Kambera limafive
Hawu ləmifive
Rotinese limafive
Atoni nimfive
Tetun limafive
Idate limafive
Wetan wo-limafive
Erai limafive
Selaru simfive
Yamdena limfive
  li-limevery five
Fordata i-limafive
  fa-limafive times
Dobel limafive
Kei limfive
Asilulu limafive
Alune limafive
Kamarian rimafive
Soboyo limafive
Buruese limafive
SHWNG
Buli limfive
  fai-limfive times; the fifth
Moor rímófive
Numfor-Biak rimfive
Serui-Laut riŋfive
Munggui bo-rimfive
OC
Nali ma-yimafive
Loniu ma-lime-hfive
Bipi lime-hfive
Leipon ma-lme-hfive
Sori lime-pfive
Mussau limafive
Tolai limafive
Vitu limafive
Nakanai -limafive
Lusi limafive
Kairiru limfive (as a bound element in the numerals 6-9)
Manam limafive
Gitua nima da siripfive
Motu imafive
Dobuan nimafive
Mono-Alu limafive
Roviana limafive
  vina limafifth
Varisi ka-limafive
Bugotu limafive
  va-limafive times
  lima-ñafifth
Nggela limafive
Kwaio nimafive
Lau limafive
  lima-nathe fifth
Toqabaqita limafive
  lima-nathe fifth
Sa'a limefive
'Āre'āre nimafive
  nima-nathe fifth
Arosi rimafive
  rima-nathe fifth
Gilbertese nima-five
Kosraean lime-kohsrfive
Marshallese lima-five (in lima-bukwi ‘500’ and limādep ‘5,000’)
Pohnpeian lima-five (with attached classifier)
Chuukese nima-five
Puluwat limo-owfive (general)
  lima-five (in combination forms)
Woleaian lima-five
Mota tave-limafive
Raga limafive
Rotuman limafive
Wayan limafive
Fijian limafive
Tongan nimafive
Niue limafive
Samoan limafive
Futunan limafive
Kapingamarangi limafive
Nukuoro limafive
Tuvaluan limafive
Rennellese gimafive
Anuta nimafive
Rarotongan rimafive
Maori rimafive
Hawaiian limafive

7385

PMP     *lima ŋa puluq fifty

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) lima-m-poʔfifty
Pangasinan limá-m-plofifty
Tagalog lima-m-poʔfifty
Kelabit (Bario) limeh ŋeh puluʔfifty
Malagasy dima-n-polofifty
Tondano lima ŋa puluʔfifty
CMP
Bimanese lima-m-purufifty
Hawu ləmi-ŋ-urufifty
OC
Nali ma-yimi-ŋ-uyfifty
Ere lim-ŋ-ulfifty
Loniu ma-lime-ŋ-onfifty
Mussau ga-lima-ŋa-ulufifty
Tongan nima-ŋo-fulufifty
Niue lima-ŋo-fulufifty
Samoan lima-ŋa-fulufifty


Note:   This PMP construction replaced PAn *ma-lima-N ‘fifty’.

7386

POC     *i-lima five

OC
Tolai i-limafive
Sowa i-limfive
Vinmavis i-limfive
Vowa i-limafive


Note:   Presumably with the same numeral marker that appears as e in other Oceanic languages.

7387

PWMP     *iŋ-lima five times

WMP
Ibaloy in-ka-limaone fifth
Tombonuwo iŋg-imofive times
Kadazan iŋ-himofive times
Malagasy in-dimyfive times
Bolaang Mongondow i-limathe fifth


Note:   For Bolaang Mongondow i-lima ‘the fifth’ cp. e.g. Kadazan iŋg-onom, Malagasy in-énina ‘six times’,Bolaang Mongondow iŋg-onon ‘the sixth’. This still poorly understood numeral prefix evidently had different allomorphs before vowel-initial and consonant-initial bases.

7388

PWMP     *ka-lima five times

WMP
Bontok ka-lmato divide into five
Cebuano ka-limafive times
Ngaju Dayak ka-limæfive days
Javanese ka-limafive times; times five
  ka-piŋ-limafive times; times five
Bolaang Mongondow ko-limafive times


Note:   In many languages it is difficult to disinguish reflexes of this form from reflexes of PAn *Sika-lima ‘the fifth’. Both *ka-lima and *maka-lima appear to have meant ‘five times’, and it is therefore possible that the data taken to support this shorter word are actually truncated forms of *maka-lima.

7389

PWMP     *kuma-lima fifth in order

WMP
Pangasinan kuma-limafifth in order
Kadazan kumo-himothe fifth


Note:   Possibly *k<um>a-lima ‘become fifth’.

7390

PAN     *la-lima five (in counting people)

Formosan
Thao ra-rimafive (people)
Amis la-lima-yfive (people)
WMP
Yami la-limafive (people)
Itbayaten la-limafive
Ivatan da-dimafive
Binukid la-limafive; to be in fives; to do or make five (of something)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) le-limafive
Simalur da-limafive (people)
Balinese la-limafive
Dampelas le-limafive
Pendau le-limafive
Chamorro la-limafive (living things)
OC
Motu la-imafive (people)

7391

PAN     *maka-lima five times

Formosan
Paiwan maka-lima-lʸfive (days, times)
WMP
Tagalog maka-limáto happen to get or obtain five of a kind
  maká-limáfive times
Bikol maka-limáto have five
Cebuano maka-limáfive times
Makasarese maka-lima-nathe fifth, at the fifth


Note:   Onvlee (1984) gives Kambera njara makalimangu baina ‘a stallion with five mares’ (lit. ‘a stallion, five times his mares’, but this appears to be njara ma-ka-lima-ŋu bai-na ). It is possible that the PAn form meaning ‘five times’ was *maka-lima-N.

7392

PWMP     *maŋ-lima divide into groups of five

WMP
Ibaloy man-dimasplit into five parts
Toba Batak maŋa-lima-iproduce a litter of five (piglets)
Nias maŋ-limadivide into five parts
Old Javanese maŋa-limadivide into five
Javanese ŋ-limato form a group of five; to hold a ceremony for a woman in the fifth month of pregnancy


Note:   Although the prefix in this form clearly was *maŋ-, it may have had an allomorph [maŋa] before bases that began with a liquid consonant.

7393

PWMP     *maR-lima divide into groups of five

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat məg-limato do something or be somewhere for five hours, days, months, etc.
Tagalog mag-limá-limáto gather in groups of five
Bikol mag-limáto become five
Masbatenyo mag-limábecome five (as when a fifth person joins four already living in a house)
Malagasy mi-dimyto divide into five
Bahasa Indonesia ber-limafive together (as five people living in the same house)
Toba Batak mar-limadivide into five parts

7394

PMP     *pa-lima divide into five (?)

WMP
Toba Batak pa-lima-honthe fifth
CMP
Kambera pa-lima-ŋufive times

7395

PMP     *paka-lima₁ five times

WMP
Malagasy faha-dimythe fifth; five fathoms
Toba Batak si-paha-limathe fifth month
Dairi-Pakpak Batak peke-limathe fifth month
Chamorro faha-dmafive times

7396

POC     *paka-lima₂ five times

OC
Sa'a haʔa-limefive times
Arosi haʔa-rimafive times
Wayan vaka-limafive times
Samoan faʔa-limafive times
Rennellese haka-gimato do five times; the third and 17th nights of the moon

7397

PAN     *Sika-lima fifth (ordinal numeral)

Formosan
Kavalan siqa-rimafive times
Paiwan sika-limafifth (ordinal numeral)

7398

PMP     *ika-lima fifth (ordinal numeral)

WMP
Itbayaten icha-limafifth (ordinal numeral)
Ilokano ma-ika-limafifth (ordinal numeral)
Ifugaw ka-limá-nfifth (ordinal numeral)
Tagalog (i)ka-limáfifth (ordinal numeral)
Hiligaynon ika-limáfifth (ordinal numeral)
Masbatenyo ika-limáfifth (ordinal numeral)
Cebuano ika-limáfifth (ordinal numeral)
Mansaka ika-limafifth (ordinal numeral)
Tombonuwo ko-limofifth (ordinal numeral)
Kadazan ko-himofifth (ordinal numeral)
Malay ke-limafifth (ordinal numeral)
Old Javanese ka-limathe fifth month
Sundanese ka-limafifth (ordinal numeral)
Bolaang Mongondow ko-limafifth (ordinal numeral)
Banggai ko-lima-nofifth (ordinal numeral)
CMP
Rotinese ka-lima-kfifth (ordinal numeral)
Soboyo ka-limafifth (ordinal numeral)
OC
Gilbertese ka-nima-fifth (ordinal numeral)
Apma ka-limfive
South Efate ka-limfifth (ordinal numeral)
Fijian i ka-limafifth (ordinal numeral)

7399

PWMP     *taR-lima five each, five together

WMP
Cebuano tag-limáfive each, do something by fives
Makasarese taʔ-limafive each, five together
Chamorro tag-lima-nfive (in linear measurement)

7400

PWMP     *ka-lima-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Itbayaten ka-lima-anthe fifth month (February)
Bikol ka-lima-anfifths
Cebuano ka-lima-anfifty
Malagasy ha-dimi-anafive days

7401

PAN     *ma-lima-N fifty

Formosan
Atayal ma-ima-lfifty
Seediq (Truku) m-lima-lfifty
Thao ma-rima-zfifty
Bunun (Isbukun) ma-ima-unfifty
Tsou (Tfuya) m-eimo-hʉfifty
Kanakanabu ma-ima-enfifty
Saaroa ma-lima-lhefifty
Rukai (Mantauran) ma-ma-ɭima-lefifty


Note:   The reconstruction of this pattern for multiples of ten in PAn was first demonstrated by Zeitoun, Teng and Ferrell (2010).

