Updated: 7/25/2014
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Blust's
Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*p   

pe    pi    po    pu    pw    

27358

*pa- numeral prefix, divide into x (x = numeral)

3888

PMP     *pa- numeral prefix, divide into x (x = numeral)

WMP
Toba Batak pa- (numeral)let (the thing mentioned by you) be made into (numeral) (van der Tuuk 1971)
Old Javanese pa-ro, pa-rwawavering, in two minds
CMP
Kambera pa- (numeral)divide into (numeral)
OC
Motu ha-ruatwice
Molima va-luado in pairs
Eddystone/Mandegusu va-luathe second man in a six-man canoe (cf. *duSa 'two')

27232

*pacek wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail or dowel

3733

PAN     *pacek wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail or dowel     [doublet: *pasek]

Formosan
Amis patseknail
Puyuma paseknail; hammer in a nail
  mi-pasekhave a nail in
WMP
Itbayaten paseknail
  i-pask-endowel, made of tañod (mulberry) tree
Kankanaey pasekwedge
Bikol pásokwooden peg
  mag-pásokput something together with such pegs
Maranao pasekpost, pillar
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pasekput a post or stick in the ground
Bintulu pasekenter
Ngaju Dayak pasakwooden nail, dowel; what is fastened together with dowels
Malay pacaksplitting, transfixing
Nias fasastake, nail; to pound in a stake or nail
Old Javanese pacekspike, pin
Balinese pacekpeg, nail; stick into, make a hole; plant (seedlings, etc.)
Sangir ma-masiʔdrive in a stake, implant
  pa-pasiʔstake, post (as a fencepost)
Tontemboan pasəka pole driven firmly into the ground to which a horse can be tethered
  ma-pasəkto drive (a stake or pole) into the ground
Uma pasoʔto nail, drive in a nail
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *pasoQpeg, nail
Makasarese am-masaʔdrive a wedge into wood in order to split it open
  pam-masaʔwedge
Wolio pasonail, pin, spike, spur
Muna pasonail
  ka-pasowooden pen, nail or peg
  pasok-ito nail something firmly
CMP
Manggarai pacekpile, stake; drive in a pile or stake

Note:   With root *-cek ‘insert, stick into a soft surface’. [cf root *-sek₂ insert, stick into a soft surface] Blust (1970:134) reconstructs *pacek ‘place upright in the earth’, but cites only WMP cognates. Makasarese pasoʔ ‘nail, pin, peg’ is assumed to reflect *pasuk.

27231

*paCak spotted, speckled, as the skin of an animal

3732

PAN     *paCak spotted, speckled, as the skin of an animal

Formosan
Paiwan patsaknewly born calf or deer
WMP
Cebuano patʔak (ʔ unexplained)splotch, spatter all over something
Iban pantakhaving spot of different color, usually of animal's head

27233

*padaw kind of sailboat

3734

PWMP     *padaw kind of sailboat     [doublet: *parahu]

WMP
Pangasinan párawtraditional type of sailboat
Tagalog paráwlarge passenger and cargo sailboat
Cebuano paráwschooner, galleon
Maranao padawsailboat
Kadazan padauboat, canoe, rowing boat, sailing boat
Tarakan padauboat
Bintulu paɗawsailing
Malay layar padaustorm sail

Note:   Bintulu a before an implosive stop indicates a loanword. Wilkinson (1959) sub perahu ‘undecked native ship’ adds "Etym. the padao or parao of the Malabar coast, in contr. to the decked kapal." I have been unable to determine a Dravidian source for this word, but if it is a loan in Austronesian languages it is remarkable that it has spread as far as central Luzon.

27234

*padek rice husk

3735

PWMP     *padek rice husk

WMP
Palawan Batak padɨkhusk of rice
Aborlan Tagbanwa padɨkhusk of rice
Lun Dayeh padekhusk of rice grain after separation by pounding (cf. lipaŋ 'husk of rice grain before separation by pounding')
Kiput padekfragment of broken rice grain

Note:   Also Kadazan paok ‘chaff, husks’.

27372

*pa(n)dek specklike object

3905

PWMP     *pa(n)dek specklike object

WMP
Ilongot pandɨkstar
Miri fatakstar
Bolaang Mongondow pandokspot, speck, fleck

27373

*pa(n)duŋ raised flooring

3906

PWMP     *pa(n)duŋ raised flooring

WMP
Maranao pandoŋtemporary building; stage, raised flooring
Kayan paruŋattic space above inner room; upper storey
Iban padoŋraised sleeping platform or bunk near or in outer wall of house; (formerly) sleeping place for girls
Minangkabau pandoŋhut in rice fields

30815

*paen bait

8565

PAN     *paen bait

Formosan
Kavalan pannbait (for fishing, or in a trap)
Paiwan panbait (for fishhook or trap)
  pu-panto bait a hook or trap
WMP
Ilokano appánbait
Isneg appānbait
  i-pānto ensnare
Agta (Dupaningan) appánbait for fishing
Bontok pá-panbait, as used in fishing or trapping birds
Kankanaey pá-panbait
Ifugaw pá-panbait, to lure birds to the place where they can be ensnared, or eels into a cage trap called udál, or rats into a kind of deadfall called ipít
Tagalog páʔinbait for catching fish, rats, etc.
  mag-páʔinto bait, to set a bait for; to lure or attract with bait
Bikol páʔonbait; decoy or lure
  mag-páʔonto bait or set a trap; to place bait on a hook; to decoy or lure
Hanunóo páʔunbait
Hiligaynon paʔúnbait, decoy
Aklanon paónbait (for fishing); to put on bait
Waray-Waray paónbait
Masbatenyo paónbait, lure, enticement; something used to entice the victim in fishing or trapping
Romblomanon paʔunbait used for catching fish, mollusks, octopuses
Cebuano paʔúnbait; to bait something; to make or use as bait; use someone else as a means to deflect danger from oneself
Maranao paʔanbait

8566

PPh     *i-paen to use as bait

WMP
Ilokano y-appánto use as bait
Masbatenyo i-paʔónuse something for bait; to sacrifice (oneself)

8567

PPh     *paen-an to bait a trap, set the bait for

WMP
Ilokano appan-anto set bait
Tagalog páʔin-anto bait, to set a bait for; to lure or attract with bait
Bikol paʔon-anto bait or set a trap; to place bait on a hook; to decoy or lure

Note:   It is very likely that this form is related to *kaen ‘eat’, but no clear morphological relationship can be established

27364

*paŋgaga a creeping plant: Hydrocotyle asiatica

3896

PWMP     *paŋgaga a creeping plant: Hydrocotyle asiatica

WMP
Malay daun pegagaa creeping herb with an edible leaf: Hydrocotyle asiatica
  peŋgagaa creeping herb, Hydrocotyle asiatica
Old Javanese paŋgagakind of creeping herb, Hydrocotyle asiatica
Tae' paŋgagaa creeping plant with small, round leaves that are used as a vegetable and boiled for pig fodder: Hydrocotyle asiatica

Note:   Also Makasarese paʔgagaʔ ‘kind of stemless vegetable that grows in damp places (cooked as a vegetable): Centella asiatica’.

27235

*pagal neck shackle to prevent an animal from passing through fences

3736

PMP     *pagal neck shackle to prevent an animal from passing through fences

WMP
Ilokano paŋgála stick or bamboo transversely tied to the head or neck of an animal, or a collar consisting of a kind of triangle made of three pieces of wood or bamboo, to keep the wearer from passing through bamboo fences
CMP
Manggarai pagalhobble; heavy block hung from buffalo's neck to impede his movements

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance (since it is so weakly attested). The perfect phonological correspondences and highly distinctive semantics, however, suggest a historical connection.

27365

*paŋgaŋ roast over a fire, toast

3897

PWMP     *paŋgaŋ roast over a fire, toast

WMP
Ifugaw págaŋroast soomething edible
Tagalog paŋgáŋbroiled or toasted to crispiness
Bikol paŋgáŋto dry-fry in a kawaliʔ producing a result similar to toasting, rather than frying
Ngaju Dayak paŋgaŋanything roasted on a gridiron; to roast on a gridiron
Iban paŋgaŋroast, bake, cure by smoking
Malay paŋgaŋbroiling; roasting before the fire; toasting. Esp. toasting or roasting on a spit, skewer, or fork
Acehnese paŋgaŋroast (meat or fish) on a spit
Karo Batak paŋgaŋroast something over a fire; roasted
Nias fagaroast (in the flames)
Old Javanese paŋgaŋto roast (on spit, fork, etc.), toast
Javanese paŋgaŋbroiled food, food cooked over an open fire or charcoal; to toast at an open fire
Balinese paŋgaŋroast over a fire
Sasak paŋgaŋto roast
Makasarese paŋgaŋroasting of chicken (or a piece of chicken)

27236

*pagel tired, exhausted

3737

PWMP     *pagel tired, exhausted

WMP
Gaddang na-pákeltired (McFarland 1977)
Kapampangan pagal, ma-pagaltired
Tagalog pagálfatigue; assumed work or trouble or hardship for s.o. else
Bikol pagálexhausted, fatigued, jaded, tired, worn out
  ma-pagalget tired
Sasak paŋgeltired; bored

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat pagél ‘tired, exhausted’, Makasarese paʔgalaʔ ‘slow, languid; stiff from exhaustion’.

27237

*pageq firm, steady, strong

3738

PWMP     *pageq firm, steady, strong

WMP
Karo Batak paguhfirm, steady, solid, of a post; strong, big, robust, of men, trees, and houses
Sundanese pageuhfirm, steady, fast; stand, sit or hold fast; believe firmly in, inwardly convinced
Old Javanese pagehfirmness, stability, constancy, stabilization, repair
Balinese pagehstrong, firm, steady, reliable, sure, unchanging, faithful

Note:   Karo Batak paguh shows u for expected e. I assume that it has been reshaped under the influence of the semantically similar teguh ‘firm, strong; tough, of someone's constitution’.

27238

*pager enclosure; palisade around a village; fence around a planted tree or cultivated field

3739

PMP     *pager enclosure; palisade around a village; fence around a planted tree or cultivated field

WMP
Ilokano pagérpalisade
Miri fagérfence
Berawan (Batu Belah) paginfence
Kiput pakinfence
Ngaju Dayak pagar, pagerfence, hedge
Iban pagarfence, railing
  pagar ruyonstockaded fort
Malay pagarfence; palisade, e.g. of bamboo (pagar buloh), or wattle (pagar sasak) or palm-trunk (pagar ruyon)
Jarai pegafence, palisade
Acehnese pageuëfence, hedge
Sundanese pagerfence (of bamboo, stone, etc.); hedge
Old Javanese pagerhedge, fence, enclosure
Javanese pagerfence, outside wall
Balinese (Low) pagehbe fenced
  pageh-ana hedge, fence, wall, fortification
Balinese (High) pagerfence, wall, hadge, fortification
Sasak pagerwall of wicker-work, fence, enclosure
Proto-Minahasan *pagərfence, enclosure
Tae' pagaʔbamboo fence built, for example, around the base of a tree in order to heap up fertilizer around it
Buginese pageʔfence, wall (as a stone wall around a planted field)
Makasarese pagaraʔfence
CMP
Rotinese paʔato fence, a fence
Yamdena fakarfencing-in, as a planted tree; fencing with stakes for the defense of the village
Buruese pagerfence

Note:   Also Maloh pakar ‘fence’, Dairi-Pakpak Batak pagar ‘village stockade; fence of wood or bamboo’, Erai papa ‘enclosure’, Buruese pagar ‘fence’. Reflexes of *pager in Sarawak generally appear to be borrowed from Malay.This word evidently referred to a constructed enclosure that was intended to keep something out as opposed to one that was intended to keep something in (cp. *bala₂, *bara, or *baRa ‘pen, enclosure for domesticated animals’). The recurrent references to palisades suggests that PMP villages were stockaded.

27239

*pagi later, tomorrow, in the future

3740

PWMP     *pagi later, tomorrow, in the future

WMP
Iban pagimorning, early morning
Proto-Chamic *pagitomorrow
Malay pagimorning; early
Acehnese pagiDay of Judgement
Karo Batak pagifuture, future time
  pa-pagi, pe-pagimorning
  er-pagi-pagiin the morning
  si pagi-nathe future
Toba Batak pagi-anlater
  pagi-pagi-anfuture, in the course of one's life
Lampung pagimorning

Note:   This item is not simply a widely distributed Malay loan, since the Chamic languages and the Batak languages agree in indicating an original meaning that is not attested in the Malay reflex. Its antiquity depends crucially on the subgrouping relationship of the Batak languages to the Malayo-Chamic languages, a subject that required further investigation.

27240

*pagquŋ land turtle, fresh-water turtle

3741

PPh     *pagquŋ land turtle, fresh-water turtle

WMP
Isneg pagʔóŋkind of turtle with long neck and a more or less elongated body
Ilokano pagʔóŋtortoise, a land and fresh-water turtle
Bontok pagʔóŋturtle
Tagalog pagóŋturtle
Bikol pagóŋturtle

27242

*pagu loft, attic

3743

PWMP     *pagu loft, attic

WMP
Iban pagushelf, esp. over hearth
Malay paguceiling; ceiling-loft, attic
Minangkabau paguthe upper and more solid shelf over the kitchen fire (the lower light rack being salaian)
Acehnese paguattic, loft, ceiling
Gorontalo pahuspace between attic and roof

Note:   It is unclear precisely how PWMP *pagu and *paRa ‘storage shelf; attic (?)’ differed in meaning. The former may have referred to a loft or attic near the roof and the latter exclusively to a shelf or system of shelves over the hearth, but reflexes of *paRa so often include the meaning ‘loft, attic, ceiling’ that the semantic distinction between the two has been considerably blurred.

27366

*paŋguŋ heap, pile; elevated platform used as a look-out

3898

PWMP     *paŋguŋ heap, pile; elevated platform used as a look-out

WMP
Iban paŋgoŋpile, stack
Malay paŋgoŋraised flooring, platform of a stage (paŋgoŋ wayaŋ), a scaffolding for spectators, a look-out house
Toba Batak paŋguŋheap, pile, knoll
Sundanese paŋguŋdome, look-out, tower
Old Javanese paŋguŋscaffolding, raised platform, stand for spectators, "tower" in the cremation ceremony, stage for play (wayaŋ)
Javanese paŋguŋattic; platform built on piles above flood level; open-air pavilion for spectators
Balinese paŋguŋtower, cupola, dome
  bale paŋguŋa high platform
Sasak paŋgooŋlay something on top of something else
  paŋguŋan elevated structure with a ladder, used as a look-out

3899

PWMP     *paŋguŋ-an elevated place

WMP
Toba Batak paŋguŋ-anhearth
Balinese paŋguŋ-ana high place for seeing from, a look-out

Note:   Also Iban paŋgoŋ ‘theatre, theatrical stage’, Makasarese paŋgoŋ ‘raised theatre stage’, forms which are clearly borrowed from Malay.

27241

*pagut snap at with the mouth

3742

PWMP     *pagut snap at with the mouth

WMP
Hiligaynon págutrave, be furious, gnash the teeth while asleep
Aklanon págotgrind one's teeth
Malay pagutpeck (of birds), bite (of snakes), nibble (of fish). Not used of the bite of a mammal
Toba Batak pagut, pargutbeak of a bird, mouth of a snake; peck up (birds), bite (snakes)

Note:   Sundanese pagut ‘knock against’, Javanese pagut ‘strike together’ may also be connected. The semantics of this comparison leave something to be desired. Nonetheless Hiligaynon págut, Aklanon págot appear to contain a reflex of the root *-gut ‘gnaw’ (q.v.), and the range of meanings found in other reflexes of this root includes biting, snapping, and nibbling at. Alternatively, *pagut may contain the root *-gut₂ ‘pull with a jerk’.

30012

*pahekuh edible fern that grows by rivers: Athyrium esculentum

6706

PAN     *pahekuh edible fern that grows by rivers: Athyrium esculentum

Formosan
Amis pahkotype of fern that is edible
CMP
Bimanese fakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable
Manggarai pakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable: Athyrium esculentum
Ngadha pakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable
Kambera rí pakufern

7163

PWMP     *paku fern

WMP
Ilokano pakóan edible fern: Athurium Esculentum (sic!)
  pak-pakóferns resembling the pakó
Isneg pakóAthyrium esculentum (Retz.) Copel: an edible fern; eating it cures influenza
Casiguran Dumagat pakóan edible wild fern, sometimes called “wild asparagus”: Athyrium esculentum
Agta (Eastern) pakófern
Itawis pakúfern
Ifugaw (Batad) pa-paʔuan edible fern: Athyrium esculentum
Pangasinan pakóedible fern
Aklanon pakú(h)a fern: Athyrium esculentum
Cebuano pakúkind of fern, the young leaves of which are eaten as a salad: Athyrium esculentum
Maranao pakoa fern: Athyrium esculentum (Retz.) Copel
Mansaka pakokind of edible fern that grows by rivers
Binukid pakokind of fern (the young fronds of which are edible)
Tiruray fagewan edible fern: Athyrium esculentum Copel
Tombonuwo pakuedible fern
Kelabit paʔuhfern that grows by the riverbank
Berawan (Long Terawan) pakkohfern
Kenyah pakufern
Kayan pakoʔferns (many kinds)
Kayan (Busang) pakoʔfern, the young tips of which are eaten as a vegetable
Murik pakuʔfern
Singhi Land Dayak pokuxferns (edible)
Malay pakufern; generic for Filices (many types)
Acehnese pakufern
Karo Batak pakuedible fern
Toba Batak pahularge fern
Simalur pakufern
  paku gajahordinary tree fern (lit. ‘elephant fern’)
Sundanese pakufern
Old Javanese pakufern
Balinese pakufern, bracken
Sasak pakufern (various types)
Proto-Sangiric *pakuedible fern
Proto-Minahasan *pakutype of edible fern
Tontemboan pakufern
Bare'e pakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable
Tae' pakukind of fern eaten as a vegetable
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *pakuferns
Makasarese pakufern, of which certain types are eaten as vegetables
Wolio pakufern

Note:   Also Tagalog pakóʔ ‘fern; river fern’, Bikol pakóʔ, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pakuʔ, Tboli hokuʔ ‘edible fern found growing along streams: Athyrium esculentum’, Iban pakuʔ ‘fern’, daun pakuʔ ‘fern frond, edible fern tips’.

27243

*pai where?

3744

PMP     *pai₁ where?

WMP
Wolio paiwhere?
OC
Nggela veiwhere, which, usually i vei
Kwaio faiwhere
  i faiwhere?
Lau i-fai(= 'at where?') 'where?'
Arosi haiwhere, what place, which?
Fijian veiinterrogative noun, asking place where?

Note:   Pawley (1972) reconstructs PEOc *pai ‘where?, locative interrogative’. This item probably was preceded by a generic marker of location *i.

30258

*paid fan

7140

PAN     *paid fan

Formosan
Kavalan paiza fan
  p<m>aizto fan
Paiwan si-paiz-ana fan
  ki-paizto fan oneself, to have oneself fanned
  p<n>aizto fan something
WMP
Itbayaten payididea of fanning
  pa-payida fan
Ilokano paída fan (usually made of woven bamboo)
  ag-paídto fan oneself
  i-paídto fan with
  paid-anto fan someone
Agta (Dupaningan) ped-peda fan
  i-ped-pedto fan
Itawis pé-peda fan
  map-pé-pedto fan

30474

*pajay rice in the field; rice plant

7675

PAN     *pajay rice in the field; rice plant

Formosan
Atayal pagayunhulled rice, rice in the husk
Seediq payayrice plant
Saisiyat pazayrice plant
Pazeh pazayglutinous rice
Thao pazayrice with husk adhering; rice in the field; riceplant
Bunun paaðrice plant, rice in the field
Tsou pairice plant, unhusked rice
Kanakanabu paláyglutinous rice
Rukai (Budai) pagayrice plant, unhusked rice
Kavalan panayrice plant in a dry field (unhusked); said to be a loan from Amis
Amis panayrice; the harvested grain
Paiwan padayrice (plant, grain): Oryza sativa
WMP
Itbayaten parayunhusked rice; husked rice; rice plant
Ilokano págayrice (unhusked), Oryza sativa
  i-pagay-anhire a worker for rice wages
  pagay-anplace where rice is grown; to plant with rice
Bontok págəyunthreshed rice; the rice plant, Oryza sativa L.
Kankanaey págeyrice on the stalk, unhusked rice
Ifugaw págerice growing in the fields, or bundles of rice ears
Ibaloy pageyrice --- esp. of rice standing in the field, but also of harvested rice that is still on the stalk unthreshed, and of unhusked rice off the stalk
  man-pageyto realize a certain yield from a field
Pangasinan pagéyrice plant; unhusked rice
Kapampangan pálerice (growing in the field)
  palay-anrice field
Tagalog pálayrice plant
  palay-anrice paddy, rice field
Hanunóo páraypalay, or unhusked rice (Oryza sativa Linn.), especially that standing in the fields, still unharvested
Hiligaynon pálayrice plant
Aklanon páeayrice (growing in the fields), Oryza sativa; rice seeds (freshly harvested, unmilled)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pareythe rice plant, Oryza sativa, and the grain before it is milled or pounded
Tiruray fareya general term for rice, Oryza sativa Linn.
Tboli halayOryza sativa. Rice, unhusked, a staple food of the Philippines
Yakan paleyrice (unhusked), Oryza sativa
Ida'an Begak paraypaddy
Kadazan paaipaddy
Lun Dayeh fadeyrice, paddy
Kelabit paderice plant, rice in the field
Kenyah padaypaddy, rice in the field
Kayan parerice plant, rice in the field
Kiput padəyrice plant, rice in the field
Melanau (Mukah) padayrice plant, rice in the field
Jarai pədayrice plant, rice in the field
Rade mədierice plant, rice in the field
Iban padirice, Oryza spp. as plants or grain in husk, paddy
Malay padirice as a plant, in the ear, and as an unhusked grain
Moken paipaddy
Karo Batak pagerice plant, rice in the field, unhusked rice
Nias faxerice (in general as a plant, and in its cooked state)
Old Javanese paririce (in the field or still in the straw), paddy
Javanese paririce plant (growing, or harvested, but still unhulled)
Sundanese parerice in general, but particularly rice in the field and in the husk
Balinese padirice, corn, grain; a grain (weight); rice in the husk
Sasak pade ~ parerice in the field, unhusked rice
Bolaang Mongondow payoyunhusked rice, rice plant
Bare'e paerice in the field, unhusked rice
Tae' parerice in the field
Mandar parerice in the field
Makasarese parerice in the field
Muna paerice (on the stalk)
Chamorro faʔitype of plant - Oryza sativa. rice --- when growing
CMP
Bimanese farerice plant, rice in the field
Li'o parericeplant, rice in the field
Kambera paririce plant
Rotinese haderice plant, unhusked rice grain
Tetun harerice (plant and unhusked grain)
Yamdena faserice
Kamarian halarice (in general)
Kayeli halarice (in general)
Buruese palarice (in general)
SHWNG
Kowiai fasacooked rice, husked rice
Numfor-Biak fasrice (in general)
Wandamen fasrice (in general)
Dusner pasrice (in general)
Serui-Laut farice (in general)

7676

PAN     *ka-pajay-an (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Amis ka-panay-anthe time of harvest
WMP
Ilokano ka-pagay-anrice field

Note:   Also Ifugaw (Batad) pāguy ‘rice plant, Oryza sativa before or after harvesting, i.e. a rice panicle and stalk’, Bikol pároy ‘rice still growing in the fields; rice before milling’, pag-paroy-an ‘to pay a portion of one’s debts with rice’, Toba Batak palge ‘large, select rice grains’, Buginese ase (expected **pase) ‘rice in the field’.

30073

*paju eyebrow

6779

POC     *paju eyebrow

OC
Arosi hasu-hasu-(na)eyebrow
Sonsorol-Tobi fätieyebrow
Puluwat faateyebrow
Mokilese padeyebrow
Marshallese āteyebrow
Gilbertese arieyebrow
Wayan vacueyebrow
Fijian vacueyebrow

Note:   Possibly connected with PAn *pasu ‘cheekbone’, although this seems semantically strained.

27245

*paka- numeral prefix, multiplicative

Note:   (See morphologically complex forms of *esa, *isa ‘one’, *duSa ‘two’, *telu ‘three’, *Sepat ‘four’, *lima ‘five’, *enem ‘six’, *pitu ‘seven’, *walu ‘eight’, *siwa ‘nine’, and *puluq ‘ten’.)

27369

*paŋkaʔ, paŋkaq strike against

3902

PWMP     *paŋkaʔ, paŋkaq strike against

WMP
Cebuano páŋkaʔbump against something
Iban paŋkaʔstrike, dash (down, against), hurl
Malay paŋkahto peg a top

30396

*pakpak to clap, flap the wings; sound of clapping or flapping

7507

PAN     *pakpak to clap, flap the wings; sound of clapping or flapping

Formosan
Thao pakpakclap
  k<m>ay pa-pakpakclap the hands; flap the wings
Kavalan p<m>aqpaqto flap wings
Amis pakpakto clap hands, to hit with the hand
Puyuma pakpakwing; flap wings
  mi-pakpakto have wings
  pa-pakpakto make wings flap (as when frightening a chicken)
WMP
Itbayaten ma-makpakto clap hands
  pakpakento strike with open palm, slap
  p<al>akpaka bamboo toy for making a clapping sound
Ilokano pakpákbamboo rattle
  pakpak-enslap with the open hand; spank; clap; hammer
Casiguran Dumagat pakpákwing (of birds, airplanes, angels, etc.)
Bontok pakpákbeat with a short stick using a rhythmic motion, as in beating chickens to death, or the beating of shields during omen hunting trips
Kankanaey pakpák-ento slap in the face, to box the ears of
Ibaloy pakpák-ento hit something with a resulting thump, thud (as head by police baton, volleyball on palm)
Pangasinan pakpákto beat cotton or cloth with a rod
  p<al>akpákapplause
Kapampangan pakpakwings
  pa-pakpakclap the hands, flap the wings
  pa-pakpak-anclap for someone
Tagalog pakpákwing
  p<al>akpákapplause
Bikol pakpákwing (as of a bird)
  mag-pakpákto place wings on
Hanunóo pakpákwing
  p<al>akpákflapping of wings
Hiligaynon pákpakfeather, wing
  mag-pákpakto beat off, as to brush off dust or ants from a dress
  p<al>ákpakclapping of the hands
Aklanon pákpakwing; to spank, slap (children)
  p<ae>ákpakto clap for, applaud
Waray-Waray pakpákwooden club or mallet for pounding laundry
Masbatenyo pákpakwing
  i-pakpákto clap, applaud; be beaten, be thrashed
  pag-pakpákclapping, applause
Cebuano pakpákapplause
  p<al>akpákapplause
Maranao papakwing; break, chip off
  papak-anflying fish
Mansaka pakpakclap the hands
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pakpakwing; wing feather; clap the hands
Binukid pakpakwing (of a fowl)
Mapun pakpakfor a rooster to flap its wings before crowing
Tiruray fafaka wing
  fafak-ana large saltwater fish
Ida'an Begak pakpakdrop something small
Ngaju Dayak papaka slap
Malay papakclapper for frightening birds
Sasak pakpakbamboo clatterer put in the fields to frighten birds

7508

PWMP     *ma-makpak to slap, flap the wings

WMP
Ngaju Dayak ma-makpakto slap
Toba Batak ma-makpakto beat, pound; address with crude language

7527

PPh     *p<al>akpak clap

WMP
Ilokano palakpákspringless cart; the sound of a cart without springs
Bontok palakpákclap one's hands, applaud
Casiguran Dumagat palákpakclap the hands
Pangasinan palakpákapplause
Tagalog palakpákapplause, sound of applause
Hanunóo palákpakflapping of wings
Cebuano palakpákapplause; clap

Note:   Also Maranao parapak ‘flap wings’. With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.

27261

*pala platform

3764

POC     *pala platform     [disjunct: *paRa 'firewood shelf above the hearth']

OC
Gedaged falaceiling, the covering of a room; sometimes only part of the room has a ceiling, and this serves as a platform
Lau falaa fishing stage, or platform for drying nuts

27247

*pala pala₁ scaffolding, support

3749

PWMP     *pala pala₁ scaffolding, support     [doublet: *paraq paraq]

WMP
Ilokano pala-pálascaffold, scaffolding. For supporting workmen, etc.; a framework for ornamental arches, etc.
Tagalog pala-pálagangplank
Bikol pála-pálaframework; scaffolding; trellis, lattice
Bare'e pala-palabench for resting or sleeping

Note:   Also Bontok bala-bála ‘arch’. Dempwolff (1934-38) conflated several distinct cognate sets under an apparently nonexistent form *para ‘rack, stand, frame’. Tagalog pala-pala was compared (1) with Toba Batak, Malay para-para, Ngaju Dayak pahe, and Malagasy fara-fara, all of which evidently reflect PMP *paRa ‘storage shelf’; (2) with Sa'a para, which reflects PMP *bara ‘pen, enclosure for domesticated animals’; and (3) with Fijian vara ‘scaffolding, platform, stage’, which does not appear to be related to either of the foregoing. Rotuman hara ‘frame, framework, stand’ may be cognate with the WMP forms cited here, but if so has lost its original reduplicative character.

27248

*pala pala₂ temporary shed

3750

PPh     *pala pala₂ temporary shed

WMP
Pangasinan pála-pálatemporary shed prepared for a special occasion, esp. a wedding reception
Cebuano pala-palatemporary shed without walls, with a flat roof

Note:   Also Cebuano palaʔ-palaʔ ‘temporary shed without walls, with a flat roof’.

27249

*palaj₁ palm of hand, sole of foot

3751

PMP     *palaj₁ palm of hand, sole of foot

WMP
Ilokano páladline in the palm of the hand, the fingers, the sole of the foot
Isneg pálādlines, marks, etc. in the palm of the hand; fate, luck, chance, good luck
Itawis páladpalm of hand
Bontok páladpalm of the hand
Ifugaw páladpalm of a human hand (scrutinized for signs of one's fortune)
Casiguran Dumagat paládpalm of the hand, sole of the foot
  ma-paladlucky, fortunate
Pangasinan pálarlines on palm of hand; luck, fortune; be affected by fortune
Kapampangan páladpalm (of hand)
  ka-palar-andestiny, fate
Tagalog páladpalm of the hand; fate, fortune, luck
Bikol paladpalm of the hand
  ma-paladlucky, fortunate
Hanunóo ka-palad-unluck, fortune, fate, destiny
Cebuano páladpalm of the hand; one's fate
Maranao paladpalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paladpalm of the hand; shake hands
Tboli hololpalm of the hand
Kadazan pahadpalm, handpalm
Kelabit palad, *p-en-aladpalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Kayan palanlines on palms of hands; segments in a fruit
Malagasy fala-palm of hand, sole of foot
Acehnese paleuëtpalm of the hand
Toba Batak palakpalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Dairi-Pakpak Batak palaŋpalm of the hand
Gorontalo paladupalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Bare'e palehand, forepaw, arm
Tae' palaʔpalm of the hand, sole of the foot
Mandar paleʔpalm of the hand
CMP
Ngadha palapalm of the hand, sole of the foot
OC
Motu pala-palapalm of hand, sole of foot

Note:   Also Bikol párad ‘palm of the hand, sole of the foot’, Sangir palédeʔ ‘palm of hand, sole of foot’. In PPh, *palaj evidently referred not only to the palm of the hand and sole of the foot, but also to one's fate or destiny as inferred from the reading of the lines in one's palm.

27250

*palaj₂ luck, fortune

3752

PWMP     *palaj₂ luck, fortune

WMP
Isneg pálādfate, luck, chance; good luck
Pangasinan pálarluck, fortune
Cebuano páladone's fate
  palár-anfortunate
Old Javanese palarin the hope that, in view of, in order to, expecting, perhaps

Note:   Probably identical to *palaj ‘palm of the hand, lines in the palm’. Malay palar ‘counting on, expecting’ is assumed to be a loan from Javanese.

