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Updated: 8/10/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*ñ   

ña    ñe    ñə    ñi    ño    ñu    

ña

ñabi

ña(ŋ)ket

ñaman

ñamit

ñamñam

ñamu

ñamuR

ñañuy

ñao

ñaRa

ñaRo

ñawñaw

33283

*ñabi to taste

11810

POC     *ñabi to taste

OC
Lou napto taste
Bugotu ñapito bite, taste
  ña-ñapito lick
Nggela na-napitaste

28820

*ña(ŋ)ket sticky, adhesive

6051

PMP     *ña(ŋ)ket sticky, adhesive

WMP
Kankanaey naŋketglutinous, sticky, limy, gluey
Casiguran Dumagat nikethoney (archaic)
Sasak ñaŋketsticky, adhesive

11937

POC     *ñakot sticky, gluey

OC
'Āre'āre nakosticky, gluey

Note:   With root *-keC ‘sticky, adhesive’.

28813

*ñaman tasty, delicious

6043

PWMP     *ñaman tasty, delicious

WMP
Kapampangan ma-ñamandelicious
Malay ñamanhealthy feeling; sense of well-being'; (Sarawak) 'tasty, delicious

30140

*ñamit taste

6883

PMP     *ñamit taste

WMP
Bikol námittaste, flavor
  ma-námitflavorful, palatable, savory, tasty
Masbatenyo ma-námitdelicious, tasty, appetizing
Nias (Southern) nami-namit-õsweet
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *namitaste
Wolio namitaste, feeling, mind, heart
Muna namitaste
  namis-ifeeling, opinion
OC
Cheke Holo ñamitaste by licking with the tongue
Bugotu ñaminibble, bite, taste
Nggela namito taste
  nami-nami-luveto water, of the mouth at the sight of food
Arosi namito taste, lick
Gilbertese namsmacking of tongue, tasting; to smack lips, to taste, to suck

6884

PPh     *mag-námit to taste, savor something

WMP
Isneg mag-námitto smack the lips
Bikol mag-námitto taste, savor
Masbatenyo mag-námitbecome delicious, make delicious

Note:   Also Buginese ñame ‘taste, feeling’, Arosi name ‘to taste, lick’. It is possible that some or all of the Oceanic forms cited here actually reflect *ñamñam through an intermediate POc *ñañam-i, with haplology motivated by the common disyllabic target of many Austronesian languages.

28814

*ñamñam tasty, delicious (?)

6044

PAN     *ñamñam tasty, delicious (?)

Formosan
Thao mak-za-zamzamchew betel nut, chewing gum, or other substances that one does not intend to swallow
  ma-zamzamgreedy, of one who likes to eat, gluttonous
  m-zamzamlick one’s lips
WMP
Ilokano nánamtaste, flavor, savor
  pag-nanámsense of taste
  nanam-antasty, appetizing
  nanam-ento enjoy, relish (something)
Kankanaey men-nánampalatable; tasteful; savory
Pangasinan nanámto savor, taste appreciatively
Tagalog namnám ~ linamnámsavor; taste
Aklanon námnamdelicious, flavorful
Mansaka nanamtaste
Kadazan Dusun nanamtaste; good taste
Ida'an Begak nanamtaste
Melanau (Mukah) ñamtaste
Iban ñamñaminsipid, tasteless
Malay ñamñamto eat (baby talk)
Toba Batak maŋa-namnamtaste with the lips
Mentawai nanamtasty; to taste
Tontemboan nanamtaste; tasty, delicious
Chamorro ñamñamchew, sound of chewing, eat

11938

PCEMP     *ñañam tasty, delicious

CMP
Selaru nanamsweet, tasty
Yamdena nanamtaste, savor; sweetness; tasty, sweet
OC
Bugotu ñam-inibble, bite, taste
Sa'a nanato eat (used to children)

12321

PPh     *ma-ñañam tasty, savory

WMP
Pangasinan ma-nanámsavory, tasty
Mansaka ma-nanamtasty

Note:   Also Aklanon ma-nanám ‘deliciously sweet, succulent, flavorful’, Cebuano nanám ‘for prepared foods to contain something that makes them unusually tasty’, Mansaka nanam ‘taste’, nanam-an ‘delicious’, Binukid, Manobo (Western Bukidnon), Yakan nanam ‘taste, flavor’, Tboli nóm ‘flavor, zest; sweet, tasty; delicious’, Tiruray nonom ‘the taste or feel of something’, ge-nonom ‘tainted, having a strange taste’. With root *-ñam ‘savory, tasty’.

