Updated: 11/21/2015
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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


le    li    lo    lu    


*labak wide open


PMP     *labak wide open

Cebuano lábakfor a sore or an infected wound to be opened wide
Sasak labakspacious, wide
Manggarai labakwide (of the mouth, the opening of a lamp-fly nest, etc.)

Note:   Also Cebuano labɁák ‘get to have spaces or omissions in between; cause something to do so, skip’.


*la(m)bak slam something down


PMP     *la(m)bak slam something down

Cebuano labákthrow something hard on the ground
Ngadha labadrum, to drum; strike, beat, hit, knock, batter
Buruese ef-lafaflap (wings)
Motu lapastrike, as with sword or flat weapon

Note:   With root *-bak₂ sound of a heavy smack.


*la(m)baŋ go beyond, go over, go past


PWMP     *la(m)baŋ go beyond, go over, go past     [doublet: *labeŋ 'abundance, surplus']

Cebuano labaŋcross something, go across, bring across
Bare'e lambago past, go beyond, go through


*labaw rat


PAN     *labaw rat     [doublet: *balabaw, *kalabaw]

Kavalan mə-rabawfield rat
Puyuma ku-ɭabawrat (generic term)
Paiwan ku-lavawrat, mouse
  ku-lava-lavav-enlarge number of rats (be overrun by rats?)
Lun Dayeh labomouse, rat, squirrel; nickname for growing boys
Kelabit labomeat
  labo iikrat
  labo kətərsquirrel
Kayan lavawrat, mouse
Tetun lahoa rat (rodent)
  laho tilunan edible mushroom (lit. ‘rat’s ear’)

Note:   A disyllabic base *labaw has been extracted from Formosan forms that disagree in the initial syllable. It is unclear why there are so many variants of this word that differ only in the initial CV-.


*lambayuŋ plant sp.


PWMP     *lambayuŋ plant sp.     [disjunct: *rambayuŋ]

Cebuano lambáyuŋcreeping vine of seashore with purple morning glory-like flowers: Ipomoea pescaprae
Malay lembayoŋthe water hyacinth: Eichornea crassipes


*lambaʔ go


PWMP     *lambaʔ go     [doublet: *lampaq]

Maloh lambaʔwalk
Mandar lambago, walk


*lambeg throw, cast


PMP     *lambeg throw, cast

Maranao lambegthrow, cast
Tongan lafothrow (rope, fishing line, net, etc.), or disks; disk-throwing game
Samoan lafothrow (with forearm), cast
Tuvaluan lafothrow or toss underarm (as of a quoit); game in which a segment of coconut shell is tossed onto a mat; a shell segment so used

Note:   Ambiguous for *lambeg or *lambeR; possibly a chance resemblance.


*labeŋ abundance, surplus


PWMP     *labeŋ abundance, surplus

Aklanon eáboŋgrow steadily, multiply, expand, be prolific
Cebuano lábuŋabundant and long, of growth; exaggerating for the sake of bragging
Maranao labeŋfill up, overcrowd
Kayan laveŋsurplus, excess (of food, etc.)


*labeR wide


PMP     *labeR wide

Palawan Batak ma-labegwide
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) ma-labelwide
Sangir ma-lambawide
Yamdena labarwidth

Note:   Also Malay lébar ‘wide’.


*labi excess; more than; surpass


PAN     *labi excess; more than; surpass     [doublet: *labiq, *lebiq]

Paiwan mu-laviqoverflow
Bikol lábimore than
Tiruray labimore than
Hanunóo lábiexcessiveness
Ngaju Dayak labihsurplus; more
Tae' laʔbimore
Manggarai labimore; excess; surpass


*labiq excess, surplus


PAN     *labiq excess, surplus

Paiwan mu-laviqto overflow
  pa-pu-laviqto fill something to overflowing
Ilokano lábiremnant
Kapampangan labíʔexcess, what is left over; survivor
Tagalog labíʔremains; what is left; surplus; excess
Mansaka labimore; most; to be above; higher; Lord: Most High
Ngaju Dayak labihmore
  ka-labihexcess, surplus
  la(bi)-labiha little more
Bare'e yabiremainder, surplus, what is left over, more
Wolio labiremnant; more
Muna labhimore, more than, over
Kambera lebiabundant, more than usual, royal, excessive


PWMP     *labiq-en (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano labi-ento be overdue
Ngaju Dayak labi-enmore

Note:   Also Tagalog labi ‘remains; what is left; surplus; excess’, Maranao labi ‘more than’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lavi ‘to make something more so; to put a higher value on one thing than another’, Mansaka labis ‘more than’, Tausug labi ‘extra, excess’. Without additional Formosan reflexes it is unclear whether this term meant ‘excess, surplus’ or ‘to overflow’.


*la(m)bug₁ throw out (of a container or enclosure)


PWMP     *la(m)bug₁ throw out (of a container or enclosure)

Cebuano lábugthrow out (from a container, etc.)
Malay lambokthrow up (as dirt from a trench being dug)


*la(m)bug₂ turbid


PWMP     *la(m)bug₂ turbid

Tagalog lábogturbidity of liquid due to muddiness or colloidality
Iban lambokthe disturbed water in rapids

Note:   Also Tagalog labóʔ ‘(applied to liquids) turbidity’.


*lambuk knock, pound, beat


PMP     *lambuk knock, pound, beat     [doublet: *rambuk]

Proto-South Sulawesi *lambu(k)pound rice
Nggela lambuhit, strike
Lau labustrike, hit with a blow, strike down
Arosi rabustrike, knock, hit, knock in a nail

Note:   With root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud, splash’.


*labuq to fall


PWMP     *labuq to fall

Subanun (Sindangan) mɨ-labuʔto fall
Samal labuto fall
Dusun Witu laβuʔto fall
Ma'anyan laβuʔto fall
Katingan laβuʔto fall
Iban labohfall, drop, let fall
Malay labohlowering by means of a cord, of dropping a curtain, letting down a net or deep-sea fishing line, or casting anchor; also, to execute by drowning
  ber-labohto lie at anchor
Old Javanese (m)a-labuhto cast oneself down (on or into something) and seek one’s death; to cast something into the water
  pa-labw-ananchorage, harbor
  l<um>abuhto cast oneself (into the fire, into the water, onto the rocks), to seek one’s death; to cast anchor
  labw-anrainfall (after the dry season)
Javanese labuhto drop anchor; fall, i.e. the brief season between the close of the dry season and the onset of the rains, during which leaves fall
  ŋe-labuhto fling into the sea as appeasement to the deities
Sundanese labuh(of people) fall to the ground; dropping of an anchor
Tae' labu-ito sink, go down
  ma-labuto sink, go down, fall to the ground
Makasarese labusunk, as a ship; driven in, as a thorn in the sole of the foot or a dagger in someone’s body
  labu batuanchorage (‘the sinking of the anchor stone’)

Note:   With root *-buq ‘fall’.


*labuR mix foods


PWMP     *labuR mix foods

Hanunóo lábugrice gruel
Cebuano labúgdish consisting of shredded broiled fish mixed with pickled fish
Dairi-Pakpak Batak raburmixing up (foods); to mix

Note:   With root *-buR₁ ‘rice gruel; to mix’.


*laCeŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.


PAN     *laCeŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.

Saisiyat kæ-Lasəŋstinging nettle: Laportea spp.
  L<om>asəŋto sting, of bees


PMP     *lateŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.     [doublet: *zalateŋ, *zilateŋ]

Bisayan (Panay) latoŋTrema cannabina Lour. (Madulid 2001)
Bagobo latoŋa stinging plant: Urtica bullata Bl. (Madulid 2001)
Tiruray lateŋa tree: Trema orientalis Linn.
Gayō latoŋplant with stinging leaves, Laportea spp.
Karo Batak lateŋthe large stinging nettle shrub, of which several varieties are distinguished
  lateŋ manukvariety of stinging nettle
Toba Batak latoŋgeneric for herbs and trees with leaves like the stinging nettle
Nias latoa tree with stinging, pain-producing leaves
  lato manua plant like the stinging nettle
Javanese lateŋa certain grass with itchy leaves (Horne); stinging nettle (Pigeaud)
Balinese lateŋstinging nettle
Manggarai lanteŋkind of tree with fine stinging hairs on the leaves: Laportea spp.; caterpillar with hairs that cause itching when touched
Rembong lantoŋstinging nettle tree: Laportea; caterpillar with hairs that cause itching when touched
Ngadha ladékind of large tree that causes severe itching when touched


POC     *latoŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.

Gitua latobig stinging leaf, red underside
Sa'a nunu-laostinging nettle tree with large leaves used to cover a chief’s body exposed for burial
'Āre'āre ruru-raokind of nettle


PMP     *la-lateŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.

Simalur lalateŋstinging nettle (several types are distinguished)
Old Javanese lalateŋstinging nettle
Tae' le-latiŋstinging nettle tree, the leaves of which cause severe itching: Laportea spp.


POC     *la-latoŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.

Lenkau lalatrstinging nettle: Laportea spp.
Wuvulu lalaʔostinging nettle: Laportea spp.

Note:   Also Buginese lallateŋ, Makasarese laʔlataŋ ‘stinging nettle’, Komodo hayu lantéŋ ‘stinging nettle: Dendrocnide sp.; jellyfish’, Nali nayat, Loniu ñalat, Leipon ñilet, Sori ñaraʔ, Seimat nalat ‘stinging nettle’, Bipi ñalak ‘kind of plant that causes itching for half a day after contact with the skin’.

I assume that PMP *la-lateŋ is a product of partial reduplication, and so classify it as an affixed form of *lateŋ rather than a doublet, as with *zalateŋ and *zilateŋ, but this remains provisional. This term, and the doublet forms that constitute a word-family with it evidently applied not only to various types of stinging nettles, but also to animals that have stinging hairs or tentacles, as various caterpillars, the Portuguese man of war and at least some jellyfish. Saisiyat appears to be unique in using the root as a verb meaning ‘to sting’.


*ladiŋ cleaver, sword


PWMP     *ladiŋ cleaver, sword

Cebuano lariŋkind of sword with a slight curve to the blade
Delang ladiŋknife
Malay ladiŋlong, sharp-edged cleaver of the parang type
Karo Batak ladiŋgeneric for curved knives and swords
Old Javanese ladiŋtype of cleaver or jungle knife


*la(ŋ)gaʔ to heat food


PMP     *la(ŋ)gaʔ to heat food

Cebuano lágaʔboil water or water with something in it: coffee, medicinal herbs and the like
Maranao laŋgahot, boiling, heated
Manggarai laŋgaroast fish wrapped in leaves
Rembong laŋgato roast; anything fried


*lagi emphatic particle


PMP     *lagi emphatic particle

Cebuano lagiparticle used to assert emphatically that something is what it is
  kay lagibecause, after all, that is what one would expect; expressing surprise at something contrary to one's expectations
Malay lagimore; yet more; still
Old Javanese lagicontinuously, constantly, again and again, always, usually; continuing for some time already, going on, keeping on, still
Sasak lagivery, extremely (generally with a denial)
Manggarai lagiwhile, whereas

Note:   Also Tagalog lagiʔ ‘always’, possibly a loan from Malay.


*lagu way, manner; melody


PWMP     *lagu way, manner; melody

Malay lagutune
Malay (Penang) lagustyle, way
Karo Batak laguway of handling, of behaving
Old Javanese laguuse, custom; behavior, bearing
Sangir laguway, manner; melody; manner of speaking, behaving


*lahud downstream, toward the sea


PAN     *lahud downstream, toward the sea

Pazeh rahutwest; downstream, lower part of a river
  mia-rahutgo west, go downstream
  mu-rahutto flow, as water
Thao rausdownhill, downstream; in a downward direction from the mountains
  mana-rausgo downstream, go downhill, go toward the sea
Tsou mua-rovcuto blow downhill
  moh-rovcuto flow downstream
Kanakanabu ʔama-laúcudownhill
Saaroa tala-la-laucuto look down
Rukai (Tona) aúDudownhill
Rukai (Mantauran) laududownwards
Paiwan lauzseaward, downslope, toward lower reaches of river
  lʸe-lauzto go downhill
Itbayaten xawodidea of being in the offing by the current
Ilokano láudwest
  ag-pa-laudgo to the west
  laúd-ento the west of
Bikol lawódthe open sea
Hanunóo láwudlowlands, coastal regions; down below, as opposed to up in the mountains
Aklanon eawódocean, sea
Waray-Waray lawódmidsea, high seas
Cebuano lawúddeep open sea
  lawud-láwudbe like a sea (as a vast wet rice field)
Mapun lūdgo downhill
  pa-lūdcause something to go downhill
  lud-lūr-anslope, downhill area of land
Mansaka lawuddownstream, seaward
Binukid laweddeep open sea; center area of a large clearing
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lawedin the middle of a vast area, such as the ocean; to finish planting half of a field
Maranao lawdoffshore; far; body of deep water
Tausug l<um>ūdcome down from higher ground, travel downhill
  lūr-unslope, embankment, downhill area, falling ground
Ida'an Begak laudwind
Lun Dayeh loodtoward the sea, downriver
Kelabit laʔuddownriver, toward the sea
Bintulu laudtoward the sea; outside
Ngaju Dayak lautdownstream, seaward; overseas
  olo lautpeople from across the sea
Iban lautsea; Malay, Muslim
Malay lautsea, ocean; north (in certain expressions only, as barat laut ‘northwest’, timur laut ‘northeast’)
Old Javanese lornorth
  maŋa-lorgo to the north, northward
  l<in>or-anto pass on the north side
Balinese lodsea
Sangir laudəʔocean
Bare'e laudirectional term indicating a place that lies at a lower elevation than the speaker, or at least not clearly at a higher elevation
  lauk-alow, as the sun in the sky or the level of water
Tae' lauʔsouth, downstream (southward, where the Land of the Dead is)
Buginese lauʔsea
  a-lauʔeast (in Bone)
Makasarese lauʔwest (in Goa); south (in Bantaeng)
Chamorro lagunorth (in Guam and Rota); west (in Saipan)


PCEMP     *laur₁ toward the sea

Kambera laurasea; downstream, at a lower elevation
Hawu lousea
  dou louforeigner, stranger (lit. ‘sea person’)
  wini louof foreign origin (lit; ‘sea seed’, said of the mother if she has married in to Hawu; not of the father)
Wetan lorasea, used especially in contrast to land; go to the sea
  na-loraat sea, to the sea, from the sea; seaside
Dobel lawsea
Paulohi lautoward the sea
Buli lausea-side
  la-lautoward the sea and away from the speaker
  ma-lautoward the sea and toward the speaker
  po-lauon the sea-side
Waropen rau ~ ndausea; outside


POC     *laur₂ downriver, toward the sea

Tolai lauthe open sea; horizon; the bush people apply this word to any place out of sight; distant, remote, inaccessible, invisible
Lakalai -lautoward the sea
  g-o-laugo seaward
Gedaged lauthe high seas, an open, unenclosed portion of the sea
Bugotu laubeach, seashore, seaward; south
Nggela lauseawards; to the shore, shorewards, from a speaker inland; shore; the sea, in koukomulau ‘an island in the sea’; the bank of a river; south, conventional use in translations
Lau launorth; open sea to the north
Arosi rauside, bank of stream; shore
  rau-na i asibeach
  rau-na i wairiver bank
Mota lauthe seaside as opposed to the inland, the beach as approached from the land
Fijian laueast; name of the Windward Islands


PMP     *i-lahud (gloss uncertain)

Itbayaten i-xawodgo far from the shore (on water), be carried away by waves
Aklanon i-lawódthe seaward part of any town
  pa-i-lawódto go seawards
Masbatenyo i-lawóddownstream area, seaward place; towards town place
Cebuano i-láwudplace toward town and away from rural areas
Makasarese i-lauʔin the west, of the west
  i-lauk-annawestward, the west side of something


POC     *i-laur (gloss uncertain)

Manam i-laul-oseaward


PWMP     *ka-lahud (gloss uncertain)

Ngaju Dayak ka-lautfrom beyond the shores, foreign
Old Javanese ka-lorto the north of
Balinese ka-lodto the sea; north/south
Sangir ka-laudəʔat sea


PWMP     *ma-lahud (gloss uncertain)

Ngaju Dayak ma-lautleave the coast, put out to sea
Malay me-lautto put out to sea
Sangir ma-laudəʔof the sea, marine
  tau ma-laudəʔnavigator


PAN     *Si-lahud wind from the sea (?)

Thao shi-raustyphoon
Itbayaten hi-lawodnorth wind
  hi-lawr-endisease caused by north wind


PWMP     *ka-lahud-an (gloss uncertain)

Cebuano ka-lawr-anseas
Bahasa Indonesia ka-laut-anthings connected with the sea


PWMP     *lahud-an the high seas, far from land

Bahasa Indonesia laut-anvery wide sea, ocean
Sangir laur-aŋthe wide sea, the high seas

Note:   Also Paiwan lauḍ ‘seaward, downhill (form used in sacred songs)’, Itbayaten hi-lawod ‘north wind (risky fishing weather)’, Tagalog láot ‘mid-ocean, high seas; far out to (at) sea’, pa-láot ‘to get into the middle of things, sail far out to sea’ (semantics apparently native, but phonemic shape evidently influenced by Malay laut), Hanunóo lawúd ‘sea, mid sea, high seas’ (< Cebuano or some other Bisayan source), Kambera lauru ‘downstream’, Lau lou ‘north; open sea to the north’.

PAn *lahud was one of the key directional terms in PAn, opposed to *daya ‘upstream, toward the interior’. In many languages this term has since been reinterpreted in terms of a system of cardinal directions, probably through Western contact influence. The general semantic evolution of *lahud is quite rich. From an original narrow sense ‘toward the sea’ the marine element has been generalized to mean ‘sea’ in Central Philippine languages generally (Bikol, Aklanon, Cebuano, etc.), Binukid, the Malayic languages, Balinese, Sangir, Buginese, Kambera, Hawu, Wetan, and Tolai.

Moreover, in some of these languages, as those of the central Philippines, it refers specifically to the high or open seas as opposed to littoral waters. In other languages, especially those whose speakers came to reside in high inland regions, the contrastive elevation of *lahud was extended to encompass the general meaning of ‘lower, at a lower altitude’, in some cases entirely losing its marine associations. In Thao of central Taiwan, for example, raus refers to a downhill, or downward direction from the mountains, with no particular reference to the sea, in Hanunóo of the north-central Philippines láwud refers to the lowland regions, but so far as the available data indicate, not necessarily to the sea, and in Bare'e (or Pamona) of central Sulawesi lau refers to any place that lies lower than the speaker at the time of reference, evidently with no connection to the sea as a feature of orientation.

Finally, Ngaju Dayak olo laut, Hawu dou lou and no doubt similar collocations in other languages for which insufficient data is to hand suggest that once settled in a given location, AN speakers tended to conceive of anyone who arrived by sea as a foreigner, or stranger.


*laja to plait, weave by hand, of baskets or mats


PWMP     *laja to plait, weave by hand, of baskets or mats

Ibatan maŋ-lāgasomeone weaves something from weaving materials
Ilokano lágawoven basket; basketwork
  ag-lágato weave baskets
  i-lágato put inside a woven basket
  ma-i-lágato be interwoven with
  pag-lágamaterial used in making baskets
Isneg ag-la-láxathe period of time that follows the weeding of a rice field: the time for weaving baskets
  mag-láxato weave (basketwork)
Casiguran Dumagat ladeto weave (as mats)
Bontok lágato weave, of basketry
Ifugaw lágaact of weaving closely certain baskets; also bamboo mats or walls of huts
  mun-lag-lágaspecialist basket weaver
Ifugaw (Batad) lāgathe work of weaving
Pangasinan lagáto weave mats, hats, etc.
Tagalog lálato weave
Bikol mag-rárato weave mats, baskets, etc. from palm leaves
Hiligaynon mag-lálato weave, to weave together
Aklanon eaeá (h)to weave mats
Waray-Waray larato weave; an interlacement
Cebuano lálaweave leaves, straw, plastic (as to make hats or a mat)
Maranao raraweave a mat or a basket
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) rarato weave a mat, basket, etc.; figuratively, of anything tangled or entwined
Mansaka larato weave (as a mat)
Binukid lalato weave (a mat, basket, etc.)
Tombonuwo moŋo-raroto weave
Malagasy rária plait; plaiting of mats, hats, etc.
  vua ráriplaited


PWMP     *man-laja to plait, as mats or baskets

Central Tagbanwa man-larato weave fabric or other materials
Malagasy man-drárito plait mats, etc.; fig. to arrange or set in order anything; and in the provinces to regulate one’s life; to follow order and equity


PPh     *l<in>ága woven; was woven by someone

Ilokano l<in>ágawoven
Tagalog l<in>álawoven material or textile
Subanon l<in>alawoven by (someone)


PPh     *l<um>aja to plait, weave by hand, of baskets or mats

Ifugaw (Batad) l<um>āgato weave a basket (flexible material such as thin strips of bamboo or rattan is used
Tagalog l<um>álato weave; to interlace
Subanon l<um>alato plait, weave by hand, as baskets


PWMP     *laláh-en be woven by someone

Kankanaey lagá-ento weave; to braid; to make basketwork
Tagalog laláh-into weave, to form strips, reeds or the like, into something; to interlace; to arrange strips so that they go over and under each other
Bikol rará-onto weave mats, baskets, etc. from palm leaves
Binukid lalah-enbe woven by (someone)
Malagasy rar-ínato be plaited

Note:   Also Kapampangan mag-lála ‘to weave’ (< Tagalog), Romblomanon pag-lāya ‘someone’s weaving of a basket, mat’, layāh-un ‘a basket or mat is woven by someone’, Toba Batak lage ‘small mat made for one person’. PMP *añam and PWMP *laja both appear to have meant ‘to plait or weave by hand, as mats or baskets’; the semantic distinction between them remains unclear.


*lajam familiar with, accustomed to


PAN     *lajam familiar with, accustomed to     [doublet: *najam]

Puyuma ɭadamfamiliar with, accustomed to
Fijian lasaeasy, contented, tame, accustomed, amusing
Tongan latafeel at home or at ease
Samoan latatame; used to, familiar with
Hawaiian lakatame, domesticated, gentle; to tame, domesticate


*laji₁ tree with poisonous sap, (probably Antiaris toxicaria)


PMP     *laji₁ tree with poisonous sap, (probably Antiaris toxicaria)

Palauan iásmilky mangrove tree; a river poison tree (Excoecaria agallocha L.)
Kambera larikind of tree generally found in the estuaries of rivers
Kwaio kwai-lasipoisonous tree (kwai = 'river, water', kwaikwai-na = 'juice, liquid, sap')
Sa'a lasia tree with juice causing sores
Mota lasa tree


*lajih dolphinfish


PMP     *lajih dolphinfish

Aklanon eáli(h)fish
Cebuano lálikind of amberjack
Samal lalidolphinfish, family Coryphaenidae
Palauan iásdolphinfish
Makasarese larisea fish with five stripes, much relished because it is not oily and has few bones


POC     *laji₂ dolphinfish

Ere lasflat fish found in river mouths
Loniu lasflattish fish similar to a mackerel
Leipon laskind of flat, silvery fish
Gedaged laswhitish-grey marine fish about five feet long
Motu ladia fish
Arosi rasifish sp.
Gilbertese narileatherback: Scomberoides sancti-petri (Johannes 1981:167)
Pohnpeian lahdfish sp., jack: Atule mate
Mokilese lahdfish sp., kind of skipjack
Samoan laia fish: Scomberoides sp.


*la(ŋ)ka far apart; rare


PWMP     *la(ŋ)ka far apart; rare

Agutaynen pa-laka-ento become thinned out; to be spaced out, as to plant seed with spaces between
Iban lakafar apart, big; too large, as an opening or space (e.g. the space between the rungs of a ladder)
Sundanese laŋkarare, exceptional, unusual; seldom or never; scarce
  laŋka-laŋkavery rare
Muna laŋkarare(ly), scarce, seldom; spaced wide apart (of teeth, plants, etc.)
  laŋka-mispace something wide apart, thin out
  ka-laŋkakind of basket with big holes; low frequency; spacing, interval


PWMP     *ma-laka far apart, rare

Agutaynen ma-lakarare, seldom; to be spaced or thinned out
Uma mo-lakararely, seldom

Note:   Also Hiligaynon ma-lakáʔ ‘scarce, rare, sometimes’, Aklanon eakáʔ ‘to put an interval, space, keep distance, make sparse’, Romblomanon lakaʔ ‘few (people, things), little (action, substance)’.


*lakaj to stride, take a step


PMP     *lakaj to stride, take a step     [doublet: *lakaw]

Ibanag lákagto walk
Ilokano ag-pa-lákadto go by land, walk
  lákad-lákadwalker, support for walking
Casiguran Dumagat lákadto walk, to travel, to go (as the walking of a person, the moving of a boat or truck)
Gaddang mel-lákadto walk
Ibaloy man-akad(of persons and animals) to walk
Kapampangan lákadto walk; gait, pace, course
  pa-lakar-anto send on an errand
Tagalog lákadwalk; gait; running condition of motors, machines, etc.; headway; a motion forward; march; start; a beginning to go; progress or current situation of some project, event, etc.; trend; manner of acting; mission; errand; goods for sale being carted around or peddled
  lakádbarefooted; walking, not riding; on foot
  ka-lakáda companion in taking a walk
  ma-lákadto be within walking distance; to be able to get something by negotiating or by using influence
  mag-pa-lákadto run, to make go (as a business)
  maka-lákadto be able to walk
  ma-pa-lákadto be able to get someone to walk or take a trip, to leave or to depart
  pag-lákadmanner of walking
Bikol lákadstep, stride; gait, pace
Aklanon eákadto step over (with big steps)
Cebuano lákadto step over something; go beyond, exceed; marry or wed ahead of big brothers
Maranao lakadstep, stride
Mansaka lákadto wade through
Binukid lakadstep, pace, stride; take a step, step over or across (something)
  paka-lakadable to take steps (as a small child just beginning to walk)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) laŋkada stride; the measure of a person’s step; to walk a step
Sula lakato walk
Numfor go
  rā macome
Ansus rato walk
Waropen rago on foot, go into the bush, walk


POC     *lakar to stride, take a step

Gedaged lato go (away, about on foot, a horse, bicycle, vehicle, boat, etc.); to walk, depart, march (get, pack, move, start) off, take leave, get underway, set out; to continue, keep on (with any kind of action), to keep up or maintain any course or series of actions; to carry on
Gitua lago
Mota lakato kick up the heels, as in dancing; to dance
Wayan lakago, move along, proceed
  laka-tigo to or over a place
Tongan lakato go or walk (esp. for a short distance only); to step; to march; to move on or forward, to proceed, progress, develop, or advance
  laka halato step incorrectly, to be out of step
Niue lakato step; to cross over
  fe-lakato step over a person or thing (formerly considered an insult or desecration)
  laka-aŋaa step, pace
  laka-fiastepped over, exceeded
Samoan laʔastep, march
  laʔa-siastep over, go beyond
Tuvaluan lakastep
  la-lakapress down with foot (as when firming soil)
Rennellese gakato step; to move, as to another district
Anuta rakato step over something
Maori whaka-rakawalk, step out


PPh     *i-lákaj (gloss uncertain)

Agta (Dupaningan) i-lákadrun away with, kidnap
Tagalog i-lakádto use something in walking


PPh     *maR-lákaj to step, to walk

Agta (Dupaningan) mag-lákadto walk
Tagalog mag-lákadto engage in trade or some form of business
  mag-lakádto walk; to tramp; to go on foot
  mag-lakád-lakádto pace; to walk with regular steps; to keep on walking
Bikol mag-lákadto step over; to pace off a particular area or distance
Tausug mag-lakadto step to (a place with big steps)


PPh     *l<um>ákaj to step, to walk

Agta (Dupaningan) l<um>ákadto leave, to exit
Tagalog l<um>ákadto walk, to go on foot
  l<um>ákad-lákadto pace; to walk with regular steps; to keep on walking
Tausug l<um>akadto step to (a place with big steps)


PPh     *lakáj-an to step on, walk on something (?)

Agta (Dupaningan) lakad-ín-anleave someone, walk out on (from *lakad-an-an, with low vowel fronting)
Tagalog lakár-anto walk on something
  lakar-ánplace to walk on
Bikol lakád-anto pace off a particular area or distance
Tausug lakar-anto step over something


PPh     *lakaj-en to walk a certain distance (?)

Ibaloy ekar-ento walk somewhere, something (as a distance)
Tagalog lakár-into walk a certain distance or to a certain place
  lakar-ínwalk, meaning the distance to walk; to tread; to be underway or in motion
Bikol lakád-onto step over
Tausug lakar-unto step from one place to another


POC     *lakar-lakar (gloss uncertain)

Mota laka-lakato rejoice, dance; a dance, a merry-making
Futunan laka-lakawomen’s dance performed while sitting
Samoan laʔa-laʔago step by step
Tuvaluan laka-lakatake several steps
Rennellese gaka-gakato step or move on, as with long steps; to step off, as to measure
Anuta raka-rakato walk taking large brisk steps; to walk quickly

Note:   Also Amis rakat ‘movement; walk’, Hiligaynon lakát ‘trip, walk, business trip’, mag-lakat ‘to walk, to go, to leave’, Masbatenyo mag-lakát ‘to walk, go away, leave; run away from home’, Waray-Waray lakát ‘to leave, depart’, Cebuano lakát ‘walk; for something to be going on; go away, depart; spread; follow up; trend, course or direction something is taking; errand; trip, journey; procedure for doing something’, pa-lakát ‘make something walk, go away, spread news’, Balinese laŋkar ‘step, stride, overstep, pass over’, Proto-Micronesian *laa ‘go, proceed; (as directional) away’. The similarity of the CEMP forms cited here to those in the Philippines may be due to chance, as no clear cognates have been found anywhere between these extremes, and a number of formally and semantically similar but non-corresponding forms must be recognized in any case.