27252

*palak shout in anger

3754

PMP     *palak shout in anger

WMP
Ifugaw pálakcry loudly out of anger, making a sobbing sound (applied to children)
Minangkabau palakfeel hot; palak hati dan I am annoyed
CMP
Manggarai palakangry; scold, reprove
Rotinese palaspeak in irritation or anger, snarl at

27251

*palakaq frog

3753

PPh     *palakaq frog

WMP
Itbayaten palakafrog, toad, tadpole (not found in Itbayat)
Ivatan palakafrog
Tagalog palákaʔfrog
Cebuano palákaʔfrog

Note:   Yamada (1966) notes that frogs are not found in Itbayat, thus raising the possibility that this item might be a Tagalog loan. However, Tsuchida et al. (1987) give palaka in the Ivasay and Isamorong dialects of Ivatan, where frogs apparently are found. Reid (1971) gives both Itbayaten and Ivatan palakaʔ, with a final glottal stop not recorded by Yamada (1966) or Tsuchida et al.

27253

*palala bald

3755

POC     *palala bald

OC
Manam palalabald head
Tanga palalbald
Puluwat palbe bald

Note:   Puluwat pal is assumed to show syllable reduction by haplology.

27262

*palaŋ₁ thwart, crosspiece

3765

PMP     *palaŋ₁ thwart, crosspiece

WMP
Kelabit palaŋa cross
Ngaju Dayak ta-palaŋcrosspiece, as on a mast
Iban palaŋcrosspiece
Malay palaŋcross-bar or crosspiece of any sort
Acehnese palaŋanything used as a barrier: crossbeam, bolt, etc.
Javanese palaŋobstacle; object placed crosswise to something
Balinese palaŋ, pa-palaŋcross-beam
Sasak palaŋlie across the path; born feet first
Makasarese palaŋlowest crosspiece of a ladder on the ground
  palaŋ-palaŋwooden support on the weather side of the mast on which the sail is laid when struck in bad weather
OC
Mota palaŋset one thing obliquely across another; to wattle sticks

Note:   Also Rembong paleŋ ‘lie athwart’, Ngadha pale ‘crossbeam, crossbar, girder’, Molima bala-bala ‘put crosswise’ (see *bara₂), Eddystone/Mandegusu pala-pala ‘horizontal supports of a roof’.

27263

*palaŋ₂ spotted

3766

PWMP     *palaŋ₂ spotted

WMP
Maranao palaŋspotted, dappled
Bisaya (Limbang) palaŋhaving patches of black and white (of dogs or cats)

Note:   With root *laŋ₂ ‘striped’.

27255

*palapaq spices, condiments

3757

PWMP     *palapaq spices, condiments

WMP
Maranao palapaʔspices, flavor
Tiruray falaʔfa <Mgeneral term for spice or condiments; to add all the necessary spices and condiments to a dish
Old Javanese palapahcondiments, flavorings
Javanese plapahspices, condiments

Note:   Tiruray falaʔfa may show metathesis of the final glottal stop. However, this word clearly is a loan, and could preserve a preconsonantal glottal stop that was regularly lost in the other languages. If so, this reconstruction should be *palaqpaq.

27257

*palaq vagina, vulva

3760

PWMP     *palaq vagina, vulva

WMP
Maloh palaʔvagina
Malagasy falavulva (Prov.)

Note:   Also Kambera para ‘female genitalia’. Maloh (and the other Malayic languages) may share an immediate common ancestor with Malagasy (and the other Barito languages). If so the form reconstructed here is properly assigned to that lower-level proto-language rather than to PWMP. On the other hand, if the similarity of Kambera para (which does not show recurrent phonological correspondences with the Maloh and Malagasy forms) is ultimately due to genetic relationship this form must have existed in PMP.

27256

*palaqpaq midrib of coconut leaf

3758

PMP     *palaqpaq midrib of coconut leaf     [doublet: *paqpaq₂]

WMP
Isneg palápaʔleaf of the coco palm; petiole of the taro
Casiguran Dumagat palápaupper part of a palm tree (where the leaves are); palm leaf
Pangasinan palápamidrib of coconut leaf
Kapampangan palápaʔfiber stripped from banana stalk
Tagalog palápaʔpulpy leaf of plants like the banana
Bikol palaʔpáʔthe full branch of the coconut or other palm trees; frond; the full leaf of the banana plant
Maranao palapaʔ-anrib, midrib of a leaf
Ngaju Dayak palapahpalm frond, banana leaf, taro leaf
Malagasy falafamidrib of the banana leaf, taro leaf
Sundanese palapahpalm frond
Sasak pelapaʔleaf nerve (of palm and banana leaves); leafstalk (of papayas)
Tae' palapamidrib of palm leaves
Makasarese palapamidrib of palm fronds and banana leaves; leafstalk of papayas and some other trees

3759

POC     *balapaq mid-rib of coconut leaf

OC
Rotuman parafamid-rib of coconut leaf

Note:   Also Iban pelepah ‘stalk or rib of palm leaf’, Malay pelepah ‘frond, palm leaf’, Tongan palalafa ‘stalk (or stalk and midrib) of a coconut leaf’. This item may have been morphologically complex (*p-al-aqpaq), and in PWMP may have referred both to the midrib of palm and banana leaves and to the leaves themselves.

27259

*palata fish sp.

3762

PWMP     *palata fish sp.

WMP
Cebuano palatafish found around rocks in shallow waters; not particularly good eating
Maranao palatawhite fish about 2" long: Puntius palata Herre
Malay ikan pelataa mackerel: Scomber microlepidotus

27254

*palantik curved

3756

PWMP     *palantik curved

WMP
Tagalog palantík-aneaves
Cebuano palátikoutrigger boom to which the float (katig) is attached
Malay pelantékspring-set trap

Note:   With root *-tik ‘curved’.

27260

*palaw small river fish

3763

PWMP     *palaw small river fish

WMP
Kenyah palausmall fish
Kayan palausmall pinkish fish with small scales; found in small streams
Iban palaukind of river fish
Rejang paleuwa river fish

Note:   Also Hanunóo paláwun (< *palaw + suffix?) ‘freshwater fish with reddish sides’.

27264

*paleCuk shoot, sound of shooting

3767

PAN     *paleCuk shoot, sound of shooting

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) palTukto explode
Gorontalo peletuʔasound of finger joints cracking
WMP
Kapampangan paltukconk someone on the head, raise a lump
Bikol paltoktoy gun made from a bamboo branch and using wet paper or leaves as ammunition; pound, beat, or strike someone, particularly on the head
Malay peletok-ansmall pea-shooter

Note:   Also Itbayaten paltug ‘gun, revolver, pistol’, Pangasinan paltóg ‘sound of or like gunfire; to shoot’, Malay pelatok ‘trigger of a firearm’, Javanese platuk platuk ‘trigger, hammer for cocking a gun’. Possibly with root *-Cuk ‘knock, pound, beat’.

27265

*paletik spring-spear, spring-gun

3768

PWMP     *paletik spring-spear, spring-gun

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat paltíkpoles running out from a boat onto which outriggers are tied
Pangasinan paltík(usually homemade) gun
Tagalog paltíkhomemade gun
Bikol paltíksupports for an outrigger; homemade gun
Hanunóo paltíkswift, jerky blow
Aklanon paltikhomemade gun--for only one bullet
Cebuano paltikhomemade firearms
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peletikof an object which is flicked or knocked, to tumble over and over as it flies away
Malay pelantek (Met. of *a and *e)spring-spear, spring-gun

Note:   With root *-tik₁ ‘spring up, flicking motion’. The Casiguran Dumagat and Bikol terms for outrigger connecting beams may be related through reference to a common curving shape, or may be convergent developments which contain the root *-tik ‘curved’.

27266

*pale(n)tik, pilantik spring-set spear trap

3769

PWMP     *pale(n)tik, pilantik spring-set spear trap     [doublet: *bala(n)tik]

WMP
Ilokano pallatíkswing, oscillate, sway to and fro
Pangasinan paltík(usually homemade) gun
Tagalog paltíkhomemade gun
  pilantíkslight jerk at the end of a whip
Bikol paltíkhomemade gun
Hanunóo paltíkswift, jerky blow
Aklanon páltikhomemade gun -- for only one bullet
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peletikof an object which is flicked or knocked, to tumble over and over as it flies away
Malay pelanték (with metathesis of *a and *e)spring-spear, spring-gun

Note:   Also Iban pelantin ‘sent flying, hurtling (as paper by the wind)’.

27276

*pali side, half

3780

PCEMP     *pali₁ side, half     [disjunct: *baliw]

CMP
Rembong paliside (as of the head)
Ngadha paliboth sides, reciprocal, mutual
OC
Kwaio balipart, side
Lau balipart, side, portion, half; each side in a game; two-edged, two-sided
Woleaian paliyside, flank
Tahitian pariside

Note:   In Blust (1981b) the Oceanic members of this comparison, along with certain other forms, were assigned to *baliw.

27267

*palij blown away by the wind

3770

PWMP     *palij blown away by the wind     [doublet: *palis₁]

WMP
Ilokano páligbe carried off, swept away by the wind
Bikol pálidbe blown away or carried away by the wind
Aklanon palidget blown away by the wind
  pa-palidto winnow, separate the grain from the chaff in the wind
Cebuano palidfor the wind to blow something away; be blown off course; winnow, throw grains in the air
Maranao palidseparate chaff from grain, blown away
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) palidblow the chaff away
Kelabit palidblown away, as papers in the wind
Kenyah palitto blow, of wind; blown around
Sangir palideʔget lost, be driven off course by storm or wind

27277

*paliŋ turn (as the prow of a boat)

3781

PMP     *paliŋ turn (as the prow of a boat)

WMP
Ilokano páliŋpintle (of a rudder)
Pangasinan palíŋto turn
Tagalog páliŋslope, inclination
  palíŋinclined sideward, tilted; person with the head physically turned sideward
Bikol palíŋturn the prow of a boat
Cebuano palíŋfor something not rooted or fixed at the base to fall over to its side
Malay paliŋto turn away (of looking aside by the movement of the head, and not by a mere movement of the eyes; of turning round; turning a horse to the left; turning a boat's bows to port or starboard
Acehnese paleŋturn, swerve, avert
Karo Batak paliŋturn something in another direction
Dairi-Pakpak Batak paliŋlean to the side, list
CMP
Sika paliŋturn the prow (of a boat)
Soboyo paliŋturn back, return
Kamarian hari-turn around, turn back, invert

27269

*paliq₁ an internal organ, probably spleen or pancreas

3772

PAN     *paliq₁ an internal organ, probably spleen or pancreas

Formosan
Kanakanabu páalibile, gall bladder
Saaroa paliibile, gall bladder
WMP
Ilokano pálipancreas
Bontok pálispleen of a water buffalo
Pangasinan pálispleen
Tagalog palíʔspleen
Bikol páliʔpancreas, spleen

Note:   Also Malay peléh, pelih ‘liver’.

27270

*paliq₂ wound

3773

PWMP     *paliq₂ wound

WMP
Cebuano páliʔlarge scar
Maranao paliʔwound, cut
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paliʔwound; to wound
Tiruray faliʔa wound
Melanau (Mukah) paliʔa wound or cut
Gorontalo palia wound

Note:   Also Aklanon pálʔit ‘scar, bald spot (on head)’.

27272

*palis₁ blown away by the wind

3776

PWMP     *palis₁ blown away by the wind     [doublet: *palij]

WMP
Cebuano pálisfor the wind to blow something away
Karo Batak palisblown away by the wind (word used in magical formulas)
  palis-palisdrizzling rain, misty rain

27273

*palis₂ bad luck

3777

PWMP     *palis₂ bad luck

WMP
Ngaju Dayak palissign of bad luck to come
Acehnese paléhunlucky
Simalur palisbad luck

Note:   Also Mentawai (southern dialect) palit ‘bad luck’.

27274

*palis₃ animal sacrifice

3778

PPh     *palis₃ animal sacrifice

WMP
Bontok pálisa sequence of pig and dog sacrifices held at a person's house ... because of sickness, or because he has killed an enemy
Kankanaey páliskind of sacrifice which takes place in the evening and in which a dog is killed
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) palisto purify (ceremonially) with blood; ward off evil or sickness; remove sickness caused by offending a supernatural
  p-em-alissacrificial animal given to someone as a propititation or appeasement

27271

*paliSi taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite

3774

PAN     *paliSi taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite

Formosan
Tsou prisi-ataboo
Saaroa palisi-ataboo
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) parisito pray
  p-en-arisitaboo
Paiwan palisirite, ceremony; tabu; "superstition"
  palisi-anprivate parts of human body
WMP
Aklanon pálhiinhabited with evil spirits, enchanted
Cebuano pálhifor a place to be inhabited by supernatural beings that can get easily angered and inflict diseases on the object of their ire
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lihiy-ana taboo, personal or general
  p-em-elihia happening which breaks a taboo or is extraordinary, highly unusual or contrary to accepted behavior
Kelabit aliha taboo
  m-alihbe taboo
Melanau (Mukah) paleya taboo
Ngaju Dayak palinot allowed, forbidden
Malagasy fadyabstinence, fasting, prohibition; unlawfulness, incest; anything tabooed
Rhade mleitaboo
Malay p-em-alitaboo
Old Javanese pali-pali, pa-palithe various ritual requisites (with purifying and strengthening power), used in ceremonial blessings (wedding, return after a battle, festive reception, etc.)
Bare'e palisubject oneself to taboos by refraining from the use of or contact with things, the pronunciation of words or the visiting of places

7308

POC     *pali₂ taboo

OC
Woleaian falibe restricted, stay away from impure things, keep away from eating certain foods
Puluwat fáálto worship
Chuukese fáánChristian worship, divine service (general term)
  fenengage in worship; be tabu, prohibited, sacred
Pohnpeian pelbe in a taboo relationship with someone or something

3775

PAN     *paliSi-en be tabooed (?)

Formosan
Kavalan prisi-ntaboo
WMP
Bikol palih-onancient rites, superstitions or prohibitions

Note:   Manobo (Western Bukidnon) lihiy-an , Kelabit alih both suggest that *paliSi is morphologically complex, but they point to different stems *liSi and *aliSi respectively). Both forms probably represent secondary developments through analogical backformation. Among PCMP languages Kambera palili ‘forbidden, taboo’ (with partial rightward reduplication?) may be cognate, but Bimanese pamali ‘taboo’ probably is a loan from Malay.

27275

*palit exchange

3779

PPh     *palit exchange

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat palítchange, exchange, switch
Pangasinan palítbuy new clothes, have new clothes
Tagalog palítchange, exchange, substitute
Cebuano palítbuy

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) included the Tagalog form, together with Toba Batak palit (ma-malit boru) ‘accept a virgin as payment for a debt because the creditor wishes to make her a daughter-in-law’ and Malagasy faditra ‘any offering to avert evil, a piaculum’ under an etymon *palit ‘return gift’. However, the description of Toba Batak palit in Warneck (1977 [1906]), the similar description of Dairi-Pakpak Batak alit in Manik (1977), and the gloss of Malagasy faditra suggest that neither of these items is related to Philippine reflexes of *palit. Moreover, within the Philippines both the Casiguran Dumagat and the Pangasinan forms could be loans from Tagalog.

27278

*palo₁ steer a boat

3782

POC     *palo₁ steer a boat

OC
Mussau aloto steer
  ai aloalorudder of a boat
Motu halo-asteer off the wind so that the sail may catch the wind better

27279

*palo₂ wither, wilt

3783

POC     *palo₂ wither, wilt

OC
Sa'a halowither
Maori paro (NG)shrunk, wilted

27281

*palu₁ sago flour

3785

PMP     *palu₁ sago flour

WMP
Kelabit paluhflour obtained from the pith of a thorny palm, acquired in trade from the Penan
CMP
Manggarai palusago flour

27282

*palu₂ adze

3786

PWMP     *palu₂ adze

WMP
Kenyah palua rasp (used for sago)
Kayan paloʔa tool for adzing or rasping sago logs
Sangir palukind of adze used to smooth out the inner surface of a dugout canoe hull

Note:   Possibly connected with *palu₁ if the principal use of this adze was the working of sago trunks.

30376

*palu₃ to hammer, pound, hit

7422

PAN     *palu₃ to hammer, pound, hit

Formosan
Amis (Kiwit) mi-paluto fight with fists
Amis paloto hit with something large or flat-surfaced, or with the hand
Thao paruto hammer, to beat someone up
  paru sa nipintraditional ceremony of tooth extraction, performed at puberty to ensure the health and vigor of young adults (consists of knocking out the top incisors with a hammer-like instrument)
  paru-anbe hammered; be beaten up by someone

7423

PMP     *palu₄ to hammer, to hit with a hard implement

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat páloto beat with a stick
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paluheel; to kick with the heel
Kayan paloʔbutting, as goats
Iban paluʔhit, beat, strike (with stick or mallet)
Malay paluhitting hard with a rigid weapon (of clubbing or hammering or drumming or striking off a printed copy; not of blows with a switch)
  me-malubeat a drum or a gong
Acehnese paluhit with a stick or other object (as in striking a gong)
Karo Batak per-palua hammer
  maluto strike with a stick
Toba Batak ma-maluhit, strike; play a percussion instrument; fire off a weapon
Old Javanese paluhammer, mallet
Javanese paluhammer, mallet
  maluto hammer
Sundanese paluhammer (of metal)
  maluto hit with a hammer
Balinese paluhammer, mallet, knocker; to knock, hammer, cut
Sasak paluhammer (said to be from Malay)
Sangir paluan adze with short, curved handle and blade like a gouge; to work with such an instrument
Tontemboan ma-palupound sago of the Arenga saccharifera
Bare'e paluhammer, in particular the smith’s hammer
  mom-paluto hammer, forge, pound iron
Uma paluhammer
Tae' paluhammer; beat with a hammer; also a very common term of abuse for coitus
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *paluhammer (tool)
Proto-South Sulawesi *paluhammer
Buginese palua hammer
Wolio palukind of large mallet; to hammer, batter, rap
Muna palua hammer; to hammer
CMP
Palu'e paluto hit, strike
Sika palostrike with something heavy, as a hammer or a club
  ai palowooden club used to mash up pig fodder
Lamboya paluto hit
Kambera paluto beat, strike; anything used to hit or strike
  palu ahustick used to cudgel a dog
Rotinese paluto strike dead, slaughter, used especially of chickens and dogs
Lamaholot paluto hit, beat
Yamdena n-faluto nail, to hammer
Fordata n-faluhammer on, pound on
Dobel fa-faluhammer
Kamarian palutouch lightly
OC
Wuvulu falu-aato hammer something, as a nail; a hammer (James Hafford, p.c.)

7424

PAN     *palu-palu hammer, mallet, instrument for pounding or hammering

Formosan
Thao paru-parua hammer; to hammer; the action of ceremonially striking out the teeth
WMP
Karo Batak palu-palustick, pole; cudgel; beater for a musical instrument
Toba Batak palu-palubeater (for drum or gong)
Old Javanese palu-palumace, war-club (or battle hammer?)
Tontemboan pa-paluthe instrument used to pound sago
Tae' palu-palu-ibeat on with a hammer
Mandar palu-paluhammer (tool)
Makasarese palu-paluhammer; cudgel, club; tool for beating
Wolio palu-palua hammer
CMP
Yamdena fa-falua stake that has been pounded into the ground
Fordata fal-falutime of general sago-pounding; beater for sago-pounding
Dobel fa-falua hammer
OC
Wuvulu falu-falukeep hammering, hammer on and on (James Hafford, p.c.)

Note:   Also Ifugaw pallú ‘heavy stick to beat somebody with, as a recalcitrant slave or servant, or an animal (e.g. a water buffalo, a pig, a cow for causing damage in one’s plantation or field)’, Tagalog páloʔ ‘beating or striking with a stick or the hand, usually by way of punishment; swipe, a hard blow; batting, hitting a ball with a bat’, Cebuano páluʔ ‘hit, slap in punishment’, Tausug páluʔ ‘to hit, strike (something) with a stick’, Sasak palu ‘hammer’ (< Malay), Kédang paluq ‘beat, hit, strike’.

Some writers, as English (1986) treat this as a borrowing of Spanish palo ‘stick, cudgel’, but cognates outside the Philippines, and the occasional use of this word as a verb meaning ‘hit with the fists’ suggest that the similarity between Spanish palo and forms in Philippine languages is due to chance. Dempwolff (1938) also included Fijian valu ‘to make war on, be at war with’, but the connection of this form to the others cited here is more doubtful. The other question that arises in connection with this comparison is why Iban and several Central Philippine languages reflect a final glottal stop. Initially this appears to support the proposal of Zorc (1996) that PAn and various of its descendant proto-languages had a glottal stop distinct from *q. However, it is clear that word-final glottal stop is often historically secondary in Iban, and it therefore seems best to treat Iban paluʔ as equivalent to palu.

27284

*paluŋ, paluŋ-an, paluŋ-en feeding trough

3790

PWMP     *paluŋ, paluŋ-an, paluŋ-en feeding trough

WMP
Maranao paloŋ-antrough
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peluŋ-antrough made of a hollowed log used as a water container for tempering steel in the blacksmith shop and as a hog trough
Subanen/Subanun paloŋ-antrough
Malay paloŋhollow with stagnant water; trough of wood for watering cattle
Acehnese paloŋtrough
Karo Batak paluŋ, paluŋ-engutter, drain, funnel
Old Javanese paluŋ-antrough, vat, tub, container for drinks?
Balinese paluŋ, paluŋ-antrough, oblong basin, cooler
Sasak paluŋwooden vessel into which coconut meat is grated; wooden feeding trough for horses and dogs
Tae' paluŋ-anfeeding trough for pigs and other animals
Buginese paluŋ-eŋrice mortar

27280

*palus scratch, scrape

3784

POC     *palus scratch, scrape

WMP
Kapampangan haluplane, scrape
OC
Arosi haru, harus-ito scratch
Niue haluscrape, peel, sharpen
Rennellese pagu (NG)to scrape, as with a shell away from oneself; to scratch
Tuvaluan haluscrape; rub hand over face

27283

*paluʔ hit hard

3787

PAN     *paluʔ hit hard

Formosan
Amis palohit with something large or flat-surfaced or with the hand

3788

PMP     *palu₅ to hammer, to nail; strike with a hard object

WMP
Ifugaw pallú (-ll- unexpl.)heavy stick to beat somebody with (e.g. a recalcitrant slave or servant), or an animal
Casiguran Dumagat pálobeat with a stick
Kapampangan palu-paluʔbeater (used in washing clothes)
Tagalog páloʔstroke with the hand or a stick, usually in castigation
Cebuano páluʔhit, slap in punishment
Kayan paloʔbutting, as goats
Iban paluʔhit, beat, strike (with stick or mallet)
Malay paluhitting hard with a rigid weapon
Acehnese palèëiron hammer
Karo Batak palu-palustick, cudgel; stick used to strike a percussion instrument
Toba Batak paluhit, strike; play a percussion instrument; fire a weapon
Rejang paleuwa hammer
Sundanese paluhammer
Old Javanese paluhammer, mallet
Balinese paluhammer
Gorontalo paluhammer
Bare'e paluhammer (generally that of a blacksmith); to hammer
Tae' paluhammer; to pound
Mandar paluhammer
  palu-paluto beat
Makasarese palu-paluhammer
CMP
Ngadha paluflat wood club
Sika palo (-o unexpl.)hit with something hard, as a hammer or cudgel
Kambera paluhit, strike; thing used to hit or strike
Rotinese palustrike with the forefoot, kick (of horses, deer); kill (esp. chickens and dogs)
Yamdena faluto nail, to hammer
Fordata faluhammer on, beat on
OC
Wuvulu faluhammer something, as a nail

3789

POC     *i-(bp)alu make war on

OC
Sa'a i-pelumake war on, fight
Ulawa i-pai-palumake war on, fight
Fijian valumake war on, be at war with
  i-valuwar; warrior

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) also included Sa'a i-pelu ‘make war on, fight’, Fijian valu ‘make war on, be at war with’. Given their semantic divergence from the other forms treated here these forms are assigned to a distinct cognate set.

27292

*pana go, move

3805

POC     *pana go, move

OC
Tolai wanago, move; come
Label hango, go away; come
Sudest vanago (Capell 1943:105)
Kapingamarangi hanago
Rarotongan anathe word used by itself means movement, and is used only in reference to mankind': the exact meaning if fixed by the word following: ana mai 'come (or move) here (towards the speaker)', anáatu 'go (or move) away (away from the speaker); go ahead, pass on, etc.
Maori whanatravel, come, go

Note:   In many languages reflexes of this form are indistinguishable from reflexes of the far more common PAn *paNaw, POc *pano ‘go away, depart, leave on a journey’. Label han is assumed to reflect POc *pana rather than *pano since its closest relatives which have preserved the final vowel point to *-a.

27285

*panahik climb

3791

PMP     *panahik climb

WMP
Tagalog panhíkgo up the stairs
Maranao panikascend, climb stairs or ladder
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) p-em-enahikclimb something, as a tree or ladder
Old Javanese panék, penékclimb, climb on, get on or in, mount, ascend
Javanese pènèkclimb habitually; act or way of climbing; climb a fruit tree and get the fruits for someone
Balinese penékgo up, rise, ascend
Bolaang Mongondow ponikclimb a ladder or tree, ascend
Bare'e poneclimb (not up mountains), climb a ladder into a house, a coconut tree, etc.
CMP
Soboyo hanaʔascend, climb; flood (of the sea)

3792

POC     *panek climb

OC
Molima vaneclimb
Lau fanerise up in sky, of sun, moon, or cloud; high, as a hill; tall, of a tree or house; rise, swell, or ferment, as of bread or a pudding, or a boil
Kwaio faneclimb, go up
  fane-fiaclimb up on, of a mating animal
'Āre'āre haneclimb, ascend, rise (of sun and moon); rise, ferment
Sa'a haneclimb trees in native fashion with a rope round the feet, ascending by alternate jumps of hands and feet
Arosi haneclimb (not a hill) a rope, tree, cliff, using hands
  hane-ʔiclimb

Note:   Also Samoan fānaʔe ‘(of moon and tide) rise’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *nahik ‘climb, ascend’, but the evidence for his reconstruction is far less persuasive than the evidence for *panahik. Apart from the Javanese form cited here, Dempwolff compared Ngaju Dayak naik ‘rise, climb (as the price of something), increase’, Malay naik ‘motion up. Of mounting or rising, either literally or figuratively’, and Toba Batak naek, naik ‘ascend, climb, rise in esteem’. The Malay form could be a back-formation from **memenaik-i (reduced to attested menaik-i by haplology, then interpreted as deriving from a prefixed base naik).

Both the Ngaju Dayak and Toba Batak words, as well as Bimanese neʔe ‘climb’ appear to be Malay loans, and so do not constitute independent evidence for the disyllable. More serious as evidence for *nahik are Isneg uneʔ ‘enter a house, mount the ladder, climb a tree’, Casiguran Dumagat unek ‘climb up a tree’. However, these and similar forms in other languages of northern Luzon contain an unexplained initial syllable that would have to reflect *u-. Bolaang Mongondow onik ‘go upward!’, mo-onik ‘high’, monik ‘upwards; sometimes: northwards’ points to *anahik rather than *unahik, while Bare'e nae ‘rise slightly (as a trail)’, ma-nai ‘rise, esp. of water in larger rivers (Poso, Puna) and the sea’ probably is a chance resemblance (cf. Bare'e pone for the true cognate). Finally, if Dempwolff's *nahik is accepted it is difficult on both formal and semantic grounds to establish a regular morphological relationship between it and *panahik.

27286

*panapa needlefish sp.

3793

POC     *panapa needlefish sp.

OC
Loniu panahbarred garfish: Hemirhamphus commersoni Cuv.
Leipon pinahsmall blue and white fish with needle-nose
Lou panapsmall blue fish with long needle-like mouth
Likum panahsmall blue and green marine fish with projecting lower jaw
Lindrou banapsmall dotted fish with needle nose
Gilbertese anaa fish (small, slender species), needlefish, garfish, halfbeak (Sabatier 1971)
  anaalong-billed needlefish (Johannes 1981:160)
Chuukese fana (fanaa)small needlefish
Woleaian fela (felaa)kind of needlefish

29847

*panaq throw something at a target; shoot with bow and arrow

6474

PAN     *panaq throw something at a target; shoot with bow and arrow

Formosan
Pazeh pa-panashoot with a bow; throw at (with a stone)
Thao panaqthrow something at an object to hit it, as in throwing a stone at a target; shoot with a weapon
  ma-panaqfight with each other
  malhim-panaqfight in war; throw something at a target
Tsou ponoshoot with a bow
Proto-Rukai *panashoot (with arrows)
Kavalan panibow (for shooting)
Puyuma panaHshoot with a bow
Paiwan panaqarrow
Amis panaʔbow for shooting arrows
WMP
Itbayaten panaarrow; bow
Ilokano pánaarrow
Isneg pánaarrow
Ifugaw pánabow and arrow. Practically, it is only used by boys … it is hardly longer than one meter; its cord is mostly a string of rattan; its arrow is merely a straight, thin stick.
Pangasinan panáarrow
Casiguran Dumagat panáarrow (of which there are several types); shoot an arrow
Kapampangan panabow and arrow; shoot with bow and arrow (Bergaño 1860)
Tagalog pánaʔarrow
Bikol pánaʔbow and arrow; archery
Hiligaynon panáʔarrow, bow
Aklanon panáʔbow and arrow; shoot with bow and arrow
Cebuano pánaʔarrow, spear projected; shoot an arrow, to spear
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) panaʔbow and arrow; shoot with bow and arrow
Maranao panaʔbow; shoot with arrow
Tiruray fanaʔshoot an arrow with a bow
Tboli hanakarrow with small metal point
Kadazan panabow
Malay panaharchery; bow; arrow
  panah-memanaharchery
  ibu panahbow (lit. ‘mother of shooting’)
  anak panaharrow (lit. ‘child of shooting’)
Karo Batak panahbow (no longer used in warfare)
Nias fanabow, weapon
Sundanese panaharrow and bow; manah shoot with bow and arrow
Old Javanese panaharrow; bow; bowman
Balinese panaharrow
  panah-panah-ana children’s game with bows and arrows
Sasak panaʔarrow; bow
Bare'e panabow, formerly a weapon of the Toraja people and in more recent times still hung up in the blacksmith’s workshop as an example of the weapons and tools made there
  mata mpanaarrow
  mo-panause a bow
Tae' panabow
Makasarese panabow and arrow
  ammanashoot with bow and arrow
  pa-panashoot with (something)
Wolio panabow (weapon)
  ana-na panaarrow (lit. ‘child of bow’)
Muna panabow (not used on Muna)
CMP
Manggarai panabow (not used by Manggarai)
Rembong panabow and arrow; shoot with bow and arrow
Kambera panabow; shoot with bow and arrow
Tetun hanato fire or shoot an arrow
Watubela fana-fanakarrow
Kei fanshoot with bow and arrow
SHWNG
Waropen anashoot an arrow
OC
Mono-Alu fanaaim at with bow; fa-fana go to kill birds or fish with bow and arrow
Nehan wan(a)shoot
Selau wanashoot with bow and arrow
Nggela vanashoot with bow and arrow; shoot with a gun (modern)
  vana-hishoot with bow and arrow
Lau fanashoot with bow and arrow; fana-si shoot at
Kwaio fanahunt; shoot at with bow and arrow
Sa'a hanashoot with a bow, shoot with a gun
Arosi hanashoot
Lonwolwol fεnshoot with bow and arrow
Gilbertese banaa sling; (kare)-bana hurl with sling and stone, pelt with stones
Rotuman fanashoot with bow or gun
Fijian vanashoot with an arrow or a gun; to pierce
Tongan fanashoot (e.g. birds); to dynamite (fish)
Niue fanabow; gun; arrow
Samoan fanashoot; gun, rifle
Anuta panaany implement which discharges projectiles
Rennellese hanashoot, as arrow, spear gun, gun, rocket, slingshot

6476

PAN     *p<in>anaq shoot with a bow

Formosan
Thao p<in>anaqwas thrown at, was hit by something thrown
Paiwan p<n>anaqto shoot, using bow and arrow

6477

PAN     *p<um>anaq shoot with a bow

Formosan
Pazeh mu-panathrow at, to hit (as when throwing a stone at a dog to drive it away)
Bunun manaqshoot with bow and arrow
Kanakanabu mu-a-panaʔəshoot with a bow
Kavalan p-m-anishoot with an arrow

6475

PWMP     *ma-manaq shoot an arrow

WMP
Itbayaten ma-manacatch fish with spear gun
Pangasinan ma-manáshoot an arrow
Kadazan ma-manashoot with a bow
Ngaju Dayak ma-manahshoot with a bow
Malay me-manahshoot an arrow
Nias ma-manashoot an arrow
Sasak (me)-manaʔshoot with bow and arrow

Note:   Despite widespread reflexes in this meaning, PAn *panaq almost certainly did not mean ‘bow’, since this can be reconstructed confidently as *busuR. Instead, *panaq was a verb meaning something like ‘shoot at a target, try to hit with a projectile.’ In many daughter languages it became a noun, enough so that languages such as Malay and Kambera use the terms ‘mother of shooting’ for ‘bow’ and ‘child of shooting’ for ‘arrow’. Whether these complex expressions already existed in PMP, or are products of convergence remains unclear. The actor voice of this verb was formed with *-um- in PAn, but apparently this construction was replaced in PMP by prefixation with *maŋ-.

