Updated: 12/11/2014
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Blust's
Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*S   

Se    Si    Su    

28142

*Sa₁ ligature

5105

PAN     *Sa₁ ligature     [disjunct: *a₅]

Formosan
Paiwan saclause-linking particle: and, and then

5106

PMP     *ha₂ ligature

WMP
Pangasinan alinking particle, uniting adjectives or descriptive phrases with verbs and nouns, relative sentences to main sentences, etc.
OC
Label aa binding particle between nouns; genitive particle

Note:   Also Pangasinan ya ‘linking particle’.

28143

*Sa₂ locative particle

5107

PAN     *Sa₂ locative particle     [disjunct: *qa₁]

Formosan
Atayal saparticle of subjugation, and particle with various prepositional and demonstrative usages; at, in, on, to, by; that; there

5108

PMP     *ha₃ locative particle

WMP
Malagasy a-a prefix used like an-, am-, and i-, to make a noun into a preposition; e.g. morona '(the) edge', amorona 'at the edge'; nosy 'an island', anosy 'on an island'
Tontemboan a-(followed or not followed by a nasal), prefix that expresses the dative or locative: to, in, at, on, toward, with, over
Bolaang Mongondow a-prefixed marker of location; a monik 'above, on top', a monag 'below, underneath'
OC
Tolai apreposition: to, in, of, at
Chuukese a-locative prefix, at
Mota a-simple preposition, locative; at; before infinitive verb, to; used before the names of places; forms compound preposition, avune 'on', etc.
Samoan a-particle occurring in certain nominal constructions, especially with locatives
Maori a-particle used before names of places and local nouns when they (a) stand as subject in a sentence, (b) are repeated by way of explanation

Note:   Also Bolaang Mongondow o- ‘at, in, with words that indicate direction’, Motu a ‘postposition: from, with, by’. This particle appears to be fossilized in several reflexes of POc *a nusa ‘name of an island’ (cf. *nusa). For a discussion of the ‘adhesive locative’ in Austronesian languages see Blust (1989a).

28066

*SabaN cloth used to carry a child on the back

4951

PAN     *SabaN cloth used to carry a child on the back     [doublet: *SebaN]

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) avala cover and the belt for carrying a baby on the back

4952

PMP     *haban cloth used to carry a child on the back

WMP
Gaddang abbancarry a child in a blanket
Bontok ʔabánblanket or length of cloth used for carrying children; carry a child using a carrying blanket
Bikol mag-habáncarry something cradled in cloth high on the back near the shoulders (as one might carry a small child)

Note:   Also Rhade abăn ‘blanket’.

28067

*SabaRat south wind (?)

4953

PAN     *SabaRat south wind (?)

Formosan
Kavalan balateast wind
  sbalateast wind
Amis safalatsouth wind

4954

PMP     *habaRat southwest monsoon

WMP
Itbayaten havayatwest wind (blows from late July to September)
Casiguran Dumagat abágatsouthwest monsoon winds
Tagalog habágatwest or southwest wind; monsoon
Bikol habágatsouth wind
Hanunóo ʔabágatsouthwest monsoon; or, indefinitely, any very strong wind; year
Hiligaynon bagat-nansouth
Aklanon habágatsouth wind
Cebuano habágatstrong wind that hits Cebu from the southwest, common from June to September
  habagat-ansouthwest
Maranao abagatsouthwest monsoon
  pag-abagat-ansouth
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) evaɣatthe strongest wind, the Northeast monsoon
Tiruray baratthe rainy season
Ngaju Dayak baratwest; west wind; storm
Malagasy avaratranorth
  varatrathunder, thunderbolt
Iban baratwest, western, westerly
Malay baratWest; etym. associated with ribut, i.e. strong Westerly winds
Acehnese baratwest, westerly
Karo Batak baratwest, western
Toba Batak baratwest
Sundanese baratwest
Old Javanese baratstrong wind, storm; west
Javanese baratstrong wind occurring usually during the rainy season
Sasak baratstorm; to storm
  baretwest
Tae' baraʔbig, terrific, violent, of rain and wind
Makasarese baraʔwest wind, west monsoon
Palauan ŋebárdwest, west wind
CMP
Manggarai waratrainy season (primarily in January and February); violent storm
Rembong waratwest monsoon
Ngadha varawind, storm; stormy
Kambera waratuwest, west wind
Rotinese fa-kseawind, west wind
Hawu wawest, the island of Sumba
Leti wartawest, west wind
Selaru haratwest, westward
Yamdena baratwest, western, west monsoon; also used for 'year'
Dobel farawest
Kei barat, waratwest, west monsoon, rainy season
Asilulu halatwest, west wind, west monsoon
Kamarian halatwest
Buruese fahatwest monsoon
SHWNG
Buli pātwest, west wind
Numfor barekwest
  wam-barekwest wind, west monsoon
OC
Wuvulu afaanorthwest wind
Ere ahaywind, northwest monsoon
Likum yahaywest wind
Kairiru yavarwind type
Manam awaranorthwest wind
Motu laharanorthwest wind, and season
Aroma yabaranorthwest wind
Mailu avaranorthwest monsoon
Tawala yawalatarain (light) from southwest during dry season
Molima yavalatanorthwest wind
Mussau apaestrong wind, storm wind
Kilivila yavatanorth (wind)
Fijian cavāa hurricane, storm of wind
Tongan afāhurricane, gale or very severe storm
Samoan afāstorm, gale, hurricane
Rennellese ahaastorm
Maori āwhāgale, storm; rain
Gitua yavaraNorthwest wind; blows from December-March, brings rain to Gitua

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat balát ‘strong wind from the west (from the mountains, considered a bad wind which blows in stormy weather)’, Mentawai barä ‘west, west wind’, Proto-Sangiric *baRet ‘west wind’, Bolaang Mongondow wagat ‘rainy season’, Wolio bara ‘west, west monsoon’, Rembong barak ‘west wind’, Erai harak ‘west, west wind’, Soboyo bara ‘north’. There is no doubt that this term referred to the west monsoon of island Southeast Asia and portions of western Melanesia, in contradistinction to the east monsoon, *timuR (q.v.).

Apart from a few anomalous glosses (Kavalan balat, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) evaǥat) the references to cardinal directions in the reflexes are consistent with a west wind centered very near the Equator. In Amis (23 degrees n. latitude) this is described as a ‘south’ wind, throughout most of the Philippines (5-18 degrees n. latitude) it is described as a ‘south’ or ‘southwest’ wind, in most of the languages of Indonesia (5 degrees n. latitude to 10 degrees s. latitude) it is described as a ‘west’ wind, and in Merina, the standard dialect of Malagasy (23 degrees s. latitude) the meaning is ‘north’ (presumably a secondary semantic development after the Malagasy migration from southeast Borneo).

In the western Pacific the orientation of the west monsoon to the north-south axis appears to be somewhat different. The languages of the Admiralty Islands (all within 2 degrees s. latitude) and a number of those in southeastern Papua (roughly 10 degrees s. latitude) refer to the west monsoon as a ‘northwest’ wind, whereas the languages of both western and eastern Indonesia at corresponding latitudes refer to it as a ‘west’ wind. Further east, beyond the reach of the monsoon, the term survives as the name of a strong storm wind without reference to cardinal direction.

28071

*Sabij twins of the same sex

4958

PAN     *Sabij twins of the same sex     [disjunct: *apij]

Formosan
Paiwan savidthings without exception, identical (as children born at the same time and all of same sex)

4959

POC     *apic twins of the same sex

OC
Roviana avisitwins, when of same sex

Note:   The gloss of *Sabij clearly implies a lexical distinction between twins of the same sex and twins of opposite sex, but no etymon which can be associated with the latter meaning has yet been found. Given the limited data in support of this reconstruction it is possible that the meaning was simply ‘twins’, and that a convergent semantic restriction developed independently both in Paiwan and in Roviana.

28072

*Sabit long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying

4960

PAN     *Sabit long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying

Formosan
Amis safitlong cloth used as a band to tie a baby on one's back; cloth used as a belt; cloth used as a headdress; cloth wrapped around the feet to help climb betel nut tree

4961

PMP     *habit long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) abitwedge anything between waistband of loincloth and body
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) abitplaited rattan carrying strap
Karo Batak abitthe long cloth that is fixed under the armpits by women
Dairi-Pakpak Batak abitsarong
Toba Batak ambitcarry a child in the arms
Nias awigirdle, belt (for women)

28075

*SadiRi housepost

4964

PAN     *SadiRi housepost

Formosan
Amis salili <Apost (Chen 1982:141)
WMP
Isneg adíxiany of the seven principal posts on which the whole frame or skeleton of the house is built
Itawis aríhipost
Ilokano adígipost; pillar. Any of the principal posts on which the whole frame or skeleton of the house is built; any of the four posts that support the frame of a loom
Tagalog halígipost, pillar
Bikol harígipost, pillar, column
Aklanon halígi(h)column, post, mainstay, support (of house)
Hiligaynon halígipost, pillar
Cebuano halígipost; pillar or strong member of an organization; head, mainstay on which a group rests; outstanding person in a specific field of endeavor; penis (humorous); use as a post
Mansaka arigipost (of a house)
Tiruray lileythe main posts in house construction
Bisaya (Limbang) rigihouse post
Berawan (Long Terawan) dəkkIhhouse post
Berawan (Long Jegan) dəkkəyhouse post
Kayan jiheʔpost or support of house
Melanau (Mukah) diihouse post
Kayan (Uma Juman) jihiʔhouse post
Lawangan oripost
Ma'anyan aripost
Malagasy andrypillar, post
Iban diristand, uphold, erect, cause to stand
Malay dirian erect attitude
  ber-diristanding
Acehnese diriridge post, used to support the ridge pole of a house
Mentawai arigiposts upon which a house rests; posts that support the veranda of a house; posts under a sleeping platform
Sangir dihipost, leg (as of a table)
  dihi-m balehouse post
Tontemboan ariʔihouse post
Dampelas eliihouse post
Totoli oliihouse post
Bolaang Mongondow oʔigipost under a house or bridge, pillar
Tae' aʔriricenter post of a house
Wolio ariipost, stake, pile (standing)

4965

PCEMP     *adiRi housepost

CMP
Bimanese riʔipost
  riʔi umahouse post
Manggarai sirihousepost
Rembong dirihousepost
Rotinese dipost, pole, pillar, upright (for supporting a house)
Atoni nipillar
  ni ainafmaternal pillar
  ni monefmasculine pillar
Tetun riicolumn, pillar, post, pier, or stake
  ema rii-nan upright person, tall and straight
Kédang lilihouse post
Leti ririhouse post
Wetan riripost, mast
Yamdena diripost, pillar
  na-m-dirstand, stand up
Fordata n-diristand, stand up
Kei dirstand up straight
Asilulu lilipost, pillar
  lili temathe northernmost house post (which is considered sacred)
Paulohi ririhouse post
SHWNG
Buli lipost, pillar, corner post
  li pupuŋ-anmain post, center post
Numfor rirpost, pile, pillar
Waropen ripile, post under a house

4966

POC     *ariRi housepost

OC
Manam ariripillar
  ariri moanemale post (long)
  ariri ainefemale post (short)
Numbami alilipillar, housepost
Lau liliside posts
Sa'a lilidoor posts

4967

PCEMP     *hadiRi bubuŋ-an center post, main housepost

CMP
Yamdena didiŕ buŋ-ancenter post, main housepost
SHWNG
Buli li pupuŋ-ancenter post, main housepost

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat adígi ‘housepost’ (probably an Ilokano loan), Kelabit diri ‘house post’, Kiput pəlirəy ‘house post’, Old Javanese ḍiri ‘stand, stand upright, remain standing; be in function, reign; standing alone, outstanding, surpassing all others’, Buginese alliri ‘house post’, Chamorro haligi ‘fence post, pillar, house post used for structural support’ (probably a Tagalog loan). Nataoran Amis salili appears for expected **sarili; the comparative data for this Amis dialect are not yet sufficient to determine whether the assimilation in this form is regular or sporadic, but the cognation of the form is hardly in question. In this connection it is worth noting that among the Formosan aborigines only the Amis, Kavalan and Ketagalan (the latter now extinct) built houses elevated on posts (Ferrell 1969:33).

The necessity of positing PAn *SadiRi ‘house post’ leaves no alternative but to conclude that this type of residential structure has great antiquity among Austronesian-speaking peoples, and that the house types of the Atayal, Tsou, Paiwan, Rukai, Bunun, and Yami, which are constructed either directly on the ground, or in a shallow excavation, represent architectural innovations. Such innovations may well have been motivated by a need to adjust to the colder conditions of life in the mountains, or by a need for protection from the seasonal typhoons that periodically sweep westward across the Pacific to southern Taiwan.

Finally, accounts such as that of Cunningham (1964) and Schulte Nordholt (1971:428ff) make it clear that the dualistic cosmological symbolism embodied in the Atoni house distinguishes ‘male’ and ‘female’ posts, associated respectively with the right and left sides. Although the similar dualistic distinction in Manam appears to be based on the length of the post itself rather than on its position within the larger domestic structure, it appears very likely from this linguistic symbolism that speakers of PCEMP made use of some type of dualistic symbolism which was expressed as a male/female contrast in certain of the supporting posts for the house.

28076

*Sadu many, much, plenty

4968

PAN     *Sadu many, much, plenty

Formosan
Puyuma saɖumany (objects, animals; but not human beings)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) sazumany, much (of non-human) (Tsuchida 1980)

4969

PMP     *hadu much, many, plenty

WMP
Itbayaten aromany, plenty, abundant, numerous
Agta addumany
Atta arumany
Isneg adúmany, much, plenty
Itawis arúmany
Casiguran Dumagat ádua great amount; crowd; to increase, become many; many, a lot, much
Bontok maŋ-adúincrease in volume, of a river in flood
Kankanaey adúmany; much; a great many; a great deal; plenty of; numerous
  maŋ-in-adúrain heavily, pour with rain (used only in tales)
Ifugaw adúmany, much
Dohoi aroʔmany
CMP
Erai arumuch, many
OC
Arosi arumany; of men, islands, etc.

28082

*Sajek smell; to smell (transitive)

4976

PAN     *Sajek smell; to smell (transitive)

Formosan
Proto-Atayalic *saukto smell
Atayal sokto smell
Saisiyat s-om-azekto smell
Pazeh sa-sazekto smell, perceive odor
Amis saneka bad odor, smell

4977

PMP     *hajek smell, sniff, kiss

WMP
Itbayaten harekidea of kissing hard for respect
Ilokano agékto kiss
Sambal (Botolan) alekto kiss
Tagalog halíkto kiss
Bikol hadóka kiss
Hanunóo ʔárukkiss, kissing, i.e., with the nose, sniffing lightly against the nose or cheek of another
Aklanon haeókto kiss
Hiligaynon halúkkiss, peck on the cheek
Cebuano halúkkiss, sniff, putting the nose next to the person kissed; to kiss
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hazekto smell, to kiss
Maranao arekkiss
Tiruray ʔarekto kiss
Bonggi adeksniff, smell
Timugon Murut aloksniff, smell
Bisaya (Bukit) areksniff, kiss
Belait n-adaʔto sniff, smell
Kayan areka kiss, to kiss
Kenyah (Long Anap) m-adeksniff, smell
Sebop m-arekto sniff, smell
Berawan (Long Terawan) m-areʔto sniff, kiss
Kiput adeksniff, smell, kiss
Narum adaksniff, smell, kiss
Melanau (Mukah) adeksniff, smell, kiss
Tunjung k-araksniff, smell
Proto-Sangiric *adikto kiss
Bolaang Mongondow ayokkiss
Old Javanese arekkiss
Balinese adeksmell, be smelt, follow a scent
CMP
Soboyo hayoʔto sniff, smell
SHWNG
Numfor yāsnative manner of kissing, by sniffing the face

4978

POC     *acok to sniff, kiss

OC
Wuvulu atoto sniff, smell
Seimat aso-ito sniff, smell
Ali lasto sniff, smell
Molima yasoto smell (something)
Lakalai asoto sniff, smell (something)
Gilbertese aro-boismell, scent, the sense of smell
  arok-ito smell or scent an odor
Rotuman asoto kiss

4979

PWMP     *meŋ-hajek to sniff, kiss

WMP
Ida'an Begak meŋ-aroksniff, smell
Melanau (Mukah) meŋ-adeksniff, smell
Lahanan ŋ-areksniff, smell
Balinese ŋ-adekto smell (something)
Bolaang Mongondow moŋ-ayokto kiss
Banggai moŋ-oyok-i <Ato kiss

4980

PPh     *hajek-an to kiss

WMP
Itbayaten harek-anto kiss
Ilokano agk-ánto kiss
Tagalog halik-ánkiss someone
Bikol hadók-anto kiss
Hanunóo ʔaruk-ánkissing
Cebuano hagk-án-ango somewhere to kiss something as part of tradition

4981

PAN     *Sajek-en to smell

Formosan
Saisiyat sazek-ento smell
WMP
Balinese adek-insmell this!

Note:   Also Amis hanek ‘a bad odor, smell’, Tboli melek ‘kiss’, Singhi Land Dayak koduk ‘to smell (something)’, Atoni at nɛk ‘to kiss’, Mono-Alu aho ‘to sniff, smell’, Roviana aho-a ‘to kiss (someone/something)’, vari aho ‘kiss one another’. Although only the general meaning ‘to smell (transitive)’ can confidently be associated with PAn *Sajek, it is clear from the distribution of semantic reflexes that PMP *hajek referred specifically to the traditional nose kiss of MP-speaking peoples.

28089

*SakuC transport piecemeal; tranport through repeated trips

4988

PAN     *SakuC transport piecemeal; tranport through repeated trips

Formosan
Kavalan saquttransport something
Puyuma akuTtransport
Paiwan sakutsroute over which things are moved
  s-m-akutsmove objects from one place to another; move objects over same route more than one trip
  ma-sakutsbe moved
  pa-sakutscause things to be moved
  pa-sakuts-anplace to which things will be moved

4989

PMP     *hakut transport piecemeal; transport through repeated trips

WMP
Itbayaten hakotidea of transporting
Casiguran Dumagat akottransport something from one place to another
Tagalog hákotload, loading (in quantity); act of carrying or loading away, or transporting away
Bikol hákotto transport, usually by carrying
Hanunóo ʔákutpacking, carrying on one's back, of slung over one's back
  mag-ʔákuttransport goods in this manner
Aklanon hákotget, gather, bundle up
Hiligaynon hákutcarry to another place, bring in successive loads, transport
Cebuano hákutcarry or haul something in several trips
  hakut-an-anplace where something one hauls is obtained; place where things are hauled; something used in hauling things
Mansaka akotcarry repeatedly in order to move something from one place to another (this activity does not mean carrying a lot at once, but rather repeated trips until all is carried as planned)
Binukid hakutcarry, ahul (something) in several trips
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hakuthaul a quantity of something which requires more than one trip
Maranao akotcarry, transport
Banjarese hangkutto move (as house), transport
Maloh aŋkuttake away
Iban aŋkutcarry in many loads or continuously, shift, remove, esp. of bringing in the harvest
Malay aŋkutcarrying away piecemeal. Of loading and unloading cargo, transporting water a pail at a time, a mason-bee bringing mud for its nest
Bolaang Mongondow mog-akutgo back and forth repeatedly in order to bring or carry something, put something down, or into something else, as rice, corn, firewood, etc.
Wolio aŋkubring, take somebody somewhere, accompany, conduct, render the last sad office to a dying person

4990

PWMP     *maŋ-hakut transport piecemeal; transport through repeated trips

WMP
Singhi Land Dayak ŋ-akotcarry a child in a cloth
Malay meŋ-aŋkutcarry away piecemeal, transport

Note:   The fundamental idea expressed in this comparison is that of removing a material from one location to another as result of repeated trips between the two sites. The natural prototype for such a concept may have been the activity of the mason bee in securing mud for its nest (see *hakut hakut). However, if this activity served as a model for the semantics of *SakuC it appears that its distinctive feature (repeated trips over the same route) had already been abstracted and put to more general use by PAn times.

