Updated: 10/17/2016
Introduction       Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Sub-Groups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References+      Roots      Loans      Noise      Formosan      

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


ta    te        ti    to    tu    



















































tai ñamuk



















takup (or takequp)










tali tali















































tanduk tanduk
























































































tau ñamuk
















*-ta 1pl. incl. genitive suffix


PAN     *-ta 1pl. incl. genitive suffix

Kavalan -taours (inclusive); 1pl. incl. genitive pronoun
Pazeh ta-we (inclusive, genitive, hortative)
Puyuma -ta1pl. incl. genitive pronoun, our
Paiwan ta-our, we (inclusive)
Yami tawe (genitive case, inclusive)
Itbayaten taour (inclusive)
Ibatan tafirst person plural inclusive genitive or possessive pronoun
Isneg tawe two, you and I; replaces the first person singular of the possessives when followed by a personal pronoun of the second person
Itawis tawe, 1+2 person singular nominative and genitive pronoun
Bontok tafirst and second person minimal pronoun; you (singular) and I; your (singular) and my; our
Kankanaey tawe two, we both, you and I; our
Ifugaw tadual pronominal enclitic, I and you; independent form
Ifugaw (Batad) tawe two
Ibaloy tafirst person dual: we two, you and I
Bikol tawe, by us; ni class first person plural inclusive pronoun
Hanunóo tawe (inclusive); apheretic, literary form of kitá
Agutaynen taour; us; we
Cebuano ta1pl. incl. in certain constructions when followed by a second person pronoun
  ta ka, ta ikaw, ta kamuI will (do) to you, you are my (noun)
Central Tagbanwa tafirst person plural inclusive pronoun, genitive, used as nonfocused participant in verbal clauses and as possessive pronoun in possessive noun phrases where the pronoun follows the possessed noun, all of our
Maranao tawe, us
Binukid tasecond person dual nontopic pronoun: we (you and I/me); our
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tafirst person dual pronoun, nontopic
Mansaka tafirst person plural inclusive topic pronoun
Mapun tafirst person dual non-focus pronoun inclusive of speaker and hearer only: we (dual), our (dual)
Simalur -tapossessive suffix, our (incl.)
Karo Batak ta1pl. incl. possessive pronoun, our
Toba Batak ta1pl. incl. possessive suffix, our
Tontemboan ta1pl. incl. suffix
Banggai ta-we (incl.)
Bare'e taprefixed and suffixed form of the 1pl. incl. pronoun
Muna ta-1pl. excl. (realis and irrealis) subject prefix


POC     *-da₂ 1pl. incl. possessive suffix

Lau -gawe, us (1pl. incl., suffixed to some nouns and prepositions)
Arosi gafirst person plural pronoun, usually possessive, we, us, our’s
Raga -da1pl. incl. possessive suffix
Wayan -daformative in pronouns; marks first person inclusive of addressee, and occurs only after possessive marker and dual and paucal number-marking prefixes in the possessive pronouns

Note:   This is clearly a clitic form of *kita ‘we (incl.)’, but must be cited independently, given its separate identity in many languages.


*ta₁ negative marker: no, not


PMP     *ta₁ negative marker: no, not

Kapampangan ta-occurs in a few limited expressions, as ta-balu ‘don’t know’ (balu‘know’)
Malay taʔnot; a negative prefix
Sangir tano, not
Rotinese ta(k)not present, not exist; no, not
Kemak ta-ino, not
Erai tanot
Kisar kanot (existential negation)
  kaanot (nominal negation)
  ka-ununot yet
Leti tanot exist; no, not
Wetan ta(a)not
  (a)ta…ammanot at all, there is nothing but
Watubela te-ino, not
Elat tano, not
Geser te-ino, not
Paulohi ta ~ ta-mano, not
Asilulu tanot, esp. in fast speech or as an emphatic sentence-final particle
Sekar -tano, not

Note:   I assume that Malay t resisted sound change and was reinterpreted as /k/, much like the vocative markers in adik ‘younger sibling’, kakak ‘elder sibling’, etc., and for much the same reason: in both negatives and vocatives a forceful vocalization is required, and where sound change has altered the final segment to -h this is seriously compromised.


*ta-₁ 1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun


PAN     *ta-₁ 1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun

Seediq ta1pl. incl. enclitic pronoun
Pazeh tawe (inclusive, hortative)
Puyuma ta-bound pronoun, 1pl incl. nominative, we
Paiwan tja-our, we (inclusive)
Yami tawe (nominative case, inclusive); hortative
Ibatan tafirst person plural inclusive nominative pronoun
Ilokano -tafirst person dual pronoun, you and I (hortative)
Pangasinan tawe two (topic pronoun; includes only speaker and single addressee)
Manggarai ta1pl. incl. hortative pronoun


POC     *-da₁ 1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun

Fijian da1pl. incl. pronoun, we (used under government of certain conjunctions); hortative

Note:   This is clearly a clitic form of *kita ‘we (incl.)’, but must be cited independently, given its separate identity in many languages.


*ta₂ emphatic particle


PWMP     *ta₂ emphatic particle

Central Tagbanwa taparticle of emphasis, marks a peak or an abrupt transition in a discourse
Kadazan Dusun taparticle used to express admiration, etc. (marks intensity or enthusiasm)
Old Javanese taemphatic particle
Balinese taan emphasizing particle

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*ta-₂ prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action


PMP     *ta-₂ prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action     [doublet: *taR-]

Tagalog ta-pilókto stumble or trip, thereby causing one to twist or sprain the foot or ankle (pilók ‘twisted, referring to arm, ankle or foot’)
Iban te-piloksprained, laimed (pilok ‘crooked, twisted, lame, as a foot’)
Lakalai ta-prefix marking action that takes place of its own accord (gole ‘to pluck leaves’ : ta-gole ‘to fall off, of a tree branch’)
Nggela ta-intransitive verb prefix marking action that takes place without an agent
Arosi a-a prefix of spontaneity
Wayan ta-prefix that derives a stative verb marking an action or process that comes about accidentally or spontaneously, without a wilful agent
Fijian ta-prefix to verb indicating spontaneity (sere ‘untie’ : ta-sere ‘come untied by itself’)


*taba₁ reward, pay


POC     *taba₁ reward, pay

Manam taba-ito reward; sacrifice
Bugotu tabato pay; wages; reward; price
Nggela tambato hire, pay wages; wages, pay; a reward, prize in a race

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*taba₂ side, edge, border


POC     *taba₂ side, edge, border

Nggela ta-tambaa part, division, portion
'Āre'āre apa-apaside, part, portion, half
  ana apa maion this side
Arosi abathe half, a part, side, portion, chapter; the slope of a hill, one side of a ridge
Gilbertese tabasides, edges of passage; to deviate, go sideways
Rarotongan tapathe margin, the edge, fringe, border of anything; the brink or edge, as of a cliff; a piece, portion or slice of anything
Maori tapamargin, edge
Hawaiian kapaedge, border, boundary; side, as of a road


*tabad to cut, make an incision


PMP     *tabad to cut, make an incision

Tagalog tabádvenesection, process of bloodletting


POC     *tapar to cut, make an incision

Sa'a ahato cut, to score, to notch, to mark by incising
Samoan tafa(of boil, abscess, etc.) cut open, incise


*tabák sword or sword-like appendage


PPh     *tabák sword or sword-like appendage

Pangasinan tabáka large and long variety of bolo (machete)
Tagalog tabákcutlass; a kind of bolo or large knife
Aklanon tabákswordlike beak (of a swordfish); long pin, hat pin

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan in Pangasinan.


*tabak knock, pound, as with a hammer


PWMP     *tabak₁ knock, pound, as with a hammer

Mongondow mo-nabakpound sago
  to-tabakkind of hammer used to pound sago out of the sago palm
Tae' tambakclean something by pounding it
Proto-South Sulawesi *ta(m)bakto hit, pound

Note:   With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’.


*tabaN head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?)


PAN     *tabaN head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?)

Kavalan tabanhead trophy
Amis tafada disembodied head gotten in headhunting or war


PMP     *taban booty, war captive; what is taken in war; elopement, captured bride

Tagalog t<um>ábanto hold onto; to hold something to keep it or oneself from falling
Bikol mag-tábanto kidnap or abduct a woman; to carry a woman off (of a man)
Aklanon tábansnatch with one’s jaws (like a dog stealing food)
Agutaynen mag-taban-anto elope
  taban-ento carry away wrongfully or forcefully; snatch or grab by the mouth, as an animal stealing food
Hiligaynon mag-tábanto run away with, to take away, to elope
Cebuano tábanelope
Maranao tabanwin, winnings; beat
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tavanspoils of war, loot
Mansaka tabanto plunder
Tiruray tabanthe spoils or winnings; to win in fighting or betting
Mapun tabanto snatch; grab at something
Lun Dayeh tabana kidnapping, an abduction; a person who was caught during a headhunting raid and taken back by the person who caught him/her and made a slave
  nabanto kidnap, abduct, take or carry away without the owner’s permission
Kelabit tabanrunning away with someone or something, kidnapping, elopement
Melanau (Mukah) tabanto seize, grasp, hold
  pə-tabanhold onto something
Ngaju Dayak tawanbe captured
  tawan-anwhat is captured (prisoners in war, a crocodile, a snake)
Malagasy (Provincial) tavanaprisoners of war
Iban tabancarry off, carry along, i.e. without leave (and so liable to fine), but with no intention of theft, and not by force; abscond or elope with, i.e. without consent of parents or tuai rumah (head of longhouse)
Malay tawantaking captive
Acehnese tawantake captive, make a war captive, take as booty
Karo Batak er-tabancapture something or someone, make someone a war captive
Dairi-Pakpak Batak tabanwhat is plundered, looted or taken captive
Toba Batak tabanbooty
  par-tabanone who captures or plunders, plunderer
  tar-tabanbe captured, be taken captive
Old Javanese tawanwhat is carried off, booty, a captive
Balinese tabancatch and keep an animal that has strayed onto your land until it is redeemed by its owner
Sasak tabanbooty; to loot, take as booty
  taban sesatothe confiscation of another person’s cattle that have strayed into one’s fields and caused damage
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tawaNto capture


PWMP     *ma-naban to carry off, kidnap, loot a place

Agutaynen ma-nabanto elope
Kelabit nabanrun away with, kidnap, elope
Ngaju Dayak ma-nawanto catch, capture
Malay me-nawanto conquer, subdue, lead into captivity
Balinese nabancatch and keep an animal that has strayed onto your land until it is redeemed by its owner
  ta-taban-anan animal so retained


PWMP     *maR-taban to carry off, kidnap, loot a place

Tagalog mag-tábanhold onto something with one’s hand or hands
Bikol mag-tábankidnap or abduct a woman; carry a woman off
Agutaynen mag-tabanto carry away wrongfully or forcefully; snatch or grab by the mouth, as an animal stealing food
Hiligaynon mag-tábanrun away with, take away, elope
Cebuano mag-tábanto elope
Tausug mag-tabanto capture property, loot, plunder; (usually for many people) to strive to get a share of something
Dairi-Pakpak Batak mer-tabanfall into the hands of someone through plunder; capture someone from his village in a raid
Toba Batak mar-tabanto capture; plunder


PWMP     *t<in>aban be carried off, as loot or a captive in war; what is carried off

Agutaynen t<in>abanbe snatched or carried away wrongfully (as a fish by a hungry cat)
Tiruray t<en>aban-anone who is defeated
Old Javanese t<in>awanto carry off as captive or booty, to loot


PWMP     *taban-an (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog tabán-anto hold onto; to hold something to keep it or oneself from falling
Javanese tawan-anan enemy captive, prisoner of war
Sasak taban-ancattle confiscated from another person as compensation for damage caused by them wandering into one’s fields


PWMP     *taban-en be kidnapped or abducted

Bikol tabán-onbe kidnapped or abducted
Hiligaynon tabán-onbe carried off, taken away, as in elopement
Lun Dayeh teban-enwill be taken away without the owner’s permission
Kelabit teban-enbe kidnapped, be carried off
Malay tawan-anprisoner; conquest
Karo Batak taban-enbooty, loot, war captive
Dairi-Pakpak Batak taban-enwar captive

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak taban-an ‘what is captured (prisoners in war, a crocodile, a snake)’. The meaning of PMP *taban seems clearly to have been ‘booty, loot; what is taken by force, as in war, or elopement’. This is consistent with the more specific meaning ‘head trophy’ (trophy taken in headhunting), which is reflected in the two known Formosan reflexes (both members of the East Formosan subgroup), but it is unclear whether the meaning in PAn was as narrowly restricted as this.


*tabaŋ help, assist


PMP     *tabaŋ help, assist

Bikol ka-tábaŋaide, assistant, helper; maid, servant
  mag-tábaŋto help one another; to work together; to collaborate, cooperate
  ma-t<in>ábaŋhelpful, cooperative
  mag-tabáŋ-anto aid, assist, help; to relieve; to chip in
Aklanon tábaŋto help, assist
  pa-nábaŋprayer (imploring divine help or favor)
Cebuano tábaŋhelp, give a hand
Maranao tabaŋhelp, contribution, relief, aid, support, cooperate
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tavaŋaid or help of any kind; to help; to render aid; to go and get something which has fallen
Ida'an Begak tabaŋhelp
  mə-nabaŋto help
Proto-Minahasan *tabaŋto help
Tontemboan tawaŋfoster child; servant; helper
  t<um>awaŋto help
Proto-Micronesian *tapatapa, *tapaŋ-ihelp, support, aid, benefit

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun tambaɁ ‘to help’.


*tabaR tasteless, insipid; powerless; antidote, as against snakebite


PWMP     *tabaR tasteless, insipid; powerless; antidote, as against snakebite     [disjunct: *tambar]

Iban tabartasteless, insipid, unseasoned
  aiʔ tabarfresh water
Malay tawarwithout flavor or distinctive character, in two senses: 1. tasteless, 2. innocuous
  ayer tawarfresh water, in contrast to salt
  tawar hatito lose heart
Toba Batak tabartasteless, insipid
Old Javanese tawapowerless, weak, inefficacious, harmless
  japa tawaa formula to make poison, etc. harmless
  bañu tawafresh (tasteless) water
Balinese tabahinsipid, tasteless, watery (of food); unfeeling; insensitive
Mongondow mo-tambagtasteless, insipid; diluted, thinned out; powerless

Note:   Also Sundanese tawar ‘brackish, as river water near the sea’, Sasak tawah ‘tasteless; brackish, of river water’.


*tabas₁ machete, bolo; chop with a machete


PWMP     *tabás machete, bolo; chop with a machete

Ilokano tabáskind of machete used to cut grass
  tabas-ánto clear an area of grass
  tabas-énto cut grass, trim
Itawis tabáslong machete or bolo
Casiguran Dumagat tabásto cut down, to lop off (excess plant growth or branches, by hacking with a bolo)
Tagalog tabáscut down; lopped off
  t<um>abásto chop; to cut down; to lop off (branches, excess growth, etc.)
Hanunóo tábascutting down, clearing underbrush and small trees as in preparing a kaiŋin
Central Tagbanwa tabasto prune, to mow, to cut down excess growth
Maranao tabasMaranao bolo
Binukid tabasto cut through something flat
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tavasa scimitar
Balinese nabasto chop, cleave, hack (wood), chop til level
Sasak tabascut, level or smooth, cut off the top
Banggai man-tabasto hack, cut; murder

Note:   Also Ifugaw) tabas ‘a sickle bolo, a bolo with the tip curved forward, for cutting grass and other small vegetation’ (< Ilokano), Iban tawas (expected **tabas) ‘cleared, not overgrown’, Minangkabau tabas (expected **tawas) ‘cutting down small plants; in contrast to felling timber (təbaŋ)’. Evidently distinct from PWMP *tabas ‘to cut out, as a pattern’.


*tabas₂ to cut out, as a pattern


PWMP     *tabas₂ to cut out, as a pattern

Ilokano tábasstyle; cut; pattern; outline; form; look
  ma-tábasto be cut following a pattern (clothes)
  mag-tabás-ancloth cuttings
  tabás-ento cut a garment using a pattern
Casiguran Dumagat tábasto cut cloth
Ibaloy tabastrimmings, remnant, that remaining of something (as piece of cloth, galvanized sheeting) after the desirable piece has been removed; the “cut” of a person, i.e. his nature, characteristics
Pangasinan tábascut (of dress, etc.), style
Tagalog tábascut; style of apparel
  i-tábasto use something for cutting out a dress, etc., according to a pattern
  ma-tábasto be able to cut out; to be cut out
  mag-tábasto cut out cloth according to a pattern
Bikol tábascut or style of clothes; pattern
  tabás-onto cut material for clothes; to style, fashion
  an t<in>ábasremnants of cloth
Aklanon tábasto cut into shape, tailor
  pa-nábascut or style of clothing
  pa-tábasto have tailor-made, bring to a tailor
  t<in>ábasrags; clothing scraps
Agutaynen mag-tabatto cut something, as material
  s<in>abatthat which was cut, leftover material or scraps
  tabat-ento cut something, as material
Hiligaynon mag-tábasto sew, to cut cloth
Cebuano tábascut lengthwise or through something flat; make a dress
Maranao tabasto cut with scissors
  tabas-aʔboard for cutting
Mansaka tabasto cut a pattern (for clothes)
Mapun tabasto cut cloth (according to a pattern or measurement in order to make a garment)
  tabas-angarments that need to be cut out of cloth
  tabas-tabascloth scraps; the leftover pieces of cloth after cutting out a garment
Ida'an Begak tabascut pattern out of cloth


*tabayaR kind of edible squash or gourd: Lagenaria leucantha


PPh     *tabayaR kind of edible squash or gourd: Lagenaria leucantha

Yami tavalaytype of plant: small gourd
Itbayaten tavayaywhite squash (edible); its fruit (except rind and matured seed) is eaten
Ivatan tavayaya shell of mature white squash hollowed out and used for carrying water (Maree and Tomas 2012)
Ibatan tavayaya common gourd, upo: Lagenaria leucantha
Bikol tabáyagelongated green squash with white flesh
Hanunóo tabáyaglime container made from a gourd
Cebuano tabáyagkind of edible squash, round in shape with a knob-like protrusion at the top; the shell becomes hard when mature and is used as a container: Lagenaria leucantha var.
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tevayagcommon gourd or upo: Lagenaria leucantha

Note:   Also Isneg tabáyad ‘a small, white variety of bottle gourd with a very narrow neck; it is extensively cultivated and used for storing lime, and sometimes for storing rice.


*tabe hold tightly or firmly; carry close to oneself


POC     *tabe hold tightly or firmly

Tolai tabehold something so that someone else will not take it, take something from the hands of another
Nggela tambeto take hold, grasp, seize
Arosi abecarry something against the chest, as firewood
Wayan tabehold or carry a burden in the extended arms, esp. resting on both palms extended horizontally in front, as a tray (it is polite to hold a gift in this manner when presenting it)
Fijian tabehold or carry with the hands under
  i-tabea small oval basket without handles
  tabe-tabethe bringing of food in this basket
  vaka-tabe-tabe-ato test the weight of something in the hands; to life a boat out of shallow water
Tongan tapeshallow basket

Note:   Tongan tape may be a borrowing of Fijian i-tabe.


*ta(m)beŋ block, obstruct


PWMP     *ta(m)beŋ block, obstruct

Tiruray tambeŋstop a small flow of water by setting an impediment
Balinese tambeŋobstruct, block; be obstinate
  tabeŋstopper, cork

Note:   With root *-beŋ₂ ‘block, stop, dam’.


*tabeŋ to screen, conceal, cover


PWMP     *tabeŋ to screen, conceal, cover

Tagalog tabíŋcurtain; screen; a covered frame that hides, protects, or separates; veil; anything that screens or hides
Javanese taweŋa cover
  di-taweŋ-icovered, removed from view (Pigeaud 1938)

Note:   Fijian tabo ‘to hide, conceal from sight’, included with the above forms in Blust (1972a), probably is a chance resemblance.


*tabeq fat, grease; tasty


PWMP     *tabeq fat, grease; tasty

Yami tavafat, grease
Itbayaten tavafat (organic substance); fatness; fatty portion of meat
  ka-tavastate of being fat
Ibatan tabafat of the body, substance from animals or plants used for cooking
Ilokano tabáadipose tissue, fat; grease; bacon; cream
  na-tabáfatty; greasy; fertile (soil)
Isneg tabāfat, adipose tissue
Itawis tabáfat (substance)
Bontok tabáto become fat; fatness
Ifugaw tabáfat, grease
Ifugaw (Batad) tabaanimal fat, of the body fat of an animal or person; rendered lard of an animal; coconut meat
Ibaloy tabafat on a living animal or person
Pangasinan tabáfat, grease or oil for cooking; fatness, health; become fat
Kapampangan tabáʔfat, lard, grease, butter
Tagalog tabáʔfat; a white or yellow oily substance formed in the body of animals; lard; grease; soft animal fat; fatness; obesity
Bikol tabáʔfat
Aklanon tabáʔfat, stout, plump
Cebuano tábaʔpork fat
Binukid tábaʔfat, lard
Mansaka tábaʔfat, adipose tissue; to become fat
Mapun tabaʔthe fat on any kind of meat or fish
Malagasy tavifatness, corpulency
Karo Batak n-tabehdelicious, of taste; fat, of meat; strong, of tobacco
  tabeh-tabehthe fat of the intestines
Toba Batak tabodelicious, tasty
  tabo-tabofat (on meat), grease
Proto-Minahasan *tabaʔfat (on animal body)
Muna tabhafat, grease; corpulent


PWMP     *ka-tabeq-an corpulence, obesity

Tagalog ka-tabaʔ-áncorpulence; fatness; obesity;stoutness; richness; abundant condition, as of soil
Malagasy ha-tavéz-anafatness


PWMP     *ma-tabeq fat, corpulent

Yami ma-tavavery fat (as a pig)
Itbayaten ma-tavafat, stout, obese
Itawis ma-tabábe fat, stout
Ifugaw (Batad) ma-tabafat, of a person or animal
Ibaloy ma-tebafat, stout, chubby
Kapampangan ma-tabáʔto be fat
Tagalog ma-tabáʔto be fat, fleshy
Bikol ma-tabáʔto be fat, chubby, corpulent; rich, fertile
Binukid ma-tábaʔfatty, greasy
Mapun ma-tabaʔto make something delicious
Malagasy ma-tavifat, corpulent

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat tabí ‘fat, chubby; to get fat’.


*ta(m)bid attach, fasten


PWMP     *ta(m)bid attach, fasten

Hanunóo támbidhanging, as of a bamboo container from the rafters of a house
Aklanon tabídattach, join
Hiligaynon tabídlink together with a rope or string, attach to
Iban tambitfastening; latch, button


*tabíd to twist, braid


PWMP     *tabíd to twist, braid

Ilokano tabídto twist thread
Cebuano tabídbraid the hair
Mansaka tabidto twist (as rope); to wring
Tausug tabidtwisted, not straight, out of shape
  t<um>abidto twist or wring something; to wring the water out of something
  tabid-tabida rope-shaped confection made of flour or pounded cassava
Ida'an Begak tabidto hold and twist

Note:   Also Bontok tibid ‘to join two threads by winding them together’.


*tabiŋ sheltering cover


PWMP     *tabiŋ sheltering cover

Ilokano tábiŋscreen; curtain; wall cloth
  tabíŋ-anto screen, provide with a divider
Tagalog tábiŋcurtain; screen; a covered frame that hides, protects, or separates; veil; anything that screens or hides (as a veil of clouds); shade; something that shuts out light
  mag-tábiŋto screen; to shelter, protect, or hide with a screen
Old Javanese tawiŋwall, partition, screen, curtain
  a-nawiŋto hide behind a wall (partition) in order to overhear or spy
Javanese tawiŋshield, cover, esp. as protection against the elements
  nawiŋto protect, shield
Balinese tabiŋloose cover over the ridge of a roof; a partition

Note:   Also Malay tebiŋ ~ tebeŋ ‘spreading out, of the wide brim of a native sun hat, the hangings of a window, etc.’, Javanese tebeŋ ‘structure acting as a protective shelter against the elements’. Originally proposed in Blust (1970) as *(Ct)ebiŋ ‘screen’, but with an erroneous citation of Malay tebeŋ ~ tebiŋ as təbiŋ.


*tabtab₁ to hack, chop off, trim with a bolo; pound, beat, knock on


PWMP     *tabtab₁ to hack, chop off, trim with a bolo; pound, beat, knock on

Itbayaten tabtabhacking
Ibatan tabtabto hack something with a bolo or axe
Ilokano i-tabtábto remove from the edge, trim
Casiguran Dumagat tabtabto chop, to trim with a bolo (as to trim the sides of a rice paddy dyke by chopping the edges with a bolo, or to chop the rib bones of an animal when butchering it
Kapampangan tabtabcutting (sugarcane)
Tagalog tabtábthe act of hewing or trimming wood, stone, etc.
Bikol mag-tabtábto cut bamboo or rattan, to cut the fins of fish, the wings of fowl
Aklanon tábtabto chop, cut (up)
Cebuano tabtábhack something off with several blows
Toba Batak ma-naptapto wash clothes (by pounding on a rock by the river)
Old Javanese a-natabto knock on
  t<in>atabwas knocked on
Javanese ke-tatabto bump into/against inadvertently
  natabto bump into, collide with


PPh     *tabtab-an to cut, to slash

Itbayaten tabtab-anto cut, to slash
Ilokano tabtab-ánto hollow out boards for putting rungs of stairs in them when making a ladder
Kapampangan tabtab-anto chop off


*tabtab₂ slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down


PAN     *tabtab₂ slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down     [doublet: *sabsab]

Kavalan tabtabto eat and make noise like a pig or dog
Thao taftafmake a loud slurping noise in eating, like a pig
Ibaloy tabtabto eat voraciously, wolf down, gulp down, devour, eat one’s food with fervor --- esp. of animals (as pigs), but also figuratively of people


*tabuD strew, scatter


PWMP     *tabuD strew, scatter     [disjunct: *tabuR]

Malay taburscattering; sowing; diffusion over a surface
Mongondow tabudstrew, scatter seed


*tabug drive game before one


PPh     *tabug drive game before one

Casiguran Dumagat tabuga type of game drive where game is driven by dogs towards where men are waiting in ambush
Aklanon tábogto shoo, scare away
  tabógsomething used to shoo away (flies)
Hiligaynon mag-tábugto drive away, using arm gestures
Cebuano tábugto drive, send away (as a pig that has gotten into one’s yard)
Mansaka tabugto return to its customary place of living, as bees or people (after being driven off or dispersed)


*tabukul casting net for fishing


PAN     *tabukul casting net for fishing

Kavalan tbukulcasting net
  tabukulto fish with a casting net
  t<m>abukulto fish with a casting net
Puyuma tabukulfishing net; web (for some men kariɖ and tabukul are used in the sea; tiɭuɁ is used in the mountains; the tabukul is a casting net)
Ilokano tabúkolround net with cord at the center and lead sinkers around the circumference
  ma-tabukul-anto be caught in a net (fish)
  tabukol-anto cast a net
Ibaloy tabokolcast net, throw net; fishing net that is thrown and pulled back, closing the mouth of the net and trapping the fish

Note:   Also Amis tafokod ‘a draw net used in deep sea fishing’.


*tabun₁ kind of bird that buries its eggs deep in the sand


PPh     *tabun₁ kind of bird that buries its eggs deep in the sand

Ilokano tábona kind of bird
Bikol tabónbird species which buries its eggs deep in the sand
Mansaka tabonkind of bird that when laying an egg digs a hole in the ground and lays its egg in the hole
Tausug tabuna type of quail a little smaller than a chicken, which lays eggs in sandy holes it digs

Note:   Probably the same base as *tabun₂ ‘to cover with earth’, but the distinct meaning here favors distinguishing the two.


*tabun₂ to cover with earth, sand, etc.


PMP     *tabun₂ to cover with earth, sand, etc.

Itbayaten tavoncover, covering
  ma-navonto cover (with soil, sand, gravel, ashes)
Ilokano tábonburial
  ag-tábonto be buried; to set (sun)
  i-tábonto bury, inter
  maki-tábonto attend a funeral
Bontok tábunto hide
Casiguran Dumagat tábunto fill in soil in a low place in the earth
Pangasinan maŋi-tabónto bury
Kapampangan tábundam
Tagalog tábona heap used for filling up a hole; a dyke of earth between fishponds
Bikol mag-tambónto cover with soil
Cebuano tábuncover something to protect or conceal it; cover up for someone’s mistakes
Mansaka tabonto cover
Kelabit tabuna heap or pile; covered by something that is heaped up; a heap of dead grass used by snakes to make a nest
  nabunto heap up, pile up
Malay tambunheaping up, piling up
Sasak tambuna heap, pile (of sand, stones, etc.); to heap up, pile up
Manggarai tambuŋto heap, fill up, as a grave with stones; to pile up


POC     *tapun to cover with earth

Motu tahuni-ato cover with earth
Arosi ahua pile, heap of firewood, mound of earth
Mota tavunto bury, conceal


PPh     *tabún-an to cover with earth, dam up

Itbayaten tavon-anto cover with soil (in planting yams)
Ilokano tabón-anto embank; fill with earth
Pangasinan tabon-ánto cover
Kapampangan tabún-anto dam up, stop up, barricade

Note:   Motu tahuni-a is assumed to be a reanalysis of tahu-nia. With root *-bun ‘heap, pile; cover with earth; collect, assemble’.


*tabuna dehortative: don’t!


POC     *tabuna dehortative: don’t!

Nauna tapundon’t!
Penchal rapundon’t!
Wuvulu apunadon’t!
Aua apunadon’t!
Bauro apunadon’t!

Note:   Also Lau abu ‘don’t --- to a child or animal’, 'Āre'āre āpu ‘sacred, forbidden, taboo; used also as a prohibitive, dehortative to children’, āpu-na ‘taboo (n.)’. As the latter example indicates, it is likely that this word shares the same base with POc *tabu ‘forbidden, taboo’, but the morphological and semantic distinctness of the forms merits separate reconstructions.


