Updated: 11/21/2015
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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


pe    pi    po    pu    pw    


*pa still, yet, til now, first (before doing something else)


PWMP     *pa still, yet, til now, first (before doing something else)

Yami pafirst (before doing something else)
Itbayaten paparticle: also, too, yet, still, more
Agta (Eastern) payet, still
Casiguran Dumagat paparticle: first, still
Kapampangan pastill, yet
Tagalog pamore; still; even; yet; up to now, up to a certain time; further; else
Bikol pastill, yet; more, anymore; than
Hiligaynon paparticle: still, yet
Aklanon pasustaining particle with the sense of English “yet” or “still”
Central Tagbanwa pastill, yet
Masbatenyo paparticle: yet, still; in addition, as well, also, too
Waray-Waray pamore; yet, still
Romblomanon pasomeone does something first, before something else is done; someone still does something, has something; something is also done; a situation also exists
Cebuano pastill, yet: up to now, up to a specific point in the past; else, in addition
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) payet; still
Mansaka pamodifying particle: still; yet
Binukid pastill, yet: up to now, up to a specific point in time
Tausug pasignals the continuance of an event already occurring or of a state already existing; still, more, yet
Kadazan pogrammatical particle: yet
Kelabit pəhso far, til now; so that, in order to
Ponosakan pastill, more, yet (before doing something else)
Bare'e pastill, yet
Tae' -pastill, yet
Mandar -paonly; later; still; not yet
Makasarese -pastill, yet


*pa-₁ numeral prefix, divide into x (x = numeral)


PMP     *pa-₁ numeral prefix, divide into x (x = numeral)

Toba Batak pa- (numeral)let (the thing mentioned by you) be made into (numeral) (van der Tuuk 1971)
Old Javanese pa-ro, pa-rwawavering, in two minds
Kambera pa- (numeral)divide into (numeral)
Motu ha-ruatwice
Molima va-luado in pairs
Eddystone/Mandegusu va-luathe second man in a six-man canoe (cf. *duSa 'two')


*pa-₂ causative prefix


PAN     *pa-₂ causative prefix

Atayal p-causative prefix
Saisiyat pa-causative prefix
Pazeh pa-causative prefix
Thao pa-causative of dynamic verbs
Kavalan pa-causative prefix
Amis pa-causative prefix
Rukai pa-causative prefix
Puyuma pa-causative prefix
Paiwan pa-causative prefix
Itbayaten pa-causative prefix
Ibatan pa-causative prefix
Ilokano pa-causative prefix
Agta pa-causative prefix
Bontok pa-causative prefix
Ifugaw (Batad) pa-causative prefix
Pangasinan pa-causative prefix
Kapampangan pa-causative prefix
Tagalog pa-causative prefix
Bikol pa-causative prefix
Hiligaynon pa-causative prefix
Aklanon pa-causative prefix
Palawano pa-causative prefix
Cebuano pa-causative prefix
Masbatenyo pa-causative prefix
Romblomanon pa-causative prefix
Maranao pa-ka-causative prefix
  pa-ki-causative prefix
Mansaka pa-causative prefix
Binukid pa-causative prefix
Mapun pa-instransitive causative motion within oneself, transition, or change of state becoming
Tboli h- ~ he-causative prefix
Ida'an Begak pə-dependent causative
Kadazan Dusun po- ~ popo-causative prefix
Kenyah pa-causative prefix
Toba Batak pa-causative prefix
Toratán pa-causative prefix
Banggai a-causative prefix
Makasarese pa-causative prefix
Wolio pa-causative prefix
Muna fo-causative prefix for dynamic verbs
Kambera pa-causative prefix
Tetun ha-causative prefix (said to be a contraction of halo ‘do, make’, but his may be a historically secondary rationalization)
Buli fa-causative prefix
Lusi pa-causative prefix


PWMP     *p<in>a- caused (something to happen)

Ibatan p<in>a-causative (perfective)
Ida'an Begak (pə)nə- -i-causative (completive)
Bintulu p<in>a-causative (perfective)


PAN     *pa-ka- causative of stative verbs

Pazeh paka-causative prefix
Amis paka-causative prefix
Paiwan paka-causative prefix
Ilokano paka-nominalizing instrumental affix for potentive maka- verbs (maka-surat ‘able to write’ : paka-surat ‘something with which one is write’)
Cebuano paka-derivational verb-forming prefix; with durative active affixes, verbs with paka- mean ‘pretend to be, act like so-and-so’, and with the direct passive affixes they mean ‘consider as so-and-so’, or ‘treat like so-and-so’
Maranao paka-causative of object voice (McKaughan 1958:27)
Yakan paka-causative affix in transitive or antipassive clauses
Kayan pək-causative prefix
Malagasy paha-causative/multiplicative prefix with numeral bases
Toratán pa-ka-‘exhaustive’ causative of stative verbs
Makasarese paka-prefix for adjectives or stative verbs
Muna feka-causative prefix with stative verbs
Chamorro faha-causative/multiplicative prefix with numeral bases
Tetun hak-causative prefix to verbs (also forms verbal nouns and adjectives)


POC     *paka- causative prefix

Lau faka-causative prefix, rarely found
  fā-causative prefix which also makes transitive verbs from intransitive verbs, adjectives and nouns (roŋo ‘to hear’ : fā-roŋo ‘to tell’; mamagu ‘fear’ : fā-mamagu ‘loathsome’; ŋū ‘to sing’ : fā-ŋū ‘teach to sing’)
Toqabaqita faɁa-usually derives causative verbs (mae ‘die; dead’ : faɁa-mae-a ‘administer anaesthetic to, put to sleep with anaesthetic’)
Fijian vaka-prefix; added to verbs it usually makes causatives; added to nouns it makes adjectives or adverbs (tamata ‘man’, vaka-tamata ‘human; like a human being); added to adjectives it makes adverbs (vinaka ‘good’, vaka-vinaka ‘well’); added to nouns it may indicate possession (vale ‘house’ vaka-vale ‘having a house’); added to some intransitive verbs it makes intensives, frequentatives or continuatives
Tongan faka-prefix denoting likeness, causation (causing or allowing to), supplying, having, etc. (mate ‘die; dead’ : faka-mate ‘causing death; deadly, poison, fatal’, taŋi ‘to cry’ : faka-taŋi ‘having a doleful sound, sounding like a lament; to appeal to someone after one’s request has been rejected by someone else’)
Niue faka-a very common prefix, usually causative, but with other meanings
Samoan faɁa-multifunctional prefix indicating, among other things, causation; faɁa-sāmoa ‘do things in the Samoan way’
Tuvaluan faka-causative prefix with a range of meanings: 1. cause an action to occur or a state to result (ako ‘learn’ : faka-ako ‘teach’, moe ‘sleep’ : faka-moe ‘put to sleep’), 2. to act a role (maatua ‘mother’ : fakamaatua ‘parent’s sister’, paalaŋi ‘European’ faka-paalaŋi ‘act like a European’), cause to be like (fonu ‘turtle’ : faka-fonu ‘heap up food in the shape of a turtle’), 4. before statives to form transitive verbs (huki ‘pierce’ : ma-huki ‘pierced’, faka-ma-huki ‘pierce a nut for drinking’)
Kapingamarangi haga-causative prefix: cause to; cause to have; provide a; allow to; teach how to; install as (made ‘to die’ : haga-made ‘to kill’, daŋi ‘to cry’ : haga-daŋi ‘to make someone cry’
Nukuoro haga-causative prefix, cause to be, become, have, know (made ‘dead’ : haga-made ‘do as hard or fast as possible’, daŋi ‘to cry’ : haga-daŋi ‘to play a musical instrument’)
Rennellese haka-causative prefix (meanings are usually causative or transitive, but sometimes similitude)
Anuta paka-causative prefix (mate ‘die’ : paka-mate ‘commit suicide’, taŋi ‘to cry, to moan’ : paka-taŋi ‘to blow a conch shell or other type of whistle, horn, etc.’)
Rarotongan aka-a causative prefix; to make to, to cause something to be done; by the addition of the prefix aka- many nouns, adjectives and neuter verbs become active verbs
Maori whaka-causative prefix; combined with an intransitive verb, an adjective or participle to form an intransitive verb, it signifies a beginning of, or approach to, the action or condition indicated; combined with a noun to form an intransitive verb, it signifies the assumption of the character or form expressed by the noun; as a strict causative it may combine with a verb, adjective, participle, or noun to form a transitive verb
Hawaiian hoɁo-a very active former of causative/simulative derivatives, including 1. causation and transitivization (pono ‘correct’ hoɁo-pono-pono ‘to correct’), 2. pretense (kuli ‘deaf’ : hoɁo-kuli ‘to feign deafness’), 3. simillarity (kamaliɁi- ‘children’ : hoɁo-kamaliɁi ‘childish’), 4. no meaning (kāholoholo ‘to hurry’, hoɁo-kāholoholo ‘to hurry’), 5. unpredictable (maikaɁi ‘good’ : hoɁo-maikaɁi ‘to congratulate’)

Note:   Also Yakan peke-, peki- ‘causative affix in transitive or antipassive clauses’.


*pacek wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail or dowel


PAN     *pacek wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail or dowel     [doublet: *pasek]

Amis patseknail
Puyuma paseknail; hammer in a nail
  mi-pasekhave a nail in
Itbayaten paseknail
  i-pask-endowel, made of tañod (mulberry) tree
Kankanaey pasekwedge
Bikol pásokwooden peg
  mag-pásokput something together with such pegs
Maranao pasekpost, pillar
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pasekput a post or stick in the ground
Bintulu pasekenter
Ngaju Dayak pasakwooden nail, dowel; what is fastened together with dowels
Malay pacaksplitting, transfixing
Nias fasastake, nail; to pound in a stake or nail
Old Javanese pacekspike, pin
Balinese pacekpeg, nail; stick into, make a hole; plant (seedlings, etc.)
Sangir ma-masiʔdrive in a stake, implant
  pa-pasiʔstake, post (as a fencepost)
Tontemboan pasəka pole driven firmly into the ground to which a horse can be tethered
  ma-pasəkto drive (a stake or pole) into the ground
Uma pasoʔto nail, drive in a nail
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *pasoQpeg, nail
Makasarese am-masaʔdrive a wedge into wood in order to split it open
Wolio pasonail, pin, spike, spur
Muna pasonail
  ka-pasowooden pen, nail or peg
  pasok-ito nail something firmly
Manggarai pacekpile, stake; drive in a pile or stake

Note:   With root *-cek ‘insert, stick into a soft surface’. [cf root *-sek₂ insert, stick into a soft surface] Blust (1970:134) reconstructs *pacek ‘place upright in the earth’, but cites only WMP cognates. Makasarese pasoʔ ‘nail, pin, peg’ is assumed to reflect *pasuk.


*paCak spotted, speckled, as the skin of an animal


PAN     *paCak spotted, speckled, as the skin of an animal

Paiwan patsaknewly born calf or deer
Cebuano patʔak (ʔ unexplained)splotch, spatter all over something
Iban pantakhaving spot of different color, usually of animal's head


*pandak short in height, squat and compact in build, of a person


PMP     *pandak short in height, squat and compact in build, of a person

Ilokano pandákdwarf: dwarfish
Cebuano pandákshort and stout; be short and stout
Mansaka pandakextremely short; dwarfed
Iban pandakshort (as a stick, stature, brevity): shorten
Malay pandakshort, especially as a familiar name for the fourth or fifth child in the family (if a boy)
Tae' pandakvery short, very small
  tau pandaka very short person
Kambera pandakushort, squat and compact in stature

Note:   Also Ilokano pandáka ‘dwarf; dwarfish’, Malay andak ‘short, but limited to a few expressions, like andak-kan layar ‘to shorten sail, to reef’; also a familiar name for a fourth or fifth child in a family if a girl; andak-andak ‘at times’; péndék ‘short’, Tae' pandaɁ ‘very short, very small’, Komodo panda ‘low, short’.


*padaw kind of sailboat


PWMP     *padaw kind of sailboat     [doublet: *parahu]

Pangasinan párawtraditional type of sailboat
Tagalog paráwlarge passenger and cargo sailboat
Cebuano paráwschooner, galleon
Maranao padawsailboat
Kadazan padauboat, canoe, rowing boat, sailing boat
Tarakan padauboat
Bintulu paɗawsailing
Malay layar padaustorm sail

Note:   Bintulu a before an implosive stop indicates a loanword. Wilkinson (1959) sub perahu ‘undecked native ship’ adds "Etym. the padao or parao of the Malabar coast, in contr. to the decked kapal." I have been unable to determine a Dravidian source for this word, but if it is a loan in Austronesian languages it is remarkable that it has spread as far as central Luzon.


*padek rice husk


PWMP     *padek rice husk

Palawan Batak padɨkhusk of rice
Aborlan Tagbanwa padɨkhusk of rice
Lun Dayeh padekhusk of rice grain after separation by pounding (cf. lipaŋ 'husk of rice grain before separation by pounding')
Kiput padekfragment of broken rice grain

Note:   Also Kadazan paok ‘chaff, husks’.


*pa(n)dek specklike object


PWMP     *pa(n)dek specklike object

Ilongot pandɨkstar
Miri fatakstar
Mongondow pandokspot, speck, fleck


*pa(n)duŋ raised flooring


PWMP     *pa(n)duŋ raised flooring

Maranao pandoŋtemporary building; stage, raised flooring
Kayan paruŋattic space above inner room; upper storey
Iban padoŋraised sleeping platform or bunk near or in outer wall of house; (formerly) sleeping place for girls
Minangkabau pandoŋhut in rice fields


*paen bait


PAN     *paen bait

Kavalan pannbait (for fishing, or in a trap)
Paiwan panbait (for fishhook or trap)
  pu-panto bait a hook or trap
Ilokano appánbait
Isneg appānbait
  i-pānto ensnare
Agta (Dupaningan) appánbait for fishing
Bontok pá-panbait, as used in fishing or trapping birds
Kankanaey pá-panbait
Ifugaw pá-panbait, to lure birds to the place where they can be ensnared, or eels into a cage trap called udál, or rats into a kind of deadfall called ipít
Tagalog páʔinbait for catching fish, rats, etc.
  mag-páʔinto bait, to set a bait for; to lure or attract with bait
Bikol páʔonbait; decoy or lure
  mag-páʔonto bait or set a trap; to place bait on a hook; to decoy or lure
Hanunóo páʔunbait
Hiligaynon paʔúnbait, decoy
Aklanon paónbait (for fishing); to put on bait
Waray-Waray paónbait
Masbatenyo paónbait, lure, enticement; something used to entice the victim in fishing or trapping
Romblomanon paʔunbait used for catching fish, mollusks, octopuses
Cebuano paʔúnbait; to bait something; to make or use as bait; use someone else as a means to deflect danger from oneself
Maranao paʔanbait
Fordata faanfish bait
Kei fānbait
  en-fānto feed; to bait a hook


PPh     *i-paen to use as bait

Ilokano y-appánto use as bait
Masbatenyo i-paʔónuse something for bait; to sacrifice (oneself)


PPh     *paen-an to bait a trap, set the bait for

Ilokano appan-anto set bait
Tagalog páʔin-anto bait, to set a bait for; to lure or attract with bait
Bikol paʔon-anto bait or set a trap; to place bait on a hook; to decoy or lure

Note:   It is very likely that this form is related to *kaen ‘eat’, but no clear morphological relationship can be established


*paŋgaga a creeping plant: Hydrocotyle asiatica


PWMP     *paŋgaga a creeping plant: Hydrocotyle asiatica

Malay daun pegagaa creeping herb with an edible leaf: Hydrocotyle asiatica
  peŋgagaa creeping herb, Hydrocotyle asiatica
Old Javanese paŋgagakind of creeping herb, Hydrocotyle asiatica
Tae' paŋgagaa creeping plant with small, round leaves that are used as a vegetable and boiled for pig fodder: Hydrocotyle asiatica

Note:   Also Makasarese paʔgagaʔ ‘kind of stemless vegetable that grows in damp places (cooked as a vegetable): Centella asiatica’.


*pagal neck shackle to prevent an animal from passing through fences


PMP     *pagal neck shackle to prevent an animal from passing through fences

Ilokano paŋgála stick or bamboo transversely tied to the head or neck of an animal, or a collar consisting of a kind of triangle made of three pieces of wood or bamboo, to keep the wearer from passing through bamboo fences
Manggarai pagalhobble; heavy block hung from buffalo's neck to impede his movements

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance (since it is so weakly attested). The perfect phonological correspondences and highly distinctive semantics, however, suggest a historical connection.


*paŋgaŋ roast over a fire, toast


PWMP     *paŋgaŋ roast over a fire, toast

Ifugaw págaŋroast soomething edible
Tagalog paŋgáŋbroiled or toasted to crispiness
Bikol paŋgáŋto dry-fry in a kawaliʔ producing a result similar to toasting, rather than frying
Ngaju Dayak paŋgaŋanything roasted on a gridiron; to roast on a gridiron
Iban paŋgaŋroast, bake, cure by smoking
Malay paŋgaŋbroiling; roasting before the fire; toasting. Esp. toasting or roasting on a spit, skewer, or fork
Acehnese paŋgaŋroast (meat or fish) on a spit
Karo Batak paŋgaŋroast something over a fire; roasted
Nias fagaroast (in the flames)
Old Javanese paŋgaŋto roast (on spit, fork, etc.), toast
Javanese paŋgaŋbroiled food, food cooked over an open fire or charcoal; to toast at an open fire
Balinese paŋgaŋroast over a fire
Sasak paŋgaŋto roast
Makasarese paŋgaŋroasting of chicken (or a piece of chicken)


*pagel tired, exhausted


PWMP     *pagel tired, exhausted

Gaddang na-pákeltired (McFarland 1977)
Kapampangan pagal, ma-pagaltired
Tagalog pagálfatigue; assumed work or trouble or hardship for s.o. else
Bikol pagálexhausted, fatigued, jaded, tired, worn out
  ma-pagalget tired
Sasak paŋgeltired; bored

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat pagél ‘tired, exhausted’, Makasarese paʔgalaʔ ‘slow, languid; stiff from exhaustion’.


*pageq firm, steady, strong


PWMP     *pageq firm, steady, strong

Karo Batak paguhfirm, steady, solid, of a post; strong, big, robust, of men, trees, and houses
Sundanese pageuhfirm, steady, fast; stand, sit or hold fast; believe firmly in, inwardly convinced
Old Javanese pagehfirmness, stability, constancy, stabilization, repair
Balinese pagehstrong, firm, steady, reliable, sure, unchanging, faithful

Note:   Karo Batak paguh shows u for expected e. I assume that it has been reshaped under the influence of the semantically similar teguh ‘firm, strong; tough, of someone's constitution’.


*pager enclosure; palisade around a village; fence around a planted tree or cultivated field


PMP     *pager enclosure; palisade around a village; fence around a planted tree or cultivated field

Ilokano pagérpalisade
Miri fagérfence
Berawan (Batu Belah) paginfence
Kiput pakinfence
Ngaju Dayak pagar, pagerfence, hedge
Iban pagarfence, railing
  pagar ruyonstockaded fort
Malay pagarfence; palisade, e.g. of bamboo (pagar buloh), or wattle (pagar sasak) or palm-trunk (pagar ruyon)
Jarai pegafence, palisade
Acehnese pageuëfence, hedge
Sundanese pagerfence (of bamboo, stone, etc.); hedge
Old Javanese pagerhedge, fence, enclosure
Javanese pagerfence, outside wall
Balinese (Low) pagehbe fenced
  pageh-ana hedge, fence, wall, fortification
Balinese (High) pagerfence, wall, hadge, fortification
Sasak pagerwall of wicker-work, fence, enclosure
Proto-Minahasan *pagərfence, enclosure
Tae' pagaʔbamboo fence built, for example, around the base of a tree in order to heap up fertilizer around it
Buginese pageʔfence, wall (as a stone wall around a planted field)
Makasarese pagaraʔfence
Rotinese paʔato fence, a fence
Yamdena fakarfencing-in, as a planted tree; fencing with stakes for the defense of the village
Buruese pagerfence

Note:   Also Maloh pakar ‘fence’, Dairi-Pakpak Batak pagar ‘village stockade; fence of wood or bamboo’, Erai papa ‘enclosure’, Buruese pagar ‘fence’. Reflexes of *pager in Sarawak generally appear to be borrowed from Malay.This word evidently referred to a constructed enclosure that was intended to keep something out as opposed to one that was intended to keep something in (cp. *bala₂, *bara, or *baRa ‘pen, enclosure for domesticated animals’). The recurrent references to palisades suggests that PMP villages were stockaded.


*pagi later, tomorrow, in the future


PWMP     *pagi later, tomorrow, in the future

Iban pagimorning, early morning
Proto-Chamic *pagitomorrow
Malay pagimorning; early
Acehnese pagiDay of Judgement
Karo Batak pagifuture, future time
  pa-pagi, pe-pagimorning
  er-pagi-pagiin the morning
  si pagi-nathe future
Toba Batak pagi-anlater
  pagi-pagi-anfuture, in the course of one's life
Lampung pagimorning

Note:   This item is not simply a widely distributed Malay loan, since the Chamic languages and the Batak languages agree in indicating an original meaning that is not attested in the Malay reflex. Its antiquity depends crucially on the subgrouping relationship of the Batak languages to the Malayo-Chamic languages, a subject that required further investigation.


*pagquŋ land turtle, fresh-water turtle


PPh     *pagquŋ land turtle, fresh-water turtle

Isneg pagʔóŋkind of turtle with long neck and a more or less elongated body
Ilokano pagʔóŋtortoise, a land and fresh-water turtle
Bontok pagʔúŋturtle
Tagalog pagóŋturtle
Bikol pagóŋturtle


*pagu loft, attic


PWMP     *pagu loft, attic

Iban pagushelf, esp. over hearth
Malay paguceiling; ceiling-loft, attic
Minangkabau paguthe upper and more solid shelf over the kitchen fire (the lower light rack being salaian)
Acehnese paguattic, loft, ceiling
Gorontalo pahuspace between attic and roof

Note:   It is unclear precisely how PWMP *pagu and *paRa ‘storage shelf; attic (?)’ differed in meaning. The former may have referred to a loft or attic near the roof and the latter exclusively to a shelf or system of shelves over the hearth, but reflexes of *paRa so often include the meaning ‘loft, attic, ceiling’ that the semantic distinction between the two has been considerably blurred.


*paŋguŋ heap, pile; elevated platform used as a look-out


PWMP     *paŋguŋ heap, pile; elevated platform used as a look-out

Iban paŋgoŋpile, stack
Malay paŋgoŋraised flooring, platform of a stage (paŋgoŋ wayaŋ), a scaffolding for spectators, a look-out house
Toba Batak paŋguŋheap, pile, knoll
Sundanese paŋguŋdome, look-out, tower
Old Javanese paŋguŋscaffolding, raised platform, stand for spectators, "tower" in the cremation ceremony, stage for play (wayaŋ)
Javanese paŋguŋattic; platform built on piles above flood level; open-air pavilion for spectators
Balinese paŋguŋtower, cupola, dome
  bale paŋguŋa high platform
Sasak paŋgooŋlay something on top of something else
  paŋguŋan elevated structure with a ladder, used as a look-out


PWMP     *paŋguŋ-an elevated place

Toba Batak paŋguŋ-anhearth
Balinese paŋguŋ-ana high place for seeing from, a look-out

Note:   Also Iban paŋgoŋ ‘theatre, theatrical stage’, Makasarese paŋgoŋ ‘raised theatre stage’, forms which are clearly borrowed from Malay.


*pagut snap at with the mouth


PWMP     *pagut snap at with the mouth

Hiligaynon págutrave, be furious, gnash the teeth while asleep
Aklanon págotgrind one's teeth
Malay pagutpeck (of birds), bite (of snakes), nibble (of fish). Not used of the bite of a mammal
Toba Batak pagut, pargutbeak of a bird, mouth of a snake; peck up (birds), bite (snakes)

Note:   Sundanese pagut ‘knock against’, Javanese pagut ‘strike together’ may also be connected. The semantics of this comparison leave something to be desired. Nonetheless Hiligaynon págut, Aklanon págot appear to contain a reflex of the root *-gut ‘gnaw’ (q.v.), and the range of meanings found in other reflexes of this root includes biting, snapping, and nibbling at. Alternatively, *pagut may contain the root *-gut₂ ‘pull with a jerk’.


*paheku bracken, edible fern that grows by rivers: Athyrium esculentum


PAN     *paheku bracken, edible fern that grows by rivers: Athyrium esculentum

Amis pahkotype of fern that is edible


PWMP     *paku fern

Ilokano pakóan edible fern: Athurium Esculentum (sic!)
  pak-pakóferns resembling the pakó
Isneg pakóAthyrium esculentum (Retz.) Copel: an edible fern; eating it cures influenza
Casiguran Dumagat pakóan edible wild fern, sometimes called “wild asparagus”: Athyrium esculentum
Agta (Eastern) pakófern
Itawis pakúfern
Ifugaw (Batad) pa-paʔuan edible fern: Athyrium esculentum
Pangasinan pakóedible fern
Aklanon pakú(h)a fern: Athyrium esculentum
Cebuano pakúkind of fern, the young leaves of which are eaten as a salad: Athyrium esculentum
Maranao pakoa fern: Athyrium esculentum (Retz.) Copel
Mansaka pakokind of edible fern that grows by rivers
Binukid pakokind of fern (the young fronds of which are edible)
Tiruray fagewan edible fern: Athyrium esculentum Copel
Tombonuwo pakuedible fern
Kelabit paʔuhfern that grows by the riverbank
Berawan (Long Terawan) pakkohfern
Kenyah pakufern
Kayan pakoʔferns (many kinds)
Kayan (Busang) pakoʔfern, the young tips of which are eaten as a vegetable
Murik pakuʔfern
Singhi Land Dayak pokuxferns (edible)
Malay pakufern; generic for Filices (many types)
Acehnese pakufern
Karo Batak pakuedible fern
Toba Batak pahularge fern
Simalur pakufern
  paku gajahordinary tree fern (lit. ‘elephant fern’)
Sundanese pakufern
Old Javanese pakufern
Balinese pakufern, bracken
Sasak pakufern (various types)
Proto-Sangiric *pakuedible fern
Proto-Minahasan *pakutype of edible fern
Tontemboan pakufern
Bare'e pakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable
Tae' pakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *pakuferns
Makasarese pakufern, of which certain types are eaten as vegetables
Wolio pakufern
Bimanese fakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable
Manggarai pakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable: Athyrium esculentum
Ngadha pakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable
Kambera rí pakufern

Note:   Also Tagalog pakóʔ ‘fern; river fern’, Bikol pakóʔ, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pakuʔ, Tboli hokuʔ ‘edible fern found growing along streams: Athyrium esculentum’, Iban pakuʔ ‘fern’, daun pakuʔ ‘fern frond, edible fern tips’.


*pai where?


PMP     *pai₁ where?

Wolio paiwhere?
Nggela veiwhere, which, usually i vei
Kwaio faiwhere
  i faiwhere?
Lau i-fai(= 'at where?') 'where?'
Arosi haiwhere, what place, which?
Fijian veiinterrogative noun, asking place where?

Note:   Pawley (1972) reconstructs PEOc *pai ‘where?, locative interrogative’. This item probably was preceded by a generic marker of location *i.


*paid fan


PAN     *paid fan

Kavalan paiza fan
  p<m>aizto fan
Paiwan si-paiz-ana fan
  ki-paizto fan oneself, to have oneself fanned
  p<n>aizto fan something
Itbayaten payididea of fanning
  pa-payida fan
Ilokano paída fan (usually made of woven bamboo)
  ag-paídto fan oneself
  i-paídto fan with
  paid-anto fan someone
Agta (Dupaningan) ped-peda fan
  i-ped-pedto fan
Itawis pé-peda fan
  map-pé-pedto fan


*pajay rice in the field; rice plant


PAN     *pajay rice in the field; rice plant

Atayal pagayunhulled rice, rice in the husk
Seediq payayrice plant
Saisiyat pazayrice plant
Pazeh pazayglutinous rice
Thao pazayrice with husk adhering; rice in the field; riceplant
Bunun paaðrice plant, rice in the field
Tsou pairice plant, unhusked rice
Kanakanabu paláyglutinous rice
Rukai (Budai) pagayrice plant, unhusked rice
Kavalan panayrice plant in a dry field (unhusked); said to be a loan from Amis
Amis panayrice; the harvested grain
Paiwan padayrice (plant, grain): Oryza sativa
Itbayaten parayunhusked rice; husked rice; rice plant
Ilokano págayrice (unhusked), Oryza sativa
  i-pagay-anhire a worker for rice wages
  pagay-anplace where rice is grown; to plant with rice
Bontok págəyunthreshed rice; the rice plant, Oryza sativa L.
Kankanaey págeyrice on the stalk, unhusked rice
Ifugaw págerice growing in the fields, or bundles of rice ears
Ibaloy pageyrice --- esp. of rice standing in the field, but also of harvested rice that is still on the stalk unthreshed, and of unhusked rice off the stalk
  man-pageyto realize a certain yield from a field
Pangasinan pagéyrice plant; unhusked rice
Kapampangan pálerice (growing in the field)
  palay-anrice field
Tagalog pálayrice plant
  palay-anrice paddy, rice field
Hanunóo páraypalay, or unhusked rice (Oryza sativa Linn.), especially that standing in the fields, still unharvested
Hiligaynon pálayrice plant
Aklanon páeayrice (growing in the fields), Oryza sativa; rice seeds (freshly harvested, unmilled)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pareythe rice plant, Oryza sativa, and the grain before it is milled or pounded
Tiruray fareya general term for rice, Oryza sativa Linn.
Tboli halayOryza sativa. Rice, unhusked, a staple food of the Philippines
Yakan paleyrice (unhusked), Oryza sativa
Ida'an Begak paraypaddy
Kadazan paaipaddy
Lun Dayeh fadeyrice, paddy
Kelabit paderice plant, rice in the field
Kenyah padaypaddy, rice in the field
Kayan parerice plant, rice in the field
Kiput padəyrice plant, rice in the field
Melanau (Mukah) padayrice plant, rice in the field
Jarai pədayrice plant, rice in the field
Rade mədierice plant, rice in the field
Iban padirice, Oryza spp. as plants or grain in husk, paddy
Malay padirice as a plant, in the ear, and as an unhusked grain
Moken paipaddy
Karo Batak pagerice plant, rice in the field, unhusked rice
Nias faxerice (in general as a plant, and in its cooked state)
Old Javanese paririce (in the field or still in the straw), paddy
Javanese paririce plant (growing, or harvested, but still unhulled)
Sundanese parerice in general, but particularly rice in the field and in the husk
Balinese padirice, corn, grain; a grain (weight); rice in the husk
Sasak pade ~ parerice in the field, unhusked rice
Mongondow payoyunhusked rice, rice plant
Bare'e paerice in the field, unhusked rice
Tae' parerice in the field
Mandar parerice in the field
Makasarese parerice in the field
Muna paerice (on the stalk)
Chamorro faʔitype of plant - Oryza sativa. rice --- when growing
Bimanese farerice plant, rice in the field
Li'o parericeplant, rice in the field
Kambera paririce plant
Rotinese haderice plant, unhusked rice grain
Tetun harerice (plant and unhusked grain)
Yamdena faserice
Kamarian halarice (in general)
Kayeli halarice (in general)
Buruese palarice (in general)
Kowiai fasacooked rice, husked rice
Numfor fasrice (in general)
Wandamen fasrice (in general)
Dusner pasrice (in general)
Serui-Laut farice (in general)


PAN     *ka-pajay-an (gloss uncertain)

Amis ka-panay-anthe time of harvest
Ilokano ka-pagay-anrice field

Note:   Also Ifugaw (Batad) pāguy ‘rice plant, Oryza sativa before or after harvesting, i.e. a rice panicle and stalk’, Bikol pároy ‘rice still growing in the fields; rice before milling’, pag-paroy-an ‘to pay a portion of one’s debts with rice’, Toba Batak palge ‘large, select rice grains’, Buginese ase (expected **pase) ‘rice in the field’.


