Updated: 7/26/2016
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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


te        ti    to    tu    


*ta negative marker: no, not


PCMP     *ta negative marker: no, not

Rotinese ta(k)not present, not exist; no, not
Kemak ta-ino, not
Erai tanot
Kisar kanot (existential negation)
  kaanot (nominal negation)
  ka-ununot yet
Leti tanot exist; no, not
Wetan ta(a)not
  (a)ta…ammanot at all, there is nothing but
Watubela te-ino, not
Elat tano, not
Geser te-ino, not
Paulohi ta ~ ta-mano, not
Asilulu tanot, esp. in fast speech or as an emphatic sentence-final particle
Sekar -tano, not


*taba reward, pay


POC     *taba reward, pay

Manam taba-ito reward; sacrifice
Bugotu tabato pay; wages; reward; price
Nggela tambato hire, pay wages; wages, pay; a reward, prize in a race

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*tabaN head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?)


PAN     *tabaN head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?)

Kavalan tabanhead trophy
Amis tafada disembodied head gotten in headhunting or war


PMP     *taban booty, war captive; what is taken in war; elopement, captured bride

Tagalog t<um>ábanto hold onto; to hold something to keep it or oneself from falling
Aklanon tábansnatch with one’s jaws (like a dog stealing food)
Agutaynen mag-taban-anto elope
Maranao tabanwin, winnings; beat
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tavanspoils of war, loot
Mansaka tabanto plunder
Tiruray tabanthe spoils or winnings; to win in fighting or betting
Lun Dayeh tabana kidnapping, an abduction
  nabanto kidnap, abduct, take or carry away without the owner’s permission
Kelabit tabanrunning away with someone or something, kidnapping, elopement
Melanau (Mukah) tabanto seize, grasp, hold
  pə-tabanhold onto something
Ngaju Dayak tawanbe captured
  tawan-anwhat is captured (prisoners in war, a crocodile, a snake)
Malagasy (Provincial) tavanaprisoners of war
Iban tabancarry off, carry along, i.e. without leave (and so liable to fine), but with no intention of theft, and not by force; abscond or elope with, i.e. without consent of parents or tuai rumah (head of longhouse)
Malay tawantaking captive
Acehnese tawantake captive, make a war captive, take as booty
Karo Batak er-tabancapture something or someone, make someone a war captive
Dairi-Pakpak Batak tabanwhat is plundered, looted or taken captive
Toba Batak tabanbooty
  par-tabanone who captures or plunders, plunderer
  tar-tabanbe captured, be taken captive
Old Javanese tawanwhat is carried off, booty, a captive
Sasak tabanbooty; to loot, take as booty
  taban sesatothe confiscation of another person’s cattle that have strayed into one’s fields and caused damage
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tawaNto capture


PWMP     *ma-naban to carry off, kidnap, loot a place

Agutaynen ma-nabanto elope
Kelabit nabanrun away with, kidnap, elope
Ngaju Dayak ma-nawanto catch, capture
Malay me-nawanto conquer, subdue, lead into captivity
Balinese nabancatch and keep an animal that has strayed onto your land until it is redeemed by its owner
  ta-taban-anan animal so retained


PWMP     *maR-taban to carry off, kidnap, loot a place

Tagalog mag-tábanhold onto something with one’s hand or hands
Bikol mag-tábankidnap or abduct a woman; carry a woman off
Agutaynen mag-tabanto carry away wrongfully or forcefully; snatch or grab by the mouth, as an animal stealing food
Hiligaynon mag-tábanrun away with, take away, elope
Cebuano mag-tábanto elope
Tausug mag-tabanto capture property, loot, plunder; (usually for many people) to strive to get a share of something
Dairi-Pakpak Batak mer-tabanfall into the hands of someone through plunder; capture someone from his village in a raid
Toba Batak mar-tabanto capture; plunder


PWMP     *t<in>aban be carried off, as loot or a captive in war; what is carried off

Agutaynen t<in>abanbe snatched or carried away wrongfully (as a fish by a hungry cat)
Tiruray t<en>aban-anone who is defeated
Old Javanese t<in>awanto carry off as captive or booty, to loot


PWMP     *taban-an (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog tabán-anto hold onto; to hold something to keep it or oneself from falling
Javanese tawan-anan enemy captive, prisoner of war
Sasak taban-ancattle confiscated from another person as compensation for damage caused by them wandering into one’s fields


PWMP     *taban-en be kidnapped or abducted

Bikol tabán-onbe kidnapped or abducted
Hiligaynon tabán-onbe carried off, taken away, as in elopement
Lun Dayeh teban-enwill be taken away without the owner’s permission
Kelabit teban-enbe kidnapped, be carried off
Malay tawan-anprisoner; conquest
Karo Batak taban-enbooty, loot, war captive
Dairi-Pakpak Batak taban-enwar captive

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak taban-an ‘what is captured (prisoners in war, a crocodile, a snake)’. The meaning of PMP *taban seems clearly to have been ‘booty, loot; what is taken by force, as in war, or elopement’. This is consistent with the more specific meaning ‘head trophy’ (trophy taken in headhunting), which is reflected in the two known Formosan reflexes (both members of the East Formosan subgroup), but it is unclear whether the meaning in PAn was as narrowly restricted as this.


*tabaŋ help, assist


PMP     *tabaŋ help, assist

Cebuano tábaŋhelp, give a hand
Maranao tabaŋhelp, contribution, relief, aid, support, cooperate
Proto-Micronesian *tapatapa, *tapaŋ-ihelp, support, aid, benefit


*tabas cut away underbrush


PWMP     *tabas cut away underbrush

Hanunóo tábascutting down, clearing underbrush and small trees as in preparing a kaiŋin
Sasak tabascut, level or smooth, cut off the top

Note:   Also Iban tawas (expected **tabas) ‘cleared, not overgrown’, Minangkabau tabas (expected **tawas) ‘cutting down small plants; in contrast to felling timber teban)’.