28092

*Salas forest, wilderness, woods

4993

PAN     *Salas forest, wilderness, woods

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ar-arasforest

4994

PMP     *halas forest, wilderness, woods, jungle

WMP
Itbayaten axasforest-to-be
Ifugaw ála(h)communal forest
Cebuano i-hálasof the jungle; ignorant; become wild, ignorant
  bábuy-ŋ i-hálaswild pigs
Modang (Long Glat) lasforest, jungle
Lawangan alaswoods
Samihim taun alahwoods
Malagasy alaa forest, a wood
Malay alasjungle, forest (used in Java)
Old Javanese alaswood, forest; also: quantity of flowers or plants growing in a thick cluster
Javanese alasforest; jungle; non-irrigated agricultural land
Madurese alas alasjungle
Balinese alasuninhabited land, jungle, forest; desert, wilderness; wild
Totoli alasjungle
Tae' alaʔbush, forest, jungle
Buginese aleʔforest
  aleʔ aleʔbushes, weeds (as in an overgrown garden)
Makasarese (Salayar) alasaʔforest, jungle
CMP
Bimanese araforest, jungle
Rembong alasforest, jungle
Kambera alahudark woods
Tetun alasforest, woods, thicket of scrub
Kisar alhaforest, jungle
Wetan alalarge forest, wilderness
Selaru alasforest, jungle
Yamdena alasforest, jungle

4995

PWMP     *ka-halas-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Itbayaten ka-axas-anforest, woods
Ifugaw k-alláh-anprivate forest
Binukid k-alas-anforest, jungle, woods
Maranao k-alas-anforest, woods
Old Javanese k-ālas-anovergrown by the forest

4996

PWMP     *halas-an forested area, wilderness

WMP
Ifugaw aláh-anforested zone
Malay oraŋ hutan alas-ana forest dweller
Javanese alas-anuncultivated, uncivilized
  woŋ alas-anforest-dweller; boor
Balinese alas-anwilderness, inaccessible wild area

4997

PMP     *halas + "dark" primary forest, primeval jungle

WMP
Malagasy ála maízinadense forest (lit. 'dark forest')
CMP
Kambera na alahu kapàtaŋuimpenetrable forest (lit. 'dark forest')

4998

PWMP     *halas Raya primary forest, virgin jungle (lit. 'big forest')

WMP
Malagasy ala bea great or thick forest (lit. 'big forest')
Madurese alas rajāprimeval forest; virgin jungle (lit. 'big forest')

Note:   Also Lampung las ‘forest, jungle’, Ngadha kala ‘thicket, forest, jungle’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed both *halas (in the form *alas) and *quCaN (in the form *hutan) meaning ‘forest’. It is now clear, however, that PMP *halas was a general term for ‘forest, jungle’, while PMP *qutan (also PAn *quCaN?) referred to a particular category of flora which is perhaps best described by Brown's (1984) term ‘grerb’ (‘small plant relative to the plant inventory of a particular environment whose parts are chiefly herbaceous (green, leafy, nonwoody)’. It thus included various grasses, herbs, bushes and the like (some of which were useful and some not) which probably were conceptually united by their being noncultivated plants associated with the wilderness.

30098

*SameCi a plant: Solanum nigrum

6818

PMP     *SameCi a plant: Solanum nigrum

Formosan
Paiwan sametsia plant: Solanum nigrum
Tsou micia plant: Solanum nigrum
WMP
Isneg amsíthe nightshade, Solanum nigrum L. Its young leaves are used for vegetables; eating these cooked young leaves cures the it-itól disease of the eyes
Bontok ʔamtía tall herb used for pig food, and cultivated as a vegetable substitute: Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae)
Kankanaey amtínightshade: Solanum nigrum Linn.; a common solanaceous weed with white flowers and small black berries
Ifugaw amtínightshade: Solanum nigrum Linn.; a common solanaceous weed with white flowers and small black berries
Ifugaw (Batad) amtíblack nightshade: a broad-leafed plant, Solanum nigrum [Sol.] planted in upland fields … or on mounds … along a pondfield dyke. The leaves and young shoots are boiled and eaten as a side dish

Note:   Also Kanakanabu namíci, Saaroa ɬamici, Ilokano amtík ~ agamtík ‘nightshade plant, Solanum nigrum’, Tagalog antí ‘a plant, Solanum nigrum’, Hanunóo unti ‘a small wild herbaceous plant (Solanum nigrum Linn.); the young leaves are used as a green vegetable by the Hanunóo’, Maranao moti ‘morel plant: Solanum nigrum L.’ Javanese ranti ‘tomato’, Manggarai kenti ‘a wild vegetable: Solanum nigrum’. This word shows multiple irregular variations, making any reconstruction difficult. I have arbitrarily chosen to compare Paiwan sametsi with forms in other languages that are ambiguous for initial *S or zero. Comparison of Tagalog antí with languages in northern Luzon would point instead to PPh *amtí.

28110

*SapaR unroll a mat, spread out a mat

5016

PAN     *SapaR unroll a mat, spread out a mat

Formosan
Seediq s-m-apawspread a mat (Li 1982a:176)
  spag-ispread the mat!
Kavalan s-m-apaRto lay mats (Li 1982:490)
Paiwan s-m-apaspread out (on ground); put pad of leaves between burden and one's back

5017

PMP     *hampaR unroll a mat, spread out a mat

WMP
Ngaju Dayak amparwhat is spread out (mats, carpets, etc.)
Malagasy ámpatrastretched out, as the legs, or a corpse immediately after death
Banjarese hamparspread out a mat
Iban amparspread (as a cloth on a table)
Malay (h)amparspreading out horizontally (of bedrock, outspread carpets, pitching tents, opening out mats, spreading wings)
Acehnese hampato spread out; to be spread out, as a stone that from above appears stretched out and flat
Karo Batak amparlie on the ground
  apar-apara little mat in a bird cage; an old pad under a new sitting or sleeping mat
Toba Batak ampar-ana broad mat
Lampung apaymat
Javanese amparfloor
  ampar-anmat to sit on
Sundanese ŋ-amparto spread out (as a mat)
  sa-ampar samakas far as the mat stretches ( = to border on)
Sasak apahanything used to sit on (mat, cushion, etc.)
Tae' ampaʔspread out; mat
  ampaʔ-ispread out on, over, cover with
  ti-ampaʔspread out, as a mat; dispersed, as a multitude of people
Proto-South Sulawesi *a(m)pa(r)unroll, spread out
Buginese appaʔlayer, mat
Makasarese aparaʔspread out (as a carpet)

5018

PAN     *S<um>apaR unroll, spread out a mat

Formosan
Seediq s-m-apawspread a mat (Li 1982a:176)
Kavalan s-m-apaRto lay mats (Li 1982b:490)
Paiwan s-m-apaspread out (on ground); put pad of leaves between burden and one's back
WMP
Toba Batak m-amparbe scattered, of cattle, things people, hamlets, etc.
Buginese m-appaʔuse a protective lining or mat

5019

PWMP     *hapaR-an a mat

WMP
Toba Batak ampar-ana broad mat
Javanese ampar-anmat to sit on

Note:   Also Saisiyat (Taai) ʃapəl (< *SapeN) ‘spread a mat, lay a mat’. Despite occasional nominal derivatives, PAn *SapaR, PMP *hampaR clearly was a verb meaning ‘to spread out’. Its prototype referent appears to have been the unrolling of mats onto the ground, although in several witnesses metaphorical extensions refer to the dispersal of small discrete objects. Under his *hampa(r) ‘spread out, stretch out’ Dempwolff (1934-38) also included proposed cognates in a number of Oceanic languages (e.g. Sa'a epa ‘to lie as a mat, of yam vines’, Fijian yabata ‘cover up with mats’, Tongan ʔepa ‘mats (collectively) given to a bride’). None of these appear to belong to the present cognate set, nor to be related to one another.

28112

*Sapejiq smarting, stinging pain

5021

PAN     *Sapejiq smarting, stinging pain     [doublet: *hapejes, *hapejis]

Formosan
Paiwan sapediqbe tender-footed; feet hurt (cited as sa-pediq)

5022

PMP     *hapediq smarting, stinging pain

WMP
Itbayaten hapdihairy appendages of plant leaf
  ma-hapdiitching caused by riceplant, corn, caterpillar
Ibanag na-feggistinging pain
Sambal (Botolan) ma-ʔapliʔstinging pain
Tagalog hapdíʔsmarting, excruciating pain
Bikol hapdíʔsmarting or burning of the eyes
Aklanon hápdiʔcause pain, smart, hurt a lot; be in pain, feel a smarting pain
Hiligaynon hápdiʔpainful, smarting pain; pain sting
Subanun (Siocon) ompodiʔsting
Maranao pediʔlonging for particular food, hunger for something particular; appetite
Tiruray fedéʔ(of a wound) smarting; (of the stomach) feeling hunger pangs
Tboli hedéksting; smart (as salt in an open wound)
Kadazan opodismarting (of pain)
Kelabit pedʰiʔsalty
Berawan (Long Terawan) pecistinging, smarting (as a wound in contact with salt)
Bintulu peɗiʔhot (of the sun, water)
Malay pedéhsmart, ache (of an eye hurt by glare, of by the intrusion of smoke, or by the gases of a volcanic eruption
Karo Batak pegihunenjoyable, as bitter medicine, sour spices
  pegih ukurvery painful, suffer agony
Sundanese pɨrihstinging of the eyes, shooting pain, as in the intestines; sharp, smarting pain
Javanese perihhurt, sting
Balinese perihpainful
Bare'e poismarting
Sasak pedihsad, mournful; stingy

Note:   Also Malagasy fery ‘wound, hurt, ulcer, sore’, Iban pediʔ ‘sharp pain, sting, smart’, Old Javanese pəDe, pəDay ‘to smart (of the eyes; from sleep, bright light, etc.)’, Balinese pedih ‘angry, express anger’. Dempwolff (1934-38) posited *pe[dD]iq ‘hurt, ache’, but his comparison was restricted to languages of western Indonesia. The Malay reflex of *Sapejiq does not show the expected development of an original trisyllable with medial *e (cf. Blust 1982).

30368

*Sapiq flattened

7407

PAN     *Sapiq flattened

Formosan
Thao ma-shapiqslightly flattened on the sides, of roundish objects (as a citrus fruit that has been pressed in on the sides)
  min-shapiqbecome flattened, of a round or other three-dimensional object

7408

PMP     *hapiq flattened, as plants to the ground

WMP
Cebuano hápiʔfor plants to bend flat to the ground (as corn bent flat by a strong wind)

28113

*Sapit press together, press between two surfaces

5023

PAN     *Sapit press together, press between two surfaces

Formosan
Paiwan sapitjbook
  s-m-apitjput in a pile (papers, etc.)
  pa-sapitjput between others (as papers); put in a book

5025

PMP     *hapit press together, press between two surfaces; part of the loom

WMP
Tagalog hápitpressing tight between two hard objects
  hapíttight-fitting (said of dresses or the like); taut, tense
Hanunóo hápitpressing tightly against something
Maloh apitpinch, nip
Iban apitsqueeze, press; next in order
Malay (h)apitpressure between two disconnected surfaces (as in a copying press or printing-press); torture by pressure
Karo Batak apitclip; trap
Simalungun Batak apitpinched, squeezed
Sundanese hapitpart of the native loom (that against which the galeger sits pressed, and that the weaver wears)
Old Javanese (h)apitenclosed, squeezed, pressed; "inserted", name of the 11th and 12th months
Balinese apitplace between two things, shut in on both sides; be between
Sasak apitsqueezed in
  apit baŋkethe middle child
  apitpart of the loom
Gorontalo wapitotouch, be touched
Banggai ampitwhat is folded
Tae' apiʔpart of the loom consisting of two wooden slats between which the thread is pinched. It is located in front of the weaver and is bound to the hip yoke with thongs of buffalo hide
CMP
Buruese api-hpinch, squeeze; pick up or hold with tongs

5026

POC     *apit pinch, squeeze

OC
Nggela avipick up a stone from the oven with tongs

5027

PWMP     *maŋ-hapit pinch, squeeze, enclose

WMP
Karo Batak ŋ-apitpinch or squeeze something; lie between
Old Javanese aŋ-apitenclose on both sides, flank; grip, clamp
Balinese ŋ-apitplace between two things, shut in on both sides
Sasak ŋ-apitsqueeze in
Banggai maŋ-ampitto fold

5028

PWMP     *paŋ-hapit instrument used to press

WMP
Bahasa Indonesia peŋ-apittwo people who stand on the right and left of the bride or groom
Karo Batak peŋ-apitbamboo laths between which one presses something
Makasarese paŋŋ-apiʔyoung women who flank the bride; young men who flank the groom

5029

PWMP     *hapit-an pinching apparatus

WMP
Tagalog hapit-ánpressing or tensing apparatus or machine
Balinese apit-ana trap; a bet, wager; a sort of claw with which women fasten the warp in the loom

5030

PWMP     *hapit hapit pinching apparatus

WMP
Karo Batak apit-apitthe two lowest laths of the loom, between which the warp is pressed
Javanese apit-apiton both sides
Balinese apit-apita split bamboo into which the ribs of the roof run

Note:   Also Buruese afi-h ‘press, clamp’. With root *-pit ‘press, squeeze together; narrow’. Dempwolff (1934-38) included Sa'a äpi ‘hold under the arm, hold close to the body’, Tongan ʔapiʔapi ‘crowded or crammed’, and Samoan apiapi ‘narrow’, apit-ia ‘be wedged in, be confined’ as reflexes of *ha(m)pit ‘hold together’, but I regard these as non-cognate.

In addition to their general verbal meanings, reflexes of PWMP *hapit have two recurrent nominal senses: 1. the members of a wedding party who flank (‘squeeze in’) the bride or groom at the wedding ceremony, and 2. a part of the indigenous backstrap loom. The distribution of forms with the former meaning is limited to two known languages (Bahasa Indonesia, Makasarese), and probably is due to borrowing. Reflexes of *hapit which refer to a part of the backstrap loom are, however, more widespread (Karo Batak, Sundanese, Balinese, Sasak, Tae'), and are less likely to be products of diffusion.

More difficult is the problem of achieving an exact gloss: with reference to the loom PWMP *hapit evidently designated a structure consisting of two wooden slats between which the warp threads were pinched. Judging from the glosses in Sundanese and Tae', this structure extended across the lap of a seated weaver, and was bound at its ends by thongs which extended around her padded hips so as to control the desired tension on the warp threads.

28114

*SapSap feel, grope

5031

PAN     *SapSap feel, grope     [doublet: *kapkap, *SapuSap]

Formosan
Thao sh<m>apshapfeel for something without seeing it; grope
Amis sapsapfeel with one's hands; figuratively feel: find out

5032

PMP     *haphap feel, grope

WMP
Maranao apapgrope, touch, feel
  apap-ʔapaptouch gently, rub lightly, fondle

28116

*SapuSap feel, grope

5034

PAN     *SapuSap feel, grope     [doublet: *SapSap]

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) apuapgrope (in a bag, or in the dark)

5035

PMP     *hapuhap feel, grope

WMP
Ifugaw apúapact of feeling, groping, fumbling
Ifugaw (Batad) apūaprub any part of the body with the open palm, as to rub an insect bite, an area that has been bumped
Aklanon hapuhápfeel around, feel for (something -- as when searching a thief for something stolen or for a weapon)
Cebuano hapúhapstroke gently back and forth with little pressure
Manobo (Dibabawon) (h)apu(h)apstroke with palm of hand
Maranao apoʔapfumble, grope

Note:   Also Tagalog apuháp ‘feel out by extending the hand’, Bikol hapíhap ‘rub gently; caress, fondle, pet, stroke’.

28117

*Sapuy fire

5036

PAN     *Sapuy fire

Formosan
Proto-Atayalic *hapu-niq, hapuyfire
Saisiyat hapoyfire
Pazeh hapwi, hapuyfire
Thao apuyfire
Tsou puzufire
Kanakanabu apúlufire
Bunun sapuđfire
Proto-Rukai *apoyfire
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) apuyfire
Paiwan sapuya fire; artificial light

5037

PMP     *hapuy fire

WMP
Itbayaten hapoyfire
Isneg apúyfire
Itawis afífire, light
Casiguran Dumagat apóyfire, firewood
Bontok ʔapúyfire
Ifugaw apúyfire
Ifugaw (Batad) apúyset fire to something, revive a fire from coals
Ilokano apúyfire
Pangasinan apóyfire; start a fire
Tagalog apóyfire, flame
Hanunóo ʔapúyfire
Palawan Batak ʔapóyfire
Maranao apoyfire; work rapidly like fire; stimulate one to fever pitch
Ata hapuyfire
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hapuyfire
Tiruray ʔafeyfire
Tboli ofifire
Kadazan t-apuyfire
Kelabit apuyfire
Melanau (Mukah) apuyfire
Kenyah apuyfire
Murik apifire
Kayan apuyfire, a light
Melanau (Matu) apuyfire
Kanowit apoyfire
Kejaman apoyfire
Bekatan apoyfire
Singhi Land Dayak opuyfire
Maloh apifire
Iban apifire, light, lamp, spark
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) apuyfire
Ngaju Dayak apuyfire
Ma'anyan apuyfire
Malagasy afofire; calamity (fig.)
Proto-Chamic *apuyfire
Moken apuyfire
Malay apifire; flame; light (of lighthouse); fiery
Acehnese apuyfire
Karo Batak apifire
Toba Batak apifire
Simalur axoefire
Mentawai apifire
Lampung apuyfire
Sundanese apuyfire (archaic)
Old Javanese apuy, apwifire
Javanese apisteam; warm oneself by the fire
Madurese apoyfire
Balinese apifire
Sasak apifire
Proto-Minahasan *apifire
Tontemboan apifire
Totoli (h)apifire
Bare'e apufire
Tae' apifire
Mandar apifire
Proto-South Sulawesi *apifire
Makasarese apifire
Palauan ŋáufire
  ŋuí-llabor pains
Chamorro guafifire, combustion, conflagration, burning mass of material; to anger, to vex
CMP
Bimanese afifire
Komodo apifire
Manggarai apifire
Ngadha apifire; burn
Li'o apifire
Sika apifire
Kambera epifire
Hawu àifire
Tetun ahifire
Moa aifire
Wetan aifire (used in compounds only)
Erai aifire
Selaru aifire
Fordata yafufire
Kei yaffire
Elat aufire
Watubela afifire
Bonfia yāffire
Asilulu aufire
Paulohi afufire
Proto-Ambon *apu(y)fire

5038

PEMP     *api₁ fire

SHWNG
Buli yapfire
Arguni yaffire

5039

POC     *api₂ fire

OC
Wuvulu afifire
Seimat ahfire
Sori japfire
Likum jehfire
Ahus yahfire
Gedaged yafire, conflagration, combustion, ignition
Gitua yapfire
Numbami yawifire
Motu lahifire
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka aifire
Gilbertese aifire; (fig.) fervor, passion, ardor; get red, glow
Kosraean efire
Pohnpeian ahifire
Mokilese oaifire
Chuukese ááffire
Woleaian yaffire, flame, blaze
Mota avfire
Ureparapara epfire
Northeast Ambae afifire
Makatea afifire
Tongan afifire (in general)
  mata afifire (single fire, not fire in general)
Samoan afifire; light (to light a fire with, i.e. smouldering stick etc.), brand
Rennellese ahifire
Anuta apifire
Kapingamarangi ahifire
Rarotongan aʔifire, light: that which burns or sheds a light or heat
Maori ahifire
Hawaiian ahifire, match, lightning; burn in a fire, destroy by fire

5040

PWMP     *ma-hapuy fiery, on fire

WMP
Tagalog ma-apóyfiery
Acehnese meu-ʔapuyburning, sending off sparks
Tontemboan ma-apicatch flame, burn; warm oneself by a fire

5041

PWMP     *maŋ-hapuy set on fire

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) maN-apuyset fire to; revive a fire
Pangasinan maN-apoystart a fire
Kadazan maŋ-apuito spark, to sparkle
Iban ŋ-apimake a fire flare up; cook with a fire
Malay meŋ-apimake mischief (proverbial)
Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-apilike fire, resembling fire, becoming fire
Old Javanese aŋ-apipurify by fire
  aŋ-apuybe on fire, to flame, blaze; set on fire, inflame, burn
Tontemboan meŋ-apispew out fire, of volcanoes
Bare'e meŋ-apubegin to cook with a new fire

5042

PWMP     *maŋ-hapuy-i apply fire to

WMP
Toba Batak maŋ-api-ilay wood on the fire
Old Javanese aŋ-apuy-iset fire to; inflame, rouse to anger
Madurese ŋ-apoy-eapply fire to, heat with fire

5043

PWMP     *maR-hapuy build a fire (?)

WMP
Isneg max-apúybuild a fire
  mag-apúycook rice
Casiguran Dumagat meg-apoyto collect firewood
Ilokano ag-apúycook rice
Malay ber-apicontaining fire; producing fire
Toba Batak mar-apihave fire, be fiery
Balinese mah-apibe fiery, be on fire
Tae' maʔ-api-apiplay with fire

5044

PMP     *pa-hapuy-an firewood, what is used to make a fire

WMP
Itbayaten pa-hapoy-ansomething with which you build a fire
Tontemboan pa-api-anpiece of firewood; what one uses to start a fire

6738

POC     *papian firewood, what is used to make a fire

OC
Gilbertese aiafirewood, fuel
Woleaian fafiy(a)firewood
Tongan fefiefirewood, fuel
Samoan fafiefirewood
Anuta papiefirewood
Rarotongan vaʔiefirewood
Maori wahiefirewood
Hawaiian wahiefuel, firewood; to serve as firewood


Note:   Also Nukuoro lahhie ‘firewood’. Walsh and Biggs (1966) give Rarotongan vaʔie ‘firewood’, but this appears as vaie, with unexplained zero reflex for medial *f in their reported source (Savage 1962). Although the Oceanic forms can be regularly derived from PMP *pa-hapuy-an, and although POc preserved *api ‘fire’ it is unlikely that the morphological relationship between *api and *papian was apparent to speakers of POc, which had already undergone such a thorough morphological restructuring that many original morpheme boundaries were completely concealed from the average speaker. Except for the reported Maori variant fafia, all Polynesian reflexes show an irregular fronting of the final vowel, a change that presumably had already occurred in PPn, perhaps giving rise to doublets *fafie and *fafia.