*tabuni placenta, afterbirth


PMP     *tabuni placenta, afterbirth

Ngaju Dayak tabuniplacenta, afterbirth
  ma-nabunitake the afterbirth away
Malagasy tavónithe afterbirth, the placenta
Malay tembuniplacenta
Taje (Tanampedagi) tavuniafterbirth


POC     *tapuni placenta, afterbirth

Kwaio afuniplacenta; in pagan childbirth must be buried under mother’s bed in childbirth hut to avoid supernatural danger to her
Arosi ahunito bury, cover, conceal, hide

Note:   Also Mapun tamuni ‘placenta (the placenta should be placed in a hollowed-out coconut shell and then buried by the midwife at a place where a road forks)’, Yakan temuni ‘placenta’, Tausug tamuniŋ ‘placenta; something worthless or of very little value’, Pendau tauni- ‘afterbirth’. The relationship between *tabun ‘to bury’ and *tabuni ‘placenta, afterbirth’ remains unclear’. Over much of the Austronesian world the placenta is/was regarded as the younger sibling of the newborn child, and was buried after the birth, hence the possibility that *tabuni may derive from *tabun-i 'to bury (something)'. This possibility is somewhat strengthened by the recognition that in many languages the name for the placenta is a descriptive term, as with Bontok baley ‘home; shelter; living place; any place which gives protection, as a bird nest, spider web, rat hole, water buffalo pasture or the sheath of a bolo; placenta’, Dampelas banua ŋanaʔ ‘afterbirth’ (lit. ‘house of the child’), Maranao dalem a kandaŋ ‘placenta’ (lit. ‘inside the womb’), or Pohnpeian ieŋen seri ‘placenta’ (lit. ‘companion of the child’), suggesting that there was no monomorphemic word that corresponded to the meaning of the English gloss.


*tabuŋ a plant: Ixora sp.


PWMP     *tabuŋ a plant: Ixora sp.

Tboli taboŋ galaga plant: Ixora bartlingii Elm., Rubiaceae
Malay taboŋ buŋaflowering plants: Ixora opaca, Ixora pendula


*tabuq scoop up water; water scoop or dipper


PWMP     *tabuq scoop up water; water scoop or dipper

Yami tavoto get water
Itbayaten tavoscooping out (liquid)
  ma-navoto scoop out liquid
  ta-tavoscooper (as dipper), dipper made of coconut shell
Ilokano táboscoop (originally made of bamboo)
Tagalog táboʔscoop or dipper made from coconut shell; any empty can used as a scoop or dipper; mug (in some areas) a drinking vessel made from coconut shell
Bikol táboʔwater dipper (traditionally made from half a coconut shell)
Malagasy tavopumpkin
Toba Batak tabupumpkin, gourd
  tabu-tabubottle gourd used as a rice container
Bare'e tambua pointed bucket made of leaf sheaths of the sago palm, used to scoop up water for the washing out of sago flour
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tumbuto scoop, dip
Moronene tumbuto draw water

Note:   Also Javanese di-tawu ‘bailed out, scooped up, of water, as from a pond in order to catch the fish’ (Pigeaud), tawu ‘to deplete water by removing containerfuls of it’ (Horne).


*tabuqan yellowjacket wasp


PWMP     *tabuqan yellowjacket wasp

Isneg tabówāna kind of large, reddish bee whose young are edible and whose nest resembles a coconut or a bow net, that is situated at the base of a tree or dangles from its branches; in this nest it constructs each year one platelike, honeyless cake, one above another
Mapun tabuwanhornet; a large black and yellow wasp with a painful sting
Yakan tabuʔana bee-like insect; it is large and black with brownish wings, and makes round nests of dirt on trees; its sting hurts very much
Bahasa Indonesia tabuhanlarge wasp that usually nests in trees
Old Javanese tawwan ~ tawonbee
Javanese tawonbee, wasp
  nawonbee-like, wasp-like
  nawon kemitwasp-waisted
  t<um>awonhumming like a swarm of bees (said of a busy marketplace)
Balinese tabuwanhornet; several different kinds are distinguished
Sasak tabuankind of wasp with yellow thorax
Bare'e tambuakind of wasp
Tae' tabuankind of wasp that makes its nest in dry wood
  tabuan balowasp with thin midsection and yellow stripes around the body, with a venomous sting

Note:   Also Bare'e tambuya ‘kind of large wasp (or fly); according to folk belief, in earlier times this insect was given the instruction to ask for fire from the gods


*tabuR to strew, scatter, as seed


PMP     *tabuR to strew, scatter, as seed

Iban tabursprinkle, scatter, sow broadcast (as seed rice in planting)
Malay taburscattering; sowing; diffusion over a surface (of sowing seed, of scattering flowers over a passing hero, of the stars scattered over the sky, etc.
Toba Batak tabursprinked, speckled, spotted (as the sky sprinkled with stars)
Javanese tawursmall coins ceremonially distributed among the poor
Sasak taburto strew, scatter (seed)
Bare'e mon-tambuthrow something onto something else, as earth onto something


POC     *tabuR to strew, scatter, as seed

Roviana taburuto throw about, scatter, as grain

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak tawor ‘seed, what is sown; be strewed or sown’ (probably < Javanese). With root *-buR₂ ‘strew, sow, sprinkle’.


*tabuRi conch shell trumpet


PMP     *tabuRi conch shell trumpet     [doublet: *tabuRiq]

Tiruray temburia shell trumpet; to blow the temburi
Selaru fturi <Mtriton shell
Kamarian tahuritrumpet shell
Alune tabuliconch shell trumpet
Asilulu tahuliconch shell (Strombus spp.); conch shell trumpet
Soboyo tafuhishell, blown to call up the wind when a canoe is launched on a voyage
Kowiai/Koiwai tafurtriton shell


POC     *tapuRi conch shell trumpet

Nauna tahuyconch shell trumpet
Penchal rahuyconch shell trumpet
Pak dohuconch shell trumpet
Loniu tahconch shell trumpet
Nali drahconch shell trumpet
Ahus nhahconch shell trumpet
Kuruti drohconch shell trumpet
Likum cahconch shell trumpet
Sori dapconch shell trumpet
Wuvulu avuiconch shell trumpet
Yapese yabultype of conch shell; horn, trumpet, siren
Tolai tauru <Aconch shell, Strombus epidromus, and other varieties
Vitu tavureconch shell (blown to signal new arrivals, danger, etc.)
Lusi tavurshell trumpet
Kairiru tourconch shell
Wogeo taurconch shell trumpet
Manam tauru <Aconch shell trumpet
Gedaged tauzkind of mollusk, triton
Takia toulconch shell trumpet
Gitua tavurekind of shell, particular the Pacific trumpet shell, but includes other Cymatiidae species and Bursidae species
Kilivila tauyatriton
Bugotu tavuliconch shell used as trumpet
Nggela tavulispecies of mollusc, gastropod, Charonia tritonis; a trumpet; the sound of a trumpet
Sa'a ähuriconch shell, triton, blown at the end, used to summon people
Arosi ahuriconch, usually a Triton shell blown at the side; blown only on solemn occasions, e.g. at a death, or at feasts
Proto-Micronesian *tawuitriton or trumpet shell
Pohnpeian sewiconch shell, conch shell trumpet
Mokilese jowiconch shell
Chuukese sewitriton shell; trumpet made from triton shell
Puluwat hawiconch trumpet
Woleaian tawiiconch shell trumpet
Sonsorol-Tobi tauiconch shell
Sye n/tovuconch
Wayan tavuigastropod shellfish taxon; Pacific (or Triton’s) trumpet, Charonia tritonis, used as a horn; the shell of these animals
Fijian davuia large univalve shellfish, the trumpet shell or Triton, used as a horn or trumpet, chiefly on canoes

Note:   Also Cebuano tambúli ~ tambúliʔ ‘melongena, kind of conch; horn made from the horn of a water buffalo or a conch’, Malay buri ‘a trumpet’, Aua tauru ‘conch shell trumpet’ (expected **afui), Mbula twiiri ‘trumpet shell, Triton, a large sea shell which is blown as a horn for signalling’, Gilbertese tau ‘Triton conch, trumpet shell’, Mota tauwe ‘conch shell used as a trumpet’.

The conch shell trumpet is well-known in the Pacific, where it played an important traditional role in the launching of voyaging canoes, the calling of members of the village to ceremonies, providing an alert to imminent danger, etc. However, this reconstruction presents special problems, since its PMP status depends crucially on Tiruray (and the indirect support provided by the Palauan evidence for the doublet *tabuRiq). In addition, a number of languages in the Philippines reflect a word with irregular *R > l, as with the Cebuano form just cited or similar forms in other languages of the Philippines (see Note to *tabuRiq). These appear to be loanwords, although the usual appeal to Malay as a source language does not work well here. Given the limited set of forms that he compared, Dempwolff (1938) erroneously reconstructed *tam-buri ‘triton shell trumpet’. It is now clear that the rhotic in this form was *R, and that there is no comparative evidence for prenasalization of the medial stop. Both of these observations were first made for Proto-Oceanic *tapuRi by Ross (1988:147).

The limited pattern of survival of this form in both the Philippines and Indonesia suggests that it either disappeared among groups that moved inland to a montane environment where the conch was not easily obtained, or was replaced among lowlanders through contact-induced culture change. All in all the pattern of distribution for reflexes of PMP *tabuRi (and its doublet form *tabuRiq) suggests that survival was most strongly favored in areas of cultural conservatism, and disfavored where traditional practices either competed or conflicted with those introduced from outside, as among hispanized Filipinos, where the use of animal horns apparently came to be favored over shell trumpets, or among the peoples of western Indonesia, where overlays of Indian and Islamic cultural influence have altered many aspects of the traditional cultures of lowland groups.


*tabuRiq conch shell trumpet


PMP     *tabuRiq conch shell trumpet     [doublet: *tabuRi]

Palauan debuseʔconch shell; sound of conch shell; horn
Watubela tuwulikconch shell


POC     *tapuRiq conch shell trumpet

Kaiwa tavulkTriton shell (Ross 1988:147)

Note:   Also Tagalog tambúliʔ ‘a native horn, bugle or trumpet made of horn’, Mapun tabuliʔ ‘a kind of horn made from any large seashell or horn of an animal’; nabuliʔ ~ tabuliʔ-an ‘to blow a shell-type horn (as to warn or summon someone)’, Yakan tabuliʔ ‘triton, a big sea shell (used as a signal instrument in old times)’, Tausug tambuliʔ ‘chambered nautilus; a trumpet made of this shell’.


*tada natural cockspur


PMP     *tada natural cockspur (cf *tazi, artificial cockspur)     [disjunct: *tara]

Iban tadanatural spur of a cock
Simalur taraartificial cockspur
Mentawai taracockspur
Proto-Sangiric *tadacockspur
Bare'e tara-manucockspur
Tae' taranatural cockspur
  buku taraanklebone
Buginese tara-manuʔcockspur
Bimanese taracockspur

Note:   This comparison was first recognized in print by H. Kähler (1961). Mills (1973:894) tries unconvincingly to connect Buginese tara-manuʔ ‘cockspur’ with *taRaq ‘to hew, chop (wood)’.


*tadal to look upward; face upward


POC     *tadal to look upward; face upward

Duke of York ta-tadato look or face upwards
Manam tadato look up
  tádal-ito look up to somebody, something
Gedaged tadto look (upwards)
Gitua tadasupine
Cheke Holo tadalook up, turn face upwards
Bugotu tadato look up; up
  rei tadato lift up the eyes
  va-tadaraise up, set up, turn right way up; set one’s shield against the enemy
Nggela tandaup, upwards; face up
  tandal-agito put face up
  tanda-tandaface up; to look up


*ta(n)dem remember


PWMP     *ta(n)dem remember

Maranao tademmemory; recollect, remember
Malagasy tándrinaremembered

Note:   With root *-dem₂ ‘think, ponder, brood, remember’.


*tadtád chop up, mince


PPh     *tadtád chop up, mince

Ilokano tadtádto chop up, mince
  ma-tadtádto be cut into pieces
Ifugaw (Batad) tadtádfor someone to slash down a slender-stalked plant or tree, especially sugarcane, with a single slash using a bolo; for someone to chop meat into small pieces for cooking
Casiguran Dumagat tadtádto chop up; to mince (meat); to chop into pieces the limbs of trees which have been felled in a new swidden field (in preparation for burning the field)
Ibaloy tadtadact of cutting up meat into small pieces; deadfall trap: trap for large animals in which a heavy weight is arranged to fall on and kill or disable the prey
Kapampangan ta-tadtadchop up
Tagalog tadtádchopped to pieces; minced
  pa-nadtádchopping or mincing knife
  t<um>adtádto hack; to chop roughly into small pieces (for meat, vegetables, etc.)
Bikol tadtádchopped, minced; riddled, cut in many places; tattoo
  mag-tadtádto chop, mince
Romblomanon tadtadsomething is cut into pieces by someone
Masbatenyo mag-tadtádto chop
  tadtád-anchopping board
Aklanon tádtadto hack, hit repeatedly with a blade
Waray-Waray tadtád ~ pag-tadtádthe act of cutting or chopping something into smaller pieces
Hiligaynon tádtadto chop (as meat); to mutilate
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tadtadto chop up, as of vegetables


PPh     *t<in>adtád dish made of chopped meat or vegetables

Ilokano t<in>adtádminced meat, chopped up fish, etc.
Casiguran Dumagat t<in>adtádwas chopped up by someone
Ibaloy t<in>adtadsmall chunks of meat
Kapampangan tidtada delicacy made of chopped pig intestines


PPh     *tadtad-án chopping block, cutting board

Ibaloy tadtar-anto finish the cutting up process
Tagalog tadtar-ánchopping block
Bikol tadtad-ánto tattoo
Aklanon tadtar-ánchopping block, cutting board


PPh     *tadtad-én be chopped up or minced

Ilokano tadtad-énbe chopped up or minced
Ibaloy tadtar-ento cut, chop something into pieces; to cut on, draw blade across something with repeated motions (as in maliciously ruining the sleeve of a jacket); to cut up meat into small pieces --- an important step in butchering
Pangasinan tadtar-énto chop up
Tagalog tadtar-ínto hack; to chop roughly into small pieces (for meat, vegetables, etc.); to mince; to chop up into very small pieces
Bikol tadtad-ónto riddle; to cut in many places
Romblomanon tadtar-unbe cut into pieces
Masbatenyo tadtad-ónbe chopped, be sliced, be slashed, be cut
  tadtád-onsomething to be chopped
Hiligaynon tadtad-únto chop; to mutilate

Note:   Also Binukid getad ‘to cut, chop up (something into pieces).


*tadu beeswax


PWMP     *tadu beeswax

Bikol tárobee’s wax
  taró-onto wax with
Hanunóo tárubeeswax produced by the bee known as putyúkan (a honeybee, Apis sp.)
Cebuano tálutallow, the hard fat in animals, or the wax from beehives, used for making candles, soap, etc.
Binukid tadu ~ tarubeeswax, honeycomb
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tazuhoneycomb; beeswax; the preparation of beeswax and coconut oil which is put on the lips to make them shiny
Mansaka tarobeeswax
Tiruray tarewbeeswax; to apply beeswax to one’s lips, as by women to provide a base for lip dyes
Mongondow tayubeeswax
Gorontalo talubeeswax
Bare'e taruwax
Wolio tarubeeswax; candle

Note:   The form and gloss of the Cebuano word suggests borrowing, but this cannot be from Spanish, and the form and gloss in other languages suggests tht this is a native term.


*taduŋ sun hat, used to provide shade


PPh     *taduŋ sun hat, used to provide shade

Ifugaw taddóŋa large circular hat used as an umbrella, mostly by women when they are working in the rice fields, or in a sweet potato swidden
Mansaka taroŋto shade (as trees may shade plants)

Note:   With root *-duŋ ‘to shelter, protect’.


*taeb high tide (?)


PWMP     *taeb high tide (?)

Tagalog táibhigh tide
Bikol táʔobhigh tide
Hanunóo táʔubhigh tide
Palawan Batak táʔebsea, ocean; flood, high tide
Cebuano táʔubhigh tide
  taʔúb-unsea at high tide
Mongondow taabflood
Pendau taabhigh tide
Palauan dáobsea, ocean, saltwater

Note:   Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *ta( )eb ‘high tide; flood’.


*tagbák rotten, turned rancid or mildewed


PPh     *tagbák rotten, turned rancid or mildewed

Casiguran Dumagat tagbákold, rotten (of cloth, rattan)
Bikol tagbákrotten, rancid due to exposure to water or high humidity
  ma-tagbákto rot, to turn rancid
Maranao tagbakmildew


*tageRaŋ ribcage


PAN     *tageRaŋ ribcage

Pazeh takaxaŋribs
Puyuma tageraŋchest
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) tahraŋchest, breast
Itbayaten tagraŋrib
Bontok tadláŋthe ribs of the body
Kankanaey tadláŋrib
Ifugaw tagláŋribs; side of a human chest (what is enclosed by the ribs)
Ifugaw (Batad) tagláŋribcage of a person or animal; i.e. the upper backbone and the ribs
Pangasinan tagláŋrib, frame
Sambal (Botolan) tagyáŋrib
Kapampangan tagyáŋrib
Hanunóo tagyáŋrib
Miri tagréŋribs
Kenyah (Long Anap) tegaaŋribs
Kiput təgəriəribs

Note:   Also Isneg taʔgāŋ ‘ribs’, Aborlan Tagbanwa takgaŋ ‘hard ribs’ (saŋgaŋɨn ‘soft ribs’), Tombonuwo tikogaŋ, Labuk-Kinabatangan Eastern Kadazan tikagaŋ, Kelabit segeraŋ ‘ribs’. The last three forms imply an etymon *tigeRaŋ, with prepenultimate *i, but this is otherwise unknown.


*tagtág to distribute, pass out shares of food


PPh     *tagtág to distribute, pass out shares of food

Isneg tagtāgportions of rice and meat distributed to guests at a solemn sacrifice
Casiguran Dumagat tagtágto scatter, to toss (of the tossing of bundles of rice seedlings througout the paddy in preparation for transplanting); to pass out food from house to house
Bikol mag-tagtágto share something out; to divide an inheritance among


*tahep-i to winnow


PMP     *tahep-i₁ to winnow

Cebuano táphiwinnow it!
Malay tampito winnow
Javanese tapito winnow
Sasak tampiʔto winnow
Yamdena tafito winnow
Buruese tapi-hto winnow

Note:   For details of the development of this morphologically complex form in the languages of the central Philippines cf. Zorc (1977). It is worth noting that Sasak tampiʔ shows both secondary prenasalization and a secondary final glottal stop. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *tapi ‘separate chaff from grain (= winnow)’, but there are various problems with his proposed cognate set.


*tahúl to howl, of a dog


PPh     *tahúl to howl, of a dog     [disjunct: *taqúl]

Ilokano ag-taúlto bark
  man-naulprone to barking; kind of small black bird that cries at night
  taul-anto bark at
Bikol mag-tahólto bark, bay, howl, whine (dogs)


*tai ñamuk mosquito net


POC     *tai ñamuk mosquito net     [doublet: *tau ñamuk]

Marshallese taiṇaṃmosquito net
Tongan tainamumosquito net
Futunan tainamumosquito net
Anuta tainamumosquito net
Rarotongan tai-namuliterally means, the entangler of mosquitoes, or, that which catches mosquitoes; a mosquito net

Note:   Also Pohnpeian tein amwise, Mokilese sei, Samoan taʔinamu ‘mosquito net’.


*tail tree with fiber used to make fish nets


POC     *tail tree with fiber used to make fish nets

Loniu taycatch fish
Bipi taycatch fish with a net
Motu taia tree the inner bark of which is used for rope-making (Hibiscus tiliaceus)
Roviana tailifishline formerly made from the bark of the pusi (Lyonsia sp.)

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*taka hesitate, not able to act


PPh     *taka hesitate, not able to act

Ilokano takáhesitation
  ag-takáto hesitate, vacillate
Casiguran Dumagat takáto be amazed, to be astonished
Bikol mag-tákato not have the nerve to speak to someone or to appear before them
Mansaka ma-takalazy


*takad step on; leave footprint


PPh     *takad step on; leave footprint

Itbayaten takadfootprint
  om-takadto step on, tread on
  ta-takadsole of foot
  takad-an ~ takar-anto step on
Ibatan takadfootprint, track
Tagalog takádstamping of feet in anger or protest
Cebuano takádto step on a line or specific area
  takd-án-anin games, the line on which one steps at the start or any phase of the game


*takál marine mollusc sp.


PPh     *takál marine mollusc sp.

Casiguran Dumagat takálspecies of edible sea cockle shell, a snail: Frogum unedo
Bikol takálclam sp.


*tákaŋ spread wide open


PPh     *tákaŋ spread wide open

Bontok tákaŋto open one’s mouth
Kankanaey men-tákaŋto gape, to be open (applied to either earth or persons)
Ifugaw tákaŋgape, act of gaping; not used in the sense of yawning
  tákaŋ-na“its gape”, i.e. the gape between the odd and even threads through which the weaver can shoot the shuttle
Ibaloy takaŋspread apart
  tekaŋ-ento spread, force something apart to make a space between
Aklanon tákaŋto totter, half walk (said of baby only)
Cebuano tákaŋto step across; a step, stride
Mansaka takaŋto step up onto (as a ladder or a branch)
Mongondow taŋkaŋbend or curve away from one another, of legs or knees

Note:   Also Mansaka taklaŋ ‘to step onto a ladder’. With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.


*ta(ŋ)kas₁ agile, quick, swift, energetic


PMP     *ta(ŋ)kas agile, quick, swift, energetic

Mapun taŋkasfast, faster
  pa-taŋkasto go faster, to speed up
  ka-taŋkas-anto be personally affected by the speed of something or someone; to think that something or someone is fast
Ida'an Begak takas-takashurry up
Javanese taŋkasswift-moving
Ngadha tika-takanimble, agile, quick

Note:   With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile, energetic’.


*takaw to retreat, run from battle


PWMP     *takaw₂ to retreat, run from battle

Maranao takawto retreat; cowardly
Kenyah takawto escape; to free
Kayan takawto be released, to be set free; to escape, to flee away


*ta(ŋ)keb₁ cover, overlapping part


PWMP     *ta(ŋ)keb cover, overlapping part

Maranao takebeyelid
Sundanese taŋkeb-anmoveable corner of smoke-vent in roof
Javanese taŋkeboverlapping portion of a double-breasted jacket
Balinese taŋkebcover up (with a basket, etc.)

Note:   With root *-keb₁ ‘cover’.


*takéd tie down, fasten by binding


PPh     *takéd tie down, fasten by binding

Isneg takádthe ties of the flooring; strips of rattan
Casiguran Dumagat takə́da bamboo floor tied down with rattan (in contrast to being nailed down)
Bikol mag-takódto fasten, bind
Cebuano takúdto attach something to something else, put it right next to something so that it touches; harness an animal, hitch it for work


PPh     *i-takéd to bind, to fasten tightly by tying

Bontok i-takédto bind, as in repairing the broken rattan rim of a basket; to secure; to fasten; anything used, as a vine or a rattan for such a purpose
Kankanaey i-takédto bind, to fasten, to tie, to attach, to fix, to link; to strap
Bikol i-takódto fasten or bind with


*taked₁ back of leg


PWMP     *taked₁ back of leg

Casiguran Dumagat tikedfoot, leg; footprints
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) takɨdheel
Blaan (Sarangani) takadheel
Kelabit takedpopliteal area, back of knee
Kenyah (Long Anap) taketleg, foot

Note:   Also Rungus Dusun hakod ‘leg’, Bisaya (Limbang) akod ‘back part of heel’. Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *taked, *tiNked ‘heel’.


*taked₂ climb


PWMP     *taked₂ climb

Isneg taŋkād (length unexpl.)climb
Bikol tukád <Mgo uphill
Abai Sembuak nakodto climb (a tree)
Kenyah (Long Wat) takətanything used to climb
Kayan (Uma Juman) takəranything used to climb
Gorontalo taʔoduclimb

Note:   Also Bontok tíkid ‘climb a trail’. Zorc (1971) posits PPh *taked ‘climb a hill’.


*takem tightly capped


PPh     *takem tightly capped

Casiguran Dumagat takə́mtightly hooked, locked, tightly closed, snug
Bikol (Miraya dialects) mag-takómto cap, close tightly; to seal

Note:   Also Bikol mag-takdóm ‘to cap, close tightly’, Cebuano takɁúm ‘close the mouth or lips’.


*takep to fold over, double


PWMP     *takep to fold over, double

Maranao takepdouble, multiply
Tiruray takefto double something, make it twice as much
Balinese takepbe folded over, closed

Note:   With root *-kep₁ ‘fold, double over’.


*takes to wrap around


PAN     *takes to wrap around

Amis takecto embrace, to hold in one’s arms
Mansaka takusto tie around the waist, as a bolo

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’. Possibly a convergent innovation.


*ta(ŋ)ket adhere, stick to


PWMP     *ta(ŋ)ket adhere, stick to

Sasak taŋketcompanion
Bare'e takastick, adhere, cling fast to something, attach oneself to

Note:   With root *-keC ‘adhesive, sticky’.


*takəR to roof a house


PMP     *takəR to roof a house

Isneg tákubthe skin of a drum (usually deerskin, but the skin of dogs, cows and horses also serve the purpose)
  takkúbto cover
Tagalog tákoba thin covering, surface covering
Bikol takóbeyelid
Maranao takobeyelid
Tiruray tagubto enclose oneself completely inside one’s sarong, as when very cold
Kelabit takuba patch, pocket
  nakubto patch, as torn clothing
Malagasy tákotrathe lid of a cooking pot
Iban taŋkupcover with something hollow (as a plate with a basin); to match, correspond, fit
Malay taŋkupto capture under a hollow (as a dog catching flies in his mouth, a man putting a tumbler over an insect or slapping the hollow of his palm over it; also of hollow covers to apertures, as of hatch-covers in boats, and pieces over the bow and stern of a Malay canoe
  bər-taŋkupto close over; to fold over
Gorontalo taʔubucover for food
Pendau taŋkubto close or cover something


PWMP     *takub-an (gloss uncertain)

Isneg takkub-anto cover
Tiruray tagub-ana scabbard
Malagasy takóf-anabe covered with a lid


PMP     *takub-takub eyelid

Bikol takób-takóbeyelid
Fijian daku-daku ni matathe upper eyelid

Note:   Also Binukid taklub ‘cover something with a lid’. Dempwolff (1938) also included Fijian taku ‘the hawksbill turtle and its shell’, Futunan takū ‘flat scutes of the carapace of a turtle’. However, the Fijian term appears to refer primarily to the animal, and the Futunan term has unexplained length in the last vowel. The agreement of Bikol takób-takób with Fijian daku-daku ni mata may be a product of convergence. With root *-kub₁ ‘cover’.


*takip a cover; to cover


PPh     *takip a cover; to cover

Ilokano tákipa cover
  pag-takíp-ento cover, unite, join; overlap
Mansaka takipcover (as of a kettle)


*taktak to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something


PWMP     *taktak to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something

Yami taktakto sprinkle, to water
Itbayaten taktakemptying out of contents
  ma-taktakto pour water on (as in washing)
  taktak-ento empty out the contents of something
Tagalog taktákact of shaking out the contents of a container by pounding the open mouth against some hard object
Bikol mag-taktákto tap, rap; to dislodge something by tapping or rapping
Cebuano taktákfor small things or something fastened or stuck to something to detach and drop; cause to drop; have a miscarriage
Maranao tatakto drop, fall, let fall, like fruits
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taktakof an object or a container with a hole in it, to slam it down on something or shake it in order to dislodge something inside
Karo Batak taktakto drip, drop down
Toba Batak taktakfalling down of many things (as leaves or fruits)


*taku quick, rapid


POC     *taku quick, rapid

Motu takuquickly, suddenly
  mase takuto die suddenly or without noise
  taku-taku tau-naa hasty, impulsive man, one who rushes off without waiting to hear the whole story
Nggela takuto take quick, short steps; talkative

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*takup (or takequp) cover, enclose


PWMP     *takup (or takequp) cover, enclose

Ilokano takúpto patch, mend by patching
Cebuano takúpshutter
  takʔupclose, be closed
Mansaka takupto close; to shut
Melanau (Mukah) takuplid, cover
Malay taŋkupcapture under a hollow
Tae' takoʔcup the two hands together to hold something

Note:   With root *-kup ‘enclose, cover’.


*takut fear


PAN     *takut fear

Siraya takotfear
Ifugaw tákutfear; to fear; to frighten somebody
Ibaloy takotfear for one’s bodily safety
Pangasinan takótfear
  an-takotshy, timid
Kapampangan tákutfear
Tagalog tákotfear
  takótafraid, frightened, feeling fear; nervous, timid, tremulous
  takót na takótvery frightened; panic-stricken; demoralized by fear
Bikol tákotfear
Lun Dayeh tootfear, fright
  ŋe-tootto scare or frighten someone
Kelabit taʔutfear
Murik takutfear; afraid
Kayan takutbe afraid of, in fear of; be frightened by
Kayan (Uma Juman) takutfear; afraid
Malagasy táhotrafear, dread, horror, terror
Malay takutfear
Simalur mana-taʔudto frighten
  taʔut-ito frighten
Toba Batak tahutfear, fright; dread; anxiety
Old Javanese takutfear
Balinese takutfear; to fear, be afraid of
Sasak takutbe afraid
Sangir takuʔfear, dread
Banggai takutfear
  maŋa-takutto frighten
Tae' takuʔto fear
Palauan dáktfear, awe
Bimanese dahufear; afraid
Komodo n-dahuʔafraid
Lamaholot takutbe afraid
Solorese takutfear, be afraid


PMP     *ka-takut (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog ka-tákut-tákotterrible, terrifying
Old Javanese ka-takutfear; object of fear
Tae' ka-takuʔbe afraid of something
Palauan ke-dáktbe afraid of each other
Bimanese ka-dahuto frighten

Note:   Bimanese ka-dahu may reflect *paka-takut, and it is possible that the prefixed element in the other forms cited together here actually has disparate sources.