30144

*ñamu chew

6888

POC     *ñamu chew

OC
Gedaged namto eat; used when speaking to small children
'Āre'āre namuchew betelnut; chew, masticate
Fijian namu-namuchew and swallow (intr.)
  namu-tachew and swallow (trans.)

Note:   Also Javanese ñamuk-ñamuk ‘chew on something with the mouth full’ appears superficially to be related, but evidently is the active verb form a base camuk, seen also in di-camuk-camuk ‘be chewed on (with a full mouth)’. Reflexes of Proto-Polynesian *namu ‘odor, flavor’ may be related, but the meanings are fairly distinct.

30141

*ñamuR dew

6885

PAN     *ñamuR dew     [doublet: *lamuR]

Formosan
Saisiyat lamoLdew
WMP
Hanunóo námugdew (morning)
  ma-námugdew-laden, dewy
Maranao namogdew
Minangkabau ñamurdewdrop
Sangir namuhdew
Mongondow namugdripping dew
CMP
Ngadha namudew
OC
Gedaged namdew, moisture (on grass, etc.)
Puluwat yamwuŕ-e-ni-pwoŋdew; to fall, of dew

Note:   Also Ibaloy amol ‘dew’.

30986

*ñañuy to sing in unison, as in traditional festivals

8888

PWMP     *ñañuy to sing in unison, as in traditional festivals

WMP
Cebuano nánuysoft and sweet, melodious (as the melody of a flute)
Iban ñañisinging, especially in style other than Iban, or particular kind of song (probably < Malay)
Malay ñañisinging
  mə-ñañito sing
Tae' nanipanegyric, oration praising someone; choral song sung by participants in the la’pa’ festival (major offering feast)
  me-nanito sing in chorus at the bua’ festival (the agricultural New Year celebration, to ensure the continuing productivity of the rice crop); to sing European songs (this sense borrowed from Malay mə-ñañi)

Note:   Also Isneg mag-nánay ‘to sing’, Ba’amang ma-ñañi ‘to sing’, Dusun Deyah ma-ñañi ‘to sing’, Samihim ñañi ‘to sing’ (all < Malay), Javanese ma-ñañi ‘to sing (modern style)’, ñañi-an ‘a modern-style song’ (< Malay), Sundanese ma-ñañi ‘to sing’ (< Malay), Sasak bə-ñañi ‘to sing’, ñañi-aŋ ‘to sing a song’ (< Malay), Petapa Taje pa-ñani ‘to sing’, Tetun hananu ‘to sing, to chant’. Despite the clear evidence that Malay ñañi has been widely borrowed in western Indonesia, Tae' nani appears to be native, and if the semantically somewhat divergent Cebuano form is included it can be seen that this form ended with *-uy rather than *-i. Dempwolff (1938) included forms from Tongan, Futunan and Samoan in this comparison that seem best left out.

30095

*ñao widow(er)

6814

POC     *ñao widow(er)     [disjunct: *ñaRo]

OC
Loniu hi-ñawwidow
Nali naowidow(er)
Ere naowidow(er)
Titan pi-ñawwidow
Leipon hi-ñawwidow
  po-ñawwidower
Kwaio naowidow, widower (also unwed mother); more generally, as a category, includes divorced persons and also unmarried person who is publicly known to have had a sexual affair
'Āre'āre naowidower
  keni naowidow
Sa'a nao ~ nao-naowidow(er)
Arosi naoa widow fasting for husband or widower fasting for wife; a widow, in modern translations of the Bible, copying Mota naro

31895

*ñaRa brother (woman speaking)

10102

PMP     *ñaRa brother (woman speaking)