5045

PWMP     *paŋ-hapuy (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) paN-apuywhat is used to make a fire
Old Javanese paŋ-apuyset on fire

5046

PWMP     *paR-hapuy-an fireplace, hearth

WMP
Maranao pag-apoi-anfireplace
Malay per-api-anfireplace, hearth
Toba Batak par-api-anhearth, fireplace
Javanese pr-apè-nfireplace; place for an open fire, e.g. a blacksmith's forge

5047

PWMP     *h<in>apuy (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Isneg in-apúycooked rice
Ilokano in-apúycooked rice
Old Javanese in-api, in-apuybe on fire

5048

PAN     *S<um>apuy (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Paiwan s-m-apuycarry a torch or light

5049

PMP     *h<um>apuy (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat um-apoystart a fire
Ifugaw (Batad) um-apuythat with which something is burned, i.e. a fire

5050

PWMP     *hapuy-an fireplace, hearth

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) apuy-anthat burned, as wood; that revived, i.e. coals
Tagalog ápuy-anstove, fireplace; matchbox, tinderbox; lighter
Melanau (Mukah) puy-anhearth
Tontemboan api-anbring fire to, apply fire to

5051

PWMP     *hapuy hapuy₁ firefly

WMP
Karo Batak api apifirefly
Seko ampi-apifirefly (Mills 1975:621)

5052

PWMP     *hapuy hapuy₂ tree sp.

WMP
Malagasy (Sakalava) afi-afya tree
Iban apia tree: Calophyllum obliquinervium Merr.
Malay api apia mangrove-class (Loranthaceae); Avicenna sp., esp. Avicenna officinalis, very bright-colored, almost fiery amid darker neighbors
Karo Batak api apitree sp.
Toba Batak api apitree with reddish wood that yields good timber
Nias afiʔafikind of wood
Sasak api apiplant with dark red flowers and finger-shaped leaves
Bare'e apitree sp.
Makasarese api apitree that grows on swampy ground and riverbanks, used as firewood

Note:   Also Kankanaey apey ‘fire; burning; conflagration; combustion; light’, Kapampangan apíʔ ‘fire, flame, spark’, Balinese ampi ‘fire’, Sasak perapen ‘smithy, forge’ (Javanese loan), Rotinese haʔi ‘fire’, Leti w~ai ‘fire’, Lakalai havi ‘fire’. Many reflexes of *Sapuy are affixed in a variety of ways. Some of the cross-linguistic agreements in morphologically complex forms of this morpheme appear to reflect affixed proto-forms, while others appear to be products of convergence. Among the latter are the following:

1) Ifugaw (Batad) i-apuy ‘that with which something is burned, i.e. a fire’, Tontemboan i-api ‘the time specified for a woman who is about to give birth to be exposed to heat; that which is used for warming her’;
2) Kapampangan mam-apiʔ ‘is sparking, is on fire’, Ngaju Dayak mam-apuy ‘roast (fish, etc.) over a fire’; Mandar me-api-aŋ ‘cooking place, hearth’,
3) Itbayaten mapa-hapoy ‘to produce fire’, Tontemboan mapa-api ‘warm oneself, stay by a fire’,
4) Paiwan pe-sapuy ‘catch on fire’, Isneg pag-apúy ‘allow (somebody) to cook rice’, Ngaju Dayak p-api ‘what is roasted in the fire’;
5) Paiwan pu-sapuy-an ‘fireplace’, Ifugaw pun-apuy-án ‘fireplace, hearth’.

In addition, *hapuy hapuy ‘firefly’ may be a convergent innovation (cf. PWMP *qali-petpet ‘firefly’), and various other reduplicated forms of *hapuy almost certainly are products of historically independent innovations, as with Karo Batak api api ‘caterpillar with hairs that cause strong itching’, Old Javanese apuy apuy ‘light a fire; sit near a fire (?)’, and Tontemboan api api ‘kind of bird, named from its red breast’.

28126

*SaRuŋ snore, groan, etc.

5061

PAN     *SaRuŋ snore, groan, etc.     [doublet: *heReŋ, *heRuŋ]

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) h-əm-aruŋsnore (Ting 1978)

5062

PMP     *haRuŋ snore, groan, etc.

WMP
Bikol hagúŋ-húŋto hum (something), to buzz
Aklanon hágoŋgroan, moan (due to severe pain or sickness)
  hagóŋin death throes due to disease
Cebuano háguŋcontinuous humming, high-pitched sound
Malay meŋ-aroŋgrowl, of a dog

Note:   Also Hanunóo, Cebuano háguk ‘snore’.

28128

*Sasak ripe; cooked

5064

PAN     *Sasak ripe; cooked     [doublet: *esak]

Formosan
Bunun sasakcooking, boiling

5065

PMP     *hasak ripe; cooked     [doublet: *esak]

WMP
Kadazan ansakcook, ripen (intr.)
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) asakripe; cooked
Simalur ancaʔcook, make ripe
Sundanese asakripe; cooked

5066

PAN     *ma-Sasak ripe; cooked     [doublet: *esak]

Formosan
Bunun ma-sasakcook, boil; bear fruits, ripen; mature (of a woman)
WMP
Malagasy másakaripe, cooked; agreed upon; matured, of thoughts or intentions
Malay masakripe (fruit or grain), cooked (food)
Simalur m-ancaʔcooked, ripe
Palauan márekripe (i.e. ready to eat); cooked
Chamorro masaripe, cooked
CMP
Kamarian masa-ecooked, ripe
Alune masacooked, done; ripe, mature
SHWNG
Buli masacooked, ripe, complete
OC
Lou mwascooked
'Āre'āre mataripe, of fruit

28129

*Sasaq whet, sharpen

5067

PAN     *Sasaq whet, sharpen

Formosan
Bunun sasaqwhet; rub; grind; sharpen
Paiwan t-m-ataq <Ato whet (on large stone)

5068

PMP     *hasaq whet, sharpen

WMP
Ilokano ásawhet, hone, grind; polish, burnish; to gall, to chafe, to fret
Tagalog hásaʔwhetting, sharpening
Hanunóo ʔásaʔwhetting, sharpening
Kadazan asawhetting, sharpening
Melanau (Mukah) asaʔwhetting, sharpening
  m-asaʔwhet, sharpen
  n-asaʔbe sharpened
  batew asaʔwhetstone
Malagasy asawhetting, sharpening
  vàto asànastone used for grinding knives, etc., a grindstone
Kayan asause a whetstone, sharpen a tool by abrasion
Ngaju Dayak asawhetting, sharpening, grinding
Maloh ansaʔgrind, sharpen
Iban ansahgrind, sharpen
Banjarese asahwhetting, sharpening
Malay asahgrinding down; whetting; tooth-filing (the first rough filing is daboŋ; asah is the final smoothing with the point of the whetstone)
Acehnese asahwhet, sharpen, file off (teeth)
Karo Batak asahwhet, sharpen
Toba Batak asawhet, sharpen
Dairi-Pakpak Batak asahwhet, sharpen something on a heavy whetstone or touchstone; stone used to test the purity of gold
Simalungun Batak asahwhet, sharpen
Simalur asasharpen, whet
Mentawai asawhet, sharpen
Rejang aseaʔsharpen
  butew aseaʔgrindstone (for chillies); whetstone
Sundanese asah(of a smith) work tools through forging and whetting; in general, whetting, sharpening
Old Javanese asahfile, grind, scour
Javanese asah-asahwash (dishes)
Sasak asaʔwhetstone
Sumbawanese asawhet, sharpen
Sangir asawhetting, sharpening
Proto-Minahasan *asaʔwhet, grind sharp
Bolaang Mongondow ataʔwhetting, sharpening
  mog-ataʔwhet, sharpen
  pot-ataʔ-anwhetstone
Dampelas asawhetting, sharpening
Bare'e asawhetting, sharpening
Uma -ahaʔwhet, sharpen
  watu poʔ-ahaaʔwhetstone
Tae' asagrind, whet, sharpen
Buginese asawhet, sharpen
  aŋ-asa-ŋplace where sharpening is done
Chamorro guasaʔsharpen, make sharp
CMP
Kambera ahagrind (rice)
Watubela ahaksharpen
Asilulu hasasharpen by continuously rubbing one side of the blade on a whetstone
Paulohi asa-ewhet, sharpen
Buruese asa-ksharpen, as a knife
  asa-ncutting edge, as of a knife
Soboyo hasawhet, sharpen

5069

PEMP     *asaq sharpen, rub, grate

SHWNG
Numfor yāswhet, sharpen
OC
Kairiru yassharpen something
Manam arasharpen
Roviana asa-iato grind, as an axe if very blunt; grate, like luzu (sweet yam or potato), taro, etc.
Eddystone/Mandegusu asagrate or rub, as nuts, etc.; pudding made by grating
Bugotu a-ahagrate, rub down on a stone (as taro) sharpen by rubbing
Lau satarub, rub down, sharpen by rubbing
Sa'a sata-aʔichafe, rub
Arosi atascrape, rub, sharpen with rubbing
Mota asarub, wash with rubbing
  asa-grub something
  asa-ŋrub hard, rub into shreds
Fijian yacagrate, grind, file, rub eyes with cika (conjunctivitis)
  i yacagrater, grindstone

5070

PWMP     *maŋ-hasaq whet, sharpen

WMP
Bolinao maŋ-ásaʔsharpen
Kadazan maŋ-asasharpen, whet
Singhi Land Dayak ŋ-asahsharpen
Ngaju Dayak maŋ-asarub, grate, grind against one another (as two knives)
Malagasy man-àsasharpen, whet, grind, put a point on
Malay meŋ-asah dawatrub up ink on a palette
Karo Batak ŋ-asahwhet, sharpen
Toba Batak maŋ-asawhet, sharpen
Simalur maŋ-asasharpen, whet
Sundanese ŋ-asahwhet, sharpen
Old Javanese aŋ-asahfile, grind, scour
Javanese ŋ-asahsharpen, hone
Sasak ŋ-asaʔwhet, sharpen
Sangir maŋ-asawhet, sharpen
Dampelas maŋ-asawhet, sharpen
Bare'e maŋ-asawhet, sharpen

5071

PWMP     *paŋ-hasaq person or instrument that grinds or sharpens

WMP
Malay tukaŋ peŋ-asahexpert at tooth-filing
Old Javanese paŋ-asahone who grinds or sharpens
Bare'e watu mpaŋasa ndapaŋasaka labuwhetstone used to sharpen a bush knife
Tae' paŋ-asathat which is sharpened

5072

PWMP     *paŋ-hasaq-an whetting, sharpening

WMP
Ilokano paŋ-asá-anwhetstone, oilstone, hone
Bahasa Indonesia peŋ-asah-anmanner or action of whetting or sharpening

5073

PAN     *Sasaq-an whetstone, grindstone

Formosan
Bunun sasaq-angrindstone
Paiwan tataq-anlarge whetstone

5074

PMP     *hasaq-an whetstone, grindstone

WMP
Bontok ʔasá-ʔanwhetstone, especially one used for putting a fine edge on a blade
Tagalog hasaʔ-ánwhetstone
Hanunóo ʔasaʔ-ánwhetstone
Bahasa Indonesia asah-aninstrument used to whet or sharpen
Simalungun Batak asah-anwhetstone
Simalur (batu) asa-nwhetstone
Mentawai asa-anwhetstone
Sundanese batu asah-anwhetstone
Old Javanese asah-angrindings
Javanese asah-anwhetstone
Tae' asa-nwhetstone
Makasarese (Salayar) asa-aŋwhetstone

5075

PWMP     *hasaq-en be sharpened; thing sharpened

WMP
Ilokano asá-enwhet, hone, grind
Kadazan asa-onbe sharpened
Malagasy asa-ìnabe sharpened, be whetted, be pointed
Bahasa Indonesia asah-anwhat has been sharpened
Chamorro guasaʔ-onsharpener (for metal tools), grindstone, whetstone

5076

POC     *asaq-i sharpen (transitive)

OC
Manam ara-isharpen
Sa'a sat-erub down, grind, sharpen on a stone
Arosi ata-iscrape, rub, sharpen with rubbing
  ata-ataa rasp, scraper
Bauro rata-iscrape, rub, sharpen with rubbing
Pohnpeian edesharpen, put an edge on something (transitive)
  adahdsharpen, put an edge on something (intransitive)

Note:   Also Bunun asaq ‘rub, grind, whet, sharpen’ (Nihira 1983 [1932]), Bintulu aseʔ ‘whetting, sharpening’, Iban asah ‘sharpen’, Gedaged yase ‘sharpen, abrade, rub (down), file, pulverize’, Lau tata ‘scrape, sharpen by rubbing’, Sa'a ata-ata ‘diamond-shaped yam grater; to grate’. The etymon of this widespread cognate set clearly referred to the sharpening of worn tool edges, and not merely to grating or grinding in general. It is compatible with a hypothesis that either edge-ground stone tools or metal tools of some type were in use among PAn speakers (c. 4,000 B.C.). Paiwan tataq is assumed to result from assimilation of *S to *s prior to the regular change *s > /t/.

28130

*SateD accompany, escort; send, return

5077

PAN     *SateD accompany, escort; send, return

Formosan
Paiwan satjezreturn something; object which is being returned

5078

PMP     *hateD accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments

WMP
Bontok ʔatədshare something with somebody
Sambal (Botolan) atelescort
Kapampangan atádescort away from home to another place
Tagalog hatídconduction, accompaniment; person conducting or convoying or taking something or someone to a destination
Bikol hatódto escort, conduct; to convoy; convey or deliver; bring or accompany to a particular place
Aklanon hatódto escort, take, deliver safely, conduct
Hiligaynon hatúddeliver personally, carry a message
Cebuano hatúdtake something somewhere; make something reach a certain distance in time or space; something delivered
Mansaka atuddeliver, escort, bring, carry
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hateddeliver
Tboli eteddeliver
Bintulu atedcommand, order
Kayan (Uma Juman) aterconvey, take to a place
Kayan atenconvey, take to
  im aten bua meduŋ men sepuiplease take some papaya fruit to our grandfather
Malagasy atitrapresented, conducted, conveyed, sent, returned
Maloh antataccompany, escort
Banjarese atarconduct, escort, convey
  ba-atar-anconvey an engagement gift
Malay (h)antarconducting, escorting; bearing along; conveying; (Bazaar Malay) to send
  meŋ-hantarthe processional conveyance of bridal gifts at a wedding
Malay (Jakarta) (h)anterconducting, escorting
Rhade atătto accompany, escort, guide
Acehnese antatescort, accompany, convey, bring, transfer
Lampung atotcarry (rice)
Sundanese antɨrescort, accompany; escort a corpse to the grave; futher; give in, give full rein to one's passions
Old Javanese ateraccompany, escort, take someone somewhere; bring, carry
Javanese atercarry, take; take, accompany
  ater-aterfoods for a ritual meal; take such foods to neighbors
Madurese aterescort, accompany
  ter-atercontribution or gift which is taken to the home of the recipient (usually consists of food)
Balinese atehlead away, follow, accompany, escort (Low Bal.)
Sasak aterbring food to someone who is working outside of the house
Sumbawanese antatescort, accompany
Proto-Minahasan *atədtransport, convey
Bolaang Mongondow atodescort, conduct, bring, take, carry
  pokog-atodtime of the bringing of something (used in a fixed expression uttered at the time the marriage dowry is brought)
  antodtake away, lead away
Bare'e atabring or escort someone to his destination
Tae' antaʔescort, accompany, take someone to his destination
Buginese antaraʔescort (as a bride to her wedding)
Makasarese antaraʔgive presents at the end of the fasting month, and on Chinese and European New Year's Day; what one has brought back from a trip (fruits, etc.) to give as presents to the neighbors
Palauan ŋádergift of food accompanying bride when she is brought to prospective husband's family
  merádersend/see person off; return; send back; bring (bride) to prospective husband's family
SHWNG
Numfor yakerescort, show a person out (as a rule this is festive)
  yaker binescort a bride to her bridegroom; also the preparations connected with this: to wit, the bringing of bridewealth

5079

PAN     *ma-SateD escort, accompany

Formosan
Bunun ma-satutake, carry (as a letter to someone)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) m-a-ʔatezescort a sick person or a drunk home
WMP
Kayan m-atenconvey, take to; escort
  tei teloʔ maten hawaʔlet us go to escort the bride
Bare'e ma-atatake or escort to a destination
  ma-ata mania-ñaof a woman, to accompany her parents-in-law a distance as they return home after the wedding feast at which they have taken their son to the home of the bride

5080

PWMP     *maŋ-hateD send, accompany

WMP
Tarakan ŋ-atadsend
Bahasa Indonesia meŋ-antar-(kan)send or accompany a person on his way
  antar-meŋ-antaraccompany one another, send to one another (as gifts of food)
Old Javanese aŋ-ateraccompany, escort, take someone somewhere; bring, carry
Tae' maŋ-antaʔname of an offering to the gods (also called massuraʔ tallaŋ by which a pig is sacrificed at an offering place using bamboo poles with figures carved in them
Makasarese aŋŋ-antaraʔgive presents at the end of the fasting month, and on Chinese and European New Year; offer to one's neighbors what one has brought back from a trip (as fruits or other things)

5081

PAN     *pa-SateD send (?)

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) pa-ʔatezsend
Paiwan pa-satjezcause something to be returned
WMP
Bikol pa-hatódthat which is given by the parents of the bridegroom to the parents of the bride as a sign that the marriage contract has been fulfilled

5082

PWMP     *paŋ-hateD person who leads or escorts another; means of leading or escorting

WMP
Bahasa Indonesia peŋ-antarperson who leads or escorts another; means of leading or escorting
Buginese paŋ-antaraʔperson who leads or escorts another
Makasarese paŋŋ-antaraʔexchange presents at the end of the fasting month, or at Chinese or European New Year

5083

PWMP     *h<in>ateD was escorted or brought; person escorted, thing brought

WMP
Bintulu n-atedbe ordered
Old Javanese in-aterwas escorted, was brought
Bolaang Mongondow in-atodwhat has been brought; was brought, was escorted

5084

PAN     *S<um>ateD accompany, escort

Formosan
Paiwan s-m-atjezreturn something; send off a visitor

5085

PMP     *h<um>ateD accompany, escort

WMP
Kayan m-atenconvey, take to; escort
Old Javanese um-ateraccompany, escort, take someone somewhere; bring, carry

5086

PAN     *SateD-an escort, accompany (imperative)

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) atez-anescort a sick person or a drunk home (imperative)

5087

PMP     *hateD-an escort, accompany (imperative)

WMP
Aklanon hátd-an imáwescort him (imperative)
Cebuano hatd-ánbring
Ngaju Dayak hanter-anlead, guide, deliver
Malagasy atèr-anaused of the person to whom anything is sent, etc.
Bahasa Indonesia antar-anmoney, etc. given by the groom's family to his future parents-in-law; goods which are taken or sent on request; person who escorts or accompanies
Balinese ateh-anexport

5088

PWMP     *hateD-en be escorted, be delivered

WMP
Hiligaynon hatd-unbe delivered personally; what is delivered personally
Malagasy atèr-inabe offered, be presented, be sent, be returned
Hiligaynon hatd-unbe delivered personally; what is delivered personally

Note:   Also Itbayaten hatid ‘deliver, accompany’, Tiruray odor ‘go along, accompany’, Acehnese euntat ‘escort, accompany, convey, bring, transfer’, Balinese (High) ater ‘lead (an animal), escort, lead away (prisoners)’, Sasak anter ‘escort, accompany’, Tondano antar ‘wedding gold’ (= Malay loan with semantic change?), Banggai antok, maŋ-antok-kon ‘lead, escort, bring’, Bimanese oto ‘escort, accompany’.

Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *ha(n)teD ‘bring, escort, conduct, deliver’. However, this gloss fails to account for the fact that reflexes of *SateD refer not just to this general semantic range, but more specifically to 1. a ceremonial escorting of the bride to the wedding or to her new husband (in connection with patrilocal residence?), and 2. to some form of material exchange, probably involving bridewealth (Bikol, Bolaang Mongondow, Numfor). The clear references to food exchanges or distribution -- whether connected with marriage or not -- in at least Javanese, Madurese, Sasak, Makasarese and Palauan further suggests that by at least PWMP times *hateD included as an important part of its denotation gifts of food from a wedding feast which were evidently carried home for consumption.