27287

*panas₁ warm, hot

3794

PMP     *panas₁ warm, hot     [doublet: *panes]

WMP
Kayan panahwarm; feel warm; to warm up food
Kenyah panahot
Melanau (Mukah) panasfeeling of anger
Iban panasheat; hot, esp. of weather
Malagasy fanaheat
  voa-fanawarmed (applied to food or medicine cooked and warmed the second time)
Malay panasheat, esp. (or specifically) solar heat
Karo Batak panassweat panas-en'to sweat'
Sundanese panashot; warmth, heat; fig. hot-tempered, irate, embittered, jealous, envious
Old Javanese panasheat
Javanese panashot; have a fever; angry; having a curse on it; bringing misfortune
Balinese panasheat; hot
Sasak panaswarm (of things); hot, sharp tasting (spices)
Bolaang Mongondow panatwarm, feverish
Tae' panaʔheat of the sun; sharp, pungent, of Spanish pepper; Spanish pepper
CMP
Manggarai panashot (as sun); smarting, stinging, hot-tasting
Rembong panashot; fever; peevish; jealous
Ngadha banawarm, hot (of fire, sun, fever, water); to warm up, heat up; fill with magical power
Kambera mbanahot, warm; hot-tempered
  mbanahuwarm (as land)
  panato heat (as coffee)
  panahuwarm up; insist on, coerce
Hawu panawarm, warmth
Rotinese hanawarm, hot, of water and of anything that can be heated, as well as of the body; warmth; fig.: taboo (Jonker 1908); heat; hot, warm (in a physical and ritual sense); become hot, become ritually charged (Fox, J. 1993)
  hana-hanasomewhat warm
Tetun hanasto warm or heat (as water)
Kédang panawarm
Erai panaswarm, hot; sharp; fever
Leti pansawarm season; warm (as bread); sick, painful; sickness
Selaru anashot, warm; to heat liquids
Yamdena fanasheat; warmth
  dalam me-fanashot-tempered
  na-fanassick, feverish; warm up food
Proto-Ambon *bana, *panahot
SHWNG
Buli fànaswarm, hot
OC
Niue faka-fanato warm up, as food; to repeat oneself
  fanah-iapply a hot poultice
Samoan faʔa-fanarebake, warm up
Rennellese haka-hanarecook or warm over

3795

PMP     *ma-panas warm, hot

WMP
Bolaang Mongondow mo-panatwarm, feverish
Tae' ma-panaʔhot, of the sun
CMP
Tetun manashot, warm, burning; pungent, caustic, hot to the taste
Roma ma-hanahot (Jonker)
Yamdena me-fanashot
SHWNG
Buli m-fànaswarm, hot, burning; sentiment
OC
Tongan ma-fanawarm (of food, water, or drink); warm (to the touch)
  mā-fanawarm (inwardly, subjectively)
Samoan mā-fanabe intimate, in close relationship; be married
Nukuoro ma-hanahot
Rarotongan ma-ʔanaheat, warmth; warm
Maori ma-hanawarm; day
Hawaiian ma-hanawarmth; warm

3796

PCEMP     *panas-panas somewhat warm very warm (?)

CMP
Rotinese hana-hanasomewhat warm
OC
Hawaiian hana-hanahot, warm; vehement

3797

POC     *ma-panas-panas warm, hot

OC
Bauro ma-hana-hanahot
Tongan ma-fana-fanabe fairly warm
Samoan ma-fana-fanabe warm (as water); (of weather) be mild, clement
Nukuoro ma-hana-hanawarm
Rarotongan ma-ʔana-ʔanawarmness, warmth; a heating

3798

POC     *pa-panas warm, hot

OC
Mussau a-anasawarm, hot; to heat (as water)
Hawaiian ha-hanawarm, hot (physical, and of strong emotion, as sorrow, love, fear)

Note:   Despite its wide distribution reflexes of this item are unknown in Taiwan, the Philippines, northern Borneo, and much of Melanesia. PMP *panas clearly was a stative verb (marked by *ma-. It evidently referred to the heat of the sun, the heat of fever, and to the heating of food, drink, and other material objects. Judging from the wide distribution of figurative senses, it apparently also referred to the emotions, particularly anger, and possibly to ‘pungent, hot-tasting’. Karo Batak panas-en ‘to sweat’, Balinese panes-in (cf. *panes) be ‘worried, made hot’ support a suffixed form *panas-en in PWMP or a descendant language. (4) *panas-panas may be a product of convergence.

27288

*panas₂ type of ginger

3799

PMP     *panas₂ type of ginger

WMP
Tae' panaʔginger: Zingiber officinale
Makasarese panasaʔa plant: Amomum acre. The pith of the large stems and fruits is minced and put in vinegar; the taste is pungent; the plant is also used as a medicine
CMP
Rembong panastuberous plant; fam. Zingiberaceae

Note:   Also Malay panas-en ‘a tree: Homalium longifolium W.’. Probably the same morpheme as *panas₁ ‘hot’. Not to be confused with the Sanskrit loanword panasa ‘jackfruit’ in such languages as Old Javanese and Buginese.

27289

*panaw fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin: Tinea flava or Pityriasis

3800

PMP     *panaw₁ fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin: Tinea flava or Pityriasis

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat panáwhave white patches on the skin
Bikol pánawTinea flave (fungal skin disease characterized by de-pigmented patches of skin)
Maranao panawwhite itchy spot on skin which is caused by fungus
Iban panaulight patches on skin, leucoderma, caused by diet deficiency or (mild) tinea
Malay panaulight painless spots or marks on the human skin, regarded as beauty spots or otherwise (due usually to Pityriasis versicolor or Tinea flava)
Acehnese panèëspots on human skin
Karo Batak panowhite spots on the skin
Toba Batak pano-panofreckles
Tae' panoskin disease in which the skin shows light-colored spots: Pityriasis flava
Mandar panoskin disease: tinea, ringworm
Makasarese panospots on the skin (sometimes regarded as a sign of beauty)
CMP
Manggarai panoskin disease, tinea; patchy color, as of someone with tinea
Rembong panoskin disease, tinea
Ngadha panohaving white or light spots on the skin
Rotinese hanospots of a lighter color on the skin
Kambera panukind of skin disease coupled with spots on the skin
OC
'Āre'āre hanoa skin disease, white spots without scales
Sa'a hanoa skin disease, small white spots on the skin, but no scales

3801

PWMP     *panaw-en be affected by tinea

WMP
Bikol panáw-onto have Tinea flava
Maranao panaw-nbe covered by ringworm
Karo Batak pano-onsuffer from white spots on the skin
Makasarese pano-aŋcovered with skin spots

Note:   Also Old Javanese panu ‘a white spot (of powder?) on the skin (made deliberately as a mark?)’, Javanese panu ‘skin disease causing light-colored blemishes’. I assume that Rejang panau ‘tinea’ is a loan from Malay.

27291

*panay dish, bowl (of clay or wood)

3804

PMP     *panay dish, bowl (of clay or wood)

WMP
Itbayaten panáyplate, dish
Isneg panáykind of jar
Cebuano panáyearthenware vessel, usually hemispherical but shallow, used to hold liquids
Ngaju Dayak panaia crude earthenware bowl
Old Javanese panay, paneearthen vessel, pot
Javanese panetrough, bowl, basin (earthenware or wood)
Balinese panelarge vessel of earthenware or wood
Sasak paneearthen vessel
CMP
Ngadha panedish, basin, bowl
Sika panekind of earthen pot made in the Lio district
Tetun hane-kwooden plate
  ai hane-ka tree from which plates are made, and whose bark is used as an antifebrile: Alstonia scholaris
Yamdena faneearthen dish of native manufacture

Note:   Also Makasarese panne ‘porcelain plate’, Buruese pane ‘saucepan’. Gonda (1973 [1952]:80) attributes the Old Javanese and Sasak forms to borrowing from South Dravidian languages (cf. Tamil pānai ‘a big jar’, pānĕ ‘an earthen or metal jar’). Despite the initial plausibility of his proposal reflexes of *panay have a wide and scattered distribution, and exhibit several regular sound changes that would not be expected in loans. Tentatively I take this to be a native Austronesian form, and attribute the similarity of it and the South Dravidian items to chance.

27293

*panes warm, hot

3806

PWMP     *panes warm, hot     [doublet: *panas₁]

WMP
Rejang paneushot, warm, feverish
  ateui paneushot-tempered
Balinese paneshot, troubled; heat
Bare'e panewarm drink: coffee or tea
  Mapanename of a river that has warm water in its lower course

27297

*pani give

3811

POC     *pani give

OC
Wuvulu fanigive fani-a 'give it!'
Seimat hanigive
Wogeo vanigive
Manam anigive
Gedaged panigive (him); hand over, bestow, grant, confer, impart, accord, yield
Gitua vangive
Motu heni-a <Agive to, hand to
Eddystone/Mandegusu vani-agive
Zabana vanigive

Note:   In transitive constructions this verb stem required the object suffix *-a.

27294

*panij wing

3807

PMP     *panij wing

WMP
Itbayaten panidwing
Mansaka panidwing
Sangir panideʔwing
Uma paniʔwing
Bare'e paniwing
Tae' paniʔwing
Mandar paniʔwing
CMP
Selaru aniwing
Kei fani-nwing, fin
Buruese pani-nwing
Soboyo paniwing

3808

POC     *banic wing

OC
Motu hani (OG)wing of a bird
Gedaged bani-nwings of birds
Mapos mbaniswing
Lindrou bani-nwing
Nauna pɨnwing
Mondropolon pani-nwing
Merlav mbaniwing

Note:   Also Buginese panniʔ ‘wing’. The disambiguation of the final consonant as *-j (rather than *-d) depends crucially on reflexes in one as yet little known language of the "Buang Family" (Morobe District, Papua New Guinea).

27295

*paniki fruit bat, flying fox: Pteropus spp.

3809

PMP     *paniki fruit bat, flying fox: Pteropus spp.

WMP
Itbayaten panichibig bat: Pteropus sp.
Isneg paníkifruit bat
Itawis paníkifruit bat
Bontok paníkikind of fruit eating bat
Kankanaey panníkilarge bat
Ifugaw panníkigreatest species among the bats; fruit bat, flying fox
Ifugaw (Batad) panniʔa bat: Pteropus Leucopterus
Ilokano panníkifruit bat, flying fox
Pangasinan panikía bat
Bikol paníkifruit bat, flying fox
Maranao panikibaby bat
Malagasy fanihya bat, probably a species of Pteropus
Sangir panikiflying fox
Bolaang Mongondow ponikibat, flying fox
Tae' panikilarge bat, flying fox
Mandar panikiflying fox
Makasarese pañiki <Aflying fox
Chamorro fanihibat (mammal), fruit bat
Palauan olíkfruit bat
CMP
Bimanese panihibat
Manggarai nikikind of small flying fox
Ngadha nikiflying fox
Li'o nikibat
Hawu niʔibat
Waiyewa panikiflying fox
Kambera paniʔflying fox
Tetun nikithe generic term for bats
Watubela fanik balana bat
Proto-Ambon *panikiflying fox
SHWNG
Giman fnikflying fox
Buli fniflying fox

Note:   Also Kapampangan paníkiʔ ‘a bat, the largest variety’, Tagalog pánikiʔ ‘large herbivorous bat’, Bare'e paneki, Manggarai néki ‘flying fox’, Sika nii ‘bat’. Mills (1975:796) considers the nasal ambiguous, but Kapampangan, Bare'e, and Chamorro all point to *n, Makasarese pañiki evidently showing a sporadic palatalization. The consonant gemination in several of the Cordilleran languages of northern Luzon remains unexplained.

This widely distributed term was replaced by *mpekʷa in POc, and by a variety of terms in Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Bali, and Lombok. In some languages of the Lesser Sundas, reflexes of *paniki refer both to the large tree-roosting fruit bat (Pteropus sp.) and to the smaller insectivorous cave bats. These two are lexically distinguished in so many languages that an original distinction seems likely, but no good reconstruction is yet available for the latter. It is possible that the greater diachronic stability of *paniki is due to its economic importance, since the flying fox is regarded as a delicacy among many Austronesian-speaking peoples.

27298

*paniŋ bait

3814

PCEMP     *paniŋ bait; fodder; to feed animals

CMP
Bimanese panibait
Manggarai paniŋbait; to bait; to feed chickens
Rembong paniŋbait; to bait
Ngadha panifodder (as for pigs)
Kambera pànifeed chickens or pigs
  pàniŋubait for fishing
Rotinese hanitrough for feeding pigs; domestic animal, a cared-for animal (Fox, J. 1993)
  hani-kbait for fishing (Jonker 1908)
Selaru anifeeding trough
Kei fānbait
  en-fānto feed; bait a hook

3815

POC     *baniŋ bait

OC
Gitua banibait
Mailu banifood of animal or bird; bait
Molima bani, bani-banito fish with hook and line
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka banifishhook; fishing
Tolai bānbait
Pohnpeian pahnbait, lure
Mokilese pehnbait
Kosraean pabait

Note:   Also Yamdena fane ‘feed, give food to’; fa-fane ‘bait’, Cheke Holo bai-na ‘bait, primarily for fishing’.

27296

*panit to skin, flay

3810

PWMP     *panit to skin, flay     [doublet: *baNiC]

WMP
Ilokano pánitto skin, to flay (fowls or men's head)
Pangasinan pánitto skin (e.g. a frog)
Tagalog panítexcoriated, skinned
Hiligaynon pánitskin, leather, bark; to skin, to peel something off
Aklanon pánitskin, flesh; to peel off, to skin
Cebuano pánitskin, peelings, bark, leather; shell of a shrimp, egg; to skin, peel something; beat someone in gambling; be trounced in a fight
Maranao panitleather, hide, skin
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) panitleather
Subanen/Subanun panitskin
Kayan panitto manhandle a person, handle roughly; be torn by animals; clothes torn by rough handling
Kenyah panitto scratch; scratched

27302

*panuqes spoiled; sour smell

3819

PPh     *panuqes spoiled; sour smell     [disjunct: *panuqus]

WMP
Tagalog panísstale and spoiled (said of cooked left-over or neglected foods)
Hanunóo panússtench of urine
Cebuano panʔúsfor food, wash, or the body to get a rancid smell from having been wet and not allowed to dry out well; spoiled, sour in smell

Note:   Casiguran Dumagat panís ‘spoiled (of cooked food, rice, fish, meat, etc.)’ is assumed to be a loan from Tagalog.

27303

*panuqus stench, sour smell

3820

PPh     *panuqus stench, sour smell

WMP
Ilokano panóosstench of smoke and smoky substances
Hanunóo panússtench of urine
Cebuano panʔúsfor food, wash, or the body to get a rancid smell from having been wet and not allowed to dry out well; spoiled, sour in smell
Maranao panossour

27290

*paNaw go, walk away; depart

3802

PAN     *paNaw go, walk away, depart

Formosan
Thao pazawto go, walk
  shum-pazawto depart, walk away

7929

PMP     *panaw₂ go, walk away, depart

WMP
Ilokano pánawto leave, go away, set out; die
  ag-pánawto leave for good, evacuate
  pa-panaw-ento drive away, send away
Isneg pánawgo away, depart, withdraw
Itawis pánawdeparture
Tagalog pánawdeparture; disappearance; death
Aklanon pánawgo on foot, walk; leave, depart, go
Palawan Batak panáwwalk
Cebuano pánawtravel, journey; regularly scheduled trip; make a travel or journey
Maranao panawjourney; roam
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hi-panewwalk, go on a journey, go someplace
Kadazan panauwalk, march
Kayan panauwalk; walking; go by foot
Singhi Land Dayak ponugo, walk
Nias fanõgo away, depart; go
Rejang paneuwgo, walk
CMP
Ngadha banogo, walk
Palu'e panago
Li'o mbanago, walk
Sika banogo, walk
Lamaholot panago
SHWNG
Buli fāndepart; go, walk

3803

POC     *pano go

OC
Bugotu vanogo, come; used in comparisons: beyond, more
Nggela vanoaway, further off; to go
Arosi hanomake a journey, set out; go
Proto-Micronesian *fanogo
Mota van(o)go, come
Lonwolwol vango, pass (and so also of time); to continue (to do ...); often; adverbially: away
Southeast Ambrym haengoing, departure
Anejom a-pan ~ hango
Niue fanogo (sg.)
Samoan fano(of time) be gone, past; perish
Tuvaluan fanogo (sg.)
Rennellese hanogo (sg.); depending on, according to; on and on; little by little; one by one
Nukuoro hanogo (sg.)
Maori whanogo, proceed; lead, of a road; verge towards; be on the point of; act, behave

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *pa(n)aw ‘go, walk’. However, a number of Philippine languages, Nias of Western Indonesia, Buli of Eastern Indonesia and such Oceanic languages as Arosi of the Southeast Solomons justify the reconstruction of a meaning more like ‘depart (on foot), leave on a journey’. This interpretation appears to be supported by the probably independent development of the metaphorical sense ‘die; death’ in Ilokano, Tagalog, and Samoan. The generalization of this meaning to ‘go, walk’ (or its similar misconstrual by the compilers of some dictionaries) is readily comprehensible.

PWMP *panaw may have taken the infix *-um-, but the available evidence is indeterminate: Isneg p-um-ánaw ‘go away, depart, withdraw’, Ilokano p-um-ánaw ‘go away, leave, quit, depart’, Bisaya (Limbang) manaw ‘go, walk’ (from *p-um-anaw with loss of the first syllable, or from *panaw with homorganic nasal substitution?). Similarly, POc may have had both *pano ‘depart’ and *pano-ŋa ‘journey’: Mota vano-ŋa ‘journey; coming, going’, Niue fano-ŋa ‘journey; company of travellers’, possibly Bugotu vano-ña ‘a journey, a going’ (if Ivens’ vano-gna is a typographical error for vano-ŋa). The agreement of reduplication in Rejang paneuw-paneuw ‘go for a walk’ and such OC forms as Tuvaluan fano-fano ‘until’, Rennellese hano-hano ‘genealogy’, on the other hand, is almost certainly due to chance. For a thorough discussion of the extended meanings of *panaw in Oceanic languages cf. Lichtenberk (1991).

27360

*pañaRu give birth

3892

PMP     *pañaRu give birth

WMP
Chamorro fañagubear (offspring), give birth
OC
Proto-Polynesian *faanau (length unexpl.)give birth, be born

27381

*paŋ bang! loud popping sound

3918

PMP     *paŋ bang! loud popping sound

WMP
Ngaju Dayak paŋpopping, to pop (as when one pulls a cork from a bottle); sound of fingers snapping, tongue clacking
Malay paŋbanging sound
Karo Batak paŋsoung of a bang
Makasarese paŋbanging sould (as a gun firing, inner tube bursting)
OC
Gedaged paŋ-paŋsnap! noise made when snapping a dry coconut with one's finger
Gitua baŋbang! noise of stone exploding fire

27362

*paŋa fork of a branch; any forked structure; bifurcation

3894

PAN     *paŋa₁ fork of a branch; any forked structure; bifurcation

Formosan
Pazeh paŋabranch
  ma-paŋabranching
WMP
Itbayaten paŋatwins
Isneg paŋábranch (of a tree)
Itawis paŋábranch (of tree, river, etc.)
Bontok paŋábranch of a tree from which leaves are growing; hooks on the top of a pinaŋpaŋa earring
Kankanaey paŋábranch, bough, twig
Kapampangan paŋájaw
Tagalog paŋájaw, jawbone
Bikol paŋájaw, jawbone; jowl
Aklanon paŋáhook (for getting fruits)
Cebuano paŋáforked stick; forked handle of a slingshot
Maranao paŋahorn
Tboli haŋabranch of a tree; antlers
Kadazan paŋotributary or side road; branch off (river, road)
Malay paŋaforked supports for carrying poles, etc. in a cargo boat
Banggai paŋabranch
Uma paŋaforked branch
Bare'e paŋabifurcation; forked branch, fork in a road
CMP
Manggarai paŋabranch; be forked
Rembong paŋabranch, fork of a branch; forked
Ngadha paŋaopen the eyes and mouth, be amazed
Yamdena faŋespan of the hand
Fordata faŋahandspan
Kei faŋa-thandspan
Soboyo paŋa-ñbranch
OC
Tolai paŋopen the mouth, esp. of a basket or container
Roviana paŋafish spear with several prongs
Cheke Holo paŋafish spear with several prongs
Sa'a paŋato wonder, stagger at a matter
Mota waŋaopen the mouth, gape, gasp

Note:   Also Iban paŋaʔ ‘angle; forked, branching’, Bahasa Indonesia paŋah ‘gaping, wide open (mouth, beak)’. With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gape, open the mouth wide’. Dempwolff (1934-38) compared the Tagalog form with Ngaju Dayak paŋa ‘wooden restraining block in which the feet of criminals are placed’, Fijian vaŋa ‘the leech of a canoe sail’ and various reflexes of PPn *faŋa ‘bay’, all of which are excluded here. The semantic unity of the forms included in the present comparison is confirmed by the recurrent association of such variable meanings with the root *-ŋa(q) in other morphemes (cf. Roots).

27359

*paŋan food

3890

POC     *p<in>aŋan₁ food

OC
Lakalai v-il-aŋafood given as payment to visiting singers and dancers
Sa'a hinaŋaa yam pudding eaten at sacrifices
'Āre'āre hinanataro pudding
Arosi hinaŋayams for sacrifices, one or two tubers; seed yams for planting; vegetable food

3891

POC     *p<in>aŋan₂ ceremonial food

OC
Lakalai la vilaŋafood given as payment to visiting singers and dancers
Sa'a hinaŋayam pudding
'Āre'āre hinaŋataro pudding
Arosi hinaŋayams for sacrifices, one or two tubers; seeds yams for planting; vegetable food

27361

*paŋasih rice wine

3893

PWMP     *paŋasih rice wine

WMP
Bikol paŋásirice wine
  pa-paŋasíh-anthe container in which the rice wine is made
Kenyah peŋasirice wine specially prepared in jar

Note:   Judging from the ethnographic record *paŋasih probably was prepared and stored in a large earthenware jar. On social or ceremonial occasions it was communally consumed by sipping through long flexible tubes.

27363

*paŋaʔ, paŋaq forked, pronged

3895

PMP     *paŋaʔ, paŋaq forked, pronged     [disjunct: *paŋa₁ 'bifurcation']

WMP
Kapampangan paŋájaw
Tagalog paŋájaw
Cebuano paŋaforked stick; forked handle of a slingshot
Iban paŋaʔangle; forked, branching
Malay (Brunei) paŋaforked supports for carrying-poles, etc. in a cargo-boat
Malay paŋahopenmouthed
CMP
Manggarai paŋabifurcation; forked, pronged
Fordata faŋaa span
  n-faŋa-tto measure by handspans
Yamdena faŋehandspan, step

27368

*paŋi a tree: Pangium edule

3901

PMP     *paŋi a tree: Pangium edule

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paŋia tree, probably Parartocarpus woodii, which bear large edible fruit the seeds of which are a source of edible oil
Maranao paŋipoisonous squash: Pangium edule Reinw.
Kadazan paŋikind of fruit the seeds of which are added to salted fish
Ngaju Dayak paŋikind of mango tree and its fruit, which has an exceptionally thick skin
Acehnese paŋèwild tree from the seeds of which a good cooking oil is prepared
Dairi-Pakpak Batak paŋiflattish seed which is eaten after being cooked; if eaten uncooked it can cause intoxication
Old Javanese paŋitree with edible fruits: Pangium edule
Balinese paŋitree sp.
Sangir paŋitree with edible fruits and leaves
Bolaang Mongondow paŋia tree, Pangium edule. Its shredded leaves are mixed with bacon and blood and cooked in a bamboo to make a favorite dish. The seeds of the fruit are also eaten, but are poisonous and must first be roasted
Tae' paŋia tree with large round fruits, Pangium edule. The pith of the seeds is dried, pounded, and cooked, and becomes black as a result; it is then used as a vegetable
Bare'e paŋia tree with seeds and leaves that are edible after proper preparation: Pangium edule
Makasarese paŋitree with large fruits each of which contains two or three seeds: Pangium edule; after the seeds are cooked, one obtains a black mucilaginous substance from them which is used in the preparation of certain dishes

27367

*paŋil ankle

3900

PWMP     *paŋil ankle

WMP
Palawan Batak paŋi-paŋilankle (Reid 1971)
Timugon Murut am-paŋilankle
Kadazan tam-paŋiankle

Note:   Also Atta biŋil, Ilokano piŋíl ‘ankle’, Hanunóo bíŋul ‘heel’, Aborlan Tagbanwa bɨŋɨlbɨŋɨl, Lun Dayeh, Kelabit beŋil ‘ankle’. Warren (1959) gives Palawan Batak paŋi-páŋil ‘foot’.

27379

*paŋpaŋ steep slope (as of riverbank or mountain)

3912

PWMP     *paŋpaŋ steep slope (as of riverbank or mountain)

WMP
Ilokano paŋpáŋfurrow, ridge (thrown up by a plow)
Pangasinan paŋpáŋriver bank, riverside, seaside
Kapampangan paŋpaŋriver bank
Tagalog pampáŋriver bank
Bikol paŋpáŋriver bank; bluff
  pam-aŋpaŋ-ona high, steep river bank difficult to ascend
Hanunóo pampáŋbank of a river; edge of a field
Aklanon páŋpaŋbank (of river); shoreline
Hiligaynon páŋpaŋbrink, edge, coast, area close to a river or sea
Cebuano paŋpáŋcliff
  paŋpaŋ-anuncliff dwellers
  paŋpaŋ-uncharacterized by having cliffs
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paŋpaŋa cliff
Maranao pampaŋcliff; steep, as in contour of earth
Kadazan pampaŋrock, big stone
Malagasy fampanaa precipice, an abyss
Bolaang Mongondow pompaŋsteep slope of a mountain, but one along which one can still descend

3913

PWMP     *paŋpaŋ-an embankment, cliff

WMP
Kapampangan paŋpaŋ-an, pampaŋ-anKapampangan ('people of the river banks')
Wolio pampaŋ-asteep; rather deep part of the sea where the bottom is still visible

3914

PPh     *ka-paŋpaŋ-an riverbank

WMP
Kapampangan ka-pampaŋ-anKapampangan ('people of the river banks')
Cebuano ka-paŋpaŋ-ancliffs; the province Pampanga; its people and its language

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) included the Tagalog and Malagasy forms together with Ngaju Dayak pampaŋ ‘the ends of the antlers of deer; the tips of anything similar’, Malay pampaŋ (not in Wilkinson 1959) ‘broad surface’ under a reconstruction *paŋpaŋ ‘stand apart’.

27380

*paŋudaN pandanus

3915

PAN     *paŋudaN pandanus

Formosan
Kavalan paŋzanpandanus
Rukai (Tona) paŋuDaɭpineapple
Paiwan paŋudalʸpandanus; pineapple; Pandanus odoratissimus var. sinensis

3916

PMP     *paŋdan pandanus

WMP
Kankanaey paŋdánananas, pineapple
Ilokano paŋdánthe screw pine, Pandanus tectorius Sol. Its leaves are used in the manufacture of hats and mats
Isneg pandānkind of screw pine. Its fragrant inflorescences are added to the headband on festive occasions
Tagalog pandánPandanus odoratissimus
Bikol pandán, paŋdánpandanus (used in weaving of mats and other articles)
Hanunóo páŋdanpandanus palm (Pandanus sp.)
Aklanon páŋdana tree and its fruit: Pandanus tectorius
Cebuano páŋdanany of the plants of the genus Pandanus, esp. tectorius
Maranao pandanhemp
  pandan-anmaguey plantation, ramie plantation
Malagasy fandranashrubs, from the stems of which gutters for carrying water ... are made, hence an aqueduct. Two or three species are known by this name, from which a kind of potash is obtained. The leaves are used for thatching. Pandanus sp.
Iban pandanScrew pine (Pandanus spp.)
Malay pandanSmaller screwpine. Generic for all such Pandanaceae as are used for fine matwork or plaitwork
Simalur pandanpandanus palm: Pandanus odoratissimus
Karo Batak pandanpandanus variety the leaves of which are used in plaiting
Toba Batak pandanpandanus, screwpine
Mentawai padatPandanus odoratissimus L.
Sundanese pandankind of plant (some types are used to weave mats while the redolent leaves of others are minced and used with flowers and fragrant oil by women)
Old Javanese paṇḍankind of tree: Pandanus
Javanese paṇḍanpandanus tree
  pandan waŋifragrant pandanus leaf as a cooking ingredient
  pandan eripandanus thorn, used for hats, mats
Madurese pandhanpandanus
Balinese paṇḍanpandanus
Sasak pandanname of various types of pandanus: Pandanaceae
Tae' pandanfragrant type of pandanus with thorny leaves
Buginese panreŋpandanus
Makasarese pandaŋname of various types of pandanus
Palauan oŋórPandanus aimiriikensis Mart.
CMP
Manggarai pandaŋpineapple: Ananas comosus

3917

POC     *padran pandanus

OC
Wuvulu paxakind of broad-leaved littoral pandanus used in plaiting mats and baskets
Aua parakind of broad-leaved littoral pandanus used in plaiting mats and baskets
Loniu pakind of pandanus with narrow light-green leaves, used in plaiting mats
Leipon padrkind of pandanus with narrow light-green leaves, used in plaiting mats
Lou parkind of pandanus with narrow light-green leaves, used in plaiting mats
Mussau aranalittoral pandanus the leaves of which are used in plaiting mats and baskets
Gedaged padthe pandanus tree
Gitua padapandanus
Mbula paandapandanus tree
Gilbertese araprefix to names of different species of pandanus
Puluwat faarpandanus, used for mats and thatch
Woleaian fash(a)pandanus, pineapple
Iaai watra plant: Pandanus
Rotuman hatakind of pandanus bearing fruit in compact, rouhly spherical masses
Fijian vadrathe pandanus tree: Pandanus odoratissimus
Tongan kind of pandanus which sends down shoots from the branches to the ground
Samoan falaname given to a number of tree-like plants of the genus Pandanus; mat
Rennellese hagapandanus, of great value for thatch and mats
Rarotongan arapineapple; Pandanus odoratissimus
Maori wharaa plant; ? Astelia sp., but possibly applied to any plant with ensiform leaves, such as Astelia, Phormium, Typha, etc.
Hawaiian halathe pandanus, or screw pine: Pandanus odoratissimus

Note:   Also Saisiyat (Tungho) maːpaŋraŋ ‘pandanus’, Sangir pondaŋ ‘Pandanus latifolius’, Tontemboan, Bolaang Mongondow pondaŋ ‘pandanus’, Bare'e pondani ‘Pandanus fasicularis (a littoral pandanus the leaves of which serve as plaiting material)’, Tae' pondan ‘pineapple (the fibers of the leaves are used as thread in weaving clothes and these fibers are also called pondan)’, Mandar pandeŋ ‘pineapple’, Rembong pandaŋ ‘sisal: Agave sisalana’, Sika pedaŋ ‘cactus’, pedaŋ eaŋ ‘pineapple’, Kambera pàndaŋu ‘pandanus tree (the leaves are used in the plaiting of baskets and mats)’, Rotinese henak ‘pandanus; pineapple’, Tetun hedan ‘a plant )of the pineapple or Bromeliaceous family) used for making baskets and other artifacts’, Leti edna ‘pineapple’, Moa edna ‘pandanus’, edna melaj-e ‘pineapple’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *panDan, but Formosan witnesses attest directly and Philippine witnesses indirectly (through the cluster -ŋd-) to an original tri-syllable.