*tabe hold tightly or firmly


POC     *tabe hold tightly or firmly

Tolai tabehold something so that someone else will not take it
Arosi abecarry something against the chest, as firewood
Wayan tabehold or carry a burden in the extended arms, esp. resting on both palms extended horizontally in front, as a tray (it is polite to hold a gift in this manner when presenting it)
Fijian tabehold or carry with the hands under
  i-tabea small oval basket without handles
  tabe-tabethe bringing of food in this basket
Tongan tapeshallow basket

Note:   Tongan tape may be a borrowing of Fijian i-tabe.


*ta(m)beŋ block, obstruct


PWMP     *ta(m)beŋ block, obstruct

Tiruray tambeŋstop a small flow of water by setting an impediment
Balinese tambeŋobstruct, block; be obstinate
  tabeŋstopper, cork

Note:   With root *-beŋ₂ ‘block, stop, dam’.


*ta(m)bid attach, fasten


PWMP     *ta(m)bid attach, fasten

Hanunóo támbidhanging, as of a bamboo container from the rafters of a house
Aklanon tabídattach, join
Hiligaynon tabídlink together with a rope or string, attach to
Iban tambitfastening; latch, button


*tabuD strew, scatter


PWMP     *tabuD strew, scatter     [disjunct: *tabuR]

Malay taburscattering; sowing; diffusion over a surface
Mongondow tabudstrew, scatter seed


*tabuni placenta, afterbirth


PMP     *tabuni placenta, afterbirth

Ngaju Dayak tabuniplacenta, afterbirth
  ma-nabunitake the afterbirth away
Malagasy tavónithe afterbirth, the placenta
Malay tembuniplacenta
Taje (Tanampedagi) tavuniafterbirth


POC     *tapuni placenta, afterbirth

Kwaio afuniplacenta; in pagan childbirth must be buried under mother’s bed in childbirth hut to avoid supernatural danger to her
Arosi ahunito bury, cover, conceal, hide

Note:   Also Mapun tamuni ‘placenta (the placenta should be placed in a hollowed-out coconut shell and then buried by the midwife at a place where a road forks)’, Yakan temuni ‘placenta’, Tausug tamuniŋ ‘placenta; something worthless or of very little value’, Pendau tauni- ‘afterbirth’. The relationship between *tabun ‘to bury’ and *tabuni ‘placenta, afterbirth’ remains unclear’. Over much of the Austronesian world the placenta is/was regarded as the younger sibling of the newborn child, and was buried after the birth, hence the possibility that *tabuni may derive from *tabun-i 'to bury (something)'. This possibility is somewhat strengthened by the recognition that in many languages the name for the placenta is a descriptive term, as with Bontok baley ‘home; shelter; living place; any place which gives protection, as a bird nest, spider web, rat hole, water buffalo pasture or the sheath of a bolo; placenta’, Dampelas banua ŋanaʔ ‘afterbirth’ (lit. ‘house of the child’), Maranao dalem a kandaŋ ‘placenta’ (lit. ‘inside the womb’), or Pohnpeian ieŋen seri ‘placenta’ (lit. ‘companion of the child’), suggesting that there was no monomorphemic word that corresponded to the meaning of the English gloss.


*tabuRi conch shell trumpet


PMP     *tabuRi conch shell trumpet     [doublet: *tabuRiq]

Tiruray temburia shell trumpet; to blow the temburi
Selaru fturi <Mtriton shell
Kamarian tahuritrumpet shell
Alune tabuliconch shell trumpet
Asilulu tahuliconch shell (Strombus spp.); conch shell trumpet
Soboyo tafuhishell, blown to call up the wind when a canoe is launched on a voyage
Kowiai/Koiwai tafurtriton shell


POC     *tapuRi conch shell trumpet

Nauna tahuyconch shell trumpet
Penchal rahuyconch shell trumpet
Pak dohuconch shell trumpet
Loniu tahconch shell trumpet
Nali drahconch shell trumpet
Ahus nhahconch shell trumpet
Kuruti drohconch shell trumpet
Likum cahconch shell trumpet
Sori dapconch shell trumpet
Yapese yabultype of conch shell; horn, trumpet, siren
Tolai tauru <Aconch shell, Strombus epidromus, and other varieties
Vitu tavureconch shell (blown to signal new arrivals, danger, etc.)
Lusi tavurshell trumpet
Kairiru tourconch shell
Wogeo taurconch shell trumpet
Manam tauru <Aconch shell trumpet
Gedaged tauzkind of mollusk, triton
Takia toulconch shell trumpet
Gitua tavurekind of shell, particular the Pacific trumpet shell, but includes other Cymatiidae species and Bursidae species
Kilivila tauyatriton
Bugotu tavuliconch shell used as trumpet
Nggela tavulispecies of mollusc, gastropod, Charonia tritonis; a trumpet; the sound of a trumpet
Sa'a ähuriconch shell, triton, blown at the end, used to summon people
Arosi ahuriconch, usually a Triton shell blown at the side; blown only on solemn occasions, e.g. at a death, or at feasts
Proto-Micronesian *tawuitriton or trumpet shell
Pohnpeian sewiconch shell, conch shell trumpet
Mokilese jowiconch shell
Chuukese sewitriton shell; trumpet made from triton shell
Puluwat hawiconch trumpet
Woleaian tawiiconch shell trumpet
Sonsorol-Tobi tauiconch shell
Sye n/tovuconch
Wayan tavuigastropod shellfish taxon; Pacific (or Triton’s) trumpet, Charonia tritonis, used as a horn; the shell of these animals
Fijian davuia large univalve shellfish, the trumpet shell or Triton, used as a horn or trumpet, chiefly on canoes

Note:   Also Cebuano tambúli ~ tambúliʔ ‘melongena, kind of conch; horn made from the horn of a water buffalo or a conch’, Malay buri ‘a trumpet’, Aua tauru ‘conch shell trumpet’ (expected **afui), Mbula twiiri ‘trumpet shell, Triton, a large sea shell which is blown as a horn for signalling’, Gilbertese tau ‘Triton conch, trumpet shell’, Mota tauwe ‘conch shell used as a trumpet’.