28131

*Sauni in a little while, momentarily, later

5089

PAN     *Sauni in a little while, momentarily, later

Formosan
Atayal sonitoday (up till this moment, opposite of kira 'the rest of today') (Egerod 1980)
  saonia little while ago; today (Tsuchida 1976)
Tsou ósniimmediately
Kanakanabu saúnitoday
  nuu-saúniin a little while
  mii-saúnia little while ago
Paiwan sawnia short while
  nu-sawniin a little while, later today
  ka-sawniearlier today; a little while ago (today)
Amis anu-sauniafter, later (Tsuchida 1976)
WMP
Bontok ʔawníwait; make something last; some unspecified time in the future; soon; later
Kankanaey aunístay! hold! wait!
  auní auní etindicates the future with verbs
  auní si maauauníby and by; soon; anon; ere long; in a moment; in a minute
Ifugaw (Batad) awniexclamation roughly equivalent to 'wait!', 'later!'

28138

*Saw question particle

5100

PAN     *Saw question particle

Formosan
Amis sawquestion particle indicating that the speaker expects the answer to be obvious

5101

PMP     *aw question particle

WMP
Hanunóo ʔáwinterrogative particle
Cebuano awparticle preceding a statement made to correct oneself; particle preceding an afterthought; particle preceding a statement or question meaning 'is that so?' and shows surprise; particle preceding a predetermined answer
Tiruray ʔawappears first in questions, and formally marks the following as a query

Note:   If the Amis and Philippine forms are cognate the latter show an irregular loss of expected initial h-.

28133

*Sawak waist, back of the waist

5091

PAN     *Sawak waist, back of the waist

Formosan
Thao awakan area of the body corresponding roughly to the waist; vulnerable areas of the side and back between the rib cage and the pelvic bone
Kavalan sawaqwaist, back of the waist

5092

PMP     *hawak waist, back of the waist

WMP
Itawis áwakwaist
Bontok ʔáwakbody
Kankanaey áwakbody
Ifugaw áwakloins, or waist
Pangasinan áwakwaist
Bikol háwakbody, torso, physique; stalk of plants; shaft of an arrow
  mani-háwaktake the form of something
Hanunóo háwakback of the waist (NOTE: No general term for waist)
Aklanon háwakwaist
Hiligaynon háwakwaistline
Cebuano háwakwaist
  hawak-untend to suffer from backaches
Mansaka awakwaist
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hawakwaist of a person; by extension, waist of a garment; hold someone around the waist
Kadazan t-avakwaist, hips, loins
Malay awakbody; trunk of body; self; -- whence it is used as a pronoun (I, we, -- connoting a certain kindly superiority or authority; you -- as a pronoun in familiar use; sometimes in kindly speech)
Acehnese awaʔbody; person; crew
Karo Batak awakloins
Dairi-Pakpak Batak abakwaist, hips
Toba Batak akhips, loins
Simalungun Batak awakwaist
Simalur awaʔbody, trunk, stem
Rejang awoʔbody, abdomen, trunk
Sundanese awakbody; reflexive pronoun
  paŋ-awakbe, exist
Old Javanese awakbody, embodiment, self, own self, own (special) form of being, nature, kind
  m-āwakhave or assume a body, be an embodiment of
Javanese awakbody; you ( to someone one speaks Ngoko to, but does not know well)
Balinese awakbody; life; the self
Sasak awakbody
Gorontalo wawaʔobody
Bolaang Mongondow awakbody; sometimes also 'self'
Bare'e awabody; waist
Uma aakwaist
Proto-South Sulawesi *awakwaist
Muna aawaist
CMP
Manggarai awakhips, waist
Rembong awakwaist
OC
Rotuman ao(k)body, torso (of man or animal); person, self
CMP
Proto-Ambon *awa-loins, hips
Kayeli awa-iwaist
Buruese awa-nwaist (anatomical)

5093

PWMP     *paR-hawak-an body shape

WMP
Bahasa Indonesia per-awak-anposture, shape or condition of the body
Sasak per-awak-anbody shape, body build
Gorontalo pohu-wawaʔoposture, shape or condition of the body

5094

PWMP     *hawak-an waistline

WMP
Kapampangan awák-anwaist
Cebuano hawák-anwaistline

Note:   Also Hanunóo áwak ‘back of waist’, Kelabit awaʔ ‘waist’, Maloh awaʔ ‘waist’, Dairi-Pakpak Batak awak ‘waist, hips’, Rejang awaʔ ‘body, abdomen, trunk’. The precise semantic agreement in the glosses of Kavalan sawaq and Hanunóo háwak ‘back of the waist’, and the somewhat wavering English gloss ‘waist, hips’ in several languages suggest that the referent of *Sawak did not correspond exactly to any semantic category of English. Rather, the available information suggests that PAn *Sawak and PMP *hawak referred to the unprotected space between the rib cage and the pelvic bone which is not covered by the muscles of the abdominal diaphragm, hence a part of the body corresponding roughly to the English concept ‘waist’, but applying only to the sides and back.

28137

*SawSaw wash, rinse

5098

PAN     *SawSaw wash, rinse     [doublet: *NawNaw, *rawraw]

Formosan
Amis sawsawgeneric word for wash

5099

PMP     *hawhaw wash, rinse

WMP
Tagalog hawháwrinsing (said of clothes)

Note:   Also Amis sasaw ‘generic word for wash’.

29875

*SayaN termite

6534

PAN     *SayaN termite     [doublet: *aNay]

Formosan
Thao ayaztermite
Puyuma ayantermite
Paiwan sa-sayalʸtermite

TOP      Se    Si    Su    

Se

28159

*SebaN carry a child with a carrying cloth

5124

PAN     *SebaN carry a child with a carrying cloth

Formosan
Kavalan sebanlong binding cloth for carrying a child on the back
Paiwan sevalʸcarry someone on the back
  ki-sevalʸask to be carried on someone's back; copulate (animals)

5125

PMP     *heban carry a child with a carrying cloth

WMP
Itawis ábbanhold a baby
Kankanaey ebánblanket used to carry children on the back
Ifugaw obánspecial blanket in which babies and little children are carried on the back of somebody
Bikol habáncarry something cradled in cloth high on the back near the shoulders (as one might carry a small child)
Hanunóo ʔubántumpline or shoulder strap used in carrying heavy packs
Malay embanband going around the body. Of the bands supporting a porter's knapsack; also of a horse's belly-band
Toba Batak obancarry, bring
Old Javanese (h)embanthat which carries or encloses
Balinese embancarry a child; rear, bring up (a child)
CMP
Ngadha ebacarrying strap or cloth for small children; carry children on the side or in the arms with such a strap or cloth

5126

PAN     *S<in>ebaN what is carried on the back

Formosan
Paiwan s-in-evalʸsomeone carried on someone else's back

5127

PMP     *h<in>eban what is carried on the back

WMP
Old Javanese h-in-embancarry on both arms or in a carrying shawl; hold on one's lap; to nurse, be the guardian of

Note:   Also Pangasinan ebá, ebák ‘to carry (esp. a child)’, Bikol hagbán ‘carry something bulky wrapped in cloth’. Arndt (1961) cites Ngadha eba under céba, but the alphabetical order shows that this is a misprint for ceba (/eba/). In PMP this form clearly meant ‘carry a child with a carrying cloth’; such a specific gloss cannot yet be assigned to PAn *SebaN.

28160

*SebuC pluck, pull up (as weeds)

5128

PAN     *SebuC pluck, pull up (as weeds)

Formosan
Paiwan sevutsremove grain stalks from field after harvest

5129

PMP     *hebut pluck, pull up (as weeds)

WMP
Berawan (Long Terawan) keuʔto pull, as weeds
Malagasy évotraplucked up, retracted; be withdrawn, recanted
Banjarese ambutpull off the husk of a coconut
Balinese ebutpull up (weeds), draw out
Sangir ebuʔpluck, pull out (plants, hair, etc.)

Note:   With root *-buC ‘to weed, pluck, pull out’.

28168

*Sekak to crow, to caw

5137

PAN     *Sekak to crow, to caw

Formosan
Amis skakthe crow of a rooster; to crow

5138

PMP     *hekak to crow, to caw

WMP
Isneg akkáʔto cackle, of fowls
Ngaju Dayak kakraven
Iban kaka crow, Corvus sp. (onom.)
Malay eŋkaka crow, Corvus enca
Javanese eŋkakvar. of small crow

Note:   Javanese eŋkak probably is borrowed from Malay. With root *-kak₁ ‘cackle, laugh loudly’.

28183

*Sema tongue

5155

PAN     *Sema tongue

Formosan
Proto-Atayalic *həmaʔtongue
Seediq hematongue
Saisiyat kæ-hmatongue
Amis sematongue
  pa-semastick out the tongue
Paiwan sematongue
  s<m>emastick out the tongue (Western dialect)

5156

PMP     *hema tongue

CMP
Rotinese matongue
Atoni ma-ktongue
Sika ma-ŋtongue
Selaru tongue
Buruese maa-ntongue

Note:   Also Puyuma sema ‘tongue’ (< Paiwan), Lampung emah ‘tongue’, Manggarai, Ngadha lema, Kambera làma ‘tongue’. Alternatively, the Atayal, Saisiyat and Puyuma forms can be assigned to *sema, and the Amis and Paiwan forms to a doublet *Sema. The vowel length in Selaru , Buruese maa- is unexplained, and it is possible that these forms reflect PCEMP *maya.

28182

*Semay cooked rice

5152

PAN     *Semay cooked rice

Formosan
Kavalan mːaycooked rice (Tsuchida 1971)
Pazeh sumaycooked rice
Amis hmaycooked rice

5153

PMP     *hemay cooked rice

WMP
Atta ammayrice on the stalk
Isneg ammáyrice, Oryza sativa L. Paddy, rice in the husk, unhusked rice, whether growing or not
Itawis ammáyrice plant
Bikol húmayprepare a dish eaten on festive occasions in which seasoned meat or fish and rice are cooked in a segment of bamboo
  h-in-úmaythe dish prepared in this way}
Aklanon humáycooked rice
Hiligaynon humáyrice plant
Cebuano humáygeneral term for rice
Ata homoycooked rice
Manobo (Ilianen) ɨmɨycooked rice
Manobo (Tigwa) hɨmɨycooked rice
Subanun (Sindangan) gɨmaicooked rice
Toba Batak omerice in the husk, rice plant
Proto-Sangiric *emayrice in the field
Sangir ĕmmerice in the field, unhusked rice; food (in general)

5154

PPh     *ka-hemay-an rice field

WMP
Isneg k-ammay-ānrice field
Cebuano ka-humáy-anrice field

Note:   Also Binukid humáy, Kalagan umay, Mamanwa homay, Manobo (Sarangani) omay ‘husked rice’, Palawan Batak omay, Toba Batak eme, Malay imai ‘cooked rice’. Dempwolff posited *imay ‘rice’, but based his reconstruction entirely on Toba Batak eme, Malay imai.

Although PAn *Semay apparently meant ‘cooked rice’, the meaning of PPh *hemay is less certain. Both in northern Luzon and in Sangir of northern Sulawesi, PPh *hemay is reflected in the meaning ‘rice in the field; unhusked rice’, and PPh *ka-hemay-an ‘rice field’ supports a similar gloss for the unaffixed stem.

At the same time, however, a number of languages in the central Philippines agree with Formosan reflexes and with such variant forms in western Indonesia as Toba Batak eme and Malay imai in supporting a gloss ‘cooked rice’. In either case there are competing forms for the meaning in question.

PAn *pajay clearly meant ‘rice in the field; unhusked rice’, and in this sense evidently persisted in PPh. Although reflexes of both *kaen-en and *nasi mean ‘cooked rice’ in widely separated languages, the former set of terms almost certainly developed this sense as a result of convergent change from an original meaning ‘what is eaten’, while some reflexes of the latter probably are borrowings of Malay nasi ‘cooked rice’.

28184

*Semut smothering, suffocating

5157

PAN     *Semut smothering, suffocating

Formosan
Saisiyat panə-ʃəmət-ənsmothered
Paiwan semutjsmothering, choking
  ma-semutjto be smothered
  s<m>emutjto smother someone

5158

PMP     *hemut smother, suffocate

WMP
Isneg ammótcover the mouth with the hand
  ammot-ánto cover the mouth with the hand
Agta (Eastern) amótto clamp one’s hand over one’s own or someone else’s mouth to prevent talking or breathing; hold one’s nostrils so no air enters
  amot-ánto pinch one’s nostrils so water doesn’t enter
Casiguran Dumagat emótto suffocate (as for a person under a blanket to not be able to breathe)

Note:   I assume that Saisiyat has assimilated the reflex of *u to the other three vowels in the only form of this word that is given in Li (1978).

28202

*Señaw to wash

5227

PAN     *Señaw to wash     [doublet: *Siñaw]

Formosan
Rukai (Mantauran) ʔəna-ʔənauwash clothing
Pazeh mə-sənawwash utensils

5228

PMP     *heñaw to wash

WMP
Bikol hanáwwash the hands or feet
Cebuano hunáwwash the hands

30272

*Seŋaw to breathe (?)

7174

PAN     *Seŋaw to breathe (?)

Formosan
Thao shnawheart, breath; character
  ma-shnawhold the breath
  mak-shnawto breathe; mean something sincerely, speak ‘from the heart’
  mak-shna-shnawbreathe; fontanelle; temple

7175

PMP     *heŋaw exude or escape, of air, gases or similar substances (?)

WMP
Cebuano huŋáwfor wind to blow; for air to leak out; for the ground to exude a stench after rain; for body heat to escape, lending relief
  h<in>uŋáwgas or air exuded
  huŋaw-an-ánhole where air or gases leak

Note:   Also Maranao seŋaw ‘breath; vapor’. The semantic differerence between this and PAn *Seŋad is unclear. Reflexes of the latter uniformly mean to ‘to breathe’, whereas reflexes of PAn *Seŋaw are more diverse, and hence more difficult to assign to a uniform meaning.

28187

*Sepat four

5161

PAN     *Sepat four

Formosan
Proto-Atayalic *ma-sepateight
Seediq (Truku) spatfour
Kavalan ʔu-spatfour
Pazeh sepatfour
Taokas shupafour
Bunun patfour
Proto-Rukai *sepatefour
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) patfour (cardinal)
Paiwan sepatjfour
Amis spatfour

5162

PMP     *epat four

WMP
Isneg appátfour
Itawis appátfour
Casiguran Dumagat epátfour
Bontok ʔəpátfour
Ifugaw opátfour
Hanunóo ʔúpatfour, a cardinal number
Palawan Batak ʔepatfour
Cebuano upátfour
Kalamian Tagbanwa epatfour
Maranao patfour
Tiruray ʔefotfour
Tboli fatfour
Kelabit epatfour
Bintulu patfour
Melanau (Mukah) patfour
Kenyah patfour
Kayan (Uma Juman) patfour
Malagasy éfatrafour
Siang opatfour
Maloh ampatfour
Iban empatfour
Malay empatfour
Simalur atfour (in combination)
Karo Batak empatfour
Toba Batak opatfour
Nias õfafour
Lampung paʔfour
Old Javanese patfour
Javanese patfour
Madurese empaʔfour
Balinese empatfour
Sasak empatfour
Proto-Sangiric *epatfour
Sangir epaʔfour
Tontemboan epatfour
Bolaang Mongondow opatfour
Gorontalo opatofour (in serial counting)
Uma opoʔ <Afour
Bare'e opo <Afour
Mandar appeʔfour
Makasarese appaʔfour
Wolio apafour
Muna paafour
CMP
Bimanese upafour
Komodo paʔfour
Manggarai patfour
Rembong patfour
Lamboya patafour
Kambera patufour
Hawu epafour
Lamaholot patfour
Rotinese hafour
Erai akfour
Leti wo-atafour
Selaru atfour
Yamdena fat(e)four
Proto-Ambon *patfour
Bonfia fātfour
Buruese pafour
SHWNG
Arguni fatfour
Kowiai fatfour

5163

PEMP     *pat four

SHWNG
Buli fatfour
Waropen akofour
OC
Wuvulu fafour
Numbami wat(a)four
Dobuan atafour
Mussau atafour
Gilbertese afour
Kosraean ah-ŋfour
Pohnpeian pah-four
Woleaian faa-four
Fijian four
Tongan four
Samoan four
Rennellese haafour
Anuta pafour
Kapingamarangi haafour
Rarotongan āfour
Maori whāfour; elliptically, the fourth month
Hawaiian four, fourth (commonly preceded by the numeral-marking prefixes, as ʔehā keiki, four children)

5164

PWMP     *iŋg-epat four times

WMP
[Kadazan iŋg-apatfour times]
Malagasy in-èfatrafour times
Bolaang Mongondow iŋg-opatthe fourth

5165

PPh     *ika-epat fourth

WMP
Itbayaten ichápatfourth
Casiguran Dumagat ika-epatfourth
Ifugaw m-ika-pʔátfourth
[Tagalog ika-ápatfourth]
[Hiligaynon ika-ápatfourth]
Cebuano ika-upátfourth

5166

PMP     *ka-epat fourth

WMP
Bontok ka-pʔátdivide into four, to quarter
Pangasinan k-ápatthat which makes four, fourth
Cebuano ka-upátfour times
Kadazan ka-ʔapatfourth
Iban ka-empatfourth
Malay ke-empatfourth
  ke-empat-empatall four
Lampung ka-paʔall four
[Sundanese ka-opatfourth]
Old Javanese ka-patfour altogether; as fourth; the fourth month
Javanese ka-patfourth in a series
Madurese ka-empaʔbe four, number four
Sasak ke-empatfourth
Sangir ka-epa-efourth
Bolaang Mongondow ko-opatfour times; the fourth
OC
Fijian ka-vāthe fourth

5167

PWMP     *ka-epat-an fourth

WMP
[Itbayaten k-ápat-anfourth month, January (old calendar)]
Bikol ka-apát-anfourths
[Hiligaynon ka-ápat-anforty]
[Manobo (Western Bukidnon) k-epat-anforty]
Malay ke-empat-anthe fourth

5168

PAN     *ma-Sepat (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Seediq (Truku) ma-spateight
Paiwan ma-sepatjfour (persons)

5169

PMP     *ma-epat divided into four (?)

WMP
Madurese ma-empaʔdivide into four
Tontemboan me-epatdivide into four; make a square
Gorontalo ma-opatoalready four in quantity
Buginese ma-eppaʔthe fourth
CMP
Kambera ma-patufour (stative; cf. tau ma-patu 'the four men')

5170

PAN     *maka-Sepat four times

Formosan
Paiwan maka-sim-atj-elʸfour times
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) maka-pt-elforty

5171

PWMP     *maka-epat four times

WMP
Bikol maka-apátto have four
Cebuano maka-upátfour times
Balinese maka-pat-patall four, four each
Makasarese maka-appaʔfourth
  maka-appaʔ-nathe fourth

5172

PWMP     *maR-epat become four, divide into four (intr.)

WMP
[Kapampangan mag-ápat-a bánwaspend four years]
Bikol mag-apátbecome four
Malagasy mi-èfatradivide into four parts, be in four
Malay ber-empatin a quartet (i.e. with three others)
Karo Batak raja mer-empatthe four chief princes of the Karo
Toba Batak mar-opat-opatfour at a time, four each
Old Javanese mar-patseparate into four parts
Sasak ber-empatthe four of them

5173

PMP     *paka-epat four times

WMP
Malagasy fah-èfatrathe fourth; four fathoms
Toba Batak si-paha-opatthe fourth month
Chamorro faha-fadfour times

5174

POC     *paka-pat four times

OC
[Arosi haʔa-haifour times]
Fijian vaka-vāfour times
Rennellese haka-haado four times; second and sixteenth nights of the month

5175

PWMP     *paR-epat one-fourth

WMP
Malay sa-per-empata fourth
Karo Batak raja per-empatthe four chief princes of the Karo
Toba Batak di-par-opatdivided into four parts
  sa-par-opata fourth
Old Javanese par(e)patformation, arrangement
Makasarese parapaʔone fourth
Wolio par-apafourth part, quarter

5176

PWMP     *paR-epat-an (?)

WMP
Malay per-empat-anone quarter of something divided; cross-roads
Old Javanese par-pat-ana fourth part, quarter
Madurese par-apad-anone quarter of something divided; cross-roads
Sasak per-empat-ancross-roads
Tontemboan pa-epat-anrectangle, square; rectangular measure

5177

PAN     *paR-Sepat-en do four times

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) paR-pat-endo four times

5178

PMP     *paR-epat-en divide into four (?)

WMP
Bikol pag-apát-ondivide into four; send four at a time

5179

PAN     *Sa-Sepat four (of humans)

Formosan
Kanakanabu sa-supatefour (humans)
Amis sa-spatfour (animals and humans)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) a-apatfour (humans)

5180

PMP     *a-epat four (of humans)

WMP
Itbayaten aʔ-patfour (serial counting and reference to inanimates)
  haʔ-patfour (animals and humans)
Pangasinan a-pátfour
Kapampangan á-patfour
Tagalog á-patfour
Aklanon á-pʔatfour
Hiligaynon ápatfour
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) heʔe-patfour
Dampelas h-apat <Afour
Bare'e a-opofour (independent numeral)

5181

PWMP     *taR-epat four each (?)