*lakaŋ crotch, space between thighs


PWMP     *lakaŋ crotch, space between thighs

Cebuano lákaŋstep across; a step, stride
Sasak laŋkaŋcrotch, space between thighs

Note:   Also Aklanon eákʔaŋ ‘walk with big steps, take long strides’, Masbatenyo lakʔáŋ ‘step, stride’, Cebuano lakʔáŋ ‘stand or squat with legs wide apart’ (< *laqekaŋ). With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.


*laŋkaq step, stride; to omit or skip over


PMP     *laŋkaq step, stride; to omit or skip over

Ngaju Dayak laŋkahto transgress (an order, law)
Iban laŋkahstep, pace, stride; overstep (as in disobeying an order or violating customary law)
Malay laŋkahstep; first step; stepping over; overstepping, passing over
  mə-laŋkah lautansea travel, going overseas
Minangkabau adat laŋkahextra fee for marrying a younger sister before the elder has been married off
Acehnese laŋkaha step, pace, stride
Gayō laŋkaha step, pace, stride
  mu-laŋkahto step, stride
Karo Batak laŋkahconduct, behavior
  ŋe-laŋkah-istep over someone; slip between two people without asking permission
Toba Batak laŋkaa step, pace, stride
  mar-laŋkato step, stride, go
Dairi-Pakpak Batak laŋkah-laŋkaha trip
Old Javanese laŋkahstep, stride
  l<um>aŋkahto advance, proceed
  ka-laŋkah-anto have something pass over one; be trodden underfoot
Javanese laŋkaha long step, a stride; too far, beyond the objective, wide of the mark
  ka-laŋkah-anto get stepped over; to get by-passed (as a woman whose younger sister is married before her)
  ŋə-laŋkahto step over something (as sleeping people); to skip, bypass; to marry ahead of an older sibling
  pa-laŋkahgift given to an older sibling by a younger one who is marrying first
Sundanese laŋkahstep, stride (longer than leŋkah)
  ŋa-laŋkahstep over something with big strides; step through or over; step across; transgress
  ŋa-la-laŋkah-anplace or exalt oneself over someone; look down on someone with an attitude of superiority
Balinese laŋkaha stride, pace; to stride; go beyond, overstep
Wayan lakato go, move along, proceed
  laka-tigo to or over a place
  laka-lakato go, keep going; route, method, procedure; conduct, behavior; style, characteristics; contributions to a feast or presentation, what one brings
Tongan lakato go or walk (especially for a short distance only), to step; to march; to move on or forward; to proceed, progress, develop; to go beyond (literally or figuratively), to go or come past, to go or come over, to pass or cross over; to surpass, to exceed or be in excess of; to omit or skip over
  laka halato step incorrectly, to be out of step
Niue lakato step; to cross over
  laka-aŋaa step, pace
  fe-lakato step over a person or thing (formerly considered an insult or desecration
  laka-fiastepped over; exceeded
Futunan faka-lakato pass over
  laka-fiabe passed over
Samoan laʔato step, march
  la-laʔastep over; put someone above (in estimation or respect by ‘stepping over’)
  laʔa loaskip over, pass over
  laʔa-siastep over, go beyond
Tuvaluan lakastep
  laka-lakatake several steps
Nukuoro laga-lagaput down one foot after the other (as in walking or marching in place)
Rennellese gakato step; to move, as to another district
  gaka tooto step and fall, as of an infant learning to walk; to tumble; an age classification for infants
  gaka-uŋacrossing, as of a street; bridge
Anuta rakato step over something
  raka-rakato walk taking large brisk steps; to walk quickly
Maori whaka-rakato walk, step out

Note:   Also Sasak laŋkah ‘take a step in the pencaʔ (martial arts dance)’, presumably from Malay. This word is well represented in both western Indonesia and Polynesia, where it shares several of the same semantic nuances, but is unknown elsewhere. In the physical sense it clearly meant ‘step, stride’, but often with the implication that this was literally over a person’s body (a cultural taboo); more figuratively it evidently represented the idea of by-passing or ‘stepping over’ a person in favor of someone else less deserving. Dempwolff (1938) also included Malagasy laka ‘lines drawn at right angles in the game called fanorona [played on lines and spaces with pebbles, seeds, etc.]’, and Sa’a laka ‘to leap about, to play, of schools of bonito’, neither of which appears to belong here. Presumably with root *-kaq₂ ‘split’ (from the separation of the legs in taking a stride).


*la(ŋ)kas spirited, energetic


PMP     *la(ŋ)kas spirited, energetic

Tagalog lakásstrength, vigor; efficacy; vehemence; healthiness
Malay laŋkasfiery (of a steed), spirited
Nggela laŋgastrong, strength; energetic
Arosi ragastrong, strengthened, invigorated

Note:   With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile; energetic’.


*lakas quick, energetic, strong


PMP     *lakas quick, energetic, strong

Tagalog lakásstrength; vigor; force; power; might; loudness of volume; intensity of an attack of sickness or the like; brunt, the main force; vehemence; efficacy; hardiness; endurance; stamina; backbone; energy; power to work or act; fury; violence or strength, as of a storm
  ma-lakásstrong; physically strong; having much force, power, etc.; powerful; tough, hardy; hard; boisterous; violent; wild; rugged, sturdy; potent, strong; forceful, vigorous; hearty, strong and well; loud, not quiet or soft; making a great sound
  ka-lakas-ánvitality; strength; virility
  l<um>akásto become stronger, increase in strength; to recuperate; to recover from sickness, exhaustion or loss; to swell (as the voice), to grow louder
Maranao lakasrate of speed


POC     *lagas quick, energetic, strong

Nggela laŋgastrong; strength; energetic; loud
  laŋga-laŋgado energetically; do continually; strengthen

Note:   Dempwolff included Tagalog lakás under his *lekas ‘apply strength, energy’. With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile; energetic’.


*lakat root


PWMP     *lakat root     [doublet: *wakat]

Sebop lakatroot
Banggai lakatroot


*lakatan banana sp.


PPh     *lakatan banana sp.

Ilokano lakatána variety of sweet, thick-skinned banana
Tagalog lakatána well-known species of banana
Hanunóo lakatána tasty variety of eating banana (Musa sapientum lacatan [Blco.] Teodoro)
Masbatenyo lakatánlakatan banana, Musa sapientum var. lacatan
Romblomanon lakatanlacatan eating banana plant or fruit, Musa sapientum var. lacatan (commonly eaten raw as a snack food)
Cebuano lakatánkind of sweet yellow banana, longer than alitundan, very much like those sold in the United States; it is eaten raw, and is more difficult to digest than the alitundan: Musa sapientum var. lacatan
Yakan lakatana small variety of banana (similar to suley badju), Musa family

Note:   Possibly a Central Philippines innovation that has been borrowed into Ilokano and Yakan.


*laŋkaw high, tall


PMP     *laŋkaw high, tall

Tagalog laŋkáwelongated and thin (said of legs or neck)
Bikol laŋkáwtall, lofty, towering
Tiruray laŋkawtall
Ngaju Dayak laŋkawroof (of a boat)
Banggai laŋkoheight, altitude, elevation
Uma laŋkoheight, altitude
Manggarai laŋgagrow, get taller (of a person)

Note:   Mills (1975: 748) has Proto-South Sulawesi *laŋka(C) ‘high’. Miri kéw ‘tall’ suggests that this form contains a root *-kaw.


*lakaw to be in motion; go, walk


PMP     *lakaw to be in motion; go, walk

Sambal (Botolan) lakoto go
Bikol i-lakáwto take for a walk (as a dog)
  mag-lakáwto walk, to stride
  pa-lakáwmethod, procedure, process, system, way
  pa-lakaw-onto run (as a business, an organization)
  lakáw-anbum, hobo, tramp, vagabond, vagrant
  lakáw-onto walk for a certain distance or a certain amount of time
Hanunóo lakáwwalk, hike; walking, moving on; in vogue, current (among); circulation
Aklanon eakáwto amble, go around
Masbatenyo pag-lákawwalking
Cebuano lakáwto walk
Maranao lakawfootprint; killed with a weapon; go
  la-lakawwalk; trip; go; journey
  la-lakaw-anwalk over; group of travelers
Lun Dayeh lakolarge strides
  me-lakotaking large strides
Kayan lakawa step; a pace; to pace out
Kenyah (Long Wat) bə-lakawto walk
Penan (Long Labid) lakawto walk
Berawan (Long Terawan) lakawto walk
Narum ma-lahawto walk
Miri lahawto walk
Bintulu lakawto walk
Melanau (Balingian) mə-lakawto walk
Melanau (Mukah) lakawbusiness, doings; to walk
  l<ən>akawwas walked on
Toba Batak lahoto go (before a verb it means ‘to be about to, on the point of doing something)
  pa-laho-honmake something go, chase away
Proto-Minahasan *lakogo
Tombulu lakogo
Boano mo-lakoto walk
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *lakoto go
Tae' lakotowards, at
  taŋ lakonot come
  lako-iin a condition to
Proto-South Sulawesi *lakoto go
Mandar laoto, towards; until; already
Buginese laoto go; to, towards
Manggarai lakoto walk, go on a trip, go sailing; to move location; to die
Kambera lakuto walk, go, leave
Rotinese laʔoto go, depart, go away (by land or sea)
Helong lakoto walk
Atoni naoto walk, go
Tetun laʔoto walk, travel on foot, to go
Wetan laato go, to become
  la-laato roam about aimlessly


POC     *lako to go

Loniu lato go
Lou lakto go
Baluan lakto go
Likum lato go
Lindrou lato go
Sori rato go
Tigak lakgo up, enter
Wogeo lakoto go
Manam laʔoto go, go away
Gitua lagoto walk
Motu laoto go
Nehan lakogo down a short distance, from inland to the road, village or beach; to away from speaker
Selau lato go
Eddystone/Mandegusu laγoto go
Proto-Micronesian *lakogo, proceed; (as directional) away
Gilbertese nakoto, towards, against
Woleaian -lagodirectional suffix, away from the speaker; thither
Raga laxoto walk
Fijian lakoto go; used for motion of any kind
  lako maicome
  lako yanigo away
  lako voligo about


PWMP     *pa-lakaw (gloss uncertain)

Kanowit pə-lakawto walk
Sangir ia-pa-lakolet something go; be sent
Tae' pa-lakotake away, to place, put


PMP     *l<um>akaw to go

Sambal (Botolan) makoto go
Hanunóo l<um>akáwto walk, will walk
Bilaan (Sarangani) maguto walk
Alumbis Murut (m)akowto walk
Melanau (Mukah) makawto walk
Toba Batak l<um>aho-lahomobile, moving about


PMP     *lakaw lakaw wander about

Bikol mag-lakáw-lakáwto go for a stroll or walk
Toba Batak l<um>aho-lahomobile, moving about
Buginese ka-lao-laoto go here and there


POC     *lako lako walking around

Kove la-laoto walk
Manam lako-lakoto go, go away
Gitua lago-lagowalking around; alive
Fijian i lako-lakoaway, going, path; also fig. manner, method, the “run” of a thing

Note:   Also Aklanon lágaw ‘to go around, travel about’, Tiruray agew ‘to go, to walk’, Kayan lakoʔ ‘a pace, a step’, Chamorro lahu‘go, walk’, Rembong lakoʔ ‘to walk’. Unlike PAn *paNaw, PMP *panaw, which clearly meant ‘to walk’, PMP *lako appears to have meant something more like ‘to be in motion’, since reflexes refer to more abstract types of ‘motion’, as in ‘to run (a business)’, ‘in vogue, current among’, ‘business, doings’, ‘on the point of doing something’, and the like, as well as travelling in ways other than walking.


*lakay grandfather


PWMP     *lakay grandfather

Yami akaygrandfather
  me-hakayman, male, boy; husband
  mi-akaygrandfather and grandson
Ilokano lakáyold man; husband; colloquial term of address between males; old (of males)
  l<in>a-lakáysomething characteristic of old men
  l<um>akáyto grow old (said of males)
  lak-lakay-anvery old, ancient, antique
Isneg lakáyold man
Agta (Dupaningan) lá-lakayold man; husband
Casiguran Dumagat lakáyold man (also used as a vocative in addressing old men); to become old, of male humans; husband
Itawis lá-lakayold (of male); old man
Kankanaey ma-lakéygo grow old, of age
Ibaloy dakayold man
  d<al>akaycollective term for the old men, elders of the community
  me-dakayto become old
Pangasinan lákigrandfather, granduncle
Hanunóo lakígrandfather (in both nominative and vocative; grandchild of either sex; male ancestor
Melanau (Mukah) lakəyold, of people
Melanau (Dalat) lakəyold, of people

Note:   This reconstruction is very problematic. First, it is confined largely to the northern Philippines. Second the forms in Yami, Pangasinan, Hanunóo and Melanau are phonologically irregular. However, the irregularities in the last three languages appear to be caused by contamination with PMP *laki ‘male, masculine; man’. If Hanunóo lakí ‘grandfather’, and Mukah and Dalat Melanau lakəy ‘old, of people; are taken to reflect *lakay with contamination from *laki, there is a basis for attributing *lakay to PPh, but the evidentiary basis for this inference remains perilously slim.


*lake sore, dermal irritation, wound


POC     *lake sore, dermal irritation, wound

Loniu leke-n a yumy wound
Titan lake-n a yomy wound
Nggela lakesickness, high temperature; swellings with liquid contents
  vatu lakecoral that irritates the skin
Arosi raʔesore on the hands or lips

Note:   Although the forms within the Admiralty islands appear to be cognates, as do those of the central and Southeast Solomons, the similarity of the forms in these two sets of languages to one another may be a product of chance.


*la(ŋ)keb lie face down


PWMP     *la(ŋ)keb lie face down

Itawis lakáblie face down
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) laŋkeblie face or front side down
Mansaka lakoblie face downward; place a thing face down; capsize, turn upside down
Karo Batak laŋkemlie on the stomach
Sasak laŋkeplie on the belly; lie front side down (of things)

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat sakeb ‘lie face down’, Maranao lekeb ‘turn upside-down’, Javanese ruŋkeb ‘fall face down’, uŋkeb ‘lie face down’, Balinese kakeb ‘lie forward, slope forward, fall forward’, pointing to a root *-keb₂.


*lak(e)baŋ broad, wide


PWMP     *lak(e)baŋ broad, wide

Bikol lakbáŋbreadth, width
Kayan labaŋbroad
Old Javanese lambaŋthat which is stretched out horizontally

Note:   The prenasalization in Old Javanese lambaŋ is assumed to be secondary.


*la(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ spread the legs


PWMP     *la(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ spread the legs     [doublet: *lekaŋ 'separate, disunite']

Cebuano lákaŋstep across
  lakʔaŋstand or squat with legs wide apart
Sasak laŋkaŋcrotch, space between the legs


*la(ŋ)ket stick, adhere to; sticky, viscous


PMP     *la(ŋ)ket stick, adhere to; sticky, viscous

Kelabit (Long Napir) laketsticky
Toba Batak alhot <Msap of a tree used to curdle milk
  m-alhotthick, viscous
Dairi-Pakpak Batak alket <Mviscous
Ulawa la-lakosticky, to stick owing to glutinous nature
Nggela laŋgostick, stick to, adhere
  laŋgo-laŋgopaste, gum, sticking plaster
Lau lagosticky, viscous; pasty, as badly cooked bread

Note:   Tagalog lagkít ‘stickiness’, Agutaynen ma-laʔket ‘sticky’. With root PAn *-keC, PMP *-ket ‘adhesive, sticky’.


*laki male, masculine; man


PMP     *laki male, masculine; man     [doublet: *aki 'grandfather']

Ilokano lakí-enmasculine; manly (woman); tomboy; lesbian
Isneg lákimale
Bontok lákimale animal
Kankanaey lákimale; cock, he (applied only to animals)
Ifugaw lákimale quadruped; mostly applied to bigger pigs
Ifugaw (Batad) lākia male pig, domestic or wild, either castrated or uncastrated
Ibaloy dakiman, male, boy
  ma-lekiof a woman who regularly has illicit relations with men, promiscuous
  man-dekito have illicit relations with a man --- spoken of a woman
  daki-tomale plant (the plant that doesn’t bear fruit)
Pangasinan lakímale; boy
Hanunóo lákimasculinity, quality of being male
  lakíancestor, male ancestor; in a general sense, any direct, distant male progenitor
Aklanon eákiman, male
Cebuano lakímale animal or plant; paramour
  l<in>ákiman’s bicycle; ride astraddle like a man
  lakin-una female that acts like a male, tomboy
  lákihave exceptional ability
  ka-lákido one’s best
Maranao lakibrother to a woman
Tiruray lageya male; term of reference used by a female to refer to a male of her own generation
  fe-lagey-lagey(of men) dressed up in one’s best clothes and ornamentation
Tboli logiman, boy, male; brother, a male sibling
  s-logito be a brother or a male relative to other females
Kelabit laʔihmale
Kenyah (Long Anap) lakiman, male
Kenyah (Long Wat) lakəyman, male
Kayan (Uma Juman) lakiʔmale
Berawan (Long Terawan) lakkehman, male
Kiput laaymale, of humans, man
Narum lahayman, male
Miri lakayhman, male
Seru lakehmale
Samihim lakiman
Malagasy láhimale, masculine (much used in the names of plants, etc.)
  ana-dahia woman’s brother; used also of men when women are speaking
Iban lakimale; husband; male of a pair, e.g. of mortice and tenon joint, press-studs
  oraŋ lakia man
  manok lakicockerel
Malay lakihusband (less respectful than suami)
  ber-lakito take a husband
  laki-lakimale (usually more polite than jantan); manly; masculine
Acehnese lakòëhusband
Simalur laihusband
  si-laimale, masculine (men and animals)
Karo Batak lakivocative for ‘grandfather’
Toba Batak lahiyoung, of fruits
  si-lalahi-ana tree that has only male blossoms, like the papaya
  lahi-lahimanly, masculine
Rejang lakəyman, husband
Old Javanese lakiman, male, husband
  laki-lakiman, male, husband
  maka-lakito have a husband, be married to, have sexual intercourse with (of a woman)
  aŋ-laki-lakimaking a virile appearance, plucky
  l<um>aki-lakito incite to manly action, fire the fighting spirit of
Javanese lakisexual intercourse; husband
  a-lakito marry
  ŋe-lakito mate or breed (of animals)
Sundanese lakiman; male, masculine (only in combination); pestle (used with mortar)
Balinese lakimale; man; husband
Sasak lakiman; male, masculine
  se-lakiʔhusband of
Buginese laimale (of humans or animals)
Muna lakileading bull (of a herd of cows or buffaloes)
Chamorro lahiman, male, boy; also used in direct address among friends in the same way that lai (‘friend’, ‘man’) is used
  lahe-nson of, man of
Ngadha ata sakiman; husband
Palu'e ata lakiman, male
Sika laʔiman; husband
Lamboya laihusband
Lamaholot lakehusband; male


PWMP     *di-laki male, man

Kelabit də-laʔihmale
Malay (Kedah) de-lakimale
Karo Batak di-lakimale, masculine; boy, man; husband


PWMP     *la-laki male

Ilokano lalákiboy; man; anything masculine; male
  ka-lalákithe larger part of a pair of two things
  ma-lalákimasculine; looking strong and responsible; daring; courageous; intelligent
  maki-lalákito have an affair with a man
  napa-lalákihandy at men’s work (women)
Isneg lalákimale
Isinay lalákiman, boy, male
  lallákimen, boys, males
Bontok lalákiman, male, boy
  la<l>lákimen, boys
Kankanaey lalákiman, male; cock, he (applied to men and animals)
Ifugaw lalákiman
Agta (Dupaningan) lallákiman, male (historically a plural)
Kapampangan lalákiman, male
  la:lákimen, males
  magpaka-lalákiact like a man
Tagalog laláki, lalákeman, an adult male; male, masculine
  mag-lalákito act the role of a man (in a play or movie)
  man-lalákito take a common-law husband
  pagka-lalákimanhood; masculinity; virility; manliness
  pan-lalákimanly; suitable for a man; masculine; in grammar, of the gender of male names
Bikol lalákiboy, lad; man; male
  pagka-lalákimanliness, masculinity; virility
Hanunóo lalákiman, boy, male
Palawan Batak lalakiman, human male
Hiligaynon lalákimale, man, boy, male illicit lover
Aklanon l<in>a-eakíto act like a man (said of a woman)
Masbatenyo lalákimale, man (refers to animate beings)
Waray-Waray lalákiman, male
Cebuano lalákihuman male; turn out to be a boy; paramour
  paka-lalákiact like a man, consider, treat like a man
  tag-lakin-anthe groom’s relatives at the wedding
Malagasy laláhyman (provincial)
Iban le-lakimale
Malay le-lakimale; masculine
Sundanese la-lakimale; masculine
Mongondow lo-lakiman; male, masculine; brother (woman speaking)
Wolio lalakilord, nobleman, king (chess)
  ka-lalakinobility, greatness
  ana lalakiperson of noble birth
  lalaki-akabe lord of, rule over


PWMP     *ka-(la)laki-an (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano ka-laki-anthe male (of a pair of animals); masculine
Bontok ka-laláki-yanbrother or male cousin of a female Ego
Ibaloy ka-leki-anbull, stallion, mature male carabao; (of deer) buck
Tagalog ka-lalakih-angroup of men or males; manhood; men; mankind
Masbatenyo ka-lalakih-ángroup of men
Cebuano ka-lalakin-anthe menfolk as a group
Tiruray ke-lagey-anthe persons on the man’s side in a legal dispute
Toba Batak ha-lahi-anthe season when the fruits are still young
Old Javanese ka-laki-laki(n)manliness, manly courage, virility

Note:   Also Itbayaten xakay ‘male, man, mister’, Romblomanon lyāki ‘a boy or man; a male animal, fish, mollusk’, pagka-lyāki ‘someone’s manliness’, Uma Juman Kayan akiʔ, Mukah Melanau lay ‘male’, Pendau Lauje laŋkai ‘man, male’, Bare'e laŋkai ‘male, of animals, masculine; husband’. This form is known only in languages that have been classified as WMP or CMP. Its meaning appears to be identical to that of PAn *RuqaNay, and the two clearly co-existed in PMP and later proto-languages, although to date no language has been found with reflexes of both. In addition to the basic meaning ‘male’ the simple form of this base (*laki) or the collocation *anak laki replaced PMP *ñaRa ‘brother’ (woman speaking) in a number of Malayo-Polynesian languages, evidently through transfer from the meaning ‘wife giver’ (‘male group’; cf. Blust 1993).


*laklak to peel off skin, bark or leaves; excoriated, decorticated, defoliated


PWMP     *laklak to peel off skin, bark or leaves; excoriated, decorticated, defoliated

Ilokano laklákto be skinned, flayed
  ma-laklak-anto be skinned, flayed
Bontok laklákdandruff
Kankanaey laklák-anto flay, to skin; to gall, to peel; to bark, to strip; to rub off the bark, to tear off the skin
Ibaloy dakdak-ento peel something off that has adhered (as adhesive tape, paint, poster from wall, chewing gum from floor, skin of animal in skinning)
Cebuano laklákfor trousers, pants, underpants to be too loose
Ida'an Begak lallakremove bark of a tree
Melanau (Mukah) lalakbald
Ngaju Dayak lalakstripped of leaves, defoliated; peeled (as a banana, sugarcane)
Karo Batak laklakrind, peeling; bark of a tree
  ŋe-laklak-ito peel; strip bark from a tree
Toba Batak laklakbark, rind
  maŋa-laklah-ipeel off the bark

Note:   Also Karo Batak me-lak ‘come loose, of the skin; shaved, skinned’. Dempwolff (1938) included Fijian lala ‘empty, unoccupied, uninhabited’ in this comparison, but the semantic connection appears far-fetched.


*laŋkuas a plant: Alpinia galanga


PWMP     *laŋkuas a plant: Alpinia galanga

Ilokano laŋkuása kind of gingerlike herb, Alpinia galanga
Ida'an Begak ləŋkuasAlpinia galanga
Kadazan hoŋkuas(a type of) root, rhizome like a ginger
Ngaju Dayak laŋkuasa plant similar to ginger, but larger and milder in taste than lai, true ginger
Iban eŋkuaslarge rhizomatous herb used as a spice in cooking, Alpinia spp. (esp. the white A. galanga)
Malay leŋkuasa ginger, Alpinia galanga; varieties: l. merah (red, used medicinally); l. puteh (white, used to spice curry)

Note:   Also Tagalog laŋkáwasAlpinia pyrimidata Bl. Zingiberaceae, Zingiber zerumbet L.’ (Madulid 2001), Bikol laŋkáwas ‘plant in the ginger family possessing roots used as a seasoning, Alpinia galanga’, Aklanon eaŋkawás ‘spicy plant: Curcuma zedoaria’. Possibly a loan distribution due to borrowing from Malay.


*lakub enclosure; to enclose


PPh     *lakub enclosure; to enclose

Ilokano lakúbenclosure; encirclement
  ma-lakúbto be surrounded
  lakub-ento surround, encircle; block
Bontok lakúbto cover completely, as a landslide covering a whole pondfield
Kalamian Tagbanwa lakubhalf coconut shell; to cover with a half coconut shell
Maranao lakobfence, enclosure
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) laŋkubin roofing, to finish a section or to finish the whole house
Sangir me-lakubeʔoverhang and at the same time overshadow (as vines, forest)


*lakup cover, wrapping


PAN     *lakup cover, wrapping

Paiwan lakupa covering (as new bark which grows over scar on tree)
  l<m>akupto cover over (as with roof-shaped cover); to twine around (as vine)
Waray-Waray lakóp-lakópeyelid
Tboli lakufto include, be a part of, as an area
Malay te-laŋkupturned over; capsized; bottom-upwards
Karo Batak laŋkupcover, wrapping, casing; what covers or surrounds something; a strip of gold or brass that covers the teeth
Javanese t-lakupcovering leaf of a flower or bud; ear flaps; a hat with ear flaps

Note:   With root *-kup ‘enclose, cover’.


*lalak trochus shell


PMP     *lalak trochus shell

Proto-Sama-Bajaw *lalaktrochus, top shell (Pallesen 1985:323)
Tausug laaktrochus, top shell (Pallesen 1985:323)
Loniu lantrochus shell
Lou laltrochus shell
Bipi lantrochus shell
Likum lantrochus shell
Levei loŋtrochus shell
Nauna laltrochus shell
Seimat laltrochus shell
Wogeo lalapearl shell
Nggela lalaspecies of mollusc: Trochus niloticus
Sa'a lalaa shellfish and arm ring made of its shell
Mota lalatop shell and bracelet made of it
Raga lalaTrochus stellatus; shell armlet, ring

Note:   Most Oceanic forms cited here outside the Admiralties are from Pawley (2011:186-187), who notes that Mussau lailai, Kove lalai, Balinese lailai ‘pearlshell’ may be borrowings of Tok Pisin lalai, itself from Tolai lalaiTrochus spp.; armlet made from trochus shells’, with unexplained final –i. Trochus shell armbands were traditionally of widespread importance in Melanesia, and hence presumably in Proto-Oceanic society, but it is unclear whether this was also true of PMP speakers.


*lalatu₁ kind of ant


PWMP     *lalatu₁ kind of ant

Simalur lalatuant
Sangir lelatusmallest kind of ant
Bare'e lelatured ant that has a painful bite

Note:   The comparison which supports this reconstruction was first recognized in print by Kähler (1961).


*lalatu₂ sparks, burning ashes in the wind


PWMP     *lalatu₂ sparks, burning ashes in the wind

Rungus Dusun lalatuashes that are flying about
Sundanese si-lalatuspark, small bit of burning matter that flies up from the fire
Old Javanese latu-latu, lalatusparks, flying parts of a burning object
Balinese latuspark, speck
  lalatuspark, speck
Tae' lalatusparks

Note:   Also Kambera latu ‘carbonized; charcoal’. Dempwolff (1924-1925) posited *latu ‘spark’, but cited little supporting evidence.


*lalaw exceed, surpass, go beyond


PWMP     *lalaw exceed, surpass, go beyond     [doublet: *lalu]

Maranao lalawsecond growth of rice (cp. lalo 'above, more, excess')
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lalewgrieve over something to the extent that one does not eat
Kayan lalawpast, gone; more than, exceed
Ngaju Dayak lalawpast (of time); exceed, too
Bare'e lalogo past, go beyond

Note:   For the comparison Tagalog laloʔ ( unexpl.), Ngaju Dayak lalao (-ao unexpl.), Malay, Malagasy lalu ‘go past, go over, go beyond’ Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *lalu. To account for the irregular Tagalog and Ngaju Dayak forms, Hendon (1964) suggested that this etymon be modified to *lalew. The fuller data presented here do not support Hendon's proposal, and are best explained through the reconstruction of doublets.