The sporadic loss of the medial vowel everywhere outside Taiwan can be taken as one small piece of evidence for the MP subgroup. Irregular reflexes are so common throughout Sulawesi that they can be taken to support a variant *pondan (with borrowing into some languages). Similarly, reflexes with first-syllable shwa are pervasive in the Lesser Sundas, and suggest a PCMP variant *pendan. Although the P. odoratissimus and P. tectorius are the species most commonly noted in dictionary glosses, the term *paŋudaN evidently referred to all Pandanaceae. Varieties of this economically important plant were widely used in the plaiting of mats and baskets. As noted by Mills (1975:793), the frequent lexical equation between the native pandanus and the introduced (South American) pineapple may be due to similarities in the thorny leaves (cf. also Sika pedaŋ ‘cactus’). As a basis for this equation one could, however, point equally to the clustered (and edible) pandanus fruits, which collectively resemble the shape and external texture of the pineapple.

27370

*pa(m)pa (X + pa(m)pa) a tree: Vitex pubescens

3903

PMP     *pa(m)pa a tree: Vitex pubescens

WMP
Ngaju Dayak kala-papatree with durable wood used for knife handles, rudders, etc.; the long-burning coals are used in the smelting of gold and copper, and the young leaves as a simple in the treatment of eye inflammations
Makasarese gulim-papatree with strong wood
CMP
Manggarai pampatree which is good for making house posts: Vitex pubescens

Note:   Also Numfor-Biak baf (anticipated **faf) ‘good timber tree: Vitex cofassus’. This comparison was first noted in print by Verheijen (1984), who has identified its referent as the Vitex pubescens in several WMP languages for which my sources provide insufficient botanical information.

30642

*papan plank, board; floor boards of house

8152

PMP     *papan plank, board; floor boards of house

WMP
Waray-Waray papán ŋa batóstone tablet
Cebuano papánstone slab
Mapun papanboard; plank (usually and inch and a half or less thick)
Maranao papanlumber, board; arrange checkers or chess (pieces) on board
Tiruray fafana sawed board, lumber; to make lumber or boards by hand
Yakan papana plank, board (as for making a wall)
Ngaju Dayak papanboard, plank
  papan batua thin flat stone or a thin, flat piece of iron
  ma-mapanbuild a boat or ship; like a board, i.e. flat, even
Malagasy fáfanaa piece of board for writing on, a lesson-board, a blackboard
Iban papanlong flat surface or thing
  papan kayuʔplank, board
Proto-Chamic *papa:nboard; plank
Moken papanplank
Malay papanplank; board; strake; flooring; numeral coefficient for games played on boards, such as chess and draughts
  papan sandarbackrest
Acehnese papeuënplank (as in a coffin or grave)
Gayō papanplank, board
Karo Batak papanplank, the plank floor; a chessboard
Toba Batak papanboard, plank; floor boards
Rejang papeunwooden board, plank
Old Javanese papanboard; (round wooden) shield
  a-papanusing a shield, bearing a shield
Javanese papanboard
Sundanese papanplank, board; in a wider sense, any flat object; plank (of wood, stone, etc.)
  papan batustone plate
Balinese papanboard, plank
  papan caturchessboard
Sasak papanplank; slate; school board
Bolaang Mongondow papanstick or lath used to tap down the weft thread (in weaving)
Tae' papanplank
Makasarese papaŋplank, board
Wolio papaboard, plank
  batu papawriting slate
Palauan wlawlfloor (< *panpan)
CMP
Manggarai papaŋplank, board
Hawu papaplank
Wetan papnaboard, plank
Yamdena n-papanstack on top on one another, of flat objects like boards
Buruese papanboard
SHWNG
Buli fafanplank

8153

POC     *bapan board, plank, side of canoe

OC
Manam babaflat; palm of the hand
Tawala baba-base, underneath, bottom
Dobuan kaiwa ba-baba-naboard
Molima babalower plank on canoe side; to put planks on canoe
Bugotu pavaplank
Lau babaflat; a board; lower part of back; a wooden door
  ba-babaa board, flat object
  baba-laflatness
  baba-nalong side board of canoe
Sa'a hapaa canoe seat, removable
'Āre'āre hapatimber; a canoe seat
Arosi hapaa board; flat; mid-seats of a canoe
Proto-Micronesian *papaboard, plank
Chuukese paapboard, plank; board floor
Puluwat paapboard, lumber, timber; canoe planks
  pápá-n limwhouse board
Woleaian paap(a)plank, strake, the planking (of a canoe); to be provided with plank
Mokilese pɔpthin board or sheet of lumber
Kosraean pæprib, side, raised sides of a canoe between front and rear gunwales
Gilbertese babaa board, plank, used for diverse purposes; a wash board, surf board, etc.
Rotuman papafloor, or deck, if made of boards
Wayan bababoard, plank, or other flat, wide piece of wood
  vaka-babahave boards on, be boarded or planked
Fijian bavawashstrake or upper planks of canoe
Tongan papasawn timber, plank(s), board(s); flat hard sandstone forming a layer or bed at the coast in certain places; flat and smooth and hard (as a well-trodden track)
Niue papaflat
  faka-papato stack neatly in layers (as banana cases)
Futunan papaboard, plank
Samoan papaboard, plank; rock; make level, flatten
Kapingamarangi babalevel, stretcher; board on which women plait mats
  baba halefloor of a house
Nukuoro babalevel (not bumpy); any sort of flat base (esp. the board on which mats are plaited), the consolidated reef under water or sand; the back of a human; the shell of a turtle, crab, etc
Rennellese papasounding board, beater of the papa, dancer to the papa; to be flat, flattened; to flatten
Anuta papaboard, plank; any hard flat surface, as the top of a plank, a flat rock
Maori papaanything broad, flat, and hard; flat rock, slab, board; earth floor or site of a native house; bed of a lake
Hawaiian papaflat surface, stratum, layer, level, foundation; story of a building; class, rank, order; table; sheet, plate, shelf; flat, level
  hoʔo-papato place in rank or file; to put in order, to put in layers, overlay, as shingles; to make a shelf; to pack neatly

Note:   Also Ida'an Begak pepan ‘planks’, Sasak banban ‘thick plank; plank above the corpse in a grave’, Rembong papan ‘writing board’ (< Malay), Rotinese papa ‘plank, board’ (probably < Malay), Eddystone/Mandegusu papene ‘board, plank of a canoe’, Toqabaqita aba ‘board, plank, strip, lath of something’. Although this term referred specifically to hewn planks used in the construction of houses or canoes, it also appears to have had the more general sense of ‘flat, hard surface’ or just ‘flat, of a surface’, as shown by the reflexes in Waray-Waray, Cebuano, Ngaju Dayak, Malagasy, Iban, Sundanese, Manam, Lau, Arosi, Samoan, Anuta, Maori, and Hawaiian. The shape of the POc reconstruction is unclear. Bugotu and Fijian agree in reflecting POc *bapan, and Sa'a, 'Āre'āre, Arosi hapa appear to be metathesized products of the same form. On the other hand, Palauan wlawl and hapa ‘plank’ in the Southeast Solomons could be used to support a PMP variant *panpan, in which case the expected POc continuation would be *paban. However, most Oceanic languages show identical reflexes of both consonants, and suggest POc *baba. Tentatively I adopt the reconstruction given here, and assume that the pan-Austronesian avoidance of dissimilar labials as the onsets of successive syllables caused most Oceanic languages to level the distinction between the first two consonants in this base.

27304

*papaq frond of a palm

3821

PMP     *papaq₁ frond of a palm

WMP
Old Javanese papahthe long stalk of a palm- or banana-leaf
Malay (Jakarta) papahcoconut frond
OC
Arosi haha-nafrond of a palm

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) posited *papaq, but cross-referenced it to *p-al-apaq and cited supporting evidence only for the latter reconstruction.

27305

*papaR cheek

3822

PCEMP     *papaR cheek

CMP
Buruese papa-ncheek

3823

POC     *babaR side of the face, cheek; side planks of a canoe

OC
Molima babalower plank on canoe side
Roviana papara (OG)side of face, cheek
Kwaio babaside, cheek
Lau babalong side board of canoe; the side
Arosi babacheek, temples; side of a stream, etc.
Fijian babathe side of a thing, the cheek bone; also, the side of a canoe

Note:   Also Soboyo popa ‘cheek’. Stresemann (1927:52) gives SUBM *papa- ‘cheek’, but supports his reconstruction with a single reflex (Wolu fafa-). It is possible that the Molima, Lau, and Fijian words that refer to the sideboards of a canoe actually reflect PMP *papan ‘plank, board’.

27371

*pa(m)pet stopped up

3904

PWMP     *pa(m)pet stopped up

WMP
Singhi Land Dayak paputstopped up (choked up)
Javanese pampetstop flowing (as blood)

Note:   With root *pet ‘plugged, stopped, closed off’.

27307

*papi cook in an earth oven

3825

POC     *papi cook in an earth oven

OC
Lau fafiput leaves on oven in cooking
Kwaio faficook in leaf oven; sacrifice a pig
Sa'a hahicook in an oven with leaves and hot stones
Arosi hahicook in a native oven; food cooked so
Fijian vavibake food in a native oven

27308

*papo coral reef

3826

POC     *papo₃ coral reef

OC
Gedaged bab (NG)kind of coral, limestone
Sa'a hahothe shore reef
Arosi hahoencircling reef
Rotuman hahocoral reef

30397

*paqa₁ thigh

7509

PAN     *paqa₁ thigh

Formosan
Puyuma paʔathigh
WMP
Itbayaten paathigh
Sambal (Botolan) páʔathigh
Tagalog páʔa ~ paʔáfoot, leg; hoof, paw
  paʔa-hánhaving large feet
Bikol páʔathigh; lap, haunches, hip
  paʔá-ondescribing someone with large thighs
Agutaynen pakathigh; leg
Hiligaynon páʔathigh
Aklanon páʔathigh, upper leg
Masbatenyo páʔathigh, upper leg
Waray-Waray páʔathigh; lap
Cebuano páʔathigh, legs from the knees up
  páʔa-hanthe upper leg of a pair of pants
Mapun paathigh
Mansaka paathigh
Binukid paafoot, leg; leg (of a table or other furniture)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paʔathe foot and/or leg
Tboli hahathigh of person or animal; lap of a person
Yakan paʔathigh
Tausug paathigh
Tombonuwo paathigh, upper leg
Kelabit paʔehthigh
Seru pohthigh
Malay pahathigh; quarter; ham (of animal)
  paha belalaŋupper leg of grasshopper; fig. for safety pin; curve of a perfect thigh
Sundanese pahathigh, upper leg
Balinese pahathigh
Sasak pathigh
Bolaang Mongondow paathigh; hip; buttock
Totoli paathigh
Boano paʔathigh
Bare'e paʔathigh, upper leg
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *paqathigh
Wolio paathigh; quarter (of a carcass)
  paa-na ŋkaborograsshopper’s thighs (said of a very thin person)
Muna faghathigh
CMP
Manggarai paʔathigh
Rembong paʔathigh
Ngadha paaupper leg, thigh
Fordata faa-ncalf of the leg
OC
Lakalai la vaha-leg, foot

Note:   Also Tiruray foʔoʔ, Iban pah, Balinese pehe ‘thigh’. Dempwolff (1938) also included Fijian yava- ‘the leg below the knee, including the foot’, but it is not at all clear that this form reflects PAn *paqa.

30398

*paqa₂ stalk or stem of a plant

7510

PMP     *paqa₂ stalk or stem of a plant

WMP
Muna faghastalk of certain trees (coconut, areca) from which grow branches
CMP
Ngadha paashoot, sprig, sprout
Buruese paa-nstem, base of trunk; stem, especially of a taro plant
SHWNG
Numfor-Biak fasheath of a palm blossom

Note:   Possibly the same morpheme as PMP *paqa ‘thigh’. Dempwolff (1938) united both meanings under a single form, but presented very little evidence for *paqa in the meaning ‘stalk, stem’.

30131

*paqet wood-working tool: chisel

6870

PWMP     *paqet wood-working tool: chisel

WMP
Itbayaten paethole-boring tool which was used a long time ago
Ilokano paét -an, i-, mai-chisel
Isneg apāta chisel made of iron throughout, without a wooden handle
Bontok paétchisel (said to < Ilokano)
Ifugaw paót mum-, -in-, <in> -anwood carving; chisels used for carving
Kapampangan patchisel (for woodworking)
Tagalog paʔítchisel (in carpentry)
Mapun paat -an, -unchisel
Kelabit paʔetchisel
Iban pattapping knife, gouge, chisel
  pat getahtapping knife for rubber latex
Jarai phaʔchisel (for carpentry)
Rhade phatto chisel
Malay pahatchisel; gouge; punch
Gayō pātchisel
Karo Batak pahatchisel
  mahatto chisel, work with a chisel
Simalur paeʔchisel
  mam-paeʔto chisel something
Nias fahõchisel
  mamahõto chisel, work with a chisel
Balinese pahetchisel
  mahet -ang, -incut with a chisel, hew
Sasak pata chisel
  ŋe-patto chisel
Tontemboan pa-paʔata chisel
  maʔat ~ ma-paʔatto chisel
Taje pa-paata chisel
Bare'e paʔat-ia chisel
  nda-paʔat-ichiseled, chiseled out
Tae' paʔa chisel
  paʔ-ichisel out, gouge a hole with a chisel; carving done with a chisel
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *paqoQchisel
Makasarese paʔa chisel

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat pait ‘chisel (carpenter’s tool); to chisel’ (< Tagalog), Ifugaw (Batad) paʔut ‘wood chisel’, Tombulu paat ‘chisel’ (< Malay), Lun Dayeh faat ‘a knife for tapping rubber’ (< Malay), Dairi-Pakpak Batak pahat ‘chisel’, me-mahat ‘to chisel’ (< Malay), Old Javanese a-mahat ‘tap palm sap by notching’, pahat-an ‘areca palm’, pahat ‘sculpture’, p<in>ahat ‘shape by cutting or sculpturing (gold, stone)’ (probably < Malay), Manggarai paʔak ‘chisel; to chisel’, Rotinese paʔa-bela ‘flat or level chisel’ (< Malay).

30132

*paqiC bitter (?)

6871

PAN     *paqiC bitter (?)

Formosan
Saisiyat pæʔishot (flavor)
Kanakanabu paʔícimillet or rice beer

6872

PMP     *paqit₂ bitter(ness)

WMP
Ilokano paítbile, used in cooking; bitterness, bitter taste
Isneg na-pétbitter
Itawis pethotness, pungency, spiciness
  na-péthot, pungent, spicy
Kankanaey men-paítbitter
Ifugaw paítsourness; mostly applied to fruits that are not yet ripe
Ifugaw (Batad) pāitthe austere taste of old wine, ginger, salt, onion, garlic, red pepper, lemon, tobacco; of the stinging sensation of smoke
Ilongot paʔitbitter
Ibaloy paitsourness (as of unripe orange); bitter taste, saltiness; also describes the taste of good coffee or rice wine
  em-paitsour, bitter, salt
Pangasinan paítbitter tasting
  am-paítbitter
Kapampangan paʔítbitter
Tagalog paʔítbitterness; bitter taste; bitterness in the moral sense; harshness, disagreeableness
Bikol paʔíta plant: Lunasia amara Blco.
Hanunóo paʔítbitterness
Kalamian Tagbanwa pakitbitter
Hiligaynon paʔítbitterness
Aklanon paʔítbitterness
Cebuano paʔítbitter in taste, bitter in situation
Mapun paitbitter
Mansaka paitbitter (of food, medicine)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paʔitbitter; produce a bitter taste in someone’s mouth
Tausug paitbitterness
Tboli héétbitter, salty
Bilaan (Sarangani) feʔetbitter
Yakan paʔitbitter, over salted, too salty
Tombonuwo o-paitbitter
Kelabit paʔitbitter
Kenyah faʔijbitter
Malagasy faitrabitterness, as the taste of quinine
Iban paitbitter
  daun paitwild leaf used as flavoring in cooking
Jarai phiʔbitter (in taste)
Rhade phiʔbitter
Malay pahitbitter, bitterness, a bitter drink
Toba Batak paitbitter
Sundanese paʔitbitter
Old Javanese pahitbitter, (of sea water) salt
Javanese pahit ~ paitbitter
Balinese pahitkind of tree with small round fruit used as medicine
Sasak paitbitter
Boano paʔitbitter
Balaesang peitbitter
Makasarese paiʔgall; bitter; difficult
Muna paghibitter (as papaya leaves)
CMP
Bimanese paʔibitter (as taste); difficult (as one’s life)
Komodo paiʔbitter
Manggarai paʔitbitter (of taste), difficult (of situations)
Kambera paitabitter
  mbàru paitabitter salty, too salty, of food
Lamaholot paitbitter
Kédang peiʔbitter

6873

PPh     *ka-paqit-an be overcome by bitterness

WMP
Bikol ka-paʔit-ánbitterness
Mapun ka-pait-anbe overcome by or experience a bitter taste

6874

PAN     *ma-paqiC bitter (?)

Formosan
Kanakanabu ma-paʔícisour

6875

PWMP     *ma-paqit bitter

WMP
Agta mapetbitter
Kapampangan ma-paʔítbitter
Tagalog ma-paʔítbitter
Bikol ma-paʔítbitter, acrid
Hanunóo ma-paʔítbitter, referring to taste
Agutaynen ma-pakitbitter
Hiligaynon ma-paʔítbitter
Aklanon ma-paʔítbitter
Palawan Batak mapáʔitbitter
Mamanwa mapaʔitbitter
Binukid ma-paitbitter (in taste); bitter, hard to accept (situation, happening, etc.)
Maranao ma-paʔitbitter; hard, difficult
Tausug ma-paitbitter (as medicine)
Malagasy ma-faitrabitter, brackish, disagreeable
Old Javanese a-pahitbitter
Sangir ma-paiʔbitter; sour
Bolaang Mongondow mo-paʔitbitter
Bare'e ma-paʔibitter
Uma mo-paiʔbitter
Tae' ma-paiʔbitter (as palm wine, certain fish, etc.)
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *mo-paqiQbitter
Wolio ma-paʔibitter

6876

PPh     *paqit-an a plant: Lunasia amara

WMP
Ilokano paít-anLunasia amara plant
Tagalog paʔit-ánto make bitter
Bikol paʔit-ándevelop a bitter taste
Mansaka pait-ana plant: Lunasia amara Blco. (Madulid 2001)
Maranao paʔit-ankind of bitter banana

Note:   Also Pazeh pazit ‘bitter’, Bunun (Takituduh) ma-paʔic ‘bitter’, Tsou paʔici ‘bitter cucumber’, Saaroa paʔis ‘spicy’, Balantak páket, Kayan (Uma Juman) paʔi, Toba Batak paet, Cham ma-laʔ et ‘bitter, caustic’. Despite Dyen’s (Dyen 1965) attempt to present a unified comparison, the Formosan evidence is unhelpful, as it points to several distinct forms, with only Kanakanabu agreeing in shape (but not in meaning) with Malayo-Polynesian comparata. Pazeh pazit can reflect *pasis or *pasit, Bunun forms reflect an etymon with medial glottal stop rather than *q, and as noted by Tsuchida (1976:259), the vocalism of the Tsou form is unexpected, suggesting possible borrowing from Bunun. A pre-Malayo-Polynesian pedigree for this comparison thus remains very problematic.

30370

*paqis cook fish or meat wrapped in banana leaves

7412

PWMP     *paqis cook fish or meat wrapped in banana leaves

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat páisto cook (a method of cooking small fish or shrimp, wrapping them in a banana leaf and cooking them in water, or laying them directly on the coals)
Tagalog páʔisfish or meat roasted or broiled and wrapped in leaves; steamed or boiled fish, usually small, wrapped in leaves, esp. banana leaves
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paʔisthe process of preparing sweet potato by grating it, wrapping it in leaves, and roasting it in a hole with a fire on top
Maranao paʔiswrap in green leaf and roast
Iban paisfood, esp. fish, cooked in green leaves or bamboo
  pais ikanfish so cooked
Malay paisspiced fish cooked in banana leaf
Old Javanese pes-an ~ pe(s)pes-anfood cooked and broiled in leaves (esp. fish)
Javanese pè-pès-anbanana-leaf-wrapped food roasted over hot coals
  mè-pèsto prepare food in this way

7413

PWMP     *p<in>aqis fish wrapped in banana leaf and cooked over hot coals

WMP
Tagalog p<in>áʔisfish or meat roasted or broiled and wrapped in leaves; steamed or boiled fish, usually small, wrapped in leaves, esp. banana leaves
Old Javanese p<in>esto cook as pespesan

27309

*paqit kind of freshwater fish

3827

PWMP     *paqit₁ kind of freshwater fish

WMP
Hanunóo paʔítsmall white freshwater fish with a bitter taste; hence its name (< paʔít 'bitterness')
Mansaka paitkind of freshwater fish
Binukid paítkind of small fish
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) paʔita small fish
Tiruray faʔitthe various barbs (Cyprinidae) spp.
Maranao paʔitfish of Cyprinid family (from bitter taste)
Ida'an Begak paitfish
Tombonuwo paitfish
Kelabit paʔitkind of small fish
Kayan paʔitspecies of tebaring fish found near small river rapids
Iban paitfreshwater fish: Puntius sp.
Toba Batak si-paet-anfish sp.
Sasak pait ~ pepaitsmall, silvery river fish
Chamorro fa-faʔeta snapper: Lutjanus gibbus

Note:   Undoubtedly = *paqit ‘bitter’, but the semantic extension to various fish apparently is old.

27310

*paqliŋ visible defect of the eyes

3828

PPh     *paqliŋ visible defect of the eyes

WMP
Isneg palʔíŋ <Mstrabismus
Maranao paliŋone-eyed person, one who has impaired vision
Tiruray faliŋblinded in one eye because of wounds from fighting (refers to animals only)

Note:   With root *-liŋ₂ ‘cross-eyed’.

27311

*paqpaq₁ chew

3829

PAN     *paqpaq₁ chew

Formosan
Amis paʔpaʔchew; the action of the jaws and teeth in chewing
WMP
Maranao papaʔbite, chew

29986

*paqpaq₂ midrib of coconut frond

6675

PMP     *paqpaq₂ midrib of coconut frond     [doublet: *palaqpaq]

WMP
Old Javanese papahthe long stalk of a palm or banana leaf
Javanese papahcenter stalk of palm, banana, etc.
Balinese papahthe young or green leaf of a coconut or palm tree; the sheath of a leaf
OC
Arosi haha-nafrond of a palm, branch of a plant or tree that is not an ‘ai, as sago palm, coconut, cycad, screw palm

Note:   Also Marshallese pāp ‘coconut frond; midrib of coconut frond’.

27323

*para coconut embryo

3843

PMP     *para coconut embryo

WMP
Ilokano párathe sprouting embryo of the coconut, before the cotyledon appears
Pangasinan pálacoconut pith
Makasarese paragerm of the coconut that remains in the nut and later sprouts
Wolio paracoconut embryo
OC
Label hara-isprouting tissue of a coconut
Nggela varaa fallen coconut beginning to grow and showing leaf
Pohnpeian pahrspongy center of a sprouting coconut; par to sprout, of coconuts
Woleaian faracopra sponge, copra meat
Mota varathe shoot, plumule, of the cocoanut, as it forms first within the nut, afterwards when it shoots outside, and finally as growing up from the radicle
Southeast Ambrym halcenter of coconut
Lonwolwol vaːspongy kernel of a mature coconut (which is rich in oil, and nourishing)
North Ambrym varspongy kernel of a mature coconut
Rotuman harato sprout (coconut)
Fijian varaspongy flesh in the kernel of a coconut before it shoots; a coconut in this stage or just shooting

27322

*para-₁ prefix of repeated action

3842

PWMP     *para- prefix of repeated action

WMP
Bikol pára-verbal affix, repetitive action series, infinitive-command form, used in combination with the intensive series affix pag- and verbs taking mag-, -on, i-, and -an in the regular series; magpara-bisíta repeatedly visit
Muna para-verbal prefix on verbal bases; a-class, amenable to -um-, intransitive. Meaning: iterativity in combination with habituality. In some cases the emphasis is on the variety of the implied objects; no-para-toŋka vomit repeatedly

Note:   Also Aklanon pagá- future verb prefix referring to a continuing or repeated action in the future or to an action which will be in process at a given time in the future, in the object or oblique focuses, occurring in the forms paga---on (OF#1) and paga---an (OF#3).

27315

*paraq paraq trellis for plants to grow up

3835

PWMP     *paraq paraq trellis for plants to grow up     [doublet: *pala pala₁]

WMP
Cebuano palaʔ-palaʔhorizontal trellis for plants to grow on
Makasarese para-paratrellis for tendrils to creep up

Note:   Also Acehnese para ‘trellis’.

27316

*paraqu boat

3836

PMP     *paraqu boat

WMP
Ilokano paráwa sailing vessel much larger than the biráy
Casiguran Dumagat parawlarge sailing vessel
Iban perauʔboat (without close or full deck, as opp. to kapal)
Malay perahuundecked native ship. Etymologically the padao or parao of the Malabar coast, in contr. to the decked kapal
Toba Batak parauboat, ship
Sundanese parahusloop, boat
Old Javanese parahuboat
CMP
Ngadha barauboat, sail boat
Rotinese pauboat, ship
OC
Tolai parauboat, ship; foreign, European, brought from overseas in a ship
Nehan parauboat

Note:   Wilkinson (1959) apparently regards Malay perahu as a Dravidian loan. There are, however, two problems with this interpretation. First, if Malay perahu is a borrowing of padao or parao there is no explanation for its medial -h-, nor for the corresponding segment in the Sundanese and Old Javanese cognates. Rather, these glottal fricatives agree in pointing to *q. Second, apparent cognates of Malay perahu are found not only in island Southeast Asia, but also in western Melanesia, a situation that is virtually unknown for established loan distributions. Finally, because it is also necessary to reconstruct *padaw ‘kind of sailboat’ (q.v.), many Philippine forms are difficult to classify. Tagalog paráw ‘large passenger and cargo sailboat’ must reflect *padaw, and Ilokano paráw (if not a Tagalog loan) must reflect *paraqu, but similar forms in other languages, as Bikol paráw ‘boat’ or Maranao parao ‘dhow’ are ambiguous for *paraqu or *padaw. Dempwolff's (1934-38) attempt to include Polynesian forms such as Tongan folau ‘to voyage, travel, or journey by sea’ in the present comparison conflicts with the evidence for reconstruction of *-q-, and is best abandoned.

27318

*parara thunder

3838

POC     *parara thunder

OC
Wuvulu pakakathunderclap
Leipon pererthunderclap
Nali palanthunder
Nauna paralthunderclap
Tanga thunder
Label pararthunder
Mokilese palarthunder, thunder and lightning; to thunder
Hawaiian palala (length unexpl.)a low or rumbling sound

Note:   The final l in Nauna and the medial l in Mokilese are assumed to be products of lexically specific dissimilation. This item may have meant ‘thunderclap’ in contrast to other types of thundering sound.

27319

*paras shaved off, made smooth

3839

PWMP     *paras shaved off, made smooth

WMP
Tagalog paláslopped off; levelled
Ngaju Dayak parassmooth, even, level
Malagasy farascraped, scratched, smoothed
Iban parastrim, cut even or smooth
Malay parastrimming off asperities
  me-marasto smooth
Karo Batak parascastrate
Sundanese parasshave off
Old Javanese parasthat which is trimmed by shaving (hair, eyebrow); razor; to shave (trim) the eyebrows
Sasak parasshave off the eyebrows

Note:   Tagalog palás may be a Malay loan. Dempwolff (1934-38) compared Malagasy farana ‘made even, as the edges of anything’ rather than the form cited here. Sa'a hara ‘to rub; rubbed, used of ceremonial purification’, which he also included in the present comparison, is best treated as a chance resemblance.

27328

*parelak garden, orchard

3850

PWMP     *parelak garden, orchard

WMP
Dairi-Pakpak Batak perlakenclosed garden, orchard; fruit orchard
Old Javanese parlakdry rice field
Tae' paʔlakcultivated field, garden
Buginese pallaʔenclosed garden, orchard
Makasarese parallakk-eŋfarmyard, compound

Note:   Mills (1981) compares the SSul forms with Old Malay, Old Balinese parlak, Angkola-Mandailing Batak porlak under a reconstruction "PInd" ‘garden’. This item evidently referred to an enclosed or clearly demarcated area of cultivation, perhaps primarily of fruit groves. Cense (1979) suggests that Makasarese parallakken derives from a stem allaʔ, but this almost certainly is an error.

30105

*pari₁ scrape, grate

6834

POC     *pari₁ scrape, grate

OC
Roviana variwood rasp
Nggela palirub one thing against another
Fijian vari-ascale a fish; scratch

Note:   Also Toqabaqita fai ‘scrape the ground with hands, feet, paws (as a crab burrowing in)’.

30420

*pari₂ to divide, share out (as an inheritance?)

7554

POC     *pari₂ to divide, share out (as an inheritance?)

OC
Motu hari-ato divide, give away
Bugotu variheir, heritage; to inherit
Nggela varian heir

27331

*pariama a constellation: the Seven Sisters, Pleiades

3853

PWMP     *pariama a constellation: the Seven Sisters, Pleiades

WMP
Ngaju Dayak pariamataboo word for "star"
Karo Batak bintaŋ pariamathe Seven Sisters, Pleiades
Toba Batak pariamaPleiades
Sangir pahiama, pohiamaa constellation: the Seven Sisters, Pleiades
Bolaang Mongondow pariamathe Seven Sisters (constellation)
Tae' pariamaname of a constellation

Note:   Also Soboyo pariama ‘the Seven Sisters, Pleiades’. Fortgens (1921) marks this as a Ternate loan, but the Ternate form in turn must have been borrowed from a language of Sulawesi or the southern Philippines. Although it is no longer analyzable, I assume that this term (a quadrisyllable) was originally polymorphemic.

27332

*pariaq the bitter melon: Momordica charantia

3854

PWMP     *pariaq the bitter melon: Momordica charantia     [doublet: *pariaʔ]

WMP
Maranao pariaʔsucculent vegetable with quinine bitter taste: Momordica charantia L.
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) periaʔa plant the leaves and fruit of which are eaten as a vegetable. The fruit is very bitter, but relished: Momordica charantia
Tiruray feriyaʔa vine, Trichosanthes quinquangulata A. Grey, Momordica charantia L.
Uma pariaʔvine with bitter fruit eaten as a vegetable: Momordica charantia

Note:   Zorc (1971) reconstructs PPh *-pareya ‘(bitter melon) Momordica charantia L.’.

27333

*pariaʔ bitter melon: Momordica charantia L.