PAN     *ma-takut fearful, afraid

Siraya ma-takotfear
Ibaloy ma-tekotinclined to fear, fearful
Pangasinan ma-takótafraid
Kapampangan ma-tákutafraid
Tagalog ma-tákotafraid, scared; apprehensive, worried or anxious
Bikol ma-tákotto be afraid, frightened, jittery, nervous, panicky, scared
Lun Dayeh me-tootafraid, have fear
Kelabit me-taʔutto frighten, make afraid
Malagasy ma-táhotrato dread, fear, be afraid
Simalur ma-taʔudanxious, afraid
Toba Batak ma-tahutto fear, be afraid
Sangir ma-takuʔto fear, be afraid
  ma-ma-takuʔto frighten
Banggai ma-takutafraid, be afraid
Tae' ma-takuʔafraid, frightened
Palauan me-dáktto fear, be afraid of
Bimanese dahuto fear, be afraid
Kambera mandautato fear, be afraid of
Hawu medaʔuto fear, be afraid
Leti mtatuto fear, be afraid
Wetan mtaatato be afraid of
Watubela ma-takutto fear, be afraid
Asilulu mataʔuto fear, be afraid
Soboyo mantakuto fear, be afraid
Numfor mkākto fear, be afraid


POC     *matakut fear; fearful, afraid

Seimat ma-mataafraid
Wuvulu maʔauafraid
Yapese daguwfear
Mussau ma-matautuafraid
Amara motoufear
Lakalai matauafraid
Mbula motobe afraid, fear
  pa-motofrighten someone
Gitua mataguzi ~ mataguzato fear, be afraid
Tawala matoutato fear, be frightened
Dobuan matautaafraid
Molima matautaafraid
Tubetube mataus-istate of being afraid
Selau matutafraid, frightened
  asana a mat-matutperson who takes fright easily; coward
Roviana matagutuafraid, fearful
Eddystone/Mandegusu matatuto fear, be afraid
Bugotu mataguto fear, be afraid
Nggela mataguto fear, be afraid
  matagu-nito be afraid of
  matagu-poua coward
Kwaio maʔuafraid; shy
  faʔa-maʔu-ato frighten
  maʔu-niabe afraid of
Lau mouto fear, be afraid
  mou-taiafraid, afraid of
'Āre'āre maʔuto be afraid
  maʔu-niato fear, be afraid of
Sa'a mäʔuto fear, be afraid
  mäʔu-ta-the fear of (something)
Gilbertese maakufear, dread, terror, fright, dismay
Pohnpeian masakbe afraid of, to fear
Chuukese mésék(ú)to be afraid
Puluwat mehak(úw)to be afraid; to be fearsome
Woleaian metag(iu)to be afraid, scared of
Mota matagutbe afraid of
  matag-tagto fear (rare, but true Mota word)
Northeast Ambae matakufear
Raga mataxufear
Nasarian i-metaktakfear
Nakanamanga matakufear
Anejom e-mtaγfear
Wayan matakube afraid, frightened, fearful; fear, fright
  mataku-cifear something, be afraid or frightened of something
  mata-matakube always afraid, timid, cowardly
Niue matakuto fear, be afraid
  mataku-takufear (n.); to fear, be nervous
  mataku-taku-inafeared, dreaded; frightened
Samoan mataʔuto fear, hold in awe
  mataʔu-tiabe dreadful, awful; be terrible, fearful
Tuvaluan matakuafraid
Kapingamarangi madagufear, be afraid; be shy; shyness
  madagu-dagufear, be afraid
Nukuoro madaguafraid, scared
  madagu-dagucowardly (concerning others or supernaturals)
Rennellese matakuto be afraid, cowardly; to fear
  mataku-tiato be dangerous, feared
  mataku-takuto be afraid, cowardly
Anuta matakuto be afraid, frightened; fear
Rarotongan matakufear, dread, terror; afraid, timid, struck with fear; undecided; to be afraid, timid or doubtful
  mataku-takuto be in the state or condition of being afraid, timid; to entertain fear; to be possessed of forebodings; to hesitate
Maori matakuto be afraid; fearful, afraid; inspiring fear; incompatible; averse
  mataku-riabe feared
Hawaiian makaʔufear; frightened, afraid


PWMP     *ma-nakut (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog ma-nákotto scare people, to intimidate, to threaten with harm
Malay me-nakutbe in a state of fear


PWMP     *pa-takut to frighten, make afraid

Kelabit pe-taʔutto frighten, make afraid
Sasak pe-takutcausing fear, arousing fear

Note:   This form of the causative prefix with *takut is clearly in competition with the causative of stative verbs, *paka-. It is possible that the Kelabit and Sasak forms given here are historically secondary reformations from *paka-takut.


PMP     *paka-takut to frighten, cause to fear

Malagasy faha-tahor-anafear, dread
Sangir ma-paka-takuʔto frighten, incite fear
Tae' paka-takuʔto frighten
Soboyo paka-takufrightened
Wayan vaka-matakube fearsome, frightening, terrifying; be dreadful, terribly bad, wicked; be dangerous; be formidable, powerful, commanding respect
Niue faka-mataku-takuto frighten
Samoan faʔa-mataʔuto frighten, threaten
Tuvaluan faka-matakudangerous
Rennellese haka-matakuto frighten, scare; to be amazing, terrifying, dangerous, surprising
Hawaiian hoʔo-makaʔuto frighten, scare, terrify, make afraid; to pretend fear


PWMP     *pa-nakut provoke fear (?)

Tagalog pa-nákotscarecrow
Malay pe-nakutcoward
Toba Batak pa-nahutprovoke fear
Sasak pe-nakutprecipitating fear


PWMP     *ka-takut-an be struck by fear; a state of fear or worry

Kapampangan ka-takut-anfear
Tagalog ka-takut-anto fear or be afraid of something or someone; a state of being afraid; fear, dread
Malagasy ha-tahor-anafear, dread
Malay ke-takut-anpanic
Bahasa Indonesia ke-takut-ana state of fear; a feeling of fear; a condition of fear; hesitation; worry; anxiety; be struck by fear
Tae' ka-ma-takur-anbe afraid; fear

Note:   The Tae' form shows that some of these constructions may have been innovated in the separate histories of the languages in which they are found, since in at least this case the circumfixation of ka- -an took place only after prefixation with ma-.


PMP     *t<um>akut become afraid

Tagalog t<um>ákotto frighten, to alarm, to scare
Kelabit t<em>aʔutto seem afraid
Acehnese t<eum>akōtfrightened, afraid, anxious about
Kemak t<em>autto fear


PWMP     *takut-an easily frightened, cowardly

Ibaloy tekot-anto fear something (as a current in trying to cross a river)
Bahasa Indonesia takut-takut-aneasily startled; afraid of things; shy; hesitant
Sangir takut-aŋtimid, frightened (said, for example, of a child, and thus not a scornful term)
Tae' takur-ancowardly


PWMP     *takut-en to frighten someone

Pangasinan takot-ento frighten
Tagalog takut-ínto frighten, to make afraid, to scare; to intimidate; to bluff; to threaten
Bikol ta-takt-ónafraid, fearful, frightened, jittery, nervous, panicky; meek, timid
  pa-takút-onto make someone afraid, to intimidate, menace, scare, terrify
Toba Batak tahut-onto fear, be afraid
Old Javanese takut-takut-enin the grip of fear
Sasak takut-into frighten someone

Note:   Also Saisiyat tikot ‘fear’, Ibaloy taʔkot ‘fear’, me-taʔkot-an ‘to equip a ricefield with scare devices’, Sasak takut-aŋ ‘be afraid of something’, Buli tjait ‘fear’, am-tjait ‘to fear’, Manam matakur ‘to fear, be afraid of’.

Siraya takot is given here as a probable base, given the attested form matakot ‘fear’, the the clear evidence for *ma-takut in many other languages. It is clear that the morpheme boundary in *ma-takut had already been lost in POc, and perhaps earlier, as suggested by nearly all known reflexes in eastern Indonesia. This raises questions about the position of Bimanese and Yapese, both of which reflect *takut as an independent base.


*talaba kind of shellfish, probably oyster


PPh     *talaba kind of shellfish, probably oyster

Yami talavatype of shellfish: Saccostrea mordax
Ilokano talabákind of large oyster
Tagalog talabáoyster
  ma-nalabáto gather oysters
  tálaba-h-anoyster bed
Bikol talabáoyster
  paŋ-talaba-óngo in search of oysters
Aklanon taeabáoyster
Cebuano talabákind of oyster
Maranao talababarnacle


*talakituk kind of marine fish


PPh     *talakituk kind of marine fish

Ilokano talakítokkind of small, speckled marine fish with dark meat, Caranx sp.
Tagalog talakitoka species of cavalla fish
Cebuano talakítukname given to jacks and other good-sized carangoid fish
Mansaka tarakitokkind of saltwater fish (white and medium-sized, 30 to 60 cm. in length and 20 cm. in width, having no scales)


*talaŋ-talaŋ a marine fish: probably the horse mackerel


PWMP     *talaŋ-talaŋ a marine fish: probably the horse mackerel

Malay ikan talaŋhorse mackerel: generic for large species of Chorinemus, the small or young being seliap
Simalur talaŋ-talaŋkind of fish
Nias tala-talakind of fish
Sasak talaŋname of a sea fish
Sangir talaŋkind of fish; when smoked it can be kept for a long time
Makasarese talaŋ-talaŋmiddle growth stage of the lari (sea fish with five stripes)

Note:   Some languages support the reconstruction of a simple base *talaŋ, and others the reduplicated base *talaŋ-talaŋ. I assume that the latter was original, and has been shortened in languages that reflect the simple base.


*talaq the morning (evening) star: Venus


PMP     *talaq the morning (evening) star: Venus     [doublet: *mantalaq]

Tagalog tálaʔbright star, planet
Mansaka bonta-taraʔmorning star
Bimanese ntarastar
Manggarai ntalastar
Ngadha dalastar
Sika dalastar
Solorese dalastar

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) gives *(t)ala(q) ‘star’, but his cognate set is weak.


*talas break, burst


PMP     *talas break, burst

Maranao talasbreak, burst
Buli talasburst, crack


*talaw timid, fearful; coward


PAN     *talaw timid, fearful; coward

Amis talawbe afraid, fear (generic term)
  pa-talawto threaten
Thao ka-talawbe cool toward someone, not feel friendly impulses toward a person
  pia-tarawbehave in an unfriendly manner
Itbayaten taxawcowardliness
  ma-taxawcoward, cowardly
Ilokano ag-tálawflee, run away, hasten off, escape
Isneg mag-tálawrun away, escape, slip off, vanish
Bikol taláwcowardly, yellow, chicken; a coward
Cebuano tálawback off, be afraid to do something for lacking nerve
Maranao talawcoward
Mansaka tarawcowardly
Kadazan Dusun t-um-ahoubecome a coward
Moken talauashamed, shy


PAN     *ma-talaw fearful, cowardly

Amis ma-talawafraid
Thao ma-talawbe unfriendly, cool or distant toward others
Ilokano ma-tálawsuccumb, sink down, die, grow faint
Mongondow mo-talowfaint-hearted, cowardly

Note:   Mills (1975:848) assigns Mongondow talow to PAn *talu ‘defeated, overcome’. While *talu can be attributed to PMP (Tagalog tálo ‘surpassed, defeated’, Karo Batak, Old Javanese talu ‘defeated’, Kambera talu ‘defeat’) it evidently was distinct -- both phonologically and semantically -- from *talaw.


*tales taro: Colocasia esculenta


PMP     *tales taro: Colocasia esculenta

Hanunóo tálusa taro with yellowing leaves
Palawan Batak tälästaro (Revel-Macdonald 1979:53)
Nias talõa tuber: Caladium
Minangkabau talasa cultivated yam, Colocasia antiquorum
Rejang taleusa root crop: Colocasia antiquorum
Sundanese taleuskind of tuber
Old Javanese talestaro, Colocasia antiquorum
  pa-tales-antaro field or garden
Javanese talestaro
  naleshaving the texture of cooked taro (said of rice that is gummy from being cooked in too much water)
Palauan dáittaro (plant)
Rotinese talekind of water plant with large leaves (Jonker 1908)
  taletaro; icon for a male person (Fox 1993)
  ta-taleskind of water plant with large leaves; Dengka dialect (Jonker 1908)
Tetun talasan aroid plant with highly-prized edible tubers


POC     *talos taro: Colocasia esculenta

Motu taloa vegetable: Arum esculentum
Marovo talotaro
Kwaio alotaro (generic); unit of 100 taro for a feast
  alo-nataro corm
Lau alotaro
Toqabaqita alotaro (plant and corm)
'Āre'āre ārotaro (several varieties)
Arosi aroa name for taro in some names of varieties
Bauro arotaro
V'ënen Taut tarotaro
Paamese tārotaro
Makatea tarotaro
Nakanamanga na-taletaro
Sye n/taltaro
Fijian dalothe taro plant, much used as a food, Colocasia esculenta
Tongan talotaro, kind of arum with edible tuberous root, Caladium esculentum
Niue talothe taro plant (Colocasia esculenta). Five groups are recognized, each with many varieties, the groups being distinguished according to differences in color and the marking of the petioles, or leaf stalks
Futunan talotaro (generic): Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott var. antiquorum Schott
Samoan talotaro, a cultivated plant (Colocasia sp.), the corm of which is one of the most important sources of food
  talo-abe plentiful in taro
Tuvaluan talotaro, a cultivated plant, Colocasia esculenta
Nukuoro daloplant sp.: taro (Colocasia esculenta), also the corm of this plant
Rennellese tagotaro, Colocasia esculenta (one of the most important foods, the gift of the god Tupuimatangi)
Anuta tarotaro, Colocasia esculenta
Rarotongan taroan esculent tuber which is much cultivated for food purposes and of which there are several varieties: Colocasia esculenta
Maori taroColocasia antiquorum, a plant cultivated for food
Hawaiian kalotaro (Colocasia esculenta), a kind of aroid cultivated since ancient times for food… In Hawaii taro has been the staple from earliest times to the present, and its cultivation developed greatly, including more than 300 forms

Note:   Also Tontemboan taleʔColocasia antiquorum, used as pig fodder’, Roviana talo ‘taro: Colocasia antiquorum’ (one of the staple foods of the Roviana people, with at least 18 varieties), Rotuman tar-kura ‘kind of taro’, tar-tea ‘kind of taro’ (< Polynesian). This form has a very wide, but thin distribution, being richly attested in Sumatra and Java, the southeast Solomons, central and southern Vanuaut, and Central Pacific languages, but it is rare elsewhere. Although Colocasia species are of central importance in the diet of Polynesian peoples, it is clear that this tuber is of only marginal dietary significance in AN-speaking societies that cultivate rice. It therefore seems likely that it was also a minor food item in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian society that came to achieve greater importance in some areas once rice cultivation was lost. The Roviana form is regarded as irregular, since this language normally retains final consonants, and we would therefore expect **taloso; at the same time this raises the question whether the POc form should be *talos or *talo.


*tali to bend, coil or wind up


POC     *tali₂ to bend, coil or wind up

Gedaged talito bend (straight or round), as in bending a tortoise shell into a circle
Mbula -talto coil up, wind something thick around something else (used of cane and bigger things)
  tal-talto wind up
Gitua talto coil, put around
Lau alito twine round, encircle; to surround; to coil a rope, wind a line; to curl up like a dog
Toqabaqita alibe curved into a circle; have the shape of a circle (complete or incomplete)
Arosi arito fold; to plait; to wind up, make a noose; to bend, of a string or creeper; to lie curled up like a dog or snake


*tali tali plant sp.


PWMP     *tali tali plant sp.

Bahasa Indonesia tali taliplant with beautiful blossom: Quamaclit pennata
Sangir tali-talikind of edible sea plant


*taliŋa kind of tree fungus


PMP     *taliŋa₂ kind of tree fungus

Itbayaten taliŋaedible tree fungus
  kayuhtree, wood
  taliŋa nu kayuhsp. of fungus
Isneg talíŋaear
  danāgthin and filthy spirits. Those who inhabit a balísi (Ficus indica) tree affect with fever or deafness anybody who dares throw stones at their abode
  talíŋa danāgkind of large bracket fungus
Nias taliŋaear
  oroname of a spirit
  taliŋa-orokind of mushroom
Tae' taliŋa balao(lit. 'rat's ear') kind of fungus that grows on the underside of a decayed bamboo betuŋ
Seimat taxiŋear
  paximalevolent bush spirit with visible, humanlike body
  taxiŋ i paximushroom
Nggela taliŋafungus, mushrooms on mbiluma tree
Sa'a äliŋelarge fungi, some edible, growing on logs
Chuukese seniŋe-n soomáany of a large number of fungi ("ghost's or spirit's ear") such as Auricularia, Ganoderma tropicum, etc.
Puluwat háliŋear, earlobe
  hoomághost, bad ghost of the dead; malevolent spirit (feared, as they are believed to devour humans)
  háliŋá-n hoomátree fungus, mushroom
Woleaian taliŋear
  pachthunder, lightning
Rotuman faliaŋ ne ʔatuatoadstool of fungus, lit. "ghost's ear"
Samoan taliŋaear; name given to several types of fungus, including jew's-ear,
  taliŋa-ʔimoa(lit. "rat's ear") sp. fungus

Note:   Also Paiwan ka-tsaluŋa ‘half-moon-shaped tree-fungus (grows in tiers)’, Chamorro talaŋa ‘ear’, hayu ‘stick, wood’, talaŋa hayu ‘type of fungus, dark brownish and quite slippery when wet, usually attaches to decayed wood and looks just like the ear of people’. This item clearly is identical with Dempwolff's (1934-38) *taliŋa ‘ear’, but various compounds probably existed in PMP which indicated the widespread association of at least some types of mushrooms with ghost on the one hand, and with thunder or lightning on the other (see, for example, Lévi-Strauss 1976).


*talisay a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa


PMP     *talisay a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa

Tagalog talisaya species of shade tree: Terminalia catappa
Aklanon talísaytree with edible nut: Terminalia catappa L.
Cebuano talísaykind of large tree similar to an almond tree, growing by the seashore bearing edible nuts: Terminalia catappa
Maranao talisaya shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Subanon tolisoya shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Proto-Sangiric *talisaytree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa L.
Chamorro talisaya tree that bears edible nuts, the Indian almond: Terminalia catappa


POC     *talise₁ a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa

Lou telisa shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Penchal ralisa shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Ere dalisa shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Leipon ndelisa shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Bipi dalisa shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Seimat talila shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Wuvulu aliea shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Mendak talizaa shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Tolai taliaalmond-bearing tree: Terminalia litoralis
Vitu taðile <MTerminalia sp.
Kove talizeTerminalia sp.
Wogeo selite <Ma shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Manam taile <Ma shore tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Roviana ta-talisea tree that bears a fine almond-like edible nut: ‘Terminalia catappa’
Eddystone/Mandegusu talisea variety of wood used in making some of the strong structural parts of a canoe
Nggela talihea tree: Terminalia catappa L.
Sa'a älitea tree with edible nut: Terminalia catappa
Arosi aritea tree of a semi-sacred character: Terminalia catappa
Tongan teliekind of tree somewhat resembling an oak in appearance, but bearing almond-like fruit: Terminalia sp.
Niue teliea large spreading tree that has autumn-tinted leaves at certain times of year: Terminalia catappa
Samoan talielarge tree growing near the coast, with strong timber used for houses, canoes, and gongs, the tropical almond: Terminalia catappa
Tuvaluan talietree species: Terminalia samoensis
Rennellese tagiea tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa L.

Note:   This comparison has an unusual distribution, being found widely in the central and southern Philippines, in Chamorro, and in Oceanic languages, but without known reflexes in insular Southeast Asia south of the Philippines. It is also noteworthy in the relatively large number of languages that show metathesis, whether of *t and *s (Wogeo, Mota), *l and *s (Vitu), or *l and *i (Manam).


*talise crab sp.


POC     *talise₂ crab sp.

Roviana ta-talisea variety of crab (dark carapace with 6 or 7 white spots)
Rennellese tagiea land crab: Cardisoma hirtipes Dana

Note:   This comparison seems clearly to be the same form as PMP *talisay, POc *talise₁ ‘a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa’. However, its distinct meaning justified a separate lexical entry.


*taliuk turn, go around


PAN     *taliuk turn, go around

Amis taliyokperimeter, area around the outside; go around
Cebuano taliyukturn the body around

Note:   This item may contain a fossilized prefix *ta-.


*taltal hit, pound, crush


PWMP     *taltal hit, pound, crush

Ilokano taltálto crush, bray, comminute
Isneg taltālto crush
Toba Batak taltalhit, beat, hack
Balinese taltalhit repeatedly


*talu shout at


PWMP     *talu shout at

Tagalog mag-táloto engage in debate with each other (Panganiban 1966)
Maranao talocall
Iban taloshout at or two (Scott 1956)


*taluk young plant shoot


PMP     *taluk young plant shoot     [doublet: *taruk]

Casiguran Dumagat talúkwet rice seedlings
Hanunóo táluksprout, shoot (to be transplanted); transplanting
Manggarai talokyoung bamboo


*talukaeb eyelid


PPh     *talukaeb eyelid

Ilokano talukabeyelid; carapace of crabs
Mansaka tarokaobeyelid

Note:   Also Pangasinan talókap ‘eyelid’.


*taluki kind of fabric (silk?)


PMP     *taluki kind of fabric (silk?)

Ilokano talóki(obs.) silk of one piece
Old Javanese talukia particular kind of fabric (perhaps muslin)
Balinese talukikind of batik
Kambera talukikind of silk used as a veil

Note:   Also Sangir talukeʔ ‘kind of weaving motif’. This item may be a Chinese loan, but if so, its etymology remains unclear.


*taluktuk hummock, small rise of land


PPh     *taluktuk hummock, small rise of land

Ilokano talukátokhummock; ground over a flooded area
Mansaka taroktoksummit; top (as of a mountain)

Note:   Ilokano shows an excrescent medial vowel which bears the primary stress, as in PWMP *tawtaw ‘lost, astray’, but Ilokano mai-tawátaw ‘be lost, stray, wander’.


*tama₁ appropriate, suitable, right; fit together; hit the mark


PAN     *tama₁ appropriate, suitable, right; fit together; hit the mark     [disjunct: *tamaq₁]

Amis tamato find; to be right; to hit on target
Ilokano t<um>ámato hit with a missile; hit a target
  mai-támato happen at a convenient time; coincide
Casiguran Dumagat támaright, correct, good, accurate, exact
  məg-tamato get a good yield from a rice harvest
  pa-tama-ento make right, to correct
Ibaloy tama-anto hit on, especially of something done timely, fortuitously (as selling one’s vegetables when the price is high; or hitting on the ‘heart of the matter’); such a fortuitous happening, as with gold strikes
Toba Batak tamasuitable, appropriate
Old Javanese ka-tama-nstruck, hit by
Javanese ke-tama-nto get struck
  ke-tama-n larato get sick, to catch a disease
  ke-tama-n asmarato fall in love at first sight
  namato strike
Tae' si-tamaget along, be well-disposed toward one another; make peace, be reconciled
Rotinese tamafit together well (as planks that are joined)


*tama₂ enter, penetrate; bold, of persons


PMP     *tama₂ enter, penetrate; bold, of persons     [disjunct: *tamaq₂]

Kayan tamaʔthe act of sexual intercourse
  namaʔthe male act of sexual intercourse
Malagasy tamipenetrated, entered, appearing; to be at hand
  tami tranoburglary (‘enter house’)
  mi-tamibe fierce, rush into danger, or to an attack
  ma-namito attack (a town, etc.), to penetrate into a town
  tami-nato be attacked in front
Old Javanese tamato enter, penetrate; to have penetrated into, mastered thoroughly, accomplished in
  t<um>amato enter, set foot in, appear in; to penetrate as far as (of weapons); to hit
Balinese tamabe ready, be on hand, never be tongue-tied, be bold
Sasak tamato enter (as a ship into a harbor)
Tajio ntamato enter, go inside
Tae' tamain, into; to the east; to the west
  pa-tama-iput something in, fill with
Proto-South Sulawesi *tamato enter
Mandar tamato enter
  met-tamato enter
  pet-tama-iput something in, insert
Makasarese an-tamato enter, go inside
Sika tamato enter, go inside
Tetun tamato enter, to introduce, to penetrate
  tama-kimpertinent, brash, not timid
Erai tamato enter


PWMP     *ka-tama-an (gloss uncertain)

Old Javanese ka-tama-npenetrated by, affected by, moved by, full of
Tae' ka-tama-nwhere something has gone in; place where something has entered

Note:   Also Sasak tamaʔ ‘greedy, grasping’.


*tamadaw kind of wild ruminant


PWMP     *tamadaw kind of wild ruminant

Aklanon tamárawspecies of wild carabao found only on Mindoro
Cebuano tamaráwkind of wild water buffalo
Iban temadauwild ox: Bos javanicus d'Atton (formerly Bos sondaicus)

Note:   Also Malay tembadau ‘the Borneo wild ox (a variant of Bos sondaicus); in some outlying dialects Bos mindorensis’. Kelabit temedhur, Bintulu temeɗu and similar forms that refer to the native rhinoceros in various of the indigenous languages of Borneo appear to be distinct.


*tamanu a tree: Calophyllum inophyllum


POC     *tamanu a tree: Calophyllum inophyllum

Mussau tamanukind of large-leafed Calophyllum found in the interior (cp. ŋitau 'Calophyllum of the shore')
Tongan tamanutree sp.
Niue tamanua tree: Calophyllum inophyllum (= fetau)
Samoan tamanularge tree (Callophyllum sp.), with timber used for canoes and furniture
Rarotongan tamanuthe native mahogany: Calophyllum inophyllum
Hawaiian kamani, kamanilarge tree (Calophyllum inophyllum, at home on shores of the Indian and western Pacific Oceans, with shiny, oblong leaves to eight inches long, white flowers much like orange blossoms, and globose green fruits about an inch in diameter. The wood is hard and was formerly made into calabashes.

Note:   In POc this term evidently contrasted with *pitaquR ‘Calophyllum inophyllum’. The difference of meaning remains unclear, but may have concerned interior and coastal varieties of the tree, as reflected in Mussau.


*tamaq₁ appropriate, suitable; fit together


PMP     *tamaq₁ appropriate, suitable; fit together     [disjunct: *tama₁]

Tagalog támaʔcorrect, right; hitting the mark
Bikol mag-támaʔto win; to hit it right; to hit the bull’s eye; usually
  ma-tamáʔ-anto get hit by something; fig. to feel the effects of something (such as a drink of liquor)
Hanunóo támaʔright, correct, true
Aklanon támaʔright, correct, enough; to hit directly, make a bullseye, hit straight on
Hiligaynon támaʔcorrect, well, extremely, excessively
Cebuano támaʔfor something to hit squarely on something; be just exactly on time; make something fit; stop doing something bad
Central Tagbanwa tamato be correct; to hit the target
Maranao tamaʔenough, alright
Toba Batak tamasuitable, appropriate
Rotinese tamafit together well (as planks that are joined)


*tamaq₂ enter, penetrate; bold, of persons


PMP     *tamaq₂ enter, penetrate; bold, of persons     [disjunct: *tama₂]

Yakan tamaʔfor something to be penetrated or pierced (by a knife or bullet); covered with (wounds or bullet holes)
Kadazan Dusun tamaʔbrave, bold
  ka-tamaʔdare, bold, brave
Malagasy tamipenetrated, entered, appearing; to be at hand
  tami tranoburglary (‘enter house’)
  mi-tamibe fierce, rush into danger, or to an attack
  ma-namito attack (a town, etc.), to penetrate into a town
  tami-nato be attacked in front
Tetun tamato enter, to introduce, to penetrate
  tama-kimpertinent, brash, not timid
Erai tamato enter

Note:   Also Iban tamaʔ ‘enter, go in’, namaʔ ka bilik ‘take up residence in bilik (single-family room in longhouse) and become one of the family, especially by marrying into it’, Erai tamo ‘to enter’. Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *tama ‘penetrate; hit the mark; correct, straight’, which appears to conflate distinct cognate sets.


*tambak₁ hit, pound on


PMP     *tambak₁ hit, pound on

Tontemboan t<um>ambakstamp with the foot
Tae' tambakclean something by pounding it
Proto-South Sulawesi *tamba(k)hit, pound
Makasarese an-nambaʔstrike with something flexible, as a whip or length of rattan
Hawu dababeat on with both hands

Note:   With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’.