*paju eyebrow


POC     *paju eyebrow

Arosi hasu-hasu-(na)eyebrow
Sonsorol-Tobi fätieyebrow
Puluwat faateyebrow
Mokilese padeyebrow
Marshallese āteyebrow
Gilbertese arieyebrow
Wayan vacueyebrow
Fijian vacueyebrow

Note:   Possibly connected with PAn *pasu ‘cheekbone’, although this seems semantically strained.


*paka- numeral prefix, multiplicative

Note:   (See morphologically complex forms of *esa, *isa ‘one’, *duSa ‘two’, *telu ‘three’, *Sepat ‘four’, *lima ‘five’, *enem ‘six’, *pitu ‘seven’, *walu ‘eight’, *siwa ‘nine’, and *puluq ‘ten’.)


*paŋkaq strike against


PWMP     *paŋkaq strike against

Cebuano páŋkaʔbump against something
Iban paŋkaʔstrike, dash (down, against), hurl
Malay paŋkahto peg a top


*pakpak to clap, flap the wings; sound of clapping or flapping


PAN     *pakpak to clap, flap the wings; sound of clapping or flapping

Thao pakpakclap
  k<m>ay pa-pakpakclap the hands; flap the wings
Kavalan p<m>aqpaqto flap wings
Amis pakpakto clap hands, to hit with the hand
Puyuma pakpakwing; flap wings
  mi-pakpakto have wings
  pa-pakpakto make wings flap (as when frightening a chicken)
Itbayaten ma-makpakto clap hands
  pakpakento strike with open palm, slap
  p<al>akpaka bamboo toy for making a clapping sound
Ilokano pakpákbamboo rattle
  pakpak-enslap with the open hand; spank; clap; hammer
Casiguran Dumagat pakpákwing (of birds, airplanes, angels, etc.)
Bontok pakpákbeat with a short stick using a rhythmic motion, as in beating chickens to death, or the beating of shields during omen hunting trips
Kankanaey pakpák-ento slap in the face, to box the ears of
Ibaloy pakpák-ento hit something with a resulting thump, thud (as head by police baton, volleyball on palm)
Pangasinan pakpákto beat cotton or cloth with a rod
Kapampangan pakpakwings
  pa-pakpakclap the hands, flap the wings
  pa-pakpak-anclap for someone
Tagalog pakpákwing
Bikol pakpákwing (as of a bird)
  mag-pakpákto place wings on
Hanunóo pakpákwing
  p<al>akpákflapping of wings
Hiligaynon pákpakfeather, wing
  mag-pákpakto beat off, as to brush off dust or ants from a dress
  p<al>ákpakclapping of the hands
Aklanon pákpakwing; to spank, slap (children)
  p<ae>ákpakto clap for, applaud
Waray-Waray pakpákwooden club or mallet for pounding laundry
Masbatenyo pákpakwing
  i-pakpákto clap, applaud; be beaten, be thrashed
  pag-pakpákclapping, applause
Cebuano pakpákapplause
Maranao papakwing; break, chip off
  papak-anflying fish
Mansaka pakpakclap the hands
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pakpakwing; wing feather; clap the hands
Binukid pakpakwing (of a fowl)
Mapun pakpakfor a rooster to flap its wings before crowing
Tiruray fafaka wing
  fafak-ana large saltwater fish
Ida'an Begak pakpakdrop something small
Ngaju Dayak papaka slap
Malay papakclapper for frightening birds
Sasak pakpakbamboo clatterer put in the fields to frighten birds


PWMP     *ma-makpak to slap, flap the wings

Ngaju Dayak ma-makpakto slap
Toba Batak ma-makpakto beat, pound; address with crude language


PPh     *p<al>akpak clap

Ilokano palakpákspringless cart; the sound of a cart without springs
Bontok palakpákclap one's hands, applaud
Casiguran Dumagat palákpakclap the hands
Pangasinan palakpákapplause
Tagalog palakpákapplause, sound of applause
Hanunóo palákpakflapping of wings
Cebuano palakpákapplause; clap

Note:   Also Maranao parapak ‘flap wings’. With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.


*pala platform


POC     *pala platform     [disjunct: *paRa 'firewood shelf above the hearth']

Gedaged falaceiling, the covering of a room; sometimes only part of the room has a ceiling, and this serves as a platform
Lau falaa fishing stage, or platform for drying nuts


*pala pala₁ scaffolding, support


PWMP     *pala pala₁ scaffolding, support     [doublet: *paraq paraq]

Ilokano pala-pálascaffold, scaffolding. For supporting workmen, etc.; a framework for ornamental arches, etc.
Tagalog pala-pálagangplank
Bikol pála-pálaframework; scaffolding; trellis, lattice
Bare'e pala-palabench for resting or sleeping

Note:   Also Bontok bala-bála ‘arch’. Dempwolff (1934-38) conflated several distinct cognate sets under an apparently nonexistent form *para ‘rack, stand, frame’. Tagalog pala-pala was compared (1) with Toba Batak, Malay para-para, Ngaju Dayak pahe, and Malagasy fara-fara, all of which evidently reflect PMP *paRa ‘storage shelf’; (2) with Sa'a para, which reflects PMP *bara ‘pen, enclosure for domesticated animals’; and (3) with Fijian vara ‘scaffolding, platform, stage’, which does not appear to be related to either of the foregoing. Rotuman hara ‘frame, framework, stand’ may be cognate with the WMP forms cited here, but if so has lost its original reduplicative character.


*pala pala₂ temporary shed


PPh     *pala pala₂ temporary shed

Pangasinan pála-pálatemporary shed prepared for a special occasion, esp. a wedding reception
Cebuano pala-palatemporary shed without walls, with a flat roof

Note:   Also Cebuano palaʔ-palaʔ ‘temporary shed without walls, with a flat roof’.


*palaj₁ palm of hand, sole of foot


PMP     *palaj₁ palm of hand, sole of foot

Ilokano páladline in the palm of the hand, the fingers, the sole of the foot
Isneg pálādlines, marks, etc. in the palm of the hand; fate, luck, chance, good luck
Itawis páladpalm of hand
Bontok páladpalm of the hand
Ifugaw páladpalm of a human hand (scrutinized for signs of one's fortune)
Casiguran Dumagat paládpalm of the hand, sole of the foot
  ma-paladlucky, fortunate
Pangasinan pálarlines on palm of hand; luck, fortune; be affected by fortune
Kapampangan páladpalm (of hand)
  ka-palar-andestiny, fate
Tagalog páladpalm of the hand; fate, fortune, luck
Bikol paladpalm of the hand
  ma-paladlucky, fortunate
Hanunóo ka-palad-unluck, fortune, fate, destiny
Cebuano páladpalm of the hand; one's fate
Maranao paladpalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paladpalm of the hand; shake hands
Tboli hololpalm of the hand
Kadazan pahadpalm, handpalm
Kelabit palad, *p-en-aladpalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Kayan palanlines on palms of hands; segments in a fruit
Malagasy fala-palm of hand, sole of foot
Acehnese paleuëtpalm of the hand
Toba Batak palakpalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Dairi-Pakpak Batak palaŋpalm of the hand
Gorontalo paladupalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Bare'e palehand, forepaw, arm
Tae' palaʔpalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Mandar paleʔpalm of the hand
Ngadha palapalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Motu pala-palapalm of hand, sole of foot

Note:   Also Bikol párad ‘palm of the hand, sole of the foot’, Sangir palédeʔ ‘palm of hand, sole of foot’. In PPh, *palaj evidently referred not only to the palm of the hand and sole of the foot, but also to one's fate or destiny as inferred from the reading of the lines in one's palm.


*palaj₂ luck, fortune


PWMP     *palaj₂ luck, fortune

Isneg pálādfate, luck, chance; good luck
Pangasinan pálarluck, fortune
Cebuano páladone's fate
Old Javanese palarin the hope that, in view of, in order to, expecting, perhaps

Note:   Probably identical to *palaj ‘palm of the hand, lines in the palm’. Malay palar ‘counting on, expecting’ is assumed to be a loan from Javanese.


*palak shout in anger


PMP     *palak shout in anger

Ifugaw pálakcry loudly out of anger, making a sobbing sound (applied to children)
Minangkabau palakfeel hot; palak hati dan I am annoyed
Manggarai palakangry; scold, reprove
Rotinese palaspeak in irritation or anger, snarl at


*palala bald


POC     *palala bald

Manam palalabald head
Tanga palalbald
Puluwat palbe bald

Note:   Puluwat pal is assumed to show syllable reduction by haplology.


*palaŋ₁ thwart, crosspiece


PMP     *palaŋ₁ thwart, crosspiece

Kelabit palaŋa cross
Ngaju Dayak ta-palaŋcrosspiece, as on a mast
Iban palaŋcrosspiece
Malay palaŋcross-bar or crosspiece of any sort
Acehnese palaŋanything used as a barrier: crossbeam, bolt, etc.
Javanese palaŋobstacle; object placed crosswise to something
Balinese palaŋ, pa-palaŋcross-beam
Sasak palaŋlie across the path; born feet first
Makasarese palaŋlowest crosspiece of a ladder on the ground
  palaŋ-palaŋwooden support on the weather side of the mast on which the sail is laid when struck in bad weather
Mota palaŋset one thing obliquely across another; to wattle sticks

Note:   Also Rembong paleŋ ‘lie athwart’, Ngadha pale ‘crossbeam, crossbar, girder’, Molima bala-bala ‘put crosswise’ (see *bara₂), Eddystone/Mandegusu pala-pala ‘horizontal supports of a roof’.


*palaŋ₂ spotted


PWMP     *palaŋ₂ spotted

Maranao palaŋspotted, dappled
Bisaya (Limbang) palaŋhaving patches of black and white (of dogs or cats)

Note:   With root *laŋ₂ ‘striped’.


*palapaq spices, condiments


PWMP     *palapaq spices, condiments

Maranao palapaʔspices, flavor
Tiruray falaʔfa <Mgeneral term for spice or condiments; to add all the necessary spices and condiments to a dish
Old Javanese palapahcondiments, flavorings
Javanese plapahspices, condiments

Note:   Tiruray falaʔfa may show metathesis of the final glottal stop. However, this word clearly is a loan, and could preserve a preconsonantal glottal stop that was regularly lost in the other languages. If so, this reconstruction should be *palaqpaq.


*palaq vagina, vulva


PWMP     *palaq vagina, vulva

Maloh palaʔvagina
Malagasy falavulva (Prov.)

Note:   Also Kambera para ‘female genitalia’. Maloh (and the other Malayic languages) may share an immediate common ancestor with Malagasy (and the other Barito languages). If so the form reconstructed here is properly assigned to that lower-level proto-language rather than to PWMP. On the other hand, if the similarity of Kambera para (which does not show recurrent phonological correspondences with the Maloh and Malagasy forms) is ultimately due to genetic relationship this form must have existed in PMP.


*palaqpaq midrib of coconut leaf


PMP     *palaqpaq midrib of coconut leaf     [doublet: *paqpaq₂]

Isneg palápaʔleaf of the coco palm; petiole of the taro
Casiguran Dumagat palápaupper part of a palm tree (where the leaves are); palm leaf
Pangasinan palápamidrib of coconut leaf
Kapampangan palápaʔfiber stripped from banana stalk
Tagalog palápaʔpulpy leaf of plants like the banana
Bikol palaʔpáʔthe full branch of the coconut or other palm trees; frond; the full leaf of the banana plant
Maranao palapaʔ-anrib, midrib of a leaf
Ngaju Dayak palapahpalm frond, banana leaf, taro leaf
Malagasy falafamidrib of the banana leaf, taro leaf
Sundanese palapahpalm frond
Sasak pelapaʔleaf nerve (of palm and banana leaves); leafstalk (of papayas)
Tae' palapamidrib of palm leaves
Makasarese palapamidrib of palm fronds and banana leaves; leafstalk of papayas and some other trees


POC     *balapaq mid-rib of coconut leaf

Rotuman parafamid-rib of coconut leaf

Note:   Also Iban pelepah ‘stalk or rib of palm leaf’, Malay pelepah ‘frond, palm leaf’, Tongan palalafa ‘stalk (or stalk and midrib) of a coconut leaf’. This item may have been morphologically complex (*p-al-aqpaq), and in PWMP may have referred both to the midrib of palm and banana leaves and to the leaves themselves.


*palata fish sp.


PWMP     *palata fish sp.

Cebuano palatafish found around rocks in shallow waters; not particularly good eating
Maranao palatawhite fish about 2" long: Puntius palata Herre
Malay ikan pelataa mackerel: Scomber microlepidotus


*palantik curved


PWMP     *palantik curved

Tagalog palantík-aneaves
Cebuano palátikoutrigger boom to which the float (katig) is attached
Malay pelantékspring-set trap

Note:   With root *-tik ‘curved’.


*palaw small river fish


PWMP     *palaw small river fish

Kenyah palausmall fish
Kayan palausmall pinkish fish with small scales; found in small streams
Iban palaukind of river fish
Rejang paleuwa river fish

Note:   Also Hanunóo paláwun (< *palaw + suffix?) ‘freshwater fish with reddish sides’.


*paleCuk shoot, sound of shooting


PAN     *paleCuk shoot, sound of shooting

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) palTukto explode
Gorontalo peletuʔasound of finger joints cracking
Kapampangan paltukconk someone on the head, raise a lump
Bikol paltoktoy gun made from a bamboo branch and using wet paper or leaves as ammunition; pound, beat, or strike someone, particularly on the head
Malay peletok-ansmall pea-shooter

Note:   Also Itbayaten paltug ‘gun, revolver, pistol’, Pangasinan paltóg ‘sound of or like gunfire; to shoot’, Malay pelatok ‘trigger of a firearm’, Javanese platuk platuk ‘trigger, hammer for cocking a gun’. Possibly with root *-Cuk ‘knock, pound, beat’.


*paletik spring-spear, spring-gun


PWMP     *paletik spring-spear, spring-gun

Casiguran Dumagat paltíkpoles running out from a boat onto which outriggers are tied
Pangasinan paltík(usually homemade) gun
Tagalog paltíkhomemade gun
Bikol paltíksupports for an outrigger; homemade gun
Hanunóo paltíkswift, jerky blow
Aklanon paltikhomemade gun--for only one bullet
Cebuano paltikhomemade firearms
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peletikof an object which is flicked or knocked, to tumble over and over as it flies away
Malay pelantek (Met. of *a and *e)spring-spear, spring-gun

Note:   With root *-tik₁ ‘spring up, flicking motion’. The Casiguran Dumagat and Bikol terms for outrigger connecting beams may be related through reference to a common curving shape, or may be convergent developments which contain the root *-tik ‘curved’.


*pale(n)tik spring-set spear trap


PWMP     *pale(n)tik spring-set spear trap     [doublet: *pilantik]

Ilokano ag-pallatíkswing, sway
Pangasinan paltík(usually homemade) gun
Tagalog paltíkhomemade gun
Bikol paltíkhomemade gun
Hanunóo paltíkswift, jerky blow
Aklanon páltikhomemade gun -- for only one bullet
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peletikof an object which is flicked or knocked, to tumble over and over as it flies away
Malay pelanték (with metathesis of *a and *e)spring-spear, spring-gun


*pali side, half


PCEMP     *pali₁ side, half     [disjunct: *baliw]

Rembong paliside (as of the head)
Ngadha paliboth sides, reciprocal, mutual
Kwaio balipart, side
Lau balipart, side, portion, half; each side in a game; two-edged, two-sided
Woleaian paliyside, flank
Tahitian pariside

Note:   In Blust (1981b) the Oceanic members of this comparison, along with certain other forms, were assigned to *baliw.


*palij blown away by the wind


PWMP     *palij blown away by the wind     [doublet: *palis₁]

Ilokano páligbe carried off, swept away by the wind
Bikol pálidbe blown away or carried away by the wind
Aklanon palidget blown away by the wind
  pa-palidto winnow, separate the grain from the chaff in the wind
Cebuano palidfor the wind to blow something away; be blown off course; winnow, throw grains in the air
Maranao palidseparate chaff from grain, blown away
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) palidblow the chaff away
Kelabit palidblown away, as papers in the wind
Kenyah palitto blow, of wind; blown around
Sangir palideʔget lost, be driven off course by storm or wind


*paliŋ turn (as the prow of a boat)


PMP     *paliŋ turn (as the prow of a boat)

Ilokano páliŋpintle (of a rudder)
Pangasinan palíŋto turn
Tagalog páliŋslope, inclination
  palíŋinclined sideward, tilted; person with the head physically turned sideward
Bikol palíŋturn the prow of a boat
Cebuano palíŋfor something not rooted or fixed at the base to fall over to its side
Malay paliŋto turn away (of looking aside by the movement of the head, and not by a mere movement of the eyes; of turning round; turning a horse to the left; turning a boat's bows to port or starboard
Acehnese paleŋturn, swerve, avert
Karo Batak paliŋturn something in another direction
Dairi-Pakpak Batak paliŋlean to the side, list
Sika paliŋturn the prow (of a boat)
Soboyo paliŋturn back, return
Kamarian hari-turn around, turn back, invert


*paliq₁ an internal organ, probably spleen or pancreas


PAN     *paliq₁ an internal organ, probably spleen or pancreas

Kanakanabu páalibile, gall bladder
Saaroa paliibile, gall bladder
Ilokano pálipancreas
Bontok pálispleen of a water buffalo
Pangasinan pálispleen
Tagalog palíʔspleen
Bikol páliʔpancreas, spleen

Note:   Also Malay peléh, pelih ‘liver’.


*paliq₂ wound


PWMP     *paliq₂ wound

Cebuano páliʔlarge scar
Maranao paliʔwound, cut
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paliʔwound; to wound
Tiruray faliʔa wound
Melanau (Mukah) paliʔa wound or cut
Gorontalo palia wound

Note:   Also Aklanon pálʔit ‘scar, bald spot (on head)’.


*palis₁ blown away by the wind


PWMP     *palis₁ blown away by the wind     [doublet: *palij]

Cebuano pálisfor the wind to blow something away
Karo Batak palisblown away by the wind (word used in magical formulas)
  palis-palisdrizzling rain, misty rain


*palis₂ bad luck


PWMP     *palis₂ bad luck

Ngaju Dayak palissign of bad luck to come
Acehnese paléhunlucky
Simalur palisbad luck

Note:   Also Mentawai (southern dialect) palit ‘bad luck’.


*palis₃ animal sacrifice


PPh     *palis₃ animal sacrifice

Bontok pálisa sequence of pig and dog sacrifices held at a person's house ... because of sickness, or because he has killed an enemy
Kankanaey páliskind of sacrifice which takes place in the evening and in which a dog is killed
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) palisto purify (ceremonially) with blood; ward off evil or sickness; remove sickness caused by offending a supernatural
  p-em-alissacrificial animal given to someone as a propititation or appeasement


*paliSi taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite


PAN     *paliSi taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite

Tsou prisi-ataboo
Saaroa palisi-ataboo
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) parisito pray
Paiwan palisirite, ceremony; tabu; "superstition"
  palisi-anprivate parts of human body
Aklanon pálhiinhabited with evil spirits, enchanted
Cebuano pálhifor a place to be inhabited by supernatural beings that can get easily angered and inflict diseases on the object of their ire
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lihiy-ana taboo, personal or general
  p-em-elihia happening which breaks a taboo or is extraordinary, highly unusual or contrary to accepted behavior
Kelabit aliha taboo
  m-alihbe taboo
Melanau (Mukah) paleya taboo
Ngaju Dayak palinot allowed, forbidden
Malagasy fadyabstinence, fasting, prohibition; unlawfulness, incest; anything tabooed
Rhade mleitaboo
Malay p-em-alitaboo
Old Javanese pali-pali, pa-palithe various ritual requisites (with purifying and strengthening power), used in ceremonial blessings (wedding, return after a battle, festive reception, etc.)
Bare'e palisubject oneself to taboos by refraining from the use of or contact with things, the pronunciation of words or the visiting of places


POC     *pali₂ taboo

Woleaian falibe restricted, stay away from impure things, keep away from eating certain foods
Puluwat fáálto worship
Chuukese fáánChristian worship, divine service (general term)
  fenengage in worship; be tabu, prohibited, sacred
Pohnpeian pelbe in a taboo relationship with someone or something


PAN     *paliSi-en be tabooed (?)

Kavalan prisi-ntaboo
Bikol palih-onancient rites, superstitions or prohibitions

Note:   Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lihiy-an , Kelabit alih both suggest that *paliSi is morphologically complex, but they point to different stems *liSi and *aliSi respectively). Both forms probably represent secondary developments through analogical backformation. Among PCMP languages Kambera palili ‘forbidden, taboo’ (with partial rightward reduplication?) may be cognate, but Bimanese pamali ‘taboo’ probably is a loan from Malay.


*palit exchange


PPh     *palit exchange

Casiguran Dumagat palítchange, exchange, switch
Pangasinan palítbuy new clothes, have new clothes
Tagalog palítchange, exchange, substitute
Cebuano palítbuy

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) included the Tagalog form, together with Toba Batak palit (ma-malit boru) ‘accept a virgin as payment for a debt because the creditor wishes to make her a daughter-in-law’ and Malagasy faditra ‘any offering to avert evil, a piaculum’ under an etymon *palit ‘return gift’. However, the description of Toba Batak palit in Warneck (1977 [1906]), the similar description of Dairi-Pakpak Batak alit in Manik (1977), and the gloss of Malagasy faditra suggest that neither of these items is related to Philippine reflexes of *palit. Moreover, within the Philippines both the Casiguran Dumagat and the Pangasinan forms could be loans from Tagalog.


*palo₁ steer a boat


POC     *palo₁ steer a boat

Mussau aloto steer
  ai aloalorudder of a boat
Motu halo-asteer off the wind so that the sail may catch the wind better


*palo₂ wither, wilt


POC     *palo₂ wither, wilt

Sa'a halowither
Maori paro (NG)shrunk, wilted


*palu₁ sago flour


PMP     *palu₁ sago flour

Kelabit paluhflour obtained from the pith of a thorny palm, acquired in trade from the Penan
Manggarai palusago flour


*palu₂ adze


PWMP     *palu₂ adze

Kenyah palua rasp (used for sago)
Kayan paloʔa tool for adzing or rasping sago logs
Sangir palukind of adze used to smooth out the inner surface of a dugout canoe hull

Note:   Possibly connected with *palu₁ if the principal use of this adze was the working of sago trunks.


*palu₃ to hammer, pound, hit


PAN     *palu₃ to hammer, pound, hit

Amis (Kiwit) mi-paluto fight with fists
Amis paloto hit with something large or flat-surfaced, or with the hand
Thao paruto hammer, to beat someone up
  paru sa nipintraditional ceremony of tooth extraction, performed at puberty to ensure the health and vigor of young adults (consists of knocking out the top incisors with a hammer-like instrument)
  paru-anbe hammered; be beaten up by someone


PMP     *palu₄ to hammer, to hit with a hard implement

Casiguran Dumagat páloto beat with a stick
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paluheel; to kick with the heel
Kayan paloʔbutting, as goats
Iban paluʔhit, beat, strike (with stick or mallet)
Malay paluhitting hard with a rigid weapon (of clubbing or hammering or drumming or striking off a printed copy; not of blows with a switch)
  me-malubeat a drum or a gong
Acehnese paluhit with a stick or other object (as in striking a gong)
Karo Batak per-palua hammer
  maluto strike with a stick
Toba Batak ma-maluhit, strike; play a percussion instrument; fire off a weapon
Old Javanese paluhammer, mallet
Javanese paluhammer, mallet
  maluto hammer
Sundanese paluhammer (of metal)
  maluto hit with a hammer
Balinese paluhammer, mallet, knocker; to knock, hammer, cut
Sasak paluhammer (said to be from Malay)
Sangir paluan adze with short, curved handle and blade like a gouge; to work with such an instrument
Tontemboan ma-palupound sago of the Arenga saccharifera
Bare'e paluhammer, in particular the smith’s hammer
  mom-paluto hammer, forge, pound iron
Uma paluhammer
Tae' paluhammer; beat with a hammer; also a very common term of abuse for coitus
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *paluhammer (tool)
Proto-South Sulawesi *paluhammer
Buginese palua hammer
Wolio palukind of large mallet; to hammer, batter, rap
Muna palua hammer; to hammer
Palu'e paluto hit, strike
Sika palostrike with something heavy, as a hammer or a club
  ai palowooden club used to mash up pig fodder
Lamboya paluto hit
Kambera paluto beat, strike; anything used to hit or strike
  palu ahustick used to cudgel a dog
Rotinese paluto strike dead, slaughter, used especially of chickens and dogs
Lamaholot paluto hit, beat
Yamdena n-faluto nail, to hammer
Fordata n-faluhammer on, pound on
Dobel fa-faluhammer
Kamarian palutouch lightly
Wuvulu falu-aato hammer something, as a nail; a hammer (James Hafford, p.c.)


PAN     *palu-palu hammer, mallet, instrument for pounding or hammering

Thao paru-parua hammer; to hammer; the action of ceremonially striking out the teeth
Karo Batak palu-palustick, pole; cudgel; beater for a musical instrument
Toba Batak palu-palubeater (for drum or gong)
Old Javanese palu-palumace, war-club (or battle hammer?)
Tontemboan pa-paluthe instrument used to pound sago
Tae' palu-palu-ibeat on with a hammer
Mandar palu-paluhammer (tool)
Makasarese palu-paluhammer; cudgel, club; tool for beating
Wolio palu-palua hammer
Yamdena fa-falua stake that has been pounded into the ground
Fordata fal-falutime of general sago-pounding; beater for sago-pounding
Dobel fa-falua hammer
Wuvulu falu-falukeep hammering, hammer on and on (James Hafford, p.c.)

Note:   Also Ifugaw pallú ‘heavy stick to beat somebody with, as a recalcitrant slave or servant, or an animal (e.g. a water buffalo, a pig, a cow for causing damage in one’s plantation or field)’, Tagalog páloʔ ‘beating or striking with a stick or the hand, usually by way of punishment; swipe, a hard blow; batting, hitting a ball with a bat’, Cebuano páluʔ ‘hit, slap in punishment’, Tausug páluʔ ‘to hit, strike (something) with a stick’, Sasak palu ‘hammer’ (< Malay), Kédang paluq ‘beat, hit, strike’.

Some writers, as English (1986) treat this as a borrowing of Spanish palo ‘stick, cudgel’, but cognates outside the Philippines, and the occasional use of this word as a verb meaning ‘hit with the fists’ suggest that the similarity between Spanish palo and forms in Philippine languages is due to chance. Dempwolff (1938) also included Fijian valu ‘to make war on, be at war with’, but the connection of this form to the others cited here is more doubtful. The other question that arises in connection with this comparison is why Iban and several Central Philippine languages reflect a final glottal stop. Initially this appears to support the proposal of Zorc (1996) that PAn and various of its descendant proto-languages had a glottal stop distinct from *q. However, it is clear that word-final glottal stop is often historically secondary in Iban, and it therefore seems best to treat Iban paluʔ as equivalent to palu.