WMP
Cebuano tag-upátfour apiece; odds of four to three in betting
Buginese tar-eppaʔevery four, all four

5182

PWMP     *epat-an group of four (?)

WMP
Tagalog ápat-ánfour by four
Sundanese opat-anthe four, set of four
Balinese empat-anfourth, quarter

5183

PWMP     *epat-en be divided into four

WMP
Bontok ʔəpat-ənbe divided into four
Malagasy efàr-inabe divided into four

5184

PMP     *epat epat four at a time

WMP
Tagalog ápat-ápatfour at a time
Bikol apát-ápatonly four
  apát-apátsend four at a time
Old Javanese pat-patfour?; or in groups of four?
Javanese pat-patby fours
Balinese pat-patfour
Sasak empat-empat-naall four
Bolaang Mongondow opat-opatfour by four, four at a time; all four
Makasarese appaʔ appaʔfour at a time
CMP
Kambera pa-patuby fours, in groups of four
Selaru r-at r-atfour by four, four at a time
Yamdena fate-fatefour by four, four at a time

5185

POC     *pati pati four at a time

OC
[Manam wati-watifour each, four at a time]
[Cheke Holo fa-fatifourth]
[Nggela vati-vatifour each]
Fijian vā-vāall four

5186

PAN     *pat-a four (in counting certain referents)

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) pa-pat-afour (animals and objects)
WMP
Chamorro fat-afour days
CMP
Morella hat-afour
Batu Merah at-afour
Watubela fat-afour

5187

PWMP     *pat-aŋ four (combination form)

WMP
Old Javanese pat-aŋfour
Javanese pat-aŋfour (combination form in 40, 400, 4,000)
Balinese pat-aŋfour (in 40, and in counting units of time or distance)
Sasak pet-aŋfour (in 40, 4,000)
Bare'e pat-afour (in 40, 400, 4,000, counting units of time)
Tae' pat-aŋfour (in 40, 4,000 (NOT in 400), counting units of time)
Mandar pat-ap-puloforty
  pat-a(ŋ)-allofour days
Makasarese pat-aNfour (in 40, 400, 4,000)
Wolio pat-afour (junction form of apa in 40, etc.)
Muna fat-ofour (before classifiers, measure nouns, units of time)

5188

PCEMP     *pat-i four

CMP
Wahai atifour
Teluti faifour
SHWNG
Marau atifour
Dusner (p)atifour
OC
Manam watifour
Kilivila -vasifour
Mono-Alu e hatifour
Banoni to-atsifour
Nggela vatifour
Lau faifour
'Āre'āre haifour
Sa'a haifour
Arosi haifour
Raga fasifour
Mafea v"atifour
Nakanamanga patifour

Note:   Also Taroko kn-spat-an ‘in four days’, Karo Batak p-empat-en ‘the fourth day’, Kambera ka-patu-ŋu ‘by fours, four at a time’. Itbayaten kak-ápat ‘a fourth part, one-fourth’, Pangasinan kak-ápat ‘one-fourth, quarter’ appears to be a valid comparison, but without wider attestation I hesitate to assign it to PPh.

Perhaps the most noteworthy feature of *Sepat and its reflexes is the exceptionally large number of morphologically complex forms which can be reconstructed. Some of these contain productive affixes which also occur with other numerals. Others, as *pat-a, *pat-aŋ, and *pat-i, contain presumptive suffixes which do not occur elsewhere, and are of dubious morphological status.

In addition to those forms which have been reconstructed, the following morphologically similar reflexes of *Sepat are assumed to be products of convergent development:

1. Puyuma (Tamalakaw) kaR-pa-apat ‘four each’, Bikol kag-apát ‘fourteen’,
2. Bontok maŋ-apát (< meŋ-kapʔát ‘to make four, add a fourth, do four times’, Nias maŋ-õfa ‘divide into four’,
3. Bikol mag-pag-apát ‘divide into four, send four at a time’, Old Javanese ma-par-epat ‘consist of four parts (divisions, formations)’,
4. Pangasinan mi-kapát ‘fourth’, Malagasy mi-èfatra (< *maR-epat) ‘divide into four parts, be in four’.

In addition, Wolio parapa ‘fourth part, quarter’ may be a Malay loan, thus considerably weakening the evidence for *paR-epat. One continuing puzzle is the source of initial /h/- in a few scattered reflexes of PAn *Sa-Sepat, but not of *Sepat (e.g. Itbayaten haʔ-pat, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) heʔe-pat, Dampelas h-apat). The most straightforward explanation is that /h/- in these cases reflects the consonant of Sa-. The difficulty with adopting this explanation is that 1. there is good evidence that PAn *Sepat irregularly became PMP *epat, not **hepat, and 2. in the three languages mentioned PAn *a-enem is also reflected with /h/- (Itbayaten haʔ-nem, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) heʔ-enem, Dampelas h-onoŋ). Dampelas even adds /h/- before the historically secondary vowel in h-oalu ‘eight’ (from *wa-walu > owalu > oalu). For the time being, then, I assume that these instances of /h/- are historically secondary, although the basis for a convergent development remains unclear.

28191

*Sepi dream

5192

PAN     *Sepi dream     [doublet: *Sipi]

Formosan
Proto-Atayalic *sepidream; to dream
Paiwan mi-sepito dream

5193

PMP     *hepi dream

CMP
Tetun m-ehito dream

30671

*SeReC to bind tightly; belt

8208

PAN     *SeReC to bind tightly; belt     [doublet: *beRet]

Formosan
Thao pia-lhictighten a binding, etc., make tighter
  shu-lhicpull something that is slack until it becomes tight

8209

PMP     *heRet to bind tightly; belt

WMP
Pangasinan elétrigor, firmness
Hanunóo húgutpulling up, as of a loincloth; tightening, as of a binding
  h<ur>ugut-án-angetting married, “tied together”, “hitched”
Hiligaynon hugúttight
Aklanon hugótto tighten, make firm
Masbatenyo mag-húgotto pull, haul, tow
  hugut-ánscrew tightly
Waray-Waray hugótthe act of stretching or drawing tightly, as of string, cord, rope or the like; drawn tightly, stretched
  hugot-áto draw tightly
Romblomanon hugutsomething, as a roll of buri (palm leaf) strips, a jar lid, a piece of clothing on the body, a weaving is firm or tight
Cebuano hugútfirmly tied, attached, closed; taut, holding tight; firm in belief, purpose, feeling
  húgutpull in rope or the like
Mapun hallottightness; tight
  mag-ka-hallot-anto seal (an agreement); to guarantee; to pledge (in order to seal an agreement)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) heǥetto tighten something; in tying or wrapping something, to pull it tight; to twist tight the lid of a bottle or jar; figuratively, to make a final settlement
Maranao getto lose or choke out breath
Mansaka ugutto tighten
Binukid hegettight, taut; firm
  heget-atighten it!
Tausug huguttightness (as of a knot, tie, lid, door); firmness
Kadazan ogottight, firmly held together
  moŋ-ogotto tighten, hold it firmly
  agat-aito tighten
Lun Dayeh ereta piece of cloth or talun (tree bark) tied around the waist, normally worn by elderly women
Kelabit ərətman’s belt
  ŋ-ərətto tighten by constriction, as a belt
Iban rattight, firm; tighten; confirm
Malay (h)eratconstriction; pressure from every side
  meŋ-erat kainto fasten the sarong tightly around the waist
Bahasa Indonesia erat-eratfirmly, tightly, of binding
Sundanese hɨrɨtsmall, narrow (as a hat)
Old Javanese hötnarrowness, etc.
Sasak rətbind firmly
Bolaang Mongondow ogot-anwaist, middle of the body
Tae' arraʔtight, firm, tightly bound
Proto-South Sulawesi *ɨrrɨrttight
Buginese erreʔtying up, fastening
Makasarese arreʔfirm, firmly tightened
CMP
Manggarai eretfirm, tight (of a binding)

8210

PAN     *ma-SeReC tight, firm

Formosan
Thao ma-lhictight, constricting, as a belt; firmly in place

8211

PMP     *ma-heRet tight, firm

WMP
Pangasinan ma-létstrong, well founded
Tausug ma-hugutfirm, fast, tight, tightly closed; (of one’s faith) strong; (of one’s inner being) not overly emotional or unstable, calm

8212

PWMP     *maŋ-heRet tighten, make firm, of a binding

WMP
Kadazan moŋ-ogottie up tightly
Kelabit ŋ-ərəttighten by constriction, as a belt
Malay meŋ-eratfasten (a sarong) tightly around the waist
Buginese maŋ-erreʔnarrow
Makasarese aŋŋ-arreʔtighten firmly

8213

PAN     *S<um>eReC tighten, fasten firmly

Formosan
Tsou s<m>orəcətie tightly

8214

PMP     *h<um>eRet tighten, fasten firmly

WMP
Bontok ʔ<um>lətto bind; to tighten; to make taut
Tagalog h<um>igítpull until taut or tight
Mapun h<um>allottighten up something, as when tying up rope
Tausug h<um>ugutto become tight or tighter

8215

PWMP     *heRet-en be tied up tightly

WMP
Bontok ʔəlt-ənbe tied up tightly
Tagalog higit-ínbe pulled until taut or tight
Kadazan ogot-onbe tied up tightly

Note:   Also Pazeh m-axes ~ m-axet ‘tight (of a belt or clothes)’, Kanakanabu ma-ʔərəcə ‘tight’, Rukai (Maga) u-rəcə ‘tie two strings’, Hanunóo huʔút ‘tightness, tight fit, referring to clothes’, Kalamian Tagbanwa keet ‘tighten something’, Maranao liget ‘selfish, greedy, miser; tight’, magaget ‘tight (as a dress)’, Tiruray eget ‘a string; holding something tightly’, erat ‘tight, narrow’, Tboli get ‘tightness, as of screws; strictness, as of rules; tight, strict’, Yakan haget ‘firm, secure, tight’, Malay jerat ‘running noose; of noose-snares for birds and small mammals, also of a strangler’s noose as used by thugs’, serat ‘jammed in an opening; stuck; held fast’, Malay (Jakarta) jiret ‘noose trap’, Old Javanese hret ‘restraint, check, resistance’, aŋ-hret ‘to restrain, hold back, keep in check’. Tsuchida (1976:166) united the Pazeh, Tsouic and Rukai forms together with Malay (h)erat under PAn *qeReC, but the fuller comparison cited here does not support this interpretation.

28197

*Sesi flesh, meat

5199

PAN     *Sesi flesh, meat     [doublet: *isiʔ]

Formosan
Kavalan esimeat, flesh
Paiwan setimeat

5200

PMP     *hesi flesh, meat

WMP
Melanau (Mukah) seyflesh
Kenyah si-ncontents; flesh
Kayan si-nflesh, meat
Nias ösicontents; flesh
Proto-Sangiric *esimeat
Tontemboan esigums, flesh of the teeth
Proto-South Sulawesi *ɨ(n)sicontents
Makasarese assicontents

Note:   Also Atayal hiʔ ‘flesh; body; person; self’, Kavalan ʔsiʔ ‘meat’, Acehnese asòe ‘contents, stuffing, cargo, flesh (living or dead, but not slaughtered’. Mills (1981:65) posits "Proto-Indonesian" *( )a(n)si( ) ‘contents, flesh’, but Acehnese asòe is the only form in his comparison which cannot be assigned to *Sesi.

28198

*Setek cut, sever, chop

5201

PAN     *Setek cut, sever, chop

Formosan
Amis stekto literally cut, sever
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) ʔetekcut down a tree or bamboo with a bolo

5202

PMP     *hetek cut, sever, chop

WMP
Kenyah (Long Wat) tekpieces that have already been cut (as in cutting sugarcane)
Melanau (Mukah) tekpiece made by cutting
Nias õtõchop to pieces, chop up
Makasarese attaʔto notch; underside of the glans penis
  atteʔnotch in a post or stick, notch in a coconut tree used for climbing
CMP
Hawu etacut, cut off
  eta duetap a lontar palm for palm wine
Kamarian etepiece, lump
OC
Motu otoslice or strip

Note:   Also Hawu eté ‘cut, cut off’.

28199

*Seyaq shyness, embarrassment; shame

5203

PAN     *Seyaq shyness, embarrassment; shame

Formosan
Paiwan siaqshyness, embarrassment
WMP
Tagalog hiyáʔ, híyaʔshame
Hanunóo ʔúyaʔshame, modesty
Aklanon huyáʔface, pride; shame; be disgraced, be shamed
Hiligaynon huyáʔshame, disgrace
Kalamian Tagbanwa ɨyakashamed
Palawan Batak ʔɨyaʔashamed
Samal iaʔfeeling of shame
Bolaang Mongondow oyaʔshyness, shame
Uma eaʔshame
Bare'e eashame, shyness

5204

PWMP     *ka-Seyaq shame, shyness

WMP
Hanunóo ka-uyáʔ-anvirtue, honor
Maranao kayaʔshame; shyness
Bolaang Mongondow ko-oyaʔshyness
Uma ka-eaʔshame
Bare'e ka-eashame, shyness

5205

PAN     *ma-Seyaq shy, embarrassed; ashamed

Formosan
Paiwan ma-siaqshy, polite, embarrassed

5206

PMP     *ma-heyaq shy, embarrassed; ashamed

WMP
Tboli meyakshy, ashamed
  m-yakashamed
Bintulu mezaʔshy, ashamed
Kanowit miaʔashamed
Melanau (Mukah) miaʔshy, ashamed
Sangir meashame
  ma-meaashamed, shy
Bolaang Mongondow mo-oyaʔshy, ashamed
Banggai maashame
  ma-maashy, ashamed
Bare'e ma-eaashamed, shy
Uma me-ʔeaʔashamed
Wolio maeashy, bashful, embarrassed, ashamed, modest

5208

PCEMP     *ma-mayaq shy, embarrassed, ashamed

CMP
Bimanese majashy, ashamed
Manggarai majashy, ashamed
Li'o meaashamed
Ngadha meashame, bashfulness, shyness
Sika mea-ŋshy, ashamed
Rotinese maeashamed, to feel shamed; bashful
Lamaholot miaʔshy, ashamed
Selaru maiashamed
Elat mo-maishy, ashamed
Masiwang maya-nshy, ashamed
SHWNG
Kowiai ma-malashy, ashamed
Buli maiashamed; shame, disgrace
Numfor mashy, ashamed
  ma-mashame
OC
Manam maia, maya, maya-mayaashamed
Gedaged ma-maishame; embarrassment, confoundedness, abashment
Numbami me-meyashy, ashamed
Ubir ma-maishy, ashamed
Duke of York mai-maishame; ashamed
Dobuan o-maya-mayashame, ashamed
Molima wo-maya-mayashame
Nggela maaashamed; feel reverence
Sa'a masa, masa-masashy, ashamed, respectful
  masa-nashame, confusion, shyness
Arosi masaashamed
Gilbertese maa-mashame, timidity, shyness, bashfulness
  ma-maa-mabe ashamed, shy, confused
Woleaian maa, maashamed; disgraceful; feel shameful
Tongan feel shame, be ashamed
Samoan ashamed, embarrassed
Maori shame, abasement; shy, ashamed

Note:   Also Seediq siqa ‘shame, modesty, reserve’, m-siqa ‘ashamed, modest, reserved’, k-siqa ‘imperative and negative of m-siqa’, Hanunóo húya, ‘shame, modesty’, huya-húya ‘sensitive plant’, Bolaang Mongondow oraʔ ‘shyness, shame’.

This comparison is a noteworthy example of how fossilized morphology together with regular sound change can thoroughly disguise the connection of related forms, even when recurrent phonological correspondences have been established. Thus, without knowledge of the morphology, Tagalog hiyáʔ could correspond only to **ia in most Oceanic languages. The development of CMP, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, and OC forms has been: *ma-Seyaq > ma-siaq > ma-hiaq > maiaq > mayaq, and thus exactly parallels the development of PAn *ma-Suab POc *mawap ‘to yawn’. Following the reanalysis of PAn *ma-Seyaq as PCEMP *mayaq, many CEMP languages reinterpreted this historically stative/attributive form as nominal (‘shame, shyness’) and added a historically secondary stative/attributive prefix *ma-, yielding PCEMP *mayaq ‘shyness, shame’, *ma-mayaq ‘shy, ashamed’. The parallel developments in Sangir ma-mea and Banggai ma-maa are assumed to be products of convergence, since a reflex of *Seyaq is retained as a separate morpheme in other WMP languages.

28200

*Seyup blowing on (a fire, etc.)

5209

PAN     *Seyup blowing on (a fire, etc.)     [doublet: *tiup]

Formosan
Seediq iup, yupto blow (as on a fire)
Kavalan s-m-iupto blow (with breath)
Thao m-iupto blow (with breath)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) iupto blow with breath
Paiwan siupsuck in air

5210

PMP     *heyup blowing on (a fire, etc.)

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) ɨyɨpto blow
Bikol hayópblow something away; blow on something
Kalamian Tagbanwa ɨyɨpto blow
Aklanon huyópto blow (air) on
Hiligaynon huyúpblast, blow, breath
Cebuano huyúpblow air, blow something away; treat an ailment by huyúp
Mamanwa hoyopto blow, as a fire
Mansaka uyupto blow, as a fire
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hiupblow on or at something; blow a musical instrument
Maranao iopblow, esp. with the mouth
Tiruray ʔiufto blow
Tboli m-eyufto blow, as with one's breath
Kelabit iupblowing
Sa'ban yopthing used for blowing (as a bamboo tube used to blow on the fire)
Jarai ayupto blow
Rhade ayuʔto blow across (musical instrument, as a flute)
Toba Batak iupblowing on
Simalur iubblow on, fan something
Bolaang Mongondow irupto blow, blowing (person, wind); to fan; blow away

5211

PWMP     *maŋ-heyup blow, blow on (a fire, etc.)

WMP
Subanun (Siocon) moŋ-oyupto blow, as a fire
Kelabit ŋ-iupblow, blow on
Sa'ban n-yopblow, blow on
Toba Batak maŋ-iupblow
Simalur maŋ-iupblow, blow on

5212

PWMP     *maR-heyup to blow, as the wind

WMP
Bikol mag-hayópblow something away, blow on
Hiligaynon mag-huyúpblow, breathe upon, expel breath
Malay ber-tiupto blow (as the wind)

5213

PAN     *Seyup-an place of blowing

Formosan
Seediq yup-anplace of blowing (as where a fire is being started)

5214

PMP     *heyup-an place of blowing

WMP
Bikol hayop-anplace of blowing
Palawan Batak ʔuip-an <Mto blow, as a fire (Reid 1971)
Maranao iop-anmouthpiece

5215

PWMP     *heyup-en be blown

WMP
Bikol hayop-ónblow something away, blow on
Subanun (Sindangan) iup-ɨnto blow, as a fire
Malagasy tsìofinabe blown

5216

PWMP     *heyup heyup hollow cane for blowing on the fire

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat yop-yópto blow on something (as to blow out a candle, or to blow on coals to get them to flare up)
Ifugaw yup-yúpblow-pipe, used to increase the fire burning in the hearth
Karo Batak iup-iupbellows
Toba Batak iup-iup ni sarunemouthpiece of a clarinet
Simalur iuf-iubhollow cane or tube for blowing on the fire

5217

PAN     *S<um>eyup to blow

Formosan
Kavalan s-m-iupto blow (with breath)
Thao m-yupto blow (with breath)

5218

PMP     *h<um>eyup to blow

WMP
[Sangir t-um-iuʔto blow, of the wind]

Note:   Also Bontok ayóp ‘blow on, as a fire in order to make it flame’. Some liberties have been taken in the comparison of morphologically complex reflexes of *Seyup and *tiup in order to argue for the antiquity of certain morphologically complex forms of *Seyup. One other item that can be added to the comparison for *Seyup Seyup in this connection is Malay tiup-tiup ‘mouth organ’, Malay (Baba) tiop-tiop api ‘bellows’.

28201

*Sezam borrow, lend

5219

PAN     *Sezam borrow, lend     [doublet: *hinzam]

Formosan
Paiwan sedjamsomething borrowed

5220

PMP     *hezam borrow, lend

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat edEmborrow
Kapampangan andámborrow, lend
Tagalog hirámborrowed; adapted
Bikol hadámborrow
Hanunóo ʔudámborrowing, lending
Aklanon hueámborrow
Hiligaynon hulámborrow
Cebuano hulámborrow something; adopt, take over as one's own
Tboli m-edomborrow
Singhi Land Dayak nyamborrow, lend
Sangir edaŋborrow from someone, of objects that must themselves be returned, as opposed to objects (e.g. money) that can be returned in kind
Proto-Minahasan *edamlease land, rent
Tontemboan eramrent
Wolio adaborrow

5221

PPh     *ipa-hedám lend something (?)