7402

PPh     *paR-lima-en divide into five

WMP
Ilokano pag-ka-lima-endivide into five parts
Bikol pag-lima-ondivide into five; send five at a time, go five by five


Note:   Puyuma (Tsuchida 1980) also has a pattern paR-X-n for bases ending in a vowel, and paR-X-en for bases ending in a consonant, meaning ‘to do X times’. However, for this affixational pattern the innovative form luwaT ‘five’ is used, yielding paR-luwaT ‘to do five times’. While this form cannot be directly compared with those in Philippine languages, it does suggest that if a reflex of *lima had been retained in this type of construction the result would have been **paR-lima-n, and the reconstruction given here would then be upgraded to PAn.

7403

PWMP     *lima-an a set or group of five

WMP
Tagalog limáh-anquintet, quintuplet, a group of five
Masbatenyo limáh-ansuitable for five
Sundanese lima-ana set of five

7404

PMP     *lima-lima five by five, in groups of five

WMP
Ilokano lima-limastarfish
Ifugaw (Batad) lema-lemaalways five; five by five
Tagalog limá-limáin groups or bunches of five, five by five
Bikol limá-límaonly five
  limá-limádivide into five, send five at a time
Maranao lima-limaonly five; in fives
Ngaju Dayak limæ-limæonly five; all five
Toba Batak si-lima-limathe five divisions of the day
Nias lima-limafive each
Javanese lima-limaby fives, in groups of five
Bolaang Mongondow lima-limaby fives, in groups of five
Makasarese lima-limaall five
CMP
Fordata lam-lima-nevery five; five by five
SHWNG
Buli lim-limfive by five; all five
OC
Gitua nima-nimastarfish
Wayan lima-limabe in a group of five, in fives, as a fivesome, all five together
Fijian lima-limaall the five

Note:   Also Kenyah (Long Anap) ləma, Iban limaʔ, Moken lemaʔ , Acehnese limɔŋ, Simalur limo, Balinese limaŋ, Muna dima, Lamaholot lema, Gitua lima ‘five’. The meaning ‘starfish’ as the reflex of *lima-lima in both Ilokano and Gitua is almost certainly convergent, given the clear evidence for PMP *saŋa-saŋa ‘starfish’ (lit. ‘branch-branch’). This is one of the most stable morphemes in Austronesian languages, being reflected in all major geographical regions and in the great majority of languages. Sagart (2004) has argued that *lima was an innovation that postdated the breakup of PAn, but there are problems with his argument.

30535

*limaw lime, citrus fruit

7816

PWMP     *limaw lime, citrus fruit

WMP
Iban limawcitrus spp. and hybrids; pomelo, mandarin orange, bitter orange, lime, grapefruit, lemon, etc.
Malay limawcitrus fruit; lime or orange; Citrus maxima (or Citrus decumana), the pomelo or shaddock
Old Javanese limoa citrus fruit, the lime
Balinese limolemon
Sasak limoCitrus maximus

Note:   Also Bolaang Mongondow limuʔ ‘lemon; citrus fruit in general’, Dampelas, Totoli lemo ‘citrus fruit’, Bare'e lemo ‘citrus fruit; pomelo, Citrus decumana, etc.’, Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *lemo ‘citrus fruit’, Makasarese lemo ‘name for various types of citrus fruits’, Muna lemo ‘citrus fruit’ (includes tangerines, pomelos, oranges, and others). Dempwolff reconstructed *limaw, and included Oceanic forms such as Sa'a moli ‘a wild orange’, Fijian moli ‘an orange, general name for species of citrus fruits’, and Tongan moli ‘orange or other citrus fruit, but usually excluding lemons and limes’ on the assumption that these have undergone syllable metathesis. However, Ross (2008:339) shows convincingly that the POc form was *molis, and the two cognate sets must therefore be distinguished. The similarity of Portuguese limão ‘lemon’ to this form presumably is due to borrowing from Malay.

30638

*limut moss, algae

8146

PMP     *limut moss, algae     [doublet: *lumut]

WMP
Toba Batak limutmoss, seaweed; also pond scum
OC
Rotuman rimugreyish lichen growing on tree trunks, esp. of coconut; used for making medicine for high fever and convulsions
Wayan lumiseaweed which grows on sandy bottom
Fijian lumi <Mmoss, adhering to a rock or a boat; a kind of edible seaweed
  lumi-lumicovered in moss; sleek, shiny
Tongan limu tahiseaweed
  limu ʔutamoss or lichen
Niue limumoss, seaweed
  limu-limuvery old
Futunan limualgae (in general); moss, lichen; edible red seaweed
Samoan limugeneral name given to mosses, lichens, algae, and seaweeds
  limu-limuHalophila sp., an aquatic plant growing on sand in the sea
  limu-limu niua mosslike fern on the trunks of coconut trees, Monogramma sp.
Tuvaluan limuseaweed; moss; lichen
Rennellese gimukinds of seaweed, some being eaten
Anuta rimuseaweed; algae growing on the reef
  rimu ŋa utamoss (lit. ‘inland algae’)
Rarotongan rimumoss, sponge, seaweed; orchid
  rimu-āto cover or be covered with moss; used figuratively to denote: for all time, eternity, forever
  rimu pinespecies of fern which hangs from trees: Lycopodium phlegmaria
Maori rimuseaweed; moss
  rimu-rimumoss; mildew
Hawaiian limua general name for all kinds of plants living under water, both fresh and salt; also algae growing in any damp place in the air, as on the ground, on rocks, and on other plants; also mosses, liverworts, lichens
  limu-aovergrown with moss, seaweed, or any limu

Note:   Also Rotuman rimi ‘greyish lichen growing on tree trunks’. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *limut as a doublet of the far better-attested *lumut ‘algae, moss, seaweed’, but cited only Toba Batak limut ‘moss, seaweed’, and Ngaju Dayak la-limot ‘thin (like moss)’ outside Fijian and the Polynesian languages as support for this reconstruction. However, Hardeland (1859) gives Ngaju Dayak la-limot and limo-limot with the meaning ‘fine, thin (of hairs, young rice plants)’. Dempwolff himself added ‘(like moss)’, evidently in an attempt to increase the plausibility of the etymology, but since no further evidence for a variant *limut has been found after thorough searching, the validity of this comparison beyond Central Pacific must be considered open to serious question.

27004

*linis smooth, fine (of texture)

3471

PWMP     *linis smooth, fine (of texture)

WMP
Atta ma-liːnissmooth
Ilokano línissmooth, even; clear; clean; pure
Kayan (Uma Juman) linifine, as fine sand

Note:   Also Kayan lanih ‘fine, of grain or texture; smooth, of surface; fine, of powder’, Proto-South Sulawesi *rɨnni(s) ‘fine, powdery’. Zorc (1985) gives PPh *linis ‘clean’.