*paluŋ feeding trough


PWMP     *paluŋ feeding trough

Malay paloŋhollow with stagnant water; trough of wood for watering cattle
Acehnese paloŋtrough
Karo Batak paluŋgutter, drain, funnel
Balinese paluŋtrough, oblong basin, cooler
Sasak paluŋwooden vessel into which coconut meat is grated; wooden feeding trough for horses and dogs


PWMP     *paluŋ-an feeding trough

Maranao paloŋ-antrough
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peluŋ-antrough made of a hollowed log used as a water container for tempering steel in the blacksmith shop and as a hog trough
Subanen/Subanun paloŋ-antrough
Old Javanese paluŋ-antrough, vat, tub, container for drinks?
Balinese paluŋ-antrough, oblong basin, cooler
Tae' paluŋ-anfeeding trough for pigs and other animals


PWMP     *paluŋ-en feeding trough

Karo Batak paluŋ-engutter, drain, funnel
Buginese paluŋ-eŋrice mortar


*palus scratch, scrape


POC     *palus scratch, scrape

Kapampangan haluplane, scrape
Arosi haru, harus-ito scratch
Niue haluscrape, peel, sharpen
Rennellese pagu (NG)to scrape, as with a shell away from oneself; to scratch
Tuvaluan haluscrape; rub hand over face


*paluʔ hit hard


PAN     *paluʔ hit hard

Amis palohit with something large or flat-surfaced or with the hand


PMP     *palu₅ to hammer, to nail; strike with a hard object

Ifugaw pallú (-ll- unexpl.)heavy stick to beat somebody with (e.g. a recalcitrant slave or servant), or an animal
Casiguran Dumagat pálobeat with a stick
Kapampangan palu-paluʔbeater (used in washing clothes)
Tagalog páloʔstroke with the hand or a stick, usually in castigation
Cebuano páluʔhit, slap in punishment
Kayan paloʔbutting, as goats
Iban paluʔhit, beat, strike (with stick or mallet)
Malay paluhitting hard with a rigid weapon
Acehnese palèëiron hammer
Karo Batak palu-palustick, cudgel; stick used to strike a percussion instrument
Toba Batak paluhit, strike; play a percussion instrument; fire a weapon
Rejang paleuwa hammer
Sundanese paluhammer
Old Javanese paluhammer, mallet
Balinese paluhammer
Gorontalo paluhammer
Bare'e paluhammer (generally that of a blacksmith); to hammer
Tae' paluhammer; to pound
Mandar paluhammer
  palu-paluto beat
Makasarese palu-paluhammer
Ngadha paluflat wood club
Sika palo (-o unexpl.)hit with something hard, as a hammer or cudgel
Kambera paluhit, strike; thing used to hit or strike
Rotinese palustrike with the forefoot, kick (of horses, deer); kill (esp. chickens and dogs)
Yamdena faluto nail, to hammer
Fordata faluhammer on, beat on
Wuvulu faluhammer something, as a nail


POC     *i-(bp)alu make war on

Sa'a i-pelumake war on, fight
Ulawa i-pai-palumake war on, fight
Fijian valumake war on, be at war with
  i-valuwar; warrior

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) also included Sa'a i-pelu ‘make war on, fight’, Fijian valu ‘make war on, be at war with’. Given their semantic divergence from the other forms treated here these forms are assigned to a distinct cognate set.


*pana go, move


POC     *pana go, move

Tolai wanago, move; come
Label hango, go away; come
Sudest vanago (Capell 1943:105)
Kapingamarangi hanago
Rarotongan anathe word used by itself means movement, and is used only in reference to mankind': the exact meaning if fixed by the word following: ana mai 'come (or move) here (towards the speaker)', anáatu 'go (or move) away (away from the speaker); go ahead, pass on, etc.
Maori whanatravel, come, go

Note:   In many languages reflexes of this form are indistinguishable from reflexes of the far more common PAn *paNaw, POc *pano ‘go away, depart, leave on a journey’. Label han is assumed to reflect POc *pana rather than *pano since its closest relatives which have preserved the final vowel point to *-a.


*panahik climb


PMP     *panahik climb

Tagalog panhíkgo up the stairs
Maranao panikascend, climb stairs or ladder
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) p-em-enahikclimb something, as a tree or ladder
Old Javanese panék, penékclimb, climb on, get on or in, mount, ascend
Javanese pènèkclimb habitually; act or way of climbing; climb a fruit tree and get the fruits for someone
Balinese penékgo up, rise, ascend
Mongondow ponikclimb a ladder or tree, ascend
Bare'e poneclimb (not up mountains), climb a ladder into a house, a coconut tree, etc.
Soboyo hanaʔascend, climb; flood (of the sea)


POC     *panek climb

Molima vaneclimb
Lau fanerise up in sky, of sun, moon, or cloud; high, as a hill; tall, of a tree or house; rise, swell, or ferment, as of bread or a pudding, or a boil
Kwaio faneclimb, go up
  fane-fiaclimb up on, of a mating animal
'Āre'āre haneclimb, ascend, rise (of sun and moon); rise, ferment
Sa'a haneclimb trees in native fashion with a rope round the feet, ascending by alternate jumps of hands and feet
Arosi haneclimb (not a hill) a rope, tree, cliff, using hands

Note:   Also Samoan fānaʔe ‘(of moon and tide) rise’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *nahik ‘climb, ascend’, but the evidence for his reconstruction is far less persuasive than the evidence for *panahik. Apart from the Javanese form cited here, Dempwolff compared Ngaju Dayak naik ‘rise, climb (as the price of something), increase’, Malay naik ‘motion up. Of mounting or rising, either literally or figuratively’, and Toba Batak naek, naik ‘ascend, climb, rise in esteem’. The Malay form could be a back-formation from **memenaik-i (reduced to attested menaik-i by haplology, then interpreted as deriving from a prefixed base naik).

Both the Ngaju Dayak and Toba Batak words, as well as Bimanese neʔe ‘climb’ appear to be Malay loans, and so do not constitute independent evidence for the disyllable. More serious as evidence for *nahik are Isneg uneʔ ‘enter a house, mount the ladder, climb a tree’, Casiguran Dumagat unek ‘climb up a tree’. However, these and similar forms in other languages of northern Luzon contain an unexplained initial syllable that would have to reflect *u-. Mongondow onik ‘go upward!’, mo-onik ‘high’, monik ‘upwards; sometimes: northwards’ points to *anahik rather than *unahik, while Bare'e nae ‘rise slightly (as a trail)’, ma-nai ‘rise, esp. of water in larger rivers (Poso, Puna) and the sea’ probably is a chance resemblance (cf. Bare'e pone for the true cognate). Finally, if Dempwolff's *nahik is accepted it is difficult on both formal and semantic grounds to establish a regular morphological relationship between it and *panahik.


*panapa needlefish sp.


POC     *panapa needlefish sp.

Loniu panahbarred garfish: Hemirhamphus commersoni Cuv.
Leipon pinahsmall blue and white fish with needle-nose
Lou panapsmall blue fish with long needle-like mouth
Likum panahsmall blue and green marine fish with projecting lower jaw
Lindrou banapsmall dotted fish with needle nose
Gilbertese anaa fish (small, slender species), needlefish, garfish, halfbeak (Sabatier 1971)
  anaalong-billed needlefish (Johannes 1981:160)
Chuukese fana (fanaa)small needlefish
Woleaian fela (felaa)kind of needlefish


*panaq throw something at a target; shoot with bow and arrow


PAN     *panaq throw something at a target; shoot with bow and arrow

Pazeh pa-panashoot with a bow; throw at (with a stone)
Thao panaqthrow something at an object to hit it, as in throwing a stone at a target; shoot with a weapon
  ma-panaqfight with each other
  malhim-panaqfight in war; throw something at a target
Tsou ponoshoot with a bow
Proto-Rukai *panashoot (with arrows)
Kavalan panibow (for shooting)
Puyuma panaHshoot with a bow
Paiwan panaqarrow
Amis panaʔbow for shooting arrows
Itbayaten panaarrow; bow
Ilokano pánaarrow
Isneg pánaarrow
Ifugaw pánabow and arrow. Practically, it is only used by boys … it is hardly longer than one meter; its cord is mostly a string of rattan; its arrow is merely a straight, thin stick.
Pangasinan panáarrow
Casiguran Dumagat panáarrow (of which there are several types); shoot an arrow
Kapampangan panabow and arrow; shoot with bow and arrow (Bergaño 1860)
Tagalog pánaʔarrow
Bikol pánaʔbow and arrow; archery
Hiligaynon panáʔarrow, bow
Aklanon panáʔbow and arrow; shoot with bow and arrow
Cebuano pánaʔarrow, spear projected; shoot an arrow, to spear
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) panaʔbow and arrow; shoot with bow and arrow
Maranao panaʔbow; shoot with arrow
Tiruray fanaʔshoot an arrow with a bow
Tboli hanakarrow with small metal point
Kadazan panabow
Malay panaharchery; bow; arrow
  ibu panahbow (lit. ‘mother of shooting’)
  anak panaharrow (lit. ‘child of shooting’)
Karo Batak panahbow (no longer used in warfare)
Nias fanabow, weapon
Sundanese panaharrow and bow; manah shoot with bow and arrow
Old Javanese panaharrow; bow; bowman
Balinese panaharrow
  panah-panah-ana children’s game with bows and arrows
Sasak panaʔarrow; bow
Bare'e panabow, formerly a weapon of the Toraja people and in more recent times still hung up in the blacksmith’s workshop as an example of the weapons and tools made there
  mata mpanaarrow
  mo-panause a bow
Tae' panabow
Makasarese panabow and arrow
  ammanashoot with bow and arrow
  pa-panashoot with (something)
Wolio panabow (weapon)
  ana-na panaarrow (lit. ‘child of bow’)
Muna panabow (not used on Muna)
Manggarai panabow (not used by Manggarai)
Rembong panabow and arrow; shoot with bow and arrow
Kambera panabow; shoot with bow and arrow
Tetun hanato fire or shoot an arrow
Watubela fana-fanakarrow
Kei fanshoot with bow and arrow
Waropen anashoot an arrow
Mono-Alu fanaaim at with bow; fa-fana go to kill birds or fish with bow and arrow
Nehan wan(a)shoot
Selau wanashoot with bow and arrow
Nggela vanashoot with bow and arrow; shoot with a gun (modern)
  vana-hishoot with bow and arrow
Lau fanashoot with bow and arrow; fana-si shoot at
Kwaio fanahunt; shoot at with bow and arrow
Sa'a hanashoot with a bow, shoot with a gun
Arosi hanashoot
Lonwolwol fεnshoot with bow and arrow
Gilbertese banaa sling; (kare)-bana hurl with sling and stone, pelt with stones
Rotuman fanashoot with bow or gun
Fijian vanashoot with an arrow or a gun; to pierce
Tongan fanashoot (e.g. birds); to dynamite (fish)
Niue fanabow; gun; arrow
Samoan fanashoot; gun, rifle
Anuta panaany implement which discharges projectiles
Rennellese hanashoot, as arrow, spear gun, gun, rocket, slingshot


PAN     *p<in>anaq shoot with a bow

Thao p<in>anaqwas thrown at, was hit by something thrown
Paiwan p<n>anaqto shoot, using bow and arrow


PAN     *p<um>anaq shoot with a bow

Pazeh mu-panathrow at, to hit (as when throwing a stone at a dog to drive it away)
Bunun manaqshoot with bow and arrow
Kanakanabu mu-a-panaʔəshoot with a bow
Kavalan p-m-anishoot with an arrow


PWMP     *ma-manaq shoot an arrow

Itbayaten ma-manacatch fish with spear gun
Pangasinan ma-manáshoot an arrow
Kadazan ma-manashoot with a bow
Ngaju Dayak ma-manahshoot with a bow
Malay me-manahshoot an arrow
Nias ma-manashoot an arrow
Sasak (me)-manaʔshoot with bow and arrow

Note:   Despite widespread reflexes in this meaning, PAn *panaq almost certainly did not mean ‘bow’, since this can be reconstructed confidently as *busuR. Instead, *panaq was a verb meaning something like ‘shoot at a target, try to hit with a projectile.’ In many daughter languages it became a noun, enough so that languages such as Malay and Kambera use the terms ‘mother of shooting’ for ‘bow’ and ‘child of shooting’ for ‘arrow’. Whether these complex expressions already existed in PMP, or are products of convergence remains unclear. The actor voice of this verb was formed with *-um- in PAn, but apparently this construction was replaced in PMP by prefixation with *maŋ-.


*panas₁ warm, hot


PMP     *panas₁ warm, hot     [doublet: *panes]

Kayan panahwarm; feel warm; to warm up food
Kenyah panahot
Melanau (Mukah) panasfeeling of anger
Iban panasheat; hot, esp. of weather
Malagasy fanaheat
  voa-fanawarmed (applied to food or medicine cooked and warmed the second time)
Malay panasheat, esp. (or specifically) solar heat
Karo Batak panassweat panas-en'to sweat'
Sundanese panashot; warmth, heat; fig. hot-tempered, irate, embittered, jealous, envious
Old Javanese panasheat
Javanese panashot; have a fever; angry; having a curse on it; bringing misfortune
Balinese panasheat; hot
Sasak panaswarm (of things); hot, sharp tasting (spices)
Mongondow panatwarm, feverish
Banggai ko-onaswarmth
  maŋ-anasmake something warm
Tae' panaʔheat of the sun; sharp, pungent, of Spanish pepper; Spanish pepper
Manggarai panashot (as sun); smarting, stinging, hot-tasting
Rembong panashot; fever; peevish; jealous
Ngadha banawarm, hot (of fire, sun, fever, water); to warm up, heat up; fill with magical power
Kambera mbanahot, warm; hot-tempered
  mbanahuwarm (as land)
  panato heat (as coffee)
  panahuwarm up; insist on, coerce
Hawu panawarm, warmth
Rotinese hanawarm, hot, of water and of anything that can be heated, as well as of the body; warmth; fig.: taboo (Jonker 1908); heat; hot, warm (in a physical and ritual sense); become hot, become ritually charged (Fox, J. 1993)
  hana-hanasomewhat warm
Tetun hanasto warm or heat (as water)
Kédang panawarm
Erai panaswarm, hot; sharp; fever
Leti pansawarm season; warm (as bread); sick, painful; sickness
Selaru anashot, warm; to heat liquids
Yamdena fanasheat; warmth
  dalam me-fanashot-tempered
  na-fanassick, feverish; warm up food
Proto-Ambon *bana, *panahot
Buli fànaswarm, hot
Niue faka-fanato warm up, as food; to repeat oneself
  fanah-iapply a hot poultice
Samoan faʔa-fanarebake, warm up
Rennellese haka-hanarecook or warm over


PMP     *ma-panas warm, hot

Mongondow mo-panatwarm, feverish
Tae' ma-panaʔhot, of the sun
Tetun manashot, warm, burning; pungent, caustic, hot to the taste
Roma ma-hanahot (Jonker)
Yamdena me-fanashot
Buli m-fànaswarm, hot, burning; sentiment
Tongan ma-fanawarm (of food, water, or drink); warm (to the touch)
  mā-fanawarm (inwardly, subjectively)
Samoan mā-fanabe intimate, in close relationship; be married
Nukuoro ma-hanahot
Rarotongan ma-ʔanaheat, warmth; warm
Maori ma-hanawarm; day
Hawaiian ma-hanawarmth; warm


PCEMP     *panas-panas somewhat warm very warm (?)

Rotinese hana-hanasomewhat warm
Hawaiian hana-hanahot, warm; vehement


POC     *ma-panas-panas warm, hot

Bauro ma-hana-hanahot
Tongan ma-fana-fanabe fairly warm
Samoan ma-fana-fanabe warm (as water); (of weather) be mild, clement
Nukuoro ma-hana-hanawarm
Rarotongan ma-ʔana-ʔanawarmness, warmth; a heating


POC     *pa-panas warm, hot

Mussau a-anasawarm, hot; to heat (as water)
Hawaiian ha-hanawarm, hot (physical, and of strong emotion, as sorrow, love, fear)

Note:   Despite its wide distribution reflexes of this item are unknown in Taiwan, the Philippines, northern Borneo, and much of Melanesia. PMP *panas clearly was a stative verb (marked by *ma-. It evidently referred to the heat of the sun, the heat of fever, and to the heating of food, drink, and other material objects. Judging from the wide distribution of figurative senses, it apparently also referred to the emotions, particularly anger, and possibly to ‘pungent, hot-tasting’. Karo Batak panas-en ‘to sweat’, Balinese panes-in (cf. *panes) be ‘worried, made hot’ support a suffixed form *panas-en in PWMP or a descendant language. (4) *panas-panas may be a product of convergence.


*panas₂ type of ginger


PMP     *panas₂ type of ginger

Tae' panaʔginger: Zingiber officinale
Makasarese panasaʔa plant: Amomum acre. The pith of the large stems and fruits is minced and put in vinegar; the taste is pungent; the plant is also used as a medicine
Rembong panastuberous plant; fam. Zingiberaceae

Note:   Also Malay panas-en ‘a tree: Homalium longifolium W.’. Probably the same morpheme as *panas₁ ‘hot’. Not to be confused with the Sanskrit loanword panasa ‘jackfruit’ in such languages as Old Javanese and Buginese.


*panaw fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin: Tinea flava or Pityriasis


PMP     *panaw₁ fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin: Tinea flava or Pityriasis

Casiguran Dumagat panáwhave white patches on the skin
Bikol pánawTinea flave (fungal skin disease characterized by de-pigmented patches of skin)
Maranao panawwhite itchy spot on skin which is caused by fungus
Iban panaulight patches on skin, leucoderma, caused by diet deficiency or (mild) tinea
Malay panaulight painless spots or marks on the human skin, regarded as beauty spots or otherwise (due usually to Pityriasis versicolor or Tinea flava)
Acehnese panèëspots on human skin
Karo Batak panowhite spots on the skin
Toba Batak pano-panofreckles
Tae' panoskin disease in which the skin shows light-colored spots: Pityriasis flava
Mandar panoskin disease: tinea, ringworm
Makasarese panospots on the skin (sometimes regarded as a sign of beauty)
Manggarai panoskin disease, tinea; patchy color, as of someone with tinea
Rembong panoskin disease, tinea
Ngadha panohaving white or light spots on the skin
Rotinese hanospots of a lighter color on the skin
Kambera panukind of skin disease coupled with spots on the skin
'Āre'āre hanoa skin disease, white spots without scales
Sa'a hanoa skin disease, small white spots on the skin, but no scales


PWMP     *panaw-en be affected by tinea

Bikol panáw-onto have Tinea flava
Maranao panaw-nbe covered by ringworm
Karo Batak pano-onsuffer from white spots on the skin
Makasarese pano-aŋcovered with skin spots

Note:   Also Old Javanese panu ‘a white spot (of powder?) on the skin (made deliberately as a mark?)’, Javanese panu ‘skin disease causing light-colored blemishes’. I assume that Rejang panau ‘tinea’ is a loan from Malay.


*panay dish, bowl (of clay or wood)


PMP     *panay dish, bowl (of clay or wood)

Itbayaten panáyplate, dish
Isneg panáykind of jar
Cebuano panáyearthenware vessel, usually hemispherical but shallow, used to hold liquids
Ngaju Dayak panaia crude earthenware bowl
Old Javanese panay, paneearthen vessel, pot
Javanese panetrough, bowl, basin (earthenware or wood)
Balinese panelarge vessel of earthenware or wood
Sasak paneearthen vessel
Ngadha panedish, basin, bowl
Sika panekind of earthen pot made in the Lio district
Tetun hane-kwooden plate
  ai hane-ka tree from which plates are made, and whose bark is used as an antifebrile: Alstonia scholaris
Yamdena faneearthen dish of native manufacture

Note:   Also Makasarese panne ‘porcelain plate’, Buruese pane ‘saucepan’. Gonda (1973 [1952]:80) attributes the Old Javanese and Sasak forms to borrowing from South Dravidian languages (cf. Tamil pānai ‘a big jar’, pānĕ ‘an earthen or metal jar’). Despite the initial plausibility of his proposal reflexes of *panay have a wide and scattered distribution, and exhibit several regular sound changes that would not be expected in loans. Tentatively I take this to be a native Austronesian form, and attribute the similarity of it and the South Dravidian items to chance.


*panes warm, hot


PWMP     *panes warm, hot     [doublet: *panas₁]

Rejang paneushot, warm, feverish
  ateui paneushot-tempered
Balinese paneshot, troubled; heat
Bare'e panewarm drink: coffee or tea
  Mapanename of a river that has warm water in its lower course


*pani give


POC     *pani give

Wuvulu fanigive fani-a 'give it!'
Seimat hanigive
Wogeo vanigive
Manam anigive
Gedaged panigive (him); hand over, bestow, grant, confer, impart, accord, yield
Gitua vangive
Motu heni-a <Agive to, hand to
Eddystone/Mandegusu vani-agive
Zabana vanigive

Note:   In transitive constructions this verb stem required the object suffix *-a.


*panij wing


PMP     *panij wing     [doublet: *panid]

Itbayaten panidwing
Mansaka panidwing
Sangir panideʔwing
Uma paniʔwing
Bare'e paniwing
Tae' paniʔwing
Mandar paniʔwing
Selaru aniwing
Kei fani-nwing, fin
Buruese pani-nwing
Soboyo paniwing


POC     *banic wing

Motu hani (OG)wing of a bird
Gedaged bani-nwings of birds
Mapos mbaniswing
Lindrou bani-nwing
Nauna pɨnwing
Mondropolon pani-nwing
Merlav mbaniwing

Note:   Also Buginese panniʔ ‘wing’. The disambiguation of the final consonant as *-j (rather than *-d) depends crucially on reflexes in one as yet little known language of the "Buang Family" (Morobe District, Papua New Guinea).


*paniki fruit bat, flying fox: Pteropus spp.


PMP     *paniki fruit bat, flying fox: Pteropus spp.

Itbayaten panichibig bat: Pteropus sp.
Isneg paníkifruit bat
Itawis paníkifruit bat
Bontok paníkikind of fruit eating bat
Kankanaey panníkilarge bat
Ifugaw panníkigreatest species among the bats; fruit bat, flying fox
Ifugaw (Batad) panniʔa bat: Pteropus Leucopterus
Ilokano panníkifruit bat, flying fox
Pangasinan panikía bat
Bikol paníkifruit bat, flying fox
Maranao panikibaby bat
Malagasy fanihya bat, probably a species of Pteropus
Sangir panikiflying fox
Mongondow ponikibat, flying fox
Tae' panikilarge bat, flying fox
Mandar panikiflying fox
Makasarese pañiki <Aflying fox
Chamorro fanihibat (mammal), fruit bat
Palauan olíkfruit bat
Bimanese panihibat
Manggarai nikikind of small flying fox
Ngadha nikiflying fox
Li'o nikibat
Hawu niʔibat
Waiyewa panikiflying fox
Kambera paniʔflying fox
Tetun nikithe generic term for bats
Watubela fanik balana bat
Proto-Ambon *panikiflying fox
Giman fnikflying fox
Buli fniflying fox

Note:   Also Kapampangan paníkiʔ ‘a bat, the largest variety’, Tagalog pánikiʔ ‘large herbivorous bat’, Bare'e paneki, Manggarai néki ‘flying fox’, Sika nii ‘bat’. Mills (1975:796) considers the nasal ambiguous, but Kapampangan, Bare'e, and Chamorro all point to *n, Makasarese pañiki evidently showing a sporadic palatalization. The consonant gemination in several of the Cordilleran languages of northern Luzon remains unexplained.

This widely distributed term was replaced by *mpekʷa in POc, and by a variety of terms in Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Bali, and Lombok. In some languages of the Lesser Sundas, reflexes of *paniki refer both to the large tree-roosting fruit bat (Pteropus sp.) and to the smaller insectivorous cave bats. These two are lexically distinguished in so many languages that an original distinction seems likely, but no good reconstruction is yet available for the latter. It is possible that the greater diachronic stability of *paniki is due to its economic importance, since the flying fox is regarded as a delicacy among many Austronesian-speaking peoples.


*paniŋ bait


PCEMP     *paniŋ bait; fodder; to feed animals

Bimanese panibait
Manggarai paniŋbait; to bait; to feed chickens
Rembong paniŋbait; to bait
Ngadha panifodder (as for pigs)
Kambera pànifeed chickens or pigs
  pàniŋubait for fishing
Rotinese hanitrough for feeding pigs; domestic animal, a cared-for animal (Fox, J. 1993)
  hani-kbait for fishing (Jonker 1908)
Selaru anifeeding trough
Kei fānbait
  en-fānto feed; bait a hook


POC     *baniŋ bait

Gitua banibait
Mailu banifood of animal or bird; bait
Molima bani, bani-banito fish with hook and line
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka banifishhook; fishing
Tolai bānbait
Pohnpeian pahnbait, lure
Mokilese pehnbait
Kosraean pabait

Note:   Also Yamdena fane ‘feed, give food to’; fa-fane ‘bait’, Cheke Holo bai-na ‘bait, primarily for fishing’.


*panit to skin, flay


PWMP     *panit to skin, flay     [doublet: *baNiC]

Ilokano pánitto skin, to flay (fowls or men's head)
Pangasinan pánitto skin (e.g. a frog)
Tagalog panítexcoriated, skinned
Hiligaynon pánitskin, leather, bark; to skin, to peel something off
Aklanon pánitskin, flesh; to peel off, to skin
Cebuano pánitskin, peelings, bark, leather; shell of a shrimp, egg; to skin, peel something; beat someone in gambling; be trounced in a fight
Maranao panitleather, hide, skin
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) panitleather
Subanen/Subanun panitskin
Kayan panitto manhandle a person, handle roughly; be torn by animals; clothes torn by rough handling
Kenyah panitto scratch; scratched


*panuqes spoiled; sour smell


PPh     *panuqes spoiled; sour smell     [disjunct: *panuqus]

Tagalog panísstale and spoiled (said of cooked left-over or neglected foods)
Hanunóo panússtench of urine
Cebuano panʔúsfor food, wash, or the body to get a rancid smell from having been wet and not allowed to dry out well; spoiled, sour in smell

Note:   Casiguran Dumagat panís ‘spoiled (of cooked food, rice, fish, meat, etc.)’ is assumed to be a loan from Tagalog.


*panuqus stench, sour smell


PPh     *panuqus stench, sour smell

Ilokano panóosstench of smoke and smoky substances
Hanunóo panússtench of urine
Cebuano panʔúsfor food, wash, or the body to get a rancid smell from having been wet and not allowed to dry out well; spoiled, sour in smell
Maranao panossour


*paNaw go, walk away; depart


PAN     *paNaw go, walk away, depart

Thao pazawto go, walk
  shum-pazawto depart, walk away


PMP     *panaw₂ go, walk away, depart

Ilokano pánawto leave, go away, set out; die
  ag-pánawto leave for good, evacuate
  pa-panaw-ento drive away, send away
Isneg pánawgo away, depart, withdraw
Itawis pánawdeparture
Tagalog pánawdeparture; disappearance; death
Aklanon pánawgo on foot, walk; leave, depart, go
Palawan Batak panáwwalk
Cebuano pánawtravel, journey; regularly scheduled trip; make a travel or journey
Maranao panawjourney; roam
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hi-panewwalk, go on a journey, go someplace
Kadazan panauwalk, march
Kayan panauwalk; walking; go by foot
Singhi Land Dayak ponugo, walk
Nias fanõgo away, depart; go
Rejang paneuwgo, walk
Ngadha banogo, walk
Palu'e panago
Li'o mbanago, walk
Sika banogo, walk
Lamaholot panago
Buli fāndepart; go, walk


POC     *pano go

Bugotu vanogo, come; used in comparisons: beyond, more
Nggela vanoaway, further off; to go
Arosi hanomake a journey, set out; go
Proto-Micronesian *fanogo
Mota van(o)go, come
Lonwolwol vango, pass (and so also of time); to continue (to do ...); often; adverbially: away
Southeast Ambrym haengoing, departure
Anejom a-pan ~ hango
Niue fanogo (sg.)
Samoan fano(of time) be gone, past; perish
Tuvaluan fanogo (sg.)
Rennellese hanogo (sg.); depending on, according to; on and on; little by little; one by one
Nukuoro hanogo (sg.)
Maori whanogo, proceed; lead, of a road; verge towards; be on the point of; act, behave

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *pa(n)aw ‘go, walk’. However, a number of Philippine languages, Nias of Western Indonesia, Buli of Eastern Indonesia and such Oceanic languages as Arosi of the Southeast Solomons justify the reconstruction of a meaning more like ‘depart (on foot), leave on a journey’. This interpretation appears to be supported by the probably independent development of the metaphorical sense ‘die; death’ in Ilokano, Tagalog, and Samoan. The generalization of this meaning to ‘go, walk’ (or its similar misconstrual by the compilers of some dictionaries) is readily comprehensible.

PWMP *panaw may have taken the infix *-um-, but the available evidence is indeterminate: Isneg p-um-ánaw ‘go away, depart, withdraw’, Ilokano p-um-ánaw ‘go away, leave, quit, depart’, Bisaya (Limbang) manaw ‘go, walk’ (from *p-um-anaw with loss of the first syllable, or from *panaw with homorganic nasal substitution?). Similarly, POc may have had both *pano ‘depart’ and *pano-ŋa ‘journey’: Mota vano-ŋa ‘journey; coming, going’, Niue fano-ŋa ‘journey; company of travellers’, possibly Bugotu vano-ña ‘a journey, a going’ (if Ivens’ vano-gna is a typographical error for vano-ŋa). The agreement of reduplication in Rejang paneuw-paneuw ‘go for a walk’ and such OC forms as Tuvaluan fano-fano ‘until’, Rennellese hano-hano ‘genealogy’, on the other hand, is almost certainly due to chance. For a thorough discussion of the extended meanings of *panaw in Oceanic languages cf. Lichtenberk (1991).


*paNid wing


PAN     *paNid wing

Proto-Atayalic *palidwing
Saisiyat palirwing
Pazeh pa-palitwing
Siraya pa-paliswing


PMP     *panid wing     [doublet: *panij]

Itbayaten panidpectoral fin, wing (in general)
Ivatan pañidwing
Mansaka panidwing
Sangir panidəʔwing
Bare'e paniwing of a bird, bat, or insect
  mo-panito have wings
Proto-South Sulawesi *pani(C)wing
Selaru aniwing
Soboyo paniwing
Merlav mbaniwing
Wailengi mbanwing

Note:   Also Thao pali ‘wing’. This form either underwent an irregular change of PAn *-d to PMP *-j, or a doublet *panij ‘wing’ arose in PMP next to inherited *panid.