The conch shell trumpet is well-known in the Pacific, where it played an important traditional role in the launching of voyaging canoes, the calling of members of the village to ceremonies, providing an alert to imminent danger, etc. However, this reconstruction presents special problems, since its PMP status depends crucially on Tiruray (and the indirect support provided by the Palauan evidence for the doublet *tabuRiq). In addition, a number of languages in the Philippines reflect a word with irregular *R > l, as with the Cebuano form just cited or similar forms in other languages of the Philippines (see Note to *tabuRiq). These appear to be loanwords, although the usual appeal to Malay as a source language does not work well here. Given the limited set of forms that he compared, Dempwolff (1938) erroneously reconstructed *tam-buri ‘triton shell trumpet’. It is now clear that the rhotic in this form was *R, and that there is no comparative evidence for prenasalization of the medial stop. Both of these observations were first made for Proto-Oceanic *tapuRi by Ross (1988:147).

The limited pattern of survival of this form in both the Philippines and Indonesia suggests that it either disappeared among groups that moved inland to a montane environment where the conch was not easily obtained, or was replaced among lowlanders through contact-induced culture change. All in all the pattern of distribution for reflexes of PMP *tabuRi (and its doublet form *tabuRiq) suggests that survival was most strongly favored in areas of cultural conservatism, and disfavored where traditional practices either competed or conflicted with those introduced from outside, as among hispanized Filipinos, where the use of animal horns apparently came to be favored over shell trumpets, or among the peoples of western Indonesia, where overlays of Indian and Islamic cultural influence have altered many aspects of the traditional cultures of lowland groups.


*tabuRiq conch shell trumpet


PMP     *tabuRiq conch shell trumpet     [doublet: *tabuRi]

Palauan debuseʔconch shell; sound of conch shell; horn
Watubela tuwulikconch shell


POC     *tapuRiq conch shell trumpet

Kaiwa tavulkTriton shell (Ross 1988:147)

Note:   Also Tagalog tambúliʔ ‘a native horn, bugle or trumpet made of horn’, Mapun tabuliʔ ‘a kind of horn made from any large seashell or horn of an animal’; nabuliʔ ~ tabuliʔ-an ‘to blow a shell-type horn (as to warn or summon someone)’, Yakan tabuliʔ ‘triton, a big sea shell (used as a signal instrument in old times)’, Tausug tambuliʔ ‘chambered nautilus; a trumpet made of this shell’.


*tada natural cockspur


PMP     *tada natural cockspur (cf *tazi, artificial cockspur)     [disjunct: *tara]

Iban tadanatural spur of a cock
Simalur taraartificial cockspur
Mentawai taracockspur
Proto-Sangiric *tadacockspur
Bare'e tara-manucockspur
Tae' taranatural cockspur
  buku taraanklebone
Buginese tara-manuʔcockspur
Bimanese taracockspur

Note:   This comparison was first recognized in print by H. Kähler (1961). Mills (1973:894) tries unconvincingly to connect Buginese tara-manuʔ ‘cockspur’ with *taRaq ‘to hew, chop (wood)’.


*tadal to look upward; face upward


POC     *tadal to look upward; face upward

Duke of York ta-tadato look or face upwards
Manam tadato look up
  tádal-ito look up to somebody, something
Gedaged tadto look (upwards)
Gitua tadasupine
Cheke Holo tadalook up, turn face upwards
Bugotu tadato look up; up
  rei tadato lift up the eyes
  va-tadaraise up, set up, turn right way up; set one’s shield against the enemy
Nggela tandaup, upwards; face up
  tandal-agito put face up
  tanda-tandaface up; to look up


*ta(n)dem remember


PWMP     *ta(n)dem remember

Maranao tademmemory; recollect, remember
Malagasy tándrinaremembered

Note:   With root *-dem₂ ‘think, ponder, brood, remember’.


*tadtád chop up, mince


PPh     *tadtád chop up, mince

Ilokano tadtádto chop up, mince
  ma-tadtádto be cut into pieces
Ifugaw (Batad) tadtádfor someone to slash down a slender-stalked plant or tree, especially sugarcane, with a single slash using a bolo; for someone to chop meat into small pieces for cooking
Casiguran Dumagat tadtádto chop up; to mince (meat); to chop into pieces the limbs of trees which have been felled in a new swidden field (in preparation for burning the field)
Ibaloy tadtadact of cutting up meat into small pieces; deadfall trap: trap for large animals in which a heavy weight is arranged to fall on and kill or disable the prey
Kapampangan ta-tadtadchop up
Tagalog tadtádchopped to pieces; minced
  pa-nadtádchopping or mincing knife
  t<um>adtádto hack; to chop roughly into small pieces (for meat, vegetables, etc.)
Bikol tadtádchopped, minced; riddled, cut in many places; tattoo
  mag-tadtádto chop, mince
Romblomanon tadtadsomething is cut into pieces by someone
Masbatenyo mag-tadtádto chop
  tadtád-anchopping board
Aklanon tádtadto hack, hit repeatedly with a blade
Waray-Waray tadtád ~ pag-tadtádthe act of cutting or chopping something into smaller pieces
Hiligaynon tádtadto chop (as meat); to mutilate
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tadtadto chop up, as of vegetables