27005

*linuR earthquake

3472

PAN     *linuR earthquake     [doublet: *linduR]

Formosan
Proto-Rukai *ɭinoʔoearthquake
WMP
Bikol mag-línogto quake, tremor (the earth)
  línogearthquake
  linúg-onto be shaken by an earthquake (as a building)
Hanunóo linúgearthquake
Masbatenyo línogearthquake, quake, tremor
  mag-línogto quake, tremble, shake, shudder (this meaning is limited to earthquakes)
Palawan Batak linógearthquake
Hiligaynon línugearthquake
  mag-línugto have an earthquake, to shake like an earthquake
Aklanon línogearthquake
Waray-Waray línogearthquake, temblor
  ma-línogearthquake-prone
Cebuano línugearthquake; for there to be an earthquake
Mapun linugearthquake; have an earthquake
  ka-linug-an(for a place) to be hit by an earthquake
Mansaka linogearthquake
Binukid linugearthquake; for there to be an earthquake, for an earthquake to hit (somewhere)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) linugan earthquake; of the earth, to shake
Maranao linogearthquake
Tboli linolearthquake
  l<em>inolto tremble, shake, of the earth
Yakan linugearthquake
Tausug linugearthquake
  mag-linugfor an earthquake to occur
  pag-linug-anfor an earthquake to occur
Karo Batak linurearthquake
Sundanese lini (< *linuy)earthquake
Balinese linuhearthquake, shaking
Sangir linuhəʔearthquake
  mə-linuhəʔto shake, of the earth
Bolaang Mongondow linugearthquake
  po-linug-anto shake, as in an earthquake
Gorontalo liluhuearthquake
Tae' linoʔearthquake
Mandar linorearthquake (Mills 1975)

Note:   Also Seediq (Truku) luno ‘earthquake’, m-luno ‘to have an earthquake’, Thao rinuz ‘earthquake’, m-rinuz ‘to have an earthquake’, rinuz-in ‘be shaken by an earthquake’, Paiwan luni ‘earthquake’, l<m>uni ‘to have an earthquake’, Ibanag, Balangao, Yogad lunig, Atta lunik, Gaddang alúnig, Itawis lúnig, Boano linuʔ, Chamorro linao ‘earthquake’. For unknown reasons at least three closely similar forms can be reconstructed meaning ‘earthquake’, and many other words that appear to have a historical connection with these fail to show regular sound correspondences.

Based on the comparison Tagalog lindól : Javanese linḍu ‘earthquake’, Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *linḍuγ ‘earthquake’, but he was forced to acknowledge that the sound correspondence supporting the final consonant is irregular, Tagalog pointing to *lindul or *lindur, but Javanese to *lindu or *linduR (ignoring the *d/ distinction, which is no longer regarded as valid). Access to apparently related forms from a much larger selection of languages now permits the reconstruction of both *linduR and the disjunct *lindur, although neither of these is a competitor of PAn *linuR ‘earthquake’. At first glance Paiwan luni and Philippine forms such as Agta, Balangao lunig suggest a PAn doublet *luniR, but closer attention to northern Luzon forms indicates that they probably reflect *lunij. This in turn allows comparison with Thao rinuz (< *linuj), except that the position of the vowels is reversed and there is no clear basis for deciding which order was original. In addition, Li (1981) has posited Proto-Atayalic *gunug ‘earthquake’ on the basis of evidence that actually supports Proto-Atayalic *runug, a form which would reflect earlier *lunuR. Reflexes of *linuR (and words for ‘earthquake’ more generally) completely skip Borneo, which is a tectonically stable region in an area otherwise known as part of the circum-Pacific ‘ring of fire’.

27006

*liNuŋ, lineŋ, linaŋ calm, tranquil, of the surface of water

3475

PAN     *linaŋ calm, tranquil, of the surface of water     [doublet: *linaw]

Formosan
Paiwan ma-lilʸuŋbe non-moving, collected (water)
WMP
Hanunóo línuŋpeace, quiet, tranquillity
Malay linaŋcalm, still, of water
CMP
Buruese linacalm (of water)
  eg-lina-nclear, unclouded

27030

*liŋ₁ sound of ringing

3500

PMP     *liŋ₁ sound of ringing

WMP
Maranao liŋsound of metals
Simalur liŋword, speech, sound, noise
Javanese liŋone's words
CMP
Manggarai liŋsound; to sound (of flute, clap of the hands, etc.)

27031

*liŋ₂ word, speech

3501

PMP     *liŋ₂ word, speech

WMP
Nias liword, speech, utterance, accent
Old Javanese liŋwhat one says: words, command, suggestion, etc.; what one says to oneself (in one's heart): thought, opinion; what something says (conveys): meaning, tenor
CMP
Hawu lisound, language; say, speak
Rotinese lisound
Kambera lisound, word, story; happen

Note:   This is one of only a handful of reconstructed PMP monosyllables that are not either grammatical particles (e.g. *ni ‘genitive’) or onomatopes (e.g. *tuk ‘sound of knocking, pounding, beating’).

27019

*liŋa inattentive

3489

PWMP     *liŋa inattentive

WMP
Aklanon líŋa-liŋáhard of hearing, slightly deaf; not listening
Cebuano liŋá, líŋainattentive due to preoccupation with something else
Iban liŋaʔfrivolous, careless, heedless, idle
Malay léŋadawdling, wasting time, careless, sleepy
Bare'e liŋainattentive

Note:   Also Tagalog liŋát ‘negligence, lack of attention’, Cebuano liŋag ‘lacking concentration, preoccupied with many other things so as to make stupid mistakes’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) liŋew ‘of an occupation or activity, to absorb someone so completely that he forgets everything else’, Iban liŋas ‘careless, idle’, Malay léŋah, liŋah ‘dawdling’.

27014

*liŋak turn to the side

3484

PMP     *liŋak turn to the side     [doublet: *liŋeR 'turn the head aside']

WMP
Ngaju Dayak liŋakwagging of the head from side to side
CMP
Kambera ha-liŋaleaning to one side (of a boat, pregnant woman, etc.)

27015

*liŋas unable to concentrate

3485

PWMP     *liŋas unable to concentrate     [doublet: *liŋa 'inattentive']

WMP
Hiligaynon líŋasto distract, confuse, upset, make noise
Cebuano liŋásunable to keep still, but moving about all the time instead
Iban liŋascareless, idle

27016

*liŋaw shadow

3486

PAN     *liŋaw shadow

Formosan
Proto-Rukai *a-la-liŋoshadow
Sasak liŋoshadow
WMP
Subanun (Sindangan) dliŋawimage

Note:   Also Gaddang alinaw, Bolaang Mongondow olinow ‘shadow’.

27017

*liŋaw, ka-liŋaw forget

3487

PWMP     *liŋaw, ka-liŋaw forget

WMP
Ata kaliŋowforget
Kapampangan kaliŋwanforget
Mansaka liŋawforget
Malagasy (Merina) hadinoforgotten
  hadinóinabe forgotten, neglected

27018

*liŋay time of lengthening shadows; afternoon

3488

PWMP     *liŋay time of lengthening shadows; afternoon

WMP
Cebuano liŋáy, líŋayfor the sun to move beyond the zenith and the shadows to lengthen in the afternoon
Kayan liŋeishadow, outline, silhouette
Karo Batak liŋetime of the day around 2 p.m.

27032

*liŋ(e)bas kind of axe or adze

3502

PWMP     *liŋ(e)bas kind of axe or adze     [doublet: *riŋbas, *Riŋbas]

WMP
Cebuano liŋbásfile
Maranao limbasgrindstone, whetstone; grind, polish
Tboli limbasfile, hack saw, fingernail file
Sichule limbaeadze

27020

*liŋed hide, conceal

3490

PWMP     *liŋed hide, conceal

WMP
Isneg liŋádhide, conceal, screen
Kayan liŋenhidden, obscured

Note:   Also Kayan liŋun ‘hidden; obscured knowledge’.

27021

*liŋeR turn the head aside

3491

PWMP     *liŋeR turn the head aside     [doublet: *liŋus]

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat liŋegturn one's head to the side
Malay léŋar, liŋarglance sideways (furtively, or in fear or warning)

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak liŋak ‘wagging of the head from side-to-side’, Kambera ha-liŋa ‘leaning to one side (of a boat, pregnant woman, etc.)

27022

*liŋet sweat, perspiration

3492

PWMP     *liŋet sweat, perspiration

WMP
Bontok liŋetperspire, perspiration
Isneg liŋátsweat, perspiration
Malagasy (Merina) dínitrasweat, perspiration

Note:   Also Bikol gaʔnót ‘sweat, perspiration’, Tboli iŋet ‘perspiration’ (cited in the English index, but not in the Tboli listing).

27023

*liŋliŋ peep, peer at

3493

PWMP     *liŋliŋ peep, peer at

WMP
Aklanon líŋliŋpeer at (while hiding), sneak a look at, peek or peep at
Hiligaynon líŋliŋpeep through a small hole, observe secretly through an aperture
Javanese liŋliŋpeer long and attentively at

27029

*liŋu forget

3499

PWMP     *liŋu forget     [doublet: *liŋaw]

WMP
Tboli liŋumistake, error
Kayan liŋoʔlost, of living beings; astray
Wolio ma-liŋuforget

Note:   Zorc (1985) gives PPh *liŋu ‘err; cheat’.

27028

*liŋus turn the head aside

3498

PWMP     *liŋus turn the head aside

WMP
Ilokano liŋúsmake a wry face, grimace, at the same time slightly shaking the head, as when hearing something unpleasant
Tagalog líŋosact of looking from side to side
Malay léŋoslook the other way; turn away the face, e.g. in disapproval

Note:   Also Isneg liŋat ‘look quickly back over one's shoulder’, liŋáy ‘turn the head’, Tagalog liŋón ‘act of looking back’, Cebuano liŋuʔ ‘shake one's head to say no, or in hopelessness or resignation’, Malay liŋar ‘glance sideways’, Roviana liŋana ‘turn the head, look round’.