*pañaRu give birth


PMP     *pañaRu give birth

Chamorro fañagubear (offspring), give birth
Proto-Polynesian *faanau (length unexpl.)give birth, be born


*paŋ bang! loud popping sound


PMP     *paŋ bang! loud popping sound

Ngaju Dayak paŋpopping, to pop (as when one pulls a cork from a bottle); sound of fingers snapping, tongue clacking
Malay paŋbanging sound
Karo Batak paŋsoung of a bang
Makasarese paŋbanging sould (as a gun firing, inner tube bursting)
Gedaged paŋ-paŋsnap! noise made when snapping a dry coconut with one's finger
Gitua baŋbang! noise of stone exploding fire


*paŋa fork of a branch; any forked structure; bifurcation


PAN     *paŋa₁ fork of a branch; any forked structure; bifurcation

Pazeh paŋabranch
Thao panafork of a branch; bifurcation; branch
Itbayaten paŋatwins
Isneg paŋábranch (of a tree)
Itawis paŋábranch (of tree, river, etc.)
Bontok paŋábranch of a tree from which leaves are growing; hooks on the top of a pinaŋpaŋa earring
Kankanaey paŋábranch, bough, twig
Kapampangan paŋájaw
Tagalog paŋájaw, jawbone
Bikol paŋájaw, jawbone; jowl
Aklanon paŋáhook (for getting fruits)
Cebuano paŋáforked stick; forked handle of a slingshot
Maranao paŋahorn
Tboli haŋabranch of a tree; antlers
Kadazan paŋotributary or side road; branch off (river, road)
Malay paŋaforked supports for carrying poles, etc. in a cargo boat
Banggai paŋabranch
Uma paŋaforked branch
Bare'e paŋabifurcation; forked branch, fork in a road
Manggarai paŋabranch; be forked
Rembong paŋabranch, fork of a branch; forked
Ngadha paŋaopen the eyes and mouth, be amazed
Yamdena faŋespan of the hand
Fordata faŋahandspan
Kei faŋa-thandspan
Soboyo paŋa-ñbranch
Tolai paŋopen the mouth, esp. of a basket or container
Roviana paŋafish spear with several prongs
Cheke Holo paŋafish spear with several prongs
Sa'a paŋato wonder, stagger at a matter
Mota waŋaopen the mouth, gape, gasp

Note:   Also Iban paŋaʔ ‘angle; forked, branching’, Bahasa Indonesia paŋah ‘gaping, wide open (mouth, beak)’. With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gape, open the mouth wide’. Dempwolff (1934-38) compared the Tagalog form with Ngaju Dayak paŋa ‘wooden restraining block in which the feet of criminals are placed’, Fijian vaŋa ‘the leech of a canoe sail’ and various reflexes of PPn *faŋa ‘bay’, all of which are excluded here. The semantic unity of the forms included in the present comparison is confirmed by the recurrent association of such variable meanings with the root *-ŋa(q) in other morphemes (cf. Roots).


*paŋan food


POC     *p<in>aŋan₁ food

Lakalai v-il-aŋafood given as payment to visiting singers and dancers
Sa'a hinaŋaa yam pudding eaten at sacrifices
'Āre'āre hinanataro pudding
Arosi hinaŋayams for sacrifices, one or two tubers; seed yams for planting; vegetable food


POC     *p<in>aŋan₂ ceremonial food

Lakalai la vilaŋafood given as payment to visiting singers and dancers
Sa'a hinaŋayam pudding
'Āre'āre hinaŋataro pudding
Arosi hinaŋayams for sacrifices, one or two tubers; seeds yams for planting; vegetable food


*paŋaq forked, pronged


PMP     *paŋaq forked, pronged     [disjunct: *paŋa₁ 'bifurcation']

Kapampangan paŋájaw
Tagalog paŋájaw
Cebuano paŋaforked stick; forked handle of a slingshot
Iban paŋaʔangle; forked, branching
Malay (Brunei) paŋaforked supports for carrying-poles, etc. in a cargo-boat
Malay paŋahopenmouthed
Manggarai paŋabifurcation; forked, pronged
Fordata faŋaa span
  n-faŋa-tto measure by handspans
Yamdena faŋehandspan, step

Note:   With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gape, open the mouth wide’.


*paŋasih rice wine


PWMP     *paŋasih rice wine

Bikol paŋásirice wine
  pa-paŋasíh-anthe container in which the rice wine is made
Kenyah peŋasirice wine specially prepared in jar

Note:   Judging from the ethnographic record *paŋasih probably was prepared and stored in a large earthenware jar. On social or ceremonial occasions it was communally consumed by sipping through long flexible tubes.


*paŋi a tree: Pangium edule


PMP     *paŋi a tree: Pangium edule

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paŋia tree, probably Parartocarpus woodii, which bear large edible fruit the seeds of which are a source of edible oil
Maranao paŋipoisonous squash: Pangium edule Reinw.
Kadazan paŋikind of fruit the seeds of which are added to salted fish
Ngaju Dayak paŋikind of mango tree and its fruit, which has an exceptionally thick skin
Acehnese paŋèwild tree from the seeds of which a good cooking oil is prepared
Dairi-Pakpak Batak paŋiflattish seed which is eaten after being cooked; if eaten uncooked it can cause intoxication
Old Javanese paŋitree with edible fruits: Pangium edule
Balinese paŋitree sp.
Sangir paŋitree with edible fruits and leaves
Mongondow paŋia tree, Pangium edule. Its shredded leaves are mixed with bacon and blood and cooked in a bamboo to make a favorite dish. The seeds of the fruit are also eaten, but are poisonous and must first be roasted
Tae' paŋia tree with large round fruits, Pangium edule. The pith of the seeds is dried, pounded, and cooked, and becomes black as a result; it is then used as a vegetable
Bare'e paŋia tree with seeds and leaves that are edible after proper preparation: Pangium edule
Makasarese paŋitree with large fruits each of which contains two or three seeds: Pangium edule; after the seeds are cooked, one obtains a black mucilaginous substance from them which is used in the preparation of certain dishes


*paŋil ankle


PWMP     *paŋil ankle

Palawan Batak paŋi-paŋilankle (Reid 1971)
Murut (Timugon) am-paŋilankle
Kadazan tam-paŋiankle

Note:   Also Atta biŋil, Ilokano piŋíl ‘ankle’, Hanunóo bíŋul ‘heel’, Aborlan Tagbanwa bɨŋɨlbɨŋɨl, Lun Dayeh, Kelabit beŋil ‘ankle’. Warren (1959) gives Palawan Batak paŋi-páŋil ‘foot’.


*paŋpaŋ steep slope (as of riverbank or mountain)


PWMP     *paŋpaŋ steep slope (as of riverbank or mountain)

Ilokano paŋpáŋfurrow, ridge (thrown up by a plow)
Pangasinan paŋpáŋriver bank, riverside, seaside
Kapampangan paŋpaŋriver bank
Tagalog pampáŋriver bank
Bikol paŋpáŋriver bank; bluff
  pam-aŋpaŋ-ona high, steep river bank difficult to ascend
Hanunóo pampáŋbank of a river; edge of a field
Aklanon páŋpaŋbank (of river); shoreline
Hiligaynon páŋpaŋbrink, edge, coast, area close to a river or sea
Cebuano paŋpáŋcliff
  paŋpaŋ-anuncliff dwellers
  paŋpaŋ-uncharacterized by having cliffs
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paŋpaŋa cliff
Maranao pampaŋcliff; steep, as in contour of earth
Kadazan pampaŋrock, big stone
Malagasy fampanaa precipice, an abyss
Mongondow pompaŋsteep slope of a mountain, but one along which one can still descend


PWMP     *paŋpaŋ-an embankment, cliff

Kapampangan paŋpaŋ-an, pampaŋ-anKapampangan ('people of the river banks')
Wolio pampaŋ-asteep; rather deep part of the sea where the bottom is still visible


PPh     *ka-paŋpaŋ-an riverbank

Kapampangan ka-pampaŋ-anKapampangan ('people of the river banks')
Cebuano ka-paŋpaŋ-ancliffs; the province Pampanga; its people and its language

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) included the Tagalog and Malagasy forms together with Ngaju Dayak pampaŋ ‘the ends of the antlers of deer; the tips of anything similar’, Malay pampaŋ (not in Wilkinson 1959) ‘broad surface’ under a reconstruction *paŋpaŋ ‘stand apart’.


*paŋudaN pandanus


PAN     *paŋudaN pandanus

Kavalan paŋzanpandanus
Rukai (Tona) paŋuDaɭpineapple
Paiwan paŋudalʸpandanus; pineapple; Pandanus odoratissimus var. sinensis


PMP     *paŋdan pandanus

Kankanaey paŋdánananas, pineapple
Ilokano paŋdánthe screw pine, Pandanus tectorius Sol. Its leaves are used in the manufacture of hats and mats
Isneg pandānkind of screw pine. Its fragrant inflorescences are added to the headband on festive occasions
Tagalog pandánPandanus odoratissimus
Bikol pandán, paŋdánpandanus (used in weaving of mats and other articles)
Hanunóo páŋdanpandanus palm (Pandanus sp.)
Aklanon páŋdana tree and its fruit: Pandanus tectorius
Cebuano páŋdanany of the plants of the genus Pandanus, esp. tectorius
Maranao pandanhemp
  pandan-anmaguey plantation, ramie plantation
Malagasy fandranashrubs, from the stems of which gutters for carrying water ... are made, hence an aqueduct. Two or three species are known by this name, from which a kind of potash is obtained. The leaves are used for thatching. Pandanus sp.
Iban pandanScrew pine (Pandanus spp.)
Malay pandanSmaller screwpine. Generic for all such Pandanaceae as are used for fine matwork or plaitwork
Simalur pandanpandanus palm: Pandanus odoratissimus
Karo Batak pandanpandanus variety the leaves of which are used in plaiting
Toba Batak pandanpandanus, screwpine
Mentawai padatPandanus odoratissimus L.
Sundanese pandankind of plant (some types are used to weave mats while the redolent leaves of others are minced and used with flowers and fragrant oil by women)
Old Javanese paṇḍankind of tree: Pandanus
Javanese paṇḍanpandanus tree
  pandan waŋifragrant pandanus leaf as a cooking ingredient
  pandan eripandanus thorn, used for hats, mats
Madurese pandhanpandanus
Balinese paṇḍanpandanus
Sasak pandanname of various types of pandanus: Pandanaceae
Tae' pandanfragrant type of pandanus with thorny leaves
Buginese panreŋpandanus
Makasarese pandaŋname of various types of pandanus
Palauan oŋórPandanus aimiriikensis Mart.
Manggarai pandaŋpineapple: Ananas comosus


POC     *padran pandanus

Wuvulu paxakind of broad-leaved littoral pandanus used in plaiting mats and baskets
Aua parakind of broad-leaved littoral pandanus used in plaiting mats and baskets
Loniu pakind of pandanus with narrow light-green leaves, used in plaiting mats
Leipon padrkind of pandanus with narrow light-green leaves, used in plaiting mats
Lou parkind of pandanus with narrow light-green leaves, used in plaiting mats
Mussau aranalittoral pandanus the leaves of which are used in plaiting mats and baskets
Gedaged padthe pandanus tree
Gitua padapandanus
Mbula paandapandanus tree
Gilbertese araprefix to names of different species of pandanus
Puluwat faarpandanus, used for mats and thatch
Woleaian fash(a)pandanus, pineapple
Iaai watra plant: Pandanus
Rotuman hatakind of pandanus bearing fruit in compact, rouhly spherical masses
Fijian vadrathe pandanus tree: Pandanus odoratissimus
Tongan kind of pandanus which sends down shoots from the branches to the ground
Samoan falaname given to a number of tree-like plants of the genus Pandanus; mat
Rennellese hagapandanus, of great value for thatch and mats
Rarotongan arapineapple; Pandanus odoratissimus
Maori wharaa plant; ? Astelia sp., but possibly applied to any plant with ensiform leaves, such as Astelia, Phormium, Typha, etc.
Hawaiian halathe pandanus, or screw pine: Pandanus odoratissimus

Note:   Also Saisiyat (Tungho) maːpaŋraŋ ‘pandanus’, Sangir pondaŋ ‘Pandanus latifolius’, Tontemboan, Mongondow pondaŋ ‘pandanus’, Bare'e pondani ‘Pandanus fasicularis (a littoral pandanus the leaves of which serve as plaiting material)’, Tae' pondan ‘pineapple (the fibers of the leaves are used as thread in weaving clothes and these fibers are also called pondan)’, Mandar pandeŋ ‘pineapple’, Rembong pandaŋ ‘sisal: Agave sisalana’, Sika pedaŋ ‘cactus’, pedaŋ eaŋ ‘pineapple’, Kambera pàndaŋu ‘pandanus tree (the leaves are used in the plaiting of baskets and mats)’, Rotinese henak ‘pandanus; pineapple’, Tetun hedan ‘a plant )of the pineapple or Bromeliaceous family) used for making baskets and other artifacts’, Leti edna ‘pineapple’, Moa edna ‘pandanus’, edna melaj-e ‘pineapple’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *panDan, but Formosan witnesses attest directly and Philippine witnesses indirectly (through the cluster -ŋd-) to an original tri-syllable.

The sporadic loss of the medial vowel everywhere outside Taiwan can be taken as one small piece of evidence for the MP subgroup. Irregular reflexes are so common throughout Sulawesi that they can be taken to support a variant *pondan (with borrowing into some languages). Similarly, reflexes with first-syllable shwa are pervasive in the Lesser Sundas, and suggest a PCMP variant *pendan. Although the P. odoratissimus and P. tectorius are the species most commonly noted in dictionary glosses, the term *paŋudaN evidently referred to all Pandanaceae. Varieties of this economically important plant were widely used in the plaiting of mats and baskets. As noted by Mills (1975:793), the frequent lexical equation between the native pandanus and the introduced (South American) pineapple may be due to similarities in the thorny leaves (cf. also Sika pedaŋ ‘cactus’). As a basis for this equation one could, however, point equally to the clustered (and edible) pandanus fruits, which collectively resemble the shape and external texture of the pineapple.


*pa(m)pa (X + pa(m)pa) a tree: Vitex pubescens


PMP     *pa(m)pa a tree: Vitex pubescens

Ngaju Dayak kala-papatree with durable wood used for knife handles, rudders, etc.; the long-burning coals are used in the smelting of gold and copper, and the young leaves as a simple in the treatment of eye inflammations
Makasarese gulim-papatree with strong wood
Manggarai pampatree which is good for making house posts: Vitex pubescens

Note:   Also Numfor baf (anticipated **faf) ‘good timber tree: Vitex cofassus’. This comparison was first noted in print by Verheijen (1984), who has identified its referent as the Vitex pubescens in several WMP languages for which my sources provide insufficient botanical information.


*papan plank, board; floor boards of house


PMP     *papan plank, board; floor boards of house

Waray-Waray papán ŋa batóstone tablet
Cebuano papánstone slab
Mapun papanboard; plank (usually and inch and a half or less thick)
Maranao papanlumber, board; arrange checkers or chess (pieces) on board
Tiruray fafana sawed board, lumber; to make lumber or boards by hand
Yakan papana plank, board (as for making a wall)
Ngaju Dayak papanboard, plank
  papan batua thin flat stone or a thin, flat piece of iron
  ma-mapanbuild a boat or ship; like a board, i.e. flat, even
Malagasy fáfanaa piece of board for writing on, a lesson-board, a blackboard
Iban papanlong flat surface or thing
  papan kayuʔplank, board
Proto-Chamic *papa:nboard; plank
Moken papanplank
Malay papanplank; board; strake; flooring; numeral coefficient for games played on boards, such as chess and draughts
  papan sandarbackrest
Acehnese papeuënplank (as in a coffin or grave)
Gayō papanplank, board
Karo Batak papanplank, the plank floor; a chessboard
Toba Batak papanboard, plank; floor boards
Rejang papeunwooden board, plank
Old Javanese papanboard; (round wooden) shield
  a-papanusing a shield, bearing a shield
Javanese papanboard
Sundanese papanplank, board; in a wider sense, any flat object; plank (of wood, stone, etc.)
  papan batustone plate
Balinese papanboard, plank
  papan caturchessboard
Sasak papanplank; slate; school board
Mongondow papanstick or lath used to tap down the weft thread (in weaving)
Tae' papanplank
Makasarese papaŋplank, board
Wolio papaboard, plank
  batu papawriting slate
Palauan wlawlfloor (< *panpan)
Manggarai papaŋplank, board
Hawu papaplank
Wetan papnaboard, plank
Yamdena n-papanstack on top on one another, of flat objects like boards
Buruese papanboard
Buli fafanplank


POC     *bapan board, plank, side of canoe

Manam babaflat; palm of the hand
Tawala baba-base, underneath, bottom
Dobuan kaiwa ba-baba-naboard
Molima babalower plank on canoe side; to put planks on canoe
Bugotu pavaplank
Lau babaflat; a board; lower part of back; a wooden door
  ba-babaa board, flat object
  baba-nalong side board of canoe
Sa'a hapaa canoe seat, removable
'Āre'āre hapatimber; a canoe seat
Arosi hapaa board; flat; mid-seats of a canoe
Proto-Micronesian *papaboard, plank
Chuukese paapboard, plank; board floor
Puluwat paapboard, lumber, timber; canoe planks
  pápá-n limwhouse board
Woleaian paap(a)plank, strake, the planking (of a canoe); to be provided with plank
Mokilese pɔpthin board or sheet of lumber
Kosraean pæprib, side, raised sides of a canoe between front and rear gunwales
Gilbertese babaa board, plank, used for diverse purposes; a wash board, surf board, etc.
Rotuman papafloor, or deck, if made of boards
Wayan bababoard, plank, or other flat, wide piece of wood
  vaka-babahave boards on, be boarded or planked
Fijian bavawashstrake or upper planks of canoe
Tongan papasawn timber, plank(s), board(s); flat hard sandstone forming a layer or bed at the coast in certain places; flat and smooth and hard (as a well-trodden track)
Niue papaflat
  faka-papato stack neatly in layers (as banana cases)
Futunan papaboard, plank
Samoan papaboard, plank; rock; make level, flatten
Kapingamarangi babalevel, stretcher; board on which women plait mats
  baba halefloor of a house
Nukuoro babalevel (not bumpy); any sort of flat base (esp. the board on which mats are plaited), the consolidated reef under water or sand; the back of a human; the shell of a turtle, crab, etc
Rennellese papasounding board, beater of the papa, dancer to the papa; to be flat, flattened; to flatten
Anuta papaboard, plank; any hard flat surface, as the top of a plank, a flat rock
Maori papaanything broad, flat, and hard; flat rock, slab, board; earth floor or site of a native house; bed of a lake
Hawaiian papaflat surface, stratum, layer, level, foundation; story of a building; class, rank, order; table; sheet, plate, shelf; flat, level
  hoʔo-papato place in rank or file; to put in order, to put in layers, overlay, as shingles; to make a shelf; to pack neatly

Note:   Also Ida'an Begak pepan ‘planks’, Sasak banban ‘thick plank; plank above the corpse in a grave’, Rembong papan ‘writing board’ (< Malay), Rotinese papa ‘plank, board’ (probably < Malay), Eddystone/Mandegusu papene ‘board, plank of a canoe’, Toqabaqita aba ‘board, plank, strip, lath of something’. Although this term referred specifically to hewn planks used in the construction of houses or canoes, it also appears to have had the more general sense of ‘flat, hard surface’ or just ‘flat, of a surface’, as shown by the reflexes in Waray-Waray, Cebuano, Ngaju Dayak, Malagasy, Iban, Sundanese, Manam, Lau, Arosi, Samoan, Anuta, Maori, and Hawaiian. The shape of the POc reconstruction is unclear. Bugotu and Fijian agree in reflecting POc *bapan, and Sa'a, 'Āre'āre, Arosi hapa appear to be metathesized products of the same form. On the other hand, Palauan wlawl and hapa ‘plank’ in the Southeast Solomons could be used to support a PMP variant *panpan, in which case the expected POc continuation would be *paban. However, most Oceanic languages show identical reflexes of both consonants, and suggest POc *baba. Tentatively I adopt the reconstruction given here, and assume that the pan-Austronesian avoidance of dissimilar labials as the onsets of successive syllables caused most Oceanic languages to level the distinction between the first two consonants in this base.


*papaq frond of a palm


PMP     *papaq₁ frond of a palm

Old Javanese papahthe long stalk of a palm- or banana-leaf
Malay (Jakarta) papahcoconut frond
Arosi haha-nafrond of a palm

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) posited *papaq, but cross-referenced it to *p-al-apaq and cited supporting evidence only for the latter reconstruction.


*papaR cheek


PCEMP     *papaR cheek

Buruese papa-ncheek


POC     *babaR side of the face, cheek; side planks of a canoe

Molima babalower plank on canoe side
Roviana papara (OG)side of face, cheek
Kwaio babaside, cheek
Lau babalong side board of canoe; the side
Arosi babacheek, temples; side of a stream, etc.
Fijian babathe side of a thing, the cheek bone; also, the side of a canoe

Note:   Also Soboyo popa ‘cheek’. Stresemann (1927:52) gives SUBM *papa- ‘cheek’, but supports his reconstruction with a single reflex (Wolu fafa-). It is possible that the Molima, Lau, and Fijian words that refer to the sideboards of a canoe actually reflect PMP *papan ‘plank, board’.


*pa(m)pet stopped up


PWMP     *pa(m)pet stopped up

Singhi Land Dayak paputstopped up (choked up)
Javanese pampetstop flowing (as blood)

Note:   With root *pet ‘plugged, stopped, closed off’.


*papi cook in an earth oven


POC     *papi cook in an earth oven

Lau fafiput leaves on oven in cooking
Kwaio faficook in leaf oven; sacrifice a pig
Sa'a hahicook in an oven with leaves and hot stones
Arosi hahicook in a native oven; food cooked so
Fijian vavibake food in a native oven


*papo coral reef


POC     *papo₃ coral reef

Gedaged bab (NG)kind of coral, limestone
Sa'a hahothe shore reef
Arosi hahoencircling reef
Rotuman hahocoral reef


*paqa₁ thigh


PAN     *paqa₁ thigh

Puyuma paʔathigh
Itbayaten paathigh
Sambal (Botolan) páʔathigh
Tagalog páʔa ~ paʔáfoot, leg; hoof, paw
  paʔa-hánhaving large feet
Bikol páʔathigh; lap, haunches, hip
  paʔá-ondescribing someone with large thighs
Agutaynen pakathigh; leg
Hiligaynon páʔathigh
Aklanon páʔathigh, upper leg
Masbatenyo páʔathigh, upper leg
Waray-Waray páʔathigh; lap
Cebuano páʔathigh, legs from the knees up
  páʔa-hanthe upper leg of a pair of pants
Mapun paathigh
Mansaka paathigh
Binukid paafoot, leg; leg (of a table or other furniture)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paʔathe foot and/or leg
Tboli hahathigh of person or animal; lap of a person
Yakan paʔathigh
Tausug paathigh
Tombonuwo paathigh, upper leg
Kelabit paʔehthigh
Seru pohthigh
Malay pahathigh; quarter; ham (of animal)
  paha belalaŋupper leg of grasshopper; fig. for safety pin; curve of a perfect thigh
Sundanese pahathigh, upper leg
Balinese pahathigh
Sasak pathigh
Mongondow paathigh; hip; buttock
Totoli paathigh
Boano paʔathigh
Bare'e paʔathigh, upper leg
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *paqathigh
Wolio paathigh; quarter (of a carcass)
  paa-na ŋkaborograsshopper’s thighs (said of a very thin person)
Muna faghathigh
Manggarai paʔathigh
Rembong paʔathigh
Ngadha paaupper leg, thigh
Fordata faa-ncalf of the leg
Lakalai la vaha-leg, foot

Note:   Also Tiruray foʔoʔ, Iban pah, Balinese pehe ‘thigh’. Dempwolff (1938) also included Fijian yava- ‘the leg below the knee, including the foot’, but it is not at all clear that this form reflects PAn *paqa.


*paqa₂ stalk or stem of a plant


PMP     *paqa₂ stalk or stem of a plant

Muna faghastalk of certain trees (coconut, areca) from which grow branches
Ngadha paashoot, sprig, sprout
Buruese paa-nstem, base of trunk; stem, especially of a taro plant
Numfor fasheath of a palm blossom

Note:   Possibly the same morpheme as PMP *paqa ‘thigh’. Dempwolff (1938) united both meanings under a single form, but presented very little evidence for *paqa in the meaning ‘stalk, stem’.


*paqet wood-working tool: chisel


PMP     *paqet wood-working tool: chisel

Itbayaten paethole-boring tool which was used a long time ago
Ilokano paét -an, i-, mai-chisel
Isneg apāta chisel made of iron throughout, without a wooden handle
Bontok paə́tchisel (said to < Ilokano)
Ifugaw paót mum-, -in-, <in> -anwood carving; chisels used for carving
Kapampangan patchisel (for woodworking)
Tagalog paʔítchisel (in carpentry)
Mapun paat -an, -unchisel
Kelabit paʔetchisel
Iban pattapping knife, gouge, chisel
  pat getahtapping knife for rubber latex
Jarai phaʔchisel (for carpentry)
Rhade phatto chisel
Malay pahatchisel; gouge; punch
Gayō pātchisel
Karo Batak pahatchisel
  mahatto chisel, work with a chisel
Simalur paeʔchisel
  mam-paeʔto chisel something
Nias fahõchisel
  mamahõto chisel, work with a chisel
Balinese pahetchisel
  mahet -ang, -incut with a chisel, hew
Sasak pata chisel
  ŋe-patto chisel
Tontemboan pa-paʔata chisel
  maʔat ~ ma-paʔatto chisel
Taje pa-paata chisel
Bare'e paʔat-ia chisel
  nda-paʔat-ichiseled, chiseled out
Tae' paʔa chisel
  paʔ-ichisel out, gouge a hole with a chisel; carving done with a chisel
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *paqoQchisel
Makasarese paʔa chisel


POC     *paqot wood-working tool: chisel

Rennellese haʔochisel; to chisel; holes for lashings in a canoe

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat pait ‘chisel (carpenter’s tool); to chisel’ (< Tagalog), Ifugaw (Batad) paʔut ‘wood chisel’, Tombulu paat ‘chisel’ (< Malay), Lun Dayeh faat ‘a knife for tapping rubber’ (< Malay), Dairi-Pakpak Batak pahat ‘chisel’, me-mahat ‘to chisel’ (< Malay), Old Javanese a-mahat ‘tap palm sap by notching’, pahat-an ‘areca palm’, pahat ‘sculpture’, p<in>ahat ‘shape by cutting or sculpturing (gold, stone)’ (probably < Malay), Manggarai paʔak ‘chisel; to chisel’, Rotinese paʔa-bela ‘flat or level chisel’ (< Malay).


*paqiC hotness of taste, spiciness; bitterness


PAN     *paqiC hotness of taste, spiciness; bitterness

Saisiyat pæʔishot (taste)
Kanakanabu ma-páʔicisour
  páʔicimillet or rice beer
  raa-paʔi-paʔícaacid fluid which comes up from the stomach


PMP     *paqit₂ bitter(ness)

Ilokano paítbile, used in cooking; bitterness, bitter taste
Isneg na-pétbitter
Itawis pethotness, pungency, spiciness
  na-péthot, pungent, spicy
Kankanaey men-paítbitter
Ifugaw paítsourness; mostly applied to fruits that are not yet ripe
Ifugaw (Batad) pāitthe austere taste of old wine, ginger, salt, onion, garlic, red pepper, lemon, tobacco; of the stinging sensation of smoke
Ilongot paʔitbitter
Ibaloy paitsourness (as of unripe orange); bitter taste, saltiness; also describes the taste of good coffee or rice wine
  em-paitsour, bitter, salt
Pangasinan paítbitter tasting
Kapampangan paʔítbitter
Tagalog paʔítbitterness; bitter taste; bitterness in the moral sense; harshness, disagreeableness
Bikol paʔíta plant: Lunasia amara Blco.
Hanunóo paʔítbitterness
Kalamian Tagbanwa pakitbitter
Hiligaynon paʔítbitterness
Aklanon paʔítbitterness
Cebuano paʔítbitter in taste, bitter in situation
Mapun paitbitter
Mansaka paitbitter (of food, medicine)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paʔitbitter; produce a bitter taste in someone’s mouth
Tausug paitbitterness
Tboli héétbitter, salty
Bilaan (Sarangani) feʔetbitter
Yakan paʔitbitter, over salted, too salty
Tombonuwo o-paitbitter
Kelabit paʔitbitter
Kenyah faʔijbitter
Malagasy faitrabitterness, as the taste of quinine
Iban paitbitter
  daun paitwild leaf used as flavoring in cooking
Jarai phiʔbitter (in taste)
Rhade phiʔbitter
Malay pahitbitter, bitterness, a bitter drink
Toba Batak paitbitter
Sundanese paʔitbitter
Old Javanese pahitbitter, (of sea water) salt
Javanese pahit ~ paitbitter
Balinese pahitkind of tree with small round fruit used as medicine
Sasak paitbitter
Boano paʔitbitter
Balaesang peitbitter
Makasarese paiʔgall; bitter; difficult
Muna paghibitter (as papaya leaves)
Bimanese paʔibitter (as taste); difficult (as one’s life)
Komodo paiʔbitter
Manggarai paʔitbitter (of taste), difficult (of situations)
Kambera paitabitter
  mbàru paitabitter salty, too salty, of food
Lamaholot paitbitter
Kédang peiʔbitter


PPh     *ka-paqit-an be overcome by bitterness

Bikol ka-paʔit-ánbitterness
Mapun ka-pait-anbe overcome by or experience a bitter taste


PAN     *ma-paqiC bitter (?)