*tambak₂ dam, dyke, embankment; to heap up


PMP     *tambak₂ dam, dyke, embankment; to heap up

Ilokano tambákdam, dike, bank
  ag-tambákto build a dike
Itawis támbakdyke between rice paddies
Ibaloy i-tambakto pile, heap something up
Tagalog tambákembankment, terrace; mound; a bank or heap of earth, stones, sand, etc.; pile; a mass like a hill or mound; the piling up, e.g. of official papers not acted upon
  i-tambákto dump; to empty out or throw down so as to make a pile or heap; to dump into a place
  má-tambak-ánto be encumbered; to be filled or blocked up; to be oversupplied; to be glutted; to be overwhelmed; to be snowed under
  mag-tambákto make a heap or pile of sand, soil, stones, etc.
Bikol tambákheap, mound, pile
  tambak-ónto heap or pile up
Romblomanon tambaksomething is covered over by someone with soil, stones, the shallow ocean
Masbatenyo támbakpiled, packed tightly, chock full
  tambak-ónto pile something
Aklanon támbakpile; to pile up (one on top of another); fill (hole)
Waray-Waray tambákheap; pile; mass; mound
Agutaynen tambak-ento pile up; to fill in, such as a hole
Cebuano tambákdump a large number of things in or over something
  tambak-ándumping ground; gathering place
Maranao tambakrampart, heap
  tambak-ento heap up, as earth
Binukid tambakto cover (something) over with dirt
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tambakto fill in a hole; to cover something over with some substance
Mapun tambakan orderly stacking of rocks or earth (as used for the foundation of a house on the seashore, for a wharf, for a retaining wall surrounding a grave or rice field, etc.)
  nambakto make an orderly stack of rocks or earth
Yakan mag-tambakto place something on top of something else; pile up on top
Tausug mag-tambakto level (a low place), fill in (ground); pile stones (often over a grave)
Ngaju Dayak tambaka burial place for those families that do not preserve the corpse and later reinter the bones in an elevated mausoleum built on wooden posts
Malay tambakbanking; filling; levelling up
  me-nambakto reclaim (low-lying land)
Acehnese s<ɨn>ambaʔdyke, dam, mound of earth, wall, rampart, parapet
Simalur tambaʔgrave; canal
Karo Batak tambaka dyke, a damming up of water; an artificial pond made by damming
  nambak-ito dam up by building a dyke
Toba Batak tambakburial mound that one properly undertakes and plants with trees
Nias tambaa filling up
  ma-nambato fill up
  fa-tambabecome equal, be even (of a number)
Sundanese tambakwhat serves to block off or divert water; also, to lie in a heap, heap up to obstruct the inflow or outflow of water
  di-tambakdammed up, held in by a dyke
  nambakto obstruct or divert (of water, with a dyke or dam)
Old Javanese tambakwall, dike, dam, fence
  tambak saya(of warriors) defence, rampart (against the enemy)
Javanese tambaka pond near the shore where certain sea fish (bandeng) are cultivated; a dike or dam for regulating water
  nambakto regulate the flow of; to tackle a problem;to overcome an obstacle
Balinese tambakdam, dyke; a pool formed from a dammed stream; fishpond; to block, obstruct, dam
Sasak tambakfishpond
Mongondow tambakburial place


POC     *tabak₂ dam, dyke, embankment

Nggela ta-tambato bank up with logs or stones to keep earth from falling


PWMP     *ma-tambak heaped up, as an obstruction

Tagalog má-tambákto be put aside in some place so as to form a big heap or mound, as garbage, old papers, etc.; to be or become piled up, as official papers requiring action, or as goods, etc.
Old Javanese (m)a-tambakwith a wall, etc.; to stand like a wall or dam, tightly packed (along the way), blocking (the way); a certain functionary (inspector or dikes?)


PWMP     *ka-tambak-an (gloss uncertain)

Yakan ka-tambak-anbe affected by something that piles up on top (as a house struck by a falling tree)
Old Javanese ka-tambak-anto provide with a dam, be provided with a dam


PWMP     *t<um>ambak to pile up earth or rocks, heap up so as to obstruct

Tagalog t<um>umbákto accumulate or pile up
Acehnese t<ɨm>ambaʔto dam up, make a dyke; heap up earth; fill up
Old Javanese t<um>ambakto put oneself in the way


PWMP     *tambak-an (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano tambak-anto build a dike across or around
Ibaloy tambak-anto pile something against, on, etc. something else
Tagalog tambák-ana dump; a dumping place
  tambak-ánto fill up a place by dumping sand, earth, stones, rubbish, etc.
Romblomanon tambāk-ana shallow-sea fish trap
Masbatenyo tambak-ándumping place, junk yard
Mapun tambak-anto make an orderly stack of rocks or earth
Yakan tambak-anto place something on top of something else; pile up on top
Sundanese tambak-andam, dyke

Note:   Also Manggarai tamba ‘fishpond’.


*tambal to mend, patch


PWMP     *tambal to mend, patch

Minangkabau tambalto patch; to paste on; to plaster; to overlay
Sundanese tambalpatch; insertion
Old Javanese t<in>ambal-anto patch (of a torn garment)
Javanese tambala mending patch
  tambal bantire patch
  nambalto have something patched; to patch for someone
  tambal-anact or way of patching; having been patched
  tambal-tambalto put on a patch
Bare'e tambaa patch
Muna tambato patch, add a surface piece to, coat
  ka-tambaa bandage, a patch

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak tambal ‘a patch’ (< Banjarese).


*tamban a fish: sardine spp.


PWMP     *tamban a fish: sardine spp.

Ilokano tambánkind of sardine
Tagalog tambánfish like a herring or sardine
Hanunóo támbandark-colored fish about 15 cm. long
Cebuano tambanname given to sardines of several species
Maranao tambanminnow, anchovy
Malay ikan tambansardine; generic for various Clupeidae
Sundanese tambanmarine fish sp.
Balinese tambankind of small sea fish
Sasak tambana sea fish, apparently the sardine


*tambaŋuŋu large catfish that lives in river estuaries: genus Arius


PWMP     *tambaŋuŋu large catfish that lives in river estuaries: genus Arius

Cebuano tambaŋúŋukind of large, fleshy catfish living in river estuaries
Makasarese tambanunukind of fish, lighter-colored than barrukaŋ (barrukaŋ = kind of fish that lives in river mouths and swamps, smooth, shiny and scaleless, gray and black with barbels on the mouth and poisonous spines on the back)

Note:   I assume that Makasarese tambanunu shows irregular replacement of the rarer and more marked velar nasal with its alveolar counterpart.


*tambaq add to, increase; addition, supplement


PWMP     *tambaq add to, increase; addition, supplement

Maranao tambaʔexaggerate, superfluous
Malay tambahincrease by repetition or continuation
Karo Batak tambahreplenishment; addition, supplement
Toba Batak tambaincrease, augmentation, what is added to or given as a supplement
  ma-namba-ito augment or supplement something
Sundanese tambahto increase, become greater
Pendau tambato increase, add to
Bare'e tambaincrease, add to (said to be a Buginese or Makasarese loan)
Proto-South Sulawesi *tambaadd to, increase

Note:   Also Mapun tamba-manamba ‘to increase more and more (as with wealth, possessions)’ (< Malay)


*tambar antidote (as for snakebite)


PMP     *tambar antidote (as for snakebite)

Bikol tambálantidote; snake medicine
  mag-tambálto treat someone with an antidote
Aklanon támbaemedicine: coagulant; to stop bleeding
Hiligaynon támbalmedicine, cure, remedy
Cebuano tambáltreat an illness, wound; to reform, correct someone
  pa-nambálto practive medicine
  tambál-anfolk doctor, specializing in diseases of supernatural origin
Maranao tabalmitigate, as with medicine
Binukid tambalmedicine, remedial measures
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tambarmedicine; to treat someone with medicine
Malay tambarhealing; curing
  tawarinnocuous (of a poison or charm being rendered harmless, or of disease losing its virus)
  pə-nawarantidote, countercharm
Karo Batak tambarmedicine, remedy
  nambar-igive medicine to someone, treat with medicine
Sundanese tambaantidote, means for recovering, medicine
Old Javanese tambacure, remedy, medicine
Tontemboan tambala plant with thick leaves that are used as medicine for indigestion and as a spice in cooking: Labiatea
Makasarese tambaraʔantidote
  tambaraʔ rappo-rappoa shrub with leaves that are used as medicine: Clerodendron inerme
Wolio tambamedicine against poisoning or haemoptysis; to treat with medicine, cure
Manggarai tambarvery bitter creeper with thorns, used as malaria medicine

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun tavaɁ ‘antidote (against poison)’, Iban tawar ‘remedy, cure’, Old Javanese tawar ‘to make powerless, to be an antidote against’ (< Malagasyy), Balinese tamba ‘medicine (a religious word)’, tamba-nipun ‘the cure for it’.


*tambej tie up, bind tightly


PWMP     *tambej tie up, bind tightly

Bikol mag-tambódto wrap (place something around); to band, bandage; to attach the spur to the foot of a fighting cock
Agutaynen i-tabed-tabedto wrap a rope around something; to tie something up
  ma-tabed-tabedto become wrapped around something; to become tangled up in something
Maranao tambedto tie; wear malong (skirt-like garment with open ends) tied around chest
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tavedto wrap a rope or string repeatedly around something
Mansaka tambudto twine (as a vine around a tree)
Malay tambattethering
  mə-nambat-kanto tie up, to fasten up (of fowls with their legs tied together, etc.)

Note:   Also Tiruray tabed ‘to wind something around something else’. With root *-bej ‘wind around repeatedly’.


*tambu forbidden, taboo


PCEMP     *tambu forbidden, taboo

Yamdena tamburestrain, prevent, forbid
Fordata tabuforbid, prevent


POC     *tabu forbidden, taboo

Tigak tapholy
Tawala tabuforbidden (said to be a Suau loan)
Molima tabu-gua food forbidden to me
Tubetube tabudon’t
Cheke Holo tabutaboo, prohibited, sacred
Roviana tabuput a taboo (under certain circumstances) on food; perhaps an introduced term
Eddystone/Mandegusu tabucharm, sacred object; forbidden, taboo
Bugotu tabusacred, forbidden, holy; a prohibition placed on use or handling of anything
Nggela tambuset apart; forbidden, taboo; dedicated; sacred, holy; a priest; abominable, hateful, immoral
Kwaio abusacred, taboo
Lau ābutaboo, holy
Toqabaqita abutaboo, not allowed, forbidden
'Āre'āre āpusacred, forbidden, taboo; used also as a prohibitive, dehortative to children
Arosi abudehortatory: don’t; sacred, in a few names of places, etc.
Gilbertese tabuprohibition, interdiction; sacred; forbidden, prohibited (generally used with religious meaning of sacred, consecrated)
  tabu-ato forbid, prohibit, interdict
Marshallese jabwitaboo (archaic)
Woleaian tab(u)taboo, ban, ritual restriction protected by supernatural sanction (marked by a taboo sign); be prohibited by taboo, restricted by taboo
Wayan tabube forbidden, prohibited by strong communal sanction, e.g. of traditional custom, modern law; (of a place or thing) be prohibited from use; prohibition, restriction; holiness, sacredness
Fijian tabuforbidden, prohibited, implying a religious sanction, but now used also for legal prohibition, such as “no admission’; sacred, holy, unapproachable
Tongan tapuprohibited, unlawful
Niue tapusacred, prohibited to common people
  fale tapuchurch
Samoan tapube forbidden
  tapu-ibe under an interdiction or ‘taboo’
Tuvaluan tapuprohibited
Kapingamarangi dabusacred; restricted; taboo
Nukuoro dabuforbidden; awesome
Rennellese taputaboo, forbidden, sacred, hallowed, restricted; sacredness, forbidden or sacred place; to observe taboos, as on the Sabbath
Maori tapuunder religious or superstitious restriction; a condition affecting persons, places, and things, and arising from innumerable causes
  tāpu-imark to indicate claim or right to property
Hawaiian kaputaboo, prohibition


POC     *paka-tabu to forbid, make taboo

Vitu va-tabu-tabu-ato forbid
Cheke Holo fa-tabuto make taboo
Kwaio faʔa-abu-ato taboo, forbid ritually, make sacred
Lau fā-ābuconsecrate
Arosi haʔa-abuforbid
Niue faka-taputo make sacred
Samoan faʔa-tapu-laʔaset a limit to
Rennellese haka-taputo make taboo; to dedicate, as a church
Hawaiian hoʔo-kapumake taboo, prohibit, sanctify, consecrate


POC     *tabu-na taboo

Nauna tapundehortative; don’t
Penchal rat rapu-ntaboo
Loniu topu-ntaboo
Bipi drapu-ntaboo
Wuvulu ʔapu-nacommand of prohibition; taboo
Eddystone/Mandegusu tabu-nashrine, skull-house, sacred or forbidden place; sacred thing
'Āre'āre āpu-nataboo (there are four varieties of taboo, each causing a different sickness)
Bauro apu-nadon’t


POC     *tabu-ni-a be tabooed

Roviana tabu-ni-aput a taboo on food
'Āre'āre āpu-ni-aput a taboo under curse; forbid
Samoan tapu-inabe forbidden by someone


POC     *tapu-tapu strictly forbidden

Kwaio abu-abusacred area beside men’s house where adalo (ancestral spirits) are addressed
Tongan topu-tapusacred, holy
Niue tapu-tapustrictly prohibited
Samoan tapu-tapustrictly forbidden
Rennellese tapu-tapudiminutive of tapu; small sacredness
Maori tapu-tapucharm, incantation
Hawaiian kapu-kapudignity, regal appearance; entitled to respect and reverence, difficult of access because of rank, dignity and station

Note:   Also Numfor kābus ‘taboo; tree branch or anything else placed on fruit tree or other object by its owner in order to make others afraid to approach the marked object lest ill fortune befall them’, Arosi puna ‘sacred, taboo’, puna apuro ‘a place taboo (puna) to the avenger of blood to which he comes decked in his ornaments; anyone else going there is puna from returning (apuro) alive, and is killed’. Since *t > k is regular the Numfor word initially appears to support PEMP *tambus, but the long vowel is unexplained, and the final consonant fails to agree with the absence of a final consonant in the Yamdena and Fordata words.

This is one of the key cultural terms in the POc lexicon, designating a type of social control that was enforced by supernatural sanctions. Because of the nature of the sanctions the term itself often came to mean ‘sacred’ or ‘holy’. However, it evidently was also used either alone or in suffixed form as a general dehortative. It is unclear how POc *tabu differed in meaning from POc *pali, which continued PAn *paliSi ‘taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite’.


*tambuluk puffy area around the throat of some birds


PWMP     *tambuluk puffy area around the throat of some birds

Cebuano tambúlukthe hackles of roosters
Malay tembolokcrop (of bird)


*tamiaŋ kind of bamboo


PMP     *tamiaŋ kind of bamboo     [doublet: *amiaŋ 'generic for plants with stinging hairs or hairs that cause itchiness']

Malay bulu temiaŋthe bamboo of which blowpipes are made: Bambusa wrayi
Sundanese awi tamiaŋkind of thin bamboo (used for blowpipes and thread spools)
Old Javanese tamyaŋkind of bamboo
Kambera tamiaŋukind of thin bamboo: Schistostachyum blumei, used for spears, trail or pitfall spikes, and plaited to make walling

Note:   Also Malay tembiaŋ idem. This comparison was first recognized in print by Verheijen (1984).


*tamiŋ type of shield


PMP     *tamiŋ type of shield

Aklanon tamíŋshield
Hiligaynon tamíŋarmor, shield
Cebuano tamiŋshield
Maranao tamiŋshield
Subanen/Subanun tamiŋround shield (Churchill 1913)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tamiŋround shield
Kambera temiŋushield
Hawu tamishield

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun tamin shield (Gossens 1924), Sundanese taméŋ, Old Javanese tamyaŋ, Javanese tamèŋ, Balinese, Sasak tamiaŋ ‘round shield, buckler’. Round and oblong shields are distinguished terminologically in many Austronesian languages, and it seems likely from the Manobo (Western Bukidnon) and Subanen/Subanun glosses, together with the glosses of the Javanese, Balinese, and Sasak variants, that *tamiŋ referred exclusively to round shields.


*tamiq to taste, try


PMP     *tamiq to taste, try     [disjunct: *tamis]

Aklanon tamíʔtest food, taste (using one's finger)
Hotti/Hoti tamichew
Rennellese tamitaste
  tami-tamitaste a little, as to try


*tamis to taste, try


PMP     *tamis to taste, try     [disjunct: *tamiq]

Banggai tamistest, taste, sample
Bare'e me-tamitaste, try
Tae' tammiʔchew so as to enjoy the juice and reject the refuse, as when chewing sugarcane
Hotti/Hoti tamichew
Rennellese tamitaste
  tami-tamitaste a little, as to try

Note:   For an earlier discussion of this comparison see (Blust 1978a:24).


*tampar₁ flatfish, flounder


PWMP     *tampar₁ flatfish, flounder

Malay ikan tampara flatfish: Pseudorhombus arsuis
Chamorro tampattype of fish: Bothus mancus (Bothidae), flounder, flatfish


*tampar₂ slap, clap on the ear


PWMP     *tampar₂ slap, clap on the ear

Tagalog tampálto slap with the open hand (not so strong as sampál)
  má-tampálto be slapped
Ngaju Dayak tamparto hit with the fist
Malay tamparslap; forcible blow with the flat of the hand; cuff
  mə-nampar dadato beat the breast
Toba Batak tampara long rod with a wide end used to catch birds; also a flyswatter
Tae' tampaʔa blow; give a punch in the mouth


*tampel poultice, plaster for sealing a wound


PWMP     *tampel poultice, plaster for sealing a wound     [doublet: *tapal]

Agutaynen mag-tampelto cover up a hole in something; plug something so that the contents will not spill out; put a patch on something (as a patch of oregano on the head to cure headache)
Javanese tapelpoultice of herbs used for babies
Balinese tampelto cover up, plaster (a wound), patch (a hole), plaster something and make it watertight; plaster, a covering
Muna tampoto dress a wound, cover with leaves, etc.
  ka-tampobandage, dressing, covering


*tampeŋ plug or dam up


PWMP     *tampeŋ plug or dam up

Malagasy tampinastopped, corked, plugged
Sasak tampeŋdam up
Tae' tampaŋto check, stop; dam up water

Note:   With root *-peŋ ‘plug up, dam; cover’.


*tampil attach, connect, join


PWMP     *tampil attach, connect, join     [doublet: *tampir]

Maranao tampilincluded with, identified with, favor one side
Iban tampiljoin, attach, tie on
  kaban tampilrelative by marriage
  nampilmarry into a family


*tampipiq telescoping basket, double basket


PPh     *tampipiq telescoping basket, double basket

Ilokano tampípikind of rectangular light bamboo trunk with flat sides, used for traveling
  i-tampípito place provisions, etc. in the tampípi
Bontok tampípikind of basket with fitting cover, for general storage (< Ilokano)
Ibaloy tampipilightweight box for keeping one’s clothes, blankets, that can be used as a travelling bag
Tagalog tampípiʔa native clothes trunk or chest made of bamboo, rattan or a certain kind of palm leaves
Bikol tampípiʔa travelling bag made of woven reeds
  tampipíʔ-onto place something into or carry in a tampípiʔ
Tausug tampípiʔa (double telescoping) basket made of coconut leaves

Note:   Also Maranao tampipi ‘double, telescoping basket’. Possibly a product of borrowing from Tagalog, Ilokano, or both.


*tampir attach, connect, join


PWMP     *tampir attach, connect, join     [doublet: *tampil]

Maranao tampirinclude, side with one party in controversy
Iban (Lemanak) tampirjoin, attach, tie on


*tampuk₁ clap, thud


PMP     *tampuk₁ clap, thud     [disjunct: *tampun]

Kankanaey tampókclap one's hands, applaud
Ibaloy man-tampokto clap one’s hands (as in applause)
Cebuano tampukbeat something with the inside of the fist (as if sticking a dagger into it)
Old Javanese tampokcoming down with a thud
Niue tapu-tapuflapping of wings; the sound made by the wings of a bird

Note:   With root *-puk₁ ‘throb, thud, clap, break’’.


*tampuk₂ sacred place


PWMP     *tampuk₂ sacred place

Tagalog tampókelevated or exalted place or position; exaltation; elevation
Iban nampokperform a vigil, go to a solitary place to meet with ancestors or other beings in dream or vision, and obtain their help; tops of hills are used but any isolated place, even a cemetery, may be used

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*tampuk₃ stem, stalk of a plant


PWMP     *tampuk₃ stem, stalk of a plant

Tagalog tampókstem of fruits, stalk of flowers
Iban tampokfruit stalk (picked)
Malay tampokcorolla; point where fruit and stalk meet


*tampuŋ collect, gather


PWMP     *tampuŋ collect, gather

Maranao tampoŋgather
Malay (Java) tampoŋtap and collect latex in a cup
Bahasa Indonesia tampuŋreceive and collect together (produce from an area, excess produce, etc.)

Note:   With root *-puŋ ‘assemble, collect, gather’.


*tampuq sulk; feel remorse


PPh     *tampuq sulk; feel remorse

Casiguran Dumagat támpoto sulk, to have a sulky feeling, to complain of lack of attention from one expected to do better
Bikol mag-tampóʔto feel remorse over, to be hurt or brokenhearted due to something

Note:   Also Tagalog tampó ‘sulkiness; huff; peevishness; displeasure; slight anger; complaint against someone for their lack of attention’, mag-tampó ‘to sulk; to be sulky’. Possibly a Tagalog loan in Casiguran Dumagat.


*tamtam smack the lips


PAN     *tamtam smack the lips

Paiwan tj-alʸ-amtjamsmack one's lips
Maranao tantamtaste
Chamorro tamtamtest, try out, sip, taste
Buli camcamsmack the lips

Note:   Also Maranao taʔam ‘taste, as of food’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taʔam ‘taste s.t.’, Nggela tata chewed pulp. Earlier reconstructed as *(CtT)aqam (CtT)aqam ‘taste, flavor’ (Blust 1978a:24).


*tamu smack the lips while eating


PCEMP     *tamu smack the lips while eating

Rotinese tamumake a smacking sound while eating, as a pig does
Motu tamu-tamusmack the lips while eating

Note:   Also Iban (Scott 1956) tamuʔ ‘feed up, fatten (usually animals)’.


*tanaŋaw malodorous insect that damages rice plants


PPh     *tanaŋaw malodorous insect that damages rice plants

Aklanon tanaŋáwrice bug (damages rice by sucking the unripe grains)
Binukid tanaŋawkind of insect that has an unpleasant odor, stinking
Mansaka tanaŋawkind of insect that eats rice plants
Proto-Sangiric *tanaŋawinsect which damages rice
Sangir tanaŋoa small, malodorous grasshopper that damages the young rice plants: Stenocoris varicordia

Note:   Also Malay cenaŋaw ‘a foul-smelling flying bug that preys on rice’.


*tandak to stamp the feet


PWMP     *tandak to stamp the feet

Mansaka tandakto kick, stamp the feet
Old Javanese tanḍakdance (with song)

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*tanduk tanduk plant sp.


PWMP     *tanduk tanduk plant sp.

Ilokano tan-tandókGynandropsis pentaphylla (L.) DC.. An erect capparidaceous herb with digitate, long-petioled leaves ... and white flowers tinged with purple; it is considered a caustic
Malay tandok-tandokplants with curiously shaped flowers; Strophanthus dichotomus, Ervatamia spp.

Note:   This reconstruction may contain Dempwolff's (1934-38) *tanduk ‘horn’.


*taneq earth, soil, land


PMP     *taneq earth, soil, land

Yami tanamud, earth, soil, land (as opposed to sea)
Itbayaten tanasoil, earth, ground
  tana-enland, territory
Kalamian Tagbanwa tanɨkearth (ground)
Agutaynen tanekground, land; earth, soil, dirt; land owned by somebody
  ma-tanek-ena person who owns a lot of land
  ma-tanek-tanekdiscolored, with a reddish color, particularly of white clothes that are still dirty even after being washed
Maranao tanaʔalight, as thing in air; go down, as from a steep thing; relevance
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tanaʔground; earth; land; dirt; region; to come to earth
Mapun tanaʔground, dirt; land; soil, country
Yakan tanaʔdry rice field, swidden
  mag-tanaʔto plant (or make something into) a dry rice field
Tboli tonokearth, ground, soil; land as distinguished from sea or sky
Kadazan Dusun tanaʔsoil, land, earth, ground
Tombonuwo tanaʔearth, soil, dirt
Ida'an Begak tanaʔlow
Bisaya (Limbang) tanəʔearth, soil
Lun Dayeh tanaʔearth, soil; ground; land; the world
Kelabit tanaʔearth, soil; world
Narum tanaʔearth, soil
Kenyah tanaʔland
Kenyah (Long Anap) tanaʔearth, soil, land
Kayan tanaearth, soil, ground; floor
Kayan (Uma Juman) tanaearth, soil
Kiput tanaaʔearth
Bintulu tanəʔearth, soil
Melanau (Mukah) tanaʔearth, soil
Tunjung tanaaʔearth
Ngaju Dayak tanarice field
  ma-nanawork in the fields; make a rice field somewhere
Ma'anyan taneʔearth
Malagasy taniearth, land, soil; a country, a kingdom
  i-taniout of doors
  tani-be(‘big land’) the mainland of Madagascar, a word used to distinguish the mainland from the surrounding islands
Samihim taneʔearth
Iban tanahearth, soil, land, ground, country
  tanah baru(‘new land’) land that is recently first cleared and still fertile
Jarai tənahearth, soil
Malay tanahland; state, country; surface of soil, especially with regard to ownership; surface of soil with regard to its character; soil itself and its character
  tanah liatclay (‘sticky earth’)
  tanah na(m)palmarl, edible earth
  tanah raya(‘great land’) continent
  di-tanahoutside the house;out of doors
Acehnese tanɔhground, land, earth
  tanɔh kliət(‘sticky earth’) clay, potter’s clay
  meu-tanɔhowning land
Gayō tanohearth, soil
  mu-tanohpossessing land
Karo Batak tanehearth, ground, territory, district
Toba Batak tanoearth, ground, land
  tano liatclay (‘sticky earth’)
Nias tanõearth, soil, land
Lampung tanohland
Sundanese tanɨhearth, ground; dust
Old Javanese tanahland, country
Javanese tanahland, country; parcel of land
  tuan tanahlandlord
Balinese tanahground, land, earth, soil (mainly as agricultural object, but also as building material, and as a political unit)
  tanah hampoha sort of clay eaten by pregnant women
  tanah putihchalk (‘white earth’)
Sasak tanaʔearth, soil, ground; land
Sangir ən-tanaearth, ground, land
Tontemboan tanaʔ ma-tuʔaland that has returned to bush (‘old land’)
  tanaʔ walethe space under the house
  wale tanaʔhouse on the ground, not raised on piles, with the earth as floor
Pendau tanoearth, soil
Dampelas tanoearth, soil
Banggai tanoearth, ground; world
Uma tanaʔearth, soil
Bare'e tanaground, earth, soil, land
  tana ma-puyuclay (‘sticky earth’)
  tana Morithe land of the Mori
  man-tanadig in the ground
  men-tanaof animals, hide in the mud, crawl into the ground
Tae' tanaground, earth, land; world
  tana ToraaToraja country
Makasarese tanaland, wet ricefield
Wolio tanaearth, ground, land, territory, country
  tana ikandeedible earth
Chamorro tanoʔworld, earth, land, soil, ground
Bimanese danaearth, soil, land
Manggarai tanaland, soil, earth, territory
  tana liliŋclay (‘waxy earth’)
Rembong tanaʔearth, soil
Ngadha tanaearth, soil, land; district, tract of ground
Sika tanaland, earth, ground
  tana ihi-ŋproducts of the land, harvest
Lamaholot tanaearth, land, district, territory
  ləwo tanavillage
Lamboya pan-tanaearth
Kambera tanaland, district, territory
  tana Humbathe island of Sumba
  tana dítauplands, east Sumba; the visible world
  tana wàlowlands, west Sumba; the unseen world
Rotinese tanemud
Kei tan bulred sticky earth
  tuan tanoverseer of the common village land ‘lord of the land’)
  tana-tdistrict, land, ground, earth, black earth
Buruese tanaland
  tana Buruthe land of Buru
Kayeli tana isoearthquake (‘shaking ground’)
Waropen analand, bush, earth


POC     *tanoq earth, soil, land; down; westward

Nauna tandown
  kan-tanearth, soil
Penchal randown
Loniu tanearth, ground, soil; down
Bipi dandown
Aua anosoil
Lusi tanoearth, ground
Lakalai -talodown; westward
Gedaged tansoil, ground; land; garden, field; earth; world
Takia tanearth, soil
Gitua tanoground, earth
  tano sisiŋiared earth (= clay)
Motu tanoearth; soil; country; land
  tano aiashore; on land
  tano badathe earth; the land, as distinguished from sky and sea (‘big land’)
Bugotu tanoearth, ground
Kwaio anoland, ground
Lau anoearth, land; garden land (rarely used)
  ano-anolow, as a house
  ano-ano-alow, humble, subject to
'Āre'āre ānogarden, garden-ground
Sa'a anoground, garden ground
  siho hai anocome down to the ground
Arosi anothe ground, earth, soil, the land
  ano-iaa landslip
  ano-anolow, of shrub, tree, house, hill; lowering, of clouds; a drop of liquid left at the bottom of a vessel
Gilbertese tanosand, soil, clay, ground, land
  tano-ato cover with sand, to dirty with clay
Chuukese sɔɔn(obsolete) the earth (as distinct from heaven); level place, prepared site
Puluwat sɔɔnsurface, ground, floor, bottom; to be lower
Woleaian tal(o)earth, soil, ground; west, downward
Mota tanoearth, ground
Mosina tanearth
Merig tanearth
Tolomako tanoearth
Northeast Ambae tanoearth
Naman ne-tinearth
Rerep ne-tanearth
Port Sandwich na-ranearth
North Ambrym tanearth
Visina poro-tanoearth
Tonga na-tanearth
Nakanamanga na-tanoearth
Kwamera tanaearth
Iaai kɔnɔearth


PPh     *t<um>aneq go overland, hike

Tboli t<m>onokto walk, hike; to be dirty from the soil
Tontemboan t<um>anaʔgo by land, go overland


PMP     *taneq pulut clay, sticky earth

Kelabit tanaʔ pulutclay (‘sticky earth’)


POC     *tanoq pulut clay, sticky earth

Mota tano pul ~ tano puluttenacious earth, red, black, volcanic earth which sticks, used in building wona (stone feasting platform) at Gaua


PMP     *taneq tumbuq anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’)

Iban tanah tumbohtermite mound (lit. ‘growing earth’)


POC     *tanoq tubuq anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’)

Motu tano tubuant-hill (lit. ‘growing earth’)


POC     *tanoq tanoq dusty, full of dust or dirt

'Āre'āre āno-ānodust
Gilbertese tano-tanofull of sand (food)

Note:   Also Tiruray tunaʔ ‘earth, ground, soil’, Sundanese tanah ‘land, district, estate’, Leti, Wetan tani ‘earth, ground, soil’, Kayeli tain ‘ground, earth, soil, sand’. Dempwolff (1938) posited doublets *tanah and *tanəh ‘earth, land’, assigning Ngaju Dayak tana ‘rice field’ to the first of these, and tanah ‘a land’ as in tanah Jawa ‘the land of Java’ or tanah belanda ‘Holland’ to the second. However, the basis for this distinction is shaky. Ngaju Dayak tana is a native term, while tanah is clearly a borrowing of Banjarese tanah. Many languages have merged PAn *a and *e before the reflex of word-final *q, usually after it became a glottal stop. It is the neutralization of this phonemic distinction before glottal stop that has given rise to the impression that there was a variant *tanaq, which probably never existed. In addition to the subentries cited above the recurrent pattern of a reflex of *taneq + a place name suggests that the expression *taneq + place name existed in PMP times.