30237

*lipen tooth

7105

PAN     *lipen tooth     [doublet: *ipen]

Formosan
Hoanya lipuntooth
WMP
Lun Dayeh lifentooth
  lifen fureta small cylindrical stone, said to be the tooth of thunder which strikes tall trees during a thunderstorm
Kelabit (Bario) lipentooth
Moken lepantooth
SHWNG
Biga lifo-tooth

7106

POC     *lipon tooth

OC
Wuvulu lifo-tooth
Sori lipo-tooth
Nauna lihtooth
Tiang lio-tooth
Nakanai livo-tooth
Gedaged liwo-ntooth, saw tooth, the serrated margin of a leaf; tooth of a cog-wheel; prong (of a fork, spear, broken branch); the two points on the end of a housepost
Gitua livo-tooth
Nehan liwo-tooth
Nggela livo-tooth
  livo-policurved tusk of a boar (poli = coiled, curved)
Lau lifo-tooth, tusk, porpoise tooth used as money
  lifo-na kwaŋameteorite (lit. ‘lightning/thunder tooth’)
Mota liwo-itooth; pincer of crab, spider, etc.
Raga liwo-tooth
Anejom ni-jhotooth

Note:   This is one of many doublet forms meaning ‘tooth’. The glosses in Lun Dayeh of northern Sarawak and Lau of the Solomon Islands suggest that the universal animistic belief in ‘thunder stones’ (Tylor 1958:348ff) was at least alternatively conceived as ‘thunder teeth’ in PMP society. For the same association with a different base form cp. Ifugaw (Batad) baban di idul (‘tooth-ligature-thunder’) ‘a tooth charm, lit. tooth of thunder, a tooth or tusk fragment of a prehistoric elephant, Elephas stegodon.’

27007

*lipud cover, conceal

3476

PWMP     *lipud cover, conceal     [doublet: *salipud, *salipuj]

WMP
Cebuano lipud-lípudhide something by circumlocution or covering up
Malay liputcover, envelop, wrap

Note:   Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *lipu(D,r) ‘cover, extinguish’.

30068

*liqə voice

6770

PCEMP     *liqə voice     [doublet: *leqo]

CMP
Rotinese limake a sound; the sound of drum or gong; the report of a rifle; the sound of a human voice singing
Tetun lia-nvoice, the sound of the voice; the sound made by anything; language; noise
  manu lianthe voice of a bird
Proto-Ambon *liəvoice
Buruese liewords
  lie-nvoice, words; hum
  lie-tword, words, voice
SHWNG
Buli liovoice, sound

6771

POC     *liqo voice

OC
Lau liovoice (only in compounds)
Wayan liovoice, of any living thing
  lio-liovoices, sounds made by a person or animal
Rotuman liovoice; (of a meeting) vote, decision

Note:   Also Sika liʔar, Lamaholot ra ‘voice’, Leti lira ‘sound; voice; word; language’, Kisar lira ‘voice, sound of; way, method’, Wetan lira ‘voice, sound; disputation; affair; war’, maka-li-lira ‘music’, Erai li(n) ‘voice, sound of the voice; to sound’ lir ‘voice, language, speech’, Yamdena liri ‘voice, language’, Nehan liro-lir ‘mumble, babble’. Buli normally reflects PAn *e as o in the penult, but a in the ultima (Blust 1978:192-194). It is unclear whether lio shows a conditioned change following another vowel.

30357

*liqeR neck

7356

PAN     *liqeR neck

Formosan
Amis liʔelneck
Paiwan liquneck, throat (in some dialects = ‘neck of animals only’
Paiwan (Western) liqeneck
WMP
Dupaningan Agta legneck, throat
Yogad ligneck
Bolinao líʔɨyneck
Tagalog liʔígneck
  liʔig-ánhaving a large or long neck
Bikol líʔogneck
  mag-líʔogto take by the neck
Hanunóo líʔugneck
Agutaynen likelneck
Hiligaynon líʔugneck
Aklanon líʔogneck
  taga-liʔóg“neck-deep” (in troubles), be on edge, edgy
Masbatenyo liógneck
  liug-ónbe forced, be obliged (usually implies the use of physical force)
Waray-Waray líʔogneck
  líʔog-ónlong-necked
Cebuano líʔugneck
  paŋ-líʔugget thick at the neck (from having rolls of fat)
  taga-líʔug“up to the neck” (as in debt)
Maranao ligneck
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) liʔegthe neck
Mansaka liyugneck
  ba-lyugwear a necklace
Binukid liegneck
Tiruray réʔérthe neck
Tausug liʔugneck; neckline, collar
  liʔug-anput a collar on something
  li-liʔug-anhaving a collar (as a dress)
Tombonuwo liyowneck
Bisaya (Limbang) liawneck
Lun Dayeh liawneck
Kelabit (Bario) riʔerneck
Malay léhérthroat; neck
Acehnese lihiëneck
Sasak lirneck
Proto-Sangiric *leReʔneck
Sangir leheʔneck, throat
Boano leʔeneck
Bare'e leʔeneck, external throat
Palawan Batak liʔəgneck
CMP
Helong leoneck

7357

POC     *liqoR neck

OC
Ghari lioneck
Bauro rioneck

Note:   Also Favorlang li ‘throat, neck’, Proto-Rukai *ɭəʔə, Tagalog leʔég, Maranao leher < Malay) ‘neck’. Based on data only from Tagalog and Malay Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *liqiR ‘neck’, but the wider set of data considered here shows clearly that the last-syllable vowel was PAn *e (schwa). As noted elsewhere in this dictionary (*leqo Note), PCEMP *liqə and POc *leqo ‘voice’ may be continuations of this form with semantic change. However, even if this is true the meaning ‘neck’ evidently persisted, as shown by the Helong form given above, and by reflexes in at least twelve languages of Guadalcanal in the central Solomons, and seven others of San Cristobal in the southeast Solomons, all of which are represented above by just Ghari and Bauro.

27008

*liqu forget

3477

PWMP     *liqu forget

WMP
Kankanaey líoforgotten, neglected
Wolio ka-liʔuforget

3478

PWMP     *ma-liqu forget

WMP
Itneg ma-líʔuforget
Wolio ma-liʔuforget

30509

*liRi sound, voice

7738

PCMP     *liRi sound, voice     [disjunct: *liqo '(PCEMP: 'voice')']

CMP
Rotinese limake a sound; the sound of a drum or gong; the report of a rifle
Yamdena liri-nvoice; language
  ŋé-liriuproar, clamor

30536

*liseqeS nit, egg of a hair louse

7817

PAN     *liseqeS nit, egg of a hair louse

Formosan
Saisiyat (Taai) lʸiʔʃiʃnit
Kavalan Risisnit, louse egg
Proto-Rukai *aɭisəəsənit
Rukai (Budai) aɭisəəsənit
Paiwan liseqesnit, louse-egg

7818

PMP     *lisehaq, liseqah nit, egg of a hair louse

WMP
Itbayaten lisahanit, egg of a louse
Ilokano lisʔánit, egg of a louse
Isneg lisánit, egg of the head louse
Itawis lisálouse egg, nit
Dupaningan Agta risalouse egg
Casiguran Dumagat lésaeggs (of lice)
Kapampangan liyas <Msmall lice
Tagalog lisáʔnit, egg of a louse
  ma-lisáʔfull of nits (as the hair)
Mansaka lisaʔnit, louse egg
Binukid lísaʔeggs of body lice (of humans or animals); nits
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lisehaʔeggs of the insect parasites of humans or animals
Maranao lisaʔbaby louse
  lisaʔ-anlousy
Tiruray lisahaʔa louse egg
Tboli k-lihalice eggs
  k<n>-lihainfested with lice eggs
Yakan ku-lisaʔlouse’s egg, nit
Tausug lisaʔa nit, the egg of the human louse
Bisaya (Limbang) lios <Msmall louse, louse’s eggs
Kenyah (Long Anap) liʔaeggs of lice
Kayan liʔaheggs of lice
Kayan (Uma Juman) liah <Mnit, egg of a louse
Tring liʔaeggs of lice
Ngaju Dayak lias <Mnit, egg of a louse
  ha-liasfull of nits (of the hair)
Gayo lisethe white eggs of head lice that adhere to the hair
Karo Batak lisanit, egg of a louse
Toba Batak lisanit, egg of a louse
  lisa-lisa-onfull of nits
Dairi-Pakpak Batak lisanit, egg of a louse
Sundanese lisanit
Old Javanese liŋsanit, egg of a louse
Javanese liŋsalouse eggs
  ŋgolèki liŋsa sumlempitto criticize, carp, find fault
Sasak lisaʔnit, egg of a louse
Proto-Sangiric *ləsianit, egg of a louse
Sangir ləsianit
  mə-ləsiabegin to crack (as gently as the snapping of nits between the fingernails), of a tree that is being felled
Proto-Minahasan *ləseʔanit, egg of a louse
Bolango litaegg of a louse, esp. head louse
Gorontalo litaegg of a louse, esp. head louse
Bolaang Mongondow litaʔnit
Boano lisaʔnit, egg of a louse
Bare'e liosonit, egg of a louse
  ke-liosofull of nits
Tae' lissenit, egg of a louse; kind of grass with white fruits that resemble the eggs of lice
Mandar lissenit, egg of a hair louse
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *liqohanit
Mori Atas liʔoho <Mnit
Padoe hiloʔo <Mlouse egg
CMP
Komodo ke-lisanit, egg of a louse
Tetun lisa-knit, egg of a louse
Yamdena lisenit, egg of a louse
Fordata lisa-nnit, egg of a louse
Kei lisa-nnit