Kanakanabu ma-paʔícisour


PWMP     *ma-paqit bitter

Agta mapetbitter
Kapampangan ma-paʔítbitter
Tagalog ma-paʔítbitter
Bikol ma-paʔítbitter, acrid
Hanunóo ma-paʔítbitter, referring to taste
Agutaynen ma-pakitbitter
Hiligaynon ma-paʔítbitter
Aklanon ma-paʔítbitter
Palawan Batak mapáʔitbitter
Mamanwa mapaʔitbitter
Binukid ma-paitbitter (in taste); bitter, hard to accept (situation, happening, etc.)
Maranao ma-paʔitbitter; hard, difficult
Tausug ma-paitbitter (as medicine)
Malagasy ma-faitrabitter, brackish, disagreeable
Old Javanese a-pahitbitter
Sangir ma-paiʔbitter; sour
Mongondow mo-paʔitbitter
Bare'e ma-paʔibitter
Uma mo-paiʔbitter
Tae' ma-paiʔbitter (as palm wine, certain fish, etc.)
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *mo-paqiQbitter
Wolio ma-paʔibitter


PPh     *paqit-an a plant: Lunasia amara

Ilokano paít-anLunasia amara plant
Tagalog paʔit-ánto make bitter
Bikol paʔit-ándevelop a bitter taste
Mansaka pait-ana plant: Lunasia amara Blco. (Madulid 2001)
Maranao paʔit-ankind of bitter banana

Note:   Also Pazeh pazit ‘bitter’, Bunun (Takituduh) ma-paʔic ‘bitter’, Tsou paʔici ‘bitter cucumber’, Saaroa paʔis ‘spicy’, Balantak páket, Kayan (Uma Juman) paʔi, Toba Batak paet, Cham ma-laʔ et ‘bitter, caustic’. Despite Dyen’s (Dyen 1965) attempt to present a unified comparison, the Formosan evidence is unhelpful, as it points to several distinct forms, with only Kanakanabu agreeing in shape (but not in meaning) with Malayo-Polynesian comparata. Pazeh pazit can reflect *pasis or *pasit, Bunun forms reflect an etymon with medial glottal stop rather than *q, and as noted by Tsuchida (1976:259), the vocalism of the Tsou form is unexpected, suggesting possible borrowing from Bunun.

Although reflexes of PMP *paqit are most commonly glossed ‘bitter’, various glosses suggest that the meaning of this term did not correspond precisely to any English word, as seen in the recurrent references to the taste of fermented drinks (Kanakanabu, Ifugaw (Batad), Ibaloy, Tae'), to the acrid sensation of smoke entering the nostrils (Ifugaw (Batad)), and various references to the taste of salt or saltwater (Ifugaw (Batad), Ibaloy, Tboli, Yakan, Malagasy, Old Javanese, Kambera). Taken as a whole this range of meanings suggests that PMP *paqit referred to a strong, somewhat objectionable taste in food. Given the semantic agreement of Saisiyat pæʔis ‘hot (taste)’ with Itawis pet ‘hotness, pungency, spiciness’ a similar meaning appears to be supported for PAn, but the various phonologically irregular forms in Formosan languages suggest that ‘bitterness’ should not be excluded from the gloss.


*paqid wiping off


PWMP     *paqid wiping off

Kelabit paʔidduster, mop, anything used to wipe; accidental wiping
Totoli paidto wipe
Boano paʔidto wipe


PWMP     *ma-maʔid to wipe, wipe off

Kelabit maʔidto wipe
Mongondow mo-maʔidbrush or scrape dirt or mud off the feet or hands


*paqis cook fish or meat wrapped in banana leaves


PWMP     *paqis cook fish or meat wrapped in banana leaves

Casiguran Dumagat páisto cook (a method of cooking small fish or shrimp, wrapping them in a banana leaf and cooking them in water, or laying them directly on the coals)
Tagalog páʔisfish or meat roasted or broiled and wrapped in leaves; steamed or boiled fish, usually small, wrapped in leaves, esp. banana leaves
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paʔisthe process of preparing sweet potato by grating it, wrapping it in leaves, and roasting it in a hole with a fire on top
Maranao paʔiswrap in green leaf and roast
Iban paisfood, esp. fish, cooked in green leaves or bamboo
  pais ikanfish so cooked
Malay paisspiced fish cooked in banana leaf
Old Javanese pes-an ~ pe(s)pes-anfood cooked and broiled in leaves (esp. fish)
Javanese pè-pès-anbanana-leaf-wrapped food roasted over hot coals
  mè-pèsto prepare food in this way


PWMP     *p<in>aqis fish wrapped in banana leaf and cooked over hot coals

Tagalog p<in>áʔisfish or meat roasted or broiled and wrapped in leaves; steamed or boiled fish, usually small, wrapped in leaves, esp. banana leaves
Old Javanese p<in>esto cook as pespesan


*paqit kind of freshwater fish


PWMP     *paqit₁ kind of freshwater fish

Hanunóo paʔítsmall white freshwater fish with a bitter taste; hence its name (< paʔít 'bitterness')
Maranao paʔitfish of Cyprinid family (from bitter taste)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paʔita small fish
Mansaka paitkind of freshwater fish
Binukid paítkind of small fish
Tiruray faʔitthe various barbs (Cyprinidae) spp.
Ida'an Begak paitfish
Tombonuwo paitfish
Kelabit paʔitkind of small fish
Kayan paʔitspecies of tebaring fish found near small river rapids
Iban paitfreshwater fish: Puntius sp.
Toba Batak si-paet-anfish sp.
Sasak pait ~ pepaitsmall, silvery river fish
Chamorro fa-faʔeta snapper: Lutjanus gibbus

Note:   Undoubtedly = *paqit ‘bitter’, but the semantic extension to various fish apparently is old.


*paqliŋ visible defect of the eyes


PPh     *paqliŋ visible defect of the eyes

Isneg palʔíŋ <Mstrabismus
Maranao paliŋone-eyed person, one who has impaired vision
Tiruray faliŋblinded in one eye because of wounds from fighting (refers to animals only)

Note:   With root *-liŋ₂ ‘cross-eyed’.


*paqpaq₁ chew


PAN     *paqpaq₁ chew

Amis paʔpaʔchew; the action of the jaws and teeth in chewing
Maranao papaʔbite, chew


*paqpaq₂ midrib of coconut frond


PMP     *paqpaq₂ midrib of coconut frond     [doublet: *palaqpaq]

Old Javanese papahthe long stalk of a palm or banana leaf
Javanese papahcenter stalk of palm, banana, etc.
Balinese papahthe young or green leaf of a coconut or palm tree; the sheath of a leaf
Arosi haha-nafrond of a palm, branch of a plant or tree that is not an ‘ai, as sago palm, coconut, cycad, screw palm

Note:   Also Marshallese pāp ‘coconut frond; midrib of coconut frond’.


*para coconut embryo


PMP     *para coconut embryo

Ilokano párathe sprouting embryo of the coconut, before the cotyledon appears
Pangasinan pálacoconut pith
Makasarese paragerm of the coconut that remains in the nut and later sprouts
Wolio paracoconut embryo
Label hara-isprouting tissue of a coconut
Nggela varaa fallen coconut beginning to grow and showing leaf
Pohnpeian pahrspongy center of a sprouting coconut; par to sprout, of coconuts
Woleaian faracopra sponge, copra meat
Mota varathe shoot, plumule, of the cocoanut, as it forms first within the nut, afterwards when it shoots outside, and finally as growing up from the radicle
Southeast Ambrym halcenter of coconut
Lonwolwol vaːspongy kernel of a mature coconut (which is rich in oil, and nourishing)
North Ambrym varspongy kernel of a mature coconut
Rotuman harato sprout (coconut)
Fijian varaspongy flesh in the kernel of a coconut before it shoots; a coconut in this stage or just shooting


*para-₁ prefix of repeated action


PWMP     *para- prefix of repeated action

Bikol pára-verbal affix, repetitive action series, infinitive-command form, used in combination with the intensive series affix pag- and verbs taking mag-, -on, i-, and -an in the regular series; magpara-bisíta repeatedly visit
Muna para-verbal prefix on verbal bases; a-class, amenable to -um-, intransitive. Meaning: iterativity in combination with habituality. In some cases the emphasis is on the variety of the implied objects; no-para-toŋka vomit repeatedly

Note:   Also Aklanon pagá- future verb prefix referring to a continuing or repeated action in the future or to an action which will be in process at a given time in the future, in the object or oblique focuses, occurring in the forms paga---on (OF#1) and paga---an (OF#3).


*paraq paraq trellis for plants to grow up


PWMP     *paraq paraq trellis for plants to grow up     [doublet: *pala pala₁]

Cebuano palaʔ-palaʔhorizontal trellis for plants to grow on
Makasarese para-paratrellis for tendrils to creep up

Note:   Also Acehnese para ‘trellis’.


*paraqu boat


PMP     *paraqu boat

Ilokano paráwa sailing vessel much larger than the biráy
Casiguran Dumagat parawlarge sailing vessel
Iban perauʔboat (without close or full deck, as opp. to kapal)
Malay perahuundecked native ship. Etymologically the padao or parao of the Malabar coast, in contr. to the decked kapal
Toba Batak parauboat, ship
Sundanese parahusloop, boat
Old Javanese parahuboat
Ngadha barauboat, sail boat
Rotinese pauboat, ship
Tolai parauboat, ship; foreign, European, brought from overseas in a ship
Nehan parauboat

Note:   Wilkinson (1959) apparently regards Malay perahu as a Dravidian loan. There are, however, two problems with this interpretation. First, if Malay perahu is a borrowing of padao or parao there is no explanation for its medial -h-, nor for the corresponding segment in the Sundanese and Old Javanese cognates. Rather, these glottal fricatives agree in pointing to *q. Second, apparent cognates of Malay perahu are found not only in island Southeast Asia, but also in western Melanesia, a situation that is virtually unknown for established loan distributions. Finally, because it is also necessary to reconstruct *padaw ‘kind of sailboat’ (q.v.), many Philippine forms are difficult to classify. Tagalog paráw ‘large passenger and cargo sailboat’ must reflect *padaw, and Ilokano paráw (if not a Tagalog loan) must reflect *paraqu, but similar forms in other languages, as Bikol paráw ‘boat’ or Maranao parao ‘dhow’ are ambiguous for *paraqu or *padaw. Dempwolff's (1934-38) attempt to include Polynesian forms such as Tongan folau ‘to voyage, travel, or journey by sea’ in the present comparison conflicts with the evidence for reconstruction of *-q-, and is best abandoned.


*parara thunder


POC     *parara thunder

Wuvulu paxaxathunderclap
Leipon pererthunderclap
Nali palanthunder
Nauna paralthunderclap
Tanga thunder
Label pararthunder
Mokilese palarthunder, thunder and lightning; to thunder
Hawaiian palala (length unexpl.)a low or rumbling sound

Note:   The final l in Nauna and the medial l in Mokilese are assumed to be products of lexically specific dissimilation. This item may have meant ‘thunderclap’ in contrast to other types of thundering sound.


*paras shaved off, made smooth


PWMP     *paras shaved off, made smooth

Tagalog paláslopped off; levelled
Ngaju Dayak parassmooth, even, level
Malagasy farascraped, scratched, smoothed
Iban parastrim, cut even or smooth
Malay parastrimming off asperities
  me-marasto smooth
Karo Batak parascastrate
Sundanese parasshave off
Old Javanese parasthat which is trimmed by shaving (hair, eyebrow); razor; to shave (trim) the eyebrows
Sasak parasshave off the eyebrows

Note:   Tagalog palás may be a Malay loan. Dempwolff (1934-38) compared Malagasy farana ‘made even, as the edges of anything’ rather than the form cited here. Sa'a hara ‘to rub; rubbed, used of ceremonial purification’, which he also included in the present comparison, is best treated as a chance resemblance.


*parelak garden, orchard


PWMP     *parelak garden, orchard

Dairi-Pakpak Batak perlakenclosed garden, orchard; fruit orchard
Old Javanese parlakdry rice field
Tae' paʔlakcultivated field, garden
Buginese pallaʔenclosed garden, orchard
Makasarese parallakk-eŋfarmyard, compound

Note:   Mills (1981) compares the SSul forms with Old Malay, Old Balinese parlak, Angkola-Mandailing Batak porlak under a reconstruction "PInd" ‘garden’. This item evidently referred to an enclosed or clearly demarcated area of cultivation, perhaps primarily of fruit groves. Cense (1979) suggests that Makasarese parallakken derives from a stem allaʔ, but this almost certainly is an error.


*pari₁ scrape, grate


POC     *pari₁ scrape, grate

Roviana variwood rasp
Nggela palirub one thing against another
Fijian vari-ascale a fish; scratch

Note:   Also Toqabaqita fai ‘scrape the ground with hands, feet, paws (as a crab burrowing in)’.


*pari₂ to divide, share out (as an inheritance?)


POC     *pari₂ to divide, share out (as an inheritance?)

Motu hari-ato divide, give away
Bugotu variheir, heritage; to inherit
Nggela varian heir


*pariama a constellation: the Seven Sisters, Pleiades


PWMP     *pariama a constellation: the Seven Sisters, Pleiades

Ngaju Dayak pariamataboo word for "star"
Karo Batak bintaŋ pariamathe Seven Sisters, Pleiades
Toba Batak pariamaPleiades
Sangir pahiama, pohiamaa constellation: the Seven Sisters, Pleiades
Mongondow pariamathe Seven Sisters (constellation)
Tae' pariamaname of a constellation

Note:   Also Soboyo pariama ‘the Seven Sisters, Pleiades’. Fortgens (1921) marks this as a Ternate loan, but the Ternate form in turn must have been borrowed from a language of Sulawesi or the southern Philippines. Although it is no longer analyzable, I assume that this term (a quadrisyllable) was originally polymorphemic.


*pariaq the bitter melon: Momordica charantia


PWMP     *pariaq the bitter melon: Momordica charantia     [doublet: *pariaʔ]

Maranao pariaʔsucculent vegetable with quinine bitter taste: Momordica charantia L.
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) periaʔa plant the leaves and fruit of which are eaten as a vegetable. The fruit is very bitter, but relished: Momordica charantia
Tiruray feriyaʔa vine, Trichosanthes quinquangulata A. Grey, Momordica charantia L.
Uma pariaʔvine with bitter fruit eaten as a vegetable: Momordica charantia

Note:   Zorc (1971) reconstructs PPh *-pareya ‘(bitter melon) Momordica charantia L.’.


*pariaʔ bitter melon: Momordica charantia L.


PWMP     *pariaʔ bitter melon: Momordica charantia L.     [doublet: *pariaq]

Isneg pariyávine with yellow flowers and oblong, cylindric, ribbed rugose fruits, pointed at both ends: Momordica charantia L.
Ilokano pariáMomordica charantia L. A vine with yellow flowers. Its young shoots and leaves and its fruits are edible
Kankanaey paliáMomordica balsamina L. A slender vine with yellow flowers and rough, elongated, bitter edible fruits
Pangasinan palyábitter melon
Cebuano paliyá, palíyawidely cultivated vine producing an elongated fruit with wart-like skin, eaten unripe as a vegetable, having a bitter taste, Momordica charantia
Iban periaʔbitter gourd Momordica charantia L., a yellow-white pointed cucumber with lumpy skin, eaten raw or cooked
Malay periaa gourd proverbial for its bitter taste: Momordica charantia
Tae' pariaclimbing plant with bitter cucumber-like fruit used as a vegetable

Note:   Also Itbayaten pariak ‘balsam apple (Momordica balsamina L.)’. Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *-pareya ‘(bitter melon) Momordica charantia L.’.


*parij ditch, canal


PWMP     *parij ditch, canal     [disjunct: *parik]

Maloh parék (é unexpl.)ditch, canal
Iban paritditch, drain
Malay paritgroove, cutting, drain; ditch or open moat
Karo Batak parikditch, furrow, canal
Toba Batak parikembankment, earthen wall
Nias fariexcavated conduit; embankment
Javanese palirfurrow, gully, channel

Note:   Tolai baret ‘gutter’, paret ‘trench’ appears to be a Malay loanword. Although Malay loans are almost unheard of in Oceanic languages, this item may have been introduced during the colonial period.


*parik ditch, canal


PWMP     *parik ditch, canal     [disjunct: *parij]

Maloh parék (é unexpl.)ditch, canal
Karo Batak parikditch, furrow, canal
Toba Batak parikembankment, earthen wall

Note:   The Maloh and Toba Batak forms could regularly reflect *parij, but Karo Batak parik could not -- hence the disjunct.


*pariuk earthenware cooking pot


PAN     *pariuk earthenware cooking pot

Paiwan pariukwok, large, round-bottomed metal pan for cooking
Ilokano pariókan iron pan with a round bottom and a short iron handle in the shape of a socket
Kankanaey paliókiron pan with rounded bottom and short round handle
Ifugaw palyúkbroad iron pot
Tagalog palayók, palyókearthen pot for cooking
Iban periokcooking pot, saucepan
Malay periokpot (usually of earthenware) for boiling rice
Sundanese pariukearthen pot or pan for cooking
Buruese pariu-tcooking pot

Note:   The reference to "metal" cooking pots in Paiwan and the languages of northern Luzon suggests borrowing. However, a source is unknown, and the glosses for Tagalog and Malay suggest an earthenware pot which may have given its name to metal cooking utensils that were subsequently introduced. Lambrecht (1978:405) states that Ifugaw palyúk ‘broad iron pot’ is an imitation of Spanish parioc ‘frying pan’, but I have been unable to confirm this claim.


*paro to scrape


POC     *paro to scrape

Lau faroscraper for grating yams
Fijian varoto file, saw, or rasp
Maori wharo, wha-wharo, wharo-wharoto scrape

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Fijian varo to *parut ‘rasp’, but was forced by this decision to accept an irregular change. Cebuano palut ‘peel skin off (as from an apple); for the skin to get chafed; shave the head bald’ may be related through a PMP etymon *palet.


*paR-₁ derivational prefix, used to form deverbal nouns


PWMP     *paR- derivational prefix, used to form deverbal nouns

Tagalog pag-prefix forming verbal nouns: act of. 1. Followed by the simple root word if derived from an um verb, as um-alis 'to depart': pag-alis 'departure'. 2. Followed by the root word with the first syllable reduplicated, if derived from a mag- verb, as mag-alis 'to remove', pag-a-alis 'removal, act of removing'
Bikol pag-nominal affix: abot 'arrive', pag-abot 'arrival'
Kadazan pog-nominal affix: mog-odu 'to rebuke', pog-odu 'a rebuke'
Bahasa Indonesia per-The prefix per- replaces the prefix ber- of verbs and adjectives, and so forms a noun indicating the person or instrument performing the action referred to by that verb, or possessing the quality referred to by that adjective (Macdonald and Soenjono 1967:99)
Toba Batak par-Substantives with the prefix par- do occur without there being a corresponding verb with the prefix mar-. These substantives are derived from substantives that have a preposition before them, or from those that, with a preposition, function as adverbs ... These substantives rather represent a person and, therefore, can also be formed from intransitive verbs (van der Tuuk 1971:186)


PWMP     *paR- ... -an derivational circumfix, probably used to form deverbal nouns of location

Murut (Timugon) pag- ... -anoccurs with verbs which are inflected with mag-₁, mag-₂, and man- in the subject focus (Prentice 1971:140)
Toba Batak par- + N + -anmakes nouns of place (Nababan 1981:95)
Bahasa Indonesia per- ... -anin a few cases per- replaces ber- in verbs and combines with the suffix -an to form nouns referring to the process of the action referred to by the verb; occasionally the noun refers to the place where the action is performed (Soenjono and Macdonald 1967:100)

Note:   Wolff (1981) considers the form and meaning of *paR- within the context of a larger comparison of the morphology of Tagalog and Bahasa Indonesia. He concludes (p. 87, fn. 14): "The meanings of pag- and per- are elusive and range widely. We doubt that they can be profitably compared." It is quite possible that *paR- had multiple functions in PWMP, and that the meaning reconstructed here is only one of several glosses that may eventually be associated with this etymon.


*paR-₂ numeral prefix: do x times


PAN     *paR- X -en divide into x (x = numeral)

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) paR- X -(en)do X times (X = numeral)
Bikol pag- X -(on)divide into X; send X at a time (X = numeral)
Malay per-duahalf
  sa per-tiga-anone third (i.e. one part of something divided into three equal parts)
Karo Batak per-duadivide into two

Note:   Probably identical to *paR-₁.


*paRa₂ collective particle


PMP     *paRa₂ collective particle

Malay paracollective prefix implying a certain parity (used before nouns to indicate collectivities of persons sharing some vocational or other feature
Acehnese parahorde, troop
Old Javanese paraa personal demonstrative particle for a number of persons belonging to the same category
Makasarese paraall, both (in composite expressions)
Buli fa-plural or collective prefix on verbs

Note:   This item almost certainly was a particle rather than a prefix, since prefixal vowels, like other vowels in prepenultimate syllables, would merge as e in Malay.


*paRa₁ storage shelf; attic, loft


PAN     *paRa₁ storage shelf; attic, loft

Atayal pagathe stand used for the heads taken in headhunting
Itbayaten payaplace above the stove where firewood is kept dry
Isneg páxathe central shelf of the three that are fixed over the hearth (used for storing bundles of rice that have to be dried before pounding)
Ifugaw paláattic of an Ifugaw house in which rice bundles (and some other things) are stored
Pangasinan pálaplace for storing pillows and mats
Tagalog págastorage loft made of bamboo attached to ceiling
Bikol págastorage loft made from bamboo, attached to the ceiling just above the stove, usually used for storing firewood
Hanunóo págashelf
Cebuano págashelf put above the stove; platform built close to the roof forming a loft, but not extending the entire length of the house
Maranao pagaattic
Mansaka pagaplace where kitchen utensils are kept
Tboli halasuspended platform above the firetable, used to dry wood, corn, tobacco, etc.
Kenyah (Long Anap) paastorage rack for firewood above the hearth
Berawan (Long Terawan) paleih {?? sp?}storage rack above the hearth
Kayan pahaʔrack above the hearth for storing firewood
Ngaju Dayak paheshelf over the hearth where firewood is placed to dry
Iban paraframe or rack over a hearth for drying or preserving things laid on it; platform for felling large trees; hide or machan for hunter in tree
Malay parashelf or framework built over the fireplace as a receptable for cooking pots; any shelf-like upper apartment in a Malay house, serving as an attic or home for a young girl during her seclusion
Acehnese paraattic, loft (under the ceiling)
Karo Batak paraname for various racks above the fireplace (where husked rice is kept dry, cooking pots are stored, firewood is kept, etc.)
Sundanese paraattic, loft (used for storage)
Sasak parashelf over the hearth
Sangir paharack used in drying copra, or in the kitchen above the hearth on which fish is smoked, etc.
Tae' parathe slanting upper portion of the front and rear facades of a house
Makasarese (Bantaeng) paraattic, loft
Wolio paaattic, bay at the side of a house, on higher level than the floor
  paa ombusmoking rack over kitchen fire
Rembong parauppermost floor of a house
Buruese pahabamboo rack
Waropen arastorage rack above the hearth; loft


POC     *paRa, baRa storage shelf above the hearth

Motu haraplatform of sticks on which meat is grilled; a gridiron
Mailu waratable for smoking fish
Nali payshelf above the hearth for storing firewood, etc.
Loniu paysmoking rack for fish and storage rack above the hearth
Levei pwashelf above the hearth for storing firewood, etc.
Nauna payshelf above the hearth for storing food, betel, etc., but not firewood
Cheke Holo farabamboo or wooden storage shelf, often located above a stone oven
Kwaio balaracks in house for drying wood, etc.
'Āre'āre parasmall platform, mostly above the fireplace, used as a depository


PMP     *paRa paRa storage shelf; attic, loft

Maranao paga-pagaattic-like garret
Malagasy fara-farabedstead; stone shelves in native tombs on which corpses are laid
Malay para-parashelf or framework built over the fireplace as a receptacle for cooking-pots
Toba Batak para-parawooden rack that in a Batak house runs from the door around the entire house
Tae' para-pararack in a house where eating utensils are put
Makasarese para-paragrill on which a cooking pot is set
Wolio paa-paasmall bay at the side of a house, used for storage
Rembong (Waru-Kia) para-parauppermost floor of a house

Note:   Also Rejang palai ‘a ceiling’. Lister-Turner and Clark (1930) list Motu hara as a Koitabu (non-Austronesian) loan, but the evidence cited here makes the reverse direction of borrowing far more likely (also cf. the clear loan in Mailu wara ‘table for smoking fish’). The glosses for several widely separated reflexes suggest that the *paRa typically was made of bamboo, and was used principally for the storage of firewood. Virtually all reflexes agree that it was built above the hearth, where smoke from the cooking fire served to dry and preserve objects placed on it. It is possible that the PMP house had more than one storage shelf above the hearth, but terminological distinctions are unknown. In addition it appears that PMP *paRa referred too a shelf-like platform which formed an attic or loft near the roof of the house.


*paRa-₂ reciprocal prefix


PCEMP     *paRa- reciprocal prefix

Rembong paramutual, reciprocal
Tolai warareciprocal prefix used with verbs, e.g. kul 'to pay', wara-kul 'to pay each other'; this word often becomes wari- before r, e.g. wari-rap

Note:   Also Kayan pala- ‘prefix of mutual or reciprocal action’. The relationship of this item to the much better-attested PEMP *paRi- ‘reciprocal prefix’ is unclear, though Lanyon-Orgill's (1962) gloss for Tolai suggests that the two may have been allomorphs of a single morpheme.


*paRada handle of an axe or adze


PMP     *paRada handle of an axe or adze

Bontok pagádathe handle of the wásay axe
Kankanaey pagádahandle (of an ax)


POC     *paRara handle of an axe or adze

Motu pararahandle (given only in the English index)
Duke of York wararahandle of a stone club or adze
Gedaged pazazhandle (of a broom, hammer, but not of cups, etc.)
Roviana vararawooden handle, as of an axe, etc.
Nggela valalahandle; cross handle of an adze
Sa'a halalato helve an axe
Puluwat paar, pera-nhandle, as of knife or saw
Woleaian pash, pashathat part of a utensil or tool which is to be held with the hand
Lonwolwol verɛ-handle of -

Note:   The second and third consonants of this form are disambiguated by Bontok and Kankanaey of northern Luzon, and by Puluwat and Woleaian of western Micronesia. The latter forms reflect POc *b, together with loss of *R and haplology Puluwat paar < *bara, Woleaian pash < *bada)."

Nggela valala (expected **valara) and Sa'a halala (expected **halara) show assimilation of POc *r to *R. Since all other witnesses have merged PMP *R and *r, it is possible that the POc form itself contained this assimilation (hence POc *paRaRa). This is, indeed what Milke (1968) reconstructed, though on the basis of no diagnostic evidence for distinguishing POc *R from *r. Palauan ordóm-el ‘handle’, merédem ‘put a handle on (knife, spear, etc.)’ may point to a variant *paRedem.


*paRaek hoarse


PMP     *paRaek hoarse

Kankanaey pagáekhoarse
Tagalog pagákhoarse and broken (said of the voice)
Buginese paraʔhoarse


POC     *paRak hoarse

Tongan hoarse, of the voice
Samoan hoarse, husky
Rarotongan ʔāhoarse, husky
Hawaiian hoarse, hoarseness

Note:   Also Pangasinan pagás ‘hoarse; speak hoarsely’.


*paRaq to swell, boil


POC     *paRaq₁ to swell, boil     [doublet: *mpaRoq]

Arosi harato swell, of the body; become hard and round, of a swelling
Bauro haraa boil
Tongan blister
Samoan mata-fāboils on the face (Pratt 1984)

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Samoan mata-fā to PAn *baReq, but could not easily reconcile either the oral grade reflex of POc *p or the irregular development of the last vowel with the development in Fijian (bo). The final consonant in this form is posited only to satisfy the Regularity Hypothesis, on the assumption that *paRaq is a doublet of POc *mpaRoq which differs in no feature other than the consonant grade of *p and the quality of the last vowel.


*paRatpat a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp.


PWMP     *paRatpat a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp.     [doublet: *paRepat]

Casiguran Dumagat pagátpatuncultivated tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia acida (wood used for house posts)
Tagalog pagátpattree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia caseolaris (Merrill 1954)
Bikol pagatpáttree producing a wood suitable for house posts: Sonneratia alba
Aklanon pagátpata tree: Sonneratia caseolaris (Linn.)
Cebuano pagátpattree of mangrove swamps: Sonneratia caseolaris and acida
Makasarese parappaʔa tree with a fruit shaped like an apple: Sonneratia oborata

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) compared Tagalog pagátpat with Toba Batak parapat ‘kind of bamboo’, Malay perepat ‘rhizophore’ under an etymon *p-aR-atpat ‘name of a plant’. However, the Batak word appears to be unrelated and the Malay word appears to reflect a doublet *paRepat (q.v.).


*paRaw hoarse


PAN     *paRaw hoarse

Kavalan parawhoarse
Itbayaten ma-payawhoarse
Ilokano párawhoarse
Isneg págawhoarse
Itawis páhawhoarseness
Tagalog págawhoarseness of voice
Hanunóo pagáwhoarseness
Cebuano pagáwhoarse, become hoarse
Maranao pagawhoarse voice
Kayan pahauhoarse, of voice
Iban parauhoarse
Malay parauhoarseness due to overmuch talking or shouting or to a cold (not of voice naturally harsh)
Acehnese parohoarse
Simalur halohoarse
Chamorro a-fagaohoarse

Note:   Also Pazeh puhaw ‘hoarse’, Nias faru, Makasarese parro ‘hoarse’. + Ambon Malay paru léhér


*paRbu one of the four principal rafters


PPh     *paRbu one of the four principal rafters

Ilokano parbóthe four rafters that meet the solókan (hip rafters) at their upper end, near the ridge of the roof
Hanunóo pagbúone of the four principal rafters, frequently of bamboo, used in the Hanuno'o construction of a house roof
Aklanon págbobeam, girder (supporting roof)


*paRepat a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp.


PWMP     *paRepat a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp.     [doublet: *paRatpat]

Iban perepata tree: Sonneratia caseolaris (L.)
Malay perepata sea-shore tree: Sonneratia griffithii and S. acida
Proto-Sangiric *paRəpatmangrove
Sangir pahepaʔa shore tree, the mangrove: Rhizophora conjugata
Mongondow pogopatkind of ironwood tree: Metrosideros vera


*paRhid wipe off


PPh     *paRhid wipe off

Hanunóo páyidwiping off
Aklanon pághidrub one's hands on something in order to get dirt off; clean off (by scraping--without water)
Cebuano paghídput s.t. on by spreading

Note:   Also Cebuano páhid ‘rub on, apply by wiping; wipe slightly to remove something’; pahir-án, pahir-án-an ‘doormat; rags to wipe the hands’. Wolff (1972) derives Cebuano paghíd synchronically from páhid, but the comparative picture suggests that the latter is a reduction of paghíd.