3855

PWMP     *pariaʔ bitter melon: Momordica charantia L.     [doublet: *pariaq]

WMP
Isneg pariyávine with yellow flowers and oblong, cylindric, ribbed rugose fruits, pointed at both ends: Momordica charantia L.
Ilokano pariáMomordica charantia L. A vine with yellow flowers. Its young shoots and leaves and its fruits are edible
Kankanaey paliáMomordica balsamina L. A slender vine with yellow flowers and rough, elongated, bitter edible fruits
Pangasinan palyábitter melon
Cebuano paliyá, palíyawidely cultivated vine producing an elongated fruit with wart-like skin, eaten unripe as a vegetable, having a bitter taste, Momordica charantia
Iban periaʔbitter gourd Momordica charantia L., a yellow-white pointed cucumber with lumpy skin, eaten raw or cooked
Malay periaa gourd proverbial for its bitter taste: Momordica charantia
Tae' pariaclimbing plant with bitter cucumber-like fruit used as a vegetable

Note:   Also Itbayaten pariak ‘balsam apple (Momordica balsamina L.)’. Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *-pareya ‘(bitter melon) Momordica charantia L.’.

27335

*parij ditch, canal

3857

PWMP     *parij ditch, canal     [disjunct: *parik]

WMP
Maloh parék (é unexpl.)ditch, canal
Iban paritditch, drain
Malay paritgroove, cutting, drain; ditch or open moat
Karo Batak parikditch, furrow, canal
Toba Batak parikembankment, earthen wall
Nias fariexcavated conduit; embankment
Javanese palirfurrow, gully, channel

Note:   Tolai baret ‘gutter’, paret ‘trench’ appears to be a Malay loanword. Although Malay loans are almost unheard of in Oceanic languages, this item may have been introduced during the colonial period.

27336

*parik ditch, canal

3858

PWMP     *parik ditch, canal     [disjunct: *parij]

WMP
Maloh parék (é unexpl.)ditch, canal
Karo Batak parikditch, furrow, canal
Toba Batak parikembankment, earthen wall

Note:   The Maloh and Toba Batak forms could regularly reflect *parij, but Karo Batak parik could not -- hence the disjunct.

27338

*pariuk earthenware cooking pot

3864

PAN     *pariuk earthenware cooking pot

Formosan
Paiwan pariukwok, large, round-bottomed metal pan for cooking
WMP
Ilokano pariókan iron pan with a round bottom and a short iron handle in the shape of a socket
Kankanaey paliókiron pan with rounded bottom and short round handle
Ifugaw palyúkbroad iron pot
Tagalog palayók, palyókearthen pot for cooking
Iban periokcooking pot, saucepan
Malay periokpot (usually of earthenware) for boiling rice
Sundanese pariukearthen pot or pan for cooking
CMP
Buruese pariu-tcooking pot

Note:   The reference to "metal" cooking pots in Paiwan and the languages of northern Luzon suggests borrowing. However, a source is unknown, and the glosses for Tagalog and Malay suggest an earthenware pot which may have given its name to metal cooking utensils that were subsequently introduced. Lambrecht (1978:405) states that Ifugaw palyúk ‘broad iron pot’ is an imitation of Spanish parioc ‘frying pan’, but I have been unable to confirm this claim.

27341

*paro to scrape

3867

POC     *paro to scrape

OC
Lau faroscraper for grating yams
Fijian varoto file, saw, or rasp
Maori wharo, wha-wharo, wharo-wharoto scrape

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Fijian varo to *parut ‘rasp’, but was forced by this decision to accept an irregular change. Cebuano palut ‘peel skin off (as from an apple); for the skin to get chafed; shave the head bald’ may be related through a PMP etymon *palet.

27345

*paR-₁ derivational prefix, used to form deverbal nouns

3871

PWMP     *paR- derivational prefix, used to form deverbal nouns

WMP
Tagalog pag-prefix forming verbal nouns: act of. 1. Followed by the simple root word if derived from an um verb, as um-alis 'to depart': pag-alis 'departure'. 2. Followed by the root word with the first syllable reduplicated, if derived from a mag- verb, as mag-alis 'to remove', pag-a-alis 'removal, act of removing'
Bikol pag-nominal affix: abot 'arrive', pag-abot 'arrival'
Kadazan pog-nominal affix: mog-odu 'to rebuke', pog-odu 'a rebuke'
Bahasa Indonesia per-The prefix per- replaces the prefix ber- of verbs and adjectives, and so forms a noun indicating the person or instrument performing the action referred to by that verb, or possessing the quality referred to by that adjective (Macdonald and Soenjono 1967:99)
Toba Batak par-Substantives with the prefix par- do occur without there being a corresponding verb with the prefix mar-. These substantives are derived from substantives that have a preposition before them, or from those that, with a preposition, function as adverbs ... These substantives rather represent a person and, therefore, can also be formed from intransitive verbs (van der Tuuk 1971:186)

3872

PWMP     *paR- ... -an derivational circumfix, probably used to form deverbal nouns of location

WMP
Timugon Murut pag- ... -anoccurs with verbs which are inflected with mag-₁, mag-₂, and man- in the subject focus (Prentice 1971:140)
Toba Batak par- + N + -anmakes nouns of place (Nababan 1981:95)
Bahasa Indonesia per- ... -anin a few cases per- replaces ber- in verbs and combines with the suffix -an to form nouns referring to the process of the action referred to by the verb; occasionally the noun refers to the place where the action is performed (Soenjono and Macdonald 1967:100)

Note:   Wolff (1981) considers the form and meaning of *paR- within the context of a larger comparison of the morphology of Tagalog and Bahasa Indonesia. He concludes (p. 87, fn. 14): "The meanings of pag- and per- are elusive and range widely. We doubt that they can be profitably compared." It is quite possible that *paR- had multiple functions in PWMP, and that the meaning reconstructed here is only one of several glosses that may eventually be associated with this etymon.

27346

*paR-₂ numeral prefix: do x times

3874

PAN     *paR- X -en divide into x (x = numeral)

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) paR- X -(en)do X times (X = numeral)
WMP
Bikol pag- X -(on)divide into X; send X at a time (X = numeral)
Malay per-duahalf
  sa per-tiga-anone third (i.e. one part of something divided into three equal parts)
Karo Batak per-duadivide into two

Note:   Probably identical to *paR-₁.

27326

*paRa₂ collective particle

3848

PMP     *paRa₂ collective particle

WMP
Malay paracollective prefix implying a certain parity (used before nouns to indicate collectivities of persons sharing some vocational or other feature
Acehnese parahorde, troop
Old Javanese paraa personal demonstrative particle for a number of persons belonging to the same category
Makasarese paraall, both (in composite expressions)
SHWNG
Buli fa-plural or collective prefix on verbs

Note:   This item almost certainly was a particle rather than a prefix, since prefixal vowels, like other vowels in prepenultimate syllables, would merge as e in Malay.

27325

*paRa₁ storage shelf; attic, loft

3845

PAN     *paRa₁ storage shelf; attic, loft

Formosan
Atayal pagathe stand used for the heads taken in headhunting
WMP
Itbayaten payaplace above the stove where firewood is kept dry
Isneg páxathe central shelf of the three that are fixed over the hearth (used for storing bundles of rice that have to be dried before pounding)
Ifugaw paláattic of an Ifugaw house in which rice bundles (and some other things) are stored
Pangasinan pálaplace for storing pillows and mats
Tagalog págastorage loft made of bamboo attached to ceiling
Bikol págastorage loft made from bamboo, attached to the ceiling just above the stove, usually used for storing firewood
Hanunóo págashelf
Cebuano págashelf put above the stove; platform built close to the roof forming a loft, but not extending the entire length of the house
Maranao pagaattic
Tboli halasuspended platform above the firetable, used to dry wood, corn, tobacco, etc.
Kenyah (Long Anap) paastorage rack for firewood above the hearth
Berawan (Long Terawan) paleih {?? sp?}storage rack above the hearth
Kayan pahaʔrack above the hearth for storing firewood
Ngaju Dayak paheshelf over the hearth where firewood is placed to dry
Iban paraframe or rack over a hearth for drying or preserving things laid on it; platform for felling large trees; hide or machan for hunter in tree
Malay parashelf or framework built over the fireplace as a receptable for cooking pots; any shelf-like upper apartment in a Malay house, serving as an attic or home for a young girl during her seclusion
Acehnese paraattic, loft (under the ceiling)
Karo Batak paraname for various racks above the fireplace (where husked rice is kept dry, cooking pots are stored, firewood is kept, etc.)
Sundanese paraattic, loft (used for storage)
Sasak parashelf over the hearth
Sangir paharack used in drying copra, or in the kitchen above the hearth on which fish is smoked, etc.
Tae' parathe slanting upper portion of the front and rear facades of a house
Makasarese (Bantaeng) paraattic, loft
Wolio paaattic, bay at the side of a house, on higher level than the floor
  paa ombusmoking rack over kitchen fire
CMP
Rembong parauppermost floor of a house
Buruese pahabamboo rack
SHWNG
Waropen arastorage rack above the hearth; loft

3846

POC     *paRa, baRa storage shelf above the hearth

OC
Motu haraplatform of sticks on which meat is grilled; a gridiron
Mailu waratable for smoking fish
Nali payshelf above the hearth for storing firewood, etc.
Loniu paysmoking rack for fish and storage rack above the hearth
Levei pwashelf above the hearth for storing firewood, etc.
Nauna payshelf above the hearth for storing food, betel, etc., but not firewood
Cheke Holo farabamboo or wooden storage shelf, often located above a stone oven
Kwaio balaracks in house for drying wood, etc.
'Āre'āre parasmall platform, mostly above the fireplace, used as a depository

3847

PMP     *paRa paRa storage shelf; attic, loft

WMP
Maranao paga-pagaattic-like garret
Malagasy fara-farabedstead; stone shelves in native tombs on which corpses are laid
Malay para-parashelf or framework built over the fireplace as a receptacle for cooking-pots
Toba Batak para-parawooden rack that in a Batak house runs from the door around the entire house
Tae' para-pararack in a house where eating utensils are put
Makasarese para-paragrill on which a cooking pot is set
Wolio paa-paasmall bay at the side of a house, used for storage
CMP
Rembong (Waru-Kia) para-parauppermost floor of a house

Note:   Also Rejang palai ‘a ceiling’. Lister-Turner and Clark (1930) list Motu hara as a Koitabu (non-Austronesian) loan, but the evidence cited here makes the reverse direction of borrowing far more likely (also cf. the clear loan in Mailu wara ‘table for smoking fish’). The glosses for several widely separated reflexes suggest that the *paRa typically was made of bamboo, and was used principally for the storage of firewood. Virtually all reflexes agree that it was built above the hearth, where smoke from the cooking fire served to dry and preserve objects placed on it. It is possible that the PMP house had more than one storage shelf above the hearth, but terminological distinctions are unknown. In addition it appears that PMP *paRa referred too a shelf-like platform which formed an attic or loft near the roof of the house.

27324

*paRa-₂ reciprocal prefix

3844

PCEMP     *paRa- reciprocal prefix

CMP
Rembong paramutual, reciprocal
OC
Tolai warareciprocal prefix used with verbs, e.g. kul 'to pay', wara-kul 'to pay each other'; this word often becomes wari- before r, e.g. wari-rap

Note:   Also Kayan pala- ‘prefix of mutual or reciprocal action’. The relationship of this item to the much better-attested PEMP *paRi- ‘reciprocal prefix’ is unclear, though Lanyon-Orgill's (1962) gloss for Tolai suggests that the two may have been allomorphs of a single morpheme.

27313

*paRada handle of an axe or adze

3831

PMP     *paRada handle of an axe or adze

WMP
Bontok pagádathe handle of the wásay axe
Kankanaey pagádahandle (of an ax)

3832

POC     *paRara handle of an axe or adze

OC
Motu pararahandle (given only in the English index)
Duke of York wararahandle of a stone club or adze
Gedaged pazazhandle (of a broom, hammer, but not of cups, etc.)
Roviana vararawooden handle, as of an axe, etc.
Nggela valalahandle; cross handle of an adze
Sa'a halalato helve an axe
Puluwat paar, pera-nhandle, as of knife or saw
Woleaian pash, pashathat part of a utensil or tool which is to be held with the hand
Lonwolwol verɛ-handle of -

Note:   The second and third consonants of this form are disambiguated by Bontok and Kankanaey of northern Luzon, and by Puluwat and Woleaian of western Micronesia. The latter forms reflect POc *b, together with loss of *R and haplology Puluwat paar < *bara, Woleaian pash < *bada)."

Nggela valala (expected **valara) and Sa'a halala (expected **halara) show assimilation of POc *r to *R. Since all other witnesses have merged PMP *R and *r, it is possible that the POc form itself contained this assimilation (hence POc *paRaRa). This is, indeed what Milke (1968) reconstructed, though on the basis of no diagnostic evidence for distinguishing POc *R from *r. Palauan ordóm-el ‘handle’, merédem ‘put a handle on (knife, spear, etc.)’ may point to a variant *paRedem.

27314

*paRaek hoarse

3833

PMP     *paRaek hoarse

WMP
Kankanaey pagáekhoarse
Tagalog pagákhoarse and broken (said of the voice)
Buginese paraʔhoarse

3834

POC     *paRak hoarse

OC
Tongan hoarse, of the voice
Samoan hoarse, husky
Rarotongan ʔāhoarse, husky
Hawaiian hoarse, hoarseness

Note:   Also Pangasinan pagás ‘hoarse; speak hoarsely’.

27317

*paRaq to swell, boil

3837

POC     *paRaq₁ to swell, boil     [doublet: *mpaRoq]

OC
Arosi harato swell, of the body; become hard and round, of a swelling
Bauro haraa boil
Tongan blister
Samoan mata-fāboils on the face (Pratt 1984)

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Samoan mata-fā to PAn *baReq, but could not easily reconcile either the oral grade reflex of POc *p or the irregular development of the last vowel with the development in Fijian (bo). The final consonant in this form is posited only to satisfy the Regularity Hypothesis, on the assumption that *paRaq is a doublet of POc *mpaRoq which differs in no feature other than the consonant grade of *p and the quality of the last vowel.

27320

*paRatpat a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp.

3840

PWMP     *paRatpat a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp.     [doublet: *paRepat]

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat pagátpatuncultivated tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia acida (wood used for house posts)
Tagalog pagátpattree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia caseolaris (Merrill 1954)
Bikol pagatpáttree producing a wood suitable for house posts: Sonneratia alba
Aklanon pagátpata tree: Sonneratia caseolaris (Linn.)
Cebuano pagátpattree of mangrove swamps: Sonneratia caseolaris and acida
Makasarese parappaʔa tree with a fruit shaped like an apple: Sonneratia oborata

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) compared Tagalog pagátpat with Toba Batak parapat ‘kind of bamboo’, Malay perepat ‘rhizophore’ under an etymon *p-aR-atpat ‘name of a plant’. However, the Batak word appears to be unrelated and the Malay word appears to reflect a doublet *paRepat (q.v.).

27321

*paRaw hoarse

3841

PAN     *paRaw hoarse

Formosan
Kavalan parawhoarse
WMP
Ilokano párawhoarse
Isneg págawhoarse
Itawis páhawhoarseness
Tagalog págawhoarseness of voice
  pagáwhoarse
Hanunóo pagáwhoarseness
Cebuano pagáwhoarse, become hoarse
Maranao pagawhoarse voice
Kayan pahauhoarse, of voice
Iban parauhoarse
Malay parauhoarseness due to overmuch talking or shouting or to a cold (not of voice naturally harsh)
Acehnese parohoarse
Simalur halohoarse
Chamorro a-fagaohoarse

Note:   Also Pazeh puhaw ‘hoarse’, Nias faru, Makasarese parro ‘hoarse’. + Ambon Malay paru léhér

27327

*paRbu one of the four principal rafters

3849

PPh     *paRbu one of the four principal rafters

WMP
Ilokano parbóthe four rafters that meet the solókan (hip rafters) at their upper end, near the ridge of the roof
Hanunóo pagbúone of the four principal rafters, frequently of bamboo, used in the Hanuno'o construction of a house roof
Aklanon págbobeam, girder (supporting roof)

27329

*paRepat a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp.

3851

PWMP     *paRepat a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp.     [doublet: *paRatpat]

WMP
Iban perepata tree: Sonneratia caseolaris (L.)
Malay perepata sea-shore tree: Sonneratia griffithii and S. acida
Proto-Sangiric *paRəpatmangrove
Sangir pahepaʔa shore tree, the mangrove: Rhizophora conjugata
Bolaang Mongondow pogopatkind of ironwood tree: Metrosideros vera

27330

*paRhid wipe off

3852

PPh     *paRhid wipe off

WMP
Hanunóo páyidwiping off
Aklanon pághidrub one's hands on something in order to get dirt off; clean off (by scraping--without water)
Cebuano paghídput s.t. on by spreading

Note:   Also Cebuano páhid ‘rub on, apply by wiping; wipe slightly to remove something’; pahir-án, pahir-án-an ‘doormat; rags to wipe the hands’. Wolff (1972) derives Cebuano paghíd synchronically from páhid, but the comparative picture suggests that the latter is a reduction of paghíd.

27340

*paRi cut or lop off branches

3866

POC     *paRi₃ cut or lop off branches

OC
Lakalai valito cut, as wood or a leaf, from a tree; remove all the limbs from a tree
'Āre'āre harilop off branches, cut off a bunch of bananas, betelnuts
Sa'a halilop off branches
Arosi haritear, tear off, pull off a cluster of fruit
Rotuman faicut or chop down (a tree or branch)

Note:   Also Lakalai vale ‘to cut, as wood or a leaf, from a tree’.

27339

*paRi- prefix of reciprocal or collective action

3865

PEMP     *paRi- prefix of reciprocal or collective action

SHWNG
Buli fa-prefix used for the reciprocal form of a verb
  fa-, fai-prefix which indicates that the action concerns a plural subject; with nouns it also forms collectives (e.g. rama 'sister', fa-rama-u 'sisters')
OC
Mussau ai-reciprocal or collective action (possibly fossilized in ai-obi 'fight', ai-ora 'copulate')
Label war-reciprocal prefix
Cheke Holo fari-reciprocal prefix; simultaneously, mutually (e.g. fari-gamu 'eat together')
Bugotu vari-prefix denoting reciprocity
Arosi hari-reciprocal prefix generally having the force of united action, rather than mutual action
Gilbertese ai-prefix to some words having the meaning of reciprocity; ex., hit one another, look at each other, follow one another, etc.
Woleaian fe-reciprocal prefix, attached to ŋal 'to' and taŋ 'away from'
Mota var-prefix, 1. of reciprocity, 2. of plurality (e.g. children crying all together)
Rotuman hai-prefix forming reciprocal verbs
Fijian vei-a prefix. Added to nouns it forms a collective plural (vale 'house', vei-vale 'a group of houses'). Added to verbs it makes reciprocals. It may also be added to names of relationships to produce a reciprocal sense: vei-taci-ni 'brother and sister', the taci relationship
Tongan fe-the so-called reciprocal prefix... It may be: (a) actional, (b) habituative, (c) invigorative, (d) accelerative, (e) communal, indicating united or simultaneous action, (f) collaborative, (g) reciprocal, (h) competitive, (i) reciprocative, meaning hither and thither, or in (or to or from) various directions
Samoan fe-prefix to word-bases, used either alone or in combination with a suffix...(a) when fe- is used without a suffix it may denote the plural...(b) when used in combination with a suffix...fe- may denote (i) the plural, (ii) a reciprocal process, (iii) an action or process carried out here and there, up and down, hither and thither, all around, quickly, etc.
Rennellese he-...ʔakicommon affix indicating reciprocal or plural action

Note:   Also Kelabit pere- ‘reflexive prefix’. Although this affix is commonly glossed ‘reciprocal prefix’, such a description clearly oversimplifies the facts. Dempwolff (1920) posited PAn *baRi- ‘Sozialprafix’. His supporting evidence from non-Oceanic languages consisted of the Malay prefix ber- and putative fossilized affixes in Toba Batak (bor-), Sundanese(bar-), Ngaju Dayak(/bar-/), and Makasarese(/ba-/). Malay ber-, however, evidently derives from *maR- (Teeuw 1965), and the reality of the "fossilized affixes" in the other languages is open to question. Despite these problems a number of Oceanic languages clearly reflect *paRi-, and Buli fa-, fai- evidently is cognate with these forms, thus indicating PEMP *paRi-.

The following additional observations are noteworthy:

(1) the data in Pawley (1972:45) show that *R has irregularly disappeared in a number of reflexes in the Solomons. Some languages have doublets with and without the regular reflex of *R, which may differ in meaning: Bugotu vari- ‘prefix denoting reciprocity’, vei- ‘prefix denoting reciprocity; the suffix gi is generally added to the compound word (which may be used as a noun)’; Arosi hai- ‘reciprocal, showing mutual action; hai- differs from hari- in that the former usually shows mutual assisting or conflicting action and hari- merely combined action, but there are exceptions in both cases’. Together with Motu he- ‘prefix, with verbs indicating the reflexive, reciprocal, and state or condition’ these forms raise the possibility that POc distinguished *pai- and *paRi-. As argued in Blust (1977), however, grammatical morphemes tend to undergo sporadic compressions. The probability that this is the correct explanation in the present case is strengthened by the fact that attention to sound correspondences alone would require the reconstruction of three POc variants: *paRi-, *pai-, and *pe-. Sporadic contraction offers a more economical explanation of the correspondences, since both the loss of *R and the contraction of derived *-ai can be seen as realizations of a single tendency.

(2) It appears from the agreement of Bugotu with Fijian and various Polynesian languages that *paRi- co-occurred with *-qaki under circumstances still to be determined.

(3) Ujir (Kayan) pe- ‘reciprocal prefix’ is superficially comparable to reflexes of *paRi-, since this is the shape that a reflex of *paRi- would have before consonant-initial stems. However, before vowel-initial stems we would expect Ujir peh-, not the attested pe-; for the present this resemblance is treated as a product of convergence.

(4) Finally, it is clear that reciprocal action was only a part of the meaning of *paRi-, which more generally appears to have marked actions performed by multiple experiencers. If the somewhat tenuous reconstruction POc *paRa- ‘reciprocal prefix’ is valid, it suggests that *paRa- and *paRi- divided up the semantic space involving multiple experiencers in ways yet to be precisely determined.

27334

*paRigi artificially enclosed catchment for water: well, ditch

3856

PWMP     *paRigi artificially enclosed catchment for water: well, ditch

WMP
Malay perigiwell, spring
Sundanese parigiexcavated ditch or canal
Old Javanese parigilow encircling wall of stones (of yard, trees), paved (terraced?) bank or slope (of pond)
Sasak perigistone rim (edge, wall); rim of road, pond or well
Proto-Sangiric *paRigiwell
Sangir pahighipit, well
Wolio parigiditch, moat

Note:   Also Tiruray faligiʔ ‘a well for water’, Bolaang Mongondow parigiʔ ‘well for water’, Buruese parigi ‘well’, all of which appear to be Malay loans, and Balinese parigi ‘stone steps, stairway’, which may be a loan from Old Javanese. The essence of this comparison was first noted in print by Sneddon (1984). Zoetmulder (1982) suggests that Old Javanese parigi may be a Tamil loan, but the wider distribution documented here makes this unlikely.

27337

*paRiS stingray

3859

PAN     *paRiS stingray

Formosan
Siraya pagigstingray

3860

PMP     *paRih skate, stingray (generic); a constellation

WMP
Ilokano págikind of ray whose meat is esteemed
Itawis págistingray
Casiguran Dumagat pagísting ray, genus Dasyatis
Tagalog págiray fish
Bikol págistingray
Hanunóo págisting ray, devil ray, rayfish
Aklanon págiray, ray fish
Cebuano págigeneral term for rays
Maranao pagistingray
Melanau (Mukah) paistingray
Ngaju Dayak pahistingray (skin used as a rasp or grater, and in polishing rough surfaces)
Malagasy faikind of fish with a rough skin; rough
Iban pariʔskate; ray. Generic for sting-rays (Trygonidae), electric rays (Torpedinae), and eagle-rays (Myliobatidae)
  bintaŋ pariSouthern Cross (constellation)
  kikir pariskate-skin grater
Malay bintaŋ paria constellation, the Southern Cross
Acehnese paròëstingray
  bintaŋ paròëa constellation, the Southern Cross
Simalur halistingray
  bintun halia constellation, the Southern Cross
Karo Batak paristingray
Javanese pestingray
Balinese pahia species of shark
Sasak pai, paristingray
Proto-Minahasan *pahiray fish
Gorontalo pahikind of marine fish with skin like sandpaper
Bolaang Mongondow pagistingray; also a constellation: the Stingray
Buginese paristingray

3861

PCEMP     *paRi₁ stingray

CMP
Bimanese faistingray
Ngadha parisawfish
Sika parifish a fathom long
Kambera paristingray
Rotinese haistingray
Selaru arstingray
Yamdena farikind of ray fish; the constellation Scorpio
Fordata faristingray; the constellation Scorpio
Kei fārstingray; the constellation Scorpio
SHWNG
Kowiai farstingray
Buli stingray

3862

POC     *paRi₂ stingray

OC
Nali peystingray
Bipi paystingray
Levei pepstingray
Lindrou beystingray
Wuvulu paistingray
Label warstingray
Gedaged pazstingray
Gitua parstingray
Molima valistingray
Kilivila vaistingray
Nggela valia species of fish, ray, skate
Lau falistingray
'Āre'āre haristingray
Sa'a halistingray
Arosi haristingray
Gilbertese bai-manugiant ray, manta ray (Polynesian loan)
Puluwat fáári-yápkind of large but harmless ray fish
  fáyiray fish
Woleaian fai-yafile (a tool); rayfish (general term)
Mota var, varistingray
Rotuman haistingray
Fijian vaia ray or skate, Raiidae; also a string figure
Tongan faiskate or sting-ray
  fai kilikind of skate or sting-ray with very hard, rough skin from which rasps are made
Samoan faisting-ray, Dasyatis sp.
Rennellese haigeneral for rays and skate-like fishes
Maori whaiDasyatis brevicaudatus, sting-ray and Raja nasuta, skate
  te whai a titipathe "coalsack", a dark spot near the Southern Cross; cat's-cradle; play at cat's-cradle

3863

PMP     *paRih manuk large rayfish, probably manta or eagle ray

WMP
Tagalog pali-manókJavan cow-nosed ray
OC
Kwaio fali-manumanta ray
'Āre'āre hari-manubig ray fish
Tongan fai-manukind of skate or sting-ray
Kapingamarangi hai-manufish sp.: bar ray
Hawaiian hī-hī-manuvarious stingrays (Dasyatidae) and eagle rays (Myliobatidae) (with assimilation of *hai-hai to hī-hī).

Note:   Also Bare'e pagi ‘file, consisting of a block of wood wrapped in stingray skin’, Wolio pagi ‘ray (fish); file, grater, rasp’, Manggarai, Kambera pai ‘stingray’, all of which may be loans, though source languages are difficult to find for at least the first three words. This fish was valued for its rough skin, which was used like sandpaper.

PMP *paRih evidently described all skates and rays, and also referred to a constellation which was conceived as resembling a skate or ray. Three CMP languages which are either closely related or geographically contiguous agree in indicating Scorpio as the constellation in question, while Malay bintaŋ pari, Maori te whai a titipa both refer to the Southern Cross or to some feature that is visually near it. The reference to a string figure used in Cat's-cradle in Fiji and parts of Polynesia may derive historically from the constellation.

Finally, reflexes of PMP *paRih manuk vividly illustrate the value of loanwords in reconstruction. In a number of languages the larger manta or eagle rays are lexically identified with eagles or bats: Loniu menuay, Ahus menwa, Pak, Leipon menwey ‘sea eagle; spotted eagle ray’, Wuvulu, Aua manua ‘sea eagle’, Gapapaiwa manu-manua ‘small (=large?) sting ray’, Chamorro fanihen tasi (lit. ‘bat of the sea’) ‘manta ray, sting ray, leopard ray’. Reflexes such as Kwaio fali-manu, Tongan fai-manu thus apparently derive from POc *paRi manuk ‘manta ray, spotted eagle ray’ (lit. ‘bird ray’). This inference is confirmed by a single known non-Oceanic reflex, which is clearly a loan: Tagalog pali-manók. Given the larger pattern of known borrowing in Tagalog, one would naturally suspect Malay as the source of this term, but pari manok apparently does not occur in Malay. Despite the difficulty of identifying a source, however, Tagalog palimanók must derive from a WMP language and the inference to PMP *paRih manuk is inescapable.

27342

*paRo₁ drill through, pierce, perforate

3868

POC     *paRo₁ drill through, pierce, perforate

OC
Nggela valopierce a hole in a porpoise tooth, so as to string it
Kwaio falodrill a hole
  falo-faloa drill
'Āre'āre haropierce, bore, drill
Sa'a halobore into with circular motion, as feet into sand; twist a stick in making a hole; the flint point of a drill, haro mao
Nukuoro haodrill through, burrow
  hao-ŋaa hole in something
Maori whaoperforate, chisel out

Note:   Maori whao, given as a single dictionary entry with the meanings ‘perforate, chisel out’, probably reflects two etyma, POc *paRo₁ and POc *paqot ‘chisel’ (q.v.).

27343

*paRo₂ snatch, seize, rob

3869

POC     *paRo₂ snatch, seize, rob

OC
Nggela valorob openly, take and keep, refuse to return, an open act, unlike gito, steal
  valo-valoto rob
Samoan faosnatch, seize, grab; rob (of belongings, money, spouse)
Hawaiian haoscoop or pick up; grasp, pillage, plunder; robber

27344

*paRut pluck, uproot

3870

PMP     *paRut pluck, uproot

WMP
Ilokano párutpull up, grub up, uproot, pluck up by the roots, pull off, pluck (feathers, hair, etc.)
Ifugaw pálutpull out grass, weeds, small plants including the roots
Pangasinan pálotpull out
Gorontalo pahutouproot (plants), unsheathe (weapon)
OC
Kwaio faluremove, pluck

Note:   The resemblance of the isolated Kwaio form to the corresponding term in WMP languages may be a product of chance. If so, this etymology is reduced to a PPh innovation.

27347

*pasaqan shoulder pole; carry with a shoulder pole

3875

PAN     *pasaqan₁ shoulder pole; carry with a shoulder pole     [disjunct: *pesan]

Formosan
Thao patakazshoulder pole (one person, two loads)
  matakazcarry on a shoulder pole

3876

PMP     *pasaqan₂ shoulder pole; carry with a shoulder pole

WMP
Bikol paʔsáncarry on the shoulder
Cebuano pasʔáncarry something over the shoulders
CMP
Tetun hasancarry on the shoulders

30666

*pasek wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail, dowel, or fencepost

8184

PAN     *pasek wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail, dowel, or fencepost     [doublet: *pacek]

Formosan
Amis paceka nail, nails
  mi-pacekto nail, hammer a nail into
Puyuma paseknail; hammer in a nail
  mi-pasekhave a nail in
WMP
Itbayaten paseknail
  i-pask-endowel, made of tañod (mulberry) tree
Kankanaey pásekwedge
Ifugaw páhokwedge used to cleave logs before they can be split and serve as firewood
Bikol pásokwooden peg
  mag-pásokput something together with such pegs
Kenyah (Long Anap) pasəkinsert something into something else
  masəkenter
Iban pasaktreenail, dowel, peg, wedge; fix with these
Malay pasakfastening or tightening with a bolt, peg or wedge
  pasak-kan sepatu kudato shoe a horse
Rejang pasoʔnail (metal)

8185

PCEMP     *pasekₐ drive in, as a stake; to plant (crops)

CMP
Komodo paséʔto plant (as rice, or bananas)
Manggarai pacekdrive in a stake (in making a fence); to plant, as rice; planted
Ngadha pasoto plant, as rice
Dobel ʔa-yayito plant

8186

POC     *pasok to plant (crops)

OC
Vitu vazo ~ vazo-vazoto plant
  vazoh-iato be planted
Gitua vazokto plant
Motu hado ~ hado-hadoto plant
Tawala wagoplant by pushing into the ground; to strike a cutting
Proto-Micronesian *faSoplanted; to plant; a planted thing
Chuukese fótoplanting
Puluwat fótto plant, insert, pick out, select; to be inserted, selected
Woleaian fata plant
  fato-giplant it, put it in place
  fato-goplant set aside for a particular purpose, usually for planting at a new taro patch or new garden
Pohnpeian pɔdto be planted
  pɔdokto plant (something)
Gilbertese arok-aa plant, cultivated plants
Mota wasto drive a hole, make a hole by hammering in some tool, as to drive holes through the plank side-pieces with a shell tool, and lash them to the hull

Note:   Also Mbula paaza ‘to plant, put into ground’. Ross (1988:88) reconstructed POc *pasoq ‘plant (tuber+)’, but this form appears to contain the monosyllabic root *-sek ‘insert, stick into a soft surface’ (Blust 1988), thus forcing an interpretation that the final consonant, which is ambiguous in nearly all languages he considered, is *k, not *q.