7819

POC     *lisa nit, egg of a louse

OC
Nauna lisnit, egg of a louse
Lou lisa-n kutnit, egg of a louse
Ere lisnit, egg of a louse
Titan lisnit, egg of a louse
Leipon lisnit, egg of a louse
Likum lihnit, egg of a louse
Sori lihnit, egg of a louse
Bipi lisnit, egg of a louse
Mussau lisahead louse, hair louse
Mendak sila <Mnit, egg of a louse
Tolai linit of a louse
Duke of York lianit of a louse
Kilivila lesa (< *lias)nit
Selau səla ~ ləsanit, egg of a louse
Nehan lihlouse egg, nit
Nggela lihalice in hair
Kwaio litaeggs of louse
Lau lite <Apupae of lice in the hair
'Āre'āre rite <Aeggs of louse and flea
Mota lisanit, pupa of louse
Fijian lise <Anits
Tongan lihanit, louse’s egg
Samoan lianit (esp. in human hair)
Tuvaluan lianit
Anuta rianit (egg of head louse)
Rarotongan rianit, the egg or eggs of a louse or lice or other small insects
  ria-rianitty, to be infested with nits
Maori rihanit
  whaka-riha-rihadisgusting; disgusted, annoyed
Hawaiian liha ~ lianit, louse egg
  li-liha ~ liha-lihamany nits

Note:   Also Pazeh deres ‘nit’, Thao riqnish ‘nit, egg of head louse’, riqnish-in ‘to have nits, be infested with nits’, Ilokano liés ‘nit, egg of the louse’, Bikol luʔsá ‘nit, the egg of a louse’, luʔsáh-on ‘describing someone with nits’, Agutaynen liket ‘louse egg’, Aklanon eusáʔ ‘nit, louse egg [about to hatch]’, Masbatenyo lusáʔ ‘louse, louse egg, nit, bedbug’, lusaʔ-ón ‘infested with louse eggs’, Cebuano lúsaʔ ‘nit, the egg of a louse’, lusáʔ-un ‘full of nits’, Dampelas, Lauje luesa ‘nit, egg of a louse’, Makasarese ku-licca ‘nit, egg of a louse’, Muna liko ‘nit’, Chamorro lotsa ‘nit, egg of louse’, Buli loas ‘nit, egg of a louse’, Loniu lus ‘nit, egg of a louse’, Seimat lil ‘head louse’, Wogeo lisar ‘nit, egg of a louse’, Mbula leeze ‘louse egg, nit’.

In addition to reflexes that conform to expectation this list shows that there is a surprising number of apparently related forms that do not. Some of these might be taken as evidence for doublets, as Cebuano lúsaʔ, Loniu lus < PMP *lusehaq, or Kapampangan liyas, Kayan liah, Mori Atas liʔoho < PMP *liqesah. However, the evidence for a variant *lusehaq currently seems too tenuous to take seriously, and apparent reflexes of *liqesah are probably best treated as products of convergent metathesis. Forms such as Bare'e lioso, Mori Atas liʔoho also suggest that the merger of *e (schwa) and *a before a final laryngeal had not yet taken place in PMP (hence PMP *liseheq/liseqeh). However, since all other languages point to PMP *-aq or *-ah in this form, and a similar merger is supported by other etymologies, I will assume that the second rounded vowel in these Sulawesian forms is a product of assimilation to the regular reflex of *e in penultimate position.

Finally, several widely separated languages (Tboli, Yakan, Bare'e, Komodo, plus the irregular Makasarese form ku-licca) reflect the base reconstructed here with a prefix *ku- of unknown function. Although it is by no means certain, this may have been a Sama-Bajaw innovation that spread by contact.

27039

*li(ŋ)suŋ mortar

3509

PWMP     *li(ŋ)suŋ mortar     [doublet: *esuŋ, *lusuŋ]

WMP
Samal lisuŋ-anmortar
Maloh lisuŋ-anmortar
Sangir lisuŋmortar
Singhi Land Dayak risuŋmortar
Sasak lisuŋwooden rice mortar (as opposed to mortars of skin)

27009

*litek muddy soil

3479

PWMP     *litek muddy soil

WMP
Karo Batak litekturbid, muddy, of water
Toba Batak litokturbid, muddy, of water
Mandar litaʔearth

Note:   With root *-tek₂ mud.

27026

*li(n)tem deep black, shiny black

3496

PWMP     *li(n)tem deep black, shiny black

WMP
Ilokano lítemlivid, black and blue; contused, bruised, waled
Murik lintemdark
Toba Batak lintomdeep black
  hoda si-lintomblack horse

Note:   Also Maranao intem ‘dark in color’. Murik lintem can be assigned equally well to *li(n)dem or *li(n)jem ‘dark’.

27010

*liteq sap of a tree or plant

3480

PMP     *liteq sap of a tree or plant     [doublet: *Niteq]

WMP
Maranao litaʔsap of a plant
Maloh litaʔlatex, rubber
Malagasy (Merina) dítygum, resin, anything viscid
Sasak litaʔtree the wood of which is used for sirih boxes, the sap of which is used for bird lime and the bast fiber of which is used as medicine
CMP
Manggarai litasticky (of fat, etc.)
SHWNG
Buli litstick, adhere; glue, paste
Numfor-Biak riksap of trees

27027

*li(n)tik snap off, snapping or clicking sound

3497

PMP     *li(n)tik snap off, snapping or clicking sound

WMP
Kankanaey litíkclick, tick
  litíikto crack, snap
Karo Batak lintik, lentiksmall chisel used to knock off bits of tooth in tooth-filing
Toba Batak litikknock, tick
CMP
Manggarai litikpluck, pick, snap off (leaves of yam, etc.)
Rotinese liticause a creaking sound when walking over a floor of soft laths, etc.
OC
Fijian lidiburst, explode, strike; the report of an explosion, as of thunder or a stone in a heated oven

Note:   With root *-tik₂ ‘ticking or clicking sound’.

30560

*liu₁ surpass, exceed

7918

PMP     *liu₁ surpass, exceed

WMP
Balinese liube many; crowd; many, much
CMP
Tetun liusurpass, be better than, be larger than; when placed after a verb translates as: before in time, past, or ago
OC
Lau liuto go beyond; excessive; to exceed; very
'Āre'āre riu-aused to form the comparative and superlative; surpass, win, excel, go beyond, pass over, of time
Arosi riugo on, go past; beyond; forms a superlative: goro riu ‘very good’
Fijian liuprecede, go before, surpass, excel, be the first to do a thing

30561

*liu₂ turn aside, turn around

7919

POC     *liu₂ turn aside, turn around

OC
Tolai liuto pass; to twist, as a rope
Nggela liuto turn aside, go in another direction, by another way
Samoan liualter, change
  liu-liuturn over and over (as a mat in rolling it up); debate
Niue liuto turn, change; to return; again

7920

POC     *li-liu turn around, change direction

OC
Eddystone/Mandegusu li-liuturn over
Roviana li-liuturn around with the same movement, as clock hands
Nggela li-liuto become, change into
  li-liu liochange one’s mind, repent; to turn aside from the path; turn, turn over in bed
Tongan li-liuturn around; turn or change into something else
Samoan li-liualter, change
Niue li-liuto change

27011

*liuS circumambulate, circumvent

3481

PAN     *liuS circumambulate, circumvent

Formosan
Rukai ma-liu-liústurn round (Ferrell 1969)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) mu-liústurn round (person)
  mu-liu-liusturn round (thing)
WMP
Cebuano líyucircle round
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) liyugo round an object or obstacle to get to the other side
Kayan (Uma Juman) liuriver channel (i.e. place where the river has met an obstacle and flowed to the sides and around it)
Iban liuprowl round (Scott 1956), prowl or hang about (Richards 1981)
OC
Bugotu liugo beyond, pass
Nggela liuturn aside, go in another direction, by another way
Arosi riugo on, go past

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) eliǥu ‘go around an obstacle in one's path or go out of one's way to avoid someone or something’. Reconstructed as *liu ‘circumvent’ in Blust (1973:no. 207), where Formosan and Oceanic reflexes are not cited.