Finally, in some Oceanic languages, where final consonants have been lost, the reflexes of POc *tanoq ‘earth, soil’ and *tanom ‘to plant, bury’ can be difficult to distinguish, and in fact are often combined by lexicographers or comparativists, as with Keesing (1975), who gives Kwaio ano ‘land, ground’, a clear reflex of POc *tanoq, but the subentry anom-ia ‘plant, bury’, which is just as clearly a reflex of POc *tanom, or Fox (1974), who gives Lau ano ‘earth, land’, but the subentry ano-mila ‘burying’, which exemplifies the same problem. Similarly, Bender et al (2003) posit proto-Micronesian *tano ‘ground, low’, but refer additionally to e.g. Tongan tano ‘place of burial, cemetery’, which clearly reflects POc *tanom.


*tantán lose interest in doing something (?)


PPh     *tantán lose interest in doing something (?)

Ilokano ag-tantánto delay unnecessarily
  i-tantánto postpone, put off
Ifugaw tantánprogress of a certain work which cannot be finished in one day, or even in a few days
Ibaloy i-tantanto delay something --- esp. of that done purposely or by neglect (as of someone not completing his work on time)
Pangasinan tantáncalm, become calm, slow down
Tagalog t<um>antánto stop; cease or desist
Bikol mag-tantánto do something with great caution or circumspection (as eating fish slowly so that one does not swallow a bone, or walking carefully in the dark so that one does not trip over something)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tantanto be immobilized by fear or surprise
Mansaka tantanto give up, to quit trying


*tanzak step, leap


PWMP     *tanzak step, leap

Javanese tanjaka certain leaping move in the classical dance
Bare'e tadaplace the foot on something higher, e.g. in order to take a big step or a leap, or to reach a higher place

Note:   With root *-zak ‘step, tread’.


*taNek to cook anything but rice


PAN     *taNek to cook anything but rice

Saisiyat t<om>aləkto cook
Pazeh talek-iCook it! (sweet potatoes, fish, meat, but not rice)
Paiwan tjalʸekto cook food in advance (as for journey)


PMP     *tanek to cook

Cebuano tanukto boil starchy foods, but not rice: ears of corn, root crops, bananas
Binukid tanekto steam (immature unpounded rice to harden the grains so it can be dried and pounded)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tanekto steam immature unpounded rice in order to harden the grains so that it may be pounded and cooked
Lun Dayeh tanekboiling of something
  ne-tanekboiled by mistake
Kelabit tanekboiling of water, cooking vegetables, cook meat
Kayan tanekcooked in water, boiled (as maize)
Malagasy mi-tanikato boil, to cook
Iban tanakto cook (usually not rice)
Malay tanakboiling (rice)
  ber-tanak nasito boil rice
Old Javanese pa-tanek-ankitchen
Totoli ma-tanokboiled, cooked
Mandar tanaʔboil, cook
Makasarese tanaʔcoconut milk from which oil is boiled out; smelting of tin or lead


PWMP     *ma-nanek to boil, to cook

Lun Dayeh nanekto boil something
Kelabit nanekto boil water, cook
Bahasa Indonesia me-nanakto boil rice in a pot
Totoli ma-nanokto boil, to cook


PWMP     *maR-tanek to boil, to cook

Bikol mag-tanókto parboil rice
Masbatenyo mag-tanókto boil food
Malay ber-tanakto boil rice
Mandar mat-tanaʔto boil, to cook


PAN     *t<in>aNek boiled foods other than rice?


PMP     *t<in>anek boiled foods other than rice

Paiwan (Western) tj<in>alʸekprepared food (especially taken along for journey); cooked food in general
Cebuano t<in>anúkcooked root crops, bananas, or corn
Lun Dayeh t<in>anekboiled by someone
Old Javanese t<in>anekto cook, to boil


PAN     *t<um>aNek to cook anything but rice

Saisiyat t<om>aləkto cook
Pazeh mu-talekto cook (side dishes, meaning anything but rice)


PMP     *t<um>anek to cook anything but rice

Old Javanese t<um>anekto cook, boil


PAN     *taNek-en to be cooked

Pazeh talek-ento be cooked; what is cooked


PMP     *tanek-en to be cooked

Bikol tanok-ónto parboil rice
Masbatenyo tanuk-ónto boil food (as jackfruit seeds)
Malagasy taneh-inato be boiled, to be cooked


*taNiud mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta)


PAN     *taNiud mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta)

Tsou tahzucumulberry tree and fruit
Kanakanabu taníucumulberry tree and fruit
Saaroa talhiusumulberry tree and fruit
Rukai (Budai) taɭíuDumulberry tree and fruit
Yami (Imorod) tanyodmulberry tree and fruit
Itbayaten tañoda species of tree, mulberry: Morus alba Linn., with white flowers and edible fruit

Note:   This comparison was first noted by Tsuchida (1976:141).


*tañam try, taste


PAN     *tañam try, taste

Atayal talamtry, taste; ask about the future; tell the future
Pazeh mu-talamto try, taste
  xi-talamto taste
Amis tanamtry to do something; taste
Thao tazamtaste; try
  pu-tazamtry or test something
Bunun tanamtry
Maranao tanampleasant, comfortable

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) pa-a-talam ‘to try’, Kavalan talam ‘taste’, talam ‘to taste something’, Bintulu ñam ‘taste’. With root *-ñam ‘savory, tasty, taste’.


*taŋa₂ netbag, sack, pocket


POC     *taŋa₂ netbag, sack, pocket

Gedaged taŋa netbag used by women; chorion, membrane enveloping the fetus of mammals; afterbirth; the uterus
  taŋe (<taŋa-i)put into a netbag
Gitua taŋanetbag, basket
Nggela taŋaa bag, cloth bag
Lau aŋaa bag
Arosi aŋato have in a bag
  aŋa-aŋato have a bag, to carry in a bag
  aŋa(-na)a plaited bag with string handles, hung over the shoulder, or from the head in carrying burdens
Mota taŋaa bag, deep basket
Fijian taŋaa bag, pocket, sack
  taŋa-naput into a bag; fish with hand-nets
Niue taŋabag, bale, sack
Samoan taŋabag, sack; pocket; pillow case; door mat; stomach (of a shark)
Tuvaluan taŋabag, pocket
Rennellese taŋaa container of any kind: basket, bag, suitcase, pocket; to put into a container


*taŋád look upward


PPh     *taŋád look upward     [doublet: *tiŋadaq]

Ilokano ag-taŋ-táŋadto walk with the head up; to be looking up
  i-táŋadto turn upward
  t<um>áŋadto look upward, raise the eyes
Isneg mag-táŋadto look up, to raise the eyes; to lift up the face, the eyes
Bontok táŋadto look up, to respect, look up to
Kankanaey men-táŋadto look up, to hold up one’s head to look; to have nothing to do
  na-táŋadlazy; idle; slothful; sluggish
Ifugaw táŋadto look upward
  tāŋada location above something; for someone to look up at something
Casiguran Dumagat taŋádto look up (as at fruit in a tree)
Bikol taŋádto look upward

Note:   Also Yami, Itbayaten taŋara ‘to look up’, Itbayaten taŋar ‘of acclivity’, i-taŋar ‘to transport by going up an acclivity’, taŋar ‘to climb an acclivity, to climb up’, Bikol tiŋág ‘to look upward’, Hiligaynon taŋáɁ ‘to look up; to look stupid, to have a blank stare’.


*taŋan finger, toe


PMP     *taŋan finger, toe

Ilokano taŋánthumb, great toe
Pangasinan taŋánthumb, big toe
Ma'anyan taŋanhand
Malagasy tánanahand, foreleg of quadrupeds
Malay taŋanhand
Selaru taŋafinger, toe
Sekar taga-nfinger, toe

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *taŋan ‘hand’, but forms with this or clearly related meanings are confined to WMP languages. His inclusion of Fijian taŋa ‘sack’ and similar forms in other Oceanic languages (e.g., Gedaged taŋ ‘net bag used by women’) appears to confuse distinct cognate sets.


*taŋaq₁ incapable, incompetent


PPh     *taŋaq₁ incapable, incompetent

Pangasinan taŋástupid
Cebuano táŋaʔinattentive, doing even simple things incompetently; consider someone incompetent
Maranao taŋaʔabsentminded, slow person

Note:   Also Tagalog taŋá ‘dolt, a dull, stupid person; blockhead’.


*taŋaq₂ look upward


PWMP     *taŋaq₂ look upward     [doublet: *taŋád]

Aklanon taŋáʔto look upward
Rejang taŋeaʔto look up, to lift one’s head


*taŋaR to seize property and run off with it; to elope


PPh     *taŋaR to seize property and run off with it; to elope

Hanunóo taŋágbiting or holding something in the mouth, as ants do
  mag-taŋághold on by biting
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taŋagto take something of someone else’s without permission and leave with it
Tiruray taŋarto elope when both persons are single
Proto-Gorontalic *taŋagomarry by elopement
Mongondow taŋagabduct, elope with, carry off, plunder
  mo-naŋagto elope with an unmarried girl (elopement with a married woman is moŋ-agow)


*taŋeb lid, cover


PMP     *taŋeb lid, cover

Bontok taŋəbto cover, as a pot or vat
Kankanaey taŋébto cover
Maranao taŋebclose door or window
Ida'an Begak taŋobclose door, cover food; lid, cover
Palauan dáŋeblid, cover
Kambera taŋalid, cover


*taŋ(e)buq kind of coarse grass


PWMP     *taŋ(e)buq kind of coarse grass

Tagalog tambóʔcoarse reed-like grass (used in making brooms)
Hanunóo taŋbuʔoffshoot, sucker -- referring to bamboo
Cebuano taŋbuʔcoarse grass of swamps with a hollow stem, used for the manufacture of brooms and hats: Phragmites vulgaris
Malay tamboha shrub: Euthemis leucocarpa

Note:   Also Maranao tamboʔo ‘a herb: Hyptis brevipes Poir.’.


*taŋ(e)dan payment for services


PPh     *taŋ(e)dan payment for services     [doublet: *tendan]

Yami taŋdangiving compensation to the midwife (in a topping off ceremony, after the blessing, the child’s father will carry the compensation to the midwife’s house)
Itbayaten taŋdansalary, pay, wage
  mach-taŋdanto earn money
  ma- naŋdanto give salary, wages
Ilokano taŋdánsalary, wages; stipend; pay
  taŋdan-ánto give salary to, pay for work done
Isneg taŋdānwages, salary, fee
Bontok taŋdánto pay for work performed
Bikol mag-taŋdánto make amends for; to pay compensation to; to compensate, recompense
Hanunóo táŋdandirect payment of beads to a seer for his services

Note:   There is no basis for considering this a loanword, and it is therefore most plausible to interpret it as a term that preceded the existence of a money economy. Under these earlier conditions payment was made in goods for services done, as by a midwife or a shaman, as reflected in the glosses for the Yami and Hanunóo forms.


*taŋga rung of a ladder; runged ladder


PWMP     *taŋga rung of a ladder; runged ladder

Bikol táŋgastep, stair; rung of a ladder
  mag-táŋgato make steps on
Iban taŋgaʔstair, steps, ladder
Malay taŋgahouse ladder; staircase; a numeral coefficient for any aid to climbing of the ‘ladder’ type
  rumah taŋgahome; (fig.) wife, wife and family
Karo Batak taŋgarung of a ladder; also family, household (Malayism?)
Toba Batak taŋgaladder

Note:   Dempwolff (1938) included Ngaju Dayak taŋga ‘steps, ladder’, and Fijian taŋga ‘to lay one thing on top of another’, but the first of these appears to be a Banjarese loan, and the second seems far-fetched. Given PMP *haRezan ‘notched log ladder’ as an extremely well-supported reconstruction, it appears most likely that *taŋga referred instead to a runged ladder, or more particularly to the rungs on a runged ladder.


*taŋgal unfastened, detached


PWMP     *taŋgal unfastened, detached

Tagalog taŋgálunfastened; dismantled; detached; dismissed from employment
Bikol mag-taŋgálto detach, disconnect; to pull out (as a plug from the wall)
Cebuano taŋgáldetach, remove something from where it is held firmly
Malay taŋgaldropping; falling off (of things that seem to fall spontaneously, as leaves in autumn, of skin cast by a snake; to shed one’s garments, disrobe, etc.)
Toba Batak taŋgaldetached, unravelled, become loose or free
Javanese taŋgal[gloss]


*taŋgap receive, accept


PWMP     *taŋgap receive, accept

Kapampangan taŋgapreceive, accept
Tagalog taŋgápaccepted, admitted, received
Tiruray taŋgafreceive, accept
Old Javanese taŋgapaccept, take, receive (also with person as object)
Balinese taŋgaptake into the hand, accept, receive

Note:   Possibly equivalent to Dempwolff's (1934-38) *taŋgap ‘seize, hold firmly’.


*taŋgiRi Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorus spp.


PWMP     *taŋgiRi Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorus spp.     [doublet: *taŋiRi]

Ibatan taŋgigia kind of fish resembling a barracuda
Ilokano taŋgígikind of marine fish, usually eaten raw in kilawen (a raw meat dish), Spanish mackerel
Tagalog taŋgíŋgiSpanish mackerel
Bikol taŋgígiSpanish mackerel
Masbatenyo taŋgígiSpanish mackerel fish
Waray-Waray taŋgígiSpanish mackerel fish
Iban teŋgíriScombroid marine fish, Cybium spp., mackerel
Malay təŋgíriSpanish mackerel: Scomberomorus (Cybium) spp.
Minangkabau taŋgíriSpanish mackerel: Scomberomorus (Cybium) spp.
Sundanese taŋgiriname of a seafish, the mackerel

Note:   Tagalog taŋgíŋgi is unusual in showing secondary prenasalization of *R after its change to a voiced velar stop.


*taŋgul defend oneself, parry a blow


PWMP     *taŋgul defend oneself, parry a blow

Kapampangan taŋgulto protect
Tagalog taŋgóldefense; act of defending
  mag-taŋgólto defend; to stand up for; to take the part of; to support
Toba Batak taŋgulthat which one uses to defend himself against a blow
Sundanese taŋguldyke in a rice paddy
Old Javanese taŋgulparrying, defense
  a-taŋgulto parry, fend off
Javanese taŋgulearth dam built in rice paddies to control the flow of water
Balinese taŋgulbuild a dyke, a dam


*taŋguŋ carry on a shoulder pole


PWMP     *taŋguŋ carry on a shoulder pole

Kadazan Dusun taŋguŋcarry over the shoulder with a long stick
Ida'an Begak taŋguŋyoke; carry with yoke
Malay taŋgoŋsupporting (on the shoulder); bearing up a heavy weight from below; (fig.) bearing up under trouble or misfortune; standing security for another
Old Javanese taŋguŋcarrying, bearing, burden, load
  a-naŋguŋto carry, bear
  t<in>aŋguŋto carry, bear
Javanese taŋguŋto vouch for, accept responsibility for; security, pledge (e.g. for a loan); responsibility, obligation
  naŋguŋcarry over the shoulder on a shoulder pole so that the weight is balanced fore and aft
Balinese naŋguŋcarry something on a pole on the shoulders of two men
Sasak taŋguŋvouch for, be responsible for


PWMP     *ka-taŋguŋ bearable, able to be carried

Kadazan Dusun ka-taŋguŋcan carry something on the shoulder with a long stick
Sundanese ka-taŋguŋbearable, able to be carried

Note:   Also Dampelas taŋkuaŋ, Tanampedagi Taje taŋguaŋ ‘carry on the shoulder with a stick’. These forms raise the possibility that the reconstruction was *taŋguaŋ, with reduction of the vowel sequence in all languages outside the Tomini-Tolitoli group.


*taŋíl wedge


PPh     *taŋíl wedge

Casiguran Dumagat taŋílput sticks under something to cause it to rest on them (as in storing lumber, to put posts under the lumber so the lumber won’t rest directly on the ground)
Bikol táŋila wedge; a jack, lever
  mag- táŋilto place a wedge, jack, lever under; to jack something up; to prop something up (as the head with a pillow)
Aklanon taŋílshim, something used to level off an unbalanced table or chair that is wobbling


*taŋiRi Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorini spp.


PMP     *taŋiRi Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorini spp.     [doublet: *taŋgiRi]

Aklanon taŋígilarge, delicious fish
Cebuano taŋígikind of Spanish mackerel, silvery white and black color, with no scales, popularly eaten raw: Scomberomorus commersoni and guttatus, and others
Maranao taŋigiSpanish mackerel: Scomberomorus commersoni Lacepède
Malay təŋiriSpanish mackerel: Scomberomorus (Cybium) spp.
Acehnese taŋirɔεkind of sea fish
Sasak təŋiria seafish that lacks scales, the Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus Cybium
Sangir taŋihikind of fish, the large growth stage of the pangaluang
Komodo taŋiria fish: Scomberomorus guttatus
Kambera taŋirikind of large sea fish: Scomberomorus Cybium
Fordata tnirikind of large fish
Kairiru taŋirmackerel (two types)
Wogeo taŋira sea fish, Spanish mackerel
Manam taŋirikind of fish
Gedaged taŋiza white marine fish about 30 inches long, like a mackerel
Gitua taŋirmackerel, wahoo
Numbami taŋilimarlin, sailfish
Roviana taŋiria fish generally got by trolling, a species of kingfish
'Āre'āre aniria fish
Proto-Micronesian *taŋirituna
Gilbertese taŋiiyellowfin tuna (Bender et al. 2003)
Chuukese seŋiryellowtail tuna fish
Puluwat háŋiryellowfin tuna, sometimes more than a fathom in length
Woleaian taŋir(i)king-size tuna fish
Samoan taŋīkind of fish
Nukuoro daŋiifish sp.

Note:   Also Tagalog tanigiʔ ‘Spanish mackerel’, Yakan taŋīʔ ~ taŋiŋiʔ ‘Spanish mackerel, family Scombridae’, Javanese teŋiri ‘a certain ocean fish’ (< Malay). Lou, , Penchal taŋini, Titan taŋili, Wuvulu tanixi ‘Spanish mackerel’, Sa'a aaŋili ‘kingfish’. All reflexes of this word in the Admiralty islands appear to be loans from a still unidentified source distinct from Tok Pisin taŋir.


*taŋkas loosen, untie


PWMP     *taŋkas loosen, untie     [doublet: *beŋkas, *ka(s)kas]

Bikol taŋkásremove (as a necktie, a cover), take off (as a necktie), pull out (as a plug), disconnect
Binukid taŋkasto take apart, undo, rip off (something tied); rip out stitches
Kadazan Dusun taŋkasunbolt, loosen things, fittings
Uma taŋkaʔset free, release; remove something that clings fast

Note:   Also Palauan meŋe-dóked ‘untie, unfasten’. This item is assumed to contain a root *-kas₂.


*taŋkay stem of a plant, stalk


PWMP     *taŋkay stem of a plant, stalk

Ilokano taŋkáystem of a plant
Mansaka taŋkayhandle (as of a vessel)
Tausug taŋkaya stem, stalk (of a plant); handle (of a ladle, cup, pan, etc.)
  mag-taŋkayto provide a handle
Iban taŋkaystalk of fruit; come into ear, pick with the stalk
Malay taŋkaystalk; haulm; stem; in composite flowers or fruits taŋkay is the stalk of each item, while kaki or tandan is that of the cluster


*taŋkeb₂ fall face downward


PWMP     *taŋkeb fall face downward

Tagalog taŋkabto fall, hurting one's lip or chin
Dairi-Pakpak Batak taŋkepface downward; to fall face downward

Note:   With root *-keb₂ ‘face downward’. Adelaar (1981) maintains that Northern Batak reflects final voiced stops as the homorganic nasal, while Southern Batak reflects them as the homorganic voiceless stop. Although this is normally true, both Karo Batak and Dairi-Pakpak Batak occasionally exhibit a voiceless final stop from an earlier voiced stop, as with *ruqag ‘wide, spacious’ > Karo Batak ruhak ‘spacious, wide, of an opening’ (Blust 1983-1984).


*taŋkep catch, as by covering


PMP     *taŋkep catch, as by covering

Mapun taŋkopa cover; a bandage; a door; operculum of a shellfish
  t<um>aŋkopto cover something; to dress a wound
Malay taŋkapgripping; clasping; capture, esp. capture in the hand
Old Javanese a-taŋkəpclosing together
  a-naŋkəpto close (fit) together
  ka-taŋkəp-anto close in on, assail
Sasak taŋkəpa dropnet used to catch birds; to catch people
  naŋkəpto catch with a dropnet
Manggarai taŋkepcovering, catching by covering with the hand; to lay one thing on top of another; to cover under a hollow

Note:   With root *-kep₁ ‘cover, fold over’.


*taŋkis to parry, turn an attack or accusation aside


PWMP     *taŋkis to parry, turn an attack or accusation aside

Maranao taŋkisparry, fence, dodge, ward off
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taŋkisto fend off a blow with one’s hands or arm
Tiruray taŋkisto parry, to turn something aside
Tboli taŋkisdenial; to deny, as charges made against one; to be dissenting
Ngaju Dayak taŋkisparrying; what is parried (blow, thrust, etc.)
  ma-naŋkisto parry
  pa-naŋkiswhat is often or always parried
  tara-taŋkisable to be parried
Malay taŋkisparrying by striking aside (used of fencers or duelists)
  taŋkis-kanto ward off
Old Javanese takis ~ taŋkisrepelling, warding off; defense; clash, collision; shield?, weapon of defence?
Javanese taŋkisflood control dike along a riverbank; shield, breastplate
  naŋkisto ward off
  pe-naŋkisact of holding against attack
Balinese taŋkiswarding off, parrying
  naŋkisto ward off, parry (blows)
Sasak taŋkisto ward off, parry

Note:   Also Sasak taŋklis ‘to ward off, parry’. Much of this distribution may be due to borrowing from Malay.


*taŋtáŋ clanging sound; to clang, as in beating metals


PPh     *taŋtáŋ clanging sound; to clang, as in beating metals

Yami taŋtaŋbeat or smash with a stone or metal tools
Ilokano taŋtáŋsound of metal being beaten (bells)
Bikol taŋtáŋthe clanging sound of a bell
  mag-taŋtáŋto toll a bell, to clang


PPh     *taŋtaŋ-én to beat metals

Yami taŋtaŋ-ento mash, beat (as in forging metal tools)
Ilokano taŋtaŋ-énto beat metals


*taŋuy to swim


PWMP     *taŋuy to swim     [doublet: *laŋuy, *naŋuy₂]

Sambal (Botolan) taŋuyto swim
Ngaju Dayak taŋoyswimming
  ha-naŋoyto swim

Note:   Possibly a back-formation from a prefixed form in which n- was assumed to result from nasal substitution.


*tapa incise, make an incision in flesh


POC     *tapa₂ incise, make an incision in flesh

Sa'a ahato cut, to score, to notch, to mark by incising, to cross the ‘t’ in writing
  aha-siŋemaking incisions in
Samoan tafa(of boil, abscess, etc.) cut open, incise
Anuta tapato cut the stomach of a fish in order to remove the gut; to circumcise
Maori tapato cut, split

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*ta(m)pak slap, strike with the hand


PWMP     *ta(m)pak slap, strike with the hand

Bontok tapákto slap the face; a slap on the face
Kankanaey tampákslap in the face; box the ears
Bikol mag-tapákto hit, strike or slap the face or body with force using the open hand
Maranao tampakdash or hit, as wave hits shore
Ngaju Dayak tapakstruck with the flat of the hand
Nias ma-nafato strike with the open hand, slap

Note:   Also Bontok tadpák ‘to slap’. With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.


*tapak₁ palm of the hand, sole of the foot


PWMP     *tapak₁ palm of the hand, sole of the foot

Kapampangan maka-tapakbarefoot
  tapak-ansole of the foot, footprint; shoe
Tagalog tápakfootstep; tread of feet
  i-tápakto set or put one’s foot down on something
  mag-tapákto walk barefoot
  maká-tápakto happen to step on
  pa-tápakto allow oneself to be stepped on by someone
  tapak-ántreadle; a lever worked by the foot to impart motion to a machine
Malay tapakpalm of hand, sole of foot; footstep as a measure of length
  mə-napakto track (by footprints)
  kə-tapak-anplace where one sets one’s foot, i.e. threshold or lintel
Karo Batak tapakimprint; trace of the foot or hand
  napak-ifollow the tracks of an animal in pursuing game
  tapak-tapakthe palm of the hand or sole of the foot
Toba Batak tapaksandal
  tapak ni patsole of the foot
  tapak ni taŋanpalm of the hand

Note:   PMP *palaj₁ is firmly reconstructible in the meaning ‘palm of hand, sole of foot’, and the semantic distinction between it and *tapak remains to be worked out. Overall, reflexes of *tapak appear to refer more consistently to the sole of the foot, and it is possible that *palaj was ‘palm of the hand’ and *tapak ‘sole of the foot’, although both meanings appear with reflexes of both forms.


*tapak₂ visible


PMP     *tapak₂ visible

Iban tampakvisible, obvious; light, clear, shining
Malay tampakto be visible
  tampak-kanto see
Javanese tampakopen, unobscured
Samoan tafa(of light and shade effect) be visible, discernible

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*tapal a patch, as on clothing; poultice, as over a wound


PWMP     *tapal a patch, as on clothing     [doublet: *Capel]

Ilokano tápalcataplasm, poultice, plaster, patch
Bontok tápalreinforce; strengthen by binding a piece of wood to a weak or broken section; to bind a split to a broken limb
Tagalog tápalmending patch (of cloth); poultice, plaster
Bikol tápalpatch, pocket
  mag-tápalto sew this type of pocket
Hanunóo tápalplaster, poultice
Agutaynen mag-tapalto apply something to a surface, as leaves to a wound or sore area
Cebuano tápallay something over a small area and stick it (as in placing a medicinal plaster on the body)
Mansaka tompalto patch (as a garment)
Iban tapala poultice
Malay tampalposting up; patching; plastering (of putting colored paper patterns on a kite, posting a notice on a wall, putting sticking plaster on a sore, etc.


*tapaŋ bold, rude; brave


PPh     *tapaŋ₂ bold, rude; brave

Casiguran Dumagat tapaŋcourageous, brave; fierce, mean, bold
Kapampangan ma-tápaŋbrave
Tagalog ma-tápaŋbrave; gallant; audacious; chivalrous; daring; fearless; courageous; bold; manly; plucky; spirited
  ka-tapáŋ-anbravery; courage; valor
Bikol ka-tápaŋone who speaks uncivilly or impolitely

Note:   Possibly a Tagalog loan distribution.