27348

*paspas beat out, thresh

3877

PAN     *paspas beat out, thresh

Formosan
Amis pacpacbeat hard; thresh out; hit with twigs
WMP
Bikol paspása method of threshing in which the rice is beaten with sticks

27349

*pasu cheek bone

3878

PMP     *pasu cheek bone     [doublet: *pasuŋ]

WMP
Chamorro fasucheek, face
Old Javanese pasuroot of the nose
Makasarese pasuprominent cheek bones
CMP
Bimanese pahuface
Manggarai pacucheek
Li'o pasucheek
Selaru asu-kecheek, jaw, molar teeth
Proto-Sub-Ambon *pasu-cheek

27350

*pasuŋ cheek bone

3879

PMP     *pasuŋ cheek bone     [doublet: *pasu]

WMP
Kankanaey pásoŋupper jawbone
Javanese pasuŋbridge of the nose, root of the nose
CMP
Sika pahuŋcheek

27299

*pantad sandbank, sandbar; shore, beach

3816

PWMP     *pantad sandbank, sandbar; shore, beach

WMP
Ata pantadshore
Binukid pantadshore
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pantadsand; beach of a river; sandbar
Tiruray fantadthe ground, earth, land; patched with mud; hike along a beach
Bilaan (Koronadal) fantadshore
Boano pantadsandbank
Totoli pandadshore, beach
Dondo pantadEshore, beach

27351

*pataq break, broken, cut through

3880

PMP     *pataq break, broken, cut through

WMP
Maranao pataʔcut down
Iban patahbreak, snap (something long) (Scott 1956); broken, snap, break across (Richards 1981)
Malay patahfracture; the snapping of a stick or limb
Sasak pataʔcut rice stalks, harvest the rice
Uma pataʔcut through
CMP
Hawu padabroken

27374

*pa(n)tar₁ level, flat

3907

PMP     *pa(n)tar₁ level, flat     [disjunct: *paCaR, *pataR]

WMP
Ilokano pantártreeless plain; (in some districts) shore, land immediately bordering on a stream
Maranao pantarlevel, flat, even, plane surface
Kelabit pataralluvial plain
Malay patarwooden rasp
Sundanese pantarequal (in age, height, strength, beauty, etc.)
Banggai pantalflat, level
CMP
Manggarai pantarflat nest (as the nest of the turtle-dove)

27375

*pa(n)tar₂ shelf; bed frame of wooden or bamboo laths

3908

PMP     *pa(n)tar₂ shelf; bed frame of wooden or bamboo laths

WMP
Tagalog pantal-ánwooden or bamboo pier
Toba Batak pantarshelf in wood-shed made of wooden or bamboo laths; also the support for a mattress made of sugar-palm mid-ribs
CMP
Yamdena fatarbamboo-slat bed
SHWNG
Numfor-Biak fakerfoundation of stones, wood, etc.
Windesi patarbed, sleeping place
OC
Motu patashelf, table
Dobuan pata-pataraplatform
'Āre'āre stage, shelf, small platform above the fireplace, used as a depository
Fijian vatashelf, loft, platform; bed in a corner of a native house
Samoan fatashelf, trestle
Hawaiian hakashelf, perch, platform

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Toba Batak pantar to *pa(n)tar ‘elevation’, and Fijian vata, Samoan fata to *bataŋ ‘stalk, trunk’.

29868

*pataR shelf

6517

POC     *pataR shelf

OC
Tawala watalashelf
Tongan fataloft or wide rack (for sleeping on, or for keeping food or other things on); stretcher, litter
Niue fatashelf, stage, cage, upper story of a house, stretcher
Samoan fatashelf, as of bamboo; stretcher, litter
Rennellese hataplatform, canoe platform, perch, shelf; raised floors of present-day houses; the ancient traditional house and its platform; perch formerly used in netting doves
Anuta patastorage shelf inside a house
Kapingamarangi hadaplatform on outrigger boom; wooden bed
Tuvaluan fatashelf of thin sticks across house above head height for the storage of coconuts, etc.
Rarotongan ataan elevated staging erected especially for storing food and for other purposes
Maori whataelevated stage for storing food and for other purposes
Hawaiian hakashelf, perch, platform; roost, as for chickens; fish spear rack; rack for suspending water gourds or other household objects; rack attached to booms of double canoe to hold spears; ladder

27300

*pantay flat, level (of ground)

3817

PWMP     *pantay flat, level (of ground)     [doublet: *pa(n)tar₁]

WMP
Tagalog pantáyof the same height or level
Bikol mag-pantáyto level off (something)
Maranao pantayfield, meadow
Tiruray fantaylevel
Iban pantaiearth, soil, mud, (at sea) mud bottom
Malay pantaibeach, coast

27301

*pantek spotted, dappled

3818

PWMP     *pantek spotted, dappled     [disjunct: *paCak]

WMP
Kankanaey pantékspotted, speckled; marked with spots; stained
Iban pantakhaving spot of different color, usually of animal's head

Note:   With root PAn *-Cek, PMP *-tek ‘mottled pattern’.

27352

*patek clicking sound

3881

PWMP     *patek clicking sound

WMP
Singhi Land Dayak patokparts of gun; hammer
Wolio patomake a sound, tok!

Note:   With root *-tek₁ ‘clicking or light knocking sound’.

27353

*patik mottled pattern

3882

PWMP     *patik mottled pattern     [doublet: *beCik 'tattoo']

WMP
Cebuano pátiktattoo, mark with a brand
Sundanese patékframboesia
Javanese patikspots, freckles
  paṭèkframboesia

27376

*pa(n)tik sound of ticking, flipping, light tapping

3909

PWMP     *pa(n)tik sound of ticking, flipping, light tapping     [doublet: *pa(n)tuk₂ 'sound of knocking']

WMP
Ilokano patíksound of the slipper against the heel
Tagalog patíkpick-axe
Hanunóo patíktapping on the rim of metal dance gongs with pamatík (set of bamboo tappers)
Aklanon patíkbeat, rhythm, count (in music) drumstick
Iban pantikto nail
Malay pantékstriking together two hard substances, esp. flint and steel

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned Malay panték to *pa(n)tik ‘pointed’. I assume that this form contains the root *-tik₂ ‘sound of light tapping’.

30730

*patoto sticks that connect the float to the booms of an outrigger canoe

8336

PEMP     *patoto sticks that connect the float to the booms of an outrigger canoe

SHWNG
Numfor-Biak fakokforked sticks that connect the outrigger float to the booms
OC
Gedaged patotkind of tree; wooden pegs made from the wood of a patot tree. They are used to fasten the aiad (outrigger booms) to the sam (outrigger float) of a canoe
Tawala patotospikes (vertical) on outrigger
Tubetube patotocanoe outrigger vertical cross supports
Mota vatotopins which fasten the yoke-pieces to the outrigger of a canoe
Wayan vatotosticks fastening the outrigger (cama) to the booms which connect it to the hull of a canoe

Note:   Also Mbula petete ‘outrigger pegs (connect the outrigger of a canoe to the outrigger boom that joins with the hull of a canoe)’, Gilbertese toto ‘a forked piece of wood joining floater to rest of outrigger’, Fijian vātoto ‘the sticks driven into the outrigger of the camakau (single-hulled outrigger canoe), lashed at the top to the extremities of the kaso (crossbeam fastening together the outrigger and the hull of a canoe)’. This comparison was first proposed by Milke (1968), who cited words from a number of still poorly-attested languages (Mukawa, Arifama, Kilenge, Siassi, Tobadi, Ingrau, Entsau, Yenbi, etc.), and included forms from the two Polynesian Outliers in Micronesia which do not appear in more recent publications, and are phonologically impossible in these languages (viz. Kapingamarangi fatoto, Nukuoro atoto, where neither of these languages has an /f/ or a short /t/). The PEMP form is ambiguous for *patotaw or *patotək (Blust 1981: 215).

29987

*patu joint, node

6676

POC     *patu₁ joint, node

OC
Mussau patujoint (of elbow, knee); node (of sugarcane, etc.)
Nggela patujoint in bamboo; knot

Note:   An apparent synonym of POc *puku; the semantic distinction between these terms remains to be worked out.

27377

*pa(n)tuk₁ apex, peak

3910

PWMP     *pa(n)tuk₁ apex, peak

WMP
Ilokano pantóktop, apex, summit (mountains, houses); tip of the nose (when long)
  pátoksummit, apex, top, peak, crest
Javanese paṭukpromontory

Note:   With root *-tuk ‘top, summit, crown’. In Blust (1988) the initial consonant of this root was ambiguous, and was written *t.

27378

*pa(n)tuk₂ sound of knocking

3911

PWMP     *pa(n)tuk₂ sound of knocking

WMP
Cebuano pantukknock something against something else
Maranao patokaxe, hatchet
Moken matokchop a tree partly through, lop off
Javanese paṭokpicket, post (pounded into the ground as a sign)
  di-paṭok-ifirmly pounded in (of a post)
Sasak pantokwoodpecker spp.; hit, strike; play a percussion instrument

Note:   Moken matok is assumed to reflect verb-forming nasal substitution.

27354

*patuŋ large, thick, bamboo sp.

3883

PWMP     *patuŋ large, thick, bamboo sp.     [doublet: *betuŋ₁]

WMP
Cebuano patuŋkind of thick, straight and smooth bamboo: Gigantochloa levis
Malay p-em-atoŋbamboo conduit
Bolaang Mongondow patuŋkind of bamboo used as a water vessel
Bare'e patukind of large bamboo: Dendrocalamus flagellifer
Tae' patuŋ, pattuŋkind of large bamboo: D. flagellifer
Makasarese pattuŋkind of large bamboo

Note:   Also Malay (Jakarta) awi biguŋ ‘large bamboo: Dendrocalamus spp.’, pering pituŋ ‘id’, Balinese petuŋ ‘very thick bamboo, sections of which are used for storing water’.

27355

*pauq a tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia

3884

PMP     *pauq a tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia

WMP
Chamorro fagoʔa tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia
Palauan uáuʔtree in periwinkle family: Ochrosia oppositifolia

3885

POC     *paoq (ʔ) a tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia

OC
Tongan faotree with white flowers and coarse-husked oval fruit about 3" long: Ochrosia parviflora
Samoan faosmall shore tree (Ochrosia sp.)
Tuvaluan faotree sp.: Ochrosia oppositifolia
Hawaiian haoall native species of a genus of small trees (Rauvolfia) related to the maile and the hōlei. Four or five narrow leaves are borne together at joints of branches; many small, yellowish flowers develop, and then small, black, flattened, twinned, inverted, heart-shaped fruits

Note:   The sporadic lowering of high vowels is a recurrent phenomenon in Oceanic languages. Where the Oceanic witnesses are confined to a single close-knit subgroup, as in the present case, it cannot be determined whether such a change took place in POc itself, or in some lower-order proto-language.

30223

*pawikan sea turtle

7081

PPh     *pawikan sea turtle

WMP
Ilokano pawíkansea turtle
Casiguran Dumagat pawikanlarge sea turtle; to hunt for sea turtles by going along the beach at night with torches, looking for the females which come ashore to lay their eggs
Tagalog pawíkantortoise; the large turtle that lives more in the sea
Bikol pawíkantortoise
Hiligaynon pawíkansea turtle
Aklanon pawíkanlarge sea turtle
Waray-Waray pawíkanturtle
Cebuano pawíkansea turtle; be affected by a sea turtle, i.e. be unable to come apart in intercourse (from sorcery where the penis of a sea turtle is hidden in the clothing of an adulterer so that he cannot disengage when he has intercourse)
  p<in>awíkancrying with a profuse flow of tears (like a sea turtle is said to do)
  pawikan-untending to cry easily (as women)
Maranao pawikangiant turtle
Sangir puikaŋturtle
Tombulu puikansea turtle
Tontemboan poikansea turtle

Note:   Also Palawan Batak payukan ‘turtle’, Tausug payukan ‘sea turtle’ (with reversal of syllabicity in the glide-vowel sequence, and reordering to preserve a CV- syllable shape). This word is a clear replacement innovation for PMP *peñu ‘green turtle’, which is widespread elsewhere, and is thus part of the lexical evidence for a Philippine group of Austronesian languages.

27356

*paya kind of small fish, probably sardine or anchovy

3886

PMP     *paya kind of small fish, probably sardine or anchovy

WMP
Chamorro fayaanchovy: Thrissina baelama (family Engraulidae)
OC
Fijian vayasmall fish like the daniva (similar to a sardine), but with a red tail
Samoan fish (Megalops sp.) found in marshes and river mouths

Note:   This etymon may have ended in *d, *D, or *k.

30083

*payan bait

6797

PCEMP     *payan bait     [disjunct: *bayan₁]

CMP
Yamdena fayanbeachworm; bait

6798

POC     *bayan₃ bait

OC
Sa'a pasathe stern bonito hook, trailed behind the canoe, made anciently of clam with a tortoise shell barb
Woleaian pabait, anything used as a lure
Fijian bacaworm; hence bait for fishing
Hawaiian pearl-shell lure

30260

*payapay to wave, flap

7142

PPh     *payapay to wave, flap     [doublet: *paypáy]

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat payapáyto beckon with the hand for someone to come to you
Bontok payápayto beckon; to flap, of the ears of some pigs
Kankanaey i-payápayto beckon, to call beckoning with the hand
Ibaloy man-payapayto wave, flap (as a blanket on the back of a running person)
Hanunóo payapáyfin of a fish
Maranao payapayshake, tremble, vibrate; wave

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat pəyapəy ‘soldier crab, Ditilla mictyroides (not edible); waves his front claw in a beckoning motion. This dried claw is used as a good luck charm; kept in a box with money it is said to cause the money to increase with its beckoning motion’, Casiguran Dumagat pəypəy ‘to signal to someone with your hands to be quiet’.

30259

*paypáy to wave the hand, as in beckoning someone or in fanning oneself

7141

PPh     *paypáy to wave the hand, as in beckoning someone or in fanning oneself     [doublet: *payapay]

WMP
Itbayaten paypayidea of waving hands (as a greeting or sign)
  ma-maypayto fan
  paypay-anto fan
  paypay-ento wave hands
Ilokano paypáya fan
  ag-paypáyto fan oneself
  paypáy-anto fan someone
Casiguran Dumagat paypáyto fan, as to fan oneself on a hot day, or to fan a fire
Bontok paypáyto beckon; to flap, of the ears of some pigs
Ibaloy man-paypayto wave, stir the air (as flag, shirt tail or runner); to wave with one’s hand --- sideways to greet someone, outward to tell someone to go, toward oneself to summon to come
Pangasinan paypáya fan
  man-paypáyto fan
Kapampangan pepemake waving motion, fan oneself
  pa-mepea fan
Tagalog paypáya fan
  mag-paypáyto fan
  paypay-ánto fan someone or something
Bikol mag-paypáyto beckon to, motion to someone to come
  paypay-ánto wave at
  paypay-ónto beckon to, motion to someone to come
Hanunóo paypáybeckoning, always with a downward motion of the hand
  mag-paypáyto beckon
Masbatenyo páypayhand fan
  mag-páypayto wave
  paypáy-onto wave
Hiligaynon mag-páypayto fan for air; to beckon to, to call back with a hand gesture
Aklanon páypayto beckon to, call over by waving one’s hands
Waray-Waray paypáyfolding fan, electric fan
  paypay-íto fan, stir the air
Cebuano paypáyfan; kind of thin, fan-shaped bivalve, found in sandy seabeds, of no food value
  pa-máypayto fan oneself
Binukid paypayto fan someone or something vigorously
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peypeya fan

27357

*payupas sweep

3887

PWMP     *payupas sweep

WMP
Cebuano payúpasfan, any device used for fanning
Maranao payopasbroom, sweep
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peyufasbroom
Miri pupa, fupasweep

TOP      pe    pi    po    pu    pw    

pe

30412

*pea where?

7545

POC     *pea where?     [doublet: *pia]

OC
Mussau eawhere?
Tongan what place, which place; which thing, which one, which
Niue which?, where?, when? (used as adjective and adverb)
Samoan ʔi feawhere to?
  mai feawhere from?
  ʔo feawhere?
Nukuoro heewhere?, what kind?, which?
Rennellese heawhich?, what?, where?
Tuvaluan feawhere?
Maori heainterrogative: what place?; indefinite: any place
  pē-heainterrogative. Of what sort, character, appearance, etc.; do or treat in what way, act in what way
Hawaiian heawhich (in questions and after other words); where (in questions, and after ai, ʔau, i, ma-, mai, no, ʔo; why, why not (in questions after i)
  ka-hea halewhich house?
  ma-hea ka halewhere is the house?
  pe-heahow?, what?, how about it?

30451

*pecel [squeeze with the hand]

7620

PWMP     *pecel squeeze with the hand

WMP
Tagalog pisílsqueezing with the hand
Maranao peselpress, as button between fingers
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peselsqueeze something between finger and thumb
Iban pecalpinch, squeeze, grasp
Malay pecalcrush between the fingers, squeeze in the hand

30449

*peceq break into several large pieces

7615

PAN     *peceq₁ break into several large pieces

Formosan
Paiwan peteqa break, split (in glass, pottery)
  ma-peteqbecome broken
Puyuma peseʔbreak
  mu-peseʔbe broken, as a bottle or calabash

7616

PMP     *peceq₂ break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg

WMP
Ilokano pessáhatch from an egg
Kapampangan apsáʔto hatch, of an egg
Tagalog pisáʔcrushed, pressed, compressed; hatched, of eggs
Cebuano pusáʔcrush or squash something soft; break something fragile; hatch an egg
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pesaʔsmash something, as an egg, a caterpillar, or somebodys body or head
Rhade mcahbroken
Malay pecahbreakage into bits
Karo Batak pecahbroken, in pieces; burst out, erupt, of a volcano
Balinese pecahto break, break in pieces
Sangir pesaʔcrush flat; smash to bits; hatch, of eggs
Bare'e posobroken, of hard, brittle things; hatched, of eggs

7617

POC     *posaq break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg

OC
Nggela posabreak, of a boil; burst, of a football
Kwaio a-botaopen; hatched, of eggs; smashed; break making big noise
  bo-botarubbish heap
  bota-niu-ŋaritual breaking open of coconut
Toqabaqita a-botaof an egg: hatch; of a state of affairs: happen, occur, take place
Sa'a potato break by knocking one thing against another
  pota niuto crack coconuts
Ulawa pota-arubbish heap; refuse; dung
'Āre'āre apotaegg
Arosi botabreak by knocking on something else, as an egg on bamboo
Wayan vocabe run aground by force; be wrecked in this way
  voca-vocabe damaged, etc.
Fijian vocato be wrecked on a reef, of a canoe (stronger than kasa to run aground, of a canoe)
Tongan foato break (a cup, stone, rock, etc., not a stick); to cut (ripe coconut) in halves
  foa-ʔito break
  fō-foa-ʔito hatch (of eggs or chicks)
Samoan foabreak (rock or shell); hatch, of eggs
  faʔa-foa(of a boil) come up, form
Tuvaluan foabreak (a nut, head, canoe, etc.)
  fo-foato hatch (of eggs), break the hymen and hence be first to have intercourse with a virgin
  faka-foaa boil; be big (of waves)
Rennellese hoato crack, as nuts of tagie (Terminalia) or baga (Barringtonia) trees; to cut or lacerate the forehead, as with axe, stone, or knife in mourning; to break or hatch, as an egg; to bump, as the head; to smash; to drive fish into a seine, as by beating the sea with sticks or by throwing stones
  hoa-ʔakito split, as wood
Nukuoro h-hoacrack open; break into pieces; cut a hole in
  hoa laloanvil or other hard object (such as a stone) on which something can be struck hard; mortar stone
Hawaiian hoato strike with a stick or club; to club; a club
  hoa-hoatapa beater, washing stick

7618

POC     *ma-posaq broken

OC
Sa'a ma-potabroken to pieces
Tuvaluan ma-foabe broken (of dawn)

Note:   Also Kapingamarangi baa to burst; to hatch. Since most languages show merger of *e and *a before a final *q, the reconstruction of the last-syllable vowel of this form depends critically on Paiwan and Puyuma in Taiwan, and on Bare'e in central Sulawesi.

27382

*peCik snap, as the fingers or a slingshot

3919

PAN     *peCik snap, as the fingers or a slingshot     [doublet: *pitik]

Formosan
Paiwan petsiksnap the fingers
WMP
Tagalog pitíkfillip; sound of starting combustion (of wood, coal, etc.)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) petikslingshot
Malay petékplucking at; picking (flowers), playing (stringed instruments); snapping the fingers
Balinese peṭikpick fruit or flowers, break off with the finger
Proto-Minahasan *petikheartbeat; to beat (of heart)
CMP
Yamdena petiksnap off with the fingers; shoot pellets with a flexible lathe

Note:   With root *-Cik ‘spring up, flicking motion’. Based on the comparison Malay petik ‘plucking at; picking (flowers)’, Javanese petik ‘that which is picked; act of picking’, Fijian veti ‘to pluck fruit’ Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *peTik ‘pluck off’. However, the Fijian form is irregular, and Dempwolff's comparison is otherwise restricted to two languages with a long history of mutual borrowing.

27383

*pedek wink, blink

3920

PAN     *pedek wink, blink

Formosan
Amis pdekto put out, as when lights are turned off
  sa-pdekeyelashes, something for blinking
  mapa-pdekto blink
WMP
Maranao perekwink

Note:   Also Kayan pejep ‘flickering, blinking, of a light’. Zorc (1971) posits PPh *peDek ‘wink’.

27384

*pedet pack in tightly

3921

PMP     *pedet pack in tightly

WMP
Tae' pedeʔclose up well, of a hole; pack earth in tightly; press a plug in tightly so that there is no leak
CMP
Manggarai perettight, of clothes

Note:   With root *-det ‘packed in, compressed’.

27385

*pedped press together, pack solid

3922

PAN     *pedped press together, pack solid

Formosan
Amis pedpedto crown, pack solid
WMP
Bontok pədpədpress together; to compact, as soil, by stepping on it
Malay (Kedah) penoh pepatchockfull; crowded

27386

*pegeŋ hold firmly,

3923

PWMP     *pegeŋ hold firmly, concentrate     [doublet: *pegaŋ, *pigeŋ]

WMP
Maranao pegeŋfirmly, hold strongly
Old Javanese pegeŋrestrain, hold back (feelings, breath)
Balinese pegeŋhold one's breath, sit quite still, not move a muscle; be deep in thought
Sasak pegeŋstick to, be tenacious

30798

*peget triggerfish

8542

PWMP     *peget triggerfish

WMP
Cebuano pugútname given to triggerfishes, especially species with very small mouths (as opposed to the pakul, which have larger mouths)
  pugut-un ug baʔbaʔhaving a small mouth
Mapun paggota small triggerfish

Note:   Despite its limited distribution this form is not likely to be a loanword in either language, and Mapun, like other Samalan languages, appears to subgroup with the Barito languages of southeast Kalimantan rather than with their neighbors in the Philippines.

27387

*pegpeg, peRpeR to box, give a blow

3924

PWMP     *pegpeg, peRpeR to box, give a blow

WMP
Bikol págpágbeat to remove dust (as from a rug)
Maranao pepegbox, give a blow
Sasak pepekhit, strike
  p-em-epekwhat one hits with
Lun Dayeh peperhitting, pounding
Melanau (Mukah) mupah (passiveː pipah)beat, thrash

Note:   Also Javanese peg ‘sound of a hard blow on the side of the head, as when one's ears are boxed’.

27391

*peka separate, disconnect

3928

PMP     *peka separate, disconnect

WMP
Ilokano pekkábreak, shatter, smash; open forcibly (as someone's fist)
Cebuano pukabreak something that is attached to something by holding tight to it
Maranao pekabreak, snap, as chains
Tiruray fekadisconnect; get rid of
Kanowit pekapart, separate (Roth 1896)
CMP
Buruese peka-hthrow out, do away with
OC
Nggela vogato separate, as two men fighting
  vokadivide, separate, divorce
Sa'a hokaburst open, come apart
Arosi hoadivide, cleave asunder, separate
  hogacome apart

Note:   Mills (1975:807) proposes "Proto-Indonesian" ?*p(uɨ)ka(qo) ‘split, break apart’, but, of the material he presents, only Madurese pekka ‘split in two’ appears to belong to the present cognate set.

27388

*pekak to cackle

3925

PWMP     *pekak to cackle     [doublet: *tekak]

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pekakof a hen, to cackle
Iban em-pekak(of a hen after laying an egg) cackle

27415

*pe(ŋ)kaŋ stretch open or apart

3953

PMP     *pe(ŋ)kaŋ stretch open or apart     [disjunct: *peka 'separate, disconnect']

WMP
Iban pekaŋwith arms or legs stretched out
  pekaŋ kayuʔfork of a tree
Javanese peŋkaŋ-aninter-space
OC
Nggela vokadivide, separate, divorce
Arosi hokamove the legs apart, stretch the legs

Note:   Mills (1975:803) posits Proto-South Sulawesi *pe(ŋ)ka ‘branching off; hooklike’. This item is assumed to contain a root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.

27389

*pekaq split

3926

PWMP     *pekaq split

WMP
Kenyah pekaʔsplit open
Bare'e pokasplit, torn, rent

Note:   With root *-kaq₂ ‘split’.

27390

*pekaw ritual shout(?)

3927

PWMP     *pekaw ritual shout(?)

WMP
Isneg pakkáwto shout; extol one's former exploits (in headhunting) -- this is done at the time of a solemn sacrifice, when the braves are supposed to be ridden by the spirit aŋlabbāŋ; to curse -- this is done shouting, so that the object of the curse may hear it
Malay pekauyell, scream, other than a cry of pain or appeal for help

27392

*pekpek₁ beat, hit

3929

PAN     *pekpek₁ beat, hit

Formosan
Amis mi-pekpekbeat, hit
WMP
Melanau (Mukah) pepekwhip
Karo Batak pekpekbeat, strike

Note:   With root *-pek ‘beat, hit’.

27393

*pekpek₂ swarm together

3930

PWMP     *pekpek₂ swarm together

WMP
Kankanaey pekpékfill, swarm in, overrun
Ilokano pekpékcrammed, stuffed, packed
Malay pepakfull, fully attended
Javanese pepekcompletely assembled
Balinese pepekall together, complete
Sasak mepek, pepekswarm together

27394

*pekuq₁ bend, curve

3931

PMP     *pekuq₁ bend, curve     [doublet: *teku]

WMP
Maranao pekoʔbent, bend, crooked
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pekuʔbend something
Tiruray fekuʔbend
Uma pokuʔspherical
OC
Nggela vogucurl over before breaking (of a wave)
Arosi pokupokudraw up the legs

Note:   Also Makasarese pekkoʔ ‘bent, curved’.

27395

*pekuq₂ nape of the neck

3932

PWMP     *pekuq₂ nape of the neck

WMP
Ilokano pakkóneck (of the cow, etc.)
Miri fekuʔnape of the neck
Narum pekuʔnape of the neck

Note:   Possibly identical to *pekuq₁ ‘bend, curve’.

27396

*pela pela shout, exclaim

3933

POC     *pela pela shout, exclaim

OC
Roviana velavelato shout, as an official at a gathering, a man in anger, etc.
Fijian vela, velavelainterjection of surprise

27397

*pelus slip off

3934

PAN     *pelus slip off

Formosan
Amis plocpull off (as a ring), disengage (as to let down a baby that has been tied on its mother's back)
WMP
Maranao pelosslip off

Note:   With root *-lus ‘slip off’.

27398

*penpen to provision, fill up

3935

PWMP     *penpen to provision, fill up

WMP
Maranao pempenprovision sufficiently
Balinese penpenput into, fill with

30186

*penuq full, of a container

6986

PAN     *penuq full, of a container

WMP
Itbayaten a-pnoidea of being filled up
Isneg pannófull; fullness
Ibaloy pe-pno-ento fill something, as a cup
Pangasinan panóto fill to overflowing
Tagalog punóʔfull, filled, rife
Bikol panóʔfull, crowded
  panóʔ-pánoʔvery full; crowded, packed, teeming
Hanunóo punúʔfull
Hiligaynon punúʔfull to capacity
  mag-punúʔto fill to capacity
Aklanon punóʔfull; to fill up (as a bottle with liquid)
Waray-Waray puno-áto fill to capacity
Cebuano púnuʔfilled, full; covered with something; fill up a container or space
Mapun pannoʔto be full (as a jar, room, container, airplane, etc.); to have more than enough (with regard to wealth)
Maranao penoʔfill up (as a grave with dirt)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) penuʔto fill something
Binukid punuʔto fill up (a container or a space)
Tiruray fenoʔto be full
Tboli hnokto fill up (as a glass with water); full (as a sack full of corn)
Yakan pennoʔfull (as a suitcase full of clothes); to fill something with something
Kadazan ponuʔto fill; to be full
Tarakan panohfull
Kelabit penuʔfull (as a basket or bag)
Berawan (Long Terawan) pənofull
Kenyah pənoʔfull
Kayan pənufull
Kayan (Uma Juman) pənufull
Kiput pənauʔfull, as a container
Melanau (Mukah) pənuʔfull
Malagasy fenofull, complete
  feno mantabrimful, wastefully running over (as a cooking pot in which too much rice has been placed to boil)
Iban penohfill; be full (as a jar full of rice beer)
Moken penufull; flowing, of tide
Malay penohfull, replete
  penoh tepatbrimful, full to the brim
Acehnese peunòhfull, as a rice field full of water; laden
  buleuën peunòhfull moon
Simalur əno-eto fill, as a bamboo water container
Lampung penuhfull
Old Javanese penuhfull; filling, filling all; complete in number; in masses, in droves
Javanese penuhfull
  menuhto fulfill
Balinese penuhbe full of
Sasak penoʔfull
Dampelas ponufull, as a container
Pendau ponufull, as a container
Tae' ponnofull; filled
Uma ponuʔfull
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *ponofull
Mandar pannofull
  panno-ito fill up
Makasarese pannofull
Muna ponofull, as a honey jar full of ants
CMP
Manggarai penofull, as a plate full of rice, or a vessel full of liquid
Rembong penoʔfull
Rotinese henuto fill; full, as a house full of people, a river in full stream
Kambera pínuto fill
Lamaholot pənũto fill, fill up
Leti penufull
Wetan penifull, to fill (as a village with graves, a garden with plants)
Erai penufull
Asilulu penuto be at the peak (of the tide)

6987

POC     *ponuq full, of a container

OC
Vitu vonufull
Lakalai volufull
Gitua vonfull
Mbula penbe full, be filled; high (used of water)
Motu honuto be full, as a water pot with water
Mono-Alu fonu(na)full
  fa-fonuto fill
Bugotu vonufull, fullness
  vonu-afull
Nggela vonuto be full
  vonu-afull
  vonu-giafilled
  na vonuthe best
Kwaio fonufull
  fonu mamaŋilifull to the top
Sa'a honufull
  honu makeatefull to overflowing
  äsi e honuhigh spring tide
'Āre'āre honufull
Arosi honuto fill
  honu-siafilled
Gilbertese onfull, filled; fullness
Tongan fonufull: of container or its contents, or of a notebook, etc.
Rennellese honuto be full of liquid; to be flooded or full of puddles; to rise, of the tide; to be juicy, as a fruit or shredded coconut; to be watery, as some rice; to be shipping water, as a canoe
Kapingamarangi honuto fill; filled
  honu tulafull to the brim, brimming
Nukuoro honufull
  honu-afilled with
  honu taihigh tide

6988

PMP     *ma-penuq full

WMP
Itbayaten m-apnofull
Isneg ma-pnóto be filled
Ibaloy me-pnofull, both of the container and its contents
Tagalog ma-punóʔto be filled, become full (as a well)
Mapun ma-pannoʔto fill
Simalur ma-ənofull, filled
Banggai mo-ono <Afull
  mo-ono ko tobuiflood
CMP
Ngadha benufull, as a pot full of rice
Kambera mbínufull, as a house full of people, a village full of graves, a boat full of water

6989

PWMP     *maŋ-penuq to fill

WMP
Mapun mannoʔto fill
Yakan mennoʔto fill something with something
Kadazan mo-monuʔto fill
Kelabit menuʔto fill
Malagasy ma-menoto fill, fill up
Iban pasaŋ menohhigh tide; the tide is high
Malay me-menuh-ito fill, fill up
Simalur maŋ-əno-eto fill, as a bamboo water container
Old Javanese a-menuh-ito fill, make complete

6990

PPh     *na-penuq filled

WMP
Itbayaten n-apnofilled
Ibanag na-pnuʔfilled, full
Ilokano na-pnófilled, full
Isneg na-pnófull, filled
Itawis na-pánnufull
Pangasinan na-pnófull
Hanunóo na-pnúʔalready filled up
Binukid na-punuʔfilled

6991

PMP     *pa-penuq to fill, cause to become full

WMP
Mapun pa-pannoʔto be becoming full
Uma po-ponuʔto fill
Muna fo-ponoto fill up, cram

6992

POC     *pa-ponuq to fill, cause to become full

OC
Bugotu va-vonuto fill

6993

PWMP     *ka-penuq-an act of filling?