PPh     *t<in>adtád dish made of chopped meat or vegetables

Ilokano t<in>adtádminced meat, chopped up fish, etc.
Casiguran Dumagat t<in>adtádwas chopped up by someone
Ibaloy t<in>adtadsmall chunks of meat
Kapampangan tidtada delicacy made of chopped pig intestines


PPh     *tadtad-án chopping block, cutting board

Ibaloy tadtar-anto finish the cutting up process
Tagalog tadtar-ánchopping block
Bikol tadtad-ánto tattoo
Aklanon tadtar-ánchopping block, cutting board


PPh     *tadtad-én be chopped up or minced

Ilokano tadtad-énbe chopped up or minced
Ibaloy tadtar-ento cut, chop something into pieces; to cut on, draw blade across something with repeated motions (as in maliciously ruining the sleeve of a jacket); to cut up meat into small pieces --- an important step in butchering
Pangasinan tadtar-énto chop up
Tagalog tadtar-ínto hack; to chop roughly into small pieces (for meat, vegetables, etc.); to mince; to chop up into very small pieces
Bikol tadtad-ónto riddle; to cut in many places
Romblomanon tadtar-unbe cut into pieces
Masbatenyo tadtad-ónbe chopped, be sliced, be slashed, be cut
  tadtád-onsomething to be chopped
Hiligaynon tadtad-únto chop; to mutilate

Note:   Also Binukid getad ‘to cut, chop up (something into pieces).


*taeb high tide (?)


PWMP     *taeb high tide (?)

Tagalog táibhigh tide
Bikol táʔobhigh tide
Hanunóo táʔubhigh tide
Palawan Batak táʔebsea, ocean; flood, high tide
Cebuano táʔubhigh tide
  taʔúb-unsea at high tide
Mongondow taabflood
Pendau taabhigh tide
Palauan dáobsea, ocean, saltwater

Note:   Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *ta( )eb ‘high tide; flood’.


*tageRaŋ ribcage


PAN     *tageRaŋ ribcage

Pazeh takaxaŋribs
Puyuma tageraŋchest
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) tahraŋchest, breast
Itbayaten tagraŋrib
Bontok tadláŋthe ribs of the body
Kankanaey tadláŋrib
Ifugaw tagláŋribs; side of a human chest (what is enclosed by the ribs)
Ifugaw (Batad) tagláŋribcage of a person or animal; i.e. the upper backbone and the ribs
Pangasinan tagláŋrib, frame
Sambal (Botolan) tagyáŋrib
Kapampangan tagyáŋrib
Hanunóo tagyáŋrib
Miri tagréŋribs
Kenyah (Long Anap) tegaaŋribs
Kiput təgəriəribs

Note:   Also Isneg taʔgāŋ ‘ribs’, Aborlan Tagbanwa takgaŋ ‘hard ribs’ (saŋgaŋɨn ‘soft ribs’), Tombonuwo tikogaŋ, Labuk-Kinabatangan Eastern Kadazan tikagaŋ, Kelabit segeraŋ ‘ribs’. The last three forms imply an etymon *tigeRaŋ, with prepenultimate *i, but this is otherwise unknown.


*tahep-i to winnow


PMP     *tahep-i₁ to winnow

Cebuano táphiwinnow it!
Malay tampito winnow
Javanese tapito winnow
Sasak tampiʔto winnow
Yamdena tafito winnow
Buruese tapi-hto winnow

Note:   For details of the development of this morphologically complex form in the languages of the central Philippines cf. Zorc (1977). It is worth noting that Sasak tampiʔ shows both secondary prenasalization and a secondary final glottal stop. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *tapi ‘separate chaff from grain (= winnow)’, but there are various problems with his proposed cognate set.


*tai ñamuk mosquito net


POC     *tai ñamuk mosquito net     [doublet: *tau ñamuk]

Marshallese taiṇaṃmosquito net
Tongan tainamumosquito net
Futunan tainamumosquito net
Anuta tainamumosquito net
Rarotongan tai-namuliterally means, the entangler of mosquitoes, or, that which catches mosquitoes; a mosquito net

Note:   Also Pohnpeian tein amwise, Mokilese sei, Samoan taʔinamu ‘mosquito net’.


*tail tree with fiber used to make fish nets


POC     *tail tree with fiber used to make fish nets

Loniu taycatch fish
Bipi taycatch fish with a net
Motu taia tree the inner bark of which is used for rope-making (Hibiscus tiliaceus)
Roviana tailifishline formerly made from the bark of the pusi (Lyonsia sp.)

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*tákaŋ spread wide open


PPh     *tákaŋ spread wide open

Bontok tákaŋto open one’s mouth
Kankanaey men-tákaŋto gape, to be open (applied to either earth or persons)
Ifugaw tákaŋgape, act of gaping; not used in the sense of yawning
  tákaŋ-na“its gape”, i.e. the gape between the odd and even threads through which the weaver can shoot the shuttle
Ibaloy takaŋspread apart
  tekaŋ-ento spread, force something apart to make a space between
Aklanon tákaŋto totter, half walk (said of baby only)
Cebuano tákaŋto step across; a step, stride
Mansaka takaŋto step up onto (as a ladder or a branch)
Mongondow taŋkaŋbend or curve away from one another, of legs or knees

Note:   Also Mansaka taklaŋ ‘to step onto a ladder’. With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.


*ta(ŋ)kas₁ agile, quick, swift, energetic


PMP     *ta(ŋ)kas agile, quick, swift, energetic

Mapun taŋkasfast, faster
  pa-taŋkasto go faster, to speed up
  ka-taŋkas-anto be personally affected by the speed of something or someone; to think that something or someone is fast
Ida'an Begak takas-takashurry up
Javanese taŋkasswift-moving
Ngadha tika-takanimble, agile, quick

Note:   With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile, energetic’.