WMP
Tagalog ipa-hirámto lend (something)
Tontemboan ipa-eramwill be rented

5222

PPh     *ma-hedám (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Tagalog ma-hirámable to borrow (something)
Tontemboan ma-eramto rent

5223

PPh     *maŋ-hedam borrow

WMP
Tagalog maŋ-hirámborrow
Sangir maŋ-edaŋborrow from, lend to (of objects that must themselves be returned)

5224

PAN     *pa-Sezam lend

Formosan
Paiwan pa-sedjamto lend, loan
WMP
Tagalog pa-hirámthing lent
Aklanon pa-hueómto lend
Cebuano pa-hulámto lend
[Makasarese pa-inraŋto lend]
Wolio pa-adalend to (a person)

5225

PPh     *pa-hedam-en be lent to

WMP
Tagalog pa-hir(a)m-ínto lend something to (someone)
Bikol pa-hadam-ónto lend
Tontemboan pa-eram-enbe rented

5226

PPh     *hedam-en be borrowed

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat edim-ento borrow
Tagalog hir(a)m-ínto borrow (a thing)
Bikol hadam-onto borrow
Aklanon hueom-ónto borrow
Hiligaynon hulam-unto borrow
Tontemboan eram-enfor rent

Note:   Singhi Land Dayak ñam is assumed to be njam, with the type of nasal-obstruent sequence that has been called an "implosive" nasal (Coady and McGinn 1982) or a "funny" nasal (Durie 1985). The parallel suffixation in Malay mem-injam-kan ‘lend something to someone’ and Wolio pa-ada-aka ‘lend (something)’ is assumed to result from a historically independent ‘capture’ of the preposition *aken in both languages. Tagalog híram-an ‘person from whom or place from which one may borrow something or things’, Malay pinjam-an ‘thing borrowed; loan’ may point to PWMP *hezam-an, but the Malay suffix could reflect *-en.

Finally, it is noteworthy that at least three widely separated WMP languages (Kiput, Javanese, Sangir) make a lexical distinction between the borrowing of an object that must itself be returned (e.g. a book), and the borrowing of an object that can be returned in kind (e.g. rice, money). Although these distinct glosses cannot yet be assigned to different reconstructed forms, it appears unlikely that such a distinction would develop independently. If not, *Sezam presumably referred to only one type of borrowing, while some other verb yet to be reconstructed referred to the other.

TOP      Se    Si    Su    

Si

28274

*Si-₁ instrumental prefix, marker of the

5333

PAN     *Si-₁ instrumental prefix, marker of the instrumental focus

Formosan
Atayal s-marker of instrumental passive
Bunun is- <Mprefix - instrumental
Paiwan si-be the instrument or cause of

5334

PMP     *i- instrumental prefix

WMP
Tagalog i-marker of instrumental focus verbs (formed by prefixing i- to an instrumental adjective: Schachter and Otanes 1972: 319)
Bikol i-verbal affix, instrumental, infinitive-command form
Aklanon i-prefix for future and command verb forms in the instrumental focus
Hiligaynon i-general proposed action instrumental affix
Cebuano i-instrumental passive verb affix, future
OC
Motu i-instrumental prefix (daro-a 'sweep', i-daro 'broom', budu-a 'bore a hole', i-budu 'boring instrument', etc.)
Bugotu i-instrumental prefix to nouns
Lau i-instrumental prefix
Sa'a i-instrumental prefix forming noun from verb
Arosi i-instrumental prefix
Mota i-instrumental prefix
Fijian i-a noun preformative added to verbal roots, sometimes with reduplications. It indicates (1) the instrument of an action; (2) the scene of the action, (3) the result of an action, (4) the method of an action, (5) the actor, (6) the person or thing acted on
Rennellese i-causative, instrumental, locative, ablative, and temporal preposition, and causative conjunction

Note:   The PMP reflex of PAn *Si- should be *hi-. This morpheme shows an irregular loss of the initial consonant in all diagnostic MP witnesses (mostly in the Philippines).

28275

*Si-₂ originate from, come from

5335

PAN     *Si-₂ originate from, come from

Formosan
Paiwan ka-si-to originate from, come from

5336

PMP     *hi- originate from, come from

WMP
Bontok ʔi-a derivational prefix generally attached to locational words and meaning a person from that location
Kankanaey i-prefix with a few adverbs of time, and with names of towns or countries to indicate the people whose town or country of origin they are
Ifugaw i-prefix of names of places. Indicates the person or the people who inhabit the village, the site, the region, the zone which bears a name known by all those who live there
Malagasy i-a prefix used before names of places, tribes
Old Javanese i-particle with a prepositional function before nouns, often combined with the definite particle ŋ to . Occurs before nouns which in the sentence function as grammatical object (esp. before place-names)
OC
Gilbertese i-prefix to names of places or categories. It designates persons originating or living in those places, or members of these categories

Note:   Apparently distinct from the locative focus marker *i. Reflexes of *Si are common in the names of language groups in northern Luzon.

26451

*Sika- prefix for ordinal numbers

2836

PAN     *Sika- prefix for ordinal numbers

Formosan
Paiwan si-ka-prefix for ordinal numbers
WMP
Itbayaten icha-prefix for ordinal numbers
Kankanaey ika-a prefix added to cardinal numbers to form ordinal ones
Tagalog ika-prefix for ordinal numerals
Hanunóo ʔika-prefix for ordinal numerals
Cebuano ika-prefix for ordinal numerals
Maranao ika-prefix for ordinal numerals

Note:   This item appears to be morphologically complex (cf. PMP *ka- ‘ordinal prefix’).

28223

*Sikam mat

5250

PAN     *Sikam mat

Formosan
Kanakanabu sikáməmat woven with wild ginger leaves
Saaroa sikaməmat woven with wild ginger leaves

5251

PMP     *hikam mat

WMP
Manobo (Dibabawon) hikammat

Note:   Also Paiwan sekam ‘mat’, Binukid ikam ‘mat’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ikam ‘mat’.

28224

*Sikan fish

5252

PAN     *Sikan fish

Formosan
Hoanya sikanfish
Bunun (Northern) kaːnfish
Bunun (Central) iskaːn <Mfish

5253

PMP     *hikan fish

WMP
Isneg ikánfish (generic)
Kankanaey ikánfish
Ifugaw ikánany kind of fish that is greater than mudfishes; may be applied to fishes in general
Casiguran Dumagat ikánfish; go on a fishing trip
Ilokano ikánfish
Maranao ikanlegendary fish-like animal
Iban ikanfish
Malay ikanfish (generic)
Karo Batak ikandried or salted fish
Toba Batak ihana large fish
Old Javanese (h)ikanfish
Palauan ŋíkelfish
Chamorro guihanfish (generic)
CMP
Komodo ihaŋfish
Manggarai ikaŋfish
Ngadha ikafish
Lamaholot ikanfish
Rotinese iʔa(k)fish
Tetun ikanfish
Wetan īnafish
Fordata ia(n)fish
Dobel siʔafish
Watubela ikanfish
Proto-Ambon *ikanfish
Asilulu iʔanfish
Kamarian ikaraw pounded fish with vegetables
Buruese ikanfish

5254

PEMP     *ikan fish

SHWNG
Buli ianfish
Numfor infish
OC
Lusi ihafish
Gitua igafish
Manam ikafish
Dobuan ianafish
Duke of York ianfish
Lakalai la-iafish (generic)
Mono-Alu ianafish
Roviana iganafish (generic)
Nggela igaa creature of the sea: fish, mollusc, crayfish, whale, squid, sea anemone, etc.
'Āre'āre iʔafish (generic)
Sa'a iʔefish
Arosi iʔafish
Proto-Micronesian *ikafish (generic)
Gilbertese ikafish (generic)
Woleaian ig(a), igal(a)fish
Mota igafish
Raga ixefish
Nakanamanga na-ikafish
Rotuman iʔafish: including also turtles, whales, alligators, etc., but not crabs, shellfish, etc.
Fijian ikafish
Tongan ikafish, incl. also turtles (fonu) and whales (tofuaʔa), but not eels, cuttle-fish or jelly-fish
Samoan iʔafish (incl. turtles and whales)
Rennellese ikafish, turtle
Rarotongan ikafish (generic)
Maori ikafish
Hawaiian iʔafish or any marine animal, as eel, oyster, crab, whale; meat or any flesh food

Note:   Also Bunun (Northern) kaːn ‘fish’, Wolio ikane, isa ‘fish’. In addition to functioning in isolation as the generic term for ‘fish’, this widely distributed form is the head element in many fish names.

28226

*Siket tie, bind, attach to by tying

5256

PAN     *Siket tie, bind, attach to by tying

Formosan
Amis siketbe attached, joined to

5257

PMP     *hiket tie, bind, attach to by tying

WMP
Itbayaten hichetidea of winding
Isneg ikátnet
Bontok ʔíkətdog collar
Kankanaey iketfasten a rope to, attach a cord to, fasten a line to; to strap, to leash
Ilokano ikétgeneral name for all kinds of nets
Pangasinan ikétnet
Kapampangan íkatbraid
Bikol híkotnet, now primarily used for fishing, but in the past used for hunting as well
Cebuano hikúttie something up; tie something to something
Maranao ikettie
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hikettie up; commit suicide
Tiruray ʔiketa tie; to tie (loan)
Bintulu ikettying
Iban ikattie, tie together
Malay ikattying up, fastening; (in Java) head-band, head-cloth
Karo Batak ikettied up, of prisoners
Toba Batak ihotrope, band, fetter
Lampung ikoʔtie something
Old Javanese iketband, tie
Javanese iketplaited batik head cloth which the wearer dons by winding it around his head
Balinese ikettie, bind; kind of expensive cloth in which the threads of the warp or the weft are tied off at various places, so that they can be dyed in different colors
Sasak iketbind with a rope
Sangir ikiʔtie, bind
CMP
Ngadha ikétie, bind, fetter
Hawu ĕki <Mtie, bind

5258

PWMP     *maŋ-hiket to tie, bind together

WMP
Iban ŋ-ikattie something together
Malay meŋ-ikatbind, tie together with rope
Karo Batak ŋ-ikettie up, take prisoner
Balinese ŋ-ikettie, bind
Sasak ŋ-iketbind with a rope
Sangir maŋ-ikiʔbind, tie up

5259

PWMP     *maR-hiket to tie

WMP
Bikol mag-híkotto make a net from
Malay ber-ikattied, tied up

5260

PWMP     *h<um>iket to tie

WMP
Kapampangan m-ikatto braid
Bintulu m-iketto tie
Old Javanese um-iketto bind, tie, bind together

5261

PWMP     *hiket-en tied, bound together

WMP
Kankanaey ikt-énbe fastened or attached to
Bikol hikót-onbe made into a net from
Malay ikat-anwhat is already tied; way of tying; bundle

Note:   Also Sekar eket ‘tie, bind’. Dempwolff (1934-38) included Samoan iʔo ‘wind, coil (as string or rope between two parts of the body)’ in this comparison. However, the Samoan form and similar forms in other Polynesian languages (e.g. Niue iko ‘to coil, wind around’) appear to be distinct. This item may contain the root *-keC ‘adhesive, sticky’, and hence end in *C.

28241

*SimaR grease, oil, fat

5277

PAN     *SimaR grease, oil, fat

Formosan
Saisiyat Simalʸfat, grease
Tsou símrogrease, fat (Duhtu)
Saaroa ʔimarəgrease, fat
Kavalan simaRfat, grease
Siraya gimachfat, oil, salve
Bunun simal(animal) oil
Proto-Rukai *simaʔafat, grease
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) imaRgrease, fat
Paiwan simaraw animal fat (after cooking or rendering into oil it is qalev)
Amis simaloil, grease, fat; gasoline

5278

PMP     *himaR grease, oil, fat

WMP
Cebuano hímagoil with magical healing properties obtained from a special kind of leech

Note:   Tsuchida (1976:234) reconstructs Proto-South Formosan *S₁imaR ‘grease, fat’.

28246

*Simu 2p pronoun: you

5283

PAN     *Simu 2p pronoun: you

Formosan
Atayal simuprimary and nominalized pronoun II plus III; you and he or she

5284

PMP     *imu 2p pronoun: you

WMP
Itbayaten imoyou
Aklanon ímoyour (sg.), you
Hiligaynon ímuyour, yours (second person sg. pre-position source pronoun)
Cebuano ímuyou (sg.)

5285

PCEMP     *imi 2p. pl. pronoun: you

CMP
Tetun imiyou (pl.)
  imi-niayour
Wetan imiyou (pl.)
Kei imyou (pl.)
Paulohi imiyou (pl.)
Kamarian imiyou (pl.)
OC
Gilbertese imthy, thee, thou
  imiyou (pl.)

Note:   The forms brought together here show two general irregularities: 1. the expected reflex of *S- in all four WMP languages is h-, and 2. the expected reflex of the last syllable vowel in all CEMP languages is -u. Given these problems it would be easy to posit only a PPh reconstruction *ímu and a distinct PCEMP (or even PCMP) reconstruction *imi.

However, it is well-known that pronouns commonly undergo irregular sound changes, in part because of their high text frequency, and in part because of the tendency for pronoun systems to be restructured while retaining the elements that compose them (Blust 1977). PAn *Simu evidently contains the element *-mu seen also in PAn *kamu ‘2p. pl.’. The relationship of this form to the pronoun system reconstructed in Blust (1977) remains problematic, and the supporting evidence for it needs to be examined critically through closer attention to the historical development of the languages from which this evidence is drawn.

28250

*Sin- verb prefix

5291

PAN     *Sin- verb prefix

Formosan
Bunun sin-gerund prefix (like "-ing" in English)

5292

PMP     *hin- verb prefix

WMP
Ifugaw -in-infix denoting the frequency or intensity of an action
Tagalog hin-prefix indicating removal, cleaning or the like
Bikol hin-prefix which conveys the meaning of removing something
Cebuano hiN-prefix forming verbs which mean 1. be almost (such-and-such) a state, time of day, 2. referring to an intense action, 3. added to nouns to form a verb meaning 'get the (noun) out', 4. added to a few verb bases to form nouns referring to an accidental or involuntary action

Note:   The function of this affix remains unclear, although it seems likely that it contributed a sense of intensification to the meaning of the verb stem.

28249

*SiNuq beads

5289

PAN     *SiNuq beads     [doublet: *uNuq]

Formosan
Saisiyat shilœbeads
Thao ma-shizuqwear something around the neck, as when money is put in a garland around the neck of a sick person
  shizuq-anput something around the neck; necklace
Tsou skuunecklace
Kanakanabu sinúʔunecklace
Saaroa ilhuʔunecklace
Rukai (Budai) silobeads

5290

PMP     *hinuq beads

WMP
Kayan inubeads
Murik inubeads
Mentawai inubeads
CMP
Rotinese inu inuhang together in great quantities, in clusters (as fruits that are tied together)
Hawu inuput around the neck (beads, chain, string, etc.)
Atoni inu lekofine coral beads

Note:   Also Atayal sniuu ‘necklace’. Tsuchida (1976:165) proposes Proto-South Formosan *S₁iɬuq ‘beads’.

28276

*Siñaw to wash

5337

PAN     *Siñaw to wash     [doublet: *Señaw]

Formosan
Seediq (Truku) sinaoto wash (vessels, surfaces, solid objects)
Kanakanabu m-ari-sináuwash utensils
Pazeh si-sinawwash utensils
Thao sh-m-inawto wash
Proto-Rukai *sinawwash (clothes)
Bunun ma-sinavwash (spades, bowls)

5338

PWMP     *hiñaw wash hands, feet or face

WMP
Ilokano innáwdo the dishes; wash, rinse, cleanse plates, glasses, jars, etc.
Tagalog hináwwashing of hands or feet
Hiligaynon hináwwash hands or feet
Cebuano hináwwash the hands

5339

PAN     *Siñaw-an place where one washes

Formosan
Seediq (Truku) snag-anplace where one washes
Thao shinaw-anwash objects other than clothing

5340

PMP     *hiñaw-an place where one washes

WMP
Tagalog hínaw-anwash-bowl
Cebuano hinaw-anwash basin

Note:   With root *-ñaw ‘wash, bathe, rinse’.

28277

*Siŋepis thin (of material objects)

5341

PAN     *Siŋepis thin (of material objects)     [doublet: *nipis]

Formosan
Kavalan impisthin
  iŋpisthin (of materials)
WMP
Isneg iŋpítthin, tenuous (paper, plates, strings etc.)
Itawis impítthinness
Gaddang na-ʔimpitthin
Ilokano iŋpísthin, tenuous (paper, plates, boards, hair, strings, etc.)
Ifugaw iŋpí, inpithinness of things, e.g. a piece of wood
Pangasinan ímpisthin (inanimate objects only)
Kapampangan impísthin
Bikol himpís, hiŋpísthin (things); slim, slender; sheer
Malay jerok ipisa thin-skinned lime
Sundanese ipisthin, fine (hair)

5342

PWMP     *ma-hiŋepis thin, of material objects

WMP
Ifugaw ma-iŋpíthin
Bikol mag-himpísgrow thin, wear away
Siang m-ipihthin

Note:   With root *-pis₂ thin, tenuous; fine. Richardson (1885) gives Malagasy ify as a "Provincial" variant of nify, to which he provides a cross-reference. Unfortunately Richardson's cross-reference is ambiguous for nify ‘tooth’ and nify ‘thin’, and the meaning of ify remains unclear.

28286

*Siŋus sniff, sniffle (as with a runny nose)

5351

PAN     *Siŋus sniff, sniffle (as with a runny nose)

Formosan
Paiwan siŋusto sniff

5352

PMP     *hiŋus₂ sniff, sniffle (as with a runny nose)

WMP
Cebuano híŋussniffle, draw the snot up into the nose
  híŋus-híŋuskind of peppery dish made from chicken intestines
Malay (h)iŋussnot; mucus from the nose
Sundanese iŋushave the sniffles

Note:   Also Kavalan siŋut ‘sniff’, Hiligaynon íŋus ‘to sniffle, draw air audibly’, Cebuano íŋus-íŋus ‘kind of peppery dish made from chicken intestines’, Nias iŋo ‘nasal mucus; to sniffle; catarrh’, Simalur iŋol, Minangkabau iŋur ‘snot’. PAn *s normally became Paiwan t, but is reflected as s in some other forms that contained *S (as *liseSaq > ƚiseqes ‘nit, egg of a louse’). With root *-ŋus ‘snout’.

28252

*SipaR opposite side (esp. of a river)

5294

PAN     *SipaR opposite side (esp. of a river)

Formosan
Kanakanabu m-u-a-sipárəwalk across the river
Saaroa m-u-u-siparəwalk across the river
  i-siparəthe opposite side of the river
Bunun sipalopposite (in spatial location)

5295

PMP     *hipaR₂ opposite side (esp. of a river)

WMP
Tiruray ʔifarcross over to the other side (as of a river or street)
Toba Batak iparthe opposite shore
CMP
Bimanese ipaacross, on the opposite side

5296

PWMP     *di hipaR on the opposite side (esp. of a river)

WMP
Kelabit d-iparopposite side (as of a river)
Melanau (Mukah) d-ipahopposite bank of a river
Kayan (Uma Juman) d-ipaheither of the sides of a river, etc.
Toba Batak di iparyonder, on the opposite side

Note:   Also Seediq sipao ‘opposite side (of valley, stream)’. Possibly identical to PMP *hipaR ‘brother-in-law, sister-in-law’ (reflecting a PMP exogamous dualistic social organization).

28253

*Sipes cockroach

5297

PAN     *Sipes cockroach

Formosan
Kavalan sipescockroach

5298

PMP     *ipes cockroach

WMP
Itbayaten ipescockroach
Ilokano ípescockroach
Casiguran Dumagat ípescockroach; be swarming with cockroaches
Kapampangan ípascockroach
  ma-ʔípascockroach-infested
Tagalog ípiscockroach
Hanunóo ípuscockroach
Cebuano ípussmall cockroach
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ipescockroach
Tiruray ʔifessmall tan cockroach
Karo Batak ipesthe brown cockroach
Toba Batak iposcockroach
Proto-Minahasan *ipescockroach

5299

POC     *ipos cockroach

OC
Nali yihcockroach
Nauna ihcockroach

Note:   With irregular loss of *S- in PMP, parallel to the change in PAn *Sepat > PMP *epat ‘four’. Also Pazeh hepet ‘cockroach’, Malay lipas ‘cockroach; gen. for a number of Blattidae’. Dempwolff (1934-38) attributed Samoan ipo ‘edible sea-worm: Sipunculus spp.’ to this etymon, but this and similar forms in other Oceanic languages are now attributed to POc *impo ‘edible sea worm: Sipunculus spp.’ (q.v.).