WMP
Tagalog ka-punu-nánwhat is still lacking and must be added to make something full or complete
Kadazan ko-ponu-anact of filling
Old Javanese ka-penuh-anto fill, make complete

6994

PWMP     *p<in>enuq filled

WMP
Isneg p<in>nófilled
Kadazan p<in>onuʔfilled
Kelabit p<i>nuʔwas filled

6995

PWMP     *p<um>enuq to fill, make complete

WMP
Tboli h<em>nokto fill up
Old Javanese um-enuh-ito fill, make complete

6996

PWMP     *penuq-an to fill

WMP
Isneg pannow-ánto fill
Ibaloy pe-pno-anto make something thus sufficient
Tagalog púnú-anfully loaded, as a passenger vehicle
  punu-ánto add to something what is necessary to complete it or fill it (locative stress)
Mapun pannoʔ-anfill it!
Yakan pennoʔ-anto fill something with something
Tae' ponno-anto fill for (someone); fulness; be full

6997

PWMP     *penuq-en to fill; fill it!

WMP
Itbayaten a-pno-ento fill up, make full
Bikol panoʔ-ónto fill something up
Hiligaynon punúʔ-unto fill to capacity
Mapun pannoʔ-unfill it!
Tboli hnok-enfill it!
Kadazan ponu-onto be filled
Malagasy feno-inato be filled or made complete

6998

PMP     *penuq sakay overwhem in numbers?

WMP
Tae' ponno saecome in throngs, of people; to pour, of rain, rain cats and dogs

6999

POC     *ponuq sake full to the top

OC
Motu honu-honu-daebe full to the top
Gilbertese on rakefull to the top

Note:   Also Yamdena féni ‘full (as with water)’. This is one of the most basic stative verbs/adjectives in Austronesian languages. It is thus surprising that reflexes of *ma-penuq are completely unknown in the Oceanic group, despite the fact that this prefix was so tightly bound in other stems (as *ma-sakit ‘painful, sick’, or *ma-takut ‘afraid’) that it became fossilized in many of the modern languages, and possibly in Proto-Oceanic itself. PMP *penuq evidently referred to fullness and filling of containers with liquid or solid material; however, in many of the reflexes is also used in a somewhat more abstract sense, as with people filling a room or graves filling a village. Finally, the glosses for Iban Moken Asilulu Sa'a Rennellese and Nukuoro show clearly that this word also figured in expressions relating to periods of high tide, the point at which the sea’s expanse reaches its ‘fullest’.

30187

*peñu sea turtle

7000

PAN     *peñu₁ sea turtle

Formosan
Kavalan pənusea turtle (generic for all sea turtles, including the hawksbill)
Puyuma pənuturtle (Ting 1978)

7001

PMP     *peñu₂ the green turtle, Chelonia mydas

WMP
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) pɨnuriver turtle
Subanun (Siocon) ponuturtle
Mapun pannusea turtle
Yakan pennuturtle, order Chelonia (a large kind of marine reptile)
Singhi Land Dayak pañusea turtle
Iban peñuʔany marine turtle (green turtle, hawksbill turtle, leatherback turtle, loggerhead turtle)
Moken peñuisea turtle
Malay peñuturtle, specifically the edible green
  peñu karahtortoise-shell turtle (hawksbill turtle): Chelonia imbricata
  peñu-peñu-anant-lion
Simalur ənosea turtle
Toba Batak ponusea turtle
Nias fõnusea turtle
Sundanese peñusea turtle (its eggs are an important trade article, especially for the population of the south coast of Java)
Old Javanese peñuturtle
Javanese peñutortoise
  meñutortoise-like (term of abuse,indicating stupidity)
Balinese peñuturtle, tortoise
Sasak peñusea turtle
Dampelas poñusea turtle
Lauje poñusea turtle
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *ponuturtle
Makasarese paññusea turtle
Wolio ponukind of large sea turtle
Muna ponusea turtle; frog spawn
Palauan welsea turtle
CMP
Bimanese fonugreen turtle, Chelonia mydas
Komodo penugreen turtle, Chelonia mydas, sought after for its flesh
Manggarai penusea turtle
Leti enusea turtle
Wetan enisea turtle
Yamdena fenisea turtle
  fen-laiturtle with worthless shell (probably Chelonia mydas)
  fen-kéranturtle with prized shell (probably Chelonia imbricata)
Fordata fennuturtle with worthless shell (probably Chelonia mydas)
Kamarian penusea turtle
Kayeli henosea turtle

7002

POC     *poñu the green turtle, Chelonia mydas

OC
Loniu poñsea turtle
Bipi puysea turtle
Nauna puñsea turtle
Lindrou boysea turtle
Sori boysea turtle
Seimat honsea turtle
Wuvulu ponukind of large sea turtle, probably Chelonia mydas
Mussau onusea turtle
Tigak unsea turtle
Tanga funsea turtle, turtle shell
Tolai bonuturtle; this word, although found in all areas, is rarely used in New Ireland and Duke of York; it may be a loanword from Nakanai
Vitu bonuturtle
Lusi ponuturtle
Wogeo foñsea turtle
Manam poŋsea turtle
Gedaged fonleatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea
Mbula pensea turtle
  we pen ma pukpukflapping helplessly, floundering, be in trouble and helpless (like a turtle lying on its back and flapping its flippers helplessly)
Tubetube wonsea turtle
Kilivila wonusea turtle
Bugotu voñusea turtle
Nggela vonusea turtle
  vonu mbuto-mbutoa sea creature like a turtle but only one inch long
Kwaio fonusea turtle
Lau fonusea turtle
Toqabaqita fonuturtle, considered a kind of iqa (fish)
Sa'a honuturtle; chorea, when the patient is said to move his hands and feet as a turtle moves its flappers
  honu iʔegreen turtle
'Āre'āre honutortoise, turtle
  honu akoa sickness caused by the turtle, a cough and vomiting of blood
Arosi honusea turtle
Proto-Micronesian *woñusea turtle
Gilbertese onsea turtle
Chuukese wiinsea turtle
Pohnpeian wehisea turtle
Mokilese woisea turtle
Makatea fonusea turtle
Nakanamanga vonusea turtle
Wayan tū-vonuloggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta; has large head; meat is highly regarded.
Fijian vonusea turtle
  vonu dinagreen turtle
  vonu balavua euphemism for human flesh (Lau islands)
Tongan fonusea turtle; kind of beetle (very shiny), shaped like a turtle
  fonu koloahawksbill turtle (koloa = ‘goods, wealth, riches, possessions’)
Niue fonusea turtle; (fig.) a quiet person, a person of few words
  faka-fonu-fonushy, reserved
Futunan fonusea turtle
  fonu koloahawksbill turtle (koloa = ‘riches, durable goods, as mats or tapa cloth)
Nukuoro honugreen turtle (two varieties)
Tuvaluan fonusea turtle
Rennellese honugreen turtle, Chelonia mydas; formerly considered the gift (tonu) of Tehainga’atua (one of the most important sky gods), and offered as angatonu (food offering). The honu was believed to have been first a culture hero (kakai) and now is considered a fish (kaui, ika)
Anuta ponusea turtle
  te ponua string figure
Maori honusea turtle (in a few ancient songs)
Hawaiian honugeneral name for turtle and tortoise, as Chelonia mydas; name of a design for Ni’ihau mats

Note:   Also Melanau (Mukah) pañu ‘turtle’ (< Brunei Malay ), Malagasy fanu ‘a kind of beetle; the sea turtle; kind of fish’, Balinese pañu ‘turtle, tortoise’, Rotuman hoi ‘turtle’. Since Kavalan pənu is the sole known Formosan reflex of this word, and since in Kavalan pənu refers to all marine turtles without distinction, it is unclear whether there was a more specific referent of *peñu in PAn. By PMP times, however, it is clear that *peñu referred distinctively to the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, valued for both its meat and its eggs, as contrasted with the hawksbill turtle, Chelonia imbricata (PCEMP *keRa(nŋ)), which was valued for its colorful shell (in part because of international trade demand from a very early date). Although the evidence is tenuous, the extended glosses in Malagasy Nggela and Tongan suggest that a reflex of PMP *peñu may also have designated a turtle-shaped water beetle or a similar insect (also cf. Malay peñu-peñu-an ‘ant-lion).

27414

*peŋ dull sound

3952

PMP     *peŋ dull sound

WMP
Malay paŋbanging sound
Javanese peŋringing in the ears, rumble of thunder
CMP
Manggarai peŋsound of a fart, blow on the body, etc.

27410

*peŋa fork of a branch

3947

PMP     *peŋa fork of a branch

WMP
Sangir peŋaforked branch
CMP
Manggarai peŋabifurcation, fork of a branch; rift, gap between the teeth

Note:   With root *-ŋa(q) ‘gaping’.

27400

*periŋ bamboo sp.

3937

PMP     *periŋ bamboo sp.

WMP
Rungus Dusun poriŋbamboo variety
Dohoi poriŋbamboo
Malay periŋbamboo
Banggai peliŋkind of bamboo
CMP
Li'o perikind of bamboo
Manggarai periŋa bamboo: Bambusa vulgaris
OC
Pohnpeian pehria bamboo: Bambusa vulgaris

Note:   Also Iban perin ‘kind of bamboo’. Soboyo peliŋ ‘kind of bamboo: Bambusa vulgaris Schrad.’ may be a loan from Banggai. Mills (1975:799) proposes "PInd" ?*pɨriŋ, but bases his comparison entirely on WMP languages.

27401

*perus slip or slide off

3938

PAN     *perus slip or slide off

Formosan
Amis procslide down
WMP
Tiruray ferusgetting loose from being held or tied

Note:   With root *-rus₂ ‘slip or slide off’.

27399

*peRcik splash, spatter

3936

PWMP     *peRcik splash, spatter

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat pegséksplash, spatter (of the leap or flight of small particles, as for rice to jump out of a pestle as it is being pounded)
Malay percékspeckle, small spot

Note:   With root *-cik ‘splash, spatter, fly out’. For the same semantic range, cp. Malay recék ‘fine speckles, very small spots. Of being sprinkled with rosewater; cloth speckled with gold; garments slightly bespattered by water thrown up by a car passing, etc.’.

27412

*pe(R)cit squeeze, squirt out

3949

PMP     *pe(R)cit squeeze, squirt out

WMP
Hanunóo pusítspurt, spurting, as of blood
Malay percitsquirting out (of water)

3950

POC     *posit₂ squeeze, squirt out

OC
Nggela posisqueeze out

30399

*peReq squeeze out juice, wring out water

7511

PMP     *peReq squeeze out juice, wring out water

WMP
Tagalog pigáʔsqueezing out liquid by pressure (e.g. juice from fruits, or water from clothes)
Bikol pugáʔto squeeze or wring with the hand (a lemon to remove the juice, clothes to remove water)
Hanunóo pugáʔsqueeze, pressing, wringing
Hiligaynon púgaʔto squueze so as to extract liquid
Aklanon púgaʔto wring out, squeeze (to get out excess water)
Waray-Waray púgaʔthe act of squeezing or pressing with force, as to extract water from wet clothes
Masbatenyo pugáʔsqueeze
  pugáʔ-onsqueeze out, wring out
Cebuano pugaʔsqueeze to extract juice; force someone to do something
Tausug pugaʔpress or squeeze a liquid (out of something, as juice from a fruit, coconut milk from coconut meat, pus from a wound)
Iban perahto squeeze, express (as juice from a lime)
  merahto squeeze, express (as juice from a lime)
Malay perahto express
  perah-kanto squeeze out
Karo Batak perehwring something out, squeeze out; milk an animal
Toba Batak poroto squeeze out, wring out, to milk (an animal)
Javanese puhfor squeezing; to be squeezed
  e-puh-ito squeeze, wring liquid from
  sapi puh-ana milk cow
Sangir pehato wring, squeeze out
Tae' parrasqueeze out; crude expression for ‘hold onto’
Chamorro fugoʔwring, squeeze
CMP
Lamboya pirasqueeze

7512

PWMP     *ma-meReq to squeeze out juice, wring out water

WMP
Malay me-merahto milk, wring out
Karo Batak merehwring something out, squeeze out; milk an animal
Toba Batak ma-moroto squeeze out, wring out, to milk (an animal)
Sangir ma-mehato wring, press out; to milk

Note:   Also Agutaynen mag-pega ‘to squeeze the liquid out of something; to wring something out’, Mapun paggaʔ ‘to press or squeeze a liquid (out of something, as juice from fruit)’, Yakan mag-peggaʔ ‘to squeeze (liquid from something with the hand, especially from grated coconut’), Sasak peren ‘to press, squeeze’, Manggarai peraŋ ‘to squeeze, wring out’.

30400

*peRes squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing

7513

PAN     *peRes squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing

Formosan
Puyuma pərəssqueeze out the contents from (as in squeezing a tube of glue)
WMP
Itbayaten piis-ento squeeze
Isneg paggátto express, squeeze out, press out (water, milk from coconut meat, etc.)
Tagalog pigíspressed or squeezed out (as juice extracted from fruits or water wrung out from wet clothes)
Cebuano pugúscompel someone to do something
  pugs-ún-unneeding to be urged or told to do something
Maranao pegesforce a husband on a daughter
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) peɣesto force someone or something
Binukid pegesto force, compel (someone to do something)
Yakan pessel <Mto squeeze something (as someone’s hand)
Ngaju Dayak pehesa press (used to squeeze something out); what is squeezed out
Malay perasexpressing, squeezing
Toba Batak porospress together
Sasak peresexpress, squeeze out; to abort a fetus (by applying pressure to the abdomen)
Sangir pehaseʔto squeeze out, as milk from grated coconut
Taje poossqueeze in hand
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *piosqueeze in the hand
Muna feoto squeeze, wring out (laundry), to milk (a cow)
  feo-tisqueeze something out into, expel a liquid into
Makasarese parroʔuse pressure to squeeze something out (as on a mother’s breast, a wound or a boil)

7514

POC     *poRos squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing

OC
Gitua porowring

7515

PWMP     *ma-meRes to squeeze out juice, wring out water

WMP
Itbayaten ma-miisto wring (clothes, for example); to squeeze
Ngaju Dayak ma-mehesto squeeze out
Malay me-merasto express, squeeze out
Toba Batak ma-morospress together
Sangir ma-mehaseʔto squeeze out (juice, etc.)
Makasarese am-marroʔsqueeze something out

Note:   Also Mapun paggos ‘to force someone to do something’ (< Bisayan), Tiruray keres ‘to squeeze out juice by pressing or twisting something’, Yakan pegges ‘to press (sugarcane)’, pegges-an ‘a sugarcane press, Javanese peres ‘squeezed, wrung’ (< Malay). Gitua poro could reflect either PMP *peReq or PMP *peRes; its assignment to the latter is arbitrary, but is based on the richer attestation of *peRes.

27413

*pe(R)tak knock; pop, burst

3951

PWMP     *pe(R)tak knock; pop, burst

WMP
Bontok pətákburst, pop, rupture; the report of a shotgun; the sound of something bursting, as a balloon
Sasak pertakknock against or with something to drive ants out; hit on the head

Note:   With root *-tak₂ ‘sound of cracking, splitting, knocking’.

27405

*pes sound of escaping air, etc.

3942

PMP     *pes sound of escaping air, etc.

WMP
Maranao pesdull sound, as a scythe makes against the grass
Javanese pessound of something going flat
CMP
Manggarai pessound of a fire being doused with water; hiss; sound of flatulence

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ves ‘whizzing sound, as of flying bird or of wind’. Presumably the simple root found in *ke(m)pes ‘deflate’.

27402

*pesak break into several large pieces; hatch

3939

PMP     *pesak break into several large pieces; hatch     [doublet: *peceq₁]

WMP
Cebuano pusákbreak something hard (as a plate, or cement flooring with a hammer)
Sangir pesaʔpress flat, pulverize; hatch from an egg
CMP
Manggarai pecakhatch from an egg

Note:   Possibly *pecak. Also Malay pécak ‘crushed or driven in at one point, of a rotting fruit, a dented ball, etc.’, Balinese encak ‘crush, break by pressure’. Part of this comparison was first noted in print by Verheijen (1967-70).

27403

*pesit blind

3940

PWMP     *pesit blind

WMP
Ilongot pɨsitblind
Bintulu pesitblind

27404

*pespes squeeze, massage

3941

PAN     *pespes₁ squeeze, massage

Formosan
Pazeh pepetmassage
Kavalan pespesmassage
Puyuma pəspəsmassage
  pa-pəspəsto massage
  p<ən>pəspəsto massage

7234

PMP     *pespes₂ squeeze out; massage

WMP
Ilokano pespésjuice extracted from the stomach of ruminants, used as sour seasoning to make pinespesan, also called pinespes
Casiguran Dumagat pəspəsfor a woman to milk her breast
Bontok pəspəsto grip in the palm of one’s hand; to grasp; to hold tightly in one’s hand
  na-pəspəsto be squeezed out or used up, of rice beer
Kankanaey pespéspress, squeeze in the hand, grasp, wring, knead, apply massage
Ibaloy pespesto squeeze something so that the liquid it contains comes out (as pustule on the skin, cow’s udder to milk, sponge, orange)
Pangasinan pespéssqueeze
Karo Batak pespespinch, squeeze, press out

7235

PAN     *p<um>espes to massage

Formosan
Pazeh me-pepetto massage, to grasp
Kavalan p<m>espesto massage

Note:   Although Pazeh usually reflects CVCCVC reduplications as CV1CV1CV1C, parallels to the reduction found in this form are also attested in *daŋdaŋ > dadaŋ ‘to warm (body); broil’, and *sepsep > zezep ‘to suck’.

27407

*peta shatter, break

3944

PMP     *peta shatter, break     [disjunct: *betak₁ 'cleave, split']

WMP
Cebuano pútashatter, crush something to bits
Singhi Land Dayak potahbreak
OC
Mota wotaknock, break by knocking (as firewood)

27406

*petak squawk

3943

PWMP     *petak squawk     [doublet: *pekak 'cackle']

WMP
Cebuano putakfor chickens to keep squawking, as when laying eggs; complain, talk or protest loudly
Sundanese petakloud scream, strong call
Javanese petakloud scream

27411

*pe(n)tik spot, dot

3948

PWMP     *pe(n)tik spot, dot     [doublet: *beCik 'tattoo']

WMP
Cebuano puntikspot, dot
Iban petikspot

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat putek putek ‘polka dots (on fish or cloth)’, Cebuano batuk ‘small area different in color or texture from the background’, pátik ‘tattoo, mark with a brand’, Iban pantak ‘spot of a different color, as on an animal's head’, Roviana koti ‘spot or dot’.

29869

*petpet flatten; press down in order to squeeze in

6518

PWMP     *petpet flatten; press down in order to squeeze in

WMP
Isneg petpét-anto flatten (iron bars, dough, etc.)
Bontok pətpətpack something, as a lunch basket with cooked rice, by pressing down the contents
Tagalog pitpítflatten by pounding
  p<am>itpitcrusher of nuts, garlic, etc.
Malay pepatflattened out; blunted; trimmed straight
  penoh pepatchockful, crowded

Note:   Also Ifugaw (Batad) bitbit ‘flatten something, as in patting out dough, hammering out metal’. The term evidently referred both to flattening maleable objects on a planar surface, and to pressing the contents of a container down to make them fit the available space.

27408

*petuk beat, throb, pulse

3945

PWMP     *petuk beat, throb, pulse

WMP
Bikol putókexplode
Cebuano putúk-putúkrapid beating or throbbing of the heart
Toba Batak po-l-tukcrackle, of roasting rice or corn
Balinese peṭukknock, beat out; pulse

Note:   With root *-tuk₂ ‘knock, pound, beat’.

30512

*peu to bind together in a sheaf

7741

PCMP     *peu to bind together in a sheaf

CMP
Rotinese heubind together; roof of a house (tying lontar leaves or bundles or alang-alang grass to the slats of the roof)
Yamdena péuto bind in a bundle, of maize

Note:   Also Yamdena mbéu ‘to bind in a bundle, of maize’.

27409

*pezeŋ close the eyes

3946

PMP     *pezeŋ close the eyes     [doublet: *pezem]

WMP
Proto-Minahasan *pədəŋblind; shut eyes
CMP
Manggarai peseŋclose the eyes; blind

TOP      pe    pi    po    pu    pw    

pi

27417

*pia where?

3955

POC     *pia where?     [doublet: *pea]

OC
Nggela viawherever, of whatever kind, where, what, which
Gilbertese iawhere? (interrog.)
Pohnpeian iawhere? what?
Mokilese iawhere?, which?
Chuukese iyaplace where, where?
Southeast Ambrym vi-where, which

27416

*pian want, desire, wish or long for

3954

PMP     *pian want, desire, wish or long for     [disjunct: *pia]

WMP
Isneg piānto like, love
Kelabit piandesire, want
OC
Fijian viaan auxiliary verb expressing desire
Tongan fiepreposed or prefixed verb, to want, desire, wish or be willing
Samoan fiaparticle preposed to the base, denoting a wish for, liking for or aspiration to (something) specified by the following word

27418

*picak crush, press in

3956

PMP     *picak crush, press in

WMP
Malay pécakcrushed or driven in at one point, of a rotting fruit, a dented ball, etc.
OC
Nggela pisapress, crush

30450

*picek blind in one eye

7619

PWMP     *picek blind in one eye

WMP
Bontok písəkperson who has a white patch in one or both eyes
Maranao pisekblind
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pisekto blind someone or something in one eye
Iban picakblind in one eye
Old Javanese picekblind

27419

*picik splash, spray, sprinkle

3957

PMP     *picik splash, spray, sprinkle

WMP
Aklanon pisíksplatter, fly off in all directions
Cebuano pisikspatter, splatter
Bolaang Mongondow pisiksprinkle something
CMP
Rotinese pisisprinkle, spray (water)
Hawu pihishake water off the hands
OC
Motu pisipisito splash
Lau kwisito splash
Kwaio bisispray, splash on
'Āre'āre pisisplurt, splash
Sa'a pwisisplurt, splash
Arosi pwisisplurt, splash
Tongan throw, dash or splash water
  pihisplash up, fly up, as spray
Niue pihito splash
  pihipihito spatter
  pihi-kiaspattered
Rennellese pisipisito splash, to wet, stir up, as waves
  pisi-kiabe drenched, soaked; to wet, soak, splash; receive a spurt of a liquid, as lime juice in the eye
Samoan pisisplash
Hawaiian to sprinkle, as water with the fingers

Note:   Also Cebuano lagsík ‘for small things to fly off, splatter’, Malay lecék ‘blow the nose, e.g. with the fingers’, Malay (Jakarta) bécék ‘puddle, slush on road’ and PMP *recik ‘speckled, stained’, hence the assumption of a root *cik ‘fly out, splatter’.

This comparison is of particular interest, as it provides the only known PMP etymology for an instance of in OC languages. It is noteworthy that *p normally became Rotinese h.

27420

*picit squeeze out

3958

PMP     *picit squeeze out

WMP
Bontok pisítsqueeze between finger and thumb in order to squeeze out the contents of something
Malay picitpinching; compression in the hand; a form of massage
OC
Nggela pisibe ejected, of feces

Note:   With root *-cit ‘squirt out’.

27421

*picuk dent, dented

3959

PWMP     *picuk dent, dented

WMP
Cebuano pisúk, písukpush something small into a depressed position; make a dent in something covering only a small area
Kadazan pisukinside angle
Malay (Jakarta) pécokbruised, dented

Note:   Also Malay pécak ‘crushed or driven in at one point’.

27435

*pindaŋ preserved meat

3976

PWMP     *pindaŋ preserved meat

WMP
Ilokano pindáŋjerked meat, charqui
Malay pindaŋcooking (fish, prawns, etc.) in salted and spiced bouillon

Note:   Ilokano pindáŋ may be a Malay loan.

27422

*pidek, pideŋ close the eyes

3960

PWMP     *pidek, pideŋ close the eyes

WMP
Bontok pidəkhave a drooping eyelid
Maranao pirekblink, wink
  pideŋclose the eye
Tiruray fireŋhaving a drooping eyelid
Bare'e pidawink, blink

27423

*pidpid next to

3961

PWMP     *pidpid next to

WMP
Cebuano pidpidvery near or close
Javanese pipirbeside, next to' (Pigeaud 1938)

3962

PWMP     *p<al>idpid border, side, edge

WMP
Ilokano palidpídborder (as in a pattern)
Cebuano palidpídpass close along the side of something
Old Javanese palipidedging, frame
  palipirborder, edge, side; going along, (being on) the border or side

30822

*pihak one side, one half

8588

PWMP     *pihak one side, one half     [doublet: *biqak]    [disjunct: *piqak]

WMP
Hiligaynon pihákother side, reverse, pair, half
  mag-pihákto cut in two parts, divide in half
Aklanon píhakto cut into two equal parts; halve
  pihákthe other side; half
Masbatenyo pihak-óndivide something, split
  ka-pihákportion, part of a whole, one half, other half
  ka-pihák san púsoʔspouse, life partner (lit. ‘other half of the heart’)
Mansaka piyakto split (as a coconut)
Iban piakside
  dua piakon both sides
  sa-piak bukiton the other side of the hill
  be-piakhalved, divided
Malay pihakside
  pihak kepalaside of the head
Toba Batak piaksplit in the middle
Sundanese miyakstep to the side to let someone pass
Balinese piyakbecome separate, split, break open (intr.)
  miyaksplit, break open (tr.)
Sasak piakto parcel out, distribute
Tae' piaksplit, cleave; be split, cloven
  si-piakone half of something in relation to the other

8589

PWMP     *pihak-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Aklanon pihak-ánuneven-sized, one is larger than the other
Old Javanese pihak-anone side, one half

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) posited *piak, based on a comparison of Tagalog piak ‘divided, distributed’, Javanese piyak ‘severed, separated’, Ngaju Dayak pahariʔ sapak piak ‘half sister from the same mother’, and Malagasy piaka ‘broken, snapped’, and Dyen (1953:10) converted this to *piqak, based only on the Tagalog, Malay, and Javanese forms. However, modern dictionaries do not give Tagalog piak, the Hiligaynon and Aklanon forms cited here conflict with *piqak, and the Malagasy form is irregular in showing p- rather than f-. Richards (1981) cites Iban piak, and Wilkinson (1959:901) cites Malay pihak as a borrowing of Arabic fihak ‘side’, but this is surely wrong, given its presence both in Old Javanese, which preceded sustained Arabic influence, and in languages of the central Philippine which are unlikely to have borrowed it. Nonetheless Malay pihak and Old Javanese pihak-an are regular only under a derivation from *piqak, leaving several unanswered questions about this comparison.

30605

*pija interrogative of quantity: how much?, how many?; adjective of indefinite quantity: some, several, a few

8047

PAN     *pija interrogative of quantity: how much?, how many?; adjective of indefinite quantity: some, several, a few

Formosan
Atayal piraʔseveral, several times; how many, how many times, how long a time; only
Seediq piahow much? how many?
  m-piawhich time?
  mn-piahow many times?
Saisiyat pizaʔhow many?
Thao pizahow much? how many?; several
  la-pizahow much? how many?
  makim-pizahave several of something
  makit-pizado something several times
  mim-pizabe several; take several
  mu-pizado how many times?
  sh<m>i-pizahow many?, how long has it been?
Amis pinahow many?; several
Paiwan pidahow much?, how many?
  ma-pidahow many persons?
WMP
Yami pirahow many?, how much?
Agta pigəhow many?
Isneg pixáhow many?, how much?
Isinay pyahow much?, how many?
Ibaloy pigahow many?, how much?
  memin-pigato do something how many times?
Pangasinan pigáhow much?
  pigá-rahow many?, so many
  kuma-pigáwhich in order?
Bikol piráhow many?, how much?; a little more and... (some consequence will follow); except for, excluding
Hanunóo piráhow many?; some, several (objects)
  tig-piráhow much? (in asking a price)
Palawan Batak pirahow many?
Hiligaynon piláhow much?, how many?
Aklanon piláhow much? [money], how many? [in quantity]
  piláŋ kasome, a few
Masbatenyo piráhow much?, how many?
  ma-miráwhat is the price?
  pi-pirá-piráhow much is each? how few? how scarce?
  tag-piráhow much is each?
Waray-Waray piráhow much?, how many?
Romblomanon pilahow many (people)?, how much (substance)?; several (actions, people, situations, things)
Cebuano piláhow much?, how many?; to what extent?
  tag-piláhow much apiece?
  pilá-hayonly recently, not so long ago
Maranao pirahow much?, how many?
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pirahow many?, how much?
  ne-piraʔ-ana few days
Mansaka pílahow much?, how many?
Binukid pilahow many?, how much?, to what extent?
  tag-pilato cost how much for (something)?
Bilaan (Sarangani) filɨhow many?
Tboli hiluhow many?, how much?
  le hilu hean expression meaning ‘It isn’t that much, a little is enough’
Yakan piyehow many? (days, etc.), how much? (money, etc.)
Tausug pilahow much?, how many?
Ida'an Begak pirohow many?
Kadazan piohow many?
Ngaju Dayak piræhow many?
Malagasy firihow many?, how often?
  firi-nato be divided into how many?
Simalur da-ixahow many? (people)
  ixa-ohow many? (things)
Karo Batak pigahow much?, how many?
  labo piganot many
  pe-piga-kenthe which? (in quantitative sequence)
Toba Batak pigahow much?, how many?
  ndaŋ piganot many, few
  pa-piga-honthe which? (in quantitative sequence)
Mentawai pigahow much?, how many?
Lampung pixahow much?, how many?
Old Javanese pira ~ piraŋhow much?; a certain number (an indefinite measure) of, some, several
  kadi pirahow could it be? how is it possible that?
Javanese (Ngoko) pirahow many?, what amount?
Balinese piratoo, very, too much
Sasak pirahow much?, how many?
Sangir pirahow much?, how many?
  pira-m-buahow many pieces?
Tontemboan pirahow much?, how many?; not much, a little
  ma-pirareduce in amount
Tae' pirahow much?, how many?
  pira-ŋ-boŋiʔpreviously, earlier
Mandar pirasome, several; how much?, how many?
Makasarese pira-ŋhow much?, how many? (in combination forms)
Chamorro fiʔahow many?
CMP
Komodo pirahow many?
Manggarai pisahow much?, how many?; some, several
Ngadha pizahow much?, how many?
Sika pirahow much?, how many?
Kambera pirahow much?, how many?
Hawu pərihow much?, how many?
Tetun hirahow much?, how many?
  foli-n hirawhat cost?
Wetan wo-irahow many? how much?
Fordata i-firahow much?, how many?
  fa-firahow often?
Dobel ʔa-yirahow many?
Alune ilahow much? how many?
Buruese pilahow many? how much?
SHWNG
Kowiai fishow much?, how many?
Buli fishow much?, how many?
  fai-fishow many times?
  fapi-fisseveral, a few
  ma-fishow long?