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ñahæbrother (a woman calls her brother thus)
Katingan ñahaibrother (woman speaking), father’s brother’s son, mother’s sister’s son
CMP
Manggarai narabrother or male cousin (woman speaking)
Rembong narabrother (used by his sister); expression used by a woman to her sweetheart or husband; expression used by a man to his father-in-law
Ngadha narabrother of a woman
Ende narabrother (woman speaking), all male cousins except the father’s sister’s son
Solorese naabrother (woman speaking)
Rotinese na-(k)brother (woman speaking)
Tetun naa-nbrother, cousin (only used by women to their brothers and male cousins)
Erai nara-(n)a man’s sister, a woman’s brother
Leti naraa man’s sister, a woman’s brother
Buruese naha-tbrother (woman speaking)
Soboyo nahabrother (woman speaking)

Note:   This and *betaw ‘sister (man speaking)’ are two of the key terms in determining the history of marriage and social organization in PMP society (Blust 1993).

33348

*ñaRo widow(er)

11939

POC     *ñaRo widow(er)

OC
Nauna ñawwidow(er)
Penchal pati-ñawwidow
  po-ñawwidower
Pak pi-ñawwidow
Loniu hi-ñawwidow
Nali naowidow(er)
Ere naowidow(er)
Titan pi-ñawwidow
Leipon hi-ñawwidow
  po-ñawwidower
Levei napwidow(er)
Likum ña-ñawwidow(er)
Sori ñawwidow
  ñahwidower
Lindrou ñawwidow(er)
Bipi ñaw ~ ña-ñawwidow(er)
Mbula nora <Mwidow
  noro-ŋawidows
Mota narowidow(er)

28818

*ñawñaw rinse, wash

6049

PAN     *ñawñaw rinse, wash

Formosan
Amis mu-nanawwash (hands, feet)
WMP
Cebuano nawnáwput something in a liquid and swish it around
  hi-nawnáwrinse

Note:   With root *-ñaw ‘wash, bathe, rinse’.

TOP      ña    ñe    ñə    ñi    ño    ñu    

ñe

ñepñep

ñepuq

ñeRab

28826

*ñepñep drink, slurp, suck

6057

PMP     *ñepñep drink, slurp, suck     [doublet: *sepsep, *sipsip, *supsup]

WMP
Makassarese ñoʔñoʔslurp, sip, drink as animals do
CMP
Bimanese nonodrink, swallow
Asilulu nono-esuck (Stresemann 1927:63)

10133

POC     *ñoñop to suck

OC
Tabar nopi (< *ñoñop-i)to suck
Wogeo ñoñofemale breast
Manam nonoto eat (only of mangoes) (Böhm 1975), to suck (Blust n.d.)
Arosi nonoput the lips to, suck, as a sweet

Note:   Mills (1975:790) assigns Makassarese ñoʔñoʔ to Proto-South Sulawesi *ñoqño(C) ‘to slobber’, citing a number of forms in other languages which appear to belong to disparate cognate sets.

32687

*ñepuq stonefish

11093

PMP     *ñepuq stonefish     [doublet: *nepuq]

WMP
Chamorro ñufoqscorpionfish, stonefish

11094

POC     *ñopuq stonefish

OC
Sudest nyostonefish

28827

*ñeRab yesterday

6058

PMP     *ñeRab yesterday     [doublet: *niRab]

WMP
Kenyah (Long Anap) ñaapyesterday

11940

POC     *ñoRap yesterday

OC
Bali (Uneapa) ŋorapayesterday
Kilivila lovayesterday
Selau norwayesterday
Bugotu i-ñothayesterday
Nggela nolayesterday
Sa'a no-nolayesterday
Mota ana-norayesterday
Fijian e na noayesterday

Note:   Corrects Blust (1980) *neRab, where the palatal nasal in Bugotu was attributed to sporadic assimilation. J.N. Sneddon (p.c.) informs me that Bantik ka-nehab-aʔ ‘yesterday’ reflects *niRab, not *ñeRab.