*ta(ŋ)keb₁ cover, overlapping part


PWMP     *ta(ŋ)keb cover, overlapping part

Maranao takebeyelid
Sundanese taŋkeb-anmoveable corner of smoke-vent in roof
Javanese taŋkeboverlapping portion of a double-breasted jacket
Balinese taŋkebcover up (with a basket, etc.)

Note:   With root *-keb₁ ‘cover’.


*taked₁ back of leg


PWMP     *taked₁ back of leg

Casiguran Dumagat tikedfoot, leg; footprints
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) takɨdheel
Blaan (Sarangani) takadheel
Kelabit takedpopliteal area, back of knee
Kenyah (Long Anap) taketleg, foot

Note:   Also Rungus Dusun hakod ‘leg’, Bisaya (Limbang) akod ‘back part of heel’. Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *taked, *tiNked ‘heel’.


*taked₂ climb


PWMP     *taked₂ climb

Isneg taŋkād (length unexpl.)climb
Bikol tukád <Mgo uphill
Abai Sembuak nakodto climb (a tree)
Kenyah (Long Wat) takətanything used to climb
Kayan (Uma Juman) takəranything used to climb
Gorontalo taʔoduclimb

Note:   Also Bontok tíkid ‘climb a trail’. Zorc (1971) posits PPh *taked ‘climb a hill’.


*takep to fold over, double


PWMP     *takep to fold over, double

Maranao takepdouble, multiply
Tiruray takefto double something, make it twice as much
Balinese takepbe folded over, closed

Note:   With root *-kep₁ ‘fold, double over’.


*ta(ŋ)ket adhere, stick to


PWMP     *ta(ŋ)ket adhere, stick to

Sasak taŋketcompanion
Bare'e takastick, adhere, cling fast to something, attach oneself to

Note:   With root *-keC ‘adhesive, sticky’.


*takəR to roof a house


PMP     *takəR to roof a house

Isneg tákubthe skin of a drum (usually deerskin, but the skin of dogs, cows and horses also serve the purpose)
  takkúbto cover
Tagalog tákoba thin covering, surface covering
Bikol takóbeyelid
Maranao takobeyelid
Tiruray tagubto enclose oneself completely inside one’s sarong, as when very cold
Kelabit takuba patch, pocket
  nakubto patch, as torn clothing
Malagasy tákotrathe lid of a cooking pot
Iban taŋkupcover with something hollow (as a plate with a basin); to match, correspond, fit
Malay taŋkupto capture under a hollow (as a dog catching flies in his mouth, a man putting a tumbler over an insect or slapping the hollow of his palm over it; also of hollow covers to apertures, as of hatch-covers in boats, and pieces over the bow and stern of a Malay canoe
  bər-taŋkupto close over; to fold over
Gorontalo taʔubucover for food
Pendau taŋkubto close or cover something


PWMP     *takub-an (gloss uncertain)

Isneg takkub-anto cover
Tiruray tagub-ana scabbard
Malagasy takóf-anabe covered with a lid


PMP     *takub-takub eyelid

Bikol takób-takóbeyelid
Fijian daku-daku ni matathe upper eyelid

Note:   Also Binukid taklub ‘cover something with a lid’. Dempwolff (1938) also included Fijian taku ‘the hawksbill turtle and its shell’, Futunan takū ‘flat scutes of the carapace of a turtle’. However, the Fijian term appears to refer primarily to the animal, and the Futunan term has unexplained length in the last vowel. The agreement of Bikol takób-takób with Fijian daku-daku ni mata may be a product of convergence. With root *-kub₁ ‘cover’.


*ta(ŋ)kup (or ta(ŋ)kequpʔ) cover, enclose


PWMP     *ta(ŋ)kup (or ta(ŋ)kequpʔ) cover, enclose

Ilokano takúpto patch, mend by patching
Cebuano takúpshutter
  takʔupclose, be closed
Melanau (Mukah) takuplid, cover
Malay taŋkupcapture under a hollow
Tae' takoʔcup the two hands together to hold something

Note:   With root *-kup ‘enclose, cover’.


*takut fear


PAN     *takut fear

Siraya takotfear
Ifugaw tákutfear; to fear; to frighten somebody
Ibaloy takotfear for one’s bodily safety
Pangasinan takótfear
  an-takotshy, timid
Kapampangan tákutfear
Tagalog tákotfear
  takótafraid, frightened, feeling fear; nervous, timid, tremulous
  takót na takótvery frightened; panic-stricken; demoralized by fear
Bikol tákotfear
Lun Dayeh tootfear, fright
  ŋe-tootto scare or frighten someone
Kelabit taʔutfear
Murik takutfear; afraid
Kayan takutbe afraid of, in fear of; be frightened by
Kayan (Uma Juman) takutfear; afraid
Malagasy táhotrafear, dread, horror, terror
Malay takutfear
Simalur mana-taʔudto frighten
  taʔut-ito frighten
Toba Batak tahutfear, fright; dread; anxiety
Old Javanese takutfear
Balinese takutfear; to fear, be afraid of
Sasak takutbe afraid
Sangir takuʔfear, dread
Banggai takutfear
  maŋa-takutto frighten
Tae' takuʔto fear
Palauan dáktfear, awe
Bimanese dahufear; afraid
Komodo n-dahuʔafraid
Lamaholot takutbe afraid
Solorese takutfear, be afraid


PMP     *ka-takut (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog ka-tákut-tákotterrible, terrifying
Old Javanese ka-takutfear; object of fear
Tae' ka-takuʔbe afraid of something
Palauan ke-dáktbe afraid of each other
Bimanese ka-dahuto frighten

Note:   Bimanese ka-dahu may reflect *paka-takut, and it is possible that the prefixed element in the other forms cited together here actually has disparate sources.