28254

*Sipi dream

5300

PAN     *Sipi dream     [doublet: *lupi, *Sepi]

Formosan
Pazeh pi-sipi, pai-sipidream
Proto-Rukai *sipidream

5301

PMP     *hipi dream

WMP
Kadazan ipidream
Toba Batak ipidream
Nias ifidream
Sundanese impidream
Old Javanese ipidream
Javanese impi, ipia dream
Balinese impi, ipia dream
Sasak impi, ipia dream
Sangir ipidream
Proto-Minahasan *ipidream
Bare'e ipia dream
Tae' impia dream
Mori moʔ-ipidream
Chamorro guifia dream

5302

PWMP     *maŋ-hipi to dream

WMP
Toba Batak maŋ-ipito dream
Nias maŋ-ifito dream
Lampung ŋ-ipeyto dream
Sundanese ŋ-impito dream
Javanese ŋ-impito dream
Sasak ŋ-ipito dream
Bare'e maŋ-ipito dream
Tae' maŋ-ipito dream
Chamorro maŋ-guifito dream

5303

PWMP     *paŋ-hipi a dream

WMP
Sundanese paŋ-impi-ana dream
Old Javanese paŋ-ipy-anstate of dreaming; dream-vision
Javanese paŋ-impè-na dream
Bare'e paŋ-ipia dream
Tae' paŋ-impia dream
Wolio poŋ-ipito dream; a dream

5304

PMP     *h<in>ipi a dream; was dreamt by

WMP
Berawan (Long Terawan) ŋe-nipéhto dream
Toba Batak mar-nipito dream (said by Warneck 1977 [1906] to be from ni + ipi 'to dream')
Gayō mu-nipito dream
Buginese nippidream
Muna mo-nifito dream
Old Javanese in-ipidream
Chamorro gu-in-ifidream

5305

PCEMP     *nipi dream

CMP
Bimanese nifidream
Manggarai nipidream
Hawu nito dream
Proto-Ambon *(ma-)nipito dream
OC
Nali nihi-nihdream
Leipon ni-nihdream
Numbami ni-niwidream
Motu nihidream
Mekeo nipidream
Roro nibidream
Molima nividream

5306

PMP     *h<um>ipi to dream

WMP
Malay m-impidream
Sangir mi-ipidream

5307

PCEMP     *mipi to dream

CMP
Sika m-ipi-ndream
Tetun m-ihi-ndream
OC
Kuruti mihi-mihdream
Ahus mihi-mihdream
Levei im-mihdream
Cheke Holo mifidream
Gilbertese midream
Nauruan midream

Note:   Also Bintulu, Melanau (Mukah) nupey, Ujir nupiʔ, Ngaju Dayak ma-nupi, Malagasy ma-nofy, Belait ndupay, Kelabit mupih, Modang (Long Glat) empi-n, Totoli upi-an, Wuvulu, Aua mevi, Sori me-mep, Nauna mehi-meh, Lou mImpIp ‘dream’. Malay mimpi, Sangir mipi, and similar forms cited under *h-um-ipi may actually reflect PAn *mi-Sepi (cp. Proto-Atayalic *sepi, Paiwan mi-sepi ‘dream’), although unambiguous reflexes of *Sepi are thus are confined to the Formosan languages. The relationship of Saisiyat ʔishpiʔ ‘to dream’ to these forms remains unclear.

28265

*SiRup sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl

5318

PAN     *SiRup sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl

Formosan
Kavalan siRupto eat soup

5319

PMP     *hiRup sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl

WMP
Isneg íxop, íxupsip, drink
Bontok ʔígupviand; that which is eaten with rice (of vegetables, meat or snails). It is usually served in a bowl containing the broth in which the viand was cooked; to drink the broth from the viand bowl; to drink wine
Kankanaey ígupsuck in, drink, absorb
Ifugaw igúpLagawe word for drinking which is used in hudhud chant in the sense of "sip" rice wine; it is usually reduplicated
Casiguran Dumagat igúpsip a hot drink
Ilokano ígupone draught, one swallow (of water, etc.)
Pangasinan ilópto sip
Tagalog hígopsip
Bikol hígopto siphon, sip
Aklanon hígopinhale, sip
Hiligaynon hígupsip, suck up, slurp, as a soup
Cebuano hígupsip, take in liquid by sucking it up with air; take in air in the same manner
Maranao igopdrink
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hiɣupsip a liquid by sucking it in with the breath
Tiruray ʔirofsip, suck in a liquid
Kelabit irupwhat is drunk; way of drinking
Ngaju Dayak ihopwhat is drunk; be drunk by someone
Iban irupdrink, fit for drinking
Malay (h)iruplapping or sucking up (liquid)
Sasak irupdrink noisily, slurp, sip
Tae' iruʔdrink; also absorb, as a cloth that is immersed in water
Makasarese iruʔsip, slurp
CMP
Komodo iruʔto suck up
Manggarai irupdrink slowly (as from a soup bowl)

5320

POC     *iRup sip, as soup

OC
Nggela iluto drink cabbage soup
  iluv-i(trans. form)
  ilu-iluto drink medicine
Lau iludrink with a spoon, sup, drink soup
  iluf-i(trans.)
  iluf-ia(passive)
'Āre'āre iruh-iadrink slowly
Ulawa iluto sup (as yam soup)
  iluh-i(trans.)
Arosi iruyam soup; to sip yam soup
  iruh-i(trans.)

5321

PWMP     *maŋ-hiRup to sip, to drink

WMP
Isneg maŋ-íxupto sip, to drink
Kelabit ŋ-irupto drink
Iban ŋ-irupto drink
Tae' maŋ-iruʔto drink, be drinking

5322

PWMP     *hiRup-an place of drinking

WMP
Isneg ixúp-andrink
Tagalog hígup-ansipping tube
Cebuano higup-án, higup-ánansomething from which one sips a liquid
Kelabit rup-anwatering hole for animals in the jungle
[Tae' irus-anpartake of while drinking, as to partake of baked yam tubers while drinking palm wine]

5323

PWMP     *hiRup-en was sipped by

WMP
Ilokano igúp-enbe sipped by
Bikol hígop-onbe siphoned, sipped by
Kelabit rup-enis sipped by, will be sipped by

Note:   Also Sasak iup ‘sip, slurp, drink noisily’. The Central Cordilleran forms show irregular /g/ for expected /l/, and may be loans. This verb evidently referred to drinking in small quantities by inhalation, as in sipping hot soup from a bowl. It contrasted with *inum, the ordinary verb for ‘to drink’.

28273

*Siwid slanting, awry

5331

PAN     *Siwid slanting, awry

Formosan
Amis siwitslant, set at an angle, off course

5332

PMP     *hiwid slanting, awry

WMP
Tagalog hiwídawry, out of line

Note:   Also Tagalog hiwís ‘aslant, as a staircase’, Cebuano hiwíʔ ‘crooked, winding or twisting; slanting to one side, or askew’. The final consonant correspondence may be irregular, but there is little evidence to decide the matter. For PAn *d- > Amis t-, cf. *duSa > tosa ‘two’.

TOP      Se    Si    Su    

Su

28293

*Suab yawn

5359

PAN     *Suab yawn

Formosan
Amis sowafto yawn

5360

PMP     *huab₂ yawn

WMP
Itbayaten a-hwabbreath emitting while yawning; yawn
  h-om-wabto yawn
  ka-hwabact of yawning
Itawis úwabyawn
Bontok ʔuwábyawn
Kankanaey uábyawn
Ifugaw úwabyawn; act of gaping involuntarily
Pangasinan oábyawn
Kadazan uvabyawn
Bisaya (Limbang) g-uaba yawn
Kelabit uaba yawn
Kayan uhama yawn
Kayan (Uma Juman) huava yawn
Malay uapyawn
Rhade həapyawn
Mentawai ōapyawn
Old Javanese hwab, obyawn
Balinese uabyawn, gape
Sasak uapyawn, gape
Bolaang Mongondow uabgape, yawn

5361

PAN     *ma-Suab to yawn, yawning

Formosan
Proto-Rukai *ma-swabto yawn

5362

PMP     *ma-huab₁ to yawn, yawning

WMP
Itawis m-ówabto yawn
Berawan (Long Jegan) m-uamto yawn
Kayan m-uhamto yawn
Kayan (Uma Juman) m-uhavto yawn
Balinese m-uwabyawning, gaping wide

5363

PCEMP     *mawab to yawn, yawning

CMP
Bimanese ma-wayawn
Li'o m-oato yawn
Sika m-oayawn
Kédang m-oayawn
Alune ma-kwayawn
Buruese ma-wayawn
Soboyo bala-m-oayawn
SHWNG
Numfor ma-babyawn; in general, open the mouth

5364

POC     *mawap to yawn, yawning

OC
Loniu yeli-ma-wyawn
Seimat ma-wyawn
Manam mawayawn
Wogeo mwawayawn
Dobuan mwa-wayawn
Roviana ma-vato yawn, breathe upon (*mawava > maava > mava)
Sa'a ähi-ma-wayawn
Chuukese mma-wyawn
Fijian lā-ma-wato yawn, gape

5365

PWMP     *maŋ-huab to yawn

WMP
Pangasinan man-óabto yawn
Kelabit ŋ-uabto yawn
Malay meng-uapto yawn
Old Javanese maŋ-hwab, maŋ-obto yawn

5366

PCEMP     *ma-mawab to yawn

CMP
Masiwang ma-ma-wayawn
SHWNG
[Buli ma-ma-ipgape, yawn]

5367

POC     *ma-mawap to yawn

OC
Wuvulu ma-ma-wayawn
Nauna ma-ma-wyawn
Eddystone/Mandegusu ma-ma-vato yawn

Note:   Also Bintulu teñe-bab ‘a yawn’, Melanau (Mukah) tuab ‘ a yawn’, Malay kuap ‘yawn’, Chamorro magap ‘yawn’, Yamdena n-maup ‘to yawn’, Mussau mamama ‘to yawn’, Tolai mauviap ‘to yawn’, Mota mamaova ‘to gape, yawn’, Tongan mamao ‘to yawn’, Niue māmao ‘to yawn’, Samoan māvava ‘yawn’, Rennellese mababa ‘to yawn; to open or be open, as a Tridacna’, Nukuoro maava ‘yawn, belch’.

Irregular reflexes of *Suab are quite common, particularly in the OC languages. The cognation of such OC forms as Seimat maw (where only -/w/ remains from the original stem) with WMP forms such as Kelabit uab is clear from the fairly abundant intermediate forms that reflect PAn *ma-Suab ( > ma-huab > ma-uab > mawab).

A perfect parallel is seen in PAn *ma-Seyaq, POc *mayaq ‘shy, ashamed’. In both cases the boundary between the stative prefix *ma- and the stem has been lost in all CEMP witnesses. The only non-CEMP language in which a similar loss of morpheme boundary has taken place is Chamorro (with magap, for expected **magwap ‘yawn’). Following the reanalysis of *ma-uab as *mawab a number of CEMP languages have either introduced a new stative marker, or have reduplicated the first syllable of the new stem. It remains unclear how many of these added syllables (if any) are the result of convergent developments.

28294

*Suaji younger sibling

5368

PAN     *Suaji younger sibling

Formosan
Proto-Atayalic *suwaiʔyounger sibling
Seediq (Truku) swaiyounger, junior
  mn-swaibrothers and sisters (without distinction of relative age) -- all near relatives, esp. cousins
Kavalan suaniyounger sibling
Pazeh suadi, suaziyounger sibling
Thao sa-suadiyounger sibling
Proto-Rukai *agiyounger sibling
Hoanya suaziyounger sister
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) wadiyounger sibling, younger cousin (ref.)

5369

PMP     *huaji younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex

WMP
Itbayaten wariyounger sibling (add.); next-born child
Isneg waxíbrother, sister; relative
Atta wagisibling (without respect to relative age)
Itawis wahísibling
Casiguran Dumagat wadíyounger sibling (ref.)
Gaddang wayyidistant relatives, second cousins and beyond
Ifugaw agíbrother, sister, cousin
Balangao agirelated people of same generation; a "sibling" word
Kallahan (Keleyqiq) agibrother, sister, cousin
Pangasinan agíyounger sibling or other person of same generation
Sambal (Botolan) aliyounger sibling, younger cousin, younger sibling-in-law
Kalamian Tagbanwa ariʔyounger sibling
Ata hariyounger sibling of the same sex
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) haziyounger sibling; a younger person of one's own generation, whether related or not
Maranao ariyounger person, younger relation
Ngaju Dayak andiyounger sibling; also: affectionate term for a younger person generally
Tunjung gari-nyounger sibling
Singhi Land Dayak m-adisnear relatives
Karo Batak agiyounger sibling; placenta
Toba Batak aŋgiyounger sibling of the same sex
Simalur axiyounger sibling
Nias axiyounger sibling
Mentawai bagiyounger sibling
Javanese aḍiyounger sibling
Balinese adiyounger sibling; afterbirth, placenta
Bolaang Mongondow ai-aiyounger sibling
Mori uaiyounger sibling
Wolio andiyounger sibling

5370

PCEMP     *waji younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex

CMP
Bimanese ariyounger sibling
Komodo ariyounger sibling of the same sex
Ngadha aziyounger sibling of the same sex
Lamboya aliyounger sibling (probably parallel)
Kambera eriyounger sibling of the same sex
Rotinese fadiyounger sibling of the same sex
Yamdena waiyounger sibling of the same sex
Fordata wariyounger sibling of the same sex
Dobel kwaliyounger sibling
Paulohi wariyounger sibling of the same sex
Alune kwalisibling of the same sex

5371

PWMP     *maR-huaji be in a sibling relationship

WMP
Itawis mag-wahísibling relationship between two persons
Malay adi-k ber-adi-kbe in a sibling relationship
[Toba Batak mar-haha-mar-aŋgibe in a sibling relationship]

5372

PWMP     *paR-huaji younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex

WMP
Maranao pag-aribrother, sister
  pagari-aʔfriend, chum, pal
  pagari-ngive birth to another child
Kayan p-ari-n, peh-ari-nall relatives and close friends
Kenyah p-ade-ʔsibling
Ngaju Dayak pah-arisibling of the same sex

5373

PWMP     *si huaji nickname for youngest child

WMP
Samal si-aliyounger sibling
Nias si axiyoungest child
[Tae' si-(po)-adibe in a relationship of elder and younger sibling]

5374

PMP     *ta-huaji younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex

WMP
Bilaan (Sarangani) t-waliyounger sibling, younger cousin
Tboli t-woliyounger sibling, relative, friend of the same sex
Tiruray t-uwareyyounger sibling, youngest child
Kadazan t-adiyounger sibling
Kiput t-adeyyounger sibling
Miri t-adihyounger sibling
Bintulu t-areyyounger sibling
Melanau (Mukah) t-adeyyounger sibling
Siang t-ariyounger sibling
Proto-Sangiric *t-uadiyounger sibling
Sangir t-uaḷiyounger sibling
Tontemboan t-uariyounger sibling
  me-tuaribrothers, relatives
  pe-tuari-anbrotherhood

5375

POC     *taci younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex

OC
Nauna t-ali-nsibling of the same sex
Wuvulu axi-sibling
Manam t-ari-younger sibling of the same sex
Gedaged t-ai-younger sibling of the same sex; placenta
Gitua t-azi-younger sibling or cousin of the same sex
Motu t-adi-younger sibling of the same sex
Dobuan t-asi-sibling of the same sex
Molima t-asi-younger sibling of the same sex
Tolai t-ai-sibling of the opposite sex
Cheke Holo t-ahi-younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex
Eddystone/Mandegusu t-ahiyounger sibling of the same sex
Nggela tahiyounger sibling of the same sex
Kwaio asi-nayounger brother; younger consanguineal male kin of own generation
  asi-na geniyounger sister; younger female consanguineal kin of own generation
Sa'a asi-sibling of the same sex
Arosi asi-sibling of the opposite sex
Gilbertese t-arisibling of the same sex
Marshallese j-ati-younger sibling; younger parallel cousin
Mota t-asiyounger sibling of the same sex
Fijian t-aciyounger sibling of the same sex
Tongan t-ehi-nayounger sibling of the same sex, younger cousin of the same sex
Anuta t-ai-na"sibling" of the same sex, "sibling-in-law" of opposite sex
Nukuoro d-ai-nasibling, cousin
Maori t-ai-nayounger sibling of the same sex
Hawaiian k-ai-k-ai-nayounger sibling or cousin of the same sex

5376

PAN     *Suaji-an called or regarded as siblings (?)

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) wadi-yanyounger sibling, younger cousin (ref.)
WMP
Isneg mag-wa-waxi-yānbe brothers
Balinese adi-yaŋbe regarded as or called 'younger brother'
CMP
Dobel kwali-s-ansibling of the same sex

5377

PWMP     *huaji-ŋ younger sibling of the same sex (vocative); younger parallel cousin of the same sex (vocative)

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat wadÉ-ŋyounger sibling (vocative)
Katingan ari-ŋyounger sibling
Malay adi-ŋyounger sibling (vocative)

6971

PMP     *huaji-q younger sibling of the same sex (vocative); younger parallel cousin of the same sex (vocative)

WMP
Palawan Batak ʔari-ʔyounger sibling
Minansut adi-ʔyounger sibling
Lundu adi-ʔyounger sibling
Malay adé-kyounger sibling. Loosely, any young near relative such as a cousin; (affectionately) to a wife by her husband
Sasak adi-ʔyounger sibling
  adiʔ-adiʔafterbirth, placenta
CMP
Kédang ariʔyounger sibling

Note:   Also Manggarai asé ‘younger sibling of the same sex’; friend’, Nali nali ‘sibling of the same sex’, Lau sāsi ( = sa asiʔ) ‘younger sibling of the same sex’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed doublets *a(ŋ)ji ‘sibling, consanguine (generally younger)’ and *qa(ŋ)ji ‘sibling, consanguine (generally of the opposite sex)’. The far richer evidence now available supports a trisyllabic etymon, but recurrent, mutually corroboratory irregularities leave open the possibility that we should reconstruct both *Suaji and *Saji. As evidence for the latter, disyllabic variant, we can cite Proto-Rukai *agi, Ifugaw agí, Balangao agí, Kallahan (Kayapa) agí, Pangasinan agí, Sambal (Botolan) ali, Kalamian Tagbanwa ariʔ, Ata hari, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hazi, Maranao ari and various forms in western Indonesia (some of which -- like Malay adé-k -- can regularly reflect either variant). The presence of *-u- is, however, clearly supported by all Formosan reflexes noted to date apart from Proto-Rukai *agi, by many reflexes in the northern Philippines, by Tunjung gari-n, by Mentawai bagi, and by a number of reflexes in CMP languages.

Because no Formosan reflex is known to make us of a relative sex distinction, PAn *Suaji must be reconstructed with the meaning ‘younger sibling’. However, agreement between at least Manobo (Ata), Tboli and Toba Batak suggest that PMP *huaji meant ‘younger sibling of the same sex’. It is clear that PMP had four sibling terms: *betaw ‘sister’ (man speaking)’, *ñaRa ‘brother (woman speaking)’, *huaji and *kaka. Whether a relative sex distinction was or was not made in the terms *huaji and *kaka, there can be no doubt that the former referred to younger and the latter to elder siblings. In both Ngaju Dayak and Southern Toraja relative sex is used in the definition of cross-sibling terms, yet reflexes of *huaji and *kaka evidently apply to siblings of either sex regardless of sex of speaker.

It is possible that PMP possessed a similar system, and that the more specific references to younger or elder siblings of the same sex evolved independently in WMP and CEMP languages as a result of a tendency to divide up semantic space into mutually exclusive categories. I find this scenario less convincing than the hypothesis that PMP *kaka and *huaji contained a relative sex component which became otiose and disappeared in those societies that lost descent groups (with which relative sex has an established positive correlation cross-culturally). In addition to its literal sibling referents both PAn *Suaji and PMP *huaji evidently referred to relatives in general, a fact noted as early as 1933 by F.A.E. van Wouden, who proposed an explanation for it (van Wouden 1968 [1935]:120). Finally, it appears likely from agreements in such widely scattered languages as Karo Batak, Balinese, Sasak and Gedaged that PMP *huaji could refer in certain contexts to the afterbirth or placenta (also cp. Numfor naʔik ‘sibling of the same sex; afterbirth, placenta’, where the same semantic association is found with a morpheme that does not reflect *huaji).