*paRi cut or lop off branches


POC     *paRi₃ cut or lop off branches

Lakalai valito cut, as wood or a leaf, from a tree; remove all the limbs from a tree
'Āre'āre harilop off branches, cut off a bunch of bananas, betelnuts
Sa'a halilop off branches
Arosi haritear, tear off, pull off a cluster of fruit
Rotuman faicut or chop down (a tree or branch)

Note:   Also Lakalai vale ‘to cut, as wood or a leaf, from a tree’.


*paRi- prefix of reciprocal or collective action


PEMP     *paRi- prefix of reciprocal or collective action

Buli fa-prefix used for the reciprocal form of a verb
  fa-, fai-prefix which indicates that the action concerns a plural subject; with nouns it also forms collectives (e.g. rama 'sister', fa-rama-u 'sisters')
Mussau ai-reciprocal or collective action (possibly fossilized in ai-obi 'fight', ai-ora 'copulate')
Label war-reciprocal prefix
Cheke Holo fari-reciprocal prefix; simultaneously, mutually (e.g. fari-gamu 'eat together')
Bugotu vari-prefix denoting reciprocity
Arosi hari-reciprocal prefix generally having the force of united action, rather than mutual action
Gilbertese ai-prefix to some words having the meaning of reciprocity; ex., hit one another, look at each other, follow one another, etc.
Woleaian fe-reciprocal prefix, attached to ŋal 'to' and taŋ 'away from'
Mota var-prefix, 1. of reciprocity, 2. of plurality (e.g. children crying all together)
Rotuman hai-prefix forming reciprocal verbs
Fijian vei-a prefix. Added to nouns it forms a collective plural (vale 'house', vei-vale 'a group of houses'). Added to verbs it makes reciprocals. It may also be added to names of relationships to produce a reciprocal sense: vei-taci-ni 'brother and sister', the taci relationship
Tongan fe-the so-called reciprocal prefix... It may be: (a) actional, (b) habituative, (c) invigorative, (d) accelerative, (e) communal, indicating united or simultaneous action, (f) collaborative, (g) reciprocal, (h) competitive, (i) reciprocative, meaning hither and thither, or in (or to or from) various directions
Samoan fe-prefix to word-bases, used either alone or in combination with a suffix...(a) when fe- is used without a suffix it may denote the plural...(b) when used in combination with a suffix...fe- may denote (i) the plural, (ii) a reciprocal process, (iii) an action or process carried out here and there, up and down, hither and thither, all around, quickly, etc.
Rennellese he-...ʔakicommon affix indicating reciprocal or plural action

Note:   Also Kelabit pere- ‘reflexive prefix’. Although this affix is commonly glossed ‘reciprocal prefix’, such a description clearly oversimplifies the facts. Dempwolff (1920) posited PAn *baRi- ‘Sozialprafix’. His supporting evidence from non-Oceanic languages consisted of the Malay prefix ber- and putative fossilized affixes in Toba Batak (bor-), Sundanese(bar-), Ngaju Dayak(/bar-/), and Makasarese(/ba-/). Malay ber-, however, evidently derives from *maR- (Teeuw 1965), and the reality of the "fossilized affixes" in the other languages is open to question. Despite these problems a number of Oceanic languages clearly reflect *paRi-, and Buli fa-, fai- evidently is cognate with these forms, thus indicating PEMP *paRi-.

The following additional observations are noteworthy:

(1) the data in Pawley (1972:45) show that *R has irregularly disappeared in a number of reflexes in the Solomons. Some languages have doublets with and without the regular reflex of *R, which may differ in meaning: Bugotu vari- ‘prefix denoting reciprocity’, vei- ‘prefix denoting reciprocity; the suffix gi is generally added to the compound word (which may be used as a noun)’; Arosi hai- ‘reciprocal, showing mutual action; hai- differs from hari- in that the former usually shows mutual assisting or conflicting action and hari- merely combined action, but there are exceptions in both cases’. Together with Motu he- ‘prefix, with verbs indicating the reflexive, reciprocal, and state or condition’ these forms raise the possibility that POc distinguished *pai- and *paRi-. As argued in Blust (1977), however, grammatical morphemes tend to undergo sporadic compressions. The probability that this is the correct explanation in the present case is strengthened by the fact that attention to sound correspondences alone would require the reconstruction of three POc variants: *paRi-, *pai-, and *pe-. Sporadic contraction offers a more economical explanation of the correspondences, since both the loss of *R and the contraction of derived *-ai can be seen as realizations of a single tendency.

(2) It appears from the agreement of Bugotu with Fijian and various Polynesian languages that *paRi- co-occurred with *-qaki under circumstances still to be determined.

(3) Ujir (Kayan) pe- ‘reciprocal prefix’ is superficially comparable to reflexes of *paRi-, since this is the shape that a reflex of *paRi- would have before consonant-initial stems. However, before vowel-initial stems we would expect Ujir peh-, not the attested pe-; for the present this resemblance is treated as a product of convergence.

(4) Finally, it is clear that reciprocal action was only a part of the meaning of *paRi-, which more generally appears to have marked actions performed by multiple experiencers. If the somewhat tenuous reconstruction POc *paRa- ‘reciprocal prefix’ is valid, it suggests that *paRa- and *paRi- divided up the semantic space involving multiple experiencers in ways yet to be precisely determined.


*paRigi artificially enclosed catchment for water: well, ditch


PWMP     *paRigi artificially enclosed catchment for water: well, ditch

Malay perigiwell, spring
Sundanese parigiexcavated ditch or canal
Old Javanese parigilow encircling wall of stones (of yard, trees), paved (terraced?) bank or slope (of pond)
Sasak perigistone rim (edge, wall); rim of road, pond or well
Proto-Sangiric *paRigiwell
Sangir pahighipit, well
Wolio parigiditch, moat

Note:   Also Tiruray faligiʔ ‘a well for water’, Mongondow parigiʔ ‘well for water’, Buruese parigi ‘well’, all of which appear to be Malay loans, and Balinese parigi ‘stone steps, stairway’, which may be a loan from Old Javanese. The essence of this comparison was first noted in print by Sneddon (1984). Zoetmulder (1982) suggests that Old Javanese parigi may be a Tamil loan, but the wider distribution documented here makes this unlikely.


*paRiS stingray


PAN     *paRiS stingray

Siraya pagigstingray


PMP     *paRih skate, stingray (generic); a constellation

Ilokano págikind of ray whose meat is esteemed
Itawis págistingray
Casiguran Dumagat pagísting ray, genus Dasyatis
Tagalog págiray fish
Bikol págistingray
Hanunóo págisting ray, devil ray, rayfish
Aklanon págiray, ray fish
Cebuano págigeneral term for rays
Maranao pagistingray
Bintulu paistingray
Melanau (Mukah) paistingray
Ngaju Dayak pahistingray (skin used as a rasp or grater, and in polishing rough surfaces)
Malagasy faikind of fish with a rough skin; rough
Iban pariʔskate; ray. Generic for sting-rays (Trygonidae), electric rays (Torpedinae), and eagle-rays (Myliobatidae)
  bintaŋ pariSouthern Cross (constellation)
  kikir pariskate-skin grater
Malay bintaŋ paria constellation, the Southern Cross
Acehnese paròëstingray
  bintaŋ paròëa constellation, the Southern Cross
Simalur halistingray
  bintun halia constellation, the Southern Cross
Karo Batak paristingray
Javanese pestingray
Balinese pahia species of shark
Sasak pai, paristingray
Proto-Minahasan *pahiray fish
Gorontalo pahikind of marine fish with skin like sandpaper
Mongondow pagistingray; also a constellation: the Stingray
Buginese paristingray


PCEMP     *paRi₁ stingray

Bimanese faistingray
Ngadha parisawfish
Sika parifish a fathom long
Kambera paristingray
Rotinese haistingray
Selaru arstingray
Yamdena farikind of ray fish; the constellation Scorpio
Fordata faristingray; the constellation Scorpio
Kei fārstingray; the constellation Scorpio
Soboyo ahistingray
Kowiai farstingray
Buli stingray


POC     *paRi₂ stingray

Nali peystingray
Bipi paystingray
Levei pepstingray
Lindrou beystingray
Wuvulu paistingray
Label warstingray
Gedaged pazstingray
Gitua parstingray
Molima valistingray
Kilivila vaistingray
Nggela valia species of fish, ray, skate
Lau falistingray
'Āre'āre haristingray
Sa'a halistingray
Arosi haristingray
Gilbertese bai-manugiant ray, manta ray (Polynesian loan)
Puluwat fáári-yápkind of large but harmless ray fish
  fáyiray fish
Woleaian fai-yafile (a tool); rayfish (general term)
Mota var, varistingray
Rotuman haistingray
Fijian vaia ray or skate, Raiidae; also a string figure
Tongan faiskate or sting-ray
  fai kilikind of skate or sting-ray with very hard, rough skin from which rasps are made
Samoan faisting-ray, Dasyatis sp.
Rennellese haigeneral for rays and skate-like fishes
Maori whaiDasyatis brevicaudatus, sting-ray and Raja nasuta, skate
  te whai a titipathe "coalsack", a dark spot near the Southern Cross; cat's-cradle; play at cat's-cradle


PMP     *paRih manuk large rayfish, probably manta or eagle ray

Tagalog pali-manókJavan cow-nosed ray
Kwaio fali-manumanta ray
'Āre'āre hari-manubig ray fish
Tongan fai-manukind of skate or sting-ray
Kapingamarangi hai-manufish sp.: bar ray
Hawaiian hī-hī-manuvarious stingrays (Dasyatidae) and eagle rays (Myliobatidae) (with assimilation of *hai-hai to hī-hī).

Note:   Also Bare'e pagi ‘file, consisting of a block of wood wrapped in stingray skin’, Wolio pagi ‘ray (fish); file, grater, rasp’, Manggarai, Kambera pai ‘stingray’, all of which may be loans, though source languages are difficult to find for at least the first three words. This fish was valued for its rough skin, which was used like sandpaper.

PMP *paRih evidently described all skates and rays, and also referred to a constellation which was conceived as resembling a skate or ray. Three CMP languages which are either closely related or geographically contiguous agree in indicating Scorpio as the constellation in question, while Malay bintaŋ pari, Maori te whai a titipa both refer to the Southern Cross or to some feature that is visually near it. The reference to a string figure used in Cat's-cradle in Fiji and parts of Polynesia may derive historically from the constellation.

Finally, reflexes of PMP *paRih manuk vividly illustrate the value of loanwords in reconstruction. In a number of languages the larger manta or eagle rays are lexically identified with eagles or bats: Loniu menuay, Ahus menwa, Pak, Leipon menwey ‘sea eagle; spotted eagle ray’, Wuvulu, Aua manua ‘sea eagle’, Gapapaiwa manu-manua ‘small (=large?) sting ray’, Chamorro fanihen tasi (lit. ‘bat of the sea’) ‘manta ray, sting ray, leopard ray’. Reflexes such as Kwaio fali-manu, Tongan fai-manu thus apparently derive from POc *paRi manuk ‘manta ray, spotted eagle ray’ (lit. ‘bird ray’). This inference is confirmed by a single known non-Oceanic reflex, which is clearly a loan: Tagalog pali-manók. Given the larger pattern of known borrowing in Tagalog, one would naturally suspect Malay as the source of this term, but pari manok apparently does not occur in Malay. Despite the difficulty of identifying a source, however, Tagalog palimanók must derive from a WMP language and the inference to PMP *paRih manuk is inescapable.


*paRo₁ drill through, pierce, perforate


POC     *paRo₁ drill through, pierce, perforate

Nggela valopierce a hole in a porpoise tooth, so as to string it
Kwaio falodrill a hole
  falo-faloa drill
'Āre'āre haropierce, bore, drill
Sa'a halobore into with circular motion, as feet into sand; twist a stick in making a hole; the flint point of a drill, haro mao
Nukuoro haodrill through, burrow
  hao-ŋaa hole in something
Maori whaoperforate, chisel out

Note:   Maori whao, given as a single dictionary entry with the meanings ‘perforate, chisel out’, probably reflects two etyma, POc *paRo₁ and POc *paqot ‘chisel’ (q.v.).


*paRo₂ snatch, seize, rob


POC     *paRo₂ snatch, seize, rob

Nggela valorob openly, take and keep, refuse to return, an open act, unlike gito, steal
  valo-valoto rob
Samoan faosnatch, seize, grab; rob (of belongings, money, spouse)
Hawaiian haoscoop or pick up; grasp, pillage, plunder; robber


*paRut pluck, uproot


PMP     *paRut pluck, uproot

Ilokano párutpull up, grub up, uproot, pluck up by the roots, pull off, pluck (feathers, hair, etc.)
Ifugaw pálutpull out grass, weeds, small plants including the roots
Pangasinan pálotpull out
Gorontalo pahutouproot (plants), unsheathe (weapon)
Kwaio faluremove, pluck

Note:   The resemblance of the isolated Kwaio form to the corresponding term in WMP languages may be a product of chance. If so, this etymology is reduced to a PPh innovation.


*pasaŋ₁ pair, matching set


PMP     *pasaŋ₁ pair, matching set

Ilokano pásaŋcounterpart, match
  ag-ka-pásaŋto form a pair, to match
  i-pásaŋto substitute, give in exchange; transfer; endorse
Maranao pasaŋ-anset, as of kolintang (gongs) or buttons
Tiruray fasaŋ-ana set of five Tiruray tuned gongs
Yakan mag-pasaŋ(-pasaŋ)to be approximately the same size (of people and animals); it is always comparative
Tausug pasaŋa pair, set (of material things)
  pasaŋ-unto put things together into sets or groups
Kadazan pasaŋpair
  ka-pasaŋsuitable as a pair
  pi--pasaŋ-onto be put into pairs
  sa-pasaŋone pair
Iban sa-pasaŋa pair
Malay pasaŋpair; (slang) to couple (kasut sa pasaŋ ‘a pair of boots’)
Acehnese pasaŋpair, team, spouse, partner, equal
Karo Batak pasaŋa pair; belonging together
  si-pasaŋ rasforming a set; in agreement with
Toba Batak pasaŋmatching, going together
  sa-pasaŋone pair
Simalur sa-pasaŋone pair
  pasaŋ-anyoke on the neck of a carabao
Nias sa-fasaa pair
Lampung pasaŋpair
  sa-pasaŋone pair
Sundanese pasaŋpair, team
  sa-pasaŋone pair
  pasaŋ-anyoke for a team of draught animals
Old Javanese sa-pasaŋone yoke or pair, one cart
  a-pasaŋ-pasaŋ-anarm in arm
Javanese pasaŋpair (of shoes, etc.), team (as of draught animals)
  pasaŋ-anyoke (for draught animals)
Balinese pasaŋpair (of inanimate objects); a distich, a couplet in verse
  ha-pasaŋone pair
  pasaŋ-ana couple, pair
Sasak pasaŋpair, team (of animals and objects)
  sə-pasaŋone pair
  pasaŋ-anone of a pair
Wolio pasapair (e.g. of shoes), team (of horses); set; make a pair, match well, be well suited, be alike, be equal
Muna pasamatch, equal, rival; pair (male and female)
  pasa-no mbadhamarriage partner (lit. ‘match of body’)
  po-pasato pair up (in games)
  pasa-ejust like, exactly like
Rembong pasaŋto match; a pair
Kambera pahaŋupair; form a pair; agree or fit with one another

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) also included Sa'a hata ‘to go together, to accompany one another; to set well, to be easy, comfortable’, Tongan māhaŋa ‘born together, to be twins, triplets; (in marks, score, winning a race, etc.) equal, tie; (of two bananas, etc.) growing together, joined’ Futunan, Samoan māsaŋa ‘twins’ under *pasaŋ. However, Sa'a hata is best treated as a chance resemblance without a known etymology, and the Polynesian forms appear to reflect *ma-saŋa ‘bifurcated, forked, as a branch’.


*pasaŋ₂ insert, wedge in


PWMP     *pasaŋ₂ insert, wedge in

Tagalog pásaŋa well-adjusted wedge
  mag-pásaŋto wedge; to put in a wedge
  p<um>ásaŋto go or enter through a narrow passage
Bikol mag-pásaŋto fit the head of an axe on the handle by splitting an end of the handle so that it may be wedged tight in the head
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pasaŋto place a leaf-bound resin lamp in a holder made of a piece of wood which is partially split so that the lamp may be wedged in it
Gayō pasaŋinsert
Karo Batak pasaŋinsert (in a game)

Note:   Also Gayō pasuŋ ‘insert (as peg in hole)’.


*pasaqan shoulder pole; carry with a shoulder pole


PAN     *pasaqan₁ shoulder pole; carry with a shoulder pole     [disjunct: *pesan]

Thao pataqazshoulder pole (one person, two loads)
  mataqazcarry on a shoulder pole


PMP     *pasaqan₂ shoulder pole; carry with a shoulder pole

Tagalog pasána load or burden on the shoulders; burden; what is carried; a load (of things, care or work in physical or moral sense)
  pasan-ínto carry on the shoulder
Bikol paʔsáncarry on the shoulder
Cebuano pasʔáncarry something over the shoulders
Mongondow mo-motaancarry on the shoulder
  potaan-ontake it on your shoulder!
Bare'e mam-pasaʔacarry on the shoulder
Tetun hasancarry on the shoulders

Note:   Also Toba Batak ma-morsan, Sangir ma-masaəŋ ‘carry on the shoulder’


*pasek wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail, dowel, or fencepost


PAN     *pasek wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail, dowel, or fencepost     [doublet: *pacek]

Amis paceka nail, nails
  mi-pacekto nail, hammer a nail into
Puyuma paseknail; hammer in a nail
  mi-pasekhave a nail in
Itbayaten paseknail
  i-pask-endowel, made of tañod (mulberry) tree
Kankanaey pásekwedge
Ifugaw páhokwedge used to cleave logs before they can be split and serve as firewood
Bikol pásokwooden peg
  mag-pásokput something together with such pegs
Kenyah (Long Anap) pasəkinsert something into something else
Iban pasaktreenail, dowel, peg, wedge; fix with these
Malay pasakfastening or tightening with a bolt, peg or wedge
  pasak-kan sepatu kudato shoe a horse
Rejang pasoʔnail (metal)


PCEMP     *pasekₐ drive in, as a stake; to plant (crops)

Komodo paséʔto plant (as rice, or bananas)
Manggarai pacekdrive in a stake (in making a fence); to plant, as rice; planted
Ngadha pasoto plant, as rice
Dobel ʔa-yayito plant


POC     *pasok to plant (crops)

Vitu vazo ~ vazo-vazoto plant
  vazoh-iato be planted
Gitua vazokto plant
Motu hado ~ hado-hadoto plant
Tawala wagoplant by pushing into the ground; to strike a cutting
Proto-Micronesian *faSoplanted; to plant; a planted thing
Chuukese fótoplanting
Puluwat fótto plant, insert, pick out, select; to be inserted, selected
Woleaian fata plant
  fato-giplant it, put it in place
  fato-goplant set aside for a particular purpose, usually for planting at a new taro patch or new garden
Pohnpeian pɔdto be planted
  pɔdokto plant (something)
Gilbertese arok-aa plant, cultivated plants
Mota wasto drive a hole, make a hole by hammering in some tool, as to drive holes through the plank side-pieces with a shell tool, and lash them to the hull

Note:   Also Mbula paaza ‘to plant, put into ground’. Ross (1988:88) reconstructed POc *pasoq ‘plant (tuber+)’, but this form appears to contain the monosyllabic root *-sek ‘insert, stick into a soft surface’ (Blust 1988), thus forcing an interpretation that the final consonant, which is ambiguous in nearly all languages he considered, is *k, not *q.


*pasiR sandbank, shoal in river or sea


PWMP     *pasiR sandbank, shoal in river or sea

Tagalog pásiga river that flows into the sea; sandy bank of a river
Cebuano pasígshoals, a shallow place in a body of water; for a water-covered area to become shallow
Mansaka pasígshallow rocky place in the sea
Iban pasirsand, sandbank; mudbank
  pasir buŋafine sand
  pasir keresikquicksand
Malay pasirsand; sandy stretch; sand-like
  pasir bəlanaksandy sea bottom that holds anchors well (lit. ‘mullet sand’)
  pasir panjaŋstretch of sandy beach
  buŋa pasirfine sand particles on still water
  ibu pasirgravel, shingle
Acehnese pasibeach, sand
Old Javanese pasi-sisea; beach, strand, shore
Balinese pasihthe sea
Tajio pasigsandbank
Totoli pasigsandbank
Bare'e pasigireef, shoal, sandbank
  pasigi malulusea grass
Tae' pasiʔsand
  batu pasiʔsandstone


PWMP     *pasiR-an sandbar, shoal in river or sea

Tagalog pasig-ansandy bank of a river
Malay pasir-ansand; sandy stretch; sand-like
Balinese pasih-pasih-ana small pool, pond

Note:   Also Old Javanese pasir ‘sea; beach, shore, river-bank’, a-masir ‘to go to the beach (the sea); like the sea’, pasir wukir ‘sea and mountains, also: rocky (mountainous) coast?’, pasir-pasir ‘lake; beach of lake; artificial lake or pond’, pasir-an ‘strand animal’ (< Malay?), Sundanese pasir ‘sand’ (< Malay).


*paspas beat out, thresh


PAN     *paspas beat out, thresh

Amis pacpacbeat hard; thresh out; hit with twigs
Bikol paspása method of threshing in which the rice is beaten with sticks


*pasu cheek bone


PMP     *pasu cheek bone     [doublet: *pasuŋ]

Chamorro fasucheek, face
Old Javanese pasuroot of the nose
Makasarese pasuprominent cheek bones
Bimanese pahuface
Manggarai pacucheek
Li'o pasucheek
Selaru asu-kecheek, jaw, molar teeth
Proto-Sub-Ambon *pasu-cheek


*pasuŋ cheek bone


PMP     *pasuŋ cheek bone     [doublet: *pasu]

Kankanaey pásoŋupper jawbone
Javanese pasuŋbridge of the nose, root of the nose
Sika pahuŋcheek


*pantad sandbank, sandbar; shore, beach


PWMP     *pantad sandbank, sandbar; shore, beach

Ata pantadshore
Binukid pantadshore
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pantadsand; beach of a river; sandbar
Tiruray fantadthe ground, earth, land; patched with mud; hike along a beach
Bilaan (Koronadal) fantadshore
Boano pantadsandbank
Totoli pandadshore, beach
Dondo pantadEshore, beach


*pataq break, broken, cut through


PMP     *pataq break, broken, cut through

Maranao pataʔcut down
Iban patahbreak, snap (something long) (Scott 1956); broken, snap, break across (Richards 1981)
Malay patahfracture; the snapping of a stick or limb
Sasak pataʔcut rice stalks, harvest the rice
Uma pataʔcut through
Hawu padabroken


*pa(n)tar₁ level, flat


PMP     *pa(n)tar₁ level, flat     [disjunct: *paCaR, *pataR]

Ilokano pantártreeless plain; (in some districts) shore, land immediately bordering on a stream
Maranao pantarlevel, flat, even, plane surface
Kelabit pataralluvial plain
Malay patarwooden rasp
Sundanese pantarequal (in age, height, strength, beauty, etc.)
Banggai pantalflat, level
Manggarai pantarflat nest (as the nest of the turtle-dove)


*pa(n)tar₂ shelf; bed frame of wooden or bamboo laths


PMP     *pa(n)tar₂ shelf; bed frame of wooden or bamboo laths

Tagalog pantal-ánwooden or bamboo pier
Toba Batak pantarshelf in wood-shed made of wooden or bamboo laths; also the support for a mattress made of sugar-palm mid-ribs
Yamdena fatarbamboo-slat bed
Numfor fakerfoundation of stones, wood, etc.
Windesi patarbed, sleeping place
Motu patashelf, table
Dobuan pata-pataraplatform
'Āre'āre stage, shelf, small platform above the fireplace, used as a depository
Fijian vatashelf, loft, platform; bed in a corner of a native house
Samoan fatashelf, trestle
Hawaiian hakashelf, perch, platform

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Toba Batak pantar to *pa(n)tar ‘elevation’, and Fijian vata, Samoan fata to *bataŋ ‘stalk, trunk’.


*pataR shelf


POC     *pataR shelf

Tawala watalashelf
Tongan fataloft or wide rack (for sleeping on, or for keeping food or other things on); stretcher, litter
Niue fatashelf, stage, cage, upper story of a house, stretcher
Samoan fatashelf, as of bamboo; stretcher, litter
Rennellese hataplatform, canoe platform, perch, shelf; raised floors of present-day houses; the ancient traditional house and its platform; perch formerly used in netting doves
Anuta patastorage shelf inside a house
Kapingamarangi hadaplatform on outrigger boom; wooden bed
Tuvaluan fatashelf of thin sticks across house above head height for the storage of coconuts, etc.
Rarotongan ataan elevated staging erected especially for storing food and for other purposes
Maori whataelevated stage for storing food and for other purposes
Hawaiian hakashelf, perch, platform; roost, as for chickens; fish spear rack; rack for suspending water gourds or other household objects; rack attached to booms of double canoe to hold spears; ladder


*pantay flat, level (of ground)


PWMP     *pantay flat, level (of ground)     [doublet: *pa(n)tar₁]

Tagalog pantáyof the same height or level
Bikol mag-pantáyto level off (something)
Maranao pantayfield, meadow
Tiruray fantaylevel
Iban pantaiearth, soil, mud, (at sea) mud bottom
Malay pantaibeach, coast


*pantek spotted, dappled


PWMP     *pantek spotted, dappled     [disjunct: *paCak]

Kankanaey pantékspotted, speckled; marked with spots; stained
Iban pantakhaving spot of different color, usually of animal's head

Note:   With root PAn *-Cek, PMP *-tek ‘mottled pattern’.


*patek clicking sound


PWMP     *patek clicking sound

Singhi Land Dayak patokparts of gun; hammer
Wolio patomake a sound, tok!

Note:   With root *-tek₁ ‘clicking or light knocking sound’.


*patik mottled pattern


PWMP     *patik mottled pattern     [doublet: *beCik 'tattoo']

Cebuano pátiktattoo, mark with a brand
Sundanese patékframboesia
Javanese patikspots, freckles


*pa(n)tik sound of ticking, flipping, light tapping


PWMP     *pa(n)tik sound of ticking, flipping, light tapping     [doublet: *pa(n)tuk₂ 'sound of knocking']

Ilokano patíksound of the slipper against the heel
Tagalog patíkpick-axe
Hanunóo patíktapping on the rim of metal dance gongs with pamatík (set of bamboo tappers)
Aklanon patíkbeat, rhythm, count (in music) drumstick
Iban pantikto nail
Malay pantékstriking together two hard substances, esp. flint and steel

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Malay panték to *pa(n)tik ‘pointed’. I assume that this form contains the root *-tik₂ ‘sound of light tapping’.


*patoto sticks that connect the float to the booms of an outrigger canoe


PEMP     *patoto sticks that connect the float to the booms of an outrigger canoe

Numfor fakokforked sticks that connect the outrigger float to the booms
Gedaged patotkind of tree; wooden pegs made from the wood of a patot tree. They are used to fasten the aiad (outrigger booms) to the sam (outrigger float) of a canoe
Tawala patotospikes (vertical) on outrigger
Tubetube patotocanoe outrigger vertical cross supports
Mota vatotopins which fasten the yoke-pieces to the outrigger of a canoe
Wayan vatotosticks fastening the outrigger (cama) to the booms which connect it to the hull of a canoe

Note:   Also Mbula petete ‘outrigger pegs (connect the outrigger of a canoe to the outrigger boom that joins with the hull of a canoe)’, Gilbertese toto ‘a forked piece of wood joining floater to rest of outrigger’, Fijian vātoto ‘the sticks driven into the outrigger of the camakau (single-hulled outrigger canoe), lashed at the top to the extremities of the kaso (crossbeam fastening together the outrigger and the hull of a canoe)’. This comparison was first proposed by Milke (1968), who cited words from a number of still poorly-attested languages (Mukawa, Arifama, Kilenge, Siassi, Tobadi, Ingrau, Entsau, Yenbi, etc.), and included forms from the two Polynesian Outliers in Micronesia which do not appear in more recent publications, and are phonologically impossible in these languages (viz. Kapingamarangi fatoto, Nukuoro atoto, where neither of these languages has an /f/ or a short /t/). The PEMP form is ambiguous for *patotaw or *patotək (Blust 1981: 215).


*patu joint, node


POC     *patu₁ joint, node

Mussau patujoint (of elbow, knee); node (of sugarcane, etc.)
Nggela patujoint in bamboo; knot

Note:   An apparent synonym of POc *puku; the semantic distinction between these terms remains to be worked out.


*pa(n)tuk₁ apex, peak


PWMP     *pa(n)tuk₁ apex, peak

Ilokano pantóktop, apex, summit (mountains, houses); tip of the nose (when long)
  pátoksummit, apex, top, peak, crest
Javanese paṭukpromontory

Note:   With root *-tuk ‘top, summit, crown’. In Blust (1988) the initial consonant of this root was ambiguous, and was written *t.


*pa(n)tuk₂ sound of knocking


PWMP     *pa(n)tuk₂ sound of knocking

Cebuano pantukknock something against something else
Maranao patokaxe, hatchet
Moken matokchop a tree partly through, lop off
Javanese paṭokpicket, post (pounded into the ground as a sign)
  di-paṭok-ifirmly pounded in (of a post)
Sasak pantokwoodpecker spp.; hit, strike; play a percussion instrument

Note:   Moken matok is assumed to reflect verb-forming nasal substitution.


*patuŋ large, thick, bamboo sp.


PWMP     *patuŋ large, thick, bamboo sp.     [doublet: *betuŋ₁]

Cebuano patuŋkind of thick, straight and smooth bamboo: Gigantochloa levis
Malay p-em-atoŋbamboo conduit
Mongondow patuŋkind of bamboo used as a water vessel
Bare'e patukind of large bamboo: Dendrocalamus flagellifer
Tae' patuŋ, pattuŋkind of large bamboo: D. flagellifer
Makasarese pattuŋkind of large bamboo

Note:   Also Malay (Jakarta) awi biguŋ ‘large bamboo: Dendrocalamus spp.’, pering pituŋ ‘id’, Balinese petuŋ ‘very thick bamboo, sections of which are used for storing water’.