PAN     *ma-takut fearful, afraid

Siraya ma-takotfear
Ibaloy ma-tekotinclined to fear, fearful
Pangasinan ma-takótafraid
Kapampangan ma-tákutafraid
Tagalog ma-tákotafraid, scared; apprehensive, worried or anxious
Bikol ma-tákotto be afraid, frightened, jittery, nervous, panicky, scared
Lun Dayeh me-tootafraid, have fear
Kelabit me-taʔutto frighten, make afraid
Malagasy ma-táhotrato dread, fear, be afraid
Simalur ma-taʔudanxious, afraid
Toba Batak ma-tahutto fear, be afraid
Sangir ma-takuʔto fear, be afraid
  ma-ma-takuʔto frighten
Banggai ma-takutafraid, be afraid
Tae' ma-takuʔafraid, frightened
Palauan me-dáktto fear, be afraid of
Bimanese dahuto fear, be afraid
Kambera mandautato fear, be afraid of
Hawu medaʔuto fear, be afraid
Leti mtatuto fear, be afraid
Wetan mtaatato be afraid of
Watubela ma-takutto fear, be afraid
Asilulu mataʔuto fear, be afraid
Soboyo mantakuto fear, be afraid
Numfor mkākto fear, be afraid


POC     *matakut fear; fearful, afraid

Seimat ma-mataafraid
Wuvulu maʔauafraid
Yapese daguwfear
Mussau ma-matautuafraid
Amara motoufear
Lakalai matauafraid
Mbula motobe afraid, fear
  pa-motofrighten someone
Gitua mataguzi ~ mataguzato fear, be afraid
Tawala matoutato fear, be frightened
Dobuan matautaafraid
Molima matautaafraid
Tubetube mataus-istate of being afraid
Selau matutafraid, frightened
  asana a mat-matutperson who takes fright easily; coward
Roviana matagutuafraid, fearful
Eddystone/Mandegusu matatuto fear, be afraid
Bugotu mataguto fear, be afraid
Nggela mataguto fear, be afraid
  matagu-nito be afraid of
  matagu-poua coward
Kwaio maʔuafraid; shy
  faʔa-maʔu-ato frighten
  maʔu-niabe afraid of
Lau mouto fear, be afraid
  mou-taiafraid, afraid of
'Āre'āre maʔuto be afraid
  maʔu-niato fear, be afraid of
Sa'a mäʔuto fear, be afraid
  mäʔu-ta-the fear of (something)
Gilbertese maakufear, dread, terror, fright, dismay
Pohnpeian masakbe afraid of, to fear
Chuukese mésék(ú)to be afraid
Puluwat mehak(úw)to be afraid; to be fearsome
Woleaian metag(iu)to be afraid, scared of
Mota matagutbe afraid of
  matag-tagto fear (rare, but true Mota word)
Northeast Ambae matakufear
Raga mataxufear
Nasarian i-metaktakfear
Nakanamanga matakufear
Anejom e-mtaγfear
Wayan matakube afraid, frightened, fearful; fear, fright
  mataku-cifear something, be afraid or frightened of something
  mata-matakube always afraid, timid, cowardly
Niue matakuto fear, be afraid
  mataku-takufear (n.); to fear, be nervous
  mataku-taku-inafeared, dreaded; frightened
Samoan mataʔuto fear, hold in awe
  mataʔu-tiabe dreadful, awful; be terrible, fearful
Tuvaluan matakuafraid
Kapingamarangi madagufear, be afraid; be shy; shyness
  madagu-dagufear, be afraid
Nukuoro madaguafraid, scared
  madagu-dagucowardly (concerning others or supernaturals)
Rennellese matakuto be afraid, cowardly; to fear
  mataku-tiato be dangerous, feared
  mataku-takuto be afraid, cowardly
Anuta matakuto be afraid, frightened; fear
Rarotongan matakufear, dread, terror; afraid, timid, struck with fear; undecided; to be afraid, timid or doubtful
  mataku-takuto be in the state or condition of being afraid, timid; to entertain fear; to be possessed of forebodings; to hesitate
Maori matakuto be afraid; fearful, afraid; inspiring fear; incompatible; averse
  mataku-riabe feared
Hawaiian makaʔufear; frightened, afraid


PWMP     *ma-nakut (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog ma-nákotto scare people, to intimidate, to threaten with harm
Malay me-nakutbe in a state of fear


PWMP     *pa-takut to frighten, make afraid

Kelabit pe-taʔutto frighten, make afraid
Sasak pe-takutcausing fear, arousing fear

Note:   This form of the causative prefix with *takut is clearly in competition with the causative of stative verbs, *paka-. It is possible that the Kelabit and Sasak forms given here are historically secondary reformations from *paka-takut.


PMP     *paka-takut to frighten, cause to fear

Malagasy faha-tahor-anafear, dread
Sangir ma-paka-takuʔto frighten, incite fear
Tae' paka-takuʔto frighten
Soboyo paka-takufrightened
Wayan vaka-matakube fearsome, frightening, terrifying; be dreadful, terribly bad, wicked; be dangerous; be formidable, powerful, commanding respect
Niue faka-mataku-takuto frighten
Samoan faʔa-mataʔuto frighten, threaten
Tuvaluan faka-matakudangerous
Rennellese haka-matakuto frighten, scare; to be amazing, terrifying, dangerous, surprising
Hawaiian hoʔo-makaʔuto frighten, scare, terrify, make afraid; to pretend fear


PWMP     *pa-nakut provoke fear (?)