27012

*liut₁ go around, encircle

3482

PWMP     *liut₁ go around, encircle     [doublet: *liuS 'circumvent']

WMP
Maranao liotaround, encircle, surround
Ngaju Dayak liutbend, curvature; detour; go out of one's way

30562

*liut₂ to twist, as a limb

7921

PMP     *liut₂ to twist, as a limb

WMP
Malay liat-liutsupple, twisting readily
  ter-be-liuttwisted, strained, of a limb or joint
OC
Tolai li-liutto struggle, twist oneself about, fidget

Note:   Also Tontemboan liu ‘twisted, of a foot or hand (referring to people or animals)’.

27013

*liwaŋ open space

3483

PWMP     *liwaŋ open space

WMP
Bontok liwaŋ-andoor
Minangkabau léwaŋgate
Malay léwaŋopen space

Note:   With root *-waŋ ‘wide open space’.

30049

*liwed scatter to and fro

6749

PWMP     *liwed scatter to and fro

WMP
Kenyah (Long Jeeh) liwetto and fro
Old Javanese a-liwermove about, dart to and fro (of many, without order), rush about, fly around, swarm, flash back and forth
Javanese liwermill around, swarm about in crowds
Balinese liwer-ana motley crowd; move, flee, run away in a confused mass

TOP      le    li    lo    lu    

lo

30034

*loan endure, last a long time

6732

POC     *loan endure, last a long time

OC
Gedaged loanendure, continue a long time; exist for a long period; protract; abide; last
Samoan loabe a long time (since something happened); be old, ancient (without showing signs of age or growth)
Rennellese goaold, long ago; common, often, again and again, already
  goagoaa while ago
Anuta roalong (in time)
  Roaroalong (in either time or distance)
Rarotongan roalong, as of time; delayed; length, as of time; delay; length, as of measurement; duration, extent, etc.
Maori roalong (of time), delayed

30510

*lolan to cut off a piece

7739

PCMP     *lolan to cut off a piece

CMP
Rotinese lolacut meat into strips
  palo-lola-kstrips of meat
Yamdena lolancut off a piece

30115

*loRo large red tree ant

6844

POC     *loRo large red tree ant

OC
Nali yo-yowred tree ant
Ere low-lowred tree ant
Mondropolon lo-lowsugar ant
Lele yew-yewsugar ant
Kele lu-lowred tree ant
Likum low-lowsmall stinging black ant
Penchal loy-loyred tree ant
Nakanai la-lololarge red ant
Bugotu thothored ant
Nggela lolosp. of small black ant; weevil, insect in rice, flour, etc.
Kwaio loloant
Lau lolosp. of ant
Sa'a lolored ants, sugar ants
Fijian lo-loa small ant
Tongan ant
Niue ant
Rennellese ant
Tuvaluan looant
Anuta loant (generic)
Rarotongan loant
Maori Argosarchus horridus and other stick-insects; praying mantis
Hawaiian a black insect, the earwig (Dermaptera)

Note:   Also Lenkau lele ‘sugar ant’, Mussau loa ‘red tree ant’, Gedaged zoz ‘large yellow ant’, Samoan loi, Nukuoro loa ‘ant’. Osmond (2011:391-392) posits PMP *loRo ‘red tree ant’ based on Oceanic reflexes plus Pendau ‘big red tree ant’. This comparison may be valid, but given the length of the form and the lack of other known cognates in non-Oceanic languages, it should be treated with caution until further confirmation becomes available. Likewise, Mussau loa ‘red tree ant’, Nukuoro loa ‘ant’ could be used to support a POc doublet *loa, but without further evidence this possibility will be kept in abeyance.

30126

*loso-loso bathe, swim

6859

POC     *loso-loso bathe, swim

OC
Wogeo loso-losobathe
Cape Cumberland lo-lososwim
Namakir lo-lohswim
Nakanamanga lo-lososwim
North Malo loso-biwash
Nakanamanga lo-losowash

30050

*loto₁ boil, abscess

6750

POC     *loto₁ boil, abscess

OC
Wuvulu loʔoboil, abscess
Lindrou lokboil, abscess
Likum lokboil, abscess
Nali yotboil, abscess
Loniu lotboil, abscess
Lou lotboil, abscess
Penchal lotboil, abscess
Tanga lotabscess
Wogeo lootoboil, abscess
Nehan lotsore
Bugotu thotopus
Sa'a abscess

30176

*loto₂ inner self, feelings, mind

6974

POC     *loto₂ inner self, feelings, mind

OC
Makatea rotoheart
Tongan lotoinside, interior; mind, heart (seat of affections, etc.); desire, will, purpose; anger, ire, temper
Niue lotowithin, inside, between; the heart (moral, not physical); the seat of the emotions, the mind
Futunan lototo desire, want, wish; prefer; desire sexually; interior, center; enclosure, yard
  loto velibe ill-natured; jealous
Rennellese gotointerior, thought, intelligence
Samoan lotoheart, feeling (as opposed to mind and soul); will
  loto-a(be) hot-tempered
  loto-malieagree
  loto-maube strict, firm, steadfast
Tuvaluan lotoin, inside, inwards; one’s inner self, hence the heart as seat of the emotions; wish, agree, decide on; compose one’s mind
Kapingamarangi lodoinside, within; spouse
  lodo bagegeweak-minded, weak-willed, cowardly (bagege = ‘weak, powerless’)
  lodo huaidufeel bad (inside oneself); sorrow, sadness; to feel sad (huaidu = ‘bad’)
Nukuoro lodoinside of; want, desire
  lodo aheaheunstable temperamentally, inconstant
  lodo laneaindecisive, confused
  lodo manegestubborn, be a poor loser
Rarotongan rotoin, within, the inner part, inside; inwardness, internal state, inner meaning or significance, intimacy, familiarity, etc.; internally seated in the mind or soul; not perceptable to the sense of sight, as hidden or suppressed anger or any hidden or suppressed emotion
Maori rotothe inside (as of a house); the midst
Hawaiian lokoin, inside, within; interior, inside; internal organs, as tripe
  hoʔo-lokoinsinuate, suggest, implant a thought, either good or bad; character, disposition, heart

TOP      le    li    lo    lu    

lu

27040

*luab swell up, as boiling rice; boil over

3510

PMP     *luab swell up, as boiling rice; boil over     [doublet: *Ruab 'high tide']

WMP
Ilokano luábto top cooking rice; to remove the upper layer from the kettle
Mapun luwapto overflow
  luwap-anto overfill; make something overflow
Lun Dayeh luaba rising tide; an overflow
  mə-luabspilling
Malay luapswell, expand, as rice when boiled
Karo Batak luamboiling, of water, violently bubbling up; excited, of language; raving, delirious, as in sickness
Balinese ma-luabboil; bubble up, boil over
Wolio luaboil over, overflow
Muna luaboiling surface (as of something someone is cooking)
  lua-wito boil over onto something
Ilokano ag-luábto be lifted away by the wind (thatch); to bubble, boil; rise
CMP
Rotinese luaboil over, run over, froth at the top
Buruese luahigh, full; high, of the tide
OC
Nggela lualuaboil over, as food cooked in bamboo
Niue ma-lua-luato become rough (of the sea)

Note:   Also Kallahan lewag ‘to boil’, Pangasinan luág ‘to boil (liquid)’, Iban ruap ‘bubble or froth up (as vegetables boiling over in a pot)’, Malay me-ruap ‘to bubble up’, Manggarai lua ‘to boil (as rice)’, rua ‘to boil; boil over’.

30649

*luaŋ hole in the ground

8164

PMP     *luaŋ hole in the ground     [doublet: *lubaŋ₁, *Ruqaŋ]

WMP
Romblomanon luwaŋthe bilge of a boat or ship, the inner space at its widest point
Banjarese luaŋhole
Sundanese luaŋhole, groove
CMP
Rotinese lua(k)cave, cavern, grotto, hole
OC
Rotuman luahole
Tongan luohole in the ground, pit, trench, rut, or other depression; hole
Samoan luahole, pit
Kapingamarangi luahole, cave
Anuta ruohole
Rarotongan ruahole, excavation, grave, abyss, cavity, pit, opening, chasm, etc.
Maori ruapit, hole; store for provisions; grave
  whaka-ruahollow, vale, valley
Hawaiian luahole, pit, grave, den, cave, mine, crater (lua is a hole that has a bottom, contrasting with puka, perforation)

Note:   Also Numfor-Biak rwa ~ rwa-ri ‘opening of a hole, the barrel of a gun; any opening that is circular in shape.