TOP      ña    ñe    ñə    ñi    ño    ñu    

ñə

ñəñu

30121

*ñəñu tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia

6852

PCEMP     *ñəñu tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia

CMP
Bimanese nonua tree of which the root’s bark gives a red dye: Morinda spp. (Ismail, Azis, Yakub, Taufik H. and Usman (1985), where this word is said to correspond in meaning to Bahasa Indonesia mengkudu)
Tetun nenu-ka tree (Morinda tinctoria) from which red dye is extracted
Leti nenua tree: Morinda citrifolia
Moa nienua tree: Morinda citrifolia
Wetan nenikind of tree (probably Morinda citrifolia); the fruits and decoction of the roots are used as a remedy against swollen tonsils; from the roots is also made paint (yellow, or when the wood has been mixed with lime, red)
Asilulu nenuthe Indian mulberry: Morinda citrifolia L.
  nenu maʔasi aikind of small tree, the roots of which yield soda

6853

POC     *ñoñu tree with inedible white fruit and root that yields a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia L.

OC
Nali nontree with inedible fruit: Morinda citrifolia L.
Leipon ñoñtree with inedible fruit; the roots yield a pink dye: Morinda citrifolia
Bipi ñoyshort roundish tree with large leaves and small inedible fruit that turns yellow when ripe: Morinda citrifolia
Wogeo ñoñtree with non-edible fruit and roots used as medicine: Morinda citrifolia
Gitua nono <Aa tree, Morinda citrifolia; bark used for red dye
Motu nonua tree: Morinda citrifolia
Gilbertese nona tree: Morinda citrifolia; the fruit of this tree
Tongan nonutree with fruit that looks somewhat like custard apples: Morinda citrifolia. Its leaves and fruit are used medicinally.
Niue nonua shrub: Morinda citrifolia
Futunan nonua tree: Morinda citrifolia
Samoan nonushrub or small tree (Morinda spp.),
  nonu fiʔa-fiʔaa tree (Eugenia sp.), the Malay apple
Tuvaluan nonushrub sp.: Morinda citrifolia; fruit of nonu
Kapingamarangi nonuthe Indian mulberry: Morinda citrifolia L.
Nukuoro nonuthe Indian mulberry: Morinda citrifolia L.
Anuta nonua tree, of which there are two subvarieties; te nonu kuru (with larger fruit), and te nonu vao
Rarotongan nono <Aa native tree: the Morinda citrifolia
Hawaiian nonithe Indian mulberry (Morinda citrifolia), a small tree or shrub in the coffee family with pale yellow unpleasant-tasting fruits. Formerly Hawaiians obtained dye and medicine from the many parts of the tree

Note:   Also Kapampangan líno, Tagalog níno ‘a tree: Morinda umbellata L., Morinda citrifolia L. (Madulid 2001), Bikol níno ‘shrub possessing roots from which a yellow dye may be extracted: Morinda bracteata Roxb.’, maŋ-níno ‘go to the mountains to collect these roots’, Cebuano ninú ‘small tree similar to bangkúru, but with smaller and lighter-colored leaves: Morinda sp.’, Gedaged nanom ~ nonom ‘a tree: Morinda citrifolia. Scrapings from the root are mixed with lime, which produces a red dye’, Takia nom ‘a tree: Morinda citrifoliaMilke (1968) proposed POc *nonumMorinda citrifolia’, basing the final consonant on the puzzling Gedaged form. This comparison is discussed thoroughly by Ross (2008), who notes (2008:407-408) that both Gedaged and Takia have lost POc *-VC, and that the final nasal is better interpreted as a reflex of the medial *ñ.

Ross further notes that if the Philippine forms can be compared with those in CEMP languages PMP *ñeñu can be reconstructed. However, Philippine forms point consistently to an etymon with penultimate *i and CEMP forms to an etymon with penultimate schwa. Under these circumstances the earliest form that can be securely reconstructed is PCEMP *ñəñu, although PMP clearly had either a single etymon of indeterminae shape, or doublets differing in the penultimate vowel.