*tapay rice wine; yeast; fermented rice; fermented rice cake


PWMP     *tapay rice wine; yeast; fermented rice; fermented rice cake

Itbayaten tapayboiled cake; there are four kinds depending upon its ingredients: 1. sweet potato, coconut milk, sugar/banana, 2. fine corn grits, banana/grated sweet potato, sugar, 3. fine corn grits, banana, grated sweet potato, sugar, 4. fine corn grits, grated sweet potato
Ilokano tápeykind of fermented drink made by the Igorots (mountain people)
Bontok tápəyrice beer
Ibaloy tapeyrice wine, rice beer (made from traditional kintoman rice; a necessary part of almost all ritual and festive gatherings)
  me-nepeyto make rice wine
Pangasinan tápayto knead dough
Tagalog tápaydough
  t<in>ápaybread of any kind
Bikol tápaydough
  mag-tápayto make bread
  t<in>ápaybread, buns, rolls
  tapáy-ana large earthen jar
Hanunóo tápayfinely pounded rice flour added to sugarcane juice to aid in making fermented wine
Aklanon tápayyeast
Maranao tapayyeast
Binukid tapayyeast (for making rice wine)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tapeyyeast for making rice wine; it is prepared from powdered rice, sugarcane juice, chili pepper, along with various other ingredients
Mapun tapayan indigenous confection made of rice and spices, seldom made nowadays (procedure: cook the rice, then mix spices with it, wrap the mixture in a big leaf and keep overnight; it’s ready to eat in the morning)
Kayan tapeya wrapped parcel or bundle, especially cooked rice
Ngaju Dayak tapayrice with yeast, sourdough cooked and then left to ferment for three days; it is then very sweet and somewhat intoxicating and is eaten with pleasure
Iban tapayfermented rice
Malay tapayyeast; leavened cake; fermented drink; fermenting mixture made of boiled rice and yeast (used most commonly as yeast for making leavened cakes; in literature it occurs rather in the sense of fermented drink
Karo Batak tapefermented rice; an intoxicating dish
Old Javanese tapefermented glutinous rice
Javanese tapea sweet food made from fermented sticky rice or cassava
Balinese tapea sort of fermenting agent, yeast; fermented cassava
  tape bahasfermented rice
Makasarese tapesteamed and then fermented stick rice


PWMP     *tapay-an large jar used to store rice wine

Ibaloy tapj-anto have rice wine go along with an animal butchered
Tagalog tapáy-ana large earthenware jar (generally used for water)
Hanunóo tapáy-ana large earthenware pot used in making sugarcane wine
Iban tepayanlarge earthenware jar
Malay tempayanwater jar; etymologically a fermenting jar; now used loosely of any large jar
Javanese tempayanlarge earthenware bowl or jar


*tape₁ to flow, run, of water


POC     *tape₁ to flow, run, of water

Nggela taveto flow, of liquids, air; current, tide; a freshet, flood
  tave-tito flow over
Kwaio afeflow, drip, run down, dissolve, current
  afe-siacarry away, of wave, current or stream; slip away from
Toqabaqita afecurrent in the ocean
  afe-lautrample grass, vegetation when walking on or through it
  afe-rakoqaof flood water, high water in a stream, river (after heavy rains): subside, go down
'Āre'āre ʔahesurf, flooded river, current caused by tide, wind, rain; tidal-rip; to flow; a current, stream; to drip quickly
  ʔahe-tahato flow
  ahe-ta ni waia dry river bed
  ʔahe-siato drift away, to be carried away by the current
Sa'a ahesurf, currents from wind or tide, tide-rip; to flow; to melt away, to waste, to disappear
  ahes-ito cause to drift
Arosi aheto flow, as a current; to float gently along in water or air; to dissolve into liquid; to be in flood, to come down in a freshet
  ahe-aurua waterfall (auru = ‘down’)
  ahe-siacarried away to sea
Fijian daveto flow, of liquids in a small stream (drōdrō is stronger, and dobui the strongest word); commonly of the flow of blood
  dave-kakathe sound of a rushing violent stream
  dave-nabe carried away by a flood
  dave-taan opening in a reef that a canoe may pass through
Tongan tafeto flow, to run (of liquids)
  tafe-ʔaŋaplace or gutter, etc. where something flows
Niue tafeto flow
  faka-tafeto express (as oil from copra)
Futunan tafeto flow (rapidly)
Samoan tafeto flow, run; a flow
  ta-tafe(of water), race, flow swiftly
  tāfe-aŋaparty of castaways or people cast adrift; party of people in exile or banishment
  tafe-tototo bleed
  tafe-abe carried away (by current, etc.)
  tafe-tafe-ato drift; current, esp. where offshore waves meet sea waves
Tuvaluan tafeto flow
Rennellese taheto float, drift; current, especially where offshore waves meet sea waves; to have blood in saliva, especially of persons with tuberculosis
  tahe-ʔaŋableeding in saliva
Anuta tapeocean current
Rarotongan taeto leak, to melt, to flow, to ooze, to trickle, to discharge
  aka-taeto let any fluid into or out of a vessel through a leak; to make to flow or run out, as water through a pipe, or as in turning on a tap to allow water to flow or run
Maori tahemenses; sap of a tree; to exude, drop, flow
  ta-tahedrippings, issue, exudation, as gum of trees, etc.
  whaka-taheto lead off water, etc., as into a drain
Hawaiian kaheto flow, trickle, drop, melt, menstruate; in heat, of a bitch; a run or school of fish
  kahe ka hāʔaeto drool at the mouth
  hoʔo-kaheto water or irrigate, to cause to flow, drain


POC     *tape-a be carried away by water

Toqabaqita afe-afloat in the sea, be carried by the sea
  afe-fe-aforeign place: an island, country other than one’s own
Tongan tāfe-ato be flooded by running water, or to be washed away or carried along by a stream
Niue tafe-abe carried away by a current; a sickness of women (causing continual menstruation)
Samoan tafe-abe carried away (by current, etc.), to drift
Nukuoro dahe-ato drift
Rennellese tahe-ato soar
Anuta tape-ato drift


POC     *tape-tape flow swiftly

Kwaio afe-afecurrent
Arosi ahe-aheto float gently; a flood, freshet
  ahe-ahe-aan early name for foreign ships, whalers on the south coast
Fijian i-dave-davethe channel of a stream, or its source
Niue tafe-tafeflowing freely

Note:   Also Tolai tavit ‘to run, of water; to flow, as blood from a cut or wound’.


*tape₂ abortion


POC     *tape₂ abortion

Arosi tahean abortion
Maori taheabortion
  whaka-taheto cause to abort


*tapeS winnow


PAN     *tapeS winnow

Kavalan tapeswinnow; winnowing
Pazeh mu-tapesto winnow
  tapes-iwinnow it!
Thao tapishwinnowing
  t<m>apishto winnow
  tapsh-iwinnow it!


PMP     *tahep winnow

Itbayaten tahepwinnowing; chaff, husks of grain, rough particles when corn is ground (kapaN-, maN-, ma-, naN-)
Bontok tapá <Mto winnow rice; rice husks
Casiguran Dumagat tapto winnow rice
Tagalog tahípup and down movement of rice grains being winnowed on a flat basket
  mag-tahípto winnow (cereals, as rice) on a flat basket by throwing the grains up for the chaff to be blown away by the wind and catching them back with the basket as they fall
Bikol mag-tahóp-anto winnow by throwing grain up and down in a winnowing basket so that the grain falls back into the basket and the wind blows the chaff away (mag-, -on)
Hanunóo tahúpwinnowing
Aklanon tahópto sift
Cebuano tahúpchaff of cereals; separate the husk from husked grains
Mansaka taapto winnow
Kayan tapto winnow a tray (full of rice grains)
Buol mo-naupto winnow


PMP     *tahep-an winnowing basket

Itbayaten tahp-anto winnow
Bontok tap-ʔánbe winnowed, of rice
Tagalog táhip-anthe flat basket used in winnowing
Cebuano taph-an-an <Mground cereals to be winnowed; place where winnowing is done
Kenyah tap-anwinnowing fan
Kenyah (Long Anap) tap-anwinnowing basket
Murik tap-anwinnowing basket
  nap-anto winnow
Kayan tap-anwinnowing tray
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tap-anwinnowing basket (also used as a sieve)


PAN     *CapeS-i to winnow

Puyuma Tap-iwinnow
  T-em-ap-ito winnow


PMP     *tahep-i₂ winnow

Itbayaten tahp-i <Mwinnow (imperative)
Bontok tapʔia wide, flat basket, used as a drying tray
Cebuano taph-iwinnow (imperative)

Note:   Also Bontok t-in-ap-i ‘a wide, flat basket, used as a drying tray’, Aklanon taeáph-an ‘sifter’.


*tapi to winnow


PMP     *tapi to winnow     [doublet: *tapeS]

Bontok tapia wide, flat basket used as a drying tray
Malay tampijerky up-and-down motion; winnowing by vertical jerks
  tampi-anwinnowing pan
Sundanese napito winnow with a ñiru (winnowing tray) shaken up and down
Old Javanese tapiwinnow
  t<in>apy-anto winnow
Balinese napito winnow grain
  tapi-ninto be winnowed by someone
Kambera tàpito winnow, as rice
Yamdena tafito winnow
Buruese tapi-hto winnow


*tapik pat, slap lightly


PMP     *tapik pat, slap lightly

Ilokano tapíkto pat someone on the shoulder
Bontok tapíkto slap the face lightly; a slight slap on the face
Kankanaey tampíkto slap lightly in the face; to pat one on the cheek
Casiguran Dumagat tapekto slap a mosquito
Tagalog tapíklight tap with the hand or just the fingers
  t<um>apíkto tap; to pat with the palm of the hand or fingers
Agutaynen tapik-ento tap or slap somebody lightly on the back or other part of the upper body (excluding the face); if a person slaps you lightly on the shoulder, it could mean that they are poisoning you or putting a curse on you; in order to reverse or stop the poison or curse the recipient must return the slap
Iban tampikthrow something soft and wet at


POC     *tapik pat, slap lightly

Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka tafislap, clap
Fijian taviapplied to various acts done with the hand: to slap, pat lightly


*tapiq₁ board, lumber, beam in house construction


PPh     *tapiq₁ board, lumber, beam in house construction

Yami tapiboard; flat
  pi-tapito flatten
Itbayaten tapiboard, wooden flooring, wooden side planks (of boat); flat lumber
  ma-tapiflat, to be flat (shape)
Ilokano tapíslab, flat piece of something, board, panel
  tapí-anto cover with a board
Isneg tápieither of the two beams that run over the floor joists and fit in their mortises at both ends; they project above the flooring and run lengthwise inside the tall posts
Aklanon tápiʔboard, lumber
Hiligaynon tápiʔwood, board, lumber


*tapiq₂ apron, skirt


PPh     *tapiq₂ apron, skirt

Tagalog tapíʔapron; any piece of cloth used by women to cover the body in bathing, working or washing
  mag-tapíʔto wear an apron; to cover one’s body (e.g. with a towel) from the waist down
Cebuano támpiʔtuck a piece of cloth under another to hold it in place, e.g. a shirt that sticks out, or something wrapped around the waist
Maranao tampiʔmalong (skirt-like garment with open ends) worn by men knotted at the waist
Kadazan Dusun tapiʔsarong
  topi-onto be worn as a sarong
Murut (Timugon) tapiʔsarong
Ngaju Dayak tapihan underskirt worn by women
Malay tapehlong sarong, unsewn and worn as a skirt by Javanese women
  bər-tapehto wear a sarong as a skirt, i.e. from the waist downwards, in contrast to wearing it as a bodice as well, i.e. from the breasts downwards
Old Javanese tapihgarment worn by women around the lower part of the body
Javanese tapihankle-length batik wrap-around skirt worn by ladies
Balinese tapihan underskirt worn by women
Proto-Sangiric *tapiʔcloth worn when bathing

Note:   Also Cebuano tapí ‘piece of cloth wrapped around the waist or upper body as a skirt’.


*tapis₁ loincloth (?)


PAN     *tapis₁ loincloth (?)     [doublet: *tapiq]

Bunun tapisbreach-clout
Itbayaten tapisan apron-like piece worn over skirt, petticoat
Tagalog tápisapronlike cloth worn over skirt of mestiza dress
Bikol tápiswrap-around skirt
Cebuano tápis, tapíspiece of cloth worn around the waist or upper body as a skirt
Tetun taiswoven material, cloth, clothing
Selaru taissarong of native material


*tapis₂ to skim over the surface


PMP     *tapis₂ to skim over the surface

Maranao tapisskim; long-legged water bird
Tolai tapskim
Nggela tavito slip, turn suddenly; go crookedly, as a knife, or a kite in the air
Wayan tavibrush lightly, sweep something; peel something
Fijian taviskim along, skid off a flat surface, as the tiŋga (reed used in a game of throwing) on level ground
Tongan tafito sweep; sweep away, get rid of
  tafi-abe swept away, as by a wave

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*tapis₃ to strain, filter


PPh     *tapis₃ to strain, filter

Mansaka tapisto filter
  tapis-ana sieve, filter
Tiruray tafis-ana woven rattan strainer for squeezing shredded coconut meat
Malay tapisstraining through, filtering, of passing liquid through a cloth or strainer, and fig. of a family passing on from generation to generation
Karo Batak tapiscoconut husk used as a sieve or strainer
Toba Batak tapissieve
  ma-napisto sift, filter through a sieve
Nias tafifilter, sieve
  ma-nafito sift, filter
Proto-Sangiric *tapisto strain, filter


*tapo to fan


POC     *tapo to fan

Tolai tapto fan
  tap-tapto fan; a fan, bellows, etc.
Motu tapo-ato fan
  tapo-tapo-ato fan (collective)


*tapu to look for, seek


POC     *tapu to look for, seek

Motu tahu-ato seek; to examine
Nggela tavuto look for, seek, especially lice in the hair
  tavu-hito look for, seek, especially lice in the hair


*tapuk₁ flock together


PMP     *tapuk₁ flock together

Sundanese tapukto heap, pile up; swarm together (as ants on sugar)
Arosi ahuflock together

Note:   With root *-puk₃ ‘gather, flock together’.


*tapuk₂ dust in the air, stir up dust


PPh     *tapuk₂ dust in the air, stir up dust

Ilokano tápokdust
  ma-tapúk-anto be soiled in dust
  t<um>ápokto turn to dust; be pulverized, stir up dust
  tapúk-anto make dusty; to dust
Bontok tápukdust in the air, especially when travelling in a vehicle
Ibaloy tapokdust as it swirls in the air or has settled on something (as when stirred by a vehicle)
Agutaynen mag-tapokto shake, knock the dust off something

Note:   With root *-puk₂ ‘dust’.


*tapuk₃ hide oneself


PWMP     *tapuk₃ hide oneself

Maranao tapokto hide something, as in hiding a weapon
Iban tapokto hide, conceal, as a fault
Malay tapokto hide oneself


*ta(m)pun gather, assemble


PMP     *ta(m)pun gather, assemble     [disjunct: *tampuk]

Sangir tampuŋgather, collect, assemble
Arosi ahucome together in a group, flock together

Note:   With root *-pun ‘assemble, collect, gather’.


*tapus end, complete, finish


PAN     *tapus end, complete, finish

Favorlang/Babuza taposall
Ilokano tápusend, conclusion, termination
  ag-tápusto end, finish
Bontok tápusthe last day of the month
Casiguran Dumagat taposto finish, to complete; after, afterwards
Bikol (Camarines Sur) táposcompleted, concluded, ended, finished, over, terminated, through
Hanunóo tapúsfinished, as a song, task or story
Aklanon tapósto finish, complete, end, come to a close
Hiligaynon tapúsfinished, completed
Palawan Batak tapus-ánend
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tapusthe end, the finish; to complete or finish
Makasarese tappusuʔcompletely, entirely, all over

Note:   With root *-pus₁ ‘end, finish’. Mills (1975:850, 895) posits Proto-South Sulawesi *ta(m)pus ‘disappear; all gone’.


*taq₁ because


PPh     *taq₁ because

Yami tabecause, otherwise; negator
Itbayaten tabecause
Ilokano taso, because; that; conjunction connecting causative or resultative clauses
Isneg tabecause, lest, that, so that
Ifugaw taconjunction introducing a purpose or a result clasue, “in order that”
Ifugaw (Batad) tasubordinating conjunction, “so that”, “in order that”
Ibaloy tabecause
Pangasinan tabecause
Kapampangan ta-otbecause (= NEG + why)
Bikol taʔbecause, so
Binukid tabecause, for the reason that


*taq₂ particle used to soften questions or turn statements into rhetorical questions


PPh     *taq₂ particle used to soften questions or turn statements into rhetorical questions

Isneg taan interrogative particle
Pangasinan taparticle marking interrogative sentences
Kapampangan taʔperhaps, think so
Tiruray taʔa question-marking particle that turns commands into polite requests, and statements into rhetorical questions
Tausug taʔwonder (softens the tone of a question)

Note:   The meaning of this form is challenging. It was clearly an interrogative particle, but evidently not a simple marker of questions. Rather, the glosses of the Tiruray and Tausug forms, both of which are likely to be native, suggest that this was a particle used to soften questions that might otherwise be felt as challenging, or to convert commands into an interrogative form of the type ‘I wonder if you might not mind doing....?’.


*taqan set a trap


PAN     *taqan set a trap     [doublet: *taqen]

Favorlang/Babuza taansnare for catching wild beasts
Tagalog taʔán ~ táʔankind of fish trap used for catching fish on coral reefs
Bikol táʔanfish trap used for catching fish in rice fields and creeks
  mag-táʔanto catch fish with such a trap
Aklanon táanfish net (across river)
Cebuano taʔanset a trap of any sort
Maranao taʔanset trap for catch
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taʔanset a trap or place a fish weir in order to catch something
Mansaka taanto place something (as a trap)
Mapun taanto set a trap (for fish, birds, chickens) in place
Lun Dayeh taansetting of a trap
Malay tahanset (snares and traps)
Proto-Minahasan *taʔansnare; set a snare
Tontemboan taʔansnare trap
  t<um>aʔanset a trap in the ground
Palauan me-laʔel (deʔal-l)set a trap


*taqay feces, excrement


PMP     *taqay feces, excrement     [doublet: *taqi]

Kayan (Uma Juman) taʔefeces, excrement
Mongondow taʔayfeces, excrement


POC     *taqe₂ feces, excrement

Lou tefeces, excrement
Pak defeces, excrement
Loniu tefeces, excrement
Ere drefeces, excrement
Sori deyfeces, excrement
Mendak tefeces, excrement
Tolai taki-ŋgumy excrement
  taki-myour excrement
  take-nahis/her excrement
Vitu taheexcreta, feces
  tahe-taherubbish, waste
Kove tahefeces, excrement
Lakalai la (ta)-tahefeces; leftover trash
  la tahe la magowart (lit. ‘feces of the sea’?)
Wogeo taefeces, excrement
Manam taʔefeces, excrement
Gitua tae-shit, residue
  taliŋa taeear wax
Selau tefeces, excrement
Takuu taeexcrement, feces, shit
  kai taeexclamation of frustration or contempt: Eat shit!
  tuu taeink of an octopus or cuttlefish, sepia
Mono-Alu ta-taeexcrement
Roviana taeexcreta
Vangunu tae-naexcrement
Eddystone/Mandegusu tea <Mfeces
Kilokaka taʔeexcrement
Nggela taedung, feces
Kwaio ae-neexcrement; anus, region around the anus
'Āre'āre ae-naanus
Sa'a aefeces, ordure
Arosi aedung; food in process of digestion
Mota taeexcrement, dung; bits, remnants, inferior parts
Aore tae-excrement
Tangoa te-excrement
Central Maewo taeexcrement
Raga te-excrement
Paamese ta-excrement
Tonga na taʔe-nexcrement
Makatea taeexcrement
Wayan dung, feces, excrement, shit; unusable parts of shellfish; waste material, useless substance on a surface, scum
  tā ni laŋilight scudding clouds
  tā ni siŋabrown growth, probably algae, appearing on surfaces of ponds or lakes in very dry weather (lit. ‘shit of the sun’)
Fijian to excrete
  dē-nathe excrement, properly of animals (cf. ‘excrement, generally human’). Bau, however, does not make the distinction made in Lau, and this word is there commoner than .
  vaka-dē-nato excrete on
  dē ni laŋilight scudding clouds
  dē ni osea plant, Euphorbia hirta
Tongan taʔefeces, excrement, dung; also used in the language of anger, contempt, or pity for me‘a (thing, stuff)
  taʔe-ʔi(lit. ‘dung-of’), as in ho‘o ta‘e‘i peni (your rotten old pen, etc.) --- in the language of abuse
Niue excrement
Futunan taʔeexcrement
Samoan taefeces, excrement
  tae-abe dirty, disgusting, filthy
  tae-feʔeoctopus ink, sepia
  tea-iʔabrown sediment which forms when undiluted coconut cream is boiled (lit. ‘fish shit’)
  tae-laŋofly-speck; freckle (or similar small spot)
  tae-ʔotian herb (Ageratum sp.), the goatweed
Tuvaluan taeexcrement
Kapingamarangi dae-daeresidue from coconut oil; soft flesh of coconut husk (under fibers); to defecate (children’s language)
Nukuoro daeguts, intestines; buttocks
Rennellese taʔefeces, dung, excreta of various kinds (ear wax, octopus ink, sea-slug eggs); fragments as of turmeric or Derris; suds; also an endearing and demeaning term, and used as an insult as in ‘I am your feces’ (I respect and love you and humiliate myself before you)
Anuta taeentrails; excrement
  tae-pikointestines (lit. ‘crooked feces’)
Rarotongan tu-taeoffal, excrement, feces, dung
  tu-tae atuaa species of fungi, the puff-ball
Maori tū-taedung
  tū-tae atuaLycoperdon sp., puff-ball; fungi (lit. ‘ghost feces’)
Hawaiian kū-kaeexcreta
  kū-kae akuaa brownish substance, sometimes noticed under trees in the shape of paste squeezed from a tube; if the substance contains red, it is believed to be the excreta of the ghost of a dying person, and a sign that someone is dying


PMP     *t<in>aqay intestines

Kayan (Uma Juman) tənaʔeintestines


POC     *tinaqe intestines

Mota tinae-guts
Merlav tinae-guts
Tangoa tine-guts
Northeast Ambae sinae-guts
Makatea tinaeguts
Futunan tinaʔepregnant
Samoan tinaeguts, entrails
Tuvaluan tinaebelly, stomach
Kapingamarangi dinaesolar plexus; be pregnant
  dinae madaŋistomach distended by gas
Nukuoro dinaebelly; the edible white part of clam meat
Rennellese tinaʔebelly, abdomen, womb; bulging portion of a flying fish torch; breast of a bird

Note:   Rather than reflecting the more widely-distributed form that ends with *-i, nearly all Oceanic languages appear to continue the PMP variant *taqay. Some of the languages of Vanuatu have a reflex with final high vowel, as with Lolomatui, Lolsiwoi, Mafea tai- ‘excrement’, but this is assumed to be a secondary development from POc *taqe.


*taqe negative marker


POC     *taqe₁ negative marker

Arosi aeno, not, negative particle
Proto-Micronesian *tai, ta-not
Buma taeno
Tongan tae(preposed or prefixed), not, un-, in-, non- or without


*taq(e)baŋ lacking in salt


PWMP     *taq(e)baŋ lacking in salt

Yami tavaŋbland, not salty
Itbayaten tavaŋidea of being tasteless
Ibatan tabaŋbland, tasteless, lacking in salt
Ilokano tabáŋbrackish, salty (water)
Kankanaey tabʔáŋinsipid; tasteless; dull; flat; unsavory; not sweet
Ibaloy tabʔaŋpertaining to the unpleasant bitter taste of water, esp. of brackish, salty water
Pangasinan tabáŋtasteless
  ma-tabáŋ(of water) potable
Kapampangan ma-taʔbáŋtasteless
Tagalog tabáŋinsipidity; tastelessness; want of appetite; want of interest; fresh; not salty (as water); fresh water; of or living in water that is not salty
Bikol ma-taʔbáŋbland, flat, insipid, tasteless; lacking in salt or other spices
  taʔbáŋ na túbigfresh water (not salt)
Hanunóo tabʔáŋfresh water; tastelessness, flatness, referring to flavor or taste
  ma-tabʔáŋfresh, referring to water; tasteless, flat, referring to taste
Aklanon tábʔáŋfresh drinking water; insipid, flat, tasteless
  tábʔaŋfresh drinking water; insipid, flat, tasteless, flavorless
Hiligaynon ma-tábʔaŋtasteless, of liquid consistency, light, mild
Cebuano tabʔáŋflat in taste, lacking sugar or salt
Binukid tabʔáŋflat in taste; tasteless, insipid
Chamorro taʔpaŋrinse -- salt water by using fresh water


*taqen set a snare


PMP     *taqen set a snare

Ilokano taénbet, water
Hanunóo taʔúncocking, as a gun or a trap
Aklanon taʔónfish trap in river
Cebuano taʔúnset a trap or fishline in place; offer a part of the body to receive blows or abuse; place something as a bet
Maranao taʔan <Aset trap for catch
Binukid taento set (a fish trap or fish line) in place
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taʔan <Ato set a trap or place a fish weir in order to catch something
Mansaka taʔan <Ato set a trap or place a fish weir in order to catch something
Tausug mag-taunto set (a fish trap, as a bubu basket trap); something (especially money) risked in a game of chance, bet
Kayan (Uma Juman) taʔənset a trap (as the buvuʔ fish trap)
Malay tahanto set (snares and traps)
  tahan bubuto set basket traps for fish
Toba Batak taónset up, of a deadfall trap
  ma-naon dotonput out the fishnets to make a catch
  ma-naon-ito catch; to set up a deadfall trap
  taon-taon-andeadfall trap, noose trap
Sundanese taheunwhat one uses to trap something (in the broadest sense), deadfall trap, noose trap, poison, etc.
  naheunto set a trap


POC     *taqon set a snare

Lakalai ta-tahoto set a snare
Niue ta-taoto hide, lie in wait, lie in ambush, keep a look-out

Note:   Also Cebuano taʔán ‘set a trap of any sort’ (as a bubu fish trap). This term evidently referred to the setting of a trap so that the hunter had then only to wait for the prey to fall victim to it. Recurrent references to the bubu fish trap in the Philippines and western Indonesia, suggest that this was one specific referent that the verb *taqen applied to, but the agreement of Malay and Lakalai in point to setting up a snare suggest that it applied as well to land-based traps in which the prey was caught by a noose.


*taqo cook in earth oven


POC     *taqo cook in earth oven

Mono-Alu taocook on hot stones, cover with leaves in stone-cooking
Nggela taoto be on oven, of leaves in cooking
Tongan taʔoto bake
Samoan taocook (in a stone oven)
Rennellese taʔobake in the oven, boil in a saucepan, cook in any way except over an open fire

Note:   Also Hawaiian kāō (length unexpl.) ‘to bake in the oven without leaf wrapping, as taro, breadfruit’.


*taqu right side


PAN     *taqu₁ right side     [doublet: *tuqu]

Lun Dayeh t<in>uəh <Mright side
Kenyah (Long Anap) taʔuright side
Kenyah (Long San) taʔəwright side
Murik taʔuhright side
Bintulu taʔəwright side
Melanau (Mukah) layan taʔəwright side
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Kekan) lian taʔəwright side
Kanowit taʔəwright side
Tunjung tauʔright side
[Ngaju Dayak tauto be able; to know; to understand]
Katingan gan-tauright side
Cape Cumberland tu-tua <Mright hand
Samoan ta-tauright hand
Rarotongan mā-tau-tauto have a familiar knowledge of, to be perfectly used to certain procedures or ways


PMP     *ma-taqu₂ right side

Nauna kal-matu-right side
Lou kal-moru-right side
Nali motright side
Wuvulu maʔauright side
Selau matouright side
Mono-Alu matau-naright side
Varisi matau-naright side
Lungga matua <Mright side
Mota matua <Mthe right hand; belonging to the right hand
Mosina moto <Mright hand
Merlav mato <Mright hand
Central Santo matua <Mright hand
Tambotalo natua <Mright hand
Ngwatua ŋʷatua- <Mright hand
Northeast Ambae matue <Mright hand
Raga mwatua <Mright hand
Vovo na-matu <Mright hand
Mapremo marua <Mright hand
Makatea matauright hand
Lelepa matua <Mright hand
Southwest Tanna mʷatu- <Mright hand
Iaai metâright side
Wayan matauthe right, right-hand side; right, right hand; be right-handed
Fijian matauright, as opposed to left
  vaka-mataucleverly, in a right-handed way
Tongan mataʔuright-handed; right (not left)
Niue matauright (as opposed to left)
Samoan matauhull side of a canoe (as opposed to the outrigger)
Tuvaluan matauclever; experienced; right hand; fast
Nukuoro madauright side
Anuta pai matauright side
  nima matauright hand
Maori matauright, on the right hand; the right hand


PMP     *ka-taqu₂ right hand, right side

Murung ka-touright side
Dobuan a-tairight hand
Hawaiian ʔā-kauright

Note:   Also Sebop taʔuʔ, Penan (Long Labid) naʔauʔ, Long Merigam Penan nauʔ ‘right side’, Roviana matao-na ‘right (opposite of left)’. It is very likely that this comparison is identical to PMP *taqu, *ma-taqu ‘to know how, be able to, be skilled at’, given the universal association of the right hand with skill, aptitude, correctness and the like.


*taqúl to howl, of a dog


PPh     *taqul to howl, of a dog     [disjunct: *tahúl]

Ilokano ag-taúlto bark
  ma-naúlprone to barking
  ag-t<inn>aúlto bark at each other
  taul-ánto bark at
Bontok taulto raise the head, as when attempting to see over something, or of a dog when baying
Pangasinan taólbark (of dog)
Tagalog taʔóla disease of infants or small children causing convulsions
Bikol taʔólto bark, bay, howl, whine (dogs)
  mag-taʔólto bark, bay, howl, whine (dogs)
Maranao taólto shriek, cry
Binukid taulfor a dog, to howl (as when its owner leaves it behind)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taʔulof a dog, to howl
Mansaka taolto howl; to bark
Tausug mag-taul(for dogs) to howl
  pag-taulthe howling of a dog
  t<um>aul(for dogs) to howl

Note:   Also Ifugaw taól ‘yelping of a dog’.