30647

*luaq spit out (food, substances alien to the body), to spew

8161

PMP     *luaq spit out (food, substances alien to the body), to spew

WMP
Itbayaten ka-xwa ~ ka-hoaremoving from the mouth
  a-hwaspit out
Pangasinan to eject from the mouth; poke out one’s tongue
Tagalog luwáʔthat which is belched or disgorged from the mouth
  mag-luwáʔto belch out; to disgorge; to throw out from the mouth or throat
  l<um>uwáʔto belch out; to disgorge; to throw out from the mouth or throat
Bikol luwáʔto spit something out of the mouth (usually food); to spew
Waray-Waray luwáʔthe act of belching or forcing something out from the mouth
Masbatenyo mag-lúwaʔto spit, spew out, expectorate
Cebuano lúwaʔto spit or eject from the mouth; spit to express contempt; action of spitting
Mansaka lowaʔto come out; to bring out
Mapun luwaʔto spit something out after putting it in one’s mouth
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) luwaʔto spit a non-liquid out of the mouth
Tiruray luwaʔto throw out; to spit out all that is in one’s mouth; having tuberculosis
Tausug mag-luwaʔto eject something from the mouth
  luwa-anbe ejected from the mouth
Ida'an Begak luaʔlet go out of the mouth
  l<əm>uaʔto let go out of the mouth
Kayan luaa baby’s or child’s regurgitation, vomit
Ngaju Dayak ma-luaspit out
  ha-lu-luaspit out repeatedly
Malagasy lúavomit, the matter ejected
  a-lúato be vomited
  man-dúato vomit; to pay, to discharge a debt
Malay luahejecting from the mouth, spitting out (not merely spitting), as of something bitter
Sundanese luahbetel expectorate, (red) saliva spat out when chewing betel nut
  ŋa-luahto spit out betel saliva
Balinese luahvomit; emit water; bubble over (a boiling pot)
Sasak luaʔspit out food
Sangir mə-luato spit out, expel from the mouth
Uma -luaʔspit out, spew out
Tae' luato vomit; vomitus
  lua-nto vomit out for (someone)
Makasarese luasomething that one has spat out
  al-luato spit out (as the pit of a fruit)
  lua-sawakind of gemstone (lit. ‘spat out by a python’)
Wolio luavomit, vomited matter; to vomit
Muna luato vomit, throw up, spit out
CMP
Sika luaspit out, spew out
Lamaholot luãeject from the mouth (as food, or the pits of fruits)
Yamdena n-luespit out food, etc.
Watubela luakvomit
Proto-Ambon *luato vomit
Asilulu luato vomit
  la-lua-tvomitus
Buruese luato vomit, regurgitate
  lua-kto vomit (something), regurgitate, spit out
Soboyo luaʔto vomit
OC
Kove lua-luato vomit
Gitua luavomit
  lua-ta buato spit out betel
Mbula lua-ispit out something from one’s mouth (as the pulp of betel nut)
Nehan luato vomit, be seasick
Roviana luato vomit; to emit semen
Eddystone/Mandegusu luavomiting; to vomit, spit
Bugotu luato vomit
Nggela lua-lagito spit out
Kwaio lua-ŋaʔiburst out, come out, spew out from
  lua-ʔaovomit
Mota luato put out of the mouth, spew, vomit
  lu-luato vomit, be sick
Araki luato vomit
Rotuman luato spit or cast out of the mouth, often sed as a euphemism for mumufa (to vomit)
Fijian luato vomit
  via-luato feel sick
  lua-ðato vomit on
  lua-ra(ka)what is vomited
  lua-luato keep vomiting
Tongan luato vomit
Niue luato vomit, throw up food (as an infant does)
  faka-luato dribble, vomit
  faka-lua-luato expel from the mouth in driblets
  ma-luato flow out of the mouth accidentally; to overflow
Samoan lua-iexpectorate, disgorge
Tuvaluan luavomit
Kapingamarangi lua-ito spit up food (only once, not repeatedly as in vomiting)
Nukuoro lue-ito spit out (especially food)
  haga-lue-iato vomit; vomitus
Rennellese guato throw up, vomit, emit sexually, have an orgasm
Anuta ruato vomit; to be seasick

8162

POC     *lua-ki spit something out, vomit something

OC
Mussau lue-kito vomit
Mota lua-gto vomit out, put out of the mouth
Tuvaluan lua-kito vomit (of a fish); to slip a hook; to blow out smoke
Rarotongan rua-kivomit, matter ejected from the stomach; to vomit, to throw up the contents of the stomach by the mouth; to spew
Maori rua-kito vomit; be vomited
  whaka-rua-kito vomit up, disgorge
Hawaiian lua-ʔivomit; volcanic eruptions; to vomit, erupt; to banish, expel, drive out, as people

Note:   Also Kankanaey luáak ‘to retch and vomit; to do nothing but vomit’, Hiligaynon lúʔad ‘to spit out, to throw out of themnouth’, Aklanon eúad ‘to spit out (food)’, Iban luaʔ ‘spit, spit out, let dribble out (as fruit seeds)’, Banjarese luak ‘spit out of the mouth (as medicine)’, Chamorro lugaʔ ‘spit out (mouthful), to spew or spray out of the mouth by blowing, such as a mouthful of chewed coconut meat after juice is gone’, Futunan luʔa-ki ‘to spit out (blood), to vomit’.

I assume that Paiwan ḍeluaq ~ luaq ‘sound of vomiting’, pa-ḍeluaq ‘make sounds of vomiting’ is unrelated, and that the final –i and –ki of various Polynesian reflexes is a fossilization of the POc transitive suffixes *-i and *-aki(ni), presumably motivated by a need to distinguish a large number of historically expected homophones with the base shape lua. Although reflexes of *luaq have come to mean ‘vomit’ in a large number of widely scattered languages, it is clear that PAn and PMP *utaq ‘vomit; vomitus’, *um-utaq ‘to vomit’ referred to the regurgitation of food from the stomach, while PMP *luaq evidently referred to ejecting something undesirable or useless from the mouth, as the pits of fruits, food or medicine that has an unexpectedly foul taste, the reddened saliva and pulp of the areca nut, etc.

30653

*luas outside; outside area; spacious, roomy

8168

PWMP     *luas outside; outside area; spacious, roomy     [doublet: *luqar, *luqaR]

WMP
Agta (Eastern) luwásgo out
Casiguran Dumagat luwasoutside (of a house or of the jungle)
  l<um>uwásto go outside (singular subject)
  məg-luwásto go outside (plural subject)
Pangasinan luásto go to town
Bikol luwásoutside
  mag-luwásto exit, to go out or come out; to take out, to put out
  pa-luwásoutward
  pa-luwas-ónto send out, to discharge
  luwas-ánthe outside, exterior; outlet, vent
  i-luwásto take out, to put out
Hanunóo luwásoutside, exterior, out of doors
Hiligaynon luwásaside from, except, outside of
  mag-luwásto free, to redeem, to save
Aklanon euwásoutside; to save from [troubles, evil]; free, liberate; aside from, outside of
Masbatenyo luwásoutside
  mag-luwásto exit, step out, get out
  luwas-ánto exit through
Romblomanon luwasa position outside an object, either the outside surface or a position nearby; certain objects are specified except for one or more which are not included
Cebuano luwásto save, remove something from harm; free from debt, discomfort
  ka-luwás-ansafety, preservation from destruction
Mansaka lowasto set free, to save
Binukid luwasto remove, take off (an article of clothing); to save, preserve, remove (someone) from harm, destruction, death, etc.; to free (someone) of difficulties, discomfort, problems, etc.
Maranao loasshed off skin, molt; undress
Yakan mag-luwasto take off something (as clothes or shoes); to bring out something, express (of thoughts or speech); to go outside (of room, house, forest, etc.)
  l<um>uwasto be out (outside) of something that is confining in some way
Iban luasclear, wide, spacious
Malay luasspacious, broad
  luas-kanto expand; to dilate
Toba Batak luascome out, appear
Javanese losoff, away, (on the) loose; home free (in children’s games)
Tae' luaʔspacious, wide
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *luabroad, wide; empty; expel
Makasarese luasaʔspacious, wide; neighborhood, vicinity

Note:   Also Agutaynen loa ‘outside’, mag-loat ‘to remove clothing, shoes’, Gayo luah ‘freed, let loose’, Karo Batak lua ‘tear off the clothes; expose the genitals(?)’, luah ‘escape, break loose, from a pen, from danger’, Sasak luah ‘outside’, (se)-luah-an ‘except for’, Bolaang Mongondow mo-luas ‘wide, spacious, extended’ (< Malay), Tetun luar ‘free, without responsibility, unrestricted’, Buli luas ‘spacious, having plenty of time’ (< Malay). Since several of these words appear to be loans from Malay the question arises whether this might be true for a number of others. This is possibly the case for some of the languages of Indonesia, where the semantics of the form agree closely with those of Malay luas, but it seems much less likely in the case of Philippine forms, where the semantics tend toward the meaning ‘outside, out of doors’ rather than ‘spacious’.