*lalej housefly


PMP     *lalej housefly

Bontok láləghousefly; fly
Ifugaw (Batad) lāloga common housefly (refers to most flying insects with transparent wings, including the large blowfly)
Kelabit laledsmall black housefly
Berawan (Long Terawan) dilənhousefly
Kiput laləthousefly
Malagasy lálitraa fly
  lálitra ómbia cattle fly
Malay lalata fly, especially the common housefly
  lalat hijaubluebottle fly
Acehnese lalata fly
Old Javanese lalera fly
  l<in>aler-anfull of flies
Javanese lalerfly (insect)
Sundanese laleurcommon housefly
Balaesang lalehousefly
Pendau lalehousefly
Bare'e yalea fly
Tae' laliʔkind of large fly
Palauan yáyeshousefly
Chamorro laloʔhousefly
Palu'e lalea fly
Sika lalecommon housefly
Hawu larahousefly
  lara menilablowfly, botfly
Tetun lalarhousefly
Erai lalea fly
Selaru lalhousefly
Asilulu lalea fly, Diptera

Note:   Also Karo Batak laneŋ ‘a fly, especially the blue meatfly’, Toba Batak lanok ‘a fly’. Dempwolff (1938) also includes Fijian lalo ‘a fly (dialectal)’, but since no other Oceanic reflex is known, and a form of this shape is not found in Capell (1968) I assume that this is an error.


*laluŋ cock, rooster


PMP     *laluŋ cock, rooster

Isneg láloŋthe red cock that is tied securely to the tiebeam, immediately above the waldáy, before the tuŋtúŋ ceremony at a solemn sacrifice
Pangasinan lalóŋrooster, cock
Bikol láloŋrooster, cock
Penan (Long Labid) iap laluŋcock, rooster
Melanau (Mukah) laloŋmale (nonhumans) (Anonymous)
Mentawai lalukcockspur
Tae' laloŋdauntless, courageous in combat
Manggarai laloŋmale (of birds), cock
Li'o lalumale (of birds), cock
Rotinese manu lalu-kcock

Note:   The penultimate segment is reflected irregularly in Isneg, Melanau (Mukah), Tae'’, and Manggarai. It is possible that this form contained a rare PMP mid-vowel *o.


*lama lie on a surface, of water


PMP     *lama lie on a surface, of water

Bare'e lamalie sticking to or smeared over something else (example sentence: there is water on the plank; don't sit there)
Tae' lammadew, mist
Sa'a lamaspread over, cover over (as water covers the earth in a flood)


*lama old, former


PAN     *lama old, former

Atayal lamaʔfirst, do first, before
Pangasinan lámato age, lose polish, etc.
Iban lamaʔold, former, ancient; long (of time), long ago, formerly
Malay lamalength (of time)
  oraŋ lamathe people of long ago, the ancients
Old Javanese lamalength of time, duration
  a-lamalong, for a long time, already a long time, old; long ago
Balinese lamalong (time)


*lamak mat


PMP     *lamak mat     [doublet: *amak]

Malagasy (Provincial) lámakamat, mattress
Javanese lamakprotective pad
Sasak lamakmat
Yamdena lamakmat of lontar leaves (on which to dry tobacco, etc.)

Note:   Also Sundanese samak ‘pandanus mat’. Dempwolff (1934-38) gives *lamak ‘mat’ based on the comparison of Malagasy lámaka with Javanese lémék ‘lining, protective underlayer’, Sa'a lama ‘spread over, cover over (as water covers the earth in a flood)’. However, only the Malagasy and Sa'a terms exhibit a recurrent phonological correspondence, and only the Malagasy and Javanese terms exhibit a close semantic correspondence.


*laman deep


PCEMP     *laman₁ deep, of the sea; deep sea

Yamdena me-lamandeep
Fordata lamandepth
  ba-lamandeep; a depth
Kei lamandepth
Buli m-lamandeep (of bay, hole, sea)
Numfor ramenvery deep
Dusner ramensea


POC     *laman₂ deep, of the sea; deep sea beyond the reef

Loniu lama-ndeep sea just beyond the reef
Penchal lamdeep sea beyond the reef
Tolai lamanadeep, of the sea; deep sea, ocean
Gitua lamandeep
Roviana lamanathe ocean; deep, of water
Eddystone/Mandegusu lamanasea, ocean; deep sea beyond the reef
Arosi rama-ramadeep water beyond the edge of the reef
Mota lamaopen sea

Note:   The only meaning that can confidently be inferred for this form in PCEMP is the generic sense ‘deep’. However, in POc it had clearly come to refer specifically to the deep sea beyond the reef.


*lamlam impetuous


PAN     *lamlam impetuous

Paiwan lamlamprecipitate, impetuous
Old Javanese lamlamcarried away by desire (longing); being a prey to one's emotions; feeling uncertain; acting according to one's own desire (whim)


*lamu seaweed sp.


PMP     *lamu seaweed sp.     [disjunct: *lamun, *lamut]

Malay lamua seaweed for making jelly: Cuhalus coenigii
Ngadha lamumoss, lichen, slippery as moss
Rotinese lamukind of seaweed


*lamud to mix


PWMP     *lamud to mix     [doublet: *lamug]

Mapun lamudanything added or mixed (with something to form a blend or mixture)
  lamur-anadd it, mix it in!
Lun Dayeh lamuda mixture of bəriŋan [an herb], təlakaʔ [tree with blisters on the bark that cause a skin rash when touched], and likuaa [a variety of ginger], used as ingredients for brewing burak [rice wine]
  mə-lamudleavened (bread)
Kelabit lamudmixure


PWMP     *ŋa-lamud to mix together, as ingredients in cooking

Moken ŋa-lamudto mix ingredients together in cooking
Lun Dayeh ŋə-lamudto make lamud
Kelabit ŋə-lamudto mix


PWMP     *pa-lamud to mix together (?)

Moken pa-lamudto participate; to get involved in; to take part in; to associate with; to meddle
Kelabit pə-lamudmixed

Note:   Also Kadazan hamuʔ ‘to mix, add’.


*lamug to mix


PMP     *lamug to mix

Isneg lammúgmix rice pounded into powder, bran or flour with water
Kadazan h-in-amumixture (of food)
Toba Batak lamukmix together
Ngadha lamumix together


*lamuk₁ vague, unclear


PWMP     *lamuk₁ vague, unclear

Maranao lamokblur, shadow over the moon
Sundanese lamukdark, hazy, of the view
  ŋa-lamukappear vaguely in the distance
Old Javanese lamuk-lamukvaguely visible


*lamuk₂ mosquito


PMP     *lamuk₂ mosquito     [doublet: *ñamuk]

Ilokano lamókmosquito
  lamok-enbe bitten by many mosquitoes
Bontok lamúkmosquito
Tagalog lamókmosquito
Hiligaynon lamúkmosquito
Cebuano lamúkmosquito; be infested with mosquitoes
Javanese lamukmosquito
Makasarese lamuʔmosquito
Rotuman rɔmumosquito
Kapingamarangi lamuflies, mosquitoes

Note:   Also Manggarai lemok ‘small fly, fruit fly; also small mosquitoes that gather in swarms’, Manggarai lemuk ‘sandfly, small biting mosquito’.


*lamun swamp grass


PMP     *lamun swamp grass

Palauan iámlgrass in snapdragon family that grows in swampy areas: Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr.
Malay (Brunei) lamunriver weed
Sasak lamunduckweed (on the water)
Manggarai lamuŋaquatic moss


*lamut seaweed sp.


PMP     *lamut seaweed sp.     [disjunct: *lamu, *lamun]

Chamorro lamottype of seaweed
Ngadha lamumoss, lichen, slippery as moss
Rotinese lamukind of seaweed

Note:   Also Manggarai ramut ‘moss, algae’.


*laña vegetable oil


PMP     *laña vegetable oil

Pangasinan lanáfragrant coconut oil
Kapampangan lañaoil of sesame (Bergaño 1860)
Tagalog lánaoil of sesame
Hanunóo lánaoil, especially coconut oil, used occasionally for the hair
Cebuano lánaoil obtained from plants
Maranao lanaoil
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lanacoconut oil; oil from other vegetable sources
Simalur lanaoil
Sangir lanaoil
Bare'e lanaoil, especially coconut oil
Amblau lanaoil (van der Miesen)

Note:   Also Tiruray lanah ‘oil’. Dempwolff (1924-1925) posited *laña ‘oil’, but cited little evidence in support of his reconstruction.


*lañut tough, as meat


PWMP     *lañut tough, as meat

Cebuano lánuthemp for abaca; any kind of long, tough plant fibers
Kadazan hanuttough, pliant
Tontemboan lanuttough, as old meat
Proto-Minahasan *lanuttough (of meat, fibers)

Note:   With root *-ñut ‘stretchy, elastic’.


*laŋaq₁ gape, open wide


PMP     *laŋaq₁ gape, open wide

Chamorro laŋŋaʔ (gemination unexpl.)gape, hold mouth agape
Maranao laŋaʔstop sucking, as a baby does; release
Singhi Land Dayak ŋi-raŋahopen (of a fruit)
Malay laŋahopen, agape, ajar
Ngadha saŋa laŋaopen the mouth

Note:   With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gaping, wide open’.


*laŋaq₂ simple-minded


PWMP     *laŋaq₂ simple-minded

Cebuano laŋaʔstupid, foolish, silly, dull, simple
Sundanese laŋahcareless, inattentive


*laŋaw housefly


PAN     *laŋaw₁ housefly     [doublet: *baŋaw, 'paddy bug', *beRŋaw 'bluebottle']

Saisiyat (Taai) Laŋawsmall fly
Pazeh raŋawa fly (big or small)
  raŋaw nuaŋhorsefly
Thao ranawhousefly, black fly common in houses
Kavalan raŋawfly (insect)
Paiwan laŋaw ~ la-laŋawa fly (insect)


PMP     *laŋaw₂ bluebottle, blowfly, horsefly

Itbayaten xaŋawbig housefly, bluebottle
Isneg láŋawa fly
Casiguran Dumagat laŋöa fly; many flies
Agta (Dupaningan) láŋawhousefly
Itawis láŋawfly (insect)
Kankanaey láŋewa very small winged insect, mostly found around slops, wine, etc.
Ifugaw láŋo ~ láŋawvery small winged insects that sip rice wine (if the jar is not covered)
Ifugaw (Batad) láŋawa rice-beer fly (a small brown fruit fly that is partial to rice beer and breeds and multiplies in wine jars if not tightly covered
Tagalog láŋawhousefly
Bikol láŋawa fly
  ma-láŋawhaving many flies; be covered with flies
Hanunóo láŋawthe common housefly
Hiligaynon láŋawa fly
Aklanon eáŋawfly (general term for this family of insects)
Masbatenyo láŋawa fly
Waray-Waray láŋawa fly
Cebuano láŋawhousefly
Maranao laŋawgadfly, horsefly
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) laŋewa fly
Mansaka laŋawa fly
Binukid láŋawgeneric for flies; for flies to infest an area
Mapun laŋawa fly
  ka-laŋaw-anto have a fly or flies stuck or dead in something
  laŋaw-anhaving flies
Yakan laŋewa fly, housefly
Tausug laŋawbotfly, a species of large fly
Ida'an Begak laŋowhousefly
Tombonuwo laŋowfly, housefly
Kelabit laŋolarge bluish-green fly, horsefly
Kayan laŋawcommon housefly
  laŋaw pusahgreen paddy bug
  laŋaw toʔlarge blowfly
Ngaju Dayak laŋawa fly
  laŋaw hantularge gadfly (lit. ‘ghost fly’)
  ma-laŋawto catch flies
Iban laŋaubluebottle, or meat fly
Malay laŋaubiting fly of the stable-fly type (Stomoxydae)
Rejang laŋeuwa bluebottle fly
Sangir laŋoa fly
  me-laŋocome to a feast uninvited
Mongondow laŋowcommon housefly
Buli laŋa fly
  laŋ ŋiŋilawbluebottle, horsefly
Numfor rankind of small fly


POC     *laŋo housefly

Lenkau laŋlaŋhousefly
Penchal lallaŋ (< *laŋlaŋ)housefly
Seimat laŋhousefly
Wuvulu laohousefly
Mussau laŋohousefly
Mendak ləŋhousefly
Vitu laŋohousefly
Wogeo laŋohousefly
Manam laŋohousefly
Motu laoa fly
Nehan laŋhousefly, generic for flies, Diptera, family Muscoidea; fly and similar small insects
Selau loŋohousefly
Eddystone/Mandegusu laŋoa fly
Nggela laŋoa fly
  laŋo ni mbolospecies of large fly (lit. ‘pig fly’, presumably because they frequent pigs)
Kwaio laŋolarge fly
  laŋo bulublowfly
Lau laŋofly, mosquito
  laŋo bulucommon fly, bluebottle
Toqabaqita laŋogeneric for large flies, bluebottles, blowflies
Sa'a laŋothe bluebottle fly
Arosi raŋoa fly
  raŋo buruthe bluebottle fly
Mota laŋothe bluebottle fly
Central Maewo laŋoa fly
Raga laŋoa fly
Araki laŋoa fly
Rotuman laŋaa fly
  laŋ foraubluebottle (lit’ ‘foreign, or introduced fly’)
Wayan laŋohouseflies and other Brachycera flies
  laŋo-laŋobe fly-infested, full of flies
Fijian laŋoa fly
  laŋo kataa wasp
Tongan laŋofly (insect)
  faka-laŋo-ato attract flies, encourage flies to come about
Futunan laŋohousefly
  laŋo ʔusibluebottle (lit. ‘blue fly’)
  laŋo-afull of flies, swarming with flies
Rennellese gaŋohousefly
Anuta raŋofly (insect)
Samoan laŋoa fly
  laŋo-iabe covered with flies
Tuvaluan laŋoa fly
Nukuoro laŋofly, flying ant, wasp, or other similar flying insect
Rarotongan raŋogeneral name for flies
Maori raŋoblowfly
Hawaiian nalo <Mthe common housefly and other two-winged insects


PAN     *laŋaw-en infested with flies, covered with flies

Thao ranaw-inbe covered with flies
Tagalog laŋáw-inbe infested or covered with flies
Bikol laŋáw-onbe covered with flies
Masbatenyo laŋáw-onswarming with flies
Waray-Waray laŋáw-onfly-infested
Cebuano laŋáw-unbe infested, swarm with flies
Tausug laŋaw-unbe infested with laŋaw (botflies)

Note:   Also Ilokano ŋílaw ‘housefly’, ŋílaw ti nuaŋ ‘horsefly’. In the absence of other known evidence I take the apparent correspondence between this Ilokano form and Buli laŋ ŋiŋilaw ‘bluebottle, horsefly’ to be a product of chance convergence. PAn *laŋaw appears to have meant ‘housefly’, with qualifying words needed to designate the bluebottle or other types of flies. However, in PMP *lalej evidently replaced *laŋaw in this meaning, and *laŋaw came to refer to the bluebottle, botfly or horsefly without the need for a qualifying term. No doubt because houseflies are the most frequently encountered pests in the family Diptera reflexes of *laŋaw have shifted back to the meaning ‘housefly’ in many languages.


*laŋen rollers for beaching a canoe


PMP     *laŋen rollers for beaching a canoe

Kankanaey laŋéntwo big pieces of greenwood on which the hogs that are to be sacrificed at home are stretched out
Ifugaw laŋónsticks between which (two below and two above) pigs are strongly tied when they must be sacrificed or transported
Maranao laŋenroller
Yamdena n-laŋanplace rollers under, as under a canoe
  la-laŋanroller for beaching a canoe


POC     *laŋon rollers for beaching a canoe

Gedaged luŋa slip, a sloping ramp or pier, dock; the pieces of wood put on the beach over which the canoe slips when pulled up
Eddystone/Mandegusu laŋonoa log on which a canoe rests when it is hauled ashore
Arosi i-raŋoroller for a canoe; place rollers for a canoe (with instrumental prefix i-)
Woleaian laŋ(o)canoe roller, fulcrum; to be rolled, raised with supporters (as a canoe)
Fijian laŋoplace rollers under a canoe
  laŋon-aplace rollers under a canoe (trans. form)


*laŋ(e)si unpleasant odor


PAN     *laŋ(e)si unpleasant odor

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) laŋsistinking, of over-cooked (burnt) rice
Cebuano laŋsihaving fishy smell or the taste of blood


*laŋiC sky


PAN     *laŋiC sky

Saaroa laŋicasky
Puyuma ɭaŋiʈsky


PMP     *laŋit sky

Itbayaten xañitheaven, sky
Ibanag láŋiʔsky
Ilokano láŋitsky, heaven
  i-láŋitto raise to the sky, lift up toward heaven
  maŋ-láŋitto daydream
Isneg láŋitheavens, sky
  i-láŋitspirits of the sky (usually favorable to reapers; when they want to possess a shaman they use a bridge or ladder to come down)
Agta (Dupaningan) láŋetsky
Casiguran Dumagat laŋetsky, heaven (thought of as a huge, round, blue dome which is cupped over the earth)
Itawis láŋitsky
Ifugaw laŋítheaven, skyworld; currently used by the Ifugaw, but borrowed from Ilokano or other languages
Ifugaw (Batad) lāŋitheaven
Gaddang láŋitsky
Sambal (Botolan) láŋitsky
Ibaloy daŋitheaven
Tagalog láŋitsky
  taga-láŋitheavenly; of or in heaven
Bikol láŋitsky, heavens
  ka-laŋít-anthe heavens
  laŋít-nonheavenly, celestial
Hanunóo láŋitsky, heavens
Palawan Batak laŋítsky, heavens
Hiligaynon láŋitheaven, sky, outer space
Aklanon eáŋitsky, heaven
  ka-eaŋít-anthe heavens; Heaven
Masbatenyo láŋitsky, heaven, firmament, atmosphere
Waray-Waray láŋitsky, space, heaven; eternity
Cebuano láŋitheaven, sky; joy, happiness
Mapun laŋitthe sky
Mansaka laŋitheaven, sky
Binukid laŋitsky, heaven
Maranao laŋitsky, heaven
Tboli loŋitsky, heaven
Tausug laŋitthe sky
Yakan laŋitsky
Ida'an Begak laŋitsky
Tombonuwo laŋitsky
Lun Dayeh laŋitsky, heaven
Kelabit laŋitsky
Kenyah (Long Anap) laŋitsky
Kayan laŋitsky
Murik laŋitsky
Bintulu laŋitsky
Melanau (Mukah) laŋitsky
Ngaju Dayak laŋitsky; vault of heaven
  la-laŋitthe ceiling of a room
Malagasy lánitrasky, heaven
Iban laŋitsky, heavens; the Heavens, as distinct from Earth; World of the Dead, and the land of the serpent deities…The hornbill, Segadu’, represents the manang (shaman), of whom the chief is Menjaya or Ini’ Manang, living in the seventh heaven
Jarai ŋitsky
Malay laŋitsky
Bahasa Indonesia me-laŋitto go “sky high” (of prices)
Gayō laŋitsky
Karo Batak laŋitsky
Toba Batak laŋitdome of heaven, sky
Nias laŋiatmosphere, sky
Mentawai laŋitred sky of morning and evening
Lampung laŋiʔsky
Old Javanese laŋitsky, firmament
Javanese laŋitsky; ceiling; facial expression
  laŋit-anceiling; canopy; palate
Sundanese laŋitsky, atmosphere, firmament
  laŋit tujuhthe seven heavens
  la-laŋitcanopy; palate
Balinese laŋitsky, heavens, air
Sasak laŋitsky
Tontemboan laŋitsky, atmosphere
Uma laŋiʔsky
Tae' laŋiʔsky, heaven
  randan laŋiʔhorizon
Makasarese laŋiʔsky, firmament
Muna lanisky
Palauan yáŋdsky; weather
Chamorro laŋetheaven, sky, outer space
Bimanese laŋisky; canopy of a stage
Waiyewa laŋitasky
Lamboya laŋtasky
Galoli lanitsky
Leti liantisky
Wetan liantisky
Yamdena laŋitsky, heaven
  laŋit sepanhorizon
Asilulu lanitsky
Alune lanitesky
Bobot lakitsky
Buruese laŋitsky
Kayeli laŋitsky
Soboyo laŋisky
Buli laŋitsky, heaven
Nali yaŋsky
Ere laŋsky
Loniu laŋsky
Titan laŋlight
  kole-laŋsky (‘place of light’)
Tigak laŋitrain
Duke of York laŋitsky, heavens
Vitu laŋisky
Lakalai la lagisky
Wogeo laŋsky
Manam laŋsky
Motu laibreeze, wind
Nehan laŋitsky
Mono-Alu laitirain
Eddystone/Mandegusu laŋitesky
Varisi ranisky
Talise laŋirain
Sa'a läŋiup
  haʔa-laŋia house on piles
  i-leŋisky, heaven
  läŋi-leŋi-ʔealoft, lifted up; tall and strong, of a person
Arosi raŋito rain; rain
Gilbertese te naŋa cloud; fig. hindrance, annoyance, obstacle, worry
  naŋi-naŋwith a few clouds, cloudy
Marshallese lañsky; weather; heaven
Kosraean lucŋsky, heaven
Pohnpeian lahŋsky, heaven; bad weather
  laŋi-laŋi-hhonorific: to give a title, to crown; to wear a garland
Mokilese loaŋsky
Chuukese nááŋheaven, sky (early German sources report that it has several tiers or levels, of which five were named by distinct terms)
Puluwat láŋrain; sky
  láŋi-láŋrain with symbolic portent, as of a canoe coming, death, birth, bad weather; to have portent, of rain
Woleaian laŋ(i)sky; typhoon, rain-storm, wind; be struck by a typhoon; compass
Merlav laŋwind
Raga laŋiwind
Araki laŋiwind
Cape Cumberland laniwind
Namakir na-laŋwind
Nakanamanga na-laŋiwind
Central Maewo tae-laŋisky
Mafea tai-laŋisky
Makatea raŋisky
Rotuman lɔŋisky, heaven; wind, air, weather
  la ne lɔŋihorizon
Wayan laŋisky, atmosphere
Fijian lomā-laŋithe sky, heaven (lit. ‘inside of sky’)
  vū ni laŋias though one who comes from the horizon
  laŋi-laŋibeautiful, magnificent, glorious
Tongan laŋisky, heaven; eyes, face, mouth, ears, or head (of king or queen)
  lāŋi-laŋisplendor, glory, honor
  laŋi-laŋi havilito look as if it is going to be windy
Niue laŋisky, heaven; thunder; head, hair
Samoan laŋisky, heaven; funeral ceremony
  laŋi lelei(of the weather) be fine
  laŋi faʔatafasickness of a high chief
  faʔa-laŋiaddress or refer to someone by his ceremonial title
  laŋi-ābe cloudy
  laŋi-laŋi-ābe stormy
Futunan laŋisky; mythical residence of persons after their death
Kapingamarangi laŋisky
Nukuoro laŋirain; heaven, sky
  laŋi haanaua certain kind of rain [an omen of an impending childbirth]
Rennellese gaŋisky, heaven
  haka-gaŋito put up a flat ceiling
Anuta (vae)-raŋiheavens, sky
Rarotongan raŋimyth: the ethereal space, the not-earth region; sky, firmament (this definition was a meaning quite unknown to the ancient people); the sky sphere; supreme in authority, a crown, supremacy, the paramount high chief, highest authority or power, etc.; an emblem of arikiship worn on the head of chiefs
Maori raŋisky; heaven, upper regions, abode of supernatural beings; weather; day, period of time; chief, generally in the form of respectful address: e raŋi ‘sir’
Hawaiian lanisky, heaven; heavenly, spiritual; very high chief, majesty; royal, exalted, high born, aristocratic
  hoʔo-lanito treat one as a chief; to act as a chief; to enjoy the position and prestige of a high chief


PWMP     *laŋit laŋit palate; canopy

Ilokano láŋit-láŋitcanopy
Tagalog láŋit-láŋitpallium; canopy; vault roofing
Cebuano láŋit-láŋitegg white; canopy of an altar or bed
Mapun laŋit-laŋita cloth or drapery used to decorate the ceiling of a house during a celebration
Malay laŋit-laŋitceiling cloth put up at weddings and other great festivities; canopy on posts over a grave in honor of the dead; palate
Simalur laŋiʔ-laŋiʔcanopy
Karo Batak laŋit-laŋitcanopy; palate
Toba Batak laŋit-laŋitcanopy
  laŋit-laŋit ni dilapalate
Nias laŋi-laŋimaterial for making clothing
Old Javanese laŋit-laŋitcanopy
Balinese laŋit-laŋitpalate, roof of the mouth; the ceiling or roof-ridge of a house or bale
Sasak laŋit-laŋitcanopy, as over a bed
Makasarese laŋiʔ-laŋiʔpalate
Wolio laŋi-laŋicanopy; palate

Note:   Also Puyuma ɭaŋis ‘sky (ritual term)’, Sasak le-laŋit ‘canopy, as over a bed’, Muna laŋi-laŋi ‘a white cloth wound around the top of a tombstone (sometimes draped like a tent) to ward off the disturbing influence of the spirit of the dead person’, Buruese lanit ‘sky’, Arosi daŋi ‘the light; the wind; daylight, the day, a day’, Kapingamarangi laaŋi ‘day’.

This word has a wide range of associations. In most languages it seems to have referred not only to the physical sky, but also to a mythological realm of spirits, and reflexes in at least Iban and Sundanese suggest that the concept of a celestial spirit realm embodied the notion of seven levels, a concept that was reported in a slightly different form in early sources on Chuukese. In many parts of the Pacific reflexes of this term refer to weather phenomena, such as rain or wind, either together with the meaning ‘sky’ or without it. Forms in some languages of Vanuatu, as Central Maewo tae-laŋi and Mafea tai-laŋi apparently reflect *taqe laŋi ‘cloud’ (lit. ‘feces of sky’). Finally, in both Micronesia and Polynesia reflexes of *laŋi were used to refer to high chiefs and perhaps others of aristocratic rank.


*laŋu vertigo


PAN     *laŋu vertigo

Casiguran Dumagat laŋodrunk, intoxicated
Tagalog laŋótipsy
Nias laŋupoison
Javanese laŋu(of odors, taste) strong, acrid, disagreeable, overpowering
Balinese laŋuheavy-headed, giddy
Bare'e ma-yaŋudizzy, intoxicated
  ma-yaŋu ntasiseasick
Sangir laŋu(mentally) dull, far-away (in thought)
Chamorro lá-laŋuunconscious; faint, fall in a swoon
Manggarai laŋudizzy, drunk
Rotinese laŋulangu-dizziness: term in ritual language for serious illness (Fox, J. 1993)
Tetun lanuto intoxicate, to inebriate, to be drunk; to poison
  lanu-kintoxicated, drunk
Yamdena laŋubitter, poisonous


PAN     *ma-laŋu dizzy, drunk

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ma-laŋusurfeit (with food)
Mongondow mo-lo-laŋudrunk; dizzy; queasy
Banggai ma-laŋudrunk
Soboyo mba-laŋudrunk

Note:   Also Cebuano laŋuʔ ‘dizzy due to poisoning; drunk (slang)’, Maranao laŋot ‘dizzy, dizziness’. Mills (1981) posits "Proto-Indonesian" *laŋu(ho) ‘nausea, nauseating’, but cites cognates only from WMP languages. The present etymon is possibly identical with *laŋu ‘unpleasant taste’ in Blust (1970). For a semantic parallel with a different root, compare Samoan ʔona ‘poisonous’, ʔo-ʔona ‘sour, bitter; (of drink) strong’, Hawaiian ʔona ‘drunk, dizzy and unsteady, intoxicated’; note also the etymology of intoxicated.


*laŋuy to swim


PWMP     *laŋuy to swim     [doublet: *naŋuy, *taŋuy]

Ilokano laŋóyswim
  ag-laŋóyto swim
  i-laŋóyto swim something over, carry by swimming
  pag-laŋóy-anplace where one swims, swimming pool
Isneg mag-laŋóyto swim
  maŋ-laŋóyto swim
Agta (Dupaningan) mag-laŋoyto swim
Kankanaey men-laŋóyto float; to waft
Pangasinan laŋóyto swim
Tagalog laŋóyswimming
  mag-laŋóyto swim
  ma-laŋóyto be able to swim over something
  pa-laŋóyswimming party
  laŋuy-ínto swim a certain distance, or to a certain place, etc.
Bikol mag-laŋóyto swim
  laŋuy-ána place for swimming, swimming pool, swimming hole
  laŋuy-ónto swim for a particular distance or across a particular place
Hanunóo laŋúyswimming
Hiligaynon mag-laŋúyto swim
  laŋuy-únto swim
Aklanon eaŋóyto swim (after/the length of)
Waray-Waray laŋóyswimming
  laŋoy-áto swim across
Masbatenyo mag-laŋóyto swim, bathe
  laŋúy-answimming pool
Romblomanon laŋuysomeone swims
  pag-laŋuysomeone’s swimming
  laŋūy-ana swimming place
Cebuano laŋúyto swim; float as if swimming
  l<in>aŋy- ánstyle of swimming
Maranao laŋoyswim
Mansaka laŋoyswim
Binukid laŋuyto bathe, take a bath; to go swimming; to bathe (someone)
Tiruray loŋuyto swim
Mapun laŋiswim
  laŋi-unto swim
Yakan mag-laŋito swim
  pa-laŋito cause to swim, to let swim
  mag-laŋi-hanto swim (repetitive)
Tausug mag-laŋuyto swim (to a destination)
  laŋuy-unto swim out to something
Kelabit laŋuyswimming
  laŋuy-laŋuydog-paddle in the water
Malagasy lanuswimming
  man-danuto swim
  lanus-inato be swum in
Nias mo-laŋito swim
Lampung laŋuyto swim
  laŋuy-laŋuy-anto be in the habit of swimming; (several) to be swimming
Javanese laŋiact of swimming
  ŋ-laŋito swim
Balinese laŋito swim
  ŋa-laŋimake something swim
Mongondow laŋuyswim
Buginese laŋeto swim
Makasarese aʔ-laŋeto swim
  laŋe-iswim toward something, swim in something


PWMP     *l<um>aŋuy to swim

Ilokano l<um>aŋóyto swim
Tagalog l<um>aŋóyto swim
Hanunóo l<um>aŋúyto swim; will swim
Romblomanon l<um>aŋuyto swim
Mansaka l<om>aŋoyto swim
Mapun l<um>aŋito swim; to swim to a destination; to swim to an object and bring it back
Tausug l<um>aŋuyto swim (to a destination)
Bonggi l<əm>oŋito swim
Kelabit l<um>aŋuyto swim for fun or enjoyment; float
Malagasy l<um>anuto swim
Mongondow l<um>aŋuyto swim
Koroni l<um>aŋito swim
Muna lenito swim
  leni-fiswim towards, swim to get something

Note:   Also Ida'an Begak luŋuy, gə-luŋuy ‘to swim’, Old Javanese laŋhuy ‘to swim’, laŋhuy-i ‘to swim to’. Although reflexes of PAn *Naŋuy ‘to swim’ are found in Formosan, WMP and CMP languages, reflexes of *laŋuy are restricted to WMP.