TOP      ña    ñe    ñə    ñi    ño    ñu    

ñi

ñikñik

ñikut

ñilu

27195

*ñikñik tiny biting insect: gnat, sandfly

3668

PMP     *ñikñik tiny biting insect: gnat, sandfly

WMP
Kapampangan nikníka tiny insect (gnat?)
Tagalog nikniktiny blood-sucking insect
Central Tagbanwa nɨknɨkgnat
Lampung ñeñikmosquito
Balinese ñiñiktiny mosquitoes that fly in swarms
Sasak ñiñiktobacco louse

11941

PCEMP     *ñiñik tiny biting insect

CMP
Hawu ninivery small kind of midge
Rotinese ninikmosquito
Yamdena ninikmidge, mosquito
SHWNG
Minyaifuin ninimosquito
Waropen ninimidge, mosquito
OC
Seimat ninibee
'Āre'āre nini-suakind of bee
Sa'a nini-hohornet

Note:   Also Bikol núknúk ‘gnat’, Bisaya keliah niniʔ ‘sandfly’. Kapampangan niknik is assumed to be a Tagalog loan.

33284

*ñikut nest, lair

11811

POC     *ñikut nest, lair

OC
Mukawa nigu-nanest, den, hole
Adzera nigit <Anest
Bugotu ñiku-ñabird’s nest
Nggela nikua bird’s nest; ant nest; lair of a pig, den of an animal
Mota nigiua nest of a bird or pig

Note:   Also Kilivila nigwa ‘nest’, Bugotu ñeku-ña ‘bird’s nest’. A variant of this comparison was assigned by Milke (1968:160) to POc *(n)igu(t) ‘nest’.

30394

*ñilu painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour

7502

PMP     *ñilu painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour     [doublet: *ŋilu]

WMP
Kapampangan liño <Msetting teeth on edge (Bergaño 1860)
Ngaju Dayak ñilopain in the joints, arthritis

12401

PMP     *ma-ñilu painful sensation, teeth or joints

WMP
Miri ma-ñilauhrheumatic pains
CMP
Kambera yílusour (both taste and feeling of unease in body)
  ma-yílusour, tart, as a mango (also of painful feeling or discomfort in the body)
Hawu me-ñilusour

TOP      ña    ñe    ñə    ñi    ño    ñu    

ño

ñopñop

ñoro

31464

*ñopñop to sip, suck on

9576

PCEMP     *ñopñop to sip, suck on     [doublet: *sepsep, *sipsip, *supsup]

CMP
Bimanese nonoto drink
Asilulu nono-eto suck

9577

POC     *ñoñop to suck

OC
Manam nonoto suck mangoes
Lungga ñoñopoto suck
Roviana nonopoto suck
Arosi nonoto suck

Note:   Also Buginese ñəñoɁ ‘to sip’, Makassarese ñoɁñoɁ ‘to slobber, let food or drink run out of the mouth’. Mills (1975) reconstructed Proto-South Sulawesi ñoqño(C) ‘to slobber’, a form that is phonologically incompatible with words in CEMP languages unless *o is admitted into the PMP phoneme inventory on the basis of very tenuous evidence.

33285

*ñoro rough, of a turbulent sea

11812

POC     *ñoro rough, of a turbulent sea

OC
Tolai noroto pour forth, rush, run, gush, flow quickly; rapid flow, rapid motion; torrent, jet
  no-norokeep pouring forth, rushing, running, gushing, flowing quickly
Bugotu ñoroa wave, breaker, surf; to be rough, of sea
Puluwat wave; to be many waves, as in a strong sea
  nónnóto be big with waves

TOP      ña    ñe    ñə    ñi    ño    ñu    

ñu

ñutñut

28861

*ñutñut suck, pull at with the lips

6096

PWMP     *ñutñut suck, pull at with the lips

WMP
Ilokano notnótto suck (one's thumb, etc.)
Pangasinan nótnótmanner of chewing of small children or older persons without teeth
Kalamian Tagbanwa nutnutsucking without use of teeth (breast, finger, shellfish, but not sugarcane)
Aborlan Tagbanwa nutnutsuck weakly
Malay ñoñotpulling at the breast (of children); drawing at anything elastic

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 8/10/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
CognateSets-Index-ñ