30335

*lubaŋ₁ burial pit

7311

PAN     *lubaŋ₁ burial pit     [doublet: *lebeŋ]

Formosan
Pazeh r<in>ubaŋ a sawgrave, tomb, graveyard
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ruvaŋa hole
Paiwan (Western) luvaŋa grave, grave-pit; a covered pit trap
  pu-luvaŋ-ancemetery

7312

PMP     *lubaŋ₁ₐ hole, pit     [doublet: *lebeŋ]

WMP
Tausug lubaŋa depression, pit, hole or deep furrow in the ground; ditch, trench
Lun Dayeh lubaŋa hole, pit; nostril
  ŋe-lubaŋto drill or make a hole
Kayan luvaŋa hole (body aperture, porcupine’s den, hole in ear for insertion of clouded leopard’s tooth)
Kayan (Uma Juman) luvaŋa hole
Kiput lubiëhole
Bintulu luvaŋhole
Iban lubaŋhole, pit
  be-lubaŋhaving a hole or hollow
Malay lobaŋhole; orifice, e.g. the touch-hole of a cannon, the nostril, the eye of a needle, side-cavity in Malay grave
Bahasa Indonesia lubaŋhole, depression in the ground
Gayo luaŋhole, as in end of bamboo; aperture of the ear
  luaŋ lètgrave niche
Karo Batak lubaŋhole, pit; anus; hole in the floor of a house; grave
Toba Batak lubaŋhole, cavity, pit, fissure
  tar-lubaŋfall into a pit
Dairi-Pakpak Batak lubaŋhole, having a hole; vagina; nostril
Old Javanese luwaŋpit, hole, cavity
  aŋ-luwaŋhollow
Javanese luwaŋhole, pit
  ŋe-luwaŋto dig a hole in
Sundanese lubaŋkind of very large eel that stays in holes and grottoes in near-shore waters

7313

PWMP     *maR-lubaŋ to dig a hole or pit

WMP
Tausug mag-lubaŋto make a depression, hole or pit in the ground
Malay ber-lobaŋ-lobaŋfull of holes, as a wasp’s nest
Bahasa Indonesia ber-lubaŋhaving a hole or depression
Karo Batak er-lubaŋhave a hole, full of holes

7314

PAN     *l<um>ubaŋ to bury, place in a pit or hole

Formosan
Pazeh mu-rubaŋto bury (in general, including a dead person or animal)
Paiwan l<m>uvaŋto place in a pit

Note:   Also Mapun lowaŋ ‘a hole (especially one that doesn’t go all the way through or one that daylight can’t be seen from)’, Yakan lowaŋ ‘a hole’, Kiput ubië ‘hole’, Balinese lobaŋ ‘a game, throwing small things into hollows’, Makasarese aʔ-lobaŋ ‘play a kind of game with three people who throw a coin toward a hole or line on the ground to try to get closest to the target’.

30336

*lubaŋ₂ to plant root crops, plant cuttings

7315

PPh     *lubaŋ₂ to plant root crops, plant cuttings

WMP
Ibaloy dobaŋcamote slips for planting
  man-dobaŋto plant camote slips
Tagalog mag-lubáŋto plant root crops such as sweet potatos or yams
Bikol mag-lubáŋto sow root crops by planting the shoots
Cebuano lubáŋtransplant seedlings
Mansaka lobaŋto plant taro

27052

*lumbar set free

3522

PMP     *lumbar set free

WMP
Old Javanese lumbarfree, unfettered, left open (field where crop has been reaped)
Balinese lumbarbe loose, free, untied, not tied up (as domestic animals)
OC
Nggela lumbato let go, slacken, loose; to set free, allow, permit

27080

*lu(m)baR pay out a rope

3551

PWMP     *lu(m)baR pay out a rope

WMP
Ilokano lúbaglower the sail of
Karo Batak lumbarpay out a rope
Minangkabau lombarpay out rope in working a vessel

27041

*lubet buttocks

3511

PWMP     *lubet buttocks     [doublet: *lebut]

WMP
Bikol lubótbuttocks
Singhi Land Dayak rubatbottom (anat.)

27053

*lumbu plant sp.

3523

PMP     *lumbu plant sp.

WMP
Malay lumbua climber: Morinda rigida, Willughbeia coriacea
Sundanese lumbukind of tuberous plant
Old Javanese lumbua water plant with limp leaves (an image of weakness)
CMP
Manggarai lumbukind of plant the roots of which are eaten by porcupines

30448

*lucak trample earth, turn into mud, as a paddy field prior to planting

7614

PWMP     *lucak trample earth, turn into mud, as a paddy field prior to planting

WMP
Ilokano lúsaksmash, crush
  ma-lúsakfall to the ground and bruise (fruits); be smashed, crushed
Tagalog lúsakmud, slush
Maranao losaktrample under foot (as a rice paddy prior to planting)
Iban lucakmuddy, soft ground
Karo Batak pe-lucakhave carabaos trample a paddy field to prepare it for planting

27083

*lu(n)cuR, lu(ŋ)suR slip or slide down

3554

PWMP     *lu(n)cuR, lu(ŋ)suR slip or slide down

WMP
Maranao losogdrive away or down
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lusugdescend head first, as a dog goes down a ladder or a child falls down the ladder head first
Iban lunsurdrain away
Malay loncor, luncurslipping down
  luncur-kancause to slip down, launch
  loŋsor, lonsor, luŋsurslipping forward or downward
Old Javanese luŋsurcoming down, slipping down, sliding down
Javanese loŋsor, losorshift, slide, settle (as a road that has washed into the river)
  luŋsurget demoted, lower something
  luncurget launched, slide or drift into, against

Note:   Also Malay lancar ‘slipping along smoothly’.

27042

*lucut squeeze or squirt out

3512

PWMP     *lucut squeeze or squirt out

WMP
Ilokano losótprotrude, shoot out, spurt, break through, flow out
Cebuano lusútpass, go through
Singhi Land Dayak rusutslip
Malay lucutdropping out of a place; become undone and slip away

Note:   With root *-cut ‘squirt, squeeze, or slip out’.

30116

*luCuŋ the Formosan rock monkey: Macaca cyclopis

6845

PAN     *luCuŋ the Formosan rock monkey: Macaca cyclopis

Formosan
Saisiyat (Taai) lʸosoŋFormosan rock monkey
Thao rucunthe Formosan rock monkey: Macaca cyclopis, a light gray, long-tailed monkey with triangular salmon-colored face
Bunun hutuŋmonkey
Basai lotoŋFormosan rock monkey
Kavalan RutuŋFormosan rock monkey
Amis lotoŋFormosan rock monkey
Siraya rutoŋmonkey
Puyuma ɭutuŋFormosan rock monkey
WMP
Manobo (Sarangani) lotoŋlong-tailed macaque: Macaca fascicularis
Subanen/Subanun gutuŋlong-tailed macaque: Macaca fascicularis
Iban lutoŋsilvered leaf monkey: Presbytis eristata ultima Elliott
Malay lotoŋblack or grey long-tailed monkey: Semnopithecus spp., esp. Semnopithecus maurus
Acehnese lutōŋlong-tailed monkey with gray fur
Simalur lotuŋmonkey with dark fur and long tail: Semnopithecus maurus
Karo Batak lutuŋkind of long-tailed monkey
Old Javanese lutuŋblack or grey long-tailed monkey: Semnopithecus maurus
Javanese lutuŋblack monkey
Sundanese lutuŋblack monkey with long fur
Balinese lutuŋmonkey; a young monkey
Sasak lutuŋblack, of skin color; a black monkey: Semnopithecus maurus

Note:   Also Pazeh rutuh ‘monkey’, Karo Batak lottoŋ ‘kind of monkey; stupid, stupid monkey’, Mandar, Buginese lotoŋ ‘black’. Some of these words are likely loans from Malay, including widespread South Sulawesi forms reflecting *lotoŋ ‘black’ (Mills 1975:2:778), and possibly Manobo (Sarangani) lotoŋ. However, a reconstruction *luCuŋ is still required to explain the agreement between Formosan forms and words for monkey that are geographically far removed from these.

30592

*ludaq saliva; to spit

7993

PMP     *ludaq saliva; to spit     [doublet: *dulaq, *zulaq, *luzaq]

WMP
Bolinao ludaʔspit
Tagalog luráʔsputum, spit, spittle
  l<um>uráʔto spit, to expectorate
  luraʔ-ánto spit on something or someone
Mapun luraʔspittle, spit
  ŋa-luraʔto spit
  luraʔ-anto spit
Yakan luraʔspittle; foamy saliva spit out
  ŋa-luraʔto spit
Tausug luraʔsaliva
  mag-luraʔto spit or eject saliva from the mouth
  maŋ-hi-luraʔto spit so as to show contempt or scorn
  l<um>uraʔto spit or eject saliva from the mouth
Kayan (Uma Juman) luraspittle, saliva
  l<əm>urato spit
Murik