*pauq a tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia


PMP     *pauq a tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia

Chamorro fagoʔa tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia
Palauan uáuʔtree in periwinkle family: Ochrosia oppositifolia


POC     *paoq (ʔ) a tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia

Tongan faotree with white flowers and coarse-husked oval fruit about 3" long: Ochrosia parviflora
Samoan faosmall shore tree (Ochrosia sp.)
Tuvaluan faotree sp.: Ochrosia oppositifolia
Hawaiian haoall native species of a genus of small trees (Rauvolfia) related to the maile and the hōlei. Four or five narrow leaves are borne together at joints of branches; many small, yellowish flowers develop, and then small, black, flattened, twinned, inverted, heart-shaped fruits

Note:   The sporadic lowering of high vowels is a recurrent phenomenon in Oceanic languages. Where the Oceanic witnesses are confined to a single close-knit subgroup, as in the present case, it cannot be determined whether such a change took place in POc itself, or in some lower-order proto-language.


*pawikan sea turtle


PPh     *pawikan sea turtle

Ilokano pawíkansea turtle
Casiguran Dumagat pawikanlarge sea turtle; to hunt for sea turtles by going along the beach at night with torches, looking for the females which come ashore to lay their eggs
Tagalog pawíkantortoise; the large turtle that lives more in the sea
Bikol pawíkantortoise
Hiligaynon pawíkansea turtle
Aklanon pawíkanlarge sea turtle
Waray-Waray pawíkanturtle
Cebuano pawíkansea turtle; be affected by a sea turtle, i.e. be unable to come apart in intercourse (from sorcery where the penis of a sea turtle is hidden in the clothing of an adulterer so that he cannot disengage when he has intercourse)
  p<in>awíkancrying with a profuse flow of tears (like a sea turtle is said to do)
  pawikan-untending to cry easily (as women)
Maranao pawikangiant turtle
Sangir puikaŋturtle
Tombulu puikansea turtle
Tontemboan poikansea turtle

Note:   Also Palawan Batak payukan ‘turtle’, Tausug payukan ‘sea turtle’ (with reversal of syllabicity in the glide-vowel sequence, and reordering to preserve a CV- syllable shape). This word is a clear replacement innovation for PMP *peñu ‘green turtle’, which is widespread elsewhere, and is thus part of the lexical evidence for a Philippine group of Austronesian languages.


*paya kind of small fish, probably sardine or anchovy


PMP     *paya kind of small fish, probably sardine or anchovy

Chamorro fayaanchovy: Thrissina baelama (family Engraulidae)
Fijian vayasmall fish like the daniva (similar to a sardine), but with a red tail
Samoan fish (Megalops sp.) found in marshes and river mouths

Note:   This etymon may have ended in *d, *D, or *k.


*payan bait


PCEMP     *payan bait     [disjunct: *bayan₁]

Yamdena fayanbeachworm; bait


POC     *bayan₃ bait

Sa'a pasathe stern bonito hook, trailed behind the canoe, made anciently of clam with a tortoise shell barb
Woleaian pabait, anything used as a lure
Fijian bacaworm; hence bait for fishing
Hawaiian pearl-shell lure


*payapay to wave, flap


PPh     *payapay to wave, flap     [doublet: *paypáy]

Casiguran Dumagat payapáyto beckon with the hand for someone to come to you
Bontok payápayto beckon; to flap, of the ears of some pigs
Kankanaey i-payápayto beckon, to call beckoning with the hand
Ibaloy man-payapayto wave, flap (as a blanket on the back of a running person)
Hanunóo payapáyfin of a fish
Maranao payapayshake, tremble, vibrate; wave

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat pəyapəy ‘soldier crab, Ditilla mictyroides (not edible); waves his front claw in a beckoning motion. This dried claw is used as a good luck charm; kept in a box with money it is said to cause the money to increase with its beckoning motion’, Casiguran Dumagat pəypəy ‘to signal to someone with your hands to be quiet’.


*paypáy to wave the hand, as in beckoning someone or in fanning oneself


PPh     *paypáy to wave the hand, as in beckoning someone or in fanning oneself     [doublet: *payapay]

Itbayaten paypayidea of waving hands (as a greeting or sign)
  ma-maypayto fan
  paypay-anto fan
  paypay-ento wave hands
Ilokano paypáya fan
  ag-paypáyto fan oneself
  paypáy-anto fan someone
Casiguran Dumagat paypáyto fan, as to fan oneself on a hot day, or to fan a fire
Bontok paypáyto beckon; to flap, of the ears of some pigs
Ibaloy man-paypayto wave, stir the air (as flag, shirt tail or runner); to wave with one’s hand --- sideways to greet someone, outward to tell someone to go, toward oneself to summon to come
Pangasinan paypáya fan
  man-paypáyto fan
Kapampangan pepemake waving motion, fan oneself
  pa-mepea fan
Tagalog paypáya fan
  mag-paypáyto fan
  paypay-ánto fan someone or something
Bikol mag-paypáyto beckon to, motion to someone to come
  paypay-ánto wave at
  paypay-ónto beckon to, motion to someone to come
Hanunóo paypáybeckoning, always with a downward motion of the hand
  mag-paypáyto beckon
Masbatenyo páypayhand fan
  mag-páypayto wave
  paypáy-onto wave
Hiligaynon mag-páypayto fan for air; to beckon to, to call back with a hand gesture
Aklanon páypayto beckon to, call over by waving one’s hands
Waray-Waray paypáyfolding fan, electric fan
  paypay-íto fan, stir the air
Cebuano paypáyfan; kind of thin, fan-shaped bivalve, found in sandy seabeds, of no food value
  pa-máypayto fan oneself
Binukid paypayto fan someone or something vigorously
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peypeya fan


*payupas sweep


PWMP     *payupas sweep

Cebuano payúpasfan, any device used for fanning
Maranao payopasbroom, sweep
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peyufasbroom
Miri pupa, fupasweep

TOP      pe    pi    po    pu    pw    



*pea where?


POC     *pea where?     [doublet: *pia]

Mussau eawhere?
Tongan what place, which place; which thing, which one, which
Niue which?, where?, when? (used as adjective and adverb)
Samoan ʔi feawhere to?
  mai feawhere from?
  ʔo feawhere?
Nukuoro heewhere?, what kind?, which?
Rennellese heawhich?, what?, where?
Tuvaluan feawhere?
Maori heainterrogative: what place?; indefinite: any place
  pē-heainterrogative. Of what sort, character, appearance, etc.; do or treat in what way, act in what way
Hawaiian heawhich (in questions and after other words); where (in questions, and after ai, ʔau, i, ma-, mai, no, ʔo; why, why not (in questions after i)
  ka-hea halewhich house?
  ma-hea ka halewhere is the house?
  pe-heahow?, what?, how about it?


*pecel [squeeze with the hand]


PWMP     *pecel squeeze with the hand

Tagalog pisílsqueezing with the hand
Maranao peselpress, as button between fingers
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peselsqueeze something between finger and thumb
Iban pecalpinch, squeeze, grasp
Malay pecalcrush between the fingers, squeeze in the hand


*peceq break into several large pieces


PAN     *peceq₁ break into several large pieces

Paiwan peteqa break, split (in glass, pottery)
  ma-peteqbecome broken
Puyuma peseʔbreak
  mu-peseʔbe broken, as a bottle or calabash


PMP     *peceq₂ break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg

Ilokano pessáhatch from an egg
Kapampangan apsáʔto hatch, of an egg
Tagalog pisáʔcrushed, pressed, compressed; hatched, of eggs
Cebuano pusáʔcrush or squash something soft; break something fragile; hatch an egg
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pesaʔsmash something, as an egg, a caterpillar, or somebodys body or head
Bintulu pəsaʔbroken or cracked into several large pieces, as an egg
Rhade mcahbroken
Malay pecahbreakage into bits
Karo Batak pecahbroken, in pieces; burst out, erupt, of a volcano
Balinese pecahto break, break in pieces
Sangir pesaʔcrush flat; smash to bits; hatch, of eggs
Bare'e posobroken, of hard, brittle things; hatched, of eggs


POC     *posaq break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg

Nggela posabreak, of a boil; burst, of a football
Kwaio a-botaopen; hatched, of eggs; smashed; break making big noise
  bo-botarubbish heap
  bota-niu-ŋaritual breaking open of coconut
Toqabaqita a-botaof an egg: hatch; of a state of affairs: happen, occur, take place
Sa'a potato break by knocking one thing against another
  pota niuto crack coconuts
Ulawa pota-arubbish heap; refuse; dung
'Āre'āre apotaegg
Arosi botabreak by knocking on something else, as an egg on bamboo
Wayan vocabe run aground by force; be wrecked in this way
  voca-vocabe damaged, etc.
Fijian vocato be wrecked on a reef, of a canoe (stronger than kasa to run aground, of a canoe)
Tongan foato break (a cup, stone, rock, etc., not a stick); to cut (ripe coconut) in halves
  foa-ʔito break
  fō-foa-ʔito hatch (of eggs or chicks)
Samoan foabreak (rock or shell); hatch, of eggs
  faʔa-foa(of a boil) come up, form
Tuvaluan foabreak (a nut, head, canoe, etc.)
  fo-foato hatch (of eggs), break the hymen and hence be first to have intercourse with a virgin
  faka-foaa boil; be big (of waves)
Rennellese hoato crack, as nuts of tagie (Terminalia) or baga (Barringtonia) trees; to cut or lacerate the forehead, as with axe, stone, or knife in mourning; to break or hatch, as an egg; to bump, as the head; to smash; to drive fish into a seine, as by beating the sea with sticks or by throwing stones
  hoa-ʔakito split, as wood
Nukuoro h-hoacrack open; break into pieces; cut a hole in
  hoa laloanvil or other hard object (such as a stone) on which something can be struck hard; mortar stone
Hawaiian hoato strike with a stick or club; to club; a club
  hoa-hoatapa beater, washing stick


POC     *ma-posaq broken

Sa'a ma-potabroken to pieces
Tuvaluan ma-foabe broken (of dawn)

Note:   Also Kapingamarangi baa to burst; to hatch. Since most languages show merger of *e and *a before a final *q, the reconstruction of the last-syllable vowel of this form depends critically on Paiwan and Puyuma in Taiwan, and on Bare'e in central Sulawesi.


*pecut a whip


PWMP     *pecut a whip

Kimaragang Dusun posuta whip
Malay pəcutwhipping
  mə-məcutto whip up (as a horse)
  pəcut-kanto whip up (as a horse); also to smack with the midrib of a coconut frond
Old Javanese pəcuta whip
  a-məcutto whip, wield a whip
Javanese pecuta whip
  mecutto whip (fig. to inspire, motivate)
Sundanese pəcutwhip, riding crop
  məcutstrike with a whip
Balinese pecuta long whip


*peCik snap, as the fingers or a slingshot


PAN     *peCik snap, as the fingers or a slingshot     [doublet: *pitik]

Paiwan petsiksnap the fingers
Tagalog pitíkfillip; sound of starting combustion (of wood, coal, etc.)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) petikslingshot
Malay petékplucking at; picking (flowers), playing (stringed instruments); snapping the fingers
Balinese peṭikpick fruit or flowers, break off with the finger
Proto-Minahasan *petikheartbeat; to beat (of heart)
Yamdena petiksnap off with the fingers; shoot pellets with a flexible lathe

Note:   With root *-Cik ‘spring up, flicking motion’. Based on the comparison Malay petik ‘plucking at; picking (flowers)’, Javanese petik ‘that which is picked; act of picking’, Fijian veti ‘to pluck fruit’ Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *peTik ‘pluck off’. However, the Fijian form is irregular, and Dempwolff's comparison is otherwise restricted to two languages with a long history of mutual borrowing.


*pedek wink, blink


PAN     *pedek wink, blink

Amis pdekto put out, as when lights are turned off
  sa-pdekeyelashes, something for blinking
  mapa-pdekto blink
Maranao perekwink

Note:   Also Kayan pejep ‘flickering, blinking, of a light’. Zorc (1971) posits PPh *peDek ‘wink’.


*pedet pack in tightly


PMP     *pedet pack in tightly

Tae' pedeʔclose up well, of a hole; pack earth in tightly; press a plug in tightly so that there is no leak
Manggarai perettight, of clothes

Note:   With root *-det ‘packed in, compressed’.


*pedped press together, pack solid


PAN     *pedped press together, pack solid

Amis pedpedto crown, pack solid
Bontok pədpədpress together; to compact, as soil, by stepping on it
Malay (Kedah) penoh pepatchockfull; crowded


*pegeŋ hold firmly,


PWMP     *pegeŋ hold firmly, concentrate     [doublet: *pegaŋ, *pigeŋ]

Maranao pegeŋfirmly, hold strongly
Old Javanese pegeŋrestrain, hold back (feelings, breath)
Balinese pegeŋhold one's breath, sit quite still, not move a muscle; be deep in thought
Sasak pegeŋstick to, be tenacious


*peget triggerfish


PWMP     *peget triggerfish

Cebuano pugútname given to triggerfishes, especially species with very small mouths (as opposed to the pakul, which have larger mouths)
  pugut-un ug baʔbaʔhaving a small mouth
Mapun paggota small triggerfish

Note:   Despite its limited distribution this form is not likely to be a loanword in either language, and Mapun, like other Samalan languages, appears to subgroup with the Barito languages of southeast Kalimantan rather than with their neighbors in the Philippines.


*pegpeg to box, give a blow


PWMP     *pegpeg to box, give a blow     [disjunct: *peRpeR]

Bikol mag-pagpágto shake something out (as a rug); to shake something out against; to beat something to remove the dust
Maranao pepegto box, give a blow
Sasak pepekto hit, strike
  p<em>epekwhat one hits with

Note:   Also Javanese peg ‘sound of a hard blow on the side of the head, as when one's ears are boxed’.


*peka separate, disconnect


PMP     *peka separate, disconnect

Ilokano pekkábreak, shatter, smash; open forcibly (as someone's fist)
Cebuano pukabreak something that is attached to something by holding tight to it
Maranao pekabreak, snap, as chains
Tiruray fekadisconnect; get rid of
Kanowit pekapart, separate (Roth 1896)
Buruese peka-hthrow out, do away with
Nggela vogato separate, as two men fighting
  vokadivide, separate, divorce
Sa'a hokaburst open, come apart
Arosi hoadivide, cleave asunder, separate
  hogacome apart

Note:   Mills (1975:807) proposes "Proto-Indonesian" ?*p(uɨ)ka(qo) ‘split, break apart’, but, of the material he presents, only Madurese pekka ‘split in two’ appears to belong to the present cognate set.


*pekak to cackle, as a hen that has laid an egg


PWMP     *pekak to cackle     [doublet: *tekak]

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pekakof a hen, to cackle
Iban em-pekak(of a hen after laying an egg) cackle

Note:   With root *-kak₁ ‘cackle, laugh loudly’.


*pekaŋ stretch open or apart


PMP     *pekaŋ stretch open or apart     [disjunct: *peka 'separate, disconnect']

Iban pekaŋwith arms or legs stretched out
  pekaŋ kayuʔfork of a tree
Javanese peŋkaŋ-aninter-space
Maranao pekaŋtear apart body of live victim
Nggela vokadivide, separate, divorce
Arosi hokamove the legs apart, stretch the legs

Note:   Mills (1975:803) posits Proto-South Sulawesi *pe(ŋ)ka ‘branching off; hooklike’. Presumably with root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.


*pekaq split


PWMP     *pekaq split

Kenyah pekaʔsplit open
Bare'e pokasplit, torn, rent

Note:   With root *-kaq₂ ‘split’.


*pekaw ritual shout(?)


PWMP     *pekaw ritual shout(?)

Isneg pakkáwto shout; extol one's former exploits (in headhunting) -- this is done at the time of a solemn sacrifice, when the braves are supposed to be ridden by the spirit aŋlabbāŋ; to curse -- this is done shouting, so that the object of the curse may hear it
Malay pekauyell, scream, other than a cry of pain or appeal for help


*pekpek₁ beat, hit


PAN     *pekpek₁ beat, hit

Amis mi-pekpekbeat, hit
Melanau (Mukah) pepekwhip
Karo Batak pekpekbeat, strike

Note:   With root *-pek ‘beat, hit’.


*pekpek₂ swarm together


PWMP     *pekpek₂ swarm together

Kankanaey pekpékfill, swarm in, overrun
Ilokano pekpékcrammed, stuffed, packed
Malay pepakfull, fully attended
Javanese pepekcompletely assembled
Balinese pepekall together, complete
Sasak mepek, pepekswarm together


*pekuq₁ bend, curve


PMP     *pekuq₁ bend, curve     [doublet: *teku]

Maranao pekoʔbent, bend, crooked
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pekuʔbend something
Tiruray fekuʔbend
Uma pokuʔspherical
Nggela vogucurl over before breaking (of a wave)
Arosi pokupokudraw up the legs

Note:   Also Makasarese pekkoʔ ‘bent, curved’.


*pekuq₂ nape of the neck


PWMP     *pekuq₂ nape of the neck

Ilokano pakkóneck (of the cow, etc.)
Miri fekuʔnape of the neck
Narum pekuʔnape of the neck

Note:   Possibly identical to *pekuq₁ ‘bend, curve’.


*pela pela shout, exclaim


POC     *pela pela shout, exclaim

Roviana velavelato shout, as an official at a gathering, a man in anger, etc.
Fijian vela, velavelainterjection of surprise


*pelus slip off


PAN     *pelus slip off

Amis plocpull off (as a ring), disengage (as to let down a baby that has been tied on its mother's back)
Maranao pelosslip off

Note:   With root *-lus ‘slip off’.


*penpen to provision, fill up


PWMP     *penpen to provision, fill up

Maranao pempenprovision sufficiently
Balinese penpenput into, fill with


*penuq full, of a container


PAN     *penuq full, of a container

Itbayaten a-pnoidea of being filled up
Isneg pannófull; fullness
Ibaloy pe-pno-ento fill something, as a cup
Pangasinan panóto fill to overflowing
Tagalog punóʔfull, filled, rife
Bikol panóʔfull, crowded
  panóʔ-pánoʔvery full; crowded, packed, teeming
Hanunóo punúʔfull
Hiligaynon punúʔfull to capacity
  mag-punúʔto fill to capacity
Aklanon punóʔfull; to fill up (as a bottle with liquid)
Waray-Waray puno-áto fill to capacity
Cebuano púnuʔfilled, full; covered with something; fill up a container or space
Mapun pannoʔto be full (as a jar, room, container, airplane, etc.); to have more than enough (with regard to wealth)
Maranao penoʔfill up (as a grave with dirt)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) penuʔto fill something
Binukid punuʔto fill up (a container or a space)
Tiruray fenoʔto be full
Tboli hnokto fill up (as a glass with water); full (as a sack full of corn)
Yakan pennoʔfull (as a suitcase full of clothes); to fill something with something
Kadazan ponuʔto fill; to be full
Tarakan panohfull
Kelabit penuʔfull (as a basket or bag)
Berawan (Long Terawan) pənofull
Kenyah pənoʔfull
Kayan pənufull
Kayan (Uma Juman) pənufull
Kiput pənauʔfull, as a container
Melanau (Mukah) pənuʔfull
Malagasy fenofull, complete
  feno mantabrimful, wastefully running over (as a cooking pot in which too much rice has been placed to boil)
Iban penohfill; be full (as a jar full of rice beer)
Moken penufull; flowing, of tide
Malay penohfull, replete
  penoh tepatbrimful, full to the brim
Acehnese peunòhfull, as a rice field full of water; laden
  buleuën peunòhfull moon
Simalur əno-eto fill, as a bamboo water container
Lampung penuhfull
Old Javanese penuhfull; filling, filling all; complete in number; in masses, in droves
Javanese penuhfull
  menuhto fulfill
Balinese penuhbe full of
Sasak penoʔfull
Dampelas ponufull, as a container
Pendau ponufull, as a container
Tae' ponnofull; filled
Uma ponuʔfull
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *ponofull
Mandar pannofull
  panno-ito fill up
Makasarese pannofull
Muna ponofull, as a honey jar full of ants
Manggarai penofull, as a plate full of rice, or a vessel full of liquid
Rembong penoʔfull
Rotinese henuto fill; full, as a house full of people, a river in full stream
Kambera pínuto fill
Lamaholot pənũto fill, fill up
Leti penufull
Wetan penifull, to fill (as a village with graves, a garden with plants)
Erai penufull
Asilulu penuto be at the peak (of the tide)


POC     *ponuq full, of a container

Vitu vonufull
Lakalai volufull
Gitua vonfull
Mbula penbe full, be filled; high (used of water)
Motu honuto be full, as a water pot with water
Mono-Alu fonu(na)full
  fa-fonuto fill
Bugotu vonufull, fullness
Nggela vonuto be full
  na vonuthe best
Kwaio fonufull
  fonu mamaŋilifull to the top
Sa'a honufull
  honu makeatefull to overflowing
  äsi e honuhigh spring tide
'Āre'āre honufull
Arosi honuto fill
Gilbertese onfull, filled; fullness
Tongan fonufull: of container or its contents, or of a notebook, etc.
Rennellese honuto be full of liquid; to be flooded or full of puddles; to rise, of the tide; to be juicy, as a fruit or shredded coconut; to be watery, as some rice; to be shipping water, as a canoe
Kapingamarangi honuto fill; filled
  honu tulafull to the brim, brimming
Nukuoro honufull
  honu-afilled with
  honu taihigh tide


PMP     *ma-penuq full

Itbayaten m-apnofull
Isneg ma-pnóto be filled
Ibaloy me-pnofull, both of the container and its contents
Tagalog ma-punóʔto be filled, become full (as a well)
Mapun ma-pannoʔto fill
Simalur ma-ənofull, filled
Banggai mo-ono <Afull
  mo-ono ko tobuiflood
Ngadha benufull, as a pot full of rice
Kambera mbínufull, as a house full of people, a village full of graves, a boat full of water
Soboyo bonufull; deep


PWMP     *maŋ-penuq to fill

Mapun mannoʔto fill
Yakan mennoʔto fill something with something
Kadazan mo-monuʔto fill
Kelabit menuʔto fill
Malagasy ma-menoto fill, fill up
Iban pasaŋ menohhigh tide; the tide is high
Malay me-menuh-ito fill, fill up
Simalur maŋ-əno-eto fill, as a bamboo water container
Old Javanese a-menuh-ito fill, make complete


PPh     *na-penuq filled

Itbayaten n-apnofilled
Ibanag na-pnuʔfilled, full
Ilokano na-pnófilled, full
Isneg na-pnófull, filled
Itawis na-pánnufull
Pangasinan na-pnófull
Hanunóo na-pnúʔalready filled up
Binukid na-punuʔfilled


PMP     *pa-penuq to fill, cause to become full

Mapun pa-pannoʔto be becoming full
Uma po-ponuʔto fill
Muna fo-ponoto fill up, cram


POC     *pa-ponuq to fill, cause to become full

Bugotu va-vonuto fill


PWMP     *ka-penuq-an act of filling?

Tagalog ka-punu-nánwhat is still lacking and must be added to make something full or complete
Kadazan ko-ponu-anact of filling
Old Javanese ka-penuh-anto fill, make complete


PWMP     *p<in>enuq filled

Isneg p<in>nófilled
Kadazan p<in>onuʔfilled
Kelabit p<i>nuʔwas filled


PWMP     *p<um>enuq to fill, make complete

Tboli h<em>nokto fill up
Old Javanese um-enuh-ito fill, make complete


PWMP     *penuq-an to fill

Isneg pannow-ánto fill
Ibaloy pe-pno-anto make something thus sufficient
Tagalog púnú-anfully loaded, as a passenger vehicle
  punu-ánto add to something what is necessary to complete it or fill it (locative stress)
Mapun pannoʔ-anfill it!
Yakan pennoʔ-anto fill something with something
Tae' ponno-anto fill for (someone); fulness; be full


PWMP     *penuq-en to fill; fill it!

Itbayaten a-pno-ento fill up, make full
Bikol panoʔ-ónto fill something up
Hiligaynon punúʔ-unto fill to capacity
Mapun pannoʔ-unfill it!
Tboli hnok-enfill it!
Kadazan ponu-onto be filled
Malagasy feno-inato be filled or made complete


PMP     *penuq sakay overwhem in numbers?

Tae' ponno saecome in throngs, of people; to pour, of rain, rain cats and dogs


POC     *ponuq sake full to the top

Motu honu-honu-daebe full to the top
Gilbertese on rakefull to the top

Note:   Also Yamdena féni ‘full (as with water)’. This is one of the most basic stative verbs/adjectives in Austronesian languages. It is thus surprising that reflexes of *ma-penuq are completely unknown in the Oceanic group, despite the fact that this prefix was so tightly bound in other stems (as *ma-sakit ‘painful, sick’, or *ma-takut ‘afraid’) that it became fossilized in many of the modern languages, and possibly in Proto-Oceanic itself. PMP *penuq evidently referred to fullness and filling of containers with liquid or solid material; however, in many of the reflexes is also used in a somewhat more abstract sense, as with people filling a room or graves filling a village. Finally, the glosses for Iban Moken Asilulu Sa'a Rennellese and Nukuoro show clearly that this word also figured in expressions relating to periods of high tide, the point at which the sea’s expanse reaches its ‘fullest’.


*peñu sea turtle


PAN     *peñu sea turtle

Kavalan pənusea turtle (generic for all sea turtles, including the hawksbill)
Puyuma pənuturtle (Ting 1978)


PMP     *peñuₐ the green turtle, Chelonia mydas

Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) pɨnuriver turtle
Subanun (Siocon) ponuturtle
Mapun pannusea turtle
Yakan pennuturtle, order Chelonia (a large kind of marine reptile)
Singhi Land Dayak pañusea turtle
Iban peñuʔany marine turtle (green turtle, hawksbill turtle, leatherback turtle, loggerhead turtle)
Moken peñuisea turtle
Malay peñuturtle, specifically the edible green
  peñu karahtortoise-shell turtle (hawksbill turtle): Chelonia imbricata
Simalur ənosea turtle
Toba Batak ponusea turtle
Nias fõnusea turtle
Sundanese peñusea turtle (its eggs are an important trade article, especially for the population of the south coast of Java)
Old Javanese peñuturtle
Javanese peñutortoise
  meñutortoise-like (term of abuse,indicating stupidity)
Balinese peñuturtle, tortoise
Sasak peñusea turtle
Dampelas poñusea turtle
Lauje poñusea turtle
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *ponuturtle
Makasarese paññusea turtle
Wolio ponukind of large sea turtle
Muna ponusea turtle; frog spawn
Palauan welsea turtle
Bimanese fonugreen turtle, Chelonia mydas
Komodo penugreen turtle, Chelonia mydas, sought after for its flesh
Manggarai penusea turtle
Leti enusea turtle
Wetan enisea turtle
Yamdena fenisea turtle
  fen-laiturtle with worthless shell (probably Chelonia mydas)
  fen-kéranturtle with prized shell (probably Chelonia imbricata)
Fordata fennuturtle with worthless shell (probably Chelonia mydas)
Kamarian penusea turtle
Kayeli henosea turtle


POC     *poñu the green turtle, Chelonia mydas

Loniu poñsea turtle
Bipi puysea turtle
Nauna puñsea turtle
Lindrou boysea turtle
Sori boysea turtle
Seimat honsea turtle
Wuvulu ponukind of large sea turtle, probably Chelonia mydas
Mussau onusea turtle
Tigak unsea turtle
Tanga funsea turtle, turtle shell
Tolai bonuturtle; this word, although found in all areas, is rarely used in New Ireland and Duke of York; it may be a loanword from Nakanai
Vitu bonuturtle
Lakalai e-boluturtle
Lusi ponuturtle
Wogeo foñsea turtle
Manam poŋsea turtle
Gedaged fonleatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea
Mbula pensea turtle
  we pen ma pukpukflapping helplessly, floundering, be in trouble and helpless (like a turtle lying on its back and flapping its flippers helplessly)
Tubetube wonsea turtle
Kilivila wonusea turtle
Bugotu voñusea turtle
Nggela vonusea turtle
  vonu mbuto-mbutoa sea creature like a turtle but only one inch long
Kwaio fonusea turtle
Lau fonusea turtle
Toqabaqita fonuturtle, considered a kind of iqa (fish)
Sa'a honuturtle; chorea, when the patient is said to move his hands and feet as a turtle moves its flappers
  honu iʔegreen turtle
'Āre'āre honutortoise, turtle
  honu akoa sickness caused by the turtle, a cough and vomiting of blood
Arosi honusea turtle
Proto-Micronesian *woñusea turtle
Gilbertese onsea turtle
Chuukese wiinsea turtle
Pohnpeian wehisea turtle
Mokilese woisea turtle
Makatea fonusea turtle
Nakanamanga vonusea turtle
Wayan tū-vonuloggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta; has large head; meat is highly regarded.
Fijian vonusea turtle
  vonu dinagreen turtle
  vonu balavua euphemism for human flesh (Lau islands)
Tongan fonusea turtle; kind of beetle (very shiny), shaped like a turtle
  fonu koloahawksbill turtle (koloa = ‘goods, wealth, riches, possessions’)
Niue fonusea turtle; (fig.) a quiet person, a person of few words
  faka-fonu-fonushy, reserved
Futunan fonusea turtle
  fonu koloahawksbill turtle (koloa = ‘riches, durable goods, as mats or tapa cloth)
Nukuoro honugreen turtle (two varieties)
Tuvaluan fonusea turtle
Rennellese honugreen turtle, Chelonia mydas; formerly considered the gift (tonu) of Tehainga’atua (one of the most important sky gods), and offered as angatonu (food offering). The honu was believed to have been first a culture hero (kakai) and now is considered a fish (kaui, ika)
Anuta ponusea turtle
  te ponua string figure
Maori honusea turtle (in a few ancient songs)
Hawaiian honugeneral name for turtle and tortoise, as Chelonia mydas; name of a design for Ni’ihau mats

Note:   Also Melanau (Mukah) pañu ‘turtle’ (< Brunei Malay ), Malagasy fanu ‘a kind of beetle; the sea turtle; kind of fish’, Balinese pañu ‘turtle, tortoise’, Rotuman hoi ‘turtle’. Since Kavalan pənu is the sole known Formosan reflex of this word, and since in Kavalan pənu refers to all marine turtles without distinction, it is unclear whether there was a more specific referent of *peñu in PAn. By PMP times, however, it is clear that *peñu referred distinctively to the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, valued for both its meat and its eggs, as contrasted with the hawksbill turtle, Chelonia imbricata (PCEMP *keRa(nŋ)), which was valued for its colorful shell (in part because of international trade demand from a very early date). Although the evidence is tenuous, the extended glosses in Malagasy Nggela and Tongan suggest that a reflex of PMP *peñu may also have designated a turtle-shaped water beetle or a similar insect (also cf. Malay peñu-peñu-an ‘ant-lion).