28303

*SulaR snake

5386

PAN     *SulaR snake

Formosan
Proto-Rukai *soLaʔasnake

5387

PMP     *hulaR snake

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat ulágsnake
Ifugaw úlalsmall brownish snake which is not dangerous. It lives among the rice fields, behind or between the stones of retaining walls
Hanunóo ʔúlaygeneral term for snake (loan)
Tiruray ʔurarsnake
Tboli ulalgeneral term for snake
Maloh urarsnake
Malagasy ólatrasnake
Iban ularsnake
Jarai alasnake
Malay ularsnake; serpent; generic for Ophidia and also for dragons (ular naga)
Moken olansnake
Simalur ularsnake
Nias ulosnake
Old Javanese ulāsnake
Javanese ulasnake
Madurese olarsnake
Sasak ulah, ularsnake
Sangir ulaheʔkind of snake, the egg-thief
Proto-Minahasan *ulahsnake
Tontemboan ulaʔsnake
  ma-ulaʔbecome a snake
Bolaang Mongondow ulagsnake
Lauje ulagsnake
Tialo ulagEsnake
Tae' ulaʔsnake
Mandar ularsnake
Makasarese ularaʔsnake
  ulaʔ-ularaʔkind of child's toy that looks like a snake
Palauan ŋuisPalau tree snake: Dendrelaphis lineolatus
CMP
Komodo ulahrat snake: Elaphe subradiata
Manggarai ularrat snake: Ptyas korros
Rembong ulargeneric for non-venomous snakes
  ular isiʔrat snake
Sika ularsnake
Kambera ularusnake
Lamaholot ulaʔsnake
Kédang ularsnake
Erai ulapoisonous snake

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) unan ‘snake’, Kankanaey úeg ‘snake, either venomous or not, but often applied more exclusively to the venomous ones’, Sundanese oray ‘snake’, Balinese ula ‘snake’.

28306

*Sulem dimness, twilight

5390

PAN     *Sulem dimness, twilight

Formosan
Thao urumcloud
Paiwan sulemdarkness; twilight

5391

PMP     *hulem dimness, twilight

WMP
Old Javanese ulemshining (only) palely, dim, wan, languishing, faded

5392

PAN     *ma-Sulem dim, dark

Formosan
Paiwan ma-sulendarkness falls; to be twilight

5393

PMP     *ma-hulem dim, dark

WMP
Old Javanese (m)-olemshining (only) palely, dim, wan, languishing, faded

Note:   With root *-lem₁ ‘dark’.

28308

*Sulij lie or sleep next to

5395

PAN     *Sulij lie or sleep next to

Formosan
Saisiyat (Taai) s<om>olʸizbrood on eggs
Paiwan ma-sulidsleep together
  ki-sulidshare someone's bed

5396

PMP     *hulij lie or sleep next to

WMP
Bikol húlidlie someone down to sleep (as a child); lie down beside
Hanunóo ʔúlidbeside, at the side of, near; the state of being or lying side-by-side
Aklanon húlidsleep with, share a bed with, be in bed with
Hiligaynon húlidlie alongside, lie together
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hulidlie down next to someone; have sexual relations with someone; the person one lies next to
Ngaju Dayak ulir, urirlie next to a child in sleep
Karo Batak si-uliŋ-uliŋ-ensleep in one another's arms
Simalungun Batak uligembrace while sleeping
Bolaang Mongondow ulidlaying down of small children and the sick

5397

PWMP     *ka-hulij one who lies next to another

WMP
Aklanon ka-hulidbedmate, bed partner
Ngaju Dayak ka-uri-urirconstantly next to one another

28309

*SuluR lower or let down, as on a rope

5398

PAN     *SuluR lower or let down, as on a rope

Formosan
Paiwan surur <Aa taut-stretched line
  sa-surur-anpulley
Amis sololslide down (as a log down a hill)

5399

PMP     *huluR lower or let down, as on a rope; pay out fishline; launch a boat

WMP
Isneg úluggo or climb down, descend (a tree, ladder, etc.; not a mountain)
Ilokano úlogdescend, go down, climb down; leave, come down, come out (leaving a house)
Tagalog húlogfall; failure in examinations; capture; installment payment
Bikol húlogdrop something; fall
Hanunóo húlugfall, falling
  pa-hulug-húlugkind of monkey trap
Aklanon húeogto drop (something); mail (a letter); to fall, get dropped
Hiligaynon húlugfall down, tumble
Cebuano húlugdrop, fall freely, cause something to do so
Maranao ologfall, drop, abort (intentional)
Tausug hulugfall or drop, as from a height
Kelabit ururact of lowering something
Kayan ulohcause an object to descend a slope, with or without control by a rope; lower a person down
Ngaju Dayak (h)ulohlower or let down, as on a rope
Iban ulurlet down, pay out (rope), launch (a boat), cast (fishing line)
Malay hulurletting go; slacking or paying out (a line)
Sangir uluheʔlet down, lower (objects by rope), pay out (fish line); sometimes also: launch a boat
Banggai ululfish with line let out from the hand
Uma ulupay out (rope), lower
Bare'e uyulower something
Tae' uluʔlower something
Makasarese uloroʔlet drop or slip down, as with a pulley; pay out (rope)
CMP
Manggarai ulurto lower, let oneself down, lower by rope; descend

5400

PPh     *i-huluR lower, drop

WMP
Ilokano y-úlogbring, etc. down, out of the house; to translate
Bikol i-húlogto drop (something)
Cebuano i-húlugthrow something down

5401

PWMP     *ma-huluR descend, lower

WMP
Bikol ma-húlogto fall
Hiligaynon ma-húlugfall down, tumble
Cebuano ma-húlugturn into something worse; fall into sin or disgrace
Maranao ma-ologto drop
Bare'e me-uyudescend, as something that is lowered from above

5402

PWMP     *maŋ-huluR lower something, pay out rope

WMP
Kelabit ŋ-ururlower something slowly by rope
Kayan ŋ-ulohcause an object to descend a slope, with or without control by a rope; lower a person down
[Old Javanese aŋ-ulurloosen, release; lower on a rope; let go]
Banggai moŋ-ululpay out rope
Makasarese aŋŋ-oloroʔlet slide through the hand, pay out (rope)

5403

PPh     *maR-huluR to lower

WMP
Ilokano ag-úlogdecline, decrease in value; fail, languish, sink
Bikol mag-húlogto drop (something)

5404

PWMP     *h<um>uluR descend, go down

WMP
Isneg um-úluggo or climb down, descend (tree, ladder, etc.; not a mountain). Also: leave a house, come down or out
Ilokano um-úlogdescend, go down, climb down; come out (leaving a house)
Kayan m-ulohslip from hold, slip down; fall or slip down from its place; slide down lengthwise by itself

5405

PWMP     *huluR-an what is given to someone

WMP
Bikol hulog-áninstallment
Cebuano hulúg-angive money to
Malay hulur-anwhat is extended to someone (gift, help, etc.)
Makasarese olor-aŋfishing pole

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon) ulug ‘drop something, cause something to fall’, Melanau (Mukah) ulur ‘pay out rope’, Javanese ulur ‘extend, get let out (e.g. rope); act of letting out (rope, etc.)’, Balinese ulur ‘hang loose, be slack, grow slack’.

28317

*Suni chirping of birds; noise, sound

5415

PAN     *Suni chirping of birds; noise, sound

Formosan
Pazeh mo-honito chirp, to crow (roosters)
Kavalan sunisound (as of a clock), chirping (of birds)
  s-em-unito chirp
Amis honi, soninoise, sound

5416

PMP     *huni chirp, tweet, crow, produce sound (of birds)

WMP
Itbayaten honiidea of crowing; crowing of chickens; noise, bustle
Isneg únisound, noise, voice, speech, cry (of animals), song (of birds)
Ilokano únisound, voice, noise, cry (of animals), song (of birds)
  ag-uniutter a sound, make a noise, to cry (animals), to sing (birds), to speak (men)
Pangasinan únibird song; to sing (birds only)
Tagalog húnichirping or hooting of birds or fowls; song, murmur
Bikol húnicall, sing (birds); twitter, warble
  an h-in-unithe call or song of a bird
Hanunóo ʔúnigeneral term for sounds produced vocally by any and all species of fauna, as of the chirping of birds
Aklanon huní(h)chirp, sing (like birds or crickets); to blow (said of whistle or siren)
Hiligaynon hunísound, chirp, whine
Cebuano húnisong, musical sounds
  ma-huní-unmelodious
  pan-úniquality of singing, intonation and pitch; tone of voice
Maranao onisound
Tboli uninoise
Rungus Dusun unitone, sound, note
Kadazan t-unisound; bleating, neighing, etc.
  moŋ-unito make music, to sound, to produce sound, to chirp, to bleat, to neigh, to strike (of clock)
Kelabit unihsound
Maloh uñisound, noise
Old Javanese unisound, voice; contents of a letter ("what it says")
Javanese unisound, noise, what someone says
Balinese uni, uñisound, make a sound
Sasak unisound, noise
  ber-unimake a sound
Tae' onisound, noise
  oni manukcry of a cock
CMP
Leti onicrow of a cock
OC
Kwaio uni-uni-amake a big ruckus, noise in play (esp. used derisively)

5417

PWMP     *pa-huni make a sound or noise

WMP
Sasak p-uniʔmake a sound or noise, play something (music)
Tae' pa-onimake a sound or noise, produce a sound

5418

PAN     *S<um>uni to chirp, to crow, to sound off (birds)

Formosan
Kavalan s-m-unito chirp
WMP
Itbayaten h-om-onito crow (of a rooster)

5419

PWMP     *huni huni musical instrument

WMP
Old Javanese uny-an uny-an, une-n une-nmusical instruments
Tae' oni oniflute made of a split rice straw

Note:   Also Malay buñi ‘sound; melody; impression made by sound; meaning’; ber-buñi ‘give out sound’. I assume that the palatal nasal in Maloh and Balinese is a product of assimilation to the following high front vowel.

28313

*SuNa first, before, anterior in time

5409

PAN     *SuNa first, before, anterior in time     [disjunct: *(q)u[nN]a]

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hunago or be first; be first in relation to someone else
Narum unéhancient times
Kayan unaʔgo ahead, go first; start first; formerly, before

5410

PAN     *ma-SuNa first

Formosan
Kavalan m-unado something before someone; get ahead
Pazeh m-ulafirst
WMP
Bolaang Mongondow m-unafirst, ancient
OC
Tolai m-unfirst, firstly, formerly; go first, lead

Note:   Pazeh mula, Bolaang Mongondow m-una, Tolai m-un points to a morphologically complex derivative in PMP. On semantic grounds we might expect this to have been *ma- ‘stative’, but such a hypothesis presents formal difficulties.

28318

*SuNus withdraw, pull out, extract

5420

PAN     *SuNus withdraw, pull out, extract

Formosan
Amis sodocpull out, draw, as a sword

5421

PMP     *hunus withdraw, pull out, extract

WMP
Aklanon húnosto pull (out); draw (gun)
  húnos-húnosjerk back and forth, push and pull
Hiligaynon húnusdraw out, pull out, as a drawer
  hunússhelf, drawer
Cebuano húnusdrawer; pull a drawer out
Tiruray ʔunuhtake off one's clothing
Malay hunusdrawing off (of unsheathing weapons, drawing a ring off the finger)
  pedaŋ hunusa drawn sword
Old Javanese unusto draw, take out, extract
Javanese unusdraw a weapon from its sheath
Madurese onosto withdraw, draw out
Sasak unusdrawing something from a sheath
  ŋ-unusto draw something from a sheath
Chamorro gunoswean, accustom (a child or other young animal) to loss of mother's milk

5422

POC     *unus withdraw, pull out, extract

OC
Roviana unusupull out, as a tooth, a nail, a post
Arosi unutake out of
Chuukese wúnúdrawn out, extracted
Woleaian iuliul (iuliulu)pull, draw, pull something from a group
Tongan unupull out, draw out
Rennellese unutake off, remove, pull out, peel
Maori unupull off, put off, doff; draw out, pull out, withdraw

5423

POC     *unus-i withdraw, pull out, extract

OC
Arosi unus-itake body out of shirt, i.e. take off shirt; fall out of
Tongan uhuh-ipull out, draw out, e.g. a sword from its sheath, or a tooth
Anuta unu-ipull out
Nukuoro unus-ipull out (e.g. a sword from its scabbard)
Hawaiian unuh-itake out, withdraw, as money from a bank, or a drawer from a desk; unsheath; take off, as a ring; translate, interpret

Note:   Also Amis hodoc ‘pull out, draw, as a sword’, Chuukese wútti ‘pull out, draw out, extract (nails, splinters, etc.)’, Rarotongan unuʔi ‘pull out or draw out with force’. This term appears to have applied prototypically to the drawing of a knife or sword from its sheath.

28314

*Supiq plant shoot

5411

PAN     *Supiq plant shoot

Formosan
Paiwan supiqlongest leaf-shoot of taro (edible)

5412

PMP     *hupiq flower spathe of areca palm

WMP
Iban upihspathe of palm blossom (mayang), esp. areca (pinang), yielding tough waterproof material for e.g. bailers
Malay upéhspathe; sheath of spadix of the unexpanded fruit of certain palms, esp. of the areca-nut palm. These spathes supply broad, thin wrappers from which temporary buckets are made
Simalungun Batak upihfrond of areca palm
Rejang upiaʔbase of the areca leaf used for wrapping rice, and as a cover for dishes of cooked food
Sundanese upihflower-sheath of the areca palm
Old Javanese upihspathe, sheath of the spadix of the unexpanded fruit of certain palms (used to make leathery water-proof wrappers)
Balinese upihthe calyx of a banana-flower; the sheath surrounding the spring of leaves of the palm (used as a container)
Sasak upéʔleathery sheath at the base of the leaf-stalk of the areca palm

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) included Fijian ubi ‘to cover; a cover, cloak’, which I exclude. The WMP cognates cited here clearly support a reconstruction meaning ‘flower spathe of areca palm’. The meaning of PAn *Supiq is less clear, and it is possible that the Paiwan form is not cognate with the others cited here.

28324

*SuqSuq drip or drain out

5429

PAN     *SuqSuq drip or drain out     [disjunct: *SuSuq]

Formosan
Amis soʔsoʔto drip, drain water off

5430

PMP     *huqhuq drip or drain out

WMP
Cebuano húʔhuʔempty a container of its contents by turning it upside down and agitating it.

28328

*SuRas wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils

5434

PAN     *SuRas wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes)

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) -uRaswash one's hands or feet

5435

PMP     *huRas wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes)

WMP
Bontok ʔuwásto wash, as dishes
Isneg úxātto clean, wash, rinse, do the dishes
Casiguran Dumagat ugéswash, rinse off (a part of the body, or kitchen utensils, but not clothes)
Kankanaey úaswash, clean, cleanse, rinse
Ifugaw úla(h)wash one's hand or face, not applicable to the act of taking a bath
Ilokano úgasa shrub whose leaves are used for scouring purposes
Tagalog húgaswashing
Bikol húgasto wash (as dishes, a car; not applicable to the face, hands or clothes)
Hanunóo ʔúgaswashing of hands, utensils, etc., but not of face, body or clothes
Aklanon húgasrinse, wash off
Hiligaynon húgaswash hands and other objects except clothes
Cebuano húgaswash anything but clothes
  h-in-úgasdishwasher
Tiruray ʔurahwash something
Malagasy ozawashing some part of one's body
Malay (h)urasbesprinkle; throw water on the ground so as to moisten the ground
Karo Batak uraspurification (of weapons, etc.) with lemon juice
Toba Batak uraspurify someone by sprinkling with citric acid and flowers
Sasak orasto clean, wash (of objects, not of clothes)
Sangir uhaseʔwash off, wash (body parts, dishes, but not clothes)
Lauje ugasto wash (dishes, spoons, etc.)
Gorontalo huhetowash
CMP
Soboyo hulawashing off (of dishes)

5436

PEMP     *uRas wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes)

SHWNG
Buli uaswash oneself, wash the face, dishes, pans, etc.

5437

PWMP     *maŋ-huRas wash, cleanse

WMP
[Itbayaten maŋ-oyasto wash utensils]
Hanunóo maŋ-ʔúgaswash hands, coconut shell vessels, etc.
Malagasy man-òzato wash, to cleanse
Toba Batak maŋ-uraspurify something by sprinkling with lime juice and flowers
Sasak ŋ-orasto clean, to wash (of objects, not of clothes)
Bolaang Mongondow maŋ-ugatwash the anus with water

5438

PPh     *maR-huRas wash, cleanse

WMP
Isneg max-úxātto clean, to wash, to rinse, to do (the dishes)
Bikol mag-húgasto wash (as dishes, a car; not applied to the face, hands or clothes)

5439

PWMP     *paŋ-huRas instrument for washing

WMP
Cebuano paŋ-húgaswash oneself
Toba Batak paŋ-uras-onwhat is used to wash something

5440

PWMP     *huRas-an to wash

WMP
[Itbayaten oyas-anto wash utensils; washing of plates, wounds, boils, hair, feet, boards]
Ilokano ugás-anwash, scour, clean, rinse, to do (the dishes)
Tagalog hugás-anwash something
  hugas-ánwashing tub or basin
Cebuano hugás-anplace for washing
Malagasy ozà-nabe washed, be cleansed

5441

PWMP     *huRas-en be washed off

WMP
Bikol hugás-onbe washed off
Cebuano hugás-undishes to be washed
Sasak oras-inbe cleaned, washed (of objects, not of clothes)

5442

PWMP     *huRas-i wash (imper.)

WMP
Cebuano hugás-iwash (imper.)
Malagasy oza-ywash (imper.)

Note:   Also Itbayaten oyas ‘idea of washing’, Pangasinan orás ‘wash, clean by washing’, Kapampangan os ‘wash (dishes, feet), wash an object’, Kalamian Tagbanwa uwas ‘rinse off’, Toba Batak urgas ‘wash, purify’, Sasak oas ‘to clean, wash (objects, not clothes)’, Bare'e ma-ugas-i ‘bathe wounds’. Several languages show an unexplained loss of *R in this form. These include Bontok owás, Kankanaey úas (both of these languages, however, show loss of *R in at least one other morpheme), Kapampangan os, Kalamian Tagbanwa uwas and Sasak oas. Li (1978:176) gives Saisiyat S-om-olʸaS ‘rub rusty metal with force, grate’ as a reflex of *SuRas, but this association is dubious on semantic grounds.

28329

*SuRSuR drawstring; to thread a drawstring

5443

PAN     *SuRSuR drawstring; to thread a drawstring

Formosan
Amis solsolto thread through holes and draw, as to run a drawn string through holes; to string together

5444

PMP     *huRhuR drawstring; to thread a drawstring

WMP
Cebuano hughúg, h-al-ughúgdrawstring in the waistline of clothing to hold it up; put a drawstring at the waist; pass a thread in and out loosely through the edge of cloth in shirring or basting

28331

*SuRut pull, draw

5446

PAN     *SuRut pull, draw

Formosan
Amis solotto pull; draw something literally; attract, exert influence on
WMP
Bontok ʔúlutremove grain from rice panicles by pulling them through one's hands
Tagalog hugótpulling or withdrawing (from); unsheathing
Bikol hugótremove something with the fingers (as lice from the hair, grains of rice from the stalk)
Hanunóo húgutpulling, up as of a loincloth; tightening, as of a binding
Cebuano húgutpull in rope or the like; pick nits from a strand of hair

5447

PAN     *SuRut-en be pulled or drawn

Formosan
Amis solot-enpull (imper.)
WMP
Bikol hugút-onremove with the fingers

Note:   In PPh this form appears to have referred to removal by pulling, as in stripping grain from the stalk by drawing it through the hand. On present evidence only the more diffuse meaning ‘pull, draw’ is assignable to PAn.

28332

*SuSuq drip or drain out

5448

PAN     *SuSuq drip or drain out     [disjunct: *SuqSuq]

Formosan
Paiwan ma-susuqenter a small hole or crack
Paiwan (Western) ma-susuqenter a small hole and fall; to leak down
Amis sosoʔto let drip out, to drain

5449

PMP     *huhuq drip or drain out

WMP
Tagalog huhóʔflowing off of grains or pieces of things

28335

*Suyeʔab to yawn

5452

PAN     *Suyeʔab to yawn     [doublet: *Suab]

Formosan
Atayal (Squliq) m-suyapto yawn

5453

PMP     *huyeʔab to yawn

WMP
Kapampangan uyábyawn, belch
Aklanon húyʔabto yawn
Hiligaynon húyʔabyawn, to yawn
Cebuano huyʔábyawn
Lauje oyabyawn
Bare'e uae <Mgape, yawn

28345

*Suʔu 2sg. agent/possessor

5463

PAN     *Suʔu 2sg. agent/possessor

Formosan
Saisiyat shoʔoyou (sg.)
Tsou suuthou
Bunun suuyou
Proto-Rukai *ko-so, *mo-sothou
Paiwan suyou, your (sg.)

5464

PMP     *huʔu 2sg. subject pronoun

WMP
Sangir u2sg. possessive pronoun
Wolio u2sg. and 2pl. actor prefix to verbs

5465

PEMP     *u₂ 2sg. subject pronoun

SHWNG
Numfor u2sg. subject marker on verbs
OC
Tolai uthou, you, thee, 2sg. nominative and accusative
Gedaged uverbal prefix indicating that the actor is 2sg.
Gitua uyou (sg.), thou
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka uthou (2sg. conjunctive pronoun)

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 12/11/2014
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)