*lapa₁ fish sp.


POC     *lapa₁ fish sp.

Gedaged labagrey marine fish about three feet long
Arosi rahspecies of fish
Samoan lafaa fish (Ambassis sp.)

Note:   Possibly identical with POc *lapaq ‘various flat fishes, including sole and flounder’ (Osmond 2011).


*lapa₂ a skin disease: ringworm


POC     *lapa₂ a skin disease: ringworm

Arosi rahaa skin disease
Tongan lafa(to be affected with) ringworm
Samoan lafaringworm
  lafa-lafābe spotted with ringworm; (of bananas, etc.) be scarred, bruised
Tuvaluan lafaringworm
Rennellese gahaa fungus disease that kills trees; a skin disease known in the Solomons as bakua, named for the fungus
Anuta rapaa kind of skin fungus marked by severe itching, and very difficult to cure


*lampaŋ go


PMP     *lampaŋ go     [disjunct: *lampaq]

Tboli lafaŋwalk around
Karo Batak lapaŋtrail, path made by animals
Toba Batak lapaŋpath
Mongondow lampaŋto step, step over something
Proto-Minahasan *lampaŋwalk
Bimanese lampawalk

Note:   Also Sundanese lɨmpaŋ ‘walk’, Lauje me-lempaŋE.


*lampaq walk, go


PMP     *lampaq walk, go     [disjunct: *lampaŋ]

Javanese lampahwalk
Sasak lampaʔwalk, go
Sangir lampastride or step over
Balaesang me-lampato walk
Pendau me-lampato walk
Bimanese lampawalk


*lapaR hungry


PMP     *lapaR hungry

Iban laparhungry, famished
Malay laparhunger; craving for food (less correctly of ‘hungering for water’)
  lapar mata‘eye-hungry’: helping oneself to more than one can eat
  lapar susucrying for milk (of a baby)
Karo Batak ŋe-lapar-ito make a child go hungry (as a punishment)
Toba Batak raparsuffer from hunger
  ha-rapar-ondeficiency, scarcity
Old Javanese lapāhunger (also thirst?)
Javanese lapahunger
Sasak lapahhungry
Banggai laalhunger
Tetun lahahunger
Yamdena lafarhunger
  na-m-lafarbe hungry
Fordata lafarhunger
  na-b-lafarbe hungry, suffer hunger pangs
Selaru larhungry

Note:   Also Nias lofo ‘hunger’, Sundanese lapar ‘hungry’ (< Malay), Balinese (High) lapa ‘hungry’ (< Javanese).


*la(m)paw exceed, excess


PWMP     *la(m)paw exceed, excess

Hanunóo lápawexcessive depth (in an agricultural sense this means excessive cultivation)
Aklanon eapáwsurpass, exceed, excel
Cebuano lápawgo above or beyond a certain amount
Malay lampauexcess; too much


*lampit rattan sleeping mat


PWMP     *lampit rattan sleeping mat

Iban tikai lampitheavy mat of lengths of rattan threaded together with bark cords
Malay lampitsleeping mat (Java)
Old Javanese lampita mat of rattan
  aŋ-lampitto carry the lampit
Dampelas lapitmat (from nipah leaves)
Totoli lapitmat (from nipah leaves)


*laplap loose (as of clothing)


PAN     *laplap loose (as of clothing)

Paiwan laplaploose skin on baby after birth
Bontok laplapto peel off, as the skin of an orange; make a flap
Cebuano laplápfor clothing to be loose and flapping


*la(m)pus₁ gone, vanished, terminated


PWMP     *la(m)pus₁ gone, vanished, terminated

Kankanaey lápusgone, vanished, disappeared, out of sight
Javanese lampusdead

Note:   Also Iban lempus ‘over, finished’, Maranao pos ‘end, finish’ suggests the presence of a root *-pus₁.


*la(m)pus₂ pierce, penetrate


PWMP     *la(m)pus₂ pierce, penetrate

Ilokano lápusexceed, go beyond, pass over, pass through, move past
Cebuano lapuspenetrate, pierce through the opposite side
Maranao laposentirely, wholly
Kadazan hapuspierce, get through
Minangkabau lampusthrough and through
Malay lapusto shoot (sandy) rapids


*laqaD dry stream bed


PWMP     *laqaD dry stream bed

Hanunóo láʔadbrook or stream which may run dry in the dry season; dry streambed; arroyo
Malay (Kedah) laharpool, mere
Malay (Kelantan) laharpool, mere
Javanese laharhot mud and lava flow


*laq(e)lu rice pestle


PWMP     *laq(e)lu rice pestle     [doublet: *qaSelu]

Ifugaw lalurice pestle
Kallahan (Kayapa) laʔlurice pestle
Aborlan Tagbanwa laʔlurice pestle
Karo Batak lalurice pestle


*laqia ginger


PMP     *laqia ginger

Ilokano layáginger, Zingiber officinale, used in native medicine to cure rheumatism, wounds, cough and stomach ache
Agta (Dupaningan) layáginger, Zingiber officinale
Casiguran Dumagat layáginger, Zingiber officinale (a spice used to flavor viands)
Isneg layáginger
Itawis layáginger
Bontok láyaginger, Zingiber officinale Rosc.
Kankanaey layáginger
Ifugaw láyaginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe. This is extensively cultivated by the Ifugaw; the root only is eaten by them, sliced and boiled in water
Ifugaw (Batad) lāyaginger (grows chiefly in upland fields); ginger root, i.e. the rhizone (used chiefly as a food condiment, and sometimes as a side dish)
Kapampangan láyaginger
Bikol láʔyaginger
Tboli leʔiyeginger, Zingiber officinale
Ida'an Begak ləjoginger
Tombonuwo layoginger
Kadazan hazoginger
Lun Dayeh liəhginger
Kelabit lieha small variety of ginger: with ləkoa ‘a large variety of ginger: Alpinia galanga
Kenyah (Long Anap) liaginger
Kenyah (Òma Lóngh) ləzóginger
Berawan (Long Terawan) ləjəhginger
Murik liaʔginger
Kiput ləcihginger
Narum ləjiəhginger
Miri ləjehginger
Bintulu ləzaginger
Singhi Land Dayak roiʔiginger
Iban liaʔginger, plant or rhizome of Zingiber officinale
Jarai rəyaginger
Malay halia <Mginger, Zingiber officinale; used as a drug and as a flavoring for curries
Sangir liaginger, used as a spice with food, and as an ingredient in most medicines, charms and spells, where it is chewed with sirih leaves and then sprayed from the mouth onto the afflicted part
Tontemboan liaSpanish pepper
  lia tanaʔginger
Balaesang láiaginger
Tialo loíaginger
Bare'e leʔiaginger
Tae' laia ~ layakind of ginger which has a somewhat musty odor when the main root is very large
  laya panaʔkind of ginger that has a sharper taste than others
Makasarese laiaginger, Zingiber officinale
  niaʔ laiana(‘he sits in ginger’) = ‘He is of noble descent’
Muna loghiaginger
  loghia ŋkaputewhite ginger
  loghia ŋkadeared ginger
Bimanese reaginger, Zingiber officinale
Manggarai liaginger, Zingiber officinale
Rembong reaginger, Zingiber officinale
Ngadha leaginger; kind of vegetable used as a remedy
Sika leakind of ginger
Kambera layiaginger
  wai layiaginger water, infusion of ginger used as a stimulant
Rotinese liaginger; spew with (chewed) ginger to make more effective, as a dog to make it bite, a cat to make it a more ferocious mouser, or a net to make it catch more fish
Lamaholot liaginger, Zingiber officinale
Wetan liaginger
Erai liaginger
Leti liaginger
Kei leiiginger, Zingiber officinale; people give pieces of ginger to the dogs to make them more spirited in hunting
Kowiai raʔiaginger
Wuvulu laiaginger
Sori leiginger
Lindrou leyginger
Drehet lipginger
Kuruti liyginger
Penchal laiginger
Lou leiginger
Mussau laiaginger
Tanga laeginger, Zingiber officinale
Lakalai la lahiacultivated ginger (Zingiber sp.); by extension, a warrior
Kairiru leiginger
Gitua laeakind of edible ginger, flower like Phameria magnifica
Wedau naiaginger
Nehan laiaplant species, family Zingiberaceae; several types
Kwaio liaginger
Toqabaqita la-laiaginger
Sa'a lieginger, called ‘äi ha‘angäu keni, tree given to women to eat (to enlist their affections); used in malevolent magic it causes boils when put down on a man’s path for him to pass over
'Āre'āre riaa ginger with perfumed roots, used as a medicine by witch doctors; there are several varieties for different diseases
  ria ni marutanaa ginger used to enlist the affections of women
Arosi riaginger, much used in charms

Note:   Also Tagalog lúya, Hiligaynon lúyʔa, Aklanon eúyʔa, Waray-Waray luyʔáʔ, Mansaka loya, Binukid luyʔa ‘ginger, Zingiber officinale’, Masbatenyo lúyʔa ‘ginger root’, Cebuano luyʔá ‘ginger, Zingiber officinale’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) luya, ‘ginger, Zingiber officinale. The rhizomes of the ginger plant are used for flavoring stews’, Tiruray giya ‘ginger’, Tausug luuya, Ngaju Dayak lai, Tae' laa, Kove haia ‘ginger’. Reconstruction of this word raises several formal issues, and suggests cultural practices that reach beyond linguistic reconstruction.

Dyen (1947, 1953) posited PMP *leyqa ‘ginger’ in order to account for the penultimate vowel of forms such as Cebuano luyʔá, but this proposal confuses an innovative doublet *luqia in Proto-Greater Central Philippines with reflexes of *laqia. Apart from these deviant forms, a number of languages have disyllabic words that appear to reflect *lia. In some cases (Kelabit, Kenyah, Bintulu, Iban, etc.) these can be derived by regular change from *laqia through reduction of the first-syllable vowel to schwa, which then deleted along with the following glottal stop, but in Oceanic languages such as Kwaio or Sa'a this does not work, and forms such as Kwaio lia or Sa'a lie must therefore be regarded either as irregular reductions of *laqia, or as evidence for a possible doublet *lia.

The cultural role of ginger is particularly interesting. Apart from its use as a condiment in cooking, the glosses in several languages show that this plant was used for medicinal purposes from an early time. In this function it evidently was chewed and spewed with saliva onto the afflicted part, as shown in the glosses for Sangir and Rotinese lia. Similar descriptions appear in ethnographic accounts. Fortune (1963:295), for example, notes that among the Dobuans of western Melanesia sorcerors regularly chew ginger and spray it out in practicing sorcery as well as curative medicine: “It is chewed with many healing incantations, apart from the tabu exorcisms which are breathed into water for bathing the patient. With other healing spells it is spat on the seat of illness. The sight of a magician chewing ginger, spitting it onto the object charmed at intervals, and muttering his spell at the same time is a common one at Dobu … It is chewed in all the incantations to ward off a squall at sea and spat towards the lowering squall. It is chewed and bespattered over the canoe, in lashing it with incantation, making it speedy and seaworthy…”.

The puzzling Lakalai gloss, which combines ginger with prowess as a warrior is further illuminated by remarks in Codrington (1972:133) regarding cultural practices on the island of Florida in the central Solomons. A man who is about to go out on a vendetta against his private enemy “will pull up his ginger-plant, and judge from the ease with which it comes out of the earth whether he shall succeed or not; he will make his sacrifice, and with the ginger and leaves on his shield and in his belt and right armlet will go to fight.” As in Dobu, a curer (195) “will chew ginger and blow into the patient’s ears and on that part of the skull which is soft in infants, will call on the name of the tindalo, (ghost) and beg him to remove the sickness.”

Judging from the glosses in Rotinese and Kei in eastern Indonesia ginger provided a stimulant for various kinds of purposes. In particular it evidently was given to dogs to make them more vigorous in hunting. The gloss in Rotinese and the above quote from Fortune on the Dobuans suggest that it was also chewed and spat upon inanimate objects, as a fishing net or canoe to make them more efficacious. These varied uses are all perhaps united by a common thread: given its stimulating taste ginger evidently was conceived as a plant that could impart vitality to other objects, either when chewed and expectorated upon them, as in healing or improving the efficacy of tools such as nets or canoes, or when fed directly to an animal, as in improving the hunting acuity of dogs. When used to confront something negative, as a storm, its supposed supernatural powers act to counter the undesirable effects.


*laqu thirst, hunger


PWMP     *laqu thirst, hunger     [doublet: *daqu]

Binukid laʔuthirst
Manobo (Sarangani) laʔothirst
Kelabit laʔuhhunger
Kenyah (Long Wat) laʔewfamine
Bintulu me-laʔewhungry


*laRaŋ to forbid


PAN     *laRaŋ to forbid

Amis lalaŋto forbid, refuse permission
Malay laraŋto forbid -- of prohibition affecting a person or class of persons

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *laraŋ ‘forbid’, but based his reconstruction entirely on western Indonesian (including Malagasy) evidence.


*laRiw run, run away, flee, escape


PAN     *laRiw run, run away, flee, escape

Kavalan m-RaRiwrun, run away
Amis laliwleave behind; desert, escape
Hanunóo lagíwrunning
Cebuano lagíwrun away, escape from a place
Maranao lagoy <Mrush, hurry
Tboli meloy (< *l-um-aRiw) <Mrun
Samal lahi-lahito run
Iban larirun away, make off, cause to run away, take away
  rari <Arun away, escape
Malay larigo at a run; escape; evasion
Old Javanese a-layūrun, run away, take flight, flee
Sasak rariʔ (with secondary final glottal stop) <Atake something and flee
Mongondow laguyflee, run away, escape
Makasarese larirun, run away, flee
Hawu rairun, run away, flee
Rotinese lairun away, flee
Kambera laito run (only in the expression njara lai 'a racing horse')
Leti larirun
Wetan larirun
Soboyo lahirun, run away, flee


PAN     *ma-laRiw run, run away, flee

Pazeh ma-raxiwflee, escape, run away
Kavalan m-RaRiwrun, run away
Hanunóo ma-lagíwrun, will run
Old Javanese ma-layūrun, run away, take flight, flee
Rotinese ma-lairun away, flee


PMP     *pa-laRiw run away, flee; flight, escape; fugitive

Aklanon pa-eagíwrun away and hide, avoid
Maranao pa-lagoyrun away, escape; flight; elope
Tiruray fe-rareyrun away, escape or flee
Malay pe-larifugitive
  pelari aŋinthe sport of the wind
  budak pelariboy who keeps playing truant
Old Javanese pa-layūrunning, running away, flight
Javanese p-layurunning pace
Sasak pe-lairun, flee
Mongondow po-laguyflight
Makasarese pa-larirunner, running, flight
Wolio pa-laiflee, run away
Chamorro fa-lagurun (imper.), move swiftly, hasten, go rapidly; elope, escape, flee
Hawu pe-rairun, flee, run away
  dou do peraifugitive
Kambera pa-lairun, run away, flee
Tetun ha-laiflee, run away
Wetan w(a)-lariflee
Leti wa-larirun
Numfor f-rārrun, run away, flee


PWMP     *pa-laRiw-an running, running away, flight

Malay pe-lari-anact of running fast
Old Javanese pa-layw-anrunning, running away, flight
Makasarese pa-lari-aŋrunning, running away

Note:   Also Itbayaten ma-yayuh ‘to run’, Itawis pa-ladyaw ‘run’, Bontok layaw ‘flee, run away, clear out’, and Tagalog lagyóʔ ‘spirit’ (the latter included under *laRiw ‘flee’ by Dempwolff (1934-38), but excluded here). As with the parallel discrepancy in PAn *balija or *baRija ‘weavers sword’ the Formosan languages indicate *R as the initial consonant of this item, while the MP languages indicate *l. I have posited several morphologically complex forms of *laRiw, although a distinctive meaning is not always apparent for these, as with *ma-laRiw. The form *pa-laRiw requires special comment, as its reflexes have survived in some languages when a reflex of *laRiw has not. In languages such as Tiruray, Wolio and Chamorro (WMP), Tetun (CMP), and Numfor (South Halmahera-West New Guinea), the morpheme boundary that is recognized is purely historical, and is marked by = to distinguish it from the similar synchronic morpheme boundary in forms such as Malay lari, pe-lari.

It is an interesting question why the morpheme boundary should have been lost more commonly in reflexes of *pa-laRiw than in reflexes of other morphologically complex forms of *laRiw. One might argue that affixes differed in how tightly they were bound to the stem. However, this should be generally true and not specific to particular lexical items. Moreover, just what tightness of binding might mean is obscure except in terms of text frequency. Perhaps *pa-laRiw occurred with particularly high text frequency because it not only signaled the abstract notion of flight or escape, but also the actor ("fugitive; one who has eloped"). In some descendants of PMP reflexes of *pa-laRiw may have occurred with higher text frequency than reflexes of *laRiw, thus favoring the survival of the bi-morphemic word even when the stem itself passed out of use.


*lasa tame, accustomed, used to


POC     *lasa tame, accustomed, used to

Tolai tame, domesticated, of animals; be accustomed, be acclimatized
Fijian lasaeasy, contented, tame, accustomed
Tongan latato feel at home or at ease, to be comfortable or happy and contented; to be friendly or at ease with
Rennellese gatato be tame, unafraid, as a pet or child
  haa-gatato tame
  he-gata-ʔakibe congenial, accustomed to one another
Futunan lataused to, familiar with
Samoan latabe tame; be used to, familiar with; close to, close by
  faʔa-latadraw near (in order to get something); tame
  lata-latabe near; to approach, come close to
Tuvaluan faka-latatame
Kapingamarangi gai dala <Mtame
Nukuoro dala <Mtame; not be timid or uneasy in another’s presence
Maori ratatame, quiet; familiar, friendly
Hawaiian lakatame, domesticated, gentle; attracted to, fond of; to tame, domesticate, attract
  hoʔo-lakato tame, domesticate; to treat with kindness, as a child or animal, so as to familiarize with one

Note:   This form may have been *lacam, but the available reflexes do not allow the reconstruction of a final consonant or disambiguate the medial obstruent.


*lasaŋ bare, bald


PWMP     *lasaŋ bare, bald

Tboli lasaŋmoulting fowls; dry, dead tree without leaves
Kayan (Uma Juman) lasaŋbare, of a field without grass; bald


*lasem sour


PWMP     *lasem sour     [doublet: *qasem]

Isneg lassámvinegar, sour
Casiguran Dumagat lasemsour
Maranao ma-lasemsour
Kelabit laamsour


*laseR scrotum and testicles


PMP     *laseR scrotum and testicles

Ida'an Begak lasogtesticles
Banggai lasopenis; young boy
Li'o ae lasetesticles
Erai lasarpenis
Selaru lasapenis
Asilulu lasescrotum
  lase hatutesticle (lit. ‘scrotum stone’)


POC     *lasoR testicles

Mussau lasotesticles
Mota laso-itesticles; a big boar pig
Central Maewo lasotesticles
Araki laso-testicles
Tonga na laho-ntesticles
Nakanamanga na-lasotesticles
Tongan lahoscrotum and testicles
Niue lahoscrotum
  teŋa lahotesticle (lit. ‘seed of scrotum’)
Futunan laso-fuaelephantiasis of the scrotum (lit. ‘fruit scrotum/testicles’)
Rennellese gasoscrotum
  kai gasoscrotum eater (a curse)
Anuta raotesticle
Samoan lasoscrotum
  laso mimihydrocele
Tuvaluan lahotesticle; scrotum
Rarotongan raʔotesticle; the scrotum and its contents
Maori rahotesticle; labia majora
Hawaiian lahoterm of abuse; male, as pipi laho ‘bull’, pua’a laho

Note:   Also Sasak (Jantuk) laso ‘penis’. It is unclear whether this term referred to the scrotum and the testicles or just to the scrotum, since the word for testicles in some languages is ‘seed’ or ‘fruit’ of the scrotum, where the latter is a reflex of *laseR.


*lantaŋ take one's time


PWMP     *lantaŋ take one's time

Hanunóo lántaŋduration of time
  lantaŋ-ánlong time
Iban lantaŋunhurried, take one's time

Note:   Also Sasak lantan ‘long, protracted’.


*la(n)taw to float


PWMP     *la(n)taw to float     [disjunct: *le(ŋ)taw]

Itbayaten xatawidea of floating or being afloat
  ka-xatawstate of being afloat
  maŋ-xatawto float something, to launch ship or boat, to have watercraft afloat
  xataw-ana float or buoy
  xataw-ento float (something), to cause to float, to launch ship or boat
Bikol latáwbuoyant
Bisaya (Bukit) lantaw-lantawbob on the surface of the water
Kayan lataua float (large or small)
Wolio lantofloat

Note:   Also Tiruray rantaw ‘float’.


*la(n)t(e)qas go directly, take a shortcut


PWMP     *la(n)t(e)qas go directly, take a shortcut

Aklanon eátʔastry to get to some place by a route not ordinarily taken
Cebuano latáscross or pass through
  latʔásgo straight across something; take a shortcut
Malay lantasproceeding forthwith to
Karo Batak lantascross a river


*lantiŋ tie together, of floating objects


PWMP     *lantiŋ tie together, of floating objects

Cebuano lántiŋfor boats with no anchor or floats to tie up to or together with another boat
Kayan (Uma Juman) ŋə-lantiŋto float
Iban lantiŋanything used for support in water
Malay lantiŋhouse built on a raft


*latiq swampy ground


PWMP     *latiq swampy ground

Tagalog látiʔswamp
Bintulu latiʔriverbank

Note:   Also Kiput ladeiʔ ‘swampy forest’. Blust (1973:48) assigned Tagalog latiʔ to *latiq ‘swidden farm’. Zorc (1985) unites these etyma as "PHes" *latiq ‘swidden; wetland’, but the meanings he combines would appear to be mutually incompatible.


*la(n)tuk curved, bowed


PAN     *la(n)tuk curved, bowed

Bunun latukbow-like musical instrument
Tiruray lontuk <Aconcavely curved

Note:   With root *-tuk₁ ‘bend, curve’.


*latuq edible seaweed sp.


PMP     *latuq edible seaweed sp.

Cebuano látuʔbranching, semitransparent seaweed, greenish in color and edible
Malay latohedible sea-worm or seaweed, sp. unident.
Rotinese latukind of edible seaweed
Yamdena latuseaweed sp.


*lauŋ howl


PMP     *lauŋ howl     [disjunct: *rauŋ]

Malay lauŋa call or summons in loud tone
Buruese launcry out
Buli lauto howl, of dogs


*lauR circular opening


PWMP     *lauR circular opening

Ilokano láogloop, eye, hole (of a noose, link, ring, etc.)
Malay laurcurve; numerical coefficient for ring-shaped objects


*lawa₁ wide


PAN     *lawa₁ wide     [doublet: *lawas₁]

Paiwan me-lawawide
Isneg láwalarge, broad, wide (used in songs)
Casiguran Dumagat lawawide, loose, big
Ilokano láwawide, spacious, extensive, broad, large, roomy, loose, ample
Palu'e lawalong
Fordata lawalength

Note:   Also Yamdena lawas ‘length’, Kei lawar ‘breadth’.


*lawa₂ spider


PWMP     *lawa₂ spider     [doublet: *lawaq₂]

Tagalog lawa-lawáspiderweb; species of spider
Hanunóo láwaa generic term for spiders, very few of which are given specific names
  lawa-láwasimple string figures, or cat’s cradles, made with strings of seed beads
Mamanwa lawaspider
Kenyah kə-lawaspider
Kayan te-lawaʔspiders of various species
Kayan (Uma Juman) tə-lawaʔspider
Malay lawa-lawaspider
Rejang laweaspider

Note:   Also Malay laba-laba, labah-labah ‘spider; generic for all spiders’


*lawan kind of long fishnet


PMP     *lawan kind of long fishnet     [disjunct: *lawaq₁]

Moken lawanfish with a net (large); throw a line, angle
Kambera lawaŋuspiderweb
Loniu lawkind of long, narrow fishnet
Arosi rawasmall net
  rawa-rawacatch fish or turtles with a net
Fijian lawathe Fijian fishing net

Note:   Proto-Ambon *lawar ‘fishing line’ is apparently distinct.


*lawaq₁ dip net, scoop net


PMP     *lawaq₁ dip net, scoop net     [disjunct: *lawan]

Kayan lawaʔhand net made from bark twine
Kayan (Uma Juman) lawaʔdip net
Chamorro laguaʔscoop net, hand net
Loniu lawkind of long, narrow fishnet
Lou lafishnet spread out by men working in two canoes
Likum lolong fishnet made of coconut leaves
Arosi rawasmall net
  rawa-rawacatch fish or turtles with a net
Fijian lawathe Fijian fishing net


*lawaq₂ spider; spiderweb


PAN     *lawaq₂ spider; spiderweb     [doublet: *lawa₂]

Siraya rawaspider
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) waraH <Mspiderweb


PMP     *lawaq₂ₐ spider; spiderweb

Itbayaten ax-xaawaspider
Ilokano lawwa-lawwáspider
Bikol láwaʔspider
Kalamian Tagbanwa lawakspider
Palawan Batak láwaʔspider
Hiligaynon láwaʔspiderweb
Aklanon eáwaʔspider
Masbatenyo láwaʔspider
Waray-Waray láwaʔspider
Romblomanon lāwaʔspider
Cebuano láwaʔspider
Mapun lawaʔspider
Maranao la-lawaʔspider
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kele-lawaʔspider
Mansaka lawaʔspider; spiderweb
Binukid la-lawaʔspider (generic)
Tausug lawaʔspider
Lun Dayeh (te)ke-lawaʔspider
Kayan (Uma Juman) tə-lawaʔspider
Ngaju Dayak lawasmall yellow spider that is eaten, and which tastes like a sea crab; spiderweb
Ma'anyan lawaʔspider
Kapuas ganda-lawaʔspider
Nias lawaspider
  mo-lawato overcome
Sundanese lancahspider
  ŋa-lancahdo as a spider does (not work, wait around expecting that the means of subsistence will arrive on their own)
  imah lancahspiderweb (lit. ‘house of the spider’)
Tajio paŋga-lafaspider
Tae' laaspider
Mongondow tonto-ḷawaʔspider
Dobel llakʷa (< *la-lawaq)spider
Alune kʷala <Mspider
Buli kopo-lawspider
Nali ŋo-yawspiderweb
Loniu wɨ-lawspider
  umʷe-n wɨ-lawspiderweb
Bipi wi-lawspiderweb, net
Titan ñakapʷe-lawspider
Likum kaano-lewspider
Leipon we-lawspiderweb
Ahus we-lawspiderweb
Kuruti oh-lowspider
  omʷe-n oh-lowspiderweb
Lele drak-lowlarge spider
  ŋo-yawspall spider
Kele ka-lew-lewspider
Penchal tantan-lawspider
Nauna canda-lawspider
Wogeo lawaspider
Wedau nawacobweb
Talise laospider
Lau lakʷaspecies of large yellow spider and large web
Toqabaqita lakʷaspecies of spider, very large
Sa'a lawaspider’s web, spider
'Āre'āre rawaa spider; cobweb
Arosi rawaa small net; a cobweb (used in fishing with a kite); a spider
Bauro rawaspider
Lelepa laospiderweb
Pwele ka-laospiderweb


PMP     *ka-lawaq spider

Lun Dayeh kə-lawaʔ ~ kəkə-lawaʔspider
Berawan (Long Terawan) kə-lawaʔspider
Tiruray ke-lawaʔ-lawaʔany kind of spider that makes a web
Manggarai ke-lawakind of spider that nests underground

Note:   Possibly a reduction of earlier kələ-lawaʔ (cp. Kelabit kələ-lawaʔ ~ kə-lawaʔ ‘spider’.


PWMP     *kala-lawaʔ spider

Aborlan Tagbanwa kala-láwaʔspider
Kelabit kələ-lawaʔspider

Note:   Probably with a variant of the *qalikali- prefix found on the names of many ‘creepy-crawly’ creatures that evidently were protected by a taboo against random killing (Blust 2001).


PMP     *lawaq-lawaq spiderweb

Ibanag a-lawa-lawaspider
Aklanon eawáʔ-eawáʔcobweb, spiderweb
Masbatenyo lawaʔ-láwaʔcobweb, spiderweb
Cebuano láwaʔ-láwaʔspiderweb
Yakan lawaʔ-lawaʔspiderweb, cobweb
Simalur awal-awalspider
Karo Batak lawah-lawahspider, spiderweb
Wolio lawa-lawakind of small spider
Proto-South Sulawesi *lawa-lawaspider
Mandar lawa-lawaspider (Mills 1975)
Nias lawa-lawaspider
Asilulu lawa-lawaspider
  lawa-lawa taispiderweb (lit. ‘spider feces’)
Hotti/Hoti lawa-lawaspider
Fijian (tā)-lawa-lawacobweb


PWMP     *la-lawaq spiderweb

Sangir lə-lawaspiderweb
Ngaju Dayak la-lawaspider

Note:   Also Bontok kawá, Ibaloy ka-kawa ‘spider’, Simalur lawal-lawal ‘spider’, Lau lagwa ‘spider; spider web’, Mota marawa ‘spider’. In many languages this base is embedded in a larger word. In a few cases, as with Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kele-lawaʔ the first two syllables may reflect the *qalikali- prefix, but in many others the preceding phonemic material has no known meaning or function.