8048

POC     *pica how much?, how many?

OC
Wuvulu fixahow many?
Seimat hilhow many?
Label isahow many?
  ha-na-isahow often?
Tolai ai-viahow many?, how much?, how often?, how many at a time?, how many times?
Lakalai -riva <Mhow many?, how much?
  tau rivahow many men?
Manam irahow many?, how much?
Wedau bia-ŋahow many?
Motu hidahow many?
Dobuan ʔe-isahow many?
Kilivila vilahow many?
Lau fitahow many?
Kwaio fitahow many?, how much?
Toqabaqita fitahow many?, how much?
  fita-naordinal form of fita: how many times?
'Āre'āre hitahow much? how many?
  hita ʔārehow many? (of things and persons)
  hita roʔuahow often?, how many times?
Arosi siha <Mhow many?
  siha-nahow many?, what number so far?
Chuukese fita-how many? (used with suffixed counting classifiers)
  fite-how many? (nonspecific or general class of things --- especially if the expected number is more than a few but less than hundreds)
Puluwat fitehow many? (more than ten)
  fite-fayhow many? (round objects)
  fite-rayhow many? (animate)
Woleaian fita-[indefinite] how many?; a few, some
Mota visahow many? so many
Central Maewo βisahow many?
Raga xai-fihahow many?
Araki mo visahow many?
Axamb ŋa-βishow many?
Paamese e-hishow many?; however many; an unknown number; how much? what price? what time?
  e-hishow many?
Filakara fiahow many?
Makatea e-fiahow many?
Wayan vicahow many?, how much?; be a small number or amount: a few, a bit
Fijian vicainterrogative numeral, how many?, and indefinite, so many, as in ‘a certain number of days’ (unspecified)
  vica-saŋavuluhow many tens?
  e vica wale ŋājust a few
Tongan fihahow many?, how much?
  fiha-ŋofuluhow many tens?
Niue fihahow many?; (fig.) a few
Futunan fiahow much?, how many?
Samoan fiabe how many?; be how much?; (obsolete) three (occurs in ceremonial titles)
Tuvaluan fiahow many?
  toko-fiahow many? (of humans)
Kapingamarangi hiamuch, many (question)
Nukuoro hiahow many? [in compounds only]
Rennellese hiahow many?, how much?
Anuta e piahow many is it?
  ku piahow many was it?
  e toko piahow many people?
  e mata piahow many tens of fish?
Maori hia ~ whiainterrogative numeral: how many?; an indefinite numeral: several (three, more or less)
Hawaiian -hiahow many?, how much?

8049

PPh     *ika-pija which number is it?

WMP
Itbayaten icha-pirahnumber what? (in a series in time, e.g. first, second time)’
Cebuano ika-piláwhich [number] is it?

8050

PWMP     *ka-pija (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Cebuano ka-piláhow many times?
Binukid ka-pilahow many times?
Kadazan ko-piowhich?, what?
  pii-piofew, some
Ngaju Dayak ka-piræhow many days?
Malagasy ha-firi-anahow many days?
Sangir ka-pira-nethe which (in number)?

8051

POC     *ga-pica how much?, how many?

OC
Mussau ga-isahow much?, how many?
Wogeo ka-visahow much?, how many?
Lungga ka-visahow many?
Roviana ka-visahow many?, how much?, what price?
Eddystone/Mandegusu ka viahow many?

8052

PAN     *maka-pija (for) how many days?

Formosan
Seediq meke-piafor how many (days)?
Paiwan maka-pida-lʸhow many days?
WMP
Cebuano maka-piláhow many times?

8053

PAN     *pa-pija how many? (of people)

Formosan
Thao pa-pizahow many? (of people)
Amis pa-pinahow many? (of people)
WMP
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *po-piahow many? (independent numeral)
Chamorro fa-fiʔahow many? (of living things)


Note:   This prefixed form clearly parallels the use of Ca- reduplication in the formation of numerals with human referents, although it is unclear whether all forms that appear to be traceable to *pa-pija have the same history (e.g. Fordata fa-fira ‘how often?’, or even the Proto-Bungku-Tolaki form cited above).

8054

PMP     *paka-pija (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Malagasy faha-firiwhat number is it?

8055

POC     *paka-pica how many times?

OC
Arosi haʔa-siha <Mhow often?
Mota vaga-visahow many times?
Wayan vaka-vicahow many times? how often?
Fijian vaka-vicahow many times?
Rennellese haka-hiahow many times?, what day of the lunar month?, how many thatch panels

8056

PAN     *pija pija some, several

Formosan
Amis pa-pina-pinaseveral (people)
WMP
Ngaju Dayak piræ-piræas much as, as many as
Karo Batak piga-pigasome; several
Old Javanese pira-pira ~ piraŋ-piraŋquite a few, many
Javanese pira-pirano matter how much/many
Sasak pira-pirasome; several
Sangir pira-pirasome; several
Tontemboan pira-pirasome; several
Tae' pira-pira-kaas many as there are
CMP
Ngadha piza pizasome, several
Sika pira-piraso much, as much
Wetan wo-ira wo-irasome, several

8057

POC     *pica pica a few, several (?)

OC
Niue fiha-fihavery few, scarce

Note:   Also Bunun piaq ‘how many?’, Itbayaten pirah how many?, pa-pirah ‘how many (in units or number, not in time)’, Ilongot pigi ‘how many?’, Tagalog ilán ‘how many?; a few; more than two or three, but not many; several; some’, Agutaynen pirapa ‘amount; how much?, how many?’, Tiruray firoy ‘how much?, how many?, Enggano ʔa-píaha ‘how much?, how many?’, Kilivila vila ‘how many?’, Sa’a (e)-nite, Ulawa (e)-nita ‘how many?, so many; a few’, Rotuman hisi ‘how many?

Used indefinitely (several, I don’t know how many), as well as interrogatively’. The endings in several of these irregular forms are puzzling. While Bunun –q is at odds with all other languages that retain final consonants, Itbayaten –h, which could reflect PAn *S or *h, presents more subtle problems. If it reflected *S we would expect a final sibilant in all six of the Formosan witnesses cited here, and this alternative is therefore strongly disfavored. However, if Itbayaten pirah reflects *pijah the only witness that can be cited as a check is Amis. Nonetheless, since Amis pina contradicts the reconstruction of *-h, it seems best to posit PAn *pija, and assume that both Bunun piaq and Itbayaten pirah have added a final consonant through some unknown historically secondary process. Tagalog ilán for expected **pilá, on the other hand, is doubly irregular in showing loss of *p- and addition of –n, but the highly specific semantics make it very likely that this form is also a reflex of *pija.

This form is well-know as an interrogative of quantity, in which sense it has been reconstructed by Dempwolff (1938), and Wolff (2010:933). However, cognates distributed from Atayal to Maori show clearly that it also functioned as an adjective of indefinite quantity, translatable into English as ‘some, several, a few’.

27436

*pijiko flesh, lean part of meat; grain of wood

3977

POC     *pijiko flesh, lean part of meat; grain of wood

OC
Numbami wisoflesh, meat, muscle
Motu hidioflesh; lean of meat; grain of wood, muscle
Proto-Micronesian *fisikomeat, flesh
Gilbertese irikoflesh, muscle, meat
Marshallese yiteqwhale meat
Kosraean ikoacmeat, flesh
Pohnpeian udukmeat, flesh, muscle
Chuukese fitukmeat, flesh, muscle
Puluwat fitikflesh of any kind, meat; flesh and blood, blood relative
Woleaian fitig(o)meat, flesh
Southeast Ambrym hisimeat, flesh
Lonwolwol visiflesh
Fijian vicikothe flesh, the lean of meat as against uro, the fat; the grain of lumber

30371

*pijpij close together

7414

PAN     *pijpij close together

Formosan
Thao pizpizclosely spaced, of objects; crowded, of people filling a space
  pizpiz-anto crowd, press against
WMP
Ilokano pidipídclosely set together
  pidipid-énto join, unite, stack up
Isneg pidpídeither of the planks or plates that form the sides of a canoe; the border of a basket
Cebuano pidpídvery near or close (as a bed placed very close to a wall); put, stay very close along something; travel close along something (as a boat traveling close to the shore)

7415

PAN     *ma-pizpiz closely spaced, set close together

Formosan
Thao ma-pizpizclosely spaced, of objects (as the bars of an iron fence that are set close together); crowded, of people filling a space
WMP
Ilokano ma-pidipídclosely set together; covered with sores, wounds, etc.

27430

*pik click

3971

PWMP     *pik click

WMP
Maranao pikdull sound of a gun misfired
Malay piksound like that of a pick striking the earth

27426

*pika sand, sandbank

3966

POC     *pika sand, sandbank     [doublet: *mpike]

OC
Wuvulu piesand
Tolai piaplace, earth, ground, land, soil, dirt; down, down on the ground
Proto-Micronesian *pikasand, sandbank
Gilbertese bikebeach sand, sandbank, sandy soil; beach, shore
Chuukese piissandy islet (in place names and compounds)
Pohnpeian pihksand
  pika-piksandy
Aua piesand
Woleaian pig(a)small island, islet

Note:   Also Label piu ‘earth, ground, soil’, Tuvaluan pike ‘sand castle’ (Gilbertese loan).

27424

*pikak make a harsh throaty sound

3963

PMP     *pikak make a harsh throaty sound

WMP
Bolaang Mongondow pékakfrog
CMP
Hawu hikamorning bird, named from its cry
Rotinese hikalaugh loudly

Note:   With root *-kak₁ ‘cackle, laugh loudly’.

27425

*pikat, piket bird lime

3964

PWMP     *pikat, piket bird lime

WMP
Isneg píkatthe sap of the jack, used for birdlime
Malay p-em-ikatfowler
Old Javanese a-pikatcatch birds, using a decoy
  pikat-andecoy
Javanese pikatdecoy bird; lure, trap
Balinese pikatlure, decoy, snare (for birds)
Toba Batak pihotthick, sticky, viscous, of clay

3965

PWMP     *mamikat, mamiket snare birds with bird lime

WMP
Isneg mamíkatspread birdlime where birds are accustomed to roost
Malay memikatto snare (birds), esp. by means of bait or a decoy

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) proposed *pikat ‘decoy’, but based his comparison solely on Malay and on languages that have borrowed heavily from it (Javanese, Ngaju Dayak), suggested a different meaning, and overlooked the nonconforming reflex in Toba Batak.

27427

*pikel bend, curve

3967

PMP     *pikel bend, curve

WMP
Kadazan pikohfold
CMP
Buruese pike-bow, bend
OC
Samoan piʔobent, crooked

Note:   With root *-kel ‘bend, curl’.

27465

*pi(ŋ)keR bend, turn

4008

PMP     *pi(ŋ)keR bend, turn     [doublet: *pikul]

WMP
Maranao pikegbend something stiff
Malay péŋkarmisshapen in the legs, e.g. bandy-legged or bow-legged
CMP
Buruese pike-hbow, bend
OC
Bugotu pikodislocate, be dislocated
Nggela pikotwist, as an ankle
Samoan piʔobent, crooked
Maori pikobend, stoop; bent, curved
Hawaiian piʔoarch, arc; bent, arched, curved

30433

*piket horsefly, large biting fly

7580

PWMP     *piket horsefly, large biting fly

WMP
Mapun pikothorsefly (bites)
Tausug pikutthe common housefly
Ida'an Begak pikota kind of fly that bites
Tombonuwo pikotlarge fly, horsefly
Malagasy fíhitraa large stinging fly
Malay pikatlarge stinging fly, generic for Tabanidae
Boano pikota fly

27428

*pikik chirp, squeak

3968

PMP     *pikik chirp, squeak

WMP
Kankanaey pikíkchirp, as some birds do
CMP
Hawu pekisqueaking of mice

Note:   With root *-kik ‘shrill throaty sound’.

29848

*pikit sticking to, attached to, joined

6478

PMP     *pikit sticking to, attached to, joined

WMP
Ilokano piŋkítwith small eyes, almond-eyed
Pangasinan pikítplaster; sticky
Tagalog pikítclosed (said of eyes)
Bikol pikítsquinting, having one eye smaller than the other
Hanunóo pikítclosing the eyes
Hiligaynon pikítof clothes, tight
Aklanon pikíttight; get tight(er) or more crowded
Cebuano piŋkítfor things that are alike to be joined by some part of themselves; piŋkít na ságiŋ two bananas joined together as one
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pikittie one object to another by means of a cord or rope between them
  pikit-pikithang onto something with the arms extended
Mansaka pikitgrow attached to one another, as twin bananas
Maranao pikitattach, stick on, paste
Malagasy fíhitraa grasp, a catch, a grip, as is made by a person holding to something to prevent him from falling

6479

POC     *bikit attached to

OC
Tongan pikihold on, cling, stick or adhere
  piki-pikisticky
Niue pikicleave to, adhere; touch
Samoan piʔiwrestle (consists in holding the hands or wrists of one’s opponent and applying pressure on them); stick, adhere to (as an octopus sticking to a stone), cling to, hold on to; (of a boat) be moored
Tuvaluan pikiadhere; cling; be towed by a canoe
  pi-pikiadhesive
Anuta pikisticky sap, as that of the breadfruit; glue
  piki-pikisticky
Maori pikipressed close together

Note:   With root *-kit₂ join along the length.

27429

*pikpik sound of patting or tapping

3969

PAN     *pikpik sound of patting or tapping     [doublet: *pakpak, 'wing', *pik 'click']

Formosan
Kavalan piqpiqto clap one’s hands
  p<m>iqpiqto flap wings
  piqpiq-anbe patted, as on the shoulder
Amis ma-pikpikflap the wings
  mi-pikpikto fly, of birds
  sa-pikpíkwing
WMP
Kankanaey pikpíkpat, tap lightly
Tagalog pikpíksoft caressing pats (on infants when being put to sleep)
Aklanon píkpikpat with one's hand
Cebuano pikpikpat, tap lightly on the body
Karo Batak pikpiktap, rap; chisel off something delicate
Sundanese p-er-ékpékstrike continuously, beat someone
Ilokano pikpíklight tap, pat
  pikpik-ento pat with the palm of fingers
Mapun pikpikwing
Tausug pikpikwing (of bird or plane)

3970

PPh     *p<al>ikpik fin of a fish

WMP
Ilokano palikpíkfin (of a fish)
Pangasinan palíkpikfins or dorsal spines of fish
Tagalog palikpíksoft slender fin

Note:   Also Aklanon palik ‘fin (of fish)’, Tiruray felik-felik ‘pectoral fins of fish’. With root *-pik ‘pat, light slap’.

27466

*pi(ŋ)kuk bend, curve

4009

PMP     *pi(ŋ)kuk bend, curve

WMP
Ngaju Dayak pa-pikok, piko-pikokcrooked, bent
Sangir piŋkuʔbend, curve (as in a road)
OC
Nggela mbikuto bend, as a piece of tin, curl up

Note:   With root *-kuk₁ ‘bent, crooked’.

27459

*piŋkuŋ bent, curved

4002

PWMP     *piŋkuŋ bent, curved

WMP
Kayan pikuŋbent at an angle
Sangir péŋkoŋcurve

Note:   With root *-kuŋ ‘bend, curve’.

30270

*pikuq to bend, curve; bent, curved

7172

PAN     *pikuq to bend, curve; bent, curved

Formosan
Kavalan pikubend
  p<m>ikuto bend
WMP
Cebuano píkuʔfor something pliant to bend into a position in which it stays; cause it to do so
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) pikuʔ-ana curve in the river or road
OC
Nggela mbikuto bend, as a piece of tin, curl up
  mbiku-gacurled up

Note:   Also Amis piko ‘intersection, a place where there is a turn in the road’, Paiwan piku ‘elbow’, Binukid púkuʔ ‘to bend (something); be bent over’. With root *-ku(q) ‘bend, curve’. As shown by the parentheses, reflexes of morphemes that contain this submorphemic root sometimes reflect *-ku and sometimes *-kuq (Blust 1988:116-17). The Amis and Paiwan forms in Taiwan reflect *piku, the available Philippine forms reflect *pikuq, and the Kavalan and Nggela forms are ambiguous, although the subgrouping relationship of Kavalan with Amis favors an interpretation that Kavalan piku reflects an earlier form without a final consonant.

27431

*pilak force open

3972

PWMP     *pilak₁ force open

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat pilakto split (as in splitting open a coconut or other fruit)
Iban pilakforce open
Sasak pilakto open

27432

*pilaq, pi(R)lat scar

3973

PMP     *pilaq, pi(R)lat scar     [disjunct: *birat]

WMP
Bikol piláʔscar, scab
Agta piglatscar
Casiguran Dumagat pílatscar (completely healed)
Aborlan Tagbanwa pilatscar
Palawan Batak pilatscar
Lun Dayeh pilatscar
Kadazan pihatscar
CMP
Li'o pilascar
OC
Arosi hirascar

Note:   Also Arosi hura, huhura ‘scar’.

30823

*pilat scar

8590

PWMP     *pilat scar

WMP
Isneg pílātthe permanent white marks left on the skin by the kosílāng itch
Casiguran Dumagat pílatscar (completely healed); to heal (of a sore)
Sambal (Botolan) piatscar
Tagalog pílata scar; cicatrix; a scar or a physical blemish
  p<um>ílatto form a scar
Aborlan Tagbanwa pilathealed-over scar
Palawan Batak piláta scar
Ida'an Begak pilatcut, wound
  a-pilatbe cut, wounded
Kadazan pihatscar
Timugon Murut pilatwound; scar
Tombonuwo pilata sore, a wound
Long Semado pilatscar

Note:   Also Ilokano piglát ‘scar; blemish; birthmark’, ag-piglát ‘to scar’, Casiguran Dumagat péklat ‘scab (of a sore); to scab over’, Agta piglat, Bontok bílat, piglát, Keleyqiq Kallahan piklat ‘scar’, Ifugaw (Batad) bīlat ‘a body scar, the result of a skin infection or wound’, Bikol piklát ‘a deep scar’, ma-piklat-án ‘to have such a scar’, pílaʔ ‘a scar’.

30630

*piliq to choose, to select; to pick out

8112

PAN     *piliq to choose, to select; to pick out

Formosan
Pazeh pii-piribe choosing (as when picking up pebbles from rice grain)
Amis piliʔto choose, pick one
Tsou e-prito choose
Rukai (Maga) u-príito choose
Rukai (Mantauran) u-pilito choose
Paiwan ki-piliqbe “choosy,” pick out best bits
  pa-pa-piliqto sort out, divide
WMP
Itbayaten piliidea of selection or choice or sorting out; imperative form of pili-an
  ka-pa-miliact of selecting
Ilokano ag-pílito choose, to select
  man-ag-pi-pílichoosy, finicky
  paka-pili-anselection
Isneg pílichoice
  maxip-pi-pílito choose, to select
Casiguran Dumagat pileto choose, to select; to pick out
Isinay pílichoice
Ifugaw pílichoice, selection
Ibaloy man-pidito choose between alternatives
  pan-pidi-analternatives, choices, options
Pangasinan mana-mílielector
Tagalog píliʔchoice, selection
  pilíʔchosen; select; picked out (for excellence); outstanding
  má-piliʔto be chosen; to be eligible
  pag-pili-anto choose something from a number of things
  pami-míliʔchoosing or selecting
Hanunóo píliʔchoosing, selection
Agutaynen pilikchoose something
Aklanon píliʔto select, choose, pick out; to take out any bad or ruined grains from rice pile
  pili-li-ánelection(s); choosing
Masbatenyo maka-píliʔcan choose, can select, can pick out, can decide on
Waray-Waray pilíʔchoice; preference; selection; election; option; alternative
Romblomanon pīlíʔsomeone or something chooses something else, something else, a particular object, place or time
Cebuano píliʔchoose, pick a choice; elect someone to office; sort out the good or bad
Maranao piliʔchoose, select
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) piliʔto choose
Mansaka piliʔto choose, to select
Binukid piliʔto choose, select (someone or something; to elect (someone) to office
Tausug maŋ-pīʔto choose, select, pick out
Kadazan pihiʔto choose, elect
Kelabit pilíʔchoice
Kayan pilibe chosen
Melanau (Mukah) piliʔchosen, selected
Malagasy fídichoice, preference, permission to choose
  sa-fidichoice
  vua fidichosen, selected, preferred
Singhi Land Dayak piristo choose
Iban pilihchosen, choose, select, pick out
Malay piléhchoosing; selection
Bahasa Indonesia pilihchoice
Acehnese piléhchoose
Gayō pilihchoose, select
  mu-milihto choose, select
Toba Batak pilito single out, choose
Simalur ilixchoose, pick out
Nias filichoose
Mentawai pilito pick, choose; choosy, fastidious
Old Javanese a-milihto choose, make a choice from (well-considered, not at random), select, give one’s preference to
  pilih-palahnot determined, uncertain, varying, with various possibilities
Javanese pilihto make a choice
Sundanese pilihmake no distinction, as between foreign and familiar; not choosy
Balinese pilihchoice
Gorontalo pilichoose
Bolaang Mongondow piliʔchoose
Bare'e pilichoose
  ba-milia fastidious person
Tae' paʔ-pile-anthe remainder, residue that has no more value, is of no more use after the valuable or useful part has been chosen
Makasarese am-mileto choose, select, pick out
  pam-milechoice
Wolio pilichoose
  mem-pilifastidious
  pili-tachoice
Muna pilichoice
  fe-pilichoose carefully (esp. seeds, grains, etc.)
CMP
Manggarai piléto choose, select
Rembong piléto choose
Ngadha pilito find, pick up, gather
  pilé laécollect leftovers from feast
Tetun hilito pick up from the ground; to arrange
Lamaholot pileʔpluck; pick up; choose
Selaru r-filto choose
OC
Bugotu vilito choose
Nggela vilito choose, select; to give a judgment, sentence; to collect small things such as shells
Kwaio fili anapick out for special sacredness, of an adalo (ancestral spirit) to a woman
Lau filito choose, prefer
  fili-s-iachosen
Sa'a hilito choose for one’s own, to desire and take
  hili-sito pick, to choose
'Āre'āre hiri-si-achoose, pick out, select
Arosi hirito choose
  ʔome hirito select; to divide, separate, judge
Proto-Micronesian *filichoose
Chuukese fini-choosing, selecting; electing, appointing
Puluwat fili-to choose, select
Woleaian f-filito choose, pick up, decide, select
Pohnpeian pilto choose, to pick out, to select
Mokilese pilto choose, to select
Rotuman hilito pick out, choose, select, elect; to pick and choose, to show either discrimination or favoritism
Wayan viliof something on the surface, especially foodstuff, be picked up, gathered, collected; pick up things; what is picked up
  vaka-vili-try to pick up or gather something
Fijian vilito pick up scattered things, as fallen leaves or fruits
Tongan filito choose, pick out, cull, select, elect; to sort (as letters)
Niue fi-filito choose, select
  faka-filia judge
Futunan filito choose
Samoan filipick out, select
Tuvaluan filichoose
  fili-ŋaelection
Kapingamarangi hilito choose, to select; choice
Nukuoro hilipick from among several, choose, elect; particular (choosy) about
Rennellese higito choose, select, vote; to be choosy, selective
  higi-ŋachoice, selection, preference; plants selected for planting
Rarotongan irito select, to choose, to pick out, to name; used figuratively to denote: to recite, to disclose
Maori whiriselect, choose

8113

PPh     *i-piliq (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Bontok ʔi-pílito select, to choose, to pick out
Tagalog i-píliʔto choose what is good for someone else

8114

PWMP     *ka-píliq (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Tagalog ka-píliʔa companion in making a choice
Kadazan ko-pihiʔcan choose, elect, select
Old Javanese ka-pilihto choose (?)
Javanese ke-pilihto get chosen/elected
Sundanese ka-pilihchosen, elected
Wolio ka-pilithe elect; council of the lower class (in the old days)
Muna ka-pilielection, choice

8115

PWMP     *ma-miliq to choose, select, pick out

WMP
Itbayaten ma-milito select, to pick out, to choose; to sort out
Ifugaw ma-mílito choose
Ifugaw (Batad) ma-mīlifor someone to choose someone, something
Pangasinan ma-milíto choose
Tagalog ma-míliʔto choose
Agutaynen ma-milikto choose something
Kadazan mo-mihiʔto elect, choose, select, appoint
Tarakan milito choose
Kelabit milíʔto choose, select
Kayan milito choose
Melanau (Mukah) mə-miliʔto choose, select
Bahasa Indonesia me-milihchoose something that is desired
Karo Batak milihto choose, select
Toba Batak ma-milito single out, choose
Nias ma-milito choose
Javanese milihto select; to elect, to appoint; to sort out
Sundanese milihto choose
Balinese milihto choose, have a choice, make a distinction; if, in case
Sangir ma-mileto choose, select
Gorontalo mo-milito choose
Bolaang Mongondow ma-miliʔto choose
Boano mo-miliʔto choose
Totoli mo-milito choose
Bare'e mam-pili ~ mom-pilito choose
  mom-pili-sito choose

8116

PAN     *ma-piliq (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Amis ma-piliʔbe chosen

8117

PMP     *ma-piliq choosy, fussy, fastidious

WMP
Itbayaten ma-pilichoosy
Ibaloy ma-pidichoosy, picky, fussy
Tagalog ma-píliʔable to be chosen or selected; be able to pick; fussy, choosy
Bikol ma-píliʔfastidious, fussy, particular, selective
Agutaynen ma-pilikchoosy, picky
Aklanon ma-píliʔchoosy, selective, “spoiled”
Masbatenyo ma-pilíʔchoosy (as in food one eats)
Tausug ma-pīʔchoosy, fastidious, hard to please, discriminating
Old Javanese a-pilihhaving one’s preferences, particular in the choice of
  tan (m)a-pilihhaving no preferences, not discriminating, indiscriminately, at random

8118

PWMP     *maR-piliq to choose, select, pick out

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat mag-pileto choose, select
Isinay map-pílito choose
Bikol mag-píliʔto choose, pick, select, single out; to elect
Masbatenyo mag-píliʔchoose, select, pick out, decide on
Romblomanon mag-pīlíʔto choose someone, something
Tausug mag-pīʔto choose, select, pick out; to remove unhusked rice or other particles (from cooking rice)
Malagasy mi-fídito choose, to select, to prefer
Bahasa Indonesia ber-pilih-pilihchoose very carefully
Toba Batak mar-pilibe chosen, selected

8119

PWMP     *na-piliq was chosen; what was chosen, one’s preference

WMP
Ilokano na-pilifastidious, finicky, very selective; choice, select, high quality
Ifugaw na-píliwhat is (was) chosen; what is preferred (among the things that can be chosen)
Tagalog na-píliʔchoice, select (as choice food)
Romblomanon na-pīlíʔhappened to be chosen
Kadazan no-pihiʔ(has been) chosen, elected, selected
Tae' na-pile-ichose, selected, picked out

8120

PWMP     *pa-miliq (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Itbayaten pa-milito choose
Sundanese pa-milihthe talent for being able to distinguish (as between nobility and commoners)

8121

PWMP     *pa-piliq let someone choose, let someone make a choice

WMP
Cebuano pa-píliʔbe a candidate
Sangir pa-pilesomething with which one sorts things out
Makasarese pa-pilelet someone choose something

8122

PPh     *paR-piliq (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Isneg pag-pílito let (one) choose
Tagalog pag-píliʔchoice, the act of choosing
Masbatenyo pag-píliʔchoice, selection, option
Romblomanon pag-pīlíʔsomeone’s or something’s choosing someone, something, a particular object, place or time

8123

PAN     *ka-piliq-an (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Amis ka-piliʔ-anone who is chosen
WMP
Kadazan ko-pihi-an(act of) choosing; election; selection

8124

PWMP     *pa-miliq-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Javanese pa-milih-anact or way of selecting
Makasarese pam-mile-aŋwhat is left over after a choice is made; remainder

8125

PWMP     *p<in>iliq was chosen; what was chosen

WMP
Tagalog p<in>íliʔchoice, select (as choice food); chosen
Romblomanon p<in>īlíʔwere chosen
Cebuano p<in>ílíʔsomeone or something elected or chosen; something select, special; select kind of large-grained rice
Binukid p<in>iliʔchose, selected
Kadazan p<in>ihiʔ(the thing) chosen, selected; choice
Kelabit p<ən>ilíʔ ~ p<in>ilíʔwas chosen by someone
Malagasy f<in>ídiwas chosen
Old Javanese p<in>ilihwas chosen
Sangir p<in>ile ~ ni-pilewas chosen

8126

PAN     *p<um>iliq to choose, select, pick out

Formosan
Pazeh mu-pirito choose
Paiwan p<n>iliqto choose, sort out
WMP
Ilokano p<um>ílito choose, to select
Ifugaw (Batad) p<um>ílifor someone to choose someone, something
Tagalog p<um>íliʔto choose, to select
Tiruray f<em>iliʔto select, to choose
Malay saŋat p<em>iléhextremely particular or fastidious
Acehnese p<um>iléhto choose
Karo Batak p<em>ilih-milih-enwhat is left over after the best has been chosen; remnant, residue
  p<em>ilih-iway of choosing

8127

PMP     *piliq-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Itbayaten pili-anto choose, to pick out undesirable objects (as in removing sand or stones from rice); to select choice objects from the rest
Ilokano pili-anto clean rice of dirt and extraneous matters
Isneg piliy-ānto choose, to select
Agta (Dupaningan) pili-anchoose
Tagalog pili-ánchoosy
Agutaynen pilik-anchoosy, picky
Aklanon p<in>ilí-anleftovers (after others have taken the best)
Tausug pīʔ-anto remove unhusked rice or other particles (from cooking rice)
Javanese pilih-anhaving been selected; act or way of selecting
Sundanese pilih-anthat on which one’s choice is based
Balinese pilih-anchosen one, elected one
Makasarese pile-aŋchoose something for someone
OC
Nggela vili-achosen
Kwaio fili-areserve, pick out, choose
Lau fili-achosen
Toqabaqita fili-achoose, select, prefer
'Āre'āre hiri-achoose, pick out, select
Chuukese fini-yachoice, thing chosen by someone

8128

PWMP     *piliq-en be chosen, selected; what is chosen, choice

WMP
Itbayaten pili-ento select, to pick out
Ilokano pili-ento choose, select, pick out
Bontok pili-ənto select, to choose, to pick out
Kankanaey pili-ento choose, to pick out; to single out
Ibaloy pidi-ento choose, pick, select something
Tagalog piliʔ-into choose, to select
Bikol pilíʔ-onto choose, pick, select, single out; to elect
Agutaynen pilik-ento choose something
Masbatenyo piliʔ-ónbe selected, be chosen, be picked up, be elected
Tausug pīʔ-unto choose, select, pick out
Kadazan pihi-on(to be) chosen, elected, selected
Bahasa Indonesia pilih-anwhat is chosen, one’s choice
Gayō pilih-enwhat is chosen, one’s choice
Karo Batak pilih-ensorted out, selected; what is chosen
Old Javanese pilih-enbe chosen, selected
Sundanese pilih-enin order to make a choice

8129

PAN     *piliq-i choose it!

Formosan
Pazeh piri-ʔichoose it!
WMP
Tae' pile-ichoose, pick out
OC
Woleaian fili-ichoose it, pick it up, select it

8130

PMP     *piliq piliq (gloss uncertain)