*taqun year, season


PMP     *taqun year, season

Ilokano tawényear; age
  ag-tawénto be so many years old, to have as age
  ka-tawénperson born the same year as someone else
  maka-tawénof the duration of one year
  ma-tawén-anto be one year old, to come of age
  t<um>awénfirst-year anniversary
Kankanaey taónchronology; calculation of time
Ifugaw (Batad) tawónyear, unit time measurement
Casiguran Dumagat taonyear
  taon-taonyearly, every year
Ibaloy tawenyear
  man-tawento be a certain age
  on-tawento be a year old (as debt, baby, time of a person in a place)
Pangasinan taónage, year
  pa-naónseason, in season
Tagalog taʔónyear; per annum, per year; for each year
  i-taʔónto do or make at the same time with; to make coincide
  ká-taʔónincidental, occurring by chance
  má-taʔónto happen at the same time as something else
  maká-taʔónto fortunately find someone or something one needs very badly
  mápa-taʔónto happen to coincide with a certain event or happening
  má-taʔun-ánto happen to meet someone by chance
  t<um>aʔónto take advantage of the opportune time
  táʔún-anyearly; annual; once a year
  táʔun-ínto do or make at the same time with; to make coincide
  táʔún-táʔónannually; yearly; each year; every year
  ká-taʔónincidental, occurring by chance
Bikol taʔónyear
  maŋ-taʔónto complete one year
  pag-ka-ká-taʔónchance, opportunity
  taʔun-ánto be completed within one year
  taʔón-taʔónevery year; annual; annually; perennial
Agutaynen takonyear
  mag-pa-takonwithin a year; for one year
  nan-takonlast year
  t<om>akonnext year
  takon-anyears gone by
Palawan Batak taʔónyear
Maranao taʔonfamine
Binukid taunhunger season
Mapun taunyear; first planting season (when the dry season is about to end in May)
  taun-anmore than a year
  taun-taunevery year
Kadazan Dusun tounyear
  son-tounone year
  toun-tounevery year
Tombonuwo tounyear
Bisaya (Limbang) taunyear
Berawan (Long Terawan) taunyear
Narum taʔaunyear
Miri taʔonyear
Kiput tonyear
Bintulu taʔunyear
Melanau (Mukah) taʔunyear
Melanau Dalat taʔunyear
Malagasy taúnayear, time, season
Iban taunyear, cycle of seasons
Jarai thunyear
Rhade thunyear
Malay tahunyear (solar, lunar, seasonal from rice crop to rice crop, etc.)
  mə-nahunchronic; annual; year-long
  bər-tahun-tahunchronic; annual; year-long
Rejang taweun ~ tawunyear
Old Javanese tahunyear; (seasonal) crop
  pira-piraŋ tahun-ənto keep thinking: how many years...
Sasak taunwet season
  bə -taun-anlong preserved (of fruits)
Tae' taunthe time that the rice needs to grow from seed to mature plant
  maʔ-tauna year long
  pa-naun-anthe Toraja agricultural year
  paʔ-taun-anthe Toraja agricultural year
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *taquNyear
Mandar tauŋyear
Buginese tauŋyear
Makasarese tauŋyear
Muna taghuyear
Kambera ndauŋuyear, annual
  ndau humbaSumbanese year, of six months
  ndau jawanon-Sumbanese year, of twelve months
Hawu tauyear (Fox n.d.)
Atoni tɔnyear
Erai tonyear
Alune tauneyear
Tolai taunseason, time, period
Proto-Micronesian *tauseason, sun
Hiw toyear
Mota tauseason, either of planting, or of the maturity of what is planted
  o tau namthe season of planting yams
  tau matuathe season when yams are fit to dig
Piamatsina taun-iyear
Wusi-Valui taunyear
Tangoa taun-iyear
Marino tauyear
Makatea tauyear
Rotuman fauyear; crop, harvest: of crops that are produced annually, such as oranges, yams, pineapples, and sometimes (Spondias dulcis)
Tongan taʔuyear; age; yam season, yam crop or harvest
  taʔu motuʔaage
Niue tauyear, season
  tau tupuspringtime (‘growing season’)
Futunan taʔuseason for harvesting yams
  taʔu laʔādry season
Samoan tauseason (warm, cold, etc.); climate; weather
Tuvaluan tauperiod; season
  tau titi, tau malostage in child’s life when it is appropriate to wear titi [pandanus leaf skirt], if female, or malo [breech cloth], if male
Kapingamarangi tauseason; to perish
Nukuoro dauseason
Rennellese taʔuseason
  taʔu ikafish season, late July until January, especially for flying fish and large fish caught on lines at night after catching flying fish that are used as bait
Anuta tauyear
Rarotongan taua season or period
Maori tauseason, year, the recurring cycle being the predominating idea rather than the definite time measurement
Hawaiian kauperiod of time, lifetime; any season, especially summer; session of a legislature; term, semester; time of late night before dawn

Note:   Also Isneg tawán ‘year’ (<Ilokano), Ibaloy tawʔen ‘year’, Yakan tahun ‘year’ (< Malay), Tausug tahun ‘a year’ (< Malay), tahun-tahun ‘every, or each year’, Mongondow taoŋ ‘year’.

Although the terms ‘year’ and ‘season’ occur in a number of the glosses cited here, it is clear that these must be connected more with the growing cycle of food plants and with greater or lesser rainfall than with vegetative changes in the natural environment of the kind associated with the seasons in temperate climates. In some specific locations the association may be with annually cycling events of other kinds, as the runs of flying fish in Rennell, but the most common recurrent theme appears to be the cycle of planting and harvesting yams. In this connection note that in some of the languages of the Solomons the word for ‘year’ (and hence ‘season’) appears to reflect PMP *qubi ‘yam’, as with Poleo, Malagheti, Tolo, Malango uvi ‘yam; year’, and in many of the languages of Vanuatu innovative terms for ‘yam’ and ‘year’ are homophones, as with Peterara ndamu, Apma ndam, Paamese ouh (possibly < *qubi), Letemboi nə-dam, Unua no-rom, Ranon rem, Toak huram, Faulili auh or Imreang ne-aku ‘yam; year’.


*tara cockspur


PMP     *tara cockspur     [disjunct: *tada]

Simalur taraartificial cockspur
Buginese tara-manuʔcockspur
Bimanese taracockspur


*tariŋ bamboo sp.


PWMP     *tariŋ bamboo sp.     [doublet: *periŋ, *teriŋ]

Quop Land Dayak tariŋbamboo sp.
Sentah Land Dayak tariŋbamboo sp.
Dampelas tariŋk.o. large, strong bamboo
Wolio tarik.o. bamboo
Muna tarik.o. small bamboo, made into fences


*taruk plant shoot, sprout


PWMP     *taruk plant shoot, sprout

Casiguran Dumagat talúkwet rice seedlings; to plant paddy rice seedlings
Bikol mag-tarókto transplant rice from the seedbed to the field
  pag-ta-tarókrice planting time
Hanunóo táluksprout, shoot (to be transplanted); transplanting
Malagasy tárukathe tender shoots of plants
  ma-nárukahaving shoots
Iban tarokbud, leaf bud
  narokto grow buds, shed leaves (i.e. to bud afresh)
Malay tarokshoot (from side of tree or branch --- the topmost shoot is puchok)
Tae' taruksprout from a tree or plant, shoot, bud; descendant, progeny

Note:   Also Tae' taruɁ ‘sprout from a tree or plant, shoot, bud’.


*taR- prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action


PAN     *taR- prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action     [doublet: *ta-]

Saaroa tar-utato vomit (Ferrell 1969)
Bahasa Indonesia tər-prefix marking accidental or uncontrolled action
  tər-tidurto fall asleep unintentionally (tidur‘sleep’)
Simalur ta- ~ tal-prefix of spontaneous action


*taRabas plant sp.


PWMP     *taRabas plant sp.

Hanunóo tagábaslong-leaved variety of kusúl (Kaempferia galanga Linn.); many medicinal and religious uses
Malay terawasa simple used in making beboréh (yellow cosmetic of saffron and coconut oil rubbed on the body in Java on ceremonial occasions)


*taRah to wait


PAN     *taRah to wait

Pazeh (maxu)-taxato wait
Amis talato wait
  pa-talato prepare
Thao mi-talhawait for someone
Bunun (Takituduh) mal-ta-talahto wait
Tsou m-oo-troto wait
Saaroa m-ara-a-taa-tarato ambush


PAN     *ma-naRah to wait

Saisiyat (Tungho) may-naato wait
Atayal (Squliq) mə-nagato wait
Yami (Imorod) mapa-nalato wait
  pa-nala-ento wait
Itbayaten ma-na-nayacan wait
  na-naya-enwatch and wait for
Kapampangan ma-náyawaiting for someone, something


PAN     *t<um>aRah to wait

Seediq (Truku) t<əm>agato wait
Kanakanabu t<um>á-tarato ambush

Note:   PAn *taRah ‘to wait’ is intriguing for several reasons. First, it is one of the few cognate sets in which prefixation with *maN- appears in Formosan languages. Second, reflexes of *ma-naRah vs. *t<um>aRah are found even within the Atayalic group, distinguishing dialects of Atayal from those of Seediq (Li 2004:688), thus implying that *maN- was active in the relatively recent history of these languages, despite its general absence in Taiwan. Third, *taRah carries a variety of different affixes in all languages that reflect it, and it is very difficult to find examples of the simple base. Part of this comparison was first recognized by Tsuchida (1976:232).


*taRaq hewing with an adze


PAN     *taRaq hewing with an adze

Thao talhaqchips from adzing wood
  ma-talhaqwill adze, will shape with an adze
  shan-talhaq-anbe adzed by someone, be shaped or worked by someone with an adze
Ilokano tagáto trim, shape (by cutting); kind of small gray bird that nests in tree holes it bores
Aklanon tagáʔto strike with a sharp object
Cebuano tágaʔcut down trees
Ida'an Begak tagaʔadze
Lun Dayeh taraʔclear-cutting of jungle for farming
Malay tarahplaning with an adze; shaping, rough-hewing
Old Javanese ta-tahsmall chisel, punch
  a-na-tahto shape with a punch
  t<in>a-tahto shape with a punch
Balinese tahahthe blade of a kind of machete, chopper
Tae' tarato rough hew, shape with an adze
Palauan o-láseʔtool for carving/chopping (< *pa-naRaq)
Chamorro tagaʔhack, chop
Rembong tarato hew (wood)
Rotinese talaadze (carpenter’s tool); to work with an adze
Tetun taato be cut by hitting, to make a blow with a cutting implement
  taa ahito strike a flint
  taa ulu-nto cut off a head, to decapitate
Kei tārscallop shell, used as a coconut rasp
Asilulu talato cut down (as a banana plant); to scrape, to rasp
  ta-talacoconut rasp
Buruese taha-hto fell, cut down
Numfor karto hack, shape by adzing (a canoe)
Manam tarato beat off, to strike off (branches), to hollow out (of canoes)
Numbami talachop, carve (as a log in making a canoe)
Motu tara-iato adze; to chop; to cut wood; to sting (of hornet); to peck food (of fowls)
Arosi arato chop, cut, cut down a tree; to lop off branches, break off; to hoe; to make equal, level
Mota tarato hew, chop, cut, as with a lakae(tridacna shell adze)
Mosina tarcut
Wayan (of solid object) be cut by chopping or slashing; chopped, hacked, axed, adzed, slashed; be carved, shaped by cutting; be built, made (of boat, keel)
  tā-sicut, chop, carve, build something; what is cut, etc.
Fijian to chop with knife or axe
Tongan to hit (in various senses); to hit, strike, beat; scoop up coarse sand, also applied to scooping up fish with a hand net
Niue to strike; to kill; to adze; to build; to cast (a speaer or a dart); to wield
Futunan to beat, hit (with a stick); to cut (wood) for construction; to build (with wood)
Samoan (of blow) strike, hit; (of tree) fell, cut down; (of timber) adze, chip into shape, hew; (of bilge water) bail out; (of tattoo) apply, put on
Tuvaluan taahit; beat; chop; fell a tree; a large wedge used in splitting trees; build a canoe; drive fish; strike (of a clock)
  taa-taastrum a stringed instrument
Rennellese taato hit, strike, cut, kill, murder; tattoo; to carve or make, as a canoe; to tap, as to soften bii fruit; to strike, as birds dive down for fish; to beat, as the sounding board; to net, as flying fish; to scoop up, as swarms of ... fish in seine or net
Anuta taa ~ tato strike, to hit; an implement used for striking (i.e. a club); to chop down; to cut; to build (as in cutting out the shape/building a canoe)
Rarotongan to kill, to put to death, to slay, to overcome, to destroy, to slaughter; an assault, sudden attack; to beat or dash out, as in bailing a canoe; to pound or beat, as in washing clothes with a stick or stone on a flat surface
Maori dash; aim a blow at; strike, beat with a stick, etc.; whip a top; dash water out of a canoe; so bail; cut; tattoo; carve, fashion
Hawaiian to hit, strike, hack, thrust, toss, fling, hurl, dash, especially with a quick hard stroke


PWMP     *ma-naRaq to hew with an adze

Ilokano man-nagawoodpecker
Cebuano ma-nagaʔ-nagaʔwoodcutter
Lun Dayeh naraʔcut down trees to make a farm, fell trees
Malay me-narahto hew a piece of wood into the outline of what it is intended to be, finer carving (ukir) being done with a knife
Sangir ma-nahashape tree trunks into timbers or planks (by adzing)
Bare'e man-taʔato hew, shape, give form to, make the general design of something (as a coffin from a log)
Tae' man-tarato shape with an adze, work wood with an adze
Palauan me-láseʔto chop, whittle, carve (log for canoe); build (house); (cat) claw at


PWMP     *t<in>aRaq (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano t<in>agachips of wood, stone, etc.
Lun Dayeh t<in>araʔfelled by someone
Palauan d<el>áseʔthing carved


PAN     *t<um>aRaq to adze wood, hew wood with an adze

Kavalan t<m>arito chop with an axe
Pazeh mu-taxato cut wood or bamboo into small pieces
Thao t<m>alhaqto shape a log by hewing it with an adze
Lun Dayeh t<em>araʔclear-felling trees on the farm with an axe
Palauan d<m>áseʔto chop, whittle, carve (log for canoe); build (house); (cat) claw at


PWMP     *taRaq-en (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano taga-ento trim, shape (by cutting)
Lun Dayeh tere-ina place which is going to be cleared of wood
Palauan desáʔ-elthing being carved/thing to be carved


PAN     *taRaq-i Adze it!, Hew it!

Pazeh taxaʔ-iCut it!
Thao talhaq-iAdze it!
Gapapaiwa tara-tara-ito fell trees
Arosi ara-ito chop, cut, cut down a tree
Northeast Ambae ta-icut
Tongan taaʔ-ito chop, to cut or carve (e.g. a canoe) by chopping

Note:   Also Iban taras ‘trim, shape, plane, esp. hew with adze or axe’, Selau tarsa ‘shape a plank, hew, plane’, Rotuman ‘to cut or chop down (tree or branch)’. The central sense of this term evidently was ‘to shape wood by adzing’, and it presumably would have applied primarily to the shaping of timbers in house construction, and of tree trunks into the hulls of canoes. Given its meaning it implies the use of adzes as distinct from axes, machetes, and knives, and therefore the existence of a PAn term for ‘adze’ which is yet to be reconstructed. Working with an adze involves a striking motion toward the actor, a semantic feature of this term that crops up in other senses, as in Asilulu ta-tala ‘coconut rasp’, Arosi ara ‘to hoe’, or the Tongan and Rennellese forms that refer to scooping up sand or small fish. In Fijian and the Polynesian languages, on the other hand, the original sense of movement toward the actor in adzing wood evolved into a generalized notion of hitting, chopping, cutting, bailing water (by ‘striking’ at it with a paddle or bailer), or more abstractly, of killing.


*taRaqan squirrelfish: Holocentrus spp.


PMP     *taRaqan squirrelfish: Holocentrus spp.

Yami talanSquirrelfish spp. (Tsuchida 1984)
Itbayaten tayaansquirrelfish; in folk belief, when one has a person whom he hates or dislikes he catches tayaan fish and takes out its siit (spine on the body of the fish) and lets tayaan go back to the water; then he either tries to harm the person directly by the spine, or he places it where the person frequents, hoping that the person will step on it and get hurt. Once a person is pricked on a part of his body he will soon meet his death or calamity; if one uses siit no tayaan and pricks the abdomen of a certain bedbug, together with an incantation, all other bedbugs will disappear
Palauan desáʔelspiny squirrelfish: Holocentrus spinifer
Lakalai e-talahakind of fish
Motu taraname of a fish
Marshallese jerasquirrelfish: Holocentrus spp.
Pohnpeian sarasquirrelfish: Adoryx spinifer
Chuukese sara (saraa)yellow-lined squirrel fish (Holocentrus ensifer Jordan and Evermann)
Puluwat har'akind of red fish
Woleaian sera (seraa)kind of fish
Tongan taʔakind of red, edible fish
Niue taakind of red fish
Samoan malauname given to red squirrel-fishes belonging to genera Holocentrus and Myripristis
  tā-malauname given to certain fishes of genus Holocentrus when about 1 ft. in length
Nukuoro daasquirrelfish

Note:   Yami normally reflects *R as y, but other examples of *R > l are known (*kaRaŋ > kalaŋ ‘crab’, *(d)aRaq > ralaʔ ‘blood’). Nuclear Micronesian reflexes confirm the indications of Palauan and Tongan that this form was trisyllabic, as an original disyllable would be reflected without final vowel.


*ta(R)kes wrap around, encircle


PAN     *ta(R)kes wrap around, encircle

Amis takecembrace
Kadazan Dusun tagkosto girdle

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.


*taRpis thinness, fineness of texture


PWMP     *taRpis thinness, fineness of texture

Tagalog tagpísfineness, sveltness, thinness
Old Javanese tapisthin layer

Note:   With root *-pis₂ ‘thin, fine, of texture’.


*taRum indigo plant and dye: Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) and Indigofera tinctoria L.


PMP     *taRum indigo plant and dye: Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) and Indigofera tinctoria L.

Kapampangan tayomshrub that provides a blue dye (Bergaño 1860)
Bikol tágomindigo, species of plant from which a blue dye is extracted
  mag-tágomto tint or dye with indigo
  tagóm-onto tint or dye with indigo
Hanunóo tágumindigo plant (Indigofera tinctoria Linn.); the leaves are used for dyeing and for rubbing on neck swellings
Romblomanon tāguman indigo plant, Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) or Indigofera tinctoria (Linn.)
Aklanon tagómmedicinal tree
Hiligaynon tagúmblue
Cebuano tágumindigo: Indigofera suffruticosa
  gi-tágumdye something dark or stain something
  mu-tágumbecome dark or black (as skin xposed too long in the sun)
Maranao tagomIndigofera suffruticosa Mill. --- leaves used to color things black; black, blacken, dark color: black, brown, blue or gray
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taɣuma certain leaf of a vine which is used as a black dye for dyeing abaca fiber
Ngaju Dayak tahuma creeper that produces purple-colored fruit that people use to dye woven fabric
  ma-nahumto dye fabric with this substance
Iban tarumindigo plant, unidentified (probably creeper Marsdenia tinctoria R, Br., and not Indian Indigofera tinctoria L.); the blue-black dye made from it
  narumto dye with indigo
Rhade krŭmdye made from indigo plant
Malay tarumindigo plant (indigo dye is nila); usually Indigofera tinctoria, the Indian indigo plant; native nila is made by cutting up tarum leaves, steeping them in water, and finally boiling them with lime or chalk; dark-colored (as the skin or fur of various animals)
Old Javanese tomindigo plant
Javanese tomindigo tree whose leaves (nila) are used for dye
  ŋe-tomto plant indigo trees
  pa-tom-anindigo plantation
Balinese tahumindigo plant
Sasak tarumindigo, indigo plant; to dye blue
Sangir tahuŋindigo, Indigofera tinctoria, used as a dyestuff
Mongondow taguma creeper that yields a greenish-black dye
Tae' tarunindigo plant, Indigofera; its extract is used to dye clothes blue; blue in color
  tarun-tarun-anbluish; bright blue, as translucent water
Makasarese taruŋa plant resembling the indigo plant, but yielding no indigo; probably Cassia tagera
Muna taukind of plant the leaves of which are used as green dye
Bimanese dauindigo plant
Manggarai taroŋIndigofera spp.
Ngadha taruindigo; to dye with indigo
Li'o taruindigo
Lamaholot taʔūthe indigo plant (Pogostemon cablin), used for dyeing woven fabrics
Rotinese tau-kthe indigo plant, indigo; dark blue
  tau isi-kindigo dye
  tau-taublue-black (as rain clouds)
Tetun tauna bush (Indigofera) whose leaves are used for making a blue dye for cloth

Note:   Also Ilokano táyumIndigofera suffruticosa, the indigo plant’, táyum-táyum ‘Indigo hirsuta, herb with reddish-brown stems covered with purplish hairs’ (< Tagalog, ultimately from Kapampangan), Tagalog táyom ‘indigo plant; indigo blue, mag-táyom, tayúm-in ‘to stain or tinge with indigo’, tayúm-an ‘indigo plantation’, tayum-án ‘place where clothes are dyed’ (< Kapampangan), Sundanese tarum ‘name of the nila, or indigo plant’ (< Malay), Mongondow alom ‘indigo plant’.


*taRuq to store, put away for safekeeping, hide valuables; to place a bet in gambling; lay an egg


PMP     *taRuq to store, put away for safekeeping, hide valuables; to place a bet in gambling; lay an egg

Itbayaten tayohiding
Ilokano tárocompetition in tolerance; stake; wager; bet
  ag-tároto place a bet
Tagalog tagóʔhidden; kept out of sight; inconspicuous, not visible; obscure, hidden from view; secret, occult; latent, hidden, concealed
  i-tágoʔto hide; to conceal
Hanunóo táguʔhiding (as hiding something in a cave)
Romblomanon tāguʔsomeone or something hides or takes shelter in a given location
  pa-nāguʔsomeone’s hiding or taking shelter in a given location
Masbatenyo tágoʔsecluded, of a place
  taguʔ-ónkeep safe, take care of
Cebuano táguʔhidden from view (as a house behind trees); to hide, keep away from view or knowledge; put away in a safe place for future use
  ka-táguʔ-unfeel very much like hiding oneself
Maranao tagoʔput (as rice in a pot), place; contents (as of a sack); keep (as money for someone), hide (as money for safekeeping)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taGuʔto put inside
Mansaka tágoʔhidden, concealed; to hide, to conceal (as money)
  ka-tagow-anhiding place
Lun Dayeh taruʔmake, do
Kelabit taruʔmaking, doing; putting, placing
Ngaju Dayak tarohwager (in betting or in games)
  ba-tarohto bet, place a wager on something in gambling
Malay tarohdepositing; staking; having, putting, or keeping in a place of safety
  pə-taroh-anstakes in gambling
  taroh hatito take a fancy to
Acehnese tarōhput down, wager (in a game or gambling contest)
  tarōh luathe wagers of the bystanders at a cockfight
Gayō taroha wager, a bet
  be-te-tarohto wager, place a bet
Karo Batak taruhput down, of a wager
  er-taruhto wager, place a bet
Toba Batak pa-taru-honto escort someone who is leaving
Sundanese taruha bet, wager
  duit taruhthe money that one puts down or wagers in a game
Old Javanese tohstake (in game, gambling, wager, competition, combat); main stake (in combat), the person on whom one relies as the main or sole support
  bwat tohgambling
  a-mwat tohto gamble
  maka-tohto have as a stake, put up for stake; to stake, risk
Javanese tohgambling stake; birthmark
  ŋe-tohto bet something, i.e. use something as a gambling stake
Sasak taroʔa wager, a bet on something; to insert; place a bet
Proto-Minahasan *tahuʔput into, store in
Tombulu tahuʔput into, put away, store inside
Mongondow lin-taguʔto keep, preserve, lay away (in the heart)
Ponosakan tauʔto put away
Lamaholot taʔoto place, put, set, lay down
Tetun tauto place, to put, to set
  tau morasto apply ointment to cure an ailment; to entrust with (valuables, etc.)
Erai tauto put, lay
Wetan tarito put away, pack up, lay down, leave
Yamdena n-ba-taruto wager, place a bet
Fordata n-tarulaying of eggs; to lay an egg
Buruese tahu-hto place or set
Wuvulu ʔauto put
Vitu taru laŋariato put something up
  taruh-iato put, place
Lakalai taluto put in; to plant; to put down on the ground, as a bundle carried on the head
Motu taru-ato cover, as with a sheet, to wrap oneself in
  taru-adihoto put down, of a loaded kiapa (native netted bag)
  taru-ahanaito put out from fence
Bugotu taluto put, place, appoint; used as auxiliary verb to denote continuance of action
  talu-aStop! Wait a minute! Refrain!
Nggela taluto put, place, set
Kwaio aluto put, keep
Lau aluto place, put, lay down; to give, send; to bury; to have, to be; to become, change into
Toqabaqita alu-aput, put down, place (as a mat on the ground); put on (as hat, shoes); bury (a corpse); have, possess, own (other than domestic animals and pets); offer a bounty for killing someone
Sa'a äluto put, to place; to change into, to become
Wayan taube located, situated, positioned, placed, put; be in, at or on a place
  i-tau-tauplace for putting things
  tau-nito put or place something, lay something down, deposit something


PWMP     *ma-naRuq (gloss uncertain)

Itbayaten ma-nayoto hide, conceal
Agutaynen ma-nalokto hide from
Lun Dayeh naruʔto make, to do
Kelabit naruʔto make, do; put, place
Malay mə-narohto have; to keep; to harbor; to entertain in one’s heart
Karo Batak naruhto guide, escort
  naruh-ibring something somewhere (as rice from the field to the village); to supply, fetch (as water)
Toba Batak ma-naru-i asarto build a nest
Sundanese naruh-anto bet on something
Mongondow mo-naguʔto store, keep, lay away, put away; leave behind (an inheritance); to withhold, keep in the heart; to inculcate, impress on someone


PWMP     *maR-taRuq to lay down, put down, put away

Tagalog mag-tágoʔto hide; to hide oneself; to lurk; to hide something; to keep something secret; to save or put away for the future; to put something away in its proper place
Masbatenyo mag-tágoʔto hide, conceal, evade
Agutaynen mag-talokto hide something somewhere; to keep or reserve something for future use
Malay bər-tarohto bet; to deposit stakes
Acehnese meu-tarōhto wager, place a bet on something
Toba Batak mar-taruto place a bet, wager something
Sangir məʔ-tahoput in, stash away, hide


PMP     *pa-taRuq something given to another for safekeeping (?)

Tagalog pa-tágoʔsomething given to another for safekeeping
  pa-tagóʔcovert; secret; hidden; disguised
Hanunóo pa-táguʔhiding oneself
Malay pə-taroha trust; something confided
Fordata n-fa-tarubring something to a specified place


PWMP     *t<in>aRuq what is laid, placed or put down

Tagalog t<in>ágoʔhidden (as money)
Cebuano t<in>águʔsomething hidden
Lun Dayeh t<in>aruʔmade or done by someone
Karo Batak t<in>aruhegg
Toba Batak t<in>aruegg
  mar-t<in>aruto lay an egg
Mongondow s<in>aguʔwhat is put aside or given to someone for safekeeping


PWMP     *t<um>aRuq (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog t<um>ágoʔto hide; to hide oneself; to lurk
Old Javanese t<um>oh-ito put up a stake (for someone or something), bet on, vouch for, guarantee


PWMP     *taRuq-an (gloss uncertain)

Itbayaten tayw-anhide-out, hiding place
Tagalog tagu-ána place for hiding or keeping things (as money); harbor; covert; any place of shelter; children’s game of hide-and-seek
Hanunóo taguʔ-ánbe hidden, be concealed, as an object
Masbatenyo taguʔ-ánhideout, hiding place
Cebuano táguʔ-an-anhiding place; hideout
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taGuʔ-ana container
Toba Batak taru-an maŋan, taru-an minumhave a servant who brings you food and drink


PWMP     *taRuq taRuq (gloss uncertain)

Cebuano táguʔ-táguʔgame of hide-and-seek
Toba Batak taru-tarudung, manure

Note:   Also Hanunóo tayáʔ ‘bet, wager, stake’, Ida’an Begak taru ‘put’ (< Malay). The basic sense of this term appears to have been to put something of value aside for future use, hence its connection with hiding in some languages. In a number of languages in western Indonesia it is associated with placing a bet in gambling, evidently a sense that developed in Malay and then spread to other languages through contact.


*taRutum porcupine fish


PMP     *taRutum porcupine fish     [doublet: *taRutuŋ]

Palauan derúdmporcupine fish
Waay tarutumfish with spiny skin (called durian in Ambon) (Ludeking 1868)


*taRutuŋ porcupine fish, puffer fish, Diodon sp.


PMP     *taRutuŋ porcupine fish, puffer fish, Diodon sp.     [doublet: *taRutum]

Cebuano tagutuŋ-anporcupine fish, Diodon sp.
Murut (Timugon) tautuŋporcupine
Lun Dayeh terutuŋporcupine
Dohoi tohotuŋporcupine
Ma'anyan tetuŋporcupine
Karo Batak tarutuŋkind of durian
Toba Batak tarutuŋdurian tree and its fruit
Asilulu talutunseveral fish, including diagonal-banded toado, also called black-lined pufferfish (Arothron aerostaticus Jenyns), Myers’ porcupine fish (Dicotylichthys myersi Ogilby), and three-bar porcupine fish (D. punctulatus Kaup)
Kowiai/Koiwai tarutunporcupine fish
Gilbertese tautipuffer fish, Diodon
Pohnpeian seiporcupine fish; soursop, Annona muricata
Rotuman faufufish which inflates itself when caught: covered with spikes like a porcupine
Samoan tautufish (Diodon sp.) with very sharp spines
Rennellese tautugeneral name for balloon fish (porcupine fish)

Note:   Also Kenyah (Long Anap) setuŋ, Kayan ketuŋ ‘porcupine’. This remarkable comparison is of special interest for at least two reasons. First, it is customarily assumed that *R > r immediately preceding a dental consonant in Palauan (*uRat > ŋurd ‘vein, artery’), but otherwise became s (*(d)aRaq > rásech ‘blood’, *zaRum > rasm ‘needle’). However, derúdm suggests that *R > r in Palauan if the following syllable began with a dental consonant, even if the intervening vowel was not lost.

The second noteworthy feature of this cognate set is its range of semantic reflexes. Subgrouping considerations make it all but certain that the word referred originally to the puffer fish or porcupine fish, as this meaning is reflected both in Oceanic and in WMP languages. Among Austronesian speakers that became reoriented to a primarily inland environment the meaning was shifted to cover other roundish, spiny biota (porcupine, durian). A parallel semantic extension is seen in Pohnpeian sei, where the reference to the soursop could hardly be original, as the plant is said to be a native of tropical America (Merrill 1954:152). For the conditions governing the split *t > s or Ø in Pohnpeian see Rehg (1984). Both Gilbertese and Pohnpeian evidently reflect earlier *tauti (see Blust 1970a).