It is possible that *lawaq₁ ‘dip net, scoop net’ and *lawaq₂ ‘spider, spiderweb’ are the same form, in which the meaning ‘spiderweb’ has been extended to include other similar-sized weblike structures, such as the hand nets or dip nets used to catch small aquatic prey.


*lawas₁ wide, broad


PAN     *lawas₁ wide, broad     [doublet: *lawa₁]

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) rawaswide, broad
Yamdena lawaslength

Note:   Also Singhi Land Dayak tawas ‘wide (spacious)’, Malay luas ‘spacious, broad’.


*lawas₂ body


PWMP     *lawas₂ body

Bilaan (Koronadal) lawɨhbody
Mansaka lawasbody
Maranao lawasbody
Kejaman lagwabody
Melanau (Mukah) lawaihnumeral classifier for people

Note:   Zorc (1971) posits PPh *lawas ‘body’.


*lawaʔ to drop by, pay a visit


PWMP     *lawaʔ to drop by, pay a visit

Tboli lawaa friendly visit
Iban lawaʔcome, go to (to visit) (Scott 1956)


*lawi₁ long tail feathers of bird or rooster


PMP     *lawi₁ long tail feathers of bird or rooster

Ilokano lawíplume, showy feathers in a cock’s tail
Isneg lawíthe sickles or sickle feathers of a fowl
Bontok lawísickle feathers of a rooster’s tail, used as a hat decoration and also as packing on the plungers of bellows
Tagalog lawítail feather of roosters
Bikol lawíthe long tail feather of a fowl; quill, plume
Hanunóo lawítail feather(s); specifically, those of the wild jungle fowl; frequently bound together and used as plume decorations stuck in men’s arm bands
Cebuano láwisickle feather, one of the long curved feathers in the tail of domestic cocks
  lawí-an ~ lawí-hanname given to fish of various families that have filamentous projections, usually from the fins
Maranao lawitail
  lawi a alawground orchid: Habenaria sp.
  lawi a manokplants: Digitaria Argyrostachya A. Camus, Sporobolus diandrus Retz./Beauv.
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lawithe long tail feather of a rooster
Binukid lawisickle feathers, one of the long curved feathers in the tail of a rooster
Mansaka lawitail feathers of a rooster (used to decorate hats)
Malay lawicurving feather or fin
  lawi ayamtail feather of fowl
  ikan lawi ayamsmall anchovy
  lawi parifin under a ray’s tail
Gayō lawitail feathers of a rooster
Bare'e laithe long tail feathers of birds, especially of fowls
Manggarai lawilong tail feathers of a rooster; various plants, including Justicia procumbens, Asystasia intrusa, Dicliptera sp., Peristrophe sp., Lepidagathis sp.
Rembong lawe ~ lawithe two long feathers in the tail of a rooster
Tetun manu lai-nthe long tail feathers of a rooster
Hawu (ru)laitail
Vitu la-lawitail feather
Fijian lawe-nathe larger feathers of a bird (the smaller feathers are vuti-na)
Tongan lavefeeler, antenna, as of a lobster; long tail feather, as of a rooster or a tavake (tropic bird)
  faka-la-lavetry to find out in an indirect way; to ‘put out feelers’


PWMP     *lawi-lawi something that resembles a tail feather (?)

Ilokano lawi-lawiplume, showy feathers in a cock’s tail
Isneg law-lawí, lawí anúʔa common herb whose green leaves resemble the sickle feathers of a cock
Cebuano lawi-láwisomething like a tail feather
  lawi-láwi sa kúgunthe flower of the cogon grass
Bahasa Indonesia (lawi)-lawilong curved tail feather of rooster or bird
Toba Batak lai-laithe long tail feathers of birds
  eme na paŋa-lai-lai-onriceplant that stands tall and beautiful like the tail feathers of a cock, but is empty of grain
Mentawai lei-leitail feathers of a fowl

Note:   Also Itbayaten rawi ‘tail feather’.


*lawi₂ top of a tree, tip, extremity


PWMP     *lawi₂ top of a tree, tip, extremity

Ngaju Dayak lawitip, end, top (of a tree, etc.)
Angkola-Mandailing Batak lai-laitip, extremity
Nias laipeak, crown, as of a tree

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) assigned Ngaju Dayak lawi to *lawi ‘long tail feathers of a rooster’. However, the evidence to hand suggests that *lawi₁ and *lawi₂ are distinct comparisons, and until cognates are available that allow the semantic gap between them to be bridged more convincingly the similarity between them will be treated as a case of homophony rather than polysemy.


*lawit hook


PMP     *lawit hook     [doublet: *kawit]

Tagalog lawitsickle, hook
Chamorro laguetcatch with a hook
Buruese lawitsingle-barbed harpoon; barbed spear


*layak purpose, intention


PWMP     *layak purpose, intention

Maranao layakpurpose, intention, desire
Karo Batak layakstate, condition; nature of one's mind or heart


*layap to fly


PAN     *layap to fly

Saisiyat L<om>ayapto fly
Paiwan layapto fly
Manobo (Ilianen) layapto fly
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) layapbe blown by the wind

Note:   Also Itbayaten s-um-ayap ‘to fly, soar’, Ifugaw táyap ‘flight of birds, bats, insects that can fly’, Ilokano tayáb ‘to fly’.


*layaR sail


PAN     *layaR sail

Kavalan RayaRsail of a raft or boat; cloth around a threshing machine
Paiwan la-layaa flag, banner
  pu-la-layato raise a flag, fly a banner
Casiguran Dumagat layágsail; sailboat; to sail, to travel by sailboat
Tagalog láyagsail of a boat
Bikol láyagsail
  para-láyagone who sails, a fisherman
Hiligaynon láyagsail (for a boat)
Aklanon eayágsail [of boat]
Masbatenyo láyagsail
Waray-Waray láyagsail
Cebuano láyagsail of a boat; put up the sail
Maranao layagsail
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) layagthe sail of a water craft; to sail in a sailing craft
Mansaka layagto sail, to set sail
Mapun a sail (on a boat)
Tausug layaga sail (the square sail used on small boats)
Ida'an Begak layaga sail
  gə-layagto sail
Kadazan hazagsail
Tombonuwo layagsail
  l<um>ayagto sail
Bintulu lazəhsail
Melanau (Mukah) layahsail
Malagasy laya tent; a sail
Iban layarsail
Malay layarsail
Acehnese layeuësail
  meu-layeuëgo on a trip, to sail, be under sail, at sea
Simalur laealsail
  ma-laealto sail, set out on a voyage
Toba Batak rearsail
Nias loyosail
  mo-loyoto sail, travel over the sea
Rejang layeasail
  be-layeato sail
Sundanese layarsail; to sail, make a voyage
  pa-layar-ansea voyage
Balinese layahsail of a boat; to sail in a boat
Sasak layarsail
  be-layarto sail
Mongondow leagsail
  l<um>eagto sail
Totoli leagsail
  mogu-leagto sail
Lauje layagsail
  mo-layagto sail
Palauan yarssail
Chamorro layakmast; sails
Komodo lajahsail; to sail
Manggarai lajarsail; to sail
Rembong lazarsail (of a boat)
Kambera lírusail; banner
Rotinese lathe sail of a boat
Tetun laa-nsails (of boat)
  ro laa-nsail a boat
Lamaholot lajasail
Leti larasail
Wetan larasail; to sail
Dobel ʔa-larto sail
Waropen rararosail
Yapese laaysail
Wedau nalasail
Motu laraa large mat sail of lagatoi, a ship’s sail
Dobuan naiasail
Proto-Micronesian *leasail
Vowa n-laisail
Nakanamanga na-laesail
Rotuman läesail; canvas
Wayan lacasail of a boat
  vaka-lacahave a sail, with sails
Fijian lacaa sail
Tongan sail; canvas
Niue sail
Samoan sail
Tuvaluan laasail
Futunan sail; sheet
Rennellese gaasail
Kapingamarangi laasail
Nukuoro laasail
Anuta raasail
Rarotongan the name of the ancient mat-sail that was used on ocean-going canoes
Maori sail
Hawaiian sail; dorsal fin


PWMP     *maR-layaR to sail, set sail

Tagalog mag-láyagto sail, set sail
Masbatenyo mag-láyagto sail, set sail
Tausug mag-layagto sail (to a place)
Malagasy mi-layto go upon the sea, as a ship or canoe carried by sails
Malay ber-layarto sail
Toba Batak mar-rearto sail


PCEMP     *pa-layaR to sail

Buli fa-laisail; to sail, go on a trip
Penchal pa-leysail
Loniu pe-leysail
Sori ba-reysail
Lindrou ba-leysail
Bipi pa-leysail
Mussau pa-lesail

Note:   Also Ilokano láyag ‘sail (of a ship)’, ag-láyag ‘to sail’, Agta (Dupaningan) layag ‘sail of a boat’ (from Ilokano), Kapampangan láyag ‘sail’, mag-láyag ‘to sail’ (probably from Tagalog), Hanunóo láyag ‘sail (not currently used by the Hanunóo)’, mag-láyag ‘to sail’ (probably from Tagalog), Tiruray layag ‘a sail; to sail’ (< Maranao or another Danaw language), Karo Batak layar ‘sail’, er-layar ‘to sail’ (probably from Malay), Chamorro laʔyak ‘mast, sails’.


*layu wither, wilt


PAN     *layu wither, wilt

Saisiyat Lay-Layowither
Itbayaten xayoidea of withering
Mapun layuwilted or withered (as plants, leaves, etc.)
  ŋa-layubecome wilted or withered
Kelabit layuhwither
  ŋe-layuto make something wither, as by putting it close to the fire
  l<em>ayuhto wither (as a plant withering of its own accord)
Kayan l<em>ayoʔdevastated; ravaged; completely destroyed
Ngaju Dayak layuwithering; what is withered or wilted
  la-layuwilted a bit
  mampa-layuto wither plants (by a fire)
Malagasy layofading, withering (leaves, grass, wood)
  vua-lazofaded, withered
Iban layuʔwither, scorched, dry (as leaves because of a long drought)
Malay layusere; yellowing; to fade and die; a polite expression for growing pale and ill, and even for death
  padi layu-layu-anrice losing its bright green color
Gayō layuwilted; pale, as a person’s face
Sundanese layuto pine away; wilt, wilted
  le-layu sekarhalf worn-out (poetic: ‘wilted flower’)
  layu-andead body, corpse
Old Javanese a-layulanguishing, withering
  layw-anfallen (picked) and fading flower
Javanese layuto wither, fade
  ke-layuto feel one has been deserted
Balinese layufade, wither
Sasak layuwilted; worn out (of clothing)
Tae' layuwilted, withered; to wither something (as by placing it near a fire); a corpse of trifling importance, for which the minimal death ritual is performed; used euphemistically of a corpse that has been interred without first performing the death ritual
  taŋ ka-layu-anof an entire family, not affected by the death of someone in his youth (used in the supplication for long life)
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *layuwither
Muna leuwither (as vegetables that are not cooked soon after picking)


PMP     *ma-layu wilted, withered

Itbayaten ma-xayoto be dried, to dry, to wither, to wilt
Mapun ma-layuwilted, withered
Tae' ma-layuwilted, withered
Chamorro ma-layuwilted, dry (leaves), showing lack of fluid
Mamboru ma-layuwilted, withered


PWMP     *pa-layu make something wither, let something wither or wilt

Mapun pa-layuallow something to wilt or wither
Ngaju Dayak pa-la-layumake something wither a little

Note:   Also Bontok leyáw ‘to be withered, of plants’, Cebuano layʔú ‘for plants to wither from being in the heat after being uprooted or damaged by wind’, Bintulu lazuʔ ‘wither’, Ngaju Dayak ma-layoh ‘wither, withered (of trees)’, Iban layus ‘wither, scorched, dry’, Kambera laï ‘withered, wilted’, Arosi marasi ‘withered’ (*ma-layu would regularly yield Arosi **marasu).

The basic meaning of this term seems clearly to have been ‘to wilt, wither’ with respect to the natural process of gradual desiccation that takes place in plant material that has been plucked, or with leaves on deciduous trees in the season of death, or falling leaves. The parallel between this process and that of a declining life force and eventual death in humans was seen and elaborated in several parts of western Indonesia, as seen in the glosses of the Malay, Sundanese, Javanese, and especially Tae' (southern Toraja) forms. Only a portion of the layu-expressions relating to death in Tae' have been cited here, and it is quite clear that this group, which is known for its elaborate mortuary rites, maintained a rich association of the idea of withering or wilting in the plant world with that of death in the human world, perhaps initially through euphemism.

TOP      le    li    lo    lu    



*lemba to carry on a shoulder pole


PCMP     *lemba to carry on a shoulder pole

Tetun lebato carry or transport any object from the ends of a pole with the center supported by the shoulder
Buruese leba-hto carry on a carrying pole

Note:   Also Tetun lebo ‘to carry or transport any object from the ends of a pole with the center’.


*lebak pound, thud


PWMP     *lebak pound, thud     [doublet: *depak 'clip-clop, as of horse's hooves']

Cebuano lubákto pound, beat heavily with something (as in pummeling someone’s face with the fists)
Malay ləbakwhack, smack

Note:   With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’.


*le(m)baŋ valley, watercourse between hills


PWMP     *le(m)baŋ valley, watercourse between hills     [disjunct: *le(m)beŋ]

Iban lembaŋvalley, stream between two hills
Dairi-Pakpak Batak lembaŋvalley, watercourse between two hills or mountains

Note:   Also Ilokano lúboŋ ‘valley’.


*le(m)baq valley, watercourse between hills


PWMP     *le(m)baq valley, watercourse between hills     [doublet: *le(m)bak]

Malay lembahmeadow-land; low-lying land
Old Javanese lembahlow-lying ground, valley
Javanese lembahlow-lying ground (Pigeaud 1938); valley (Horne 1974)
Balinese lebahdecline (ground), slope downwards; valley, hollow
Sasak lebahvalley
Palauan ióbeʔravine, valley

Note:   Nothofer (1975:135) posits "Proto-Malayo-Javanic" *ləbah ‘meadow-land, low-lying land’.


*lebék to pound (rice, etc.) in a mortar


PPh     *lebék to pound (rice, etc.) in a mortar

Ilokano lebbéksmash, pound in the mortar (with a pestle). Cooked rice, bananas, dodomén or roasted immature rice, etc.
Palawan Batak lɨbɨkpound rice
Kalamian Tagbanwa lɨbɨkpound rice; wreck, demolish
Mansaka lɨbɨkpound rice

Note:   With root *-bek ‘sound of breaking, etc.’.


*lebeŋ to bury


PAN     *lebeŋ to bury

Saisiyat L<om>əbəŋto bury
Casiguran Dumagat ləbəŋgrave; to bury a dead person or animal
  pəg-ləbŋ-anburial place
Tagalog libíŋburial; act of burying; interment
  mag-libíŋbury, lay to rest
  libíŋ-angrave, tomb
Bikol mag-lubóŋbury a corpse; inter, entomb
  maki-lubóŋto attend a funeral
  lubuŋ-áncemetery, graveyard
  l<in>ubŋ-ángrave, tomb
Hanunóo lúbuŋgrave; ground burial as opposed to cave burial
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) leveŋgrave; to bury
Maranao lebeŋbury; burial; grave
Malagasy mi-levinaburied; to stay for a long time
  tafa-levinaburied unintentionally
  voa-levinaburied, interred
  leven-anaa funeral
  fan-deven-anafuneral, funeral ceremonies (used more frequently than leven-ana)
Karo Batak lebeŋhole made with a dibble stick for sowing seed
Toba Batak loboŋthe hole one makes in the earth in order to sow maize or rice
Mongondow i-loboŋ-angrave, tomb
  loboŋ-onit must be buried, bury it!
Totoli mo-loboŋto bury
Paulohi lohonehole in the ground


POC     *lopoŋ to bury

Gedaged lofa pit, hole, grave, mine
Vitu lovograve

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) also included Fijian lovo ‘native pit oven’, but it is not at all clear that this form belongs with the other cited here.


*le(m)beŋ valley


PWMP     *le(m)beŋ valley     [disjunct: *le(m)bak, *le(m)baŋ, *le(m)baq]

Iban lembaŋvalley, stream between two hills
Mongondow loboŋvalley, low-lying area


*lebet set close together, dense, luxuriant


PMP     *lebet set close together, dense, luxuriant

Ilokano labbétflock together, gather in crowds
Iban lebatdense (foliage), abundant (fruit), heavy (rain)
Malay lebatset closely together, dense; heavy (of rain)
Sundanese lɨbɨt(of a fruit tree) bear much fruit; be richly laden
Manggarai lebetdense, luxuriant (of vegetation)


*lebiq excess, surplus


PWMP     *lebiq excess, surplus     [doublet: *labiq]

Bintulu ləɓiʔextra, excess
Iban lebihmore, extra, overmuch, superior
  nadai be-lebihthere’s nothing over
Rhade əbehexcessive, extra
Malay ləbehmore; in excess
  bər-ləbeh-kuraŋto wax and wane (of the moon)
  mə-ləbeh-ito surpass
Acehnese lɨbehmore, in a high degree; remainder
Gayō lebihmore, in excess
Karo Batak lebihmore, in excess, surplus
  ŋe-lebih-igive more than the (standard) measure
Toba Batak lobimore, too much, leftover, remainder; abundance
  lobi-lobiexcess, what is left over
Old Javanese ləwihsuperior, higher, better, more; surpassing, exceeding(ly), prominent, eminent; more so, especially; superiority, etc.
Javanese luwihmore than; exceeding normal bounds; especially; all the more so
  k(e)-luwih-entoo many, too much
Sundanese ləbihexcessive, be left over
Balinese lebihplus
  ŋe-lebih-into exceed, be more
  lebih-anmore, being more
Sasak ləbihmore
  ləbih-aŋto increase
Tae' laʔbimore
  ka-laʔbi-ansuperiority, exceed, be greater than
  laʔbi-nnaexcess, remainder
Buginese ləbbimore
Makasarese laʔbimore (than); remainder

Note:   The historical relationship between *labiq and *lebiq ‘excess, surplus’ is somewhat unclear. While the former can clearly be assigned to PAn, the latter is restricted to Borneo, mainland Southeast Asia, Sumatra, Java-Bali, and southern Sumatra


*le(b)leb forfeit (a pledge, etc.)


PWMP     *le(b)leb forfeit (a pledge, etc.)

Maranao leleblose property pawned due to failure to pay; foreclosure
Malay lelapforfeit (a pledge)
Old Javanese lelebexpired, lapsed, forfeited
Balinese leblebbe forfeited (a pledge)


*lebug mud, muddy water


PWMP     *lebug mud, muddy water

Maranao lebogmuddy water
Old Javanese lebugmud

Note:   Maranao lebog may reflect *lebuR ‘dirty (of water), murky’.


*lecik fly off, of solid bits or water droplets


PAN     *lecik fly off, of solid bits or water droplets

Amis lciksmall broken pieces that have flown and landed someplace
Buginese lessikspattered

Note:   With root *-cik ‘fly out, splash, spatter’.


*lecit squeeze out, squirt out


PMP     *lecit squeeze out, squirt out     [disjunct: *lesit]

Tiruray lesitslip or force something out a hole in its container
Malay lecitbe squeezed into squirting out, as a pip out of certain fruits, or of matter from a boil


*lecut squeeze out, slip out


PWMP     *lecut squeeze out, slip out

Iban lecut(of knots, ropes, etc.) slip, become loose, come off
Malay lecutsqueeze out the contents of anything
Tae' lessuʔloose, free
Mandar lassuʔfree (from a cage, fetters)
Makasarese lassuʔbe born

Note:   With root *-cut ‘slip out or off’.


*le(ŋ)gur thunder


PMP     *le(ŋ)gur thunder

Karo Batak leŋgurthunder
Rembong legurthunder

Note:   With root *-gur ‘purr, rumble’.


*lekab open, uncover


PWMP     *lekab open, uncover

Maranao lekabtake off, as petiole of banana leaf, separate
Sangir lekabeʔpull off, take off (as a piece of paper that has been glued on to something)
Bare'e lokaopen, undo fastenings, uncover
Wolio loŋkaget loose, come off, become detached, peel off

Note:   With root *-kab ‘open, uncover’.


*le(ŋ)kaŋ separate, disunite


PMP     *le(ŋ)kaŋ separate, disunite

Ilokano lekkáŋseparate, disunite, sever, sunder
Kayan lekaŋa gap
Iban lekaŋ lekaŋwide open
Malay lekaŋbursting or cracking, as under the influence of heat; easily shelled, of fruit of which the outer shell does not adhere to the flesh
Mongondow loŋkaŋloosening of the outer skin
Manggarai lekaŋuntie, open, separate (as two people who are fighting)


*le(ŋ)kaq to split open


PMP     *le(ŋ)kaq to split open

Maranao lekaʔto open
Muna leŋkato open
Malay lekahsplitting, to crack
Tae' lakkasplit, burst
Manggarai lehaseparate
Sika lekasplit small pieces of wood
Bimanese lekaforce open
Ngadha lekaopen, unfold, untie
'Āre'āre rokaopen, unfolded

Note:   With root *-kaq₁ open forcibly.


*lekas₁ open, undress, remove, release


PMP     *lekas₁ open, undress, remove, release

Bontok ləkásto remove some of one’s clothes; to partially undress
Maranao lekasundress
Tiruray lekaschange clothes, undress
Tboli lekasto use something (as a lever) to open something up; to give something in order to obtain what one wants; to get a separation from one’s spouse
Kayan lekahto release, let hold of; to spring, of a trap; opened up by steaming (as a boat hull)
Manggarai lekasopen something that is rolled up
Ngadha lekaopen up, unfold, loosen, untie; undress

Note:   Also Bontok lókas ‘to remove some of one’s clothes; to partially undress’, Tiruray lekas ‘to change clothes, to undress’, lekas-an ‘spare clothes ready to wear’ (< Maranao or Magindanao). With root *-kas₂ loosen, undo, untie.


*lekas₂ quick, quickly


PWMP     *lekas₂ quick, quickly

Subanon mo-lokasfast (as in running)
Tboli lekakasquickly
Yakan lakkes <Mfast, quickly; to be fast or do something quickly
  pa-lakkesto speed up something
Iban lekasquickly, speedily
Malay ləkasquickly; speedily

Note:   Tboli lekakas is assumed to show rightward foot reduplication. Dempwolff (1938) included Fijian loka ‘heavy breakers over a reef’ under his *lekas ‘apply strength, energy’, but this now seems unwarranted. With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile; energetic’.


*lekeb cover, shut in


PWMP     *lekeb cover, shut in     [disjunct: *lekep]

Kankanaey lekébto patch; to piece; to botch; to clout
Ifugaw lokóbpatch used to cover a hole, a breach of clothes
Ibaloy dekebdoor of a house; also similar structures (as window shutters)
  i-dekebto close the door
  man-de<l>kebto shut oneself in behind a closed door (as for secret conversation)
Hanunóo lukúbskin, bark, cover, outer layer
Cebuano lukúbenclose something in an area, or by putting something over it; shutter, cover
Maranao lekeblid, cover
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lekebdoor, shutter
Melanau (Mukah) lekeblid, cover
  lekeb mataeyelid
Simalur loŋkobcover; door
Sichule löŋkobshut, cover

Note:   Also Ifugaw lokúb ‘patch used to cover a hole, a breach of clothes’. Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *lekeb ‘close (shutter, door)’. With root *-keb₁ ‘cover’.


*leken coil


PMP     *leken coil     [disjunct: *reken]

Cebuano lúkuncoil up, coil something up, usually in several coils
Buruese leke-to coil
  leke-na coil


*lekep₁ cover, shut in


PWMP     *lekep₁ cover, shut in     [disjunct: *le(ŋ)keb]

Casiguran Dumagat lekepfor a hen to cover its baby chicks with her wings
Malay lekapto cuddle up or lie flat against. Of a child, a stamp adhering to a letter, etc.


*lekep₂ complete, replete


PWMP     *lekep₂ complete, replete

Malay leŋkapcomplete; having all its parts or requisites
  me-leŋkap-ito fit out
Tontemboan ləkəpcomplete, full, bring to completion
  po-ləkəpthat with which one completes something, as goods to settle a debt for which only a half cash payment was made
  l<um>əkəpto bring to completion, make complete
Mongondow mo-lokopcomplete, full; to fulfill; to become complete


*lekes roll, curl up


PMP     *lekes roll, curl up

Balinese lekesroll something up; a rolled up object
Manggarai lekescurling this way and that, twisted around (as the body of an eel)

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.


*leket sticky, adhesive; stuck in one’s memory


PWMP     *leket sticky, adhesive; stuck in one’s memory

Bintulu ləkətadhesive, sticky
  mə-ləkətto stick, adhere
Ngaju Dayak leketstuck, firmly fixed; adhere firmly to; retain in one’s memory
Iban lekatsticky; stick, adhere to; stuck, caught, fixed
Malay lekatadhering; sticking
  lekat-kanto paste (a bill on a wall); to stick (a stamp on a letter)
Toba Batak lohotstuck, firmly fixed; adhere firmly to
Javanese leketto adhere to (as objects glued together); to stick together, of people
Balinese leketadhere to, be sticky
  leket manahwhat is stuck in the mind; an unforgettable thing, something printed on the memory

Note:   Also Sasak ləket ‘adhere firmly’, Tontemboan leŋket ‘to stick, adhere to’. With root *-keC ‘adhesive, sticky’.


*leŋkiq scream


PMP     *leŋkiq scream

Kelabit lekiʔhigh-pitched (of voices, as a girl's voice)
Manggarai leŋkiscreech, scream

Note:   With probable root *-kiq ‘high-pitched throaty sound’. Cf. *tekiq.


*leŋkuk bend, curve


PWMP     *leŋkuk bend, curve     [disjunct: *laŋkuk]

Ilokano laŋkóklower part of the thumb, including the adductor pollicis and the first phalanx
Malay leŋkoka bend, curve or twist


*lekuʔ bend, fold, folding part of the body; curl up on the ground, of an animal


PMP     *lekuʔ bend, fold, folding part of the body; curl up on the ground, of an animal     [doublet: *deku]

Isneg lakkócurl up and sleep, said of dogs
Ilokano lakkóham, popliteal space; part of the arm opposite the elbow
Cebuano lúkuʔbe curled up (as the body); loaf in bed; fall down in a curled up position
  lúkuʔ lúkuʔinside of the knee joints
Maranao lekolie down
  leko-aʔanimal lair; mudhole for carabao
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lekuof an animal, to lie down
Iban lekuʔcoil, convolution
  pe-lekuʔbend; curl up (as a dog)
Lawangan lokuʔlie down
Malay lekurest the elbows on any surface
  telekurest the elbows on any surface
Li'o lekufold
Proto-Ambon *lekufold, bend
Nggela logubend, fold double, as bamboo tongs
  lokufold, make a roll of, reef a sail


*lem in, inside


PMP     *lem in, inside     [doublet: *dalem]

Kelabit ləmat, in
  ləm uaŋinside


POC     *lom in, on, at

Tigak loin, into, to, on
Mota lowhat is inward, and thence place; in, at; as in compound preposition alo (‘in, on’), ilo (‘into’), talo (‘of or belonging to’); in names of places, as Lo Sepere
Araki loin, on, at; locative preposition referring to space


*lemek₁ soft


PAN     *lemek₁ soft

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) a-lmeksoft, flexible, as of rice-cake, calf of the leg
Pangasinan lemékbecome soft
Maranao lemeksoft
Melanau (Mukah) lemeksoft

Note:   Mills (1975:757) posits PAn *lemaq ‘weak, soft’.


*lemek₂ fertile, of soil


PMP     *lemek₂ fertile, of soil

Iban lemakanimal fat, lard, suet, grease; (of food, land) fat, rich
Balinese lemekfertile, good (soil)
Manggarai lemekfertile (of soil)

Note:   Possibly the same morpheme as Dempwolff's (1934-38) *lemek ‘fat, oily, greasy’; cp. Bikol tabá ‘greasy (food); rich (soil), fertile’ which, like Iban lemak, includes both meanings.