Tagalog pa-nákotscarecrow
Malay pe-nakutcoward
Toba Batak pa-nahutprovoke fear
Sasak pe-nakutprecipitating fear


PWMP     *ka-takut-an be struck by fear; a state of fear or worry

Kapampangan ka-takut-anfear
Tagalog ka-takut-anto fear or be afraid of something or someone; a state of being afraid; fear, dread
Malagasy ha-tahor-anafear, dread
Malay ke-takut-anpanic
Bahasa Indonesia ke-takut-ana state of fear; a feeling of fear; a condition of fear; hesitation; worry; anxiety; be struck by fear
Tae' ka-ma-takur-anbe afraid; fear

Note:   The Tae' form shows that some of these constructions may have been innovated in the separate histories of the languages in which they are found, since in at least this case the circumfixation of ka- -an took place only after prefixation with ma-.


PMP     *t<um>akut become afraid

Tagalog t<um>ákotto frighten, to alarm, to scare
Kelabit t<em>aʔutto seem afraid
Acehnese t<eum>akōtfrightened, afraid, anxious about
Kemak t<em>autto fear


PWMP     *takut-an easily frightened, cowardly

Ibaloy tekot-anto fear something (as a current in trying to cross a river)
Bahasa Indonesia takut-takut-aneasily startled; afraid of things; shy; hesitant
Sangir takut-aŋtimid, frightened (said, for example, of a child, and thus not a scornful term)
Tae' takur-ancowardly


PWMP     *takut-en to frighten someone

Pangasinan takot-ento frighten
Tagalog takut-ínto frighten, to make afraid, to scare; to intimidate; to bluff; to threaten
Bikol ta-takt-ónafraid, fearful, frightened, jittery, nervous, panicky; meek, timid
  pa-takút-onto make someone afraid, to intimidate, menace, scare, terrify
Toba Batak tahut-onto fear, be afraid
Old Javanese takut-takut-enin the grip of fear
Sasak takut-into frighten someone

Note:   Also Saisiyat tikot ‘fear’, Ibaloy taʔkot ‘fear’, me-taʔkot-an ‘to equip a ricefield with scare devices’, Sasak takut-aŋ ‘be afraid of something’, Buli tjait ‘fear’, am-tjait ‘to fear’, Manam matakur ‘to fear, be afraid of’.

Siraya takot is given here as a probable base, given the attested form matakot ‘fear’, the the clear evidence for *ma-takut in many other languages. It is clear that the morpheme boundary in *ma-takut had already been lost in POc, and perhaps earlier, as suggested by nearly all known reflexes in eastern Indonesia. This raises questions about the position of Bimanese and Yapese, both of which reflect *takut as an independent base.


*talaba kind of shellfish, probably oyster


PPh     *talaba kind of shellfish, probably oyster

Yami talavatype of shellfish: Saccostrea mordax
Ilokano talabákind of large oyster
Tagalog talabáoyster
  ma-nalabáto gather oysters
  tálaba-h-anoyster bed
Bikol talabáoyster
  paŋ-talaba-óngo in search of oysters
Aklanon taeabáoyster
Cebuano talabákind of oyster
Maranao talababarnacle


*talaŋ-talaŋ a marine fish: probably the horse mackerel


PWMP     *talaŋ-talaŋ a marine fish: probably the horse mackerel

Malay ikan talaŋhorse mackerel: generic for large species of Chorinemus, the small or young being seliap
Simalur talaŋ-talaŋkind of fish
Nias tala-talakind of fish
Sasak talaŋname of a sea fish
Sangir talaŋkind of fish; when smoked it can be kept for a long time
Makasarese talaŋ-talaŋmiddle growth stage of the lari (sea fish with five stripes)

Note:   Some languages support the reconstruction of a simple base *talaŋ, and others the reduplicated base *talaŋ-talaŋ. I assume that the latter was original, and has been shortened in languages that reflect the simple base.


*talaq the morning (evening) star: Venus


PMP     *talaq the morning (evening) star: Venus     [doublet: *mantalaq]

Tagalog tálaʔbright star, planet
Mansaka bonta-taraʔmorning star
Bimanese ntarastar
Manggarai ntalastar
Ngadha dalastar
Sika dalastar
Solorese dalastar

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) gives *(t)ala(q) ‘star’, but his cognate set is weak.


*talas break, burst


PMP     *talas break, burst

Maranao talasbreak, burst
Buli talasburst, crack


*talaw timid, fearful; coward


PAN     *talaw timid, fearful; coward

Amis talawbe afraid, fear (generic term)
  pa-talawto threaten
Thao ka-talawbe cool toward someone, not feel friendly impulses toward a person
  pia-tarawbehave in an unfriendly manner
Itbayaten taxawcowardliness
  ma-taxawcoward, cowardly
Ilokano ag-tálawflee, run away, hasten off, escape
Isneg mag-tálawrun away, escape, slip off, vanish
Bikol taláwcowardly, yellow, chicken; a coward
Cebuano tálawback off, be afraid to do something for lacking nerve
Maranao talawcoward
Kadazan Dusun t-um-ahoubecome a coward
Moken talauashamed, shy


PAN     *ma-talaw fearful, cowardly

Amis ma-talawafraid
Thao ma-talawbe unfriendly, cool or distant toward others
Ilokano ma-tálawsuccumb, sink down, die, grow faint
Mongondow mo-talowfaint-hearted, cowardly

Note:   Mills (1975:848) assigns Mongondow talow to PAn *talu ‘defeated, overcome’. While *talu can be attributed to PMP (Tagalog tálo ‘surpassed, defeated’, Karo Batak, Old Javanese talu ‘defeated’, Kambera talu ‘defeat’) it evidently was distinct -- both phonologically and semantically -- from *talaw.