*tasak ripe


PWMP     *tasak ripe

Old Javanese tasakaccomplished, expert; thoroughly mastered, brought to maturity
  t<um>asakto bring to maturity, season, cook through
Balinese nasakto ripen (fruit)
Proto-Sangiric *tasakripe, cooked
Sangir sasaʔripe
Tae' tasakripe


PWMP     *ma-tasak ripe, cooked

Old Javanese (m)a-tasakripe, cooked
Sangir ma-sasaʔripe, become ripe
Tae' ma-tasakripe


*tasik sea, saltwater


PMP     *tasik sea, saltwater

Tagalog tásiksaltwater filtered through sand in the process of salt-making; brine; very salty water
Bikol tásikbrine, concentrated saltwater solution; a salt pond
  tasík-onto preserve something by salting
Masbatenyo tásiksalted fish (fish which has been preserved with salt)
Aklanon tásikbrine, salty water
Waray-Waray tasikbroth of rice porridge
  ma-tasikfull of broth; filled with broth
Cebuano tásikthe liquid residue of sea water that has been crystallized in salt making; liquid residue after milling sugar
Yakan tahiksea; ocean; sea water
  mag-tahik-tahikto be used to doing something on/in/at the sea (as traveling by boat, fishing, swimming, looking for shellfish, etc.)
Murung tasiksea, ocean
Ngaju Dayak tasiksea, ocean
  ma-nasikgo to sea
Kapuas tasiksea, ocean
Dusun Deyah tasiksea, ocean
Ma'anyan tahiksea, ocean
Proto-Chamic *tasiʔsea; ocean
Rhade kəsiʔsea, ocean
Malay taseklake
Old Javanese tasiksea
  maka-tasikhaving as sea, surrounded by sea
Javanese tasiksea, ocean
Madurese taseʔsea
Balinese tasiksalt; sea, ocean (in court and literary language)
  tasik-into be made salty
Totoli sasiksea
Petapa Taje tasi/tasiksea
Uma tahiʔsea
Bare'e tasisea, saltwater
  mbo-tasito smell or taste like seawater
  oru n-tasibottom of the sea
  puse n-tasithe middle point of the sea, where [in native conception] the inflowing and outflowing water causes it to ebb and flow (lit. ‘navel of the sea’)
  wawo n-tasisurface of the sea
  wiwi n-tasiseashore, beach
  tasi rayainland sea, bay with narrow entrance
Tae' tasiksea
  tasik mapuluʔthe safe sea, where no catastrophes occur (lit. ‘sea of glue’)
Mandar sasiʔsea
  mo-sasiʔgo to the sea, seek one’s livelihood at sea
  po-sasiʔsailor, one who makes his life at sea
Buginese tasiʔsea (poetic)
Makasarese tasiʔsea
Wolio tasiwater which has been used for cooking rice, left to stand for a few days, and then used for stiffening weaving yarn
Muna tehisea
Chamorro tasisea, ocean, beach
Manggarai taciksea
Rembong tasiksea
Palu'e tahisea
Sika tahisea, saltwater
Lamaholot tahiksea, saltwater
Kambera tehikusea
  tehiku míni‘male’ sea: shoreline that is not dry even in ebbtide, where a river exits into the sea
  tehiku kawini‘female’ sea: area on both sides of a river’s debouchment into the sea, that is dry at ebbtide
  wai tehikusaltwater, seawater
Hawu dahisea
Rotinese tasisea
  tasi oesaltwater, seawater
Atoni tasisea
Tetun tasisea, ocean
Mambai taisasea
Leti taskisaltwater, sea
Selaru tasisea, saltwater
  r-tasito salt
Yamdena tasiksaltwater, sea
Kamarian tasisalt
Nauna təssaltwater, salt
Lou set <Msea, saltwater
Lenkau tressaltwater
Loniu tassea, saltwater
Nali drassea, saltwater
Titan drassaltwater
Leipon ndassea, saltwater
Sori dahsaltwater, salt
Seimat taxsea (in combination)
Wuvulu ʔaxisaltwater, salt
Aua arisaltwater, salt
Yapese daaysaltwater, seawater; tide, flow of saltwater; tidal season
Mendak tassaltwater, salt
Tanga tessaltwater
Label tāsisea, saltwater
Bali (Uneapa) darikisea
Lusi tarisea
Manam taristreaming, flood
Numbami taisaltwater, sea, ocean; salt
Motu tadisea water
Selau tasisaltwater, salt
Banoni taghisi <Msea, saltwater, more a place than a liquid; gutsini more a liquid
Cheke Holo tahiocean, sea; salt
  ta-tahitaste salty
Kokota tahisea
Zabana tahisea
Bugotu tahisea, saltwater, salt; a vessel for holding saltwater
Nggela tahithe sea; surf, a wave; salt
Ghari tasisea
Kwaio asisea, salt, sea water
Lau asisea, saltwater
  fafo-asifoothills (lit. ‘above the sea’)
  fafo-na asisurface of the sea
Toqabaqita asisea, ocean; sea water, saltwater; saltwater person (not a Toqabaqita person); salt
'Āre'āre āsisea, saltwater
  āsi maethe quiet sea in the lagoon (lit. ‘dead sea’)
  āsi maurithe open sea (lit. ‘living sea’)
Sa'a äsisea, saltwater; salt (late use); a month, January
  äsi e honuhigh spring tide
  äsi deuneap tide
Arosi asisea, saltwater, salt
Gilbertese tarisea, saltwater, seawater
  te tarisalt
  tari-akito salt, to be salted
Marshallese lǫ-jetocean, sea (lit. ‘in the sea/at sea’)
Pohnpeian se:docean, sea
Mokilese jedsea water; salt
Chuukese sáát, seti-nsaltwater, sea; salted water; illness caused by sea spirits
Puluwat háát, heti-nsea, ocean, tide; salt
Woleaian sat(i)sea, ocean (archaic)
Mota tassea, saltwater; the name of the lake at Gaua, so called because the water of it is not pei, simple water, but tas, brackish
  Tasmatea district of Mota to leeward where the sea is quiet or dead; generally the lee side of an island
Tolomako tasisea
Mafea tasisea
Araki rasisea; salt
  rasisea, saltwater
Peterara tasisea; salt
Raga tahisea; salt
Sowa zassea; salt
Atchin n-tassea; salt
Sesivi tessea
Sesake na tasisea
  na tas lolosalt
Nakanamanga na tasisea
Southwest Tanna tahiksea
Wayan tacicoast, seashore, sea, from the perspective of the land; be salty in taste; saltiness, salty taste
  wai tacisea, a body of sea-water; salt water
  taci-tacibe salty to the taste; have salt added, be salted; be a bit salty
Fijian tacithe sea
  wai taciwai taci
Tongan tahisea; sea-water; tide
Niue tahithe sea (more especially near the coast, as compared with moana, the open sea); the coast
Futunan taisea; tide
Samoan taitide; game or fish in season
  i taion the side towards the sea (as opposed to i uta: on the side towards the land)
Tuvaluan taisea; tide
Kapingamarangi taisaltwater, salt; lagoon; sea; tide
Nukuoro dailagoon; sea; salt
Rennellese taiocean, lake, salt water; seafood (poetic)
  tai maaŋagobrackish sea water, especially the Lake [in the middle of Rennell]
Anuta taiwater covering the reef
Rarotongan taithe sea, sea or salt water; the coast or land bordering the sea, as opposed to uta, inland; tide; wave or waves, as of the sea
Maori taithe sea, generally antithetical to uta; the coast, as opposed to uta, inland; tide; wave
  tai-tai nunuispring tides
  tai-tai ririkineap tides
Hawaiian kaisea, sea water; area near the sea; current in the sea; insipid, brackish, tasteless
  i kaitowards the sea
  ma-kaion the sea side, toward the sea, in the direction of the sea

Note:   Also Jarai rəsiʔ ‘sea, ocean’, Erai cahi sea, sea-shore,Mbula tai ‘ocean, sea’, Woleaian tat(i) ‘sea, sea water’. While this term clearly mean ‘sea, saltwater’ in PMP, it has undergone various semantic changes in the daughter languages. In Proto-Philippines it was replaced by a reflex of PMP *daRat ‘littoral sea’ as the general term for ‘sea’, retaining only its sense of ‘saltwater’, and in Polynesian and some other Oceanic languages it acquired an additional sense of ‘tide’.


*tastas sever, cut through, rip out stitches


PPh     *tastas sever, cut through, rip out stitches

Itbayaten tastasundoing the sewing/tying material
Ilokano tastásto rip, tear up; unstitch
Kankanaey na-satsátshredded; cut into pieces; cut into shreds; cut up; carved; torn; rent; lacerated; ripped up
Pangasinan man-satsátto unstitch
Tagalog tastásrip; a seam burst in a garment; run; a place where stitches have slipped out or become undone; unstitched; detached; undone; ripped
Bikol mag-tastásto fray, unravel; to rip out stitches, to unstitch
Binukid tastasto cut through (a tie, stitches, etc.)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tastasto cut through a tie or wrapping of rope or rattan; to cut one’s way through vines and creepers
Mapun tattasto be or become severed; ripped; separated; come undone (esp. with respect to a place where it has been sewn)
Tausug tastastorn on the seam
Kadazan Dusun tatasto cut off, trim, lop
Ngaju Dayak tatasa tear or split; what is torn
Old Javanese tatasbroken, snapped
Javanese tatasto break, snap; to break off, break loose
Balinese tastascut loose, cut off, break in pieces


PWMP     *ma-nastas to rip out stitches

Itbayaten ma-nastasto undo the sewing/tying material
Kadazan Dusun ma-natasto cut off
Karo Batak nastaspull apart a palm leaf roof, pull apart the stitches; cut a hole in the wall
Toba Batak ma-nastasto break off, tear up
Balinese nastascut loose, cut off, break in pieces


PWMP     *t<um>astas cut or tear open stitches

Ifugaw h<um>athatfor someone to clear a field of old sweet potato vines with a digging trowel or digging bar
Tausug t<um>astasto cut or tear stitches so as to open a seam, hem, etc.
Old Javanese t<um>atasended, cut off


PPh     *tastas-en to undo stitches, pull out tying material

Itbayaten tastas-ento unstitch, to undo the sewing/tying material
Ilokano satsat-énto unravel; tear, rip garments; demolish; undo crochet work by pulling the string
Ibaloy satsat-ento cut, tear, rip something (as cloth, paper, galvanized iron sheets, including when the item is divided in two)
Bikol tastas-ónto rip out stitches, to unstitch

Note:   With root *-tas ‘cut through, sever; rip’.


*tata₁ elder male relative


PMP     *tata₁ elder male relative

Ibaloy tata-ŋfather
Patpatar tatafather
Sambal (Botolan) tata-yfather
Cebuano tátafather; address of respect to a father, esp. among Muslims; address of respect to an old man, esp. a close relative
Ma'anyan tata-ʔelder sibling
Chamorro tatafather
Numfor kaka-mother's brother
Mendak tatamother's brother (vocative)


*tata₂ near


POC     *tata₂ near

Roviana tataclose, near; almost
Eddystone/Mandegusu tatanear, close at hand
Tongan tatanear
Niue tatanear; closely related
  faka-tatadraw near


*tatadu large green hairless stinging caterpillar


PWMP     *tatadu large green hairless stinging caterpillar     [doublet: *katadu]

Maranao tatarocaterpillar
Lun Dayeh tetaduhcaterpillar
Pendau tantaducaterpillar (moth)

Note:   Also Kankanaey atatádo ‘bluish white caterpillar living on the taro plant’, Malay ulat centadu, ulat sentadu, Minangkabau sintadu, tintadu, (Negri Sembilan) mentadu ‘large green hairy caterpillar, believed by Malays to develop into a squirrel’, Mongondow tantaduʔ, tontaduʔ ‘large caterpillar sp.’.


*tatal wood chips


PWMP     *tatal wood chips

Casiguran Dumagat tatalchip (of the chips of wood made from the chopping of an axe)
Tagalog tátalchips or splinters of wood; wood shavings
Malay tatalwood shaving, small chip
Sundanese tatalwood chip, shaving (from chopping or planing wood)
Old Javanese tatalcut-off piece, chip
Javanese tataldry wood chip

Note:   Dempwolff also included Fijian i tātā ‘chips’, but this is more likely to be a nominalization of ‘to chop with knife or axe’ < *taRaq ‘hewing with an axe’.


*tau to hang up


POC     *tau₂ to hang up

Motu tau-ato hang up, of things with string
Niue tauto hang, suspend
  tau-tauto hang; to catch fish with a line or net
Samoan tauto hang
  tau-tauto hang up

Note:   Also Manam saur-aki ‘to hang something up’.


*tau ñamuk mosquito net


POC     *tau ñamuk mosquito net     [doublet: *tai ñamuk]

Chuukese tówunómwmosquito net, sleeping canopy
Puluwat tównómwmosquito net, formerly of loomed cloth
Woleaian taulomw(u)sheet, mosquito net
Fijian tau-namumosquito net
Nukuoro dau namumosquito net
Rennellese tau-namumosquito net; to sleep under a mosquito net

Note:   Also Nggela taonamu, Toqabaqita taunamo, Arosi tao namu ~ tau namu, Wayan tau namo ‘mosquito net’, all of which appear to be loans from one or more undetermined sources.


*tawa a large tree in the mahogany family: Dysoxylum sp.


PWMP     *tawa₂ a large tree in the mahogany family: Dysoxylum sp.

Pangasinan tawa-tawaa tree: Dysoxylum sp., Meliaceae (Madulid)
Bare'e tawaa large, tall tree: Dysoxylum acutangulum; the wood is too heavy for boats, and is not in great demand for house construction

Note:   Also Tagalog tawawa ‘a tree: Dysoxylum sp., Meliaceae’ (Madulid).


*tawaD to bargain, haggle over the price


PWMP     *tawaD to bargain, haggle over the price

Casiguran Dumagat táwada discount
  mag-pa- táwadto lower the price of something you are trying to sell
Kapampangan táwadto bargain
  tawar-anbargain for something
Tagalog táwaddiscount; bargaining; asking for a discount; haggling over prices
  i-táwadto offer as a price for
  mag-pa-táwadto give a discount to a buyer
  ma-na-náwada bidder: a person to offers to pay a certain price at an auction
  ma-táwadto be able to get a discount or reduction in buying something
  pa-táwada discount given to a buyer
  t<um>áwadto bid; to propose a price for something, esp. at an auction
  tawar-ánthe common price offered by the majority of buyers
Bikol táwada discount
  mag-táwadto bargain, dicker, haggle for something; to bargain for a particular price
Hanunóo táwaddiscount; bargaining; pardon
Romblomanon tāwadsomething is bargained for by someone for a particular price
  pa-tāwadforgiveness; someone is forgiven
Masbatenyo táwaddiscount
  mag-táwadto bargain, haggle, request a discount
Aklanon táwaddiscount
  pa-táwadto forgive
Waray-Waray táwadthe act of haggling or asking for a discount over prices of commodities; a discount
Mapun tawada discount (< Tagalog?)
  ma-tawadto give a discount
Iban tawarbargain, bid, haggle (< Malay?)
Malay tawarbargaining; bidding; offering a lower price
Sundanese tawarhaggle, bargain, bid for goods
Balinese tawahmake an offer to someone, haggle over a price
Tae' taaʔ-ito bargain, haggle over the price
Mandar mat-tawarto bargain, haggle over the price

Note:   Also Ibaloy tabal ‘to bargain with someone for a better price’, Makasarese tawaraʔ ‘haggle over the price of something’ (< Malay).


*tawan kind of fruit tree: Pometia pinnata


PMP     *tawan kind of fruit tree: Pometia pinnata

Mongondow tawankind of tree: Pometia pinnata Merr.
Bare'e tawaa large, tall tree: Dysoxylum acutangulum; the wood is too heavy for boats and isn’t favored for building houses
Wandamen tawaa tree: Pometia spp.
Waropen kawanoa tree: Pometia spp.
Ansus tawana tree: Pometia spp.
Ambai tawaa tree: Pometia spp.
Nauna tawtree with yellow flower
Lou taa tree with edible fruit: Pometia pinnata
Loniu tawtree with red fruit --- bark used to poison fish
Wuvulu awashore tree with fruit that flying foxes eat
Aua awashore tree with red flower
Mussau taontree with sweet fruit: Pometia pinnata
Lau ākwaspecies of hardwood: Pometia pinnata
Sa'a awaa tree: Nephelium pinnatum
Arosi awaa tree, sp. of lychee, but the San Cristobal species is only edible by birds
Mota tawana fruit tree: Nephelium pinnatum
Rotuman favaa tree: Pometia pinnata; fruit nearly globular with green rind, edible slightly sweet jelly-like flesh and a large stone
Fijian dawaa large tree, Pometia pinnata, Sapindaceae. It bears a fruit with jelly-like flesh and a large stone the size of a plum.
Tongan tavakind of tree bearing fruit with a large stone surrounded by jelly-like flesh
Niue tavaa tree: Pometia pinnata
Samoan tavalarge tree (Pometia sp.)

Note:   The Oceanic reflexes of this term are extensively doumented in Ross (2008:343-344).


*tawaŋ open space, empty of obstruction


PWMP     *tawaŋ open space, empty of obstruction

Ilokano tawáŋto be clearly discerned at a distance
Malay tawaŋemptiness, airy interspeace between earth and sky
Old Javanese tawaŋair (esp. as empty or boundless)
Javanese tawaŋsky; up in the air; aspect, appearance
  nawaŋto look at something transparent or translucent in a bright light (as in holding an egg up to a light to see if it is fresh)
Balinese tawaŋsky, heaven

Note:   With root *-waŋ ‘wide open space’.


*tawaR₁ tasteless; neutralize something efficacious, as an antidote for poison


PWMP     *tawaR₁ tasteless; neutralize something efficacious, as an antidote for poison

Tboli tawala potent medicine used to remove the poison of snakebites
Iban tawarremedy, cure (< Malay?)
Malay tawarwithout flavor or distinctive character in two senses: (i) tasteless, (ii) innocuous; in the second sense tawar is used of a poison or charm being rendered harmless or of a disease losing its virus
  air tawarfresh water (in contrast to salt)
Sasak tawah ~ tawarinsipid, neutral (of taste); brackish (of river water)
Mandar ma-tawarinsipid, as opposed to salty or sweet

Note:   Iban tabar ‘tasteless, insipid, unseasoned; ineffective, innocuous; neutralize’ supports Proto-Malayic *tabaR, which in turn implies that the Tboli form given here may be a loan from Malay.


*tawaR₂ to call, summon; chant to call the spirits


PWMP     *tawaR₂ to call, summon; chant to call the spirits

Casiguran Dumagat tawahto call out (saying something to somone who is a distance away)
Ibaloy tawalto call, summon someone to come
Tagalog táwagcall; summons; term; name; a word that means any object, or any one of a group of objects; request; reminder
  ipa-táwagto page; to try to find a person at a hotel, etc., by getting someone to call his name
  i-táwagto call or summon a doctor, priest, etc. for someone
  pa-táwagto allow itself to be called by a certain name or appellation; a call; a summons sent; an order to appear at a certain place
  ka-tawag-anterm; terminology; a word or group of words used in connection with some special subject; nomenclature; a set or system of names or terms
  t<um>awagto call, to summon; to hail; to call or signal to; to term; to name; to style
  tawag-ánthe act of calling each other by certain names; the name itself used in calling each other; the act of calling each other by telephone, telegram, etc.
  tawag-into call; to summon
Bikol mag-táwagto say something loud enough for others to hear, particularly at a time when everyone else is quiet (such as at night); to complain about something loud enough for the whole neighborhood to hear
Romblomanon tawagsomeone calls someone else, or calls the name of someone; someone calls a gathering of people; the name by which someone or something is called
Masbatenyo mag-táwagto call, summon, hail
  tawag-ónbe called, be summoned, be hailed
Aklanon tawágto call (for), page
  pa-nawágto call out
Hiligaynon tawágcall, telephone call, beacon
  mag-tawágto call, to beacon
Maranao tawagcall, summon; convoke spirit
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tawagto summon someone; to call something by a name
Mansaka tawagto call to; to chant (as to the spirits)
  tawag-anshaman’s altar
Lun Dayeh tawara call, an invitation
  tawar mengeiʔa chant to call the omen bird mengeiʔ
  nawarto call someone, invite someone
Nias tawamagical formula
  man-tawaconjure up by magical formula
Proto-Minahasan *tawahcall, call to, summon

Note:   Also Itbayaten tawag ‘idea of calling’ (< Tagalog), Ilokano táwag ‘phone call; calling on the phone’, táwag ‘to call on the phone’ (< Tagalog), Pangasinan man-táwag ‘to call, summon’, Mapun tawag ‘a summons to appear’, nawag ‘to announce with information that requires someone to appear before someone’, tawag-an ‘to summon someone to appear’ (< Tagalog or other Central Philippine language), Tiruray tawag ‘to call’ (< Tagalog), tabar ‘to call’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tawar ‘to say magic incantations over a bleeding wound to make it stop, over a broken bone to make it knit, or over a burn to make it heal quickly, etc.’. Despite its modern applications in languages like Tagalog, the agreement of Mansaka, Lun Dayeh, Nias, and even the Muslim Maranao in referring to the invocation of spirits through chanting suggests an earlier and more specialized sense of this term in association with shamanic rites.


*taway try the taste of something


PWMP     *taway try the taste of something

Ilokano táwaytasting the flavor of something
  tawáy-anto taste, savor
Pangasinan tawáyflavor, taste
  ma-nawáyto taste
Minangkabau tawaito test; to put to the proof; to try the taste (of anything)


*tawtaw lost, as in a crowd or in an unfamilar place


PWMP     *tawtaw lost, as in a crowd or in an unfamilar place

Ilokano ag-tawátawto roam, wander
  mai-tawátawto stray, wander
Casiguran Dumagat tawtawto be lost (in the jungle)
Ibaloy ma-nawtáwto wander about in places other than one’s own --- esp. of one who goes away (as to the lowlands and never comes back)
Pangasinan tawtáwlost in a crowd, misplaced
  ma-nawtáwto lose
Minangkabau tataubewildered, mazed


*tayáq stakes in gambling, wager, bet


PPh     *tayáq stakes in gambling, wager, bet     [doublet: *tahúl]

Itbayaten tayawager, bet
Ilokano tayástakes in gambling; person responsible for the bill
Casiguran Dumagat tayáto place a bet; to lay down money (in gambling); bet, wager; expose to danger, to sacrifice or endanger oneself for others
Tagalog tayáʔa bet; a wager; stake; the money risked; what is staked
  t<um>ayáʔto bet; to bet on
Hanunóo tayáʔbet, wager, stake
Aklanon tayáʔa bet, wager; to bet, wager something
Hiligaynon tayáʔstake, bet
  mag-tayáʔto bet, to put up as stake
Cebuano táyaʔto place a bet; to stake one’s life, honor; pay for the others in a treat
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tayaʔin card playing the ante or stake
Mansaka táyaʔto bet; to gamble


PPh     *i-tayáɁ to place a bet

Ilokano i-tayáto place a bet
Tagalog i-tayáʔto put up some specific amount as a bet in gambling


*tayeŋ sea urchin with long black spines


PPh     *tayeŋ sea urchin with long black spines

Casiguran Dumagat tayə́ŋsea urchin
Bikol táyoŋsea urchin

Note:   Also Bikol táyom ‘sea urchin’, Mapun tayum ‘black sea urchin with long spines’, Yakan tayum ‘a species of edible sea urchin with long black spines’.


*taytay single log bridge (?)


PMP     *taytay single log bridge (?)

Ilokano taytáybamboo bridge
Ibaloy taytaya bridge
  i-taytayto use something in making a bridge (as cable, steel)
Pangasinan taytáybridge
Kapampangan tétebridge
Tagalog taytáybamboo plank or bridge
Hanunóo taytáysitting or perching on a single crosspiece
  t<um>aytáyto sit down, perch (on something)
Cebuano taytáymountain range; bridge; make a bridge
  pa-naytáytravel along a mountain ridge
Binukid taytaybridge; to make a bridge, to put a bridge over (something); to cross, travel over a bridge
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teyteya bridge; a type of design used in weaving
  pe-neyteyto cross a log bridge
Mansaka taytayto walk along something narrow (as a plank, log, or a narrow bridge)
Tiruray titaya bridge; to cross a bridge
  titay beruŋona center purlin in house construction
Mapun pa-titito cross over a bridge (to a place)
Yakan mag-teyteyto walk (as on a tightrope or balance beam)
Tausug mag-taytayto cross a bridge (to a place)
  t<um>aytayto cross a bridge (to a place)
Ngaju Dayak t<al>etaysteps, ladder (specifically, a slanting log with steps cut into it that is used as a native ladder)
Malagasy mi-tetito walk through, to pass through, to go from place ot place, as houses or towns, to tread on
Iban titilow bridge, timber causeway, board walk; usually distinct from batang (felled tree or logs laid end to end), and andau (bridge); walk along narrow way or in single file
Malay titinarrow footway, of a plank bridge; gangway; log across a stream, or even of a bough as a footway from one part of a tree to another; also of bridges generally
Gayō teteflooring (generally of bamboo)
Simalur titibridge
  titi-n tiuʔtwo thin beams on the roof scaffolding that run parallel to the roof beams (lit. ‘rat path’ or ‘rat footbridge’)
Sundanese netestand on something on the tips of one’s toes; also, stand or be supported with the point of the foot on the edge of something
Old Javanese titifootbridge
Balinese titia bridge. a wooden plank across a ditch
  titi-n-inbe bridged by someone
Sasak teteplank bridge, native bridge; bridge of the souls in the Afterworld
  bə-tetewalk over a bridge
Tontemboan tetebridge
  t<um>etecross over a bridge
Mongondow totoya bridge, formerly not much more than a tree trunk or bamboo over the water
Tae' tetea small bridge, plank bridge; walk over a plank bridge
  me-tetemake a plank bridge
Makasarese teteplank bridge, a plank or tree trunk laid across a stream or ravine
  pa-tetecross over something (as a plank bridge); walk shakily, as people do
Palauan didbridge
  didí-l a ʔarmbeams/rafters at ends and sides of house (on which rats often run)
Buli tetimprovised bridge made of a single plank or tree trunk


POC     *tete single log bridge; stairs, ladder

Manam tetestairs, ladder
Gedaged tetladder (a pole used as a ladder), stairs, step (anything that may serve as a step); a small tree standing near a large one used as a ladder; a bridge; wharf; companionway, stile, gangway, catwalk, drawbridge
Molima teteto walk along a ridge or branch of tree; to go towards the reef
Bugotu teteto climb up on a fishing tripod
Nggela tetea row, rank, line; to cross a stream on a log or bridge; to descend a ladder not using hands; a bridge
  tete ni ihuthe bridge of the nose


PWMP     *ma-naytay walk over a plank or log bridge

Pangasinan man-taytáycross a bridge
Yakan neyteyto walk (as on a tightrope or balance beam)
Nias nete-netepath, bridge
Mongondow mo-notoywalk over a bridge
Palauan me-lídto cross over (log/stones being used as a bridge)


PWMP     *taytay-an log or plank bridge

Ibaloy taytay-anto bridge something (as a river)
Cebuano taytay-anbridge; means by which something is obtained
Mapun titiy-ana bridge (often made of bamboo or wood)
Yakan teytey-ana footbridge, small bridge, catwalk (it is usually made of a board or a log)
Tausug taytay-ana bridge (usually made of bamboo or wood)
Ngaju Dayak tatæ-ana wooden walkway or bridge (as from the house to the river; what is bridged over
Malagasy tetez-anaa bridge
Malay titi-an batustepping-stones
Pendau tinte-ana bridge
Dampelas tente-ana bridge

Note:   This term appears to have referred primarily to single log or plank bridges of a type commonly improvised in traveling when there is a need to cross a narrow water obstacle or ravine. It may have also been used in an expression that described certain narrow beams that form part of the roof support, where rats were commonly seen running (cf. Simalur and Palauan).


*tayun swing


PWMP     *tayun swing

Tagalog táyonswinging movement, like that of a pendulum
Iban tayun-tayunswinging
  nayunto swing, as one’s arms


*ta(n)zeg stand


PWMP     *ta(n)zeg stand

Bontok takdəgstand up
Ifugaw ta-ʔ-dogstand up from a sitting position
Blaan (Sarangani) tadagto stand
Balinese tajegstand erect; be directly overhead (sun)
Sasak tanjekto erect, place upright in the ground

Note:   Also Palawan Batak (Reid 1971) tindɨg, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hi-tindeg ‘stand up’, Karo Batak tandek ‘stand, standing, as a bottle on a table’, Manggarai tedek ‘stand erect’. This item is assumed to contain a root *-zeg ‘stand erect’ (cf. Dempwolff (1934-38) *zegzeg ‘firm foothold’).


*tazim sharp point; to whet,


PMP     *tazim sharp point; to whet,     [doublet: *tazem]

Ngaju Dayak ka-tajimpointed, sharp; point of something
  ma-najimto whet, sharpen
  tara-tajimable to be sharpened to a point


POC     *tasim to whet, sharpen

Nauna tɨcto whet, sharpen
Seimat tasim-ito whet, sharpen
Wuvulu atito whet, sharpen
  ati-miaWhet it! Sharpen it!
Bauro m-āsisharp
Fijian tasito scrape, shave, peel food before cooking

Note:   Also Chuukese seyim-i ‘to sharpen, whet’, Puluwat háyim-i ‘to sharpen’, Woleaian taim-i ‘Sharpen it! Make it sharper!’, Gilbertese taima ‘to sharpen, whet’. Dempwolff (1938) also included Tagalog talím ‘blade; the cutting part of anything like a knife, sword or machete’; ma-talím ‘sharp’, but this almost certainly reflects *tazem, as no other Philippine language has an unambiguous reflex of *tazim.

TOP      ta    te        ti    to    tu    







































































































*tebág crumbling, eroded; landslide, cave-in


PPh     *tebág crumbling, eroded; landslide, cave-in

Ilokano tebbáglandslide, cave-in
  na-tbágcollapsed, crumbled, caved in
  tebbag-énto break down rocks, cave in
Pangasinan tebágcrumbling, eroded
Tagalog tibágcutting, an excavation through high ground; landslide from a hill; erosion of soil from a river bank; excavated, quarried; demolished; crumbled, broken up


*tebaŋ to fell