*lemeŋ wet, of soil


PMP     *lemeŋ wet, of soil

Cebuano lúmuŋfor water to collect and form a pool
Manggarai lemeŋoozing, wet (of soil)


*lemeq soft, weak, flexible


PWMP     *lemeq soft, weak, flexible

Agutaynen lemektender, soft, as of meat, beans that are boiled; soft, as of a mattress, rotten fish, etc.; loose, as of a cough
Mapun lammaʔsoftness; easy-going, flexible, receptive, patient; easy to overcome; weak (as one’s opponent)
  pa-lammaʔto soften something; to become soft or tender; to tenderize something
Tboli lemeksoft spot on the head of a newborn, a portion above the forehead where the bone formation is not yet completed; to soften by cooking
Kayan (Uma Juman) ləmaweak, soft
Malagasy lemisoftness, meekness, gentleness
  ma-lemisoft, mollient, meek, gentle, paralytic
  man-demito soften
Iban lemahsoft, weak, feeble, languid
  ŋe-lemah diriʔto tire oneself out (as by physical exercise)
Malay ləmahsoft; weak; lacking in rigidity, strength or stiffness; slack (of the tide)
Balinese lemehslack, lazy at work, taking it easy, idle
Sasak ləmaʔvery flexible in the elbow joint so that one can bend his elbow backward
  ləmahplump, chubby; friendly (in talking to people)
Tae' lammaʔsoft, weak
  sika-lammaʔgentle, mild, be friendly to one another
Buginese ləmmaʔweak, soft
Makasarese lammaweak, soft, slack (also of leadership); flexible, supple; inner part of bread


PWMP     *ma-lemek soft, tender

Agutaynen lemektender, soft, as of meat, beans that are boiled; soft, as of a mattress, rotten fish, etc.
Mandar ma-lemmeʔsoft (as banana, jackfruit, etc.) that is already ripe

Note:   Also Subanun (Siocon) mo-lama ‘weak’, Tiruray lemak ‘soft’, Samal lamma ‘weak’, Yakan lamma ‘weak; to feel weak’, Tausug lamma ‘weakness, illness, sickness; boredom’, Kayan ləmeʔ ‘weak, feeble (of people or animals)’, Kenyah ləma ‘tired, soft, ləma tulaŋ ‘tired (‘soft bones’)’, Bintulu laməh ‘weak, exhausted’, Ngaju Dayak lamah ‘soft, gentle, mild’, ka-lamah ‘softness, gentleness’, Proto-Minahasan *ləmeʔ ‘soft, gentle, tender’, Tontemboan ləmeʔ ‘soft (as skin)’. This reconstruction appears to be valid, but the related form in many languages evidently is Malay loan.


*lemer soaking wet


PMP     *lemer soaking wet

Karo Batak lemersoak, wet through from the rain
Manggarai lemerooze a little


*lem(e)tub blister


PWMP     *lem(e)tub blister

Tboli lemtubblister
Malay letupblister on the skin


*lemi soft, weak


PWMP     *lemi soft, weak     [disjunct: *lemuy]

Ilokano lámisoft, flabby, flaccid, frail, weak
Iban lemisoft, weak


*lemiq dent, dimple


PWMP     *lemiq dent, dimple

Maranao lemiʔpress, dent
Bare'e lomidimple in cheek or chin (considered a mark of beauty in girls)

Note:   Also Maranao kemiʔ ‘dent’, Malay kemék ‘dent, e.g. in a metal surface’.


*lemlem dark, of weather; overcast


PAN     *lemlem dark, of weather; overcast

Saisiyat (Taai) LəmLəmcloud
Saisiyat (Tungho) əməmfog, mist
Thao ma-rumrumdim (because of insufficient light)
Bunun humhumtwilight
Bontok ləmlə́mtyphoon; period of wet weather lasting for several days
Kankanaey men-lemlémrain continuously, drizzle the whole day
Ifugaw lomlómdrizzling rain
Tagalog limlímimpending darkness
Toba Batak lomlomdark, black

Note:   Also Thao humhum ‘twilight’ (< Bunun). With root *-lem₁ ‘dark’.


*leñab sound, of sleep


PWMP     *leñab sound, of sleep

Malay leñapsound (of sleep)
Sangir lennabeʔsound asleep


*leñeb disappear under water


PWMP     *leñeb disappear under water     [doublet: *leñed, *leñeD]    [disjunct: *leñep]

Palauan iélebflood (of major proportions)
  me-lélebcover, submerge; flood over; cover (person) with blanket, etc.
Malay leñapgone, vanished

Note:   Also Ilokano nebnéb ‘sink, founder (of ships)’, Cebuano lánap ‘overflow or flood an area’, Tiruray leneʔ ‘drown’.


*leñej sink, disappear under water


PWMP     *leñej sink, disappear under water

Ilokano lennédsink, be flooded, engulfed
Pangasinan lenérdrown
Hanunóo lúnudcovering up; drowning
Aklanon eúnudsink, go under water
Cebuano lúnudsink something
Maranao ga-lenedsink
Melanau (Mukah) leñedsink
Kayan leñendrown


*leŋen forearm, lower arm


PMP     *leŋen forearm, lower arm

Kadazan hoŋonarm, hand, forearm
Tombonuwo loŋonarm, hand
Lun Dayeh leŋenarm
Kelabit leŋenarm
Kenyah leŋenlower arm
Kayan leŋenupper arm
Kayan (Uma Juman) leŋenarm
Murik ləŋənarm from elbow to shoulder
Melanau (Mukah) leŋenarm
Seru loŋonarm
Ba'amang leŋearm
Paku loŋunhand
Malay leŋanarm; sleeve of garment; foreleg of animal; arm or forethigh of horse
Sundanese leuŋeunhand; forelegs of an animal that can grasp or strike with the forelegs
Old Javanese leŋenarm
Javanese leŋenlower arm
Balinese leŋenarm, forearm
  la-leŋendoorpost, gatepost
Selaru lenaupper arm

Note:   The loss of the final nasal in Ba'amang leŋe and similar forms in other languages of southeast Borneo probably is due to metanalysis, where –n was taken to the be the third person singular possessive suffix, much as in Kayan (Uma Juman) forms such as utiʔ < PMP *qutin ‘penis’ (Blust 1977).


*le(m)pag strike, hit


PWMP     *le(m)pag strike, hit

Isneg lappágto slap, to buffet
Itawis lappágspanking, slap
Old Javanese lempagto deal a blow
Balinese lempagstrike, hit with something

Note:   With root *-pag ‘strike, beat’.


*lepak₁ break, crack off


PMP     *lepak₁ break, crack off

Ilokano leppákseparate at the joints (bones, roasted chickens, palm spines, etc.)
Arosi rohabreak something brittle

Note:   With root *-pak₂ break, crack, split.


*lepak₂ thud


PWMP     *lepak₂ thud     [doublet: *depak]

Maranao lepakbeat; dull sound
Malay lepak(onom.) fall with a thud


*lepap flattened


PWMP     *lepap flattened

Ilokano leppápcompressed, oblate, flattened (at the poles), of tomatoes, etc.
Malay ter-lepapflattened against the ground, fallen on one's face
  perahu lepapa flat-bottomed dinghy

Note:   Perhaps also Malay te-lempap ‘laying the palm of the hand on any surface’.


*lepas to set free, let loose, liberated; passed by, come to an end


PWMP     *lepas to set free, let loose, liberated; passed by, come to an end

Ilokano leppás-ento finish, end, terminate, accomplish; perfect
  i-leppásto finish, complete, do until the end
  ma-lpásto be able to finish
Isneg lappásfinished, ended, gone
  na-lpásfinished, ended, gone
Bontok ləpasthe remainder; the last part; the part which is left to be done
  ʔi-ləpasto complete; to finish
Ifugaw lopa(h)conveys the idea of finishing, ending a certain work or action that cannot be accomplished within a short time, or a series of actions which pertain to one whole and are conceived of as forming a single complex, for example, a celebration, a work, a headhunting expedition, etc. that lasts several days
Tagalog lipáslapsed (referring to a designated time); out of style or fashion (as clothes or some practice); old-fashioned; out of date; obsolete; antiquated; archaic; old; no longer potent (as drugs or the like); faded (as a scent or a color); stale (of food, wine, etc. that has lost its good taste
  pag-lipáspassage, passing (as of time)
  l<um>ipásto elapse; to pass; to slip away; to lapse; to pass away; to roll by; to pass by; to be transient, passing or fleeting
Bikol mag-alpás <Mto free, set loose (usually birds, small animals)
  maka-alpásto get loose, get free, break away
Maranao lepasomit, leave, overtake, forgive, pass by
Malagasy lefagone, run away
  man-defato set at liberty, to release, to send off, to set off, to fire off
  mi-lefato run away
  vua-lefaset at liberty; set off, fired off
Tiruray lefasto pass by, to go beyond a certain place
Iban lepasfree, at large; set free, dismiss, release, let go; past, after
Malay lepasfreed; open; unbounded; let loose; left behind; after; subsequent to
Old Javanese ləpasfree (from bonds), released; let go, thrown (flying missile); set going, moving off, leaving, going away, leaving others behind; moving unhindered and swiftly
Javanese lepasdetached, loosened; to let go of; off and on, temporary
  ŋe-lepasto let loose, release, let fly; to shoot many missiles or shoot missiles repeatedly; to hit something with a missile
Sundanese ləpasloose, free; out of service; dismissed; also quick, swift
Balinese lepasloose, escape, vanish from sight; not reach, fail to hit, fail to hurt, be separated, dismissed
  ŋe-lepasto die (High Balinese)
Sasak ləpasto get loose, come loose (also used of penned-up animals); exempted, as from a duty or burden
  ŋə-ləpasto loosen
Gorontalo lopa-lopatofreed
Makasarese lappasaʔloose, liberated, free; dismissed, discharged; come to an end, past

Note:   This word appears to have carried both the physical sense of being freed from bondage, as in animals escaping from confinement, and of being relieved of social burdens either through the passage of time, or through being dischared by someone in authority.


*lepaw hut


PAN     *lepaw₁ hut

Kavalan repawhouse


PMP     *lepaw₂ field hut, granary

Samihim lampauhouse
Kelabit ləpohut in the jungle where one can stay overnight when travelling away from the village
  ləpo paderice granary
Kenyah lepawa shelter, a house in the paddy field
Kayan lepawa hut
  lepaw pareya storehouse for rice
Kayan (Uma Juman) lepohut, building other than a longhouse
Malay lepauback-veranda or kitchen-veranda of a Malay house
Ngaju Dayak lepawsmall hut raised on four to six posts that have round, smooth rat guards; rice is stored in the lepaw
Gayō lepoveranda
Rejang lepawfoodstall, coffee shop
Sika lepohouse
Atoni lopothe lopo is the village granary and meeting-place; it is a house without walls, with four pillars in addition to a maternal pillar (ni ainaf) in the center (Schulte Nordholt 1971:96)

Note:   Also Rejang lempaw ‘small shop, kiosk, food stall’. Although reflexes of *lepaw are found in Formosan, WMP and CMP languages in the meaning ‘house’, this was not the meaning of this term in PAn or PMP (Blust 1987). The other options that appear viable are ‘field hut’, a meaning that shows up in several of the languages of Borneo, and ‘rice granary’, a meaning that shows up in several of the languages of Borneo, and in Atoni of west Timor. Given this distribution the only meaning that can plausibly be assigned to PMP *lepaw is ‘granary’.

Both ‘field hut’ and ‘granary’ also occur with reflexes of PAn *sapaw, but the distribution of meanings across major subgroups clearly favors *sapaw in the meaning ‘field hut’. Reflexes in Kelabit and Kayan raise the prospect that PMP *lepaw could have referred both to field huts (when unqualified) and to granaries (when qualified by a word for ‘rice’). However, since this inference is not supported by converging lines of evidence from both WMP and CMP languages it is best treated as a speculation. The similar semantic profiles of *lepaw and *sapaw strongly suggest that rice granaries were simple structures that did not differ significantly from field huts which were used for temporary residence when working in the fields away from the village for several days in succession.


*lepet plug, stop up


PWMP     *lepet plug, stop up

Isneg lappátstopper; anything which stops, fills up, closes, shuts
Old Javanese lepettight, tightly bound, compressed, compact

Note:   With root *-pet ‘plugged, stopped, closed off’.


*lepik snap, break off (twigs, etc.)


PMP     *lepik snap, break off (twigs, etc.)

Malay lepéka dull squelching sound
Manggarai lepékbreak wood with the hand; pluck, snap with the fingers (shoots of tobacco or vegetables), snap off

Note:   With root *-pik pat, light slap.


*lepit thin layer


PMP     *lepit thin layer

Maranao lepitthin, flat
Manggarai lepitlayered

Note:   Possibly equivalent to Dempwolff's (1934-38) *le(m)pit ‘fold’. With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’.


*le(p)lep₁ submerge, sink


PMP     *le(p)lep submerge, sink

Javanese lelepsink below the surface; drown
Manggarai lelepimmerse, as a blade in tempering it

Note:   Possibly with a variant of the root *-leb ‘sink, disappear under water’. Cp. Javanese ilep ‘put under water; soak’, silep ‘submerged in water’.


*leplep₂ deep silence


PWMP     *leplep deep silence

Ilokano leplepabsolute silence, e.g. when someone has shouted; hush, silence, be still
Malay lelaplapse into deep slumber (of a person)
  tidur lelapdeep sleep


*lepu fish with poisonous dorsal spines


PMP     *lepu fish with poisonous dorsal spines     [disjunct: *lepuq]

Cebuano lúpuʔsmall blackish fish with lightly toxic dorsal spines, often found on the bottom in fresh or brackish waters: Gymnapistes niger
Iban le-lepufish with venomous fins, Angler and Goblin fish
Malay ikan lepugeneric for a number of fishes with venomous fins, angler fish and goblin fish (Antennaridae and Scorpaenidae)
Sasak lepoʔspiny sea fish
Manggarai lepukind of short-bodied sea fish


POC     *lopu fish with poisonous dorsal spines

Mota lowcheckered swinefish

Note:   Also Malay (Kedah) ikan depu ‘angler fish, goblin fish’.


*lepuk fall with a thud


PWMP     *lepuk fall with a thud

Hanunóo lupúkstamping of the feet, or of a single foot
Hiligaynon lupúkto burst, blow out, erupt
Malay lepok-lepakfall with a thud, of fruit dropping continuously

Note:   With root *-puk₁ throb, thud, clap, break.


*lepuq₁ crooked, of limbs; bone fracture


PWMP     *lepuq₁ crooked, of limbs; bone fracture     [doublet: *lumpuq 'lame']

Maranao lepoʔcripple, lame
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lepuʔbreak a bone or a limb of the body
Tiruray lefoʔa bone fracture; to fracture a bone
Malay lepohcrooked (of a limb); twisted, bent


*lepuq₂ fish with poisonous dorsal spines


PMP     *lepuq₂ fish with poisonous dorsal spines

Aklanon eupóʔpoisonous freshwater fish
Cebuano lúpuʔsmall blackish fish with lightly toxic dorsal spines, often found on the bottom in fresh or brackish waters: Gymnapistes niger
Manggarai lepukind of short-bodied sea fish


POC     *lopu fish with poisonous dorsal spines

Mota lowcheckered swinefish

Note:   Also Malay (Kedah) ikan depu ‘angler fish, goblin fish’.


*leput blow out, force out


PMP     *leput blow out, force out

Hiligaynon lupúthave loose bowel movement, have diarrhea
Maranao lepotforce out, cough off
Kiput lepuːtspit out
Kenyah ŋa-leputuse the blowpipe
  tai leputgo hunting with blowpipe
Nggela lovu-lovuto puff

Note:   Also Tiruray lefuk ‘blowgun; blow a dart out of a blowgun’. With root *-put ‘puff’.


*leq(e)guk gulp, swallow


PWMP     *leq(e)guk gulp, swallow

Bikol laʔgokgulp down, wolf down
Sundanese leguka swallow (of liquid), draught
Sasak legukgulp, swallow

Note:   With root *-guk ‘deep throaty sound’.


*leqo voice


POC     *leqo voice     [doublet: *liqo]

Roviana leo-nathroat
Eddystone/Mandegusu leo-nathyroid cartilage, Adam’s apple; throat
Nggela leo-leodialect, foreign language; speak a foreign language
Lau leospeech (only in names in genealogies)
Mota leoword, report, law
Tongan leʔovoice, sound
Samoan leovoice, sound
Rennellese geʔovoice, sound; noise; pronunciation; accent
Rarotongan reovoice; tone; speech; utterance; language; dialect; form of words
Hawaiian leovoice; tone; tune; sound; command; advice; syllable; plea, verbal message; speak, make a sound

Note:   Also Nggela leu, leuleu ‘dialect, foreign language; speak a foreign language. PCEMP *liqə evidently became POc **liqo ~ *leqo (free variants). Given the semantic reflexes in Roviana and Eddystone/Mandegusu, it is tempting to compare this form with PAn *liqeR ‘neck’, but PAn *liqeR would regularly yield Roviana, Eddystone/Mandegusu **lioro. Since schwa did not occur word-finally in earlier proto-languages, and there is little other evidence that it could occur in this position in PCEMP, this form may have had some other final consonant that has been lost in all available reflexes. The most likely candidate for this segment is *q.


*leseq nit, egg of a louse


PMP     *leseq nit, egg of a louse     [doublet: *liseSeq]

Cebuano lusáʔnit, egg of a louse
Buli loas <Mnit, egg of a louse

Note:   Also Proto-Minahasan *ləseʔa ‘nit, louse egg’. Zorc (1985) posits PCPH *lesaq ‘nit’. Like Buli loas, reflexes of *liseSeq frequently show metathesis. This variant was first noted in print by van der Tuuk (1897-1912).


*lesi excess; excessive


PCMP     *lesi excess; excessive

Tetun lesi(k)an overabundance; he who has things in overabundance (i.e. a noble or lord)
Buruese lesiexcessively
  lesi-hto exceed


*lesit squeeze out, squirt out


PWMP     *lesit squeeze out, squirt out     [disjunct: *lecit]

Tiruray lesitslip or force something out a hole in its container
Iban lesittake out the kernel
Bahasa Indonesia me-lesitsquirt out

Note:   Also Kelabit besit ‘squirt out (as pus from a pimple)’, Kiput luséːt ‘come out, go out’, Manggarai lesit ‘slippery’. Proto-South Sulawesi ?*lɨssu(C) ‘be born, set free’ (Mills (1975: 759) almost certainly is identical with *lecut ‘slip away, escape’.


*lesles lift up the clothes, roll up the pant legs (as when crossing shallow water)


PPh     *lesles lift up the clothes, roll up the pant legs (as when crossing shallow water)

Itbayaten man-xesxesto roll (as in forming tobacco), to roll oneself a cigar when needed
  xesxes-ento make a cigar
Agta (Dupaningan) mag-lesleslift or roll up clothes when crossing a body of water so that they do not get wet
Agta (Eastern) lésleshold up one’s skirt or pants legs (when crossing a river)
Bontok ləsləsto roll up; to fold back (as a dress so it doesn’t get wet)
  ləsləs-ənto roll up, to fold back (as clothes so that they don’t get wet in wading)
Kankanaey leslésto turn up; to tuck up; to cock; to tie up
Ibaloy man-desdesto roll up one’s sleeves, trouser legs; to push something out of the way (as pushing back the cuticle around a fingernail, cut grass at the edge of a field)
Tagalog lislíslifted up, raised up, or blown up (said of skirt or dress)
  i-lislísto lift up the skirt or dress
  lislis-ánto be lifted or blown up (said of the skirt or dress)
  ma-lislis-ánto have one’s skirt or dress lifted up or blown up
Bikol luslóscurled up, upturned (as a lip); blown up (as a skirt)
  mag-luslósto curl or turn up
Hanunóo luslússliding up and down or removal of ringlike objects from more stationary bodies, as when removing a breastband from the body, or in moving a band up and down a hollow cylinder or pole
Cebuano luslusfor something that wraps something and is attached to it to slip off, especially the foreskin
Tausug luslusloose and about to fall down, as of pants
  l<um>uslusto become loose and slide down

Note:   Also Bikol lislís ‘curled up, upturned (as a lip); blown up (as a skirt)’ (probably < Tagalog).


*lesu₁ punctured, having a hole


PWMP     *lesu₁ punctured, having a hole

Maranao lesobore, hole bored through
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lesumake a hole in something
Uma lohuleaky, punctured


*lesu₂ come out, take out


PCMP     *lesu₂ come out, take out

Rotinese lesucome out (of a hole); become visible
  le-lesudoor, entrance
Yamdena lesiremove, as a door from the hinges, knife from a sheath, etc.
Kei lespull out, fall out, of the teeth


*letak split, crack


PWMP     *letak split, crack     [disjunct: *retak]

Pangasinan letaksplit
Cebuano lutakcrack, a break without complete separation of parts
Malay letakcrack, split


*le(n)tak clack the tongue


PMP     *le(n)tak clack the tongue

Maranao letakclapper used to frighten birds
Manggarai lentakcall a dog (by clicking or clacking the tongue); urge a horse on by clicking the tongue

Note:   The essential features of this comparison were first noted in print by Verheijen (1967-70).


*le(n)taw to float


PWMP     *le(n)taw to float     [doublet: *lantaw]

Pangasinan letáwfloat (of an object being cooked)
Maranao latawto float
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) letewfloat on top of the water
Mori lontoto float

Note:   With root *-taw ‘float’. Zorc (1971) reconstructs PPh *letaw ‘float’.


*letay₁ above


PCMP     *letay₁ above

Tetun lette-nabove
Bonfia leteabove
Paulohi leteabove
Hitu lete hahaabove

Note:   Also Manggarai eta, Kambera d-íta, Hawu d-ida ‘above’.


*letay₂ bridge


PCMP     *letay₂ bridge

Kambera líndibridge
Rotinese leteto bridge; to walk a narrow path; to cross over
Fordata letabridge
Kei letplank bridge
  en-leta-rwalk over something narrow


*letiq thunder and lightning together


PWMP     *letiq thunder and lightning together

Maranao letiʔthunder
Tiruray letéʔthunder and lightning
Berawan (Long Terawan) lettéthunder
Bugis (Soppeng) lettélightning and thunder (simultaneously)

Note:   Also Tagalog lintík ‘lightning’, Aklanon líntiʔ ‘thunderclap, crash of thunder’, Cebuano lítiʔ ‘thunderbolt’, Mansaka lintiʔ ‘thunder’.


*letlet wind around, roll up


PWMP     *letlet wind around, roll up

Kankanaey letlétturn round, wind, wind round, roll, roll up
Bontok lətlətplace a tie on something, as to tie a cloth around one's arm
Javanese leletturn, revolve, spin (of a top)
  di-lelettwisted, rolled (of cord, rolled cigarettes, etc.)


*letub blister


PWMP     *letub blister

Cebuano lútubform a blister from burning or rubbing; for blood to form a black spot under a finger or toe that has been injured
Iban letupblister, as on the hands from hard work
Malay letupblister on the skin
Toba Batak lotuperuption on the scalp, of children
Sangir l<um>ətubəʔform bubbles, as when boiling milk

Note:   Also Karo Batak me-letup (expected **letum) ‘blistered; have a blister on the skin from burns, etc’. Since the Iban, Malay and Toba Batak forms could all reflect *letup it is possible that *letub can be assigned no higher than PPh.


*lezep submerge, disappear under water


PAN     *lezep submerge, disappear under water     [doublet: *leñep]

Paiwan ledepdive, plunge
Casiguran Dumagat ledep, l-om-depswim under water
Kayan lejepsubmerged by rising flood
Sundanese lejepto close (of the eyes, due to drowsiness)

Note:   Also Bontok letep ‘dive into water, dive for something’, Chamorro liʔof ‘dive, submerge’, Iban, Malay lesap ‘disappear’, Malay resap ‘disappear by slow degrees’. For similar semantics, compare Isneg lannáp ‘overflow; flooded’, Ujir leñep ‘covered by water (as a boulder by rising water in the river)’, Malay leñap ‘gone, vanished’.

TOP      le    li    lo    lu    



*lian to change appearance


PMP     *lian to change appearance

Malay lain <Mother, different
Sundanese lianother than, different
Old Javanese lenother, different, otherwise, and also
Sasak lain <Mother than, different
Nggeri liato change in color or form; to throw back, of plants
Lau liato change appearance, in color or from wearing different clothes or beard or hat; to change in appearance like a chameleon and some fish; to change nature, a throwback in plants
Toqabaqita liato change in appearance (as a woman who is pregnant, or the color of leaves on a tree)
Sa'a lieto change shape, of ghostly appearances, to throw back, of trees, e.g. oranges
Arosi ria-riato change, as the sound of a trumpet, call of a bird; to change one’s tune, try another tack, give different advice
Fijian liato change into (as a person changing into a snake)

Note:   Also Javanese liya ‘other, different’, Tolai ria ‘eclipse, especially of the moon; to change appearance, as the sun or moon in an eclipse’. Dempwolff (1938) posited *lian ‘to change’, but the semantic disagreement between WMP and Oceanic forms raises questions about the validity of this comparison on the PMP level.


*liaŋ cave, cavern


PMP     *liaŋ cave, cavern

Isneg liyāŋcave, cavern
Bontok liyáŋcave
Kankanaey liáŋcave, cavern, grotto
Ifugaw (Batad) liyaŋa natural cave, found where there is large sheet rock
Maranao liaŋcave
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) liyaŋa hole in the ground with vertical sides which is large enough for a person to get into
Kayan (Baram) liaŋburial post or grave; cemetery (modern)
Kenyah (Long Anap) liaŋgrave
Kenyah (Long Wat) liaŋcemetery, burial place
Berawan (Batu Belah) ləjaŋwooden house-shaped coffin raised on pillars
Berawan (Long Teru) lijeŋsingle-use post or pillar tomb
Kayan (Busang) liaŋcave, cavern (in a mountain)
Ngaju Dayak liaŋhole or cavity in which crocodiles, snakes and other wild animals stay
  ha-liaŋlive in a hole or cavity
Malay liaŋorifice, aperture
Gayō liaŋhole; wound
Karo Batak liaŋhole, cavity
  ŋe-liaŋ lahat-kenplace a corpse in a coffin (a hollowed-out log), where the lid is sealed shut
  liaŋ-liaŋa niche, a hollow in a cliff face
Toba Batak liaŋcavern, cavity, den, cave
  maŋa-liaŋto excavate out
Sundanese liaŋopening, hole; throat
  ŋa-liaŋto make a hole
Old Javanese lyaŋhole, burrow, opening
Javanese lεŋhole, opening
  lεŋ-lεŋ-annostril; ear opening; eye of a needle; having holes
  ŋə-lεŋto live in or enter, a hole, cave, etc.; to make a hole; in a hole or hollow
  ŋə-lεŋ-ito make a hole in
Sangir liaŋcave, grotto, cavern, den, or small hole in the rock face of a cliff
Banggai leeŋcave, grotto, cavern, den
Dampelas liaŋcave
Totoli leaŋcave (< Buginese or Makasarese?)
Tae' liaŋrock grave, cut out an opening in the cliff face as a place for burying the dead
  liaŋ kayutree trunk hollowed out in the shape of a rice mortar in which the remains of the dead formerly were interred; this coffin was then placed in a rock hollow
  pe-liaŋto place the remains of the dead in a rock grave
Proto-South Sulawesi *liaŋcave
Mandar leaŋcave
Buginese leaŋ ~ liaŋcave, grotto, cavern, den
Makasarese leaŋcave, grotto, cavern, den
  leaŋŋ-iexcavate a cave
Wolio liahole, cave, tunnel, subterranean passage
Palauan íicave
  ieŋ-élits cave, his/her cave
Chamorro liyaŋcave (natural), cavern
Manggarai liaŋcave, cavity, hollow
Rembong liaŋcave; hole in the ground
Ngadha liahole, hollow, cave, cavern; opening; ruins
Sika liaŋhole in the ground; cave, grotto
  liaŋ wetumouse hole
Kambera liaŋuhole; cave, grotto
  liaŋu tanahole in the ground
  huhu liaŋustalactites
  kúbu liaŋumouth of a cave, tunnel near a cave
Hawu liecave, cavern
Erai liaŋhole, cave
Leti lienacave, grotto
Wetan lienacave, grotto; mortar to pound rice or maize in
Proto-Aru *liacave
Dobel lisacave
Asilulu liancave
Buruese lia-ncave, cavern
  lia-tcave, cage, coup, pen
Emira liaŋacave
Mota liahollow in or under a rock, cave, den

Note:   Also Sasak leŋleŋ ‘a hole under the kitchen wall for throwing out garbage’, Tontemboan liaŋa ‘hole (as in the road). PMP *liaŋ evidently replaced PAn *Nihib ‘cave, cavern’. As noted in Blust (1984/85) its application to burial practices in a number of the languages of northern Sarawak almost certainly derives from the former practice of cave burial, a custom that had been abandoned by the time of first Western contact.


*lias deflect, divert


PWMP     *lias deflect, divert

Ilokano liásdeviate, stray, swerve, deflect
Malay liascharm to secure invulnerability by diverting magically any weapon or projectile that may be aimed at you


*libas kind of sour edible fruit, possibly fruit of rattan


PWMP     *libas kind of sour edible fruit, possibly fruit of rattan

Ilokano libáskind of vine with white flowers and edible shoots: Momordica ovata
Cebuano libáswild tree with sour leaves and fruits: Spondias pinnata; the leaves and fruits are used in stews, and the leaves have medicinal uses
Mapun libas(for fruit to be) characterized as having lost some of its flavor due to being overripe; for a woman’s beauty to become less or to fade (due to her makeup running, her hair getting messed up, clothes getting wrinkled, etc.)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) livasgeneric for citrus fruits and rattan fruits
Mansaka libassour food
Binukid libassour fruit of rattan
Tiruray libosa tree bearing edible fruit, known in the Philippines as the “Spanish plum,” Spondias purpurea Linn.
Iban libasguava (Scott 1956); fruit tree, unident. (Richards 1981)


*libej coil around, wrap with rope


PWMP     *libej coil around, wrap with rope

Tagalog libídcoiling
Maranao libedwind around
Bahasa Indonesia me-libatto bandage, wrap up

Note:   With root *-bej ‘wind around repeatedly’.