*peŋ dull sound


PMP     *peŋ dull sound

Malay paŋbanging sound
Javanese peŋringing in the ears, rumble of thunder
Manggarai peŋsound of a fart, blow on the body, etc.


*peŋa fork of a branch


PMP     *peŋa fork of a branch

Sangir peŋaforked branch
Manggarai peŋabifurcation, fork of a branch; rift, gap between the teeth

Note:   With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gaping’.


*periŋ bamboo sp.


PMP     *periŋ bamboo sp.

Rungus Dusun poriŋbamboo variety
Dohoi poriŋbamboo
Malay periŋbamboo
Banggai peliŋkind of bamboo
Li'o perikind of bamboo
Manggarai periŋa bamboo: Bambusa vulgaris
Pohnpeian pehria bamboo: Bambusa vulgaris

Note:   Also Iban perin ‘kind of bamboo’. Soboyo peliŋ ‘kind of bamboo: Bambusa vulgaris Schrad.’ may be a loan from Banggai. Mills (1975:799) proposes "PInd" ?*pɨriŋ, but bases his comparison entirely on WMP languages.


*perus slip or slide off


PAN     *perus slip or slide off

Amis procslide down
Tiruray ferusgetting loose from being held or tied

Note:   With root *-rus₂ ‘slip or slide off’.


*peRcik splash, spatter


PWMP     *peRcik splash, spatter

Casiguran Dumagat pegséksplash, spatter (of the leap or flight of small particles, as for rice to jump out of a pestle as it is being pounded)
Malay percékspeckle, small spot

Note:   With root *-cik ‘splash, spatter, fly out’. For the same semantic range, cp. Malay recék ‘fine speckles, very small spots. Of being sprinkled with rosewater; cloth speckled with gold; garments slightly bespattered by water thrown up by a car passing, etc.’.


*pe(R)cit squeeze, squirt out


PMP     *pe(R)cit squeeze, squirt out

Hanunóo pusítspurt, spurting, as of blood
Malay percitsquirting out (of water)


POC     *posit₂ squeeze, squirt out

Nggela posisqueeze out


*peReq squeeze out juice, wring out water


PMP     *peReq squeeze out juice, wring out water

Tagalog pigáʔsqueezing out liquid by pressure (e.g. juice from fruits, or water from clothes)
Bikol pugáʔto squeeze or wring with the hand (a lemon to remove the juice, clothes to remove water)
Hanunóo pugáʔsqueeze, pressing, wringing
Hiligaynon púgaʔto squueze so as to extract liquid
Aklanon púgaʔto wring out, squeeze (to get out excess water)
Waray-Waray púgaʔthe act of squeezing or pressing with force, as to extract water from wet clothes
Masbatenyo pugáʔsqueeze
  pugáʔ-onsqueeze out, wring out
Cebuano pugaʔsqueeze to extract juice; force someone to do something
Tausug pugaʔpress or squeeze a liquid (out of something, as juice from a fruit, coconut milk from coconut meat, pus from a wound)
Iban perahto squeeze, express (as juice from a lime)
  merahto squeeze, express (as juice from a lime)
Malay perahto express
  perah-kanto squeeze out
Karo Batak perehwring something out, squeeze out; milk an animal
Toba Batak poroto squeeze out, wring out, to milk (an animal)
Javanese puhfor squeezing; to be squeezed
  e-puh-ito squeeze, wring liquid from
  sapi puh-ana milk cow
Sangir pehato wring, squeeze out
Tae' parrasqueeze out; crude expression for ‘hold onto’
Chamorro fugoʔwring, squeeze
Lamboya pirasqueeze


PWMP     *ma-meReq to squeeze out juice, wring out water

Malay me-merahto milk, wring out
Karo Batak merehwring something out, squeeze out; milk an animal
Toba Batak ma-moroto squeeze out, wring out, to milk (an animal)
Sangir ma-mehato wring, press out; to milk

Note:   Also Agutaynen mag-pega ‘to squeeze the liquid out of something; to wring something out’, Mapun paggaʔ ‘to press or squeeze a liquid (out of something, as juice from fruit)’, Yakan mag-peggaʔ ‘to squeeze (liquid from something with the hand, especially from grated coconut’), Sasak peren ‘to press, squeeze’, Manggarai peraŋ ‘to squeeze, wring out’.


*peRes squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing


PAN     *peRes squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing

Puyuma pərəssqueeze out the contents from (as in squeezing a tube of glue)
Itbayaten piis-ento squeeze
Isneg paggátto express, squeeze out, press out (water, milk from coconut meat, etc.)
Tagalog pigíspressed or squeezed out (as juice extracted from fruits or water wrung out from wet clothes)
Cebuano pugúscompel someone to do something
  pugs-ún-unneeding to be urged or told to do something
Maranao pegesforce a husband on a daughter
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peɣesto force someone or something
Binukid pegesto force, compel (someone to do something)
Yakan pessel <Mto squeeze something (as someone’s hand)
Ngaju Dayak pehesa press (used to squeeze something out); what is squeezed out
Malay perasexpressing, squeezing
Toba Batak porospress together
Sasak peresexpress, squeeze out; to abort a fetus (by applying pressure to the abdomen)
Sangir pehaseʔto squeeze out, as milk from grated coconut
Taje poossqueeze in hand
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *piosqueeze in the hand
Muna feoto squeeze, wring out (laundry), to milk (a cow)
  feo-tisqueeze something out into, expel a liquid into
Makasarese parroʔuse pressure to squeeze something out (as on a mother’s breast, a wound or a boil)


POC     *poRos squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing

Gitua porowring


PWMP     *ma-meRes to squeeze out juice, wring out water

Itbayaten ma-miisto wring (clothes, for example); to squeeze
Bintulu məməsto squeeze
Ngaju Dayak ma-mehesto squeeze out
Malay me-merasto express, squeeze out
Toba Batak ma-morospress together
Sangir ma-mehaseʔto squeeze out (juice, etc.)
Makasarese am-marroʔsqueeze something out

Note:   Also Mapun paggos ‘to force someone to do something’ (< Bisayan), Tiruray keres ‘to squeeze out juice by pressing or twisting something’, Yakan pegges ‘to press (sugarcane)’, pegges-an ‘a sugarcane press, Javanese peres ‘squeezed, wrung’ (< Malay). Gitua poro could reflect either PMP *peReq or PMP *peRes; its assignment to the latter is arbitrary, but is based on the richer attestation of *peRes.


*peRpeR to box, give a blow


PWMP     *peRpeR to box, give a blow     [disjunct: *pegpeg]

Bikol págpágto beat to remove dust (as from a rug)
Maranao pepegto box, give a blow
Melanau (Mukah) pipahwas beaten, was thrashed
Lun Dayeh peperhitting, pounding
Melanau (Mukah) mupahbeat, thrash


*pe(R)tak knock; pop, burst


PWMP     *pe(R)tak knock; pop, burst

Bontok pətákburst, pop, rupture; the report of a shotgun; the sound of something bursting, as a balloon
Sasak pertakknock against or with something to drive ants out; hit on the head

Note:   With root *-tak₂ ‘sound of cracking, splitting, knocking’.


*pes sound of escaping air, etc.


PMP     *pes sound of escaping air, etc.

Maranao pesdull sound, as a scythe makes against the grass
Javanese pessound of something going flat
Manggarai pessound of a fire being doused with water; hiss; sound of flatulence

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ves ‘whizzing sound, as of flying bird or of wind’. Presumably the simple root found in *ke(m)pes ‘deflate’.


*pesak break into several large pieces; hatch


PMP     *pesak break into several large pieces; hatch     [doublet: *peceq₁]

Cebuano pusákbreak something hard (as a plate, or cement flooring with a hammer)
Sangir pesaʔpress flat, pulverize; hatch from an egg
Manggarai pecakhatch from an egg

Note:   Possibly *pecak. Also Malay pécak ‘crushed or driven in at one point, of a rotting fruit, a dented ball, etc.’, Balinese encak ‘crush, break by pressure’. Part of this comparison was first noted in print by Verheijen (1967-70).


*pesit blind


PWMP     *pesit blind

Ilongot pɨsitblind
Bintulu pesitblind


*pespes squeeze, massage


PAN     *pespes₁ squeeze, massage

Pazeh pepetmassage
Kavalan pespesmassage
Puyuma pəspəsmassage
  pa-pəspəsto massage
  p<ən>pəspəsto massage


PMP     *pespes₂ squeeze out; massage

Ilokano pespésjuice extracted from the stomach of ruminants, used as sour seasoning to make pinespesan, also called pinespes
Casiguran Dumagat pəspəsfor a woman to milk her breast
Bontok pəspəsto grip in the palm of one’s hand; to grasp; to hold tightly in one’s hand
  na-pəspəsto be squeezed out or used up, of rice beer
Kankanaey pespéspress, squeeze in the hand, grasp, wring, knead, apply massage
Ibaloy pespesto squeeze something so that the liquid it contains comes out (as pustule on the skin, cow’s udder to milk, sponge, orange)
Pangasinan pespéssqueeze
Karo Batak pespespinch, squeeze, press out


PAN     *p<um>espes to massage

Pazeh me-pepetto massage, to grasp
Kavalan p<m>espesto massage

Note:   Although Pazeh usually reflects CVCCVC reduplications as CV1CV1CV1C, parallels to the reduction found in this form are also attested in *daŋdaŋ > dadaŋ ‘to warm (body); broil’, and *sepsep > zezep ‘to suck’.


*peta shatter, break


PMP     *peta shatter, break     [disjunct: *betak₁ 'cleave, split']

Cebuano pútashatter, crush something to bits
Singhi Land Dayak potahbreak
Mota wotaknock, break by knocking (as firewood)


*petak squawk


PWMP     *petak squawk     [doublet: *pekak 'cackle']

Cebuano putakfor chickens to keep squawking, as when laying eggs; complain, talk or protest loudly
Sundanese petakloud scream, strong call
Javanese petakloud scream


*pe(n)tik spot, dot


PWMP     *pe(n)tik spot, dot     [doublet: *beCik 'tattoo']

Cebuano puntikspot, dot
Iban petikspot

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat putek putek ‘polka dots (on fish or cloth)’, Cebuano batuk ‘small area different in color or texture from the background’, pátik ‘tattoo, mark with a brand’, Iban pantak ‘spot of a different color, as on an animal's head’, Roviana koti ‘spot or dot’.


*petpet flatten; press down in order to squeeze in


PWMP     *petpet flatten; press down in order to squeeze in

Isneg petpét-anto flatten (iron bars, dough, etc.)
Bontok pətpətpack something, as a lunch basket with cooked rice, by pressing down the contents
Tagalog pitpítflatten by pounding
  p<am>itpitcrusher of nuts, garlic, etc.
Malay pepatflattened out; blunted; trimmed straight
  penoh pepatchockful, crowded

Note:   Also Ifugaw (Batad) bitbit ‘flatten something, as in patting out dough, hammering out metal’. The term evidently referred both to flattening maleable objects on a planar surface, and to pressing the contents of a container down to make them fit the available space.


*petuk beat, throb, pulse


PWMP     *petuk beat, throb, pulse

Bikol putókexplode
Cebuano putúk-putúkrapid beating or throbbing of the heart
Toba Batak po-l-tukcrackle, of roasting rice or corn
Balinese peṭukknock, beat out; pulse

Note:   With root *-tuk₂ ‘knock, pound, beat’.


*peu to bind together in a sheaf


PCMP     *peu to bind together in a sheaf

Rotinese heubind together; roof of a house (tying lontar leaves or bundles or alang-alang grass to the slats of the roof)
Yamdena péuto bind in a bundle, of maize

Note:   Also Yamdena mbéu ‘to bind in a bundle, of maize’.


*pezeŋ close the eyes


PMP     *pezeŋ close the eyes     [doublet: *pezem]

Proto-Minahasan *pədəŋblind; shut eyes
Manggarai peseŋclose the eyes; blind

TOP      pe    pi    po    pu    pw    



*pia₁ where?


POC     *pia where?     [doublet: *pea]

Nggela viawherever, of whatever kind, where, what, which
Gilbertese iawhere? (interrog.)
Pohnpeian iawhere? what?
Mokilese iawhere?, which?
Chuukese iyaplace where, where?
Southeast Ambrym vi-where, which


*pia₂ goodness


PMP     *pia₂ goodness

Yami piagood, nice, beautiful, kind
  maka-piaslowly, very well
  mi-pa-piabecome good
  ka-pia-pia-nin good condition
  paka-pia-enmake well
Itbayaten piagood
  ka-piadeliciousness, goodness; consent
  ka-pia-andoing good (to others); welfare, well-being, goodness
  ka-pia-nadvantage, good point(s), good result(s)
Ilokano piáhealth, well-being
  na-piáwell, healthy
  pi-pia-ento do well, better
  p<um>i-piáto improve, get better, recover, ameliorate
Isneg na-piyāgood, agreeable; handsome (girls)
  na-piyā-nthe best
  p<um>iyāto become better
  piyā-nto like, to love
Maranao piagood, well, plentiful
Bilaan (Koronadal) fyɨgood
Sangir ka-piagoodness, agreeable circumstances, indirect expression for pregnancy
  maka-piato improve
Mongondow piagoodness
Mota wiagood, of the right sort, without anything unusual
Koro wegood
Marino wiagood
Nakanamanga pwiagood
Siviri piagood
Lelepa wiagood


PMP     *ma-pia good

Itbayaten ma-piawell, alright
  paka-mia-ento please
  paka-pia-ento do well; to repair; to put in position; to put in order; to make good
  pia-ento allow, to permit, to consent to
  pi-pie-ento prefer
Atta ma-piagood
Isneg ma-piya-piyāto be getting well
Maranao ma-piagood, well, nice, fine
Sangir ma-piagood
Mongondow mo-piagood, beautiful, proper, in order; healthy; delicious, agreeable
Soboyo biagood, beautiful

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) upiya ‘to do good’, me-ʔupiya ‘good’, Siang piyo ‘good’, Mongondow pira ‘good’, the latter with analogical back-formation (Blust 1983).


*pian want, desire, wish or long for


PMP     *pian want, desire, wish or long for     [disjunct: *pia]

Isneg piānto like, love
Kelabit piandesire, want
Fijian viaan auxiliary verb expressing desire
Tongan fiepreposed or prefixed verb, to want, desire, wish or be willing
Samoan fiaparticle preposed to the base, denoting a wish for, liking for or aspiration to (something) specified by the following word


*picak crush, press in


PMP     *picak crush, press in

Malay pécakcrushed or driven in at one point, of a rotting fruit, a dented ball, etc.
Nggela pisapress, crush


*picek blind in one eye


PWMP     *picek blind in one eye

Bontok písəkperson who has a white patch in one or both eyes
Maranao pisekblind
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pisekto blind someone or something in one eye
Iban picakblind in one eye
Old Javanese picekblind


*picik splash, spray, sprinkle


PMP     *picik splash, spray, sprinkle

Aklanon pisíksplatter, fly off in all directions
Cebuano pisikspatter, splatter
Mongondow pisiksprinkle something
Rotinese pisisprinkle, spray (water)
Hawu pihishake water off the hands
Motu pisipisito splash
Lau kwisito splash
Kwaio bisispray, splash on
'Āre'āre pisisplurt, splash
Sa'a pwisisplurt, splash
Arosi pwisisplurt, splash
Tongan throw, dash or splash water
  pihisplash up, fly up, as spray
Niue pihito splash
  pihipihito spatter
Rennellese pisipisito splash, to wet, stir up, as waves
  pisi-kiabe drenched, soaked; to wet, soak, splash; receive a spurt of a liquid, as lime juice in the eye
Samoan pisisplash
Hawaiian to sprinkle, as water with the fingers

Note:   Also Cebuano lagsík ‘for small things to fly off, splatter’, Malay lecék ‘blow the nose, e.g. with the fingers’, Malay (Jakarta) bécék ‘puddle, slush on road’ and PMP *recik ‘speckled, stained’, hence the assumption of a root *cik ‘fly out, splatter’.

This comparison is of particular interest, as it provides the only known PMP etymology for an instance of in OC languages. It is noteworthy that *p normally became Rotinese h.


*picit squeeze out


PMP     *picit squeeze out

Bontok pisítsqueeze between finger and thumb in order to squeeze out the contents of something
Malay picitpinching; compression in the hand; a form of massage
Nggela pisibe ejected, of feces

Note:   With root *-cit ‘squirt out’.


*picuk dent, dented


PWMP     *picuk dent, dented

Cebuano pisúk, písukpush something small into a depressed position; make a dent in something covering only a small area
Kadazan pisukinside angle
Malay (Jakarta) pécokbruised, dented

Note:   Also Malay pécak ‘crushed or driven in at one point’.


*pindaŋ preserved meat


PWMP     *pindaŋ preserved meat

Ilokano pindáŋjerked meat, charqui
Malay pindaŋcooking (fish, prawns, etc.) in salted and spiced bouillon

Note:   Ilokano pindáŋ may be a Malay loan.


*pidek blink, wink


PWMP     *pidek blink, wink

Bontok pidəkhave a drooping eyelid
Cebuano pilúkwink or blink the eyes
Maranao pirekblink, wink

Note:   Also Maranao pideŋ ‘close the eye’, Tiruray fireŋ ‘have a drooping eyelid’, Dampelas mpidaɁ ’wink of an eye’, Bare'e pida ‘wink, blink’, Tae' ka-pidi-pidi ‘regularly blink the eyes’, Muna pidu ‘blink the eyes’.


*pidpid next to


PWMP     *pidpid next to

Cebuano pidpidvery near or close
Javanese pipirbeside, next to' (Pigeaud 1938)


PWMP     *p<al>idpid border, side, edge

Ilokano palidpídborder (as in a pattern)
Cebuano palidpídpass close along the side of something
Old Javanese palipidedging, frame
  palipirborder, edge, side; going along, (being on) the border or side


*pihak one side, one half


PWMP     *pihak one side, one half     [doublet: *biqak]    [disjunct: *piqak]

Hiligaynon pihákother side, reverse, pair, half
  mag-pihákto cut in two parts, divide in half
Aklanon píhakto cut into two equal parts; halve
  pihákthe other side; half
Masbatenyo pihak-óndivide something, split
  ka-pihákportion, part of a whole, one half, other half
  ka-pihák san púsoʔspouse, life partner (lit. ‘other half of the heart’)
Mansaka piyakto split (as a coconut)
Iban piakside
  dua piakon both sides
  sa-piak bukiton the other side of the hill
  be-piakhalved, divided
Malay pihakside
  pihak kepalaside of the head
Toba Batak piaksplit in the middle
Sundanese miyakstep to the side to let someone pass
Balinese piyakbecome separate, split, break open (intr.)
  miyaksplit, break open (tr.)
Sasak piakto parcel out, distribute
Tae' piaksplit, cleave; be split, cloven
  si-piakone half of something in relation to the other


PWMP     *pihak-an (gloss uncertain)

Aklanon pihak-ánuneven-sized, one is larger than the other
Old Javanese pihak-anone side, one half

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) posited *piak, based on a comparison of Tagalog piak ‘divided, distributed’, Javanese piyak ‘severed, separated’, Ngaju Dayak pahariʔ sapak piak ‘half sister from the same mother’, and Malagasy piaka ‘broken, snapped’, and Dyen (1953:10) converted this to *piqak, based only on the Tagalog, Malay, and Javanese forms. However, modern dictionaries do not give Tagalog piak, the Hiligaynon and Aklanon forms cited here conflict with *piqak, and the Malagasy form is irregular in showing p- rather than f-. Richards (1981) cites Iban piak, and Wilkinson (1959:901) cites Malay pihak as a borrowing of Arabic fihak ‘side’, but this is surely wrong, given its presence both in Old Javanese, which preceded sustained Arabic influence, and in languages of the central Philippine which are unlikely to have borrowed it. Nonetheless Malay pihak and Old Javanese pihak-an are regular only under a derivation from *piqak, leaving several unanswered questions about this comparison.


*pija interrogative of quantity: how much?, how many?; adjective of indefinite quantity: some, several, a few


PAN     *pija interrogative of quantity: how much?, how many?; adjective of indefinite quantity: some, several, a few

Atayal piraʔseveral, several times; how many, how many times, how long a time; only
Seediq piahow much? how many?
  m-piawhich time?
  mn-piahow many times?
Saisiyat pizaʔhow many?
Thao pizahow much? how many?; several
  la-pizahow much? how many?
  makim-pizahave several of something
  makit-pizado something several times
  mim-pizabe several; take several
  mu-pizado how many times?
  sh<m>i-pizahow many?, how long has it been?
Amis pinahow many?; several
Paiwan pidahow much?, how many?
  ma-pidahow many persons?
Yami pirahow many?, how much?
Agta pigəhow many?
Isneg pixáhow many?, how much?
Isinay pyahow much?, how many?
Ibaloy pigahow many?, how much?
  memin-pigato do something how many times?
Pangasinan pigáhow much?
  pigá-rahow many?, so many
  kuma-pigáwhich in order?
Bikol piráhow many?, how much?; a little more and... (some consequence will follow); except for, excluding
Hanunóo piráhow many?; some, several (objects)
  tig-piráhow much? (in asking a price)
Palawan Batak pirahow many?
Hiligaynon piláhow much?, how many?
Aklanon piláhow much? [money], how many? [in quantity]
  piláŋ kasome, a few
Masbatenyo piráhow much?, how many?
  ma-miráwhat is the price?
  pi-pirá-piráhow much is each? how few? how scarce?
  tag-piráhow much is each?
Waray-Waray piráhow much?, how many?
Romblomanon pilahow many (people)?, how much (substance)?; several (actions, people, situations, things)
Cebuano piláhow much?, how many?; to what extent?
  tag-piláhow much apiece?
  pilá-hayonly recently, not so long ago
Maranao pirahow much?, how many?
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pirahow many?, how much?
  ne-piraʔ-ana few days
Mansaka pílahow much?, how many?
Binukid pilahow many?, how much?, to what extent?
  tag-pilato cost how much for (something)?
Bilaan (Sarangani) filɨhow many?
Tboli hiluhow many?, how much?
  le hilu hean expression meaning ‘It isn’t that much, a little is enough’
Yakan piyehow many? (days, etc.), how much? (money, etc.)
Tausug pilahow much?, how many?
Ida'an Begak pirohow many?
Kadazan piohow many?
Ngaju Dayak piræhow many?
Malagasy firihow many?, how often?
  firi-nato be divided into how many?
Simalur da-ixahow many? (people)
  ixa-ohow many? (things)
Karo Batak pigahow much?, how many?
  labo piganot many
  pe-piga-kenthe which? (in quantitative sequence)
Toba Batak pigahow much?, how many?
  ndaŋ piganot many, few
  pa-piga-honthe which? (in quantitative sequence)
Mentawai pigahow much?, how many?
Lampung pixahow much?, how many?
Old Javanese pira ~ piraŋhow much?; a certain number (an indefinite measure) of, some, several
  kadi pirahow could it be? how is it possible that?
Javanese (Ngoko) pirahow many?, what amount?
Balinese piratoo, very, too much
Sasak pirahow much?, how many?
Sangir pirahow much?, how many?
  pira-m-buahow many pieces?
Tontemboan pirahow much?, how many?; not much, a little
  ma-pirareduce in amount
Tae' pirahow much?, how many?
  pira-ŋ-boŋiʔpreviously, earlier
Mandar pirasome, several; how much?, how many?
Makasarese pira-ŋhow much?, how many? (in combination forms)
Chamorro fiʔahow many?
Komodo pirahow many?
Manggarai pisahow much?, how many?; some, several
Ngadha pizahow much?, how many?
Sika pirahow much?, how many?
Kambera pirahow much?, how many?
Hawu pərihow much?, how many?
Tetun hirahow much?, how many?
  foli-n hirawhat cost?
Wetan wo-irahow many? how much?
Fordata i-firahow much?, how many?
  fa-firahow often?
Dobel ʔa-yirahow many?
Alune ilahow much? how many?
Buruese pilahow many? how much?
Soboyo hilahow much/how many?
Kowiai fishow much?, how many?
Buli fishow much?, how many?
  fai-fishow many times?
  fapi-fisseveral, a few
  ma-fishow long?


POC     *pica how much?, how many?

Wuvulu fixahow many?
Seimat hilhow many?
Label isahow many?
  ha-na-isahow often?
Tolai ai-viahow many?, how much?, how often?, how many at a time?, how many times?
Lakalai -riva <Mhow many?, how much?
  tau rivahow many men?
Manam irahow many?, how much?
Wedau bia-ŋahow many?
Motu hidahow many?
Dobuan ʔe-isahow many?
Kilivila vilahow many?
Lau fitahow many?
Kwaio fitahow many?, how much?
Toqabaqita fitahow many?, how much?
  fita-naordinal form of fita: how many times?
'Āre'āre hitahow much? how many?
  hita ʔārehow many? (of things and persons)
  hita roʔuahow often?, how many times?
Arosi siha <Mhow many?
  siha-nahow many?, what number so far?
Chuukese fita-how many? (used with suffixed counting classifiers)
  fite-how many? (nonspecific or general class of things --- especially if the expected number is more than a few but less than hundreds)
Puluwat fitehow many? (more than ten)
  fite-fayhow many? (round objects)
  fite-rayhow many? (animate)
Woleaian fita-[indefinite] how many?; a few, some
Mota visahow many? so many
Central Maewo βisahow many?
Raga xai-fihahow many?
Araki mo visahow many?
Axamb ŋa-βishow many?
Paamese e-hishow many?; however many; an unknown number; how much? what price? what time?
  e-hishow many?
Filakara fiahow many?
Makatea e-fiahow many?
Wayan vicahow many?, how much?; be a small number or amount: a few, a bit
Fijian vicainterrogative numeral, how many?, and indefinite, so many, as in ‘a certain number of days’ (unspecified)
  vica-saŋavuluhow many tens?
  e vica wale ŋājust a few
Tongan fihahow many?, how much?
  fiha-ŋofuluhow many tens?
Niue fihahow many?; (fig.) a few
Futunan fiahow much?, how many?
Samoan fiabe how many?; be how much?; (obsolete) three (occurs in ceremonial titles)
Tuvaluan fiahow many?
  toko-fiahow many? (of humans)
Kapingamarangi hiamuch, many (question)
Nukuoro hiahow many? [in compounds only]
Rennellese hiahow many?, how much?
Anuta e piahow many is it?
  ku piahow many was it?
  e toko piahow many people?
  e mata piahow many tens of fish?
Maori hia ~ whiainterrogative numeral: how many?; an indefinite numeral: several (three, more or less)
Hawaiian -hiahow many?, how much?


PPh     *ika-pija which number is it?

Itbayaten icha-pirahnumber what? (in a series in time, e.g. first, second time)’
Cebuano ika-piláwhich [number] is it?


PWMP     *ka-pija (gloss uncertain)

Cebuano ka-piláhow many times?
Binukid ka-pilahow many times?
Kadazan ko-piowhich?, what?
  pii-piofew, some
Ngaju Dayak ka-piræhow many days?
Malagasy ha-firi-anahow many days?
Sangir ka-pira-nethe which (in number)?


POC     *ga-pica how much?, how many?

Mussau ga-isahow much?, how many?
Wogeo ka-visahow much?, how many?
Lungga ka-visahow many?
Roviana ka-visahow many?, how much?, what price?
Eddystone/Mandegusu ka viahow many?


PAN     *maka-pija (for) how many days?

Seediq meke-piafor how many (days)?
Paiwan maka-pida-lʸhow many days?
Cebuano maka-piláhow many times?


PAN     *pa-pija how many? (of people)

Thao pa-pizahow many? (of people)
Amis pa-pinahow many? (of people)
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *po-piahow many? (independent numeral)
Chamorro fa-fiʔahow many? (of living things)

Note:   This prefixed form clearly parallels the use of Ca- reduplication in the formation of numerals with human referents, although it is unclear whether all forms that appear to be traceable to *pa-pija have the same history (e.g. Fordata fa-fira ‘how often?’, or even the Proto-Bungku-Tolaki form cited above).


PMP     *paka-pija (gloss uncertain)

Malagasy faha-firiwhat number is it?


POC     *paka-pica how many times?

Arosi haʔa-siha <Mhow often?
Mota vaga-visahow many times?
Wayan vaka-vicahow many times? how often?
Fijian vaka-vicahow many times?
Rennellese haka-hiahow many times?, what day of the lunar month?, how many thatch panels


PAN     *pija pija some, several

Amis pa-pina-pinaseveral (people)
Ngaju Dayak piræ-piræas much as, as many as
Karo Batak piga-pigasome; several
Old Javanese pira-pira ~ piraŋ-piraŋquite a few, many
Javanese pira-pirano matter how much/many
Sasak pira-pirasome; several
Sangir pira-pirasome; several
Tontemboan pira-pirasome; several
Tae' pira-pira-kaas many as there are
Ngadha piza pizasome, several
Sika pira-piraso much, as much
Wetan wo-ira wo-irasome, several


POC     *pica pica a few, several (?)

Niue fiha-fihavery few, scarce

Note:   Also Bunun piaq