*libet turn, revolve


PWMP     *libet turn, revolve

Aklanon líbotturn, spin, revolution
Tausug libuttwist, as a jar lid
Berawan (Batu Belah) se-libetturn


*limbun heap up, pile up (as earth); dam


PMP     *limbun heap up, pile up (as earth); dam

Hanunóo limbúndam
Kayan libun, ke-libuna covering; to spread over a surface
Sangir limbuŋpiled up (of soil, etc.)
Tae' ta-limbuŋgather around, swarm around something
Manggarai limbuŋgather, collect
Tetun lihundam or pond; small body of still water
  ha-lihundam up

Note:   With root *-bun ‘heap, cover with earth; collect, assemble’.


*libuR murky, clouded, turbid


PMP     *libuR murky, clouded, turbid

Bikol líbogcloudy water, murky water
Buruese libo(of water) murky, clouded

Note:   With root *-buR₃ turbid.


*libut surround, encircle, as game


PWMP     *libut surround, encircle, as game

Tagalog líbotsurroundings, environment
Bikol mag-líbotwalk around, rove
Cebuano líbutgo, bring, put something around a place; surround
Maranao libotdragnet; surround, catch
Tboli libutsurround, around
Lun Dayeh ŋe-libutsurround game with people and dogs
Kelabit libutcircle
Mori mo-limbusurround, encircle
Tae' libuoblong enclosure, oval


PWMP     *pa-libut surround, encircle

Tagalog pa-líbotsurroundings, environment
Bikol pa-libot-anto enclose, surround, ring
Cebuano pa-libutsurroundings
Kelabit pe-libutcatch game by encirclement

Note:   Also Isneg lipu-lipút ‘surrounded by’. Mills (1975:762) posits Proto-South Sulawesi *limbo ‘gather round’.


*licin smooth, slippery


PWMP     *licin smooth, slippery

Gaddang ma-lisinsmooth
Malay licinsmooth, slippery; bare, unadorned
Old Javanese licinfree(dom) from any encumbrances, free(dom) from passions ... complete perfection


*lindag toss about


PWMP     *lindag toss about

Cebuano lindagtoss about restlessly in bed
Iban lindak-lindak(of sun-hats, umbrellas), bobbing (Scott 1956)


*lidem dark in color or from the absence of light


PWMP     *lidem dark in color or from the absence of light

Bontok lídəmblack, of the color of hair
Kankanaey lídemblack, applied to hogs, carabaos, etc.
Tagalog lílimshade
Tausug lindumdarkness, deficiency of light
  ma-lindumdark, having very little light
Kayan (Uma Juman) lidemdark; darkness; heavy dark rain clouds
  lidem utaʔutter darkness

Note:   Also Ilokano lítem ‘livid black and blue’, Karo Batak liŋgem, Toba Batak liŋgom ‘shadow’. Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Tagalog lílim to *DeDem ‘dark’, but most diagnostic witnesses suggest that Dempwolff's reconstruction should be *demdem. Since Panganiban (1966) also gives Tagalog limlím ‘impeding darkness’, lílim is perhaps best assigned to the present etymon. With root *-dem₁ ‘dark; overcast’.


*li(n)dem, li(ŋ)jem dark


PWMP     *li(n)dem, li(ŋ)jem dark

Note:   Also Ilokano lítem ‘livid black and blue’. Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Tagalog lílim to *DeDem ‘dark’, but most diagnostic witnesses suggest that Dempwolff's reconstruction should be *demdem. Since Panganiban (1966) also gives Tagalog limlím ‘impeding darkness’, lílim is perhaps best assigned to the present etymon.


*lidik cutting or clearing of undergrowth


PWMP     *lidik cutting or clearing of undergrowth

Maranao ririkcut down (small trees); mow (grass)
Kelabit lidikcutting of undergrowth
  l-em-idikto cut undergrowth
Kayan lirika clearing, land cleared
  l-em-irikto clear land


*li(n)dis crush, roll over


PWMP     *li(n)dis crush, roll over     [doublet: *li(ŋ)gis]

Kankanaey lidis-éncrush, squash
Minangkabau pe-lindisroller (for smoothing soil)


*liduŋ shelter, cover, protection; shade


PAN     *liduŋ shelter, cover, protection; shade

Amis lidoŋshelter; shadow, shade
Ilokano lindóŋshelter; shade (obsolete)
Kallahan (Keleyqiq) al-liduŋshadow
Ibaloy a-diroŋshadow
  a-diroŋ-anto cast a shadow on or over something; (to some) the human spirit
Bikol ma-lindóŋdescribing a place protected from the sun or wind; shady
  mag-lindóŋto grow more shady
Maranao lindoŋshelter
Kenyah lindoŋa sheltered place on a riverbank
  ŋa-lindoŋto shelter
Ngaju Dayak ka-lindoŋprotection, shelter; be sheltered
Malagasy ta-ndíndonaa shadow
  lindonaa shadow (said to be ‘provincial’)
Iban lindoŋshaded, shady, screened, covered
  hari lindoŋthe sun has gone in
Malay lindoŋshade; shelter; protective cover or concealment
Karo Batak me-linduŋhidden, concealed; shaded; safe, secure; twilight, as in the forest depths
Javanese pe-linḍuŋ-akéto shelter, protect, cover
  pa-linḍuŋ-anshelter, protection; a fallout shelter
Sangir linduŋsheltered place, refuge
  mə-linduŋto shelter, protect
  liruŋa place on Salibabu, so called because of its sheltered location
  mə-liruŋto shelter, protect, hold the hand over one’s head, overlook or cover for someone’s faults; to hide, conceal, keep a secret
Proto-South Sulawesi *linduŋshade, shelter
Buginese linruŋshelter, protection
Makasarese aʔ-linruŋprotected, sheltered; shaded; be in the lee of something; shelter from the rain; give protection or cover
Chamorro liheŋ <Asaved, safeguarded, rescued, sheltered (as from rain); shelter, refuge; make safe


PWMP     *ma-linduŋ-an (gloss uncertain)

Bikol ma-lindoŋ-ánto be shaded, protected
Old Javanese (m)a-linḍuŋ-anto hide behind, seek cover behind


PWMP     *linduŋ-an sheltered place (?)

Bikol lindoŋ-ánto shade or protect from the wind
Old Javanese linḍuŋ-anhiding place, cover

Note:   Also Ilokano línoŋ ‘shade (from sun); shelter (from rain)’, ag-línoŋ ‘to take shelter, go to the shade’, Maranao lindiŋ ‘protect, surround’, Gayō linuŋ ‘shelter, place that is nestled between two hills; sheltered place’, Dairi-Pakpak Batak ce-lénduŋ ‘take shelter so as not to be struck by rain or strong wind’, Mandar mal-lindu-i ‘sheltered, protected’. Amis normally reflects *d as r; its retention as a stop in this form is unexplained, but may indicate that the stop followed a nasal which was subsequently lost, raising the question whether the absence of medial prenasalization in Formosan languages reflects a PAn state or a subsequent innovation. With root *-duŋ ‘shelter, protect’.


*lindur earthquake


PWMP     *lindur earthquake     [doublet: *linuR]    [disjunct: *linduR]

Casiguran Dumagat lindulearthquake; to shake (of ground during an earthquake)
Tagalog lindólearthquake; quake
Sasak lindurearthquake
  be-lindur-anto shake


*linduR earthquake


PMP     *linduR earthquake     [doublet: *lindur, *linuR]

Old Javanese linḍūto shake, quake; earthquake, tremor
Javanese linḍuearthquake
Pendau lindugearthquake
Tialo lindugEearthquake
Muna linduhave a shaking or spinning pain inside (as when the head is ‘spinning’)
Dobel rirearthquake


POC     *lidruR earthquake

Mota rirearthquake
Merlav rirearthquake
Namakir na-rirearthquake

Note:   Also Sundanese lindu ‘earthquake’, ka-lindu-an ‘be struck by an earthquake’, Bare'e líndugi ‘earthquake; also the name of the spirit that causes earthquakes’. It is unclear from the evidence found so far whether POc had *lidruR or *ridruR. Ross, Pawley and Osmond (2003) do not include this term in their treatment of the POc vocabulary for the natural environment, and cite Mota rir under Proto-North-Central Vanuatu *ruru ‘to shake; earthquake’.


*liget turn, rotate


PWMP     *liget turn, rotate

Manobo (Dibabawon) ligɨtturn
Berawan (Long Teru) ligətturn
Kelabit ligetturning around
Malay ligatspinning around, rotating very rapidly


*li(ŋ)get gnash the teeth in anger or impatience


PWMP     *li(ŋ)get gnash the teeth in anger or impatience

Bontok ligə́tangry
Sasak liŋgetbite hard on something; gnash the teeth (in impatience or anger)

Note:   Also Aklanon ugót ‘be angry, get peeved’, Manggarai jeget ‘angry’.


*li(ŋ)gis crush, roll over


PWMP     *li(ŋ)gis crush, roll over     [doublet: *li(n)dis]

Casiguran Dumagat ligisget hit or run into by something rolling (as for a rolling log to hit you and smash your foot, or to get run over by a truck)
Tagalog ligísground, milled, made into grist
Aklanon lígisharrow (farmer's tool)
  ligísroll over, smooth out (by rolling); harrow, run over
Cebuano ligisflatten or smash something into powder by pressing something heavy on it
Tiruray ligisheavy roller
Malay (Jakarta) liŋgisspike or pointed crowbar for digging up the soil
Old Javanese liŋissharp-bladed crowbar

Note:   Also Tagalog ligí ‘powdered by crushing or pounding’. Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *ligis ‘trample, run over’.


*li(ŋ)ji batten of a loom


PWMP     *li(ŋ)ji batten of a loom

Ilokano liŋgílathe, lay, batten of a loom
Iban lidilaze-rod in weaving
Malay (Brunei) lidipart of a loom
Malay (Sarawak) lidipart of a loom


*likab to open, uncover


PWMP     *likab to open, uncover

Lun Dayeh likabtaken off, turned over by someone
Berawan (Long Terawan) ŋə-likamto open
Javanese liŋkabto open, as mat, or clothes (Pigeaud)

Note:   With root *-kab ‘open, uncover’.


*likaC lightning


PAN     *likaC lightning

Proto-Rukai *ɭikacəlightning
Siraya rikatlightning
Kavalan qilatglitter
Amis likatlight from a source
  ma-likatto be burning, glowing
Amis (Kiwit) likatlight, ray; lamp
  likat nu tsiɬalray of sunlight


PMP     *kilat₁ lightning

Itbayaten cilatlightning, thunderbolt
Ibanag kilaʔlightning
Isneg kilāta flash of lightning
Agta (Dupaningan) kilátlightning
Casiguran Dumagat kilátlightning; for lightning to strike
Kankanaey men-kilátwhite, hoar, clean; silvery, silver, snowy, argentine, gray; light-colored, light, lightsome
Sambal (Botolan) kílatlightning
Bikol kit-kilátlightning
  ma-kilat-ánto be struck by lightning
Hanunóo kílatlightning
Hiligaynon kilátlightning
Aklanon kilátflash of lightning, lightning bolt
  pa-ŋilátto be lightening, flashing, of lightning
Masbatenyo kilátlightning
Waray-Waray ki-kilátlightning
Cebuano kílatlightning
  kilat-ancurse hoping lightning strikes someone, especially for doing something immoral (as committing incest); have a lucky break in a seemingly impossible situation
  pa-ŋilátfor lightning to be flashing intensely
Maranao kilatfast; glimpse; lightning
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) kilatlightning; to lighten, flash, of lightning
Binukid kilatlightning
  pa-ŋilatfor lightning to flash
Mansaka kilatto lighten, flash, of lightning
Tiruray kilota lightning flash; (of lightning) to flash
Tausug kilata (slight) streak of lightning without thunder; heat lightning; any flash of light
Lun Dayeh kilatflames of a fire
  me-kilatin flames
Kelabit kilatlightning
Kiput kicətlightning
Bintulu kilatlightning
  bə-kilatto shine, glitter
Ngaju Dayak kilatlightning
  ma-ŋilatto gleam, flash, of lightning
Iban kilatlightning; flash, gleam
Malay kilatlightning, explained as the flash of the whip with which the Angel of the Thunders drives the clouds before him
  me-ŋilatlike lightning, lightning-fast
Karo Batak kilatglittering, shining
Old Javanese kilatlightning, flash of lighting
  ka-kilat-anto illuminate with flashes of lightning, shine on
Sangir kilaʔlightning
Tontemboan kilatlightning; flash, shine
  kilat-a im pisowthe sparks that fly from the blade of a machete that is being sharpened on a whetstone
Mongondow kilatlightning
Tae' kilaʔlightning
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *kilaQlightning
Makasarese kilaʔlightning
  kilak-ilightning is flashing
Wolio kilalightning
  ko-kilaflash (also of lightning), shine, gleam, glisten, glitter
Muna ko-kilato sparkle, glitter
Bimanese kilalightning
Komodo kilalightning
Manggarai hilatlightning
Rembong kilatlightning
Ngadha kilafast, rapid
Tetun kilata gun, firearm of any type
  kilat letenthunder
Niue ki-kilato shine; brightness; smooth
Samoan ʔi-ʔila(of reflected light on water, glass, or polished surface, etc.) shine, glisten, sparkle, twinkle; bright, shiny


PWMP     *maR-kilat to flash, of lightning

Bikol mag-kit-kilátto have lightning; to strike (lightning)
Masbatenyo mag-kilátto flash, of lightning
Tausug mag-kilatfor a flash of lightning to occur
Malay ber-kilat-(kilat)to flash, of lightning


PWMP     *k<um>ilat to lighten, to flash, of lightning

Cebuano mu-kílatfor lightning to flash
Old Javanese k<um>ilatto flash, of lightning
Tontemboan k<um>ilatto flash, of lightning
Mongondow k<im>ilatto flash, of lightning


PMP     *kila-kilat shine, flash repeatedly

Itbayaten om-cila-cilattwinkle brightly, glitter, sparkle (shiny surface)
Itawis kili-kilátlightning
Yogad kila-kilatlightning
Maranao kila-kilatlightning; fast as lightning
Lun Dayeh kilat-kilatfull of flames
Karo Batak er-kilat-kilatglittering, sending out sparks
Tontemboan kila-kilat-anplace where there are many lightning flashes
Tae' maʔ-kilaʔ-kilaʔlike lightning, meaning very hot, of the sun, very fierce, fiery, of actions; be lucky, luck out
Muna kila-kilashine, radiate
Ngadha kila-kilaquick, fast (as in walking)
Gitua kila-kilalightning
Anuta kira-kirashiny

Note:   Also Kankanaey kimát ‘lightning, flash of lightning’, Itawis kilád ‘shininess’, Bontok kelyat ‘lightning; to flash, of lightning’, Ifugaw kilʔát ‘lightning, lightning flash’, muŋ-kilʔát ‘it discharges lighting flashes; glittering, sparkling (as sun rays flashing in a mirror)’, Ifugaw (Batad) īlat, Kapampangan kíldap, Tagalog kidlát ‘lightning’, Aklanon kídlat ‘flash of lightning’, Mapun maŋirat ‘lightning; for lightning to flash’, Mansaka silat ‘shine; to rise (as sun or moon)’, Maranao kindat ‘shine; radiance’, Yakan lalat ‘lightning, flashes of lightning’, Tombonuwo kudilop ‘lightning’, Singhi Land Dayak kijat ‘lightning’, Malagasy helatra ‘lightning; (fig.) swift, quick’, manelatra ‘to lighten, to flash; (fig.) angry, hasty in temper’, Talise pila-pila ‘lightning’.

The most striking feature of this comparison is the apparent metathesis of the first two consonants in Malayo-Polynesian languages and in Kavalan. This might be taken as evidence that the East Formosan languages (Basai, Trobiawan, Kavalan, Amis, Siraya) subgroup immediately with Malayo-Polynesian, but the order of consonants in Amis likat agrees with that of the PAn form, and so suggests that the metatheses in Kavalan qilat and PMP *kilat are historically independent changes.


*likaw curve, bend, winding


PAN     *likaw curve, bend, winding     [doublet: *luiku₂, *likuq]

Kavalan m-rikawto bend, as a wire or stick, crooked, curved
  m-rik-rikawto curve (as a bay); to wind (as river or road); to coil up; bent
Puyuma ɭikawcurve, bend, winding
Ilokano na-líkawcrooked, curved, meandering, roundabout
  ag-líkawto go around
  ag-líkaw-líkawto go in circles, zigzag
Bontok likáwto make a loop or circle out of something, as a rope or a length of thread; to coil
Kankanaey na-líkawtortuous; winding; bending in and out; sinuous; meandering
Ibaloy dikawroundabout, circuitous route, the long way to a place, detour
Pangasinan likáwto go around looking without definite purpose, meander
Tagalog líkawcoil; roll; a ring or series of rings formed by winding; hank, a coil
Bikol mag-líkawto make a turn, detour, deviate; to meander; to avoid, to take the long way around
Hiligaynon mag-likáwto shun, avoid, to detour
Aklanon likáwto avoid, veer away from
Masbatenyo likáwthe act of denying or telling a lie
  ma-likáwprone to denying or telling a lie
Kadazan hikoucoil
Lun Dayeh likopassing by, not taking something into account; take an alternate way
Iban likawstreaks, wavy or zigzag lines; streaky, striped
Tamuan ba-liŋkouto turn
Rejang likawa bend, a curve (as in a road)
Tae' likotwist, turn; cross one leg over another; be in a curving line, as a mountain range
Li'o likoaround, round about, encircle


PAN     *pa-likaw (gloss uncertain)

Kavalan pa-rikawto cause to bend
Ilokano pa- líkawcircumference


PPh     *likáw-en to coil

Ilokano likaw-ento surround
Bontok likaw-ənto make a loop or circle out of something, as a rope or a length of thread; to coil
Tagalog likaw-ínto coil, to wind into a coil, but not around any object


PPh     *likáw-likáw (gloss uncertain)

Pangasinan likáw-líkawto go around looking without definite purpose, meander
Tagalog likáw-likáwformed into coils

Note:   Also Itbayaten ma-liko-liko ‘zigzag; not straight; winding’, Agta (Eastern) likóg ~ pa-likóg ‘bend at ninety-degree angle; riverbend’, Casiguran Dumagat likó ‘bend in a path’; liku-likó ‘crooked path; to turn and walk in a different direction’, Masbatenyo mag-likóʔ ‘turn and go’, liku-likóʔ ‘winding, curving, twisting, zigzag (refers to roads or paths)’, Mapun likoʔ ‘a curve or bend (in a road or path)’, Mansaka liko-liko ‘to zigzag; to weave in and out; to wind’, Maranao likoʔ ‘curve, swerve, detour’, Binukid likuʔ ‘to return, to go or come back; to return (to a former state)’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) likuʔ ‘to return’, Kadazan hiku ‘to bend (a branch)’, Acehnese liŋkoʔ ‘bend, curved; bay’, Minangkabau liku ‘bend; angle of road; turning’, Old Javanese liku-liku ‘twists, bends; twisted, bending, winding’, Javanese liku-liku ‘complex, many-faceted (as a problem)’, Makasarese liku ‘eddy in a river; maze (as in the alleyways of a night market)’, Asilulu liʔu ‘to bend, to curve’, Buruese liku ‘to bend’.


*li(ŋ)keD turn, wind


PWMP     *li(ŋ)keD turn, wind

Yami mi-like-likédturn round
Ilongot likɨdturn
Malay liŋkarcoil -- of a snake's coil


*li(ŋ)keŋ curvilinear


PWMP     *li(ŋ)keŋ curvilinear     [doublet: *li(ŋ)kuŋ]

Kankanaey likéŋcurved; bent; crooked; tortuous; winding (used only in tales)
Malay léŋkaŋ, liŋkaŋcircumference; ring-shaped; numeral coefficient for bracelets and other ring-like objects


*liket sticky, adhesive


PMP     *liket sticky, adhesive     [doublet: *riket]

Bontok líkətsticky sap exuding from pitch-pine
Iban likat(of liquids) thick, sticky
Rejang likeutthick, viscous
Sundanese liketadhesive, sticky
Old Javanese liketglutinous, syrupy, sticky, thick
Manggarai liketviscous, sticky

Note:   Also Isneg níkat ‘resin’.


*liko commit suicide by hanging


POC     *liko commit suicide by hanging

Gitua liosuicide by hanging
Sa'a liʔocommit suicide by hanging


*liku₁ deep place in a river


PMP     *liku₁ deep place in a river

Miri likauhriver
Tae' likudeep place in a river or lake
Makasarese likueddy, whirlpool in a river
Buruese liku-npool; deep

Note:   Mills (1975:766) gives Proto-South Sulawesi *liku ‘deep’. This cognate set may reflect *likuʔ (Blust 1970) in the more specific meaning ‘deep eddy, whirlpool’.


*liku₂ winding or curving


PWMP     *liku₂ winding or curving     [doublet: *likaw, *likuq]

Agutaynen likoto turn a certain direction; to turn away; to be crooked
Minangkabau likubend; angle of road; turning
Old Javanese ka-likutwisted, crooked, perverted
  liku-likutwists, bends; twisted, bending, winding

Note:   Also Malay bəliku ‘sharp twist or bend in river’. With root -ku(q) ‘bend, curve’.


*likud back


PAN     *likud back

Saisiyat Likorback, behind
Thao rikusback (anatomical)
  ki-rikus-anget a pain in the back
  masha-na-rikusturn the back toward someone or something
  masha-riku-rikusbe back to back
  pat-rikuscome from behind, come after someone
Bunun hikuback
Siraya rikosback
Puyuma ɭikuɖbehind
  pia-ɭikuɖturn one’s back
  a-ɭikuɖ-ana person behind
Paiwan likuzbehind, in back of
  i-likuzbehind (when stationary)
  ki-likuzto slip away by back way
Ilokano likúdback
  iti likúdbehind
  pag-likud-anturn one’s back on; renounce; retract
Isneg likúdthe whole hinder part or surface of the trunk
  ka likúdbehind
Itawis likúdback, behind
  mal-likúdto turn one’s back
Bontok líkudturn the back on something
Ifugaw likódyard behind a house; granary, or hut (even a narrow yard)
Tagalog likódthe back of the body of man or animal; back, meaning the reverse side, the part opposite the front
  pá-likur-antoilet (especially a public one)
Bikol likódthe back, the rear
  sa likódat the back, in the rear; behind
Hanunóo likúdthe thick, flattened side of the back of a knife blade
Hiligaynon likúdback
Aklanon likódback (as of a building, one’s body)
Masbatenyo likódback, rear
Cebuano likúdbehind, at the back of; coming after
Mansaka likodback (as of an animal)
Maranao likodback, rear
Kadazan hikudthe back
Tombonuwo likudback
  so likudbehind
Kenyah (Long Anap) likutback
Bintulu likudback
  may likudbehind
Ngaju Dayak likutback (anat.); behind


PAN     *pa-likud (gloss uncertain)

Paiwan pa-likuzto look back
Paiwan (Western) pa-likuzto turn one’s back to
Ilokano pa-likúdsubstitute, proxy; the back door of a truck
Tagalog pa-likódbackwards, toward the back


PMP     *ta-likud turn the back on

Tagalog t<um>a-likódto turn one’s back
  ta-likur-ánto turn one’s back on
Aklanon ta-likódto turn one’s back to; turn one’s back on, refuse help; give up
  pa-ta-likódto make someone turn around; to do behind one’s back
Kadazan to-hikudto turn backwards; to turn one’s back to
  to-hikud-anto turn one’s back on
Kayan te-likunto sit back to back; to turn the back to someone
Ngaju Dayak ha-ta-likutturn one’s back to someone
Acehnese likōtbehind; rear part; back (anat.)
Tontemboan t<um>a-licurturn the back to someone
  t<um>a-licur-ango westward
Tae' ta-likur-anwaist ‘yoke’ used to support the back of a weaver (who sits to weave on a back loom)
Bare'e ta-likuback (anat.), back side of something (as a person, sword)
  man-ta-liku-siturn the back on someone
Yamdena na-t-liurturn the back to someone


POC     *ta-likur turn the back to someone

Tolai taliurback, backwards, with the head facing backwards; upside-down
Eddystone/Mandegusu taliʔuruto turn round, especially in order to throw out a fishing-line


PAN     *likud-an back area, place at the back?

Puyuma ɭikuɖ-anback (anatomical)
Isneg likud-ānto turn one’s back upon one
Tagalog likur-ánback, meaning the space at the back
Bikol likud-ánthe back; background
Masbatenyo likud-ánrear area, back yard
Cebuano likur-ánplace in back of something
Old Javanese likur-anside?


PAN     *liku-likud (gloss uncertain)

Thao riku-rikusto follow after (someone)
Paiwan liku-likuzthe back of the skull
Cebuano likud-líkudeve before a wedding


PAN     *liku-likud-an (gloss uncertain)

Thao riku-rikus-anto catch up with someone who has gone ahead
Paiwan (Western) liku-likuz-anthe backmost

Note:   A peculiarity of this comparison is that reflexes of the simple base are unknown in CEMP languages, yet reflexes of *ta-likud ‘turn the back to someone’ persisted, evidently as an unanalyzed base, long after *likud had been replaced by other forms. Under his *likuD Dempwolff (1938) also included Fijian talikura ‘warm oneself at a fire’ (< *ta-likuD-an), but the proposed connection with this reconstruction is questionable. Pawley and Sayaba cite Wayan taliku ‘warm oneself (usually by a fire but also by blankets, etc.), showing even more clearly that the semantic grounds for a judgement of cognation in this case are quite weak.


*likuq zigzag, winding or curving


PWMP     *likuq zigzag, winding or curving     [doublet: *likaw, *liku₂]

Casiguran Dumagat likóbend in a path
Pangasinan líkocorner
  on-líkoto turn, veer
Tagalog likóʔa curve, a bend on a road; winding, bending, turning; detour, turning, deviation; change of direction
  l<um>ikóʔto detour, make a detour; to swerve, turn aside; to turn from a course; to curve
Bikol líkoʔcurve, bend
  mag-líkoʔto turn around a bend; to veer; to swerve
Hanunóo likúʔcrook, bend, as in a stick, river, etc.; watercourse
Hiligaynon mag-likúʔto turn the corner, to turn a street corner
Aklanon likóʔto turn (around a corner)
  ma-líkoʔroundabout, indirect; improper (way of doing)
  pa-líkoʔto turn (something); have someone turn
  likóʔ-ancrossing, turning point
Waray-Waray likóʔthe act of turning either to the left or right, as of street corner or the like
Masbatenyo mag-likóʔto turn and go
  likúʔ-ancurve, bend, turn (as in a road)
Romblomanon likúʔsomeone or something turns, going in a different direction
Cebuano líkuʔto turn, change directions; to bend, be wound around (as a belt around a dog’s neck, a road encircling a hill); a bent pipe for channeling gas in a lantern
  likúʔ-anbend of a road; place one turns off
Maranao likoʔcurve, swerve; abandon husband; desertion
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) likuʔto return
Mansaka likoʔto turn (as a vehicle)
Binukid likuʔto return, go or come back (somewhere, or to something); to return, give or put back (something); to return to a former state
Manobo (Sarangani) likoʔreturn somewhere again, go back again; a return trip
Mapun likoʔa curve or bend (in a road or path)
  pa-likoʔto turn (as a vehicle)
Tausug mag-likuʔto turn
  l<um>ikuʔto turn
Kadazan hikuto bend (a branch)
  hiku-onto be bent


PWMP     *liku-likuq winding, curving repeatedly

Itbayaten ma-liko-likozigzag, not straight, winding
Casiguran Dumagat liku-likócrooked path; to turn and walk in a different direction
Tagalog likú-likóʔcrooked, twisted, curved; zigzag
  mag-pa-likú-likóʔto meander, to wind; to twist in and out; to curve; to bend; to zigzag, to move in a zigzag way
  pa-likú-likóʔserpentine, winding; tortuous, sinuous, full of twists, turns, or bends; erroneous, not right; not proper
Masbatenyo liku-likóʔwinding, curving, twisting, zigzag
Cebuano likuʔ-líkuʔzigzagging; not direct to the point, beating around the bush; to be, become zigzagging (as a road one is driving on)
  likuʔ-líkuʔ-anone who is inconsistent in what he says; unreliable
Mapun mag-likoʔ-likoʔto wind back and forth

Note:   Also Ilokano likkó ‘curved, bent’, ag-likkó ‘to turn (a corner)’, likkó to turn around’. With root *-ku(q) ‘bend, curve’.


*likut curled up


PMP     *likut curled up

Bontok líkutcurled up, as a person sleeping or a snake'
Yamdena likutbend, of arms and legs; lie folded up

Note:   With root *-kut ‘hunched over, bent’.


*lileq whirlpool


PMP     *lileq whirlpool

Cebuano líluʔwhirlpool; form a whirlpool; be agitated as if swirled in a whirlpool


POC     *liloq whirlpool

Roviana lilowhirlpool, eddy

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*lilim run amuck


POC     *lilim run amuck

Gedaged lilimmadness, insanity, running amuck
Tongan lilibe very angry, boil with rage, be furious; seethe with anger or discontent
Samoan lilieager, burning with the angry desire to do something
Nukuoro lilimad at, angry
  lili mahaŋahaŋamad as the devil
  lillilieasily angered, short-tempered
Rarotongan ririanger; a strong emotion excited by a real or fancied injury or wrong and involving a desire for retaliation or revenge
Maori riribe angry; quarrel, fight; urge with vehemence; chide, scold; anger; strife, quarrel, hostility; combat, fight, battle; hostility, angry feelings
Hawaiian lilijealous; highly sensitive to criticism; jealousy; anger and mental anguish felt if one’s loved ones are criticized
  hoʔo-liliprovoke jealousy


*lilin beeswax


PMP     *lilin beeswax

Isneg lilínthe wax from bees
Casiguran Dumagat lilénbee's wax; honeycomb with honey in it
Kankanaey lilínkind of black wax used to coat basketwork to make it water-tight
Ifugaw lilínbeeswax. Used in weaving, i.e., when the weaver has some difficulty to raise the warp threads of her chain, etc. she rubs them a little with lilin
Ngaju Dayak lilinwax
Iban lilin mañiʔbeeswax
Malay lilinbeeswax, wax; wax candle
Manggarai lilinwax
Tetun lilinwax
Ngadha liliwax, candle; smear with wax, as twine
Erai lilinbee-wax
Soboyo liliwax of wild bee

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *lilin ‘wax candle’, citing cognates only from western Indonesia. The Ifugaw and Ngadha cognates suggest that the use of beeswax to stiffen threads or twine has a long history in MP languages.


*liliŋ askew, in a slanting direction


PMP     *liliŋ askew, in a slanting direction

Iban liliŋlop-sided, askew (as a head that leans to one side)
Arosi ririgo off in a slanting direction, go aside


*liliu turn around, turn over


POC     *liliu turn around, turn over

Eddystone/Mandegusu liliuturn over
Roviana liliuturn around with the same movement, as clock hands
Tongan liliuturn around; turn or change into something else


*lima five


PAN     *lima five

Proto-Atayalic *limafive
Seediq limafive
Basai cimafive
Kavalan rimafive
  saqa-rimathe fifth
Thao rimafive
Hoanya limafive
Amis limafive
  saka-limathe fifth
Bunun himafive
Tsou eimofive
Kanakanabu rimafive
Proto-Rukai *ɭimafive
Siraya rimafive
Puyuma ɭimafive (ɭima is only used to refer to the number five; in counting objects or any derivations the base for five is luaʈ)
Paiwan limafive
Yami limafive (in serial counting)
Itbayaten limafive
Ilokano limáfive
Isneg limáfive
Casiguran Dumagat limáfive
Agta (Dupaningan) límafive
Itawis limáfive
Bontok limáfive; to be five
  li-lmaa unit of five, five each
Kankanaey limáfive
Ifugaw limáfive
Ifugaw (Batad) lemathe number ‘five’
  pa-lemathe fifth time; to do something five times
Ibaloy dimafive
Pangasinan limáfive
Kapampangan limáfive
Tagalog limáfive
Bikol limáfive
Hanunóo límafive
Palawan Batak límafive
Hiligaynon limáfive
Aklanon limáfive; make into five, raise or lower to five
Masbatenyo limáfive
Waray-Waray limáfive
Cebuano limáfive
Maranao limafive
Mansaka límafive
Mapun límafive
Tiruray límofive
Tboli límufive
Yakan límefive
Tausug limafive
Ida'an Begak límofive
Kadazan himofive
Tombonuwo límofive
Lun Dayeh liməhfive
Kelabit límehfive
Sa'ban eməhfive
Kayan limaʔfive
Kayan (Uma Juman) limaʔfive
Murik limaʔfive
Berawan (Long Terawan) dimməhfive
Kiput limahfive
Miri limahfive
Bintulu limafive
Melanau (Mukah) limafive
Tunjung limaʔfive
Ngaju Dayak limæfive
Ma'anyan dimefive
Malagasy dímyfive
Malay limafive
Jarai rəmafive
Simalur limafive
Gayō limefive
  mu-lime-nfive times
Karo Batak limafive
Toba Batak limafive
Dairi-Pakpak Batak limafive
Nias limafive
Mentawai limafive
Rejang lemofive
Lampung limafive
Old Javanese limafive
Javanese limafive
Sundanese limafive
Balinese limafive
Sasak limafive
Sangir limafive
Tontemboan limafive
Mongondow limafive
Gorontalo limofive
Banggai limafive
Totoli limafive
Bare'e limafive, in combination forms
  a-limafive (independent form)
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *limafive (bound numeral)
  *o-limafive (independent numeral)
Uma limafive
Tae' limafive
Mandar limafive
Buginese limafive
Makasarese limafive
Wolio limafive
Muna limafive (form used in counting and prefixed to nouns)
Palauan e-ímfive (units of time)
  o-ímfive (used when counting in sequence)
Chamorro limafive (Costenoble 1940)
Bimanese limafive
Komodo limafive
Manggarai limafive
Rembong limafive
Lamboya limafive; hand
Kambera limafive
Hawu ləmifive
Rotinese limafive
Atoni nimfive
Tetun limafive
Idate limafive
Wetan wo-limafive
Erai limafive
Selaru simfive
Yamdena limfive
  li-limevery five
Fordata i-limafive
  fa-limafive times
Dobel limafive
Kei limfive
Asilulu limafive
Alune limafive
Kamarian rimafive
Soboyo limafive
Buruese limafive
Buli limfive
  fai-limfive times; the fifth
Moor rímófive
Numfor rimfive
Serui-Laut riŋfive
Munggui bo-rimfive
Waropen rimofive
Nali ma-yimafive
Loniu ma-lime-hfive
Bipi lime-hfive
Leipon ma-lme-hfive
Sori lime-pfive
Mussau limafive
Tolai limafive
Vitu limafive
Lakalai -limafive
Lusi limafive
Kairiru limfive (as a bound element in the numerals 6-9)
Manam limafive
Gitua nima da siripfive
Motu imafive
Dobuan nimafive
Mono-Alu limafive
Roviana limafive
  vina limafifth
Varisi ka-limafive
Bugotu limafive
  va-limafive times
Nggela limafive
Kwaio nimafive
Lau limafive
  lima-nathe fifth
Toqabaqita limafive
  lima-nathe fifth
Sa'a limefive
'Āre'āre nimafive
  nima-nathe fifth
Arosi rimafive
  rima-nathe fifth
Gilbertese nima-five
Kosraean lime-kohsrfive
Marshallese lima-five (in lima-bukwi ‘500’ and limādep ‘5,000’)
Pohnpeian lima-five (with attached classifier)
Chuukese nima-five
Puluwat limo-owfive (general)
  lima-five (in combination forms)
Woleaian lima-five
Mota tave-limafive
Raga limafive
Rotuman limafive
Wayan limafive
Fijian limafive
Tongan nimafive
Niue limafive
Samoan limafive
Futunan limafive
Kapingamarangi limafive
Nukuoro limafive
Tuvaluan limafive
Rennellese gimafive
Anuta nimafive
Rarotongan rimafive
Maori rimafive
Hawaiian limafive


PMP     *lima ŋa puluq fifty

Sambal (Botolan) lima-m-poʔfifty
Pangasinan limá-m-plofifty
Tagalog lima-m-poʔfifty
Kelabit limeh ŋeh puluʔfifty
Malagasy dima-n-polofifty
Tondano lima ŋa puluʔfifty
Bimanese lima-m-purufifty
Hawu ləmi-ŋ-urufifty
Nali ma-yimi-ŋ-uyfifty
Ere lim-ŋ-ulfifty
Loniu ma-lime-ŋ-onfifty
Mussau ga-lima-ŋa-ulufifty
Tongan nima-ŋo-fulufifty
Niue lima-ŋo-fulufifty
Samoan lima-ŋa-fulufifty

Note:   This PMP construction replaced PAn *ma-lima-N ‘fifty’.


POC     *i-lima five

Tolai i-limafive
Sowa i-limfive
Vinmavis i-limfive
Vowa i-limafive

Note:   Presumably with the same numeral marker that appears as e in other Oceanic languages.


PWMP     *iŋ-lima five times

Ibaloy in-ka-limaone fifth
Tombonuwo iŋg-imofive times
Kadazan iŋ-himofive times
Malagasy in-dimyfive times
Mongondow i-limathe fifth

Note:   For Mongondow i-lima ‘the fifth’ cp. e.g. Kadazan iŋg-onom, Malagasy in-énina ‘six times’,Mongondow iŋg-onon ‘the sixth’. This still poorly understood numeral prefix evidently had different allomorphs before vowel-initial and consonant-initial bases.


PWMP     *ka-lima five times

Bontok ka-lmato divide into five
Cebuano ka-limafive times
Ngaju Dayak ka-limæfive days
Javanese ka-limafive times; times five
  ka-piŋ-limafive times; times five
Mongondow ko-limafive times

Note:   In many languages it is difficult to disinguish reflexes of this form from reflexes of PAn *Sika-lima ‘the fifth’. Both *ka-lima and *maka-lima appear to have meant ‘five times’, and it is therefore possible that the data taken to support this shorter word are actually truncated forms of *maka-lima.


PWMP     *kuma-lima fifth in order

Pangasinan kuma-limafifth in order
Kadazan kumo-himothe fifth

Note:   Possibly *k<um>a-lima ‘become fifth’.


PAN     *la-lima five (in counting people)

Thao ra-rimafive (people)
Amis la-lima-yfive (people)
Yami la-limafive (people)
Itbayaten la-limafive
Ivatan da-dimafive
Binukid la-limafive; to be in fives; to do or make five (of something)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) le-limafive
Simalur da-limafive (people)
Balinese la-limafive
Dampelas le-limafive
Pendau le-limafive
Chamorro la-limafive (living things)
Motu la-imafive (people)


PAN     *maka-lima five times

Paiwan maka-lima-lʸfive (days, times)
Tagalog maka-limáto happen to get or obtain five of a kind
  maká-limáfive times
Bikol maka-limáto have five
Cebuano maka-limáfive times
Makasarese maka-lima-nathe fifth, at the fifth

Note:   Onvlee (1984) gives Kambera njara makalimangu baina ‘a stallion with five mares’ (lit. ‘a stallion, five times his mares’, but this appears to be njara ma-ka-lima-ŋu bai-na ). It is possible that the PAn form meaning ‘five times’ was *maka-lima-N.


PWMP     *maŋ-lima divide into groups of five

Ibaloy man-dimasplit into five parts
Toba Batak maŋa-lima-iproduce a litter of five (piglets)
Nias maŋ-limadivide into five parts
Old Javanese maŋa-limadivide into five
Javanese ŋ-limato form a group of five; to hold a ceremony for a woman in the fifth month of pregnancy

Note:   Although the prefix in this form clearly was *maŋ-, it may have had an allomorph [maŋa] before bases that began with a liquid consonant.


PWMP     *maR-lima divide into groups of five

Casiguran Dumagat məg-limato do something or be somewhere for five hours, days, months, etc.
Tagalog mag-limá-limáto gather in groups of five
Bikol mag-limáto become five
Masbatenyo mag-limábecome five (as when a fifth person joins four already living in a house)
Malagasy mi-dimyto divide into five
Bahasa Indonesia ber-limafive together (as five people living in the same house)
Toba Batak mar-limadivide into five parts


PMP     *pa-lima divide into five (?)

Toba Batak pa-lima-honthe fifth
Kambera pa-lima-ŋufive times


PMP     *paka-lima₁ five times

Malagasy faha-dimythe fifth; five fathoms
Toba Batak si-paha-limathe fifth month
Dairi-Pakpak Batak peke-limathe fifth month
Chamorro faha-dmafive times


POC     *paka-lima₂ five times

Sa'a haʔa-limefive times
Arosi haʔa-rimafive times
Wayan vaka-limafive times
Samoan faʔa-limafive times
Rennellese haka-gimato do five times; the third and 17th nights of the moon


PAN     *Sika-lima fifth (ordinal numeral)

Kavalan siqa-rimafive times
Paiwan sika-limafifth (ordinal numeral)


PMP     *ika-lima fifth (ordinal numeral)

Itbayaten icha-limafifth (ordinal numeral)
Ilokano ma-ika-limafifth (ordinal numeral)
Ifugaw ka-limá-nfifth (ordinal numeral)
Tagalog (i)ka-limáfifth (ordinal numeral)
Hiligaynon ika-limáfifth (ordinal numeral)
Masbatenyo ika-limáfifth (ordinal numeral)
Cebuano ika-limáfifth (ordinal numeral)
Mansaka ika-limafifth (ordinal numeral)
Tombonuwo ko-limofifth (ordinal numeral)
Kadazan ko-himofifth (ordinal numeral)
Malay ke-limafifth (ordinal numeral)
Old Javanese ka-limathe fifth month
Sundanese ka-limafifth (ordinal numeral)
Mongondow ko-limafifth (ordinal numeral)
Banggai ko-lima-nofifth (ordinal numeral)
Rotinese ka-lima-kfifth (ordinal numeral)
Soboyo ka-limafifth (ordinal numeral)
Gilbertese ka-nima-fifth (ordinal numeral)
Apma ka-limfive
South Efate ka-limfifth (ordinal numeral)
Fijian i ka-limafifth (ordinal numeral)


PAN     *qa-lima hand

Proto-Rukai *aɭimahand
Aklanon alíma(h)hand
  alímato use one’s hands on
Kalamian Tagbanwa kalimaʔhand
Agutaynen kalimahand
Palawan Batak ʔalímaarm; hand
Cebuano (dialectal) alímahand
Mamanwa alimahand
Binukid alimahand; forearm including the hand
Palauan ʔimhand; arm; front paws (of animal)
  ʔimá-lhis/her hand or arm, its paws

Note:   This form is puzzling, as it is clearly derived from *lima ‘five’, but *qa- is not a known affix. A number of other languages reflect *lima as both ‘five’ and ‘hand’, in the latter meaning presumably by reduction of the longer form. In other cases the two senses are distinguished by stress, as in Bontok limá ‘five’ : líma ‘hand and arm’, or Kankanaey limá ‘five’ : líma, ma-limá-an ‘manipulated; rickety, as chickens or dogs that are manipulated too much in their youth’. The latter meaning raises questions about whether seemingly distinct items such as Cebuano alíma ‘take care of someone by administering to his needs’, or Manobo (Western Bukidnon) elima ‘to care for; to look after; to provide for, as children, plants, garden, animals, etc.’ might also be related (cf. English ‘to handle someone’s affairs’).


PWMP     *taR-lima five each, five together

Cebuano tag-limáfive each, do something by fives
Makasarese taʔ-limafive each, five together
Chamorro tag-lima-nfive (in linear measurement)


PWMP     *ka-lima-an (gloss uncertain)

Itbayaten ka-lima-anthe fifth month (February)
Bikol ka-lima-anfifths
Cebuano ka-lima-anfifty
Malagasy ha-dimi-anafive days


PAN     *ma-lima-N fifty

Atayal ma-ima-lfifty
Seediq (Truku) m-lima-lfifty
Thao ma-rima-zfifty
Bunun (Isbukun) ma-ima-unfifty
Tsou (Tfuya) m-eimo-hʉfifty
Kanakanabu ma-ima-enfifty
Saaroa ma-lima-lhefifty
Rukai (Mantauran) ma-ma-ɭima-lefifty

Note:   The reconstruction of this pattern for multiples of ten in PAn was first demonstrated by Zeitoun, Teng and Ferrell (2010).


PPh     *paR-lima-en divide into five

Ilokano pag-ka-lima-endivide into five parts
Bikol pag-lima-ondivide into five; send five at a time, go five by five

Note:   Puyuma (Tsuchida 1980) also has a pattern paR-X-n for bases ending in a vowel, and paR-X-en for bases ending in a consonant, meaning ‘to do X times’. However, for this affixational pattern the innovative form luwaT ‘five’ is used, yielding paR-luwaT ‘to do five times’. While this form cannot be directly compared with those in Philippine languages, it does suggest that if a reflex of *lima had been retained in this type of construction the result would have been **paR-lima-n, and the reconstruction given here would then be upgraded to PAn.


PWMP     *lima-an a set or group of five

Tagalog limáh-anquintet, quintuplet, a group of five
Masbatenyo limáh-ansuitable for five
Sundanese lima-ana set of five


PMP     *lima-lima five by five, in groups of five

Ilokano lima-limastarfish
Ifugaw (Batad) lema-lemaalways five; five by five
Tagalog limá-limáin groups or bunches of five, five by five
Bikol limá-límaonly five
  limá-limádivide into five, send five at a time
Maranao lima-limaonly five; in fives
Ngaju Dayak limæ-limæonly five; all five
Toba Batak si-lima-limathe five divisions of the day
Nias lima-limafive each
Javanese lima-limaby fives, in groups of five
Mongondow lima-limaby fives, in groups of five
Makasarese lima-limaall five
Fordata lam-lima-nevery five; five by five
Buli lim-limfive by five; all five
Gitua nima-nimastarfish
Wayan lima-limabe in a group of five, in fives, as a fivesome, all five together
Fijian lima-limaall the five

Note:   Also Kenyah (Long Anap) ləma, Iban limaʔ, Moken lemaʔ , Acehnese limɔŋ, Simalur limo, Balinese limaŋ, Muna dima, Lamaholot lema, Gitua lima ‘five’. The meaning ‘starfish’ as the reflex of *lima-lima in both Ilokano and Gitua is almost certainly convergent, given the clear evidence for PMP *saŋa-saŋa ‘starfish’ (lit. ‘branch-branch’). This is one of the most stable morphemes in Austronesian languages, being reflected in all major geographical regions and in the great majority of languages. Sagart (2004) has argued that *lima was an innovation that postdated the breakup of PAn, but there are problems with his argument.


*limas bail out a canoe


PMP     *limas bail out a canoe     [doublet: *nimas]

Ilokano limásbail out
Casiguran Dumagat limásto bail or scoop water out of a boat
Tagalog limásact of bailing out water from a small boat, a pond or pool
  l<um>imásto bail out water from a small boat, a pond or pool
Bikol mag-limásto bail out water, to drain water
Agutaynen mag-limatto bail out water, such as when cleaning out a well, or from the bottom of a boat
Aklanon limásto bail water out of a boat
Waray-Waray límasthe act of bailing out water, as from a boat into the sea
Masbatenyo mag-limásbail water, remove water
Cebuano límasbail water out; empty a pool or big container by bailing the water out
  limássomething used for bailing
Maranao limassqueeze; bail out water from sinking boat
Mansaka limasto drain off (water)
Binukid limasto drain, empty water out of (a pool or a large container)
Yakan limasto bail out (water), to empty (something) of water
Tausug li-limasa scoop for bailing (usually a coconut shell)
  l<um>imasto bail, remove water from a boat with a bail
Kayan limahbailer for boat, e.g. a plate or can
Malagasy dímaa small wooden vessel used in bailing water out of a canoe
  vua-dimahaving had the water bailed out, as a canoe
Malay limascup or dipper of palm leaf or spathe; used for drinking, bathing, drawing water, bailing a boat, or as a toy boat bearing offerings to sea spirits; from its shape it gives its name to hip-roofs
Simalur limas yalurthat part of a boat’s bottom in which the water gathers
Old Javanese limasa container for food
Sundanese limasa mould for pastry, etc., made of banana leaf
Balinese limasa leaf folded into the shape of a boat
Sasak limasbail out water; catch fish by bailing water out of an enclosed area
Sangir limasəʔthe water that enters a canoe through a leak in the hull
  mə-limasəʔbail out a canoe
Gorontalo mo-limatobail out a canoe
Mongondow mo-limatscoop out, bail water from a canoe
Asilulu limato bail water
  lima-tscoop for bailing
Buli limasscraping the burnt residue from a cooking pan; also a nautical term for bailing water from a boat
Kairiru limbailer, used for bailing out canoes
Nehan limahwooden bailer used in bailing out canoes and boats
Halia limasawooden bailer used in bailing out canoes and boats
Pohnpeian liimbailer
  lima-kto bail (something)
  lima-limto be bailing
Mokilese limto bail; bucket for bailing
  limeto bail (something)


PMP     *la-limas bailer, instrument used for bailing

Sangir da-limasəʔbailer, scoop
Mongondow lo-limata bailer made of sugar palm leaves
Asilulu la-limabailing well (in a boat)


PWMP     *maŋa-limas bail out water

Kenyah ŋə-limabail out a canoe
Balinese ŋa-limaslook like a boat
Sasak ŋə-limasbail out water; catch fish by bailing water out of an enclosed area


PPh     *limas-an to bail out completely

Ilokano limas-ánto bail out of water completely
Bikol limas-ánto bail out (as a boat); to drain water from (as a bathtub); to remove the water from a dammed-off area for the purpose of catching fish
Agutaynen limat-anto bail out water
Binukid limas-anto empty the water out of a tank, etc.
Yakan limas-anto bail out (water), to empty (something) of water
Tausug limas-anto bail, remove water from a boat with a bail
Javanese limas-anupper section of a four-section roof (cf. Malay limas ‘cup or dipper of palm leaf or spathe ... from its shape it gives its name to hip-roofs)
Sundanese li-limas-ana house with a so-called ‘wolf-roof’’)
Gorontalo limat-alobailed out, of water from a canoe


PWMP     *limas-en to be bailed out, of water

Tagalog limas-into bail out water from a small boat, a pond or pool
Bikol limas-ónto bail out water, to drain water
Agutaynen limat-ento bail out water; water inside a boat
Masbatenyo limas-ónbe bailed out
Cebuano limás-unwater in the bottom of a boat, bilge water
Malagasy dima-inato have the water bailed out


*limaw lime, citrus fruit


PWMP     *limaw lime, citrus fruit

Iban limawcitrus spp. and hybrids; pomelo, mandarin orange, bitter orange, lime, grapefruit, lemon, etc.
Malay limawcitrus fruit; lime or orange; Citrus maxima (or Citrus decumana), the pomelo or shaddock
Old Javanese limoa citrus fruit, the lime
Balinese limolemon
Sasak limoCitrus maximus

Note:   Also Mongondow limuʔ ‘lemon; citrus fruit in general’, Dampelas, Totoli lemo ‘citrus fruit’, Bare'e lemo ‘citrus fruit; pomelo, Citrus decumana, etc.’, Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *lemo ‘citrus fruit’, Makasarese lemo ‘name for various types of citrus fruits’, Muna lemo ‘citrus fruit’ (includes tangerines, pomelos, oranges, and others). Dempwolff reconstructed *limaw, and included Oceanic forms such as Sa'a moli ‘a wild orange’, Fijian moli ‘an orange, general name for species of citrus fruits’, and Tongan moli ‘orange or other citrus fruit, but usually excluding lemons and limes’ on the assumption that these have undergone syllable metathesis. However, Ross (2008:339) shows convincingly that the POc form was *molis, and the two cognate sets must therefore be distinguished. The similarity of Portuguese limão ‘lemon’ to this form presumably is due to borrowing from Malay.


*limut moss, algae


PMP     *limut moss, algae     [doublet: *lumut]

Toba Batak limutmoss, seaweed; also pond scum
Rotuman rimugreyish lichen growing on tree trunks, esp. of coconut; used for making medicine for high fever and convulsions
Wayan lumiseaweed which grows on sandy bottom
Fijian lumi <Mmoss, adhering to a rock or a boat; a kind of edible seaweed
  lumi-lumicovered in moss; sleek, shiny
Tongan limu tahiseaweed
  limu ʔutamoss or lichen
Niue limumoss, seaweed
  limu-limuvery old
Futunan limualgae (in general); moss, lichen; edible red seaweed
Samoan limugeneral name given to mosses, lichens, algae, and seaweeds
  limu-limuHalophila sp., an aquatic plant growing on sand in the sea
  limu-limu niua mosslike fern on the trunks of coconut trees, Monogramma sp.
Tuvaluan limuseaweed; moss; lichen
Rennellese gimukinds of seaweed, some being eaten
Anuta rimuseaweed; algae growing on the reef
  rimu ŋa utamoss (lit. ‘inland algae’)
Rarotongan rimumoss, sponge, seaweed; orchid
  rimu-āto cover or be covered with moss; used figuratively to denote: for all time, eternity, forever
  rimu pinespecies of fern which hangs from trees: Lycopodium phlegmaria
Maori rimuseaweed; moss
  rimu-rimumoss; mildew
Hawaiian limua general name for all kinds of plants living under water, both fresh and salt; also algae growing in any damp place in the air, as on the ground, on rocks, and on other plants; also mosses, liverworts, lichens
  limu-aovergrown with moss, seaweed, or any limu

Note:   Also Rotuman rimi ‘greyish lichen growing on tree trunks’. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *limut as a doublet of the far better-attested *lumut ‘algae, moss, seaweed’, but cited only Toba Batak limut ‘moss, seaweed’, and Ngaju Dayak la-limot ‘thin (like moss)’ outside Fijian and the Polynesian languages as support for this reconstruction. However, Hardeland (1859) gives Ngaju Dayak la-limot and limo-limot with the meaning ‘fine, thin (of hairs, young rice plants)’. Dempwolff himself added ‘(like moss)’, evidently in an attempt to increase the plausibility of the etymology, but since no further evidence for a variant *limut has been found after thorough searching, the validity of this comparison beyond Central Pacific must be considered open to serious question.


*linaŋ calm, tranquil, of the surface of water


PMP     *linaŋ calm, tranquil, of the surface of water     [doublet: *linuŋ]    [disjunct: *lineŋ]

Malay linaŋcalm, still, of water
Buruese linacalm (of water)
  eg-lina-nclear, unclouded


*lineŋ calm, tranquil, of the surface of water


PWMP     *lineŋ calm, tranquil, of the surface of water     [disjunct: *linaŋ, *liNuŋ]

Hanunóo línuŋpeace, quiet, tranquillity
Malay linaŋcalm, still, of water


*linis smooth, fine (of texture)


PWMP     *linis smooth, fine (of texture)

Atta ma-liːnissmooth
Ilokano línissmooth, even; clear; clean; pure
Kayan (Uma Juman) linifine, as fine sand

Note:   Also Kayan lanih ‘fine, of grain or texture; smooth, of surface; fine, of powder’, Proto-South Sulawesi *rɨnni(s) ‘fine, powdery’. Zorc (1985) gives PPh *linis ‘clean’.


*linuR earthquake


PAN     *linuR earthquake     [doublet: *linduR]

Proto-Rukai *ɭinoʔoearthquake
Bikol mag-línogto quake, tremor (the earth)
  linúg-onto be shaken by an earthquake (as a building)
Hanunóo linúgearthquake
Masbatenyo línogearthquake, quake, tremor
  mag-línogto quake, tremble, shake, shudder (this meaning is limited to earthquakes)
Palawan Batak linógearthquake
Hiligaynon línugearthquake
  mag-línugto have an earthquake, to shake like an earthquake
Aklanon línogearthquake
Waray-Waray línogearthquake, temblor
Cebuano línugearthquake; for there to be an earthquake
Mapun linugearthquake; have an earthquake
  ka-linug-an(for a place) to be hit by an earthquake
Mansaka linogearthquake
Binukid linugearthquake; for there to be an earthquake, for an earthquake to hit (somewhere)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) linugan earthquake; of the earth, to shake
Maranao linogearthquake
Tboli linolearthquake
  l<em>inolto tremble, shake, of the earth
Yakan linugearthquake
Tausug linugearthquake
  mag-linugfor an earthquake to occur
  pag-linug-anfor an earthquake to occur
Karo Batak linurearthquake
Sundanese lini (< *linuy)earthquake
Balinese linuhearthquake, shaking
Sangir linuhəʔearthquake
  mə-linuhəʔto shake, of the earth
Mongondow linugearthquake
  po-linug-anto shake, as in an earthquake
Gorontalo liluhuearthquake
Tae' linoʔearthquake
Mandar linorearthquake (Mills 1975)

Note:   Also Seediq (Truku) luno ‘earthquake’, m-luno ‘to have an earthquake’, Thao rinuz ‘earthquake’, m-rinuz ‘to have an earthquake’, rinuz-in ‘be shaken by an earthquake’, Paiwan luni ‘earthquake’, l<m>uni ‘to have an earthquake’, Ibanag, Balangao, Yogad lunig, Atta lunik, Gaddang alúnig, Itawis lúnig, Boano linuʔ, Chamorro linao ‘earthquake’. For unknown reasons at least three closely similar forms can be reconstructed meaning ‘earthquake’, and many other words that appear to have a historical connection with these fail to show regular sound correspondences.

Based on the comparison Tagalog lindól : Javanese linḍu ‘earthquake’, Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *linḍuγ ‘earthquake’, but he was forced to acknowledge that the sound correspondence supporting the final consonant is irregular, Tagalog pointing to *lindul or *lindur, but Javanese to *lindu or *linduR (ignoring the *d/ distinction, which is no longer regarded as valid). Access to apparently related forms from a much larger selection of languages now permits the reconstruction of both *linduR and the disjunct *lindur, although neither of these is a competitor of PAn *linuR ‘earthquake’. At first glance Paiwan luni and Philippine forms such as Agta, Balangao lunig suggest a PAn doublet *luniR, but closer attention to northern Luzon forms indicates that they probably reflect *lunij. This in turn allows comparison with Thao rinuz (< *linuj), except that the position of the vowels is reversed and there is no clear basis for deciding which order was original. In addition, Li (1981) has posited Proto-Atayalic *gunug ‘earthquake’ on the basis of evidence that actually supports Proto-Atayalic *runug, a form which would reflect earlier *lunuR. Reflexes of *linuR (and words for ‘earthquake’ more generally) completely skip Borneo, which is a tectonically stable region in an area otherwise known as part of the circum-Pacific ‘ring of fire’.


*liNuŋ calm, tranquil, of the surface of water


PAN     *liNuŋ calm, tranquil, of the surface of water     [doublet: *linaŋ]    [disjunct: *lineŋ]

Paiwan lilʸuŋbe non-moving, collected (water)


PMP     *linuŋ calm, tranquil, of the surface of water

Hanunóo línuŋpeace, quiet, tranquillity


*liŋ₁ sound of ringing


PMP     *liŋ₁ sound of ringing

Maranao liŋsound of metals
Simalur liŋword, speech, sound, noise
Javanese liŋone's words
Manggarai liŋsound; to sound (of flute, clap of the hands, etc.)


*liŋ₂ word, speech


PMP     *liŋ₂ word, speech

Nias liword, speech, ut