*tales taro: Colocasia esculenta


PMP     *tales taro: Colocasia esculenta

Hanunóo tálusa taro with yellowing leaves
Palawan Batak tälästaro (Revel-Macdonald 1979:53)
Nias talõa tuber: Caladium
Minangkabau talasa cultivated yam, Colocasia antiquorum
Rejang taleusa root crop: Colocasia antiquorum
Sundanese taleuskind of tuber
Old Javanese talestaro, Colocasia antiquorum
  pa-tales-antaro field or garden
Javanese talestaro
  naleshaving the texture of cooked taro (said of rice that is gummy from being cooked in too much water)
Palauan dáittaro (plant)
Rotinese talekind of water plant with large leaves (Jonker 1908)
  taletaro; icon for a male person (Fox 1993)
  ta-taleskind of water plant with large leaves; Dengka dialect (Jonker 1908)
Tetun talasan aroid plant with highly-prized edible tubers


POC     *talos taro: Colocasia esculenta

Motu taloa vegetable: Arum esculentum
Marovo talotaro
Kwaio alotaro (generic); unit of 100 taro for a feast
  alo-nataro corm
Lau alotaro
Toqabaqita alotaro (plant and corm)
'Āre'āre ārotaro (several varieties)
Arosi aroa name for taro in some names of varieties
Bauro arotaro
V'ënen Taut tarotaro
Paamese tārotaro
Makatea tarotaro
Nakanamanga na-taletaro
Sye n/taltaro
Fijian dalothe taro plant, much used as a food, Colocasia esculenta
Tongan talotaro, kind of arum with edible tuberous root, Caladium esculentum
Niue talothe taro plant (Colocasia esculenta). Five groups are recognized, each with many varieties, the groups being distinguished according to differences in color and the marking of the petioles, or leaf stalks
Futunan talotaro (generic): Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott var. antiquorum Schott
Samoan talotaro, a cultivated plant (Colocasia sp.), the corm of which is one of the most important sources of food
  talo-abe plentiful in taro
Tuvaluan talotaro, a cultivated plant, Colocasia esculenta
Nukuoro daloplant sp.: taro (Colocasia esculenta), also the corm of this plant
Rennellese tagotaro, Colocasia esculenta (one of the most important foods, the gift of the god Tupuimatangi)
Anuta tarotaro, Colocasia esculenta
Rarotongan taroan esculent tuber which is much cultivated for food purposes and of which there are several varieties: Colocasia esculenta
Maori taroColocasia antiquorum, a plant cultivated for food
Hawaiian kalotaro (Colocasia esculenta), a kind of aroid cultivated since ancient times for food… In Hawaii taro has been the staple from earliest times to the present, and its cultivation developed greatly, including more than 300 forms

Note:   Also Tontemboan taleʔColocasia antiquorum, used as pig fodder’, Roviana talo ‘taro: Colocasia antiquorum’ (one of the staple foods of the Roviana people, with at least 18 varieties), Rotuman tar-kura ‘kind of taro’, tar-tea ‘kind of taro’ (< Polynesian). This form has a very wide, but thin distribution, being richly attested in Sumatra and Java, the southeast Solomons, central and southern Vanuaut, and Central Pacific languages, but it is rare elsewhere. Although Colocasia species are of central importance in the diet of Polynesian peoples, it is clear that this tuber is of only marginal dietary significance in AN-speaking societies that cultivate rice. It therefore seems likely that it was also a minor food item in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian society that came to achieve greater importance in some areas once rice cultivation was lost. The Roviana form is regarded as irregular, since this language normally retains final consonants, and we would therefore expect **taloso; at the same time this raises the question whether the POc form should be *talos or *talo.


*tali tali plant sp.


PWMP     *tali tali plant sp.

Bahasa Indonesia tali taliplant with beautiful blossom: Quamaclit pennata
Sangir tali-talikind of edible sea plant


*taliŋa kind of tree fungus


PMP     *taliŋa₂ kind of tree fungus

Itbayaten taliŋaedible tree fungus
  kayuhtree, wood
  taliŋa nu kayuhsp. of fungus
Isneg talíŋaear
  danāgthin and filthy spirits. Those who inhabit a balísi (Ficus indica) tree affect with fever or deafness anybody who dares throw stones at their abode
  talíŋa danāgkind of large bracket fungus
Nias taliŋaear
  oroname of a spirit
  taliŋa-orokind of mushroom
Tae' taliŋa balao(lit. 'rat's ear') kind of fungus that grows on the underside of a decayed bamboo betuŋ
Seimat taxiŋear
  paximalevolent bush spirit with visible, humanlike body
  taxiŋ i paximushroom
Nggela taliŋafungus, mushrooms on mbiluma tree
Sa'a äliŋelarge fungi, some edible, growing on logs
Chuukese seniŋe-n soomáany of a large number of fungi ("ghost's or spirit's ear") such as Auricularia, Ganoderma tropicum, etc.
Puluwat háliŋear, earlobe
  hoomághost, bad ghost of the dead; malevolent spirit (feared, as they are believed to devour humans)
  háliŋá-n hoomátree fungus, mushroom
Woleaian taliŋear
  pachthunder, lightning
Rotuman faliaŋ ne ʔatuatoadstool of fungus, lit. "ghost's ear"
Samoan taliŋaear; name given to several types of fungus, including jew's-ear,
  taliŋa-ʔimoa(lit. "rat's ear") sp. fungus

Note:   Also Paiwan ka-tsaluŋa ‘half-moon-shaped tree-fungus (grows in tiers)’, Chamorro talaŋa ‘ear’, hayu ‘stick, wood’, talaŋa hayu ‘type of fungus, dark brownish and quite slippery when wet, usually attaches to decayed wood and looks just like the ear of people’. This item clearly is identical with Dempwolff's (1934-38) *taliŋa ‘ear’, but various compounds probably existed in PMP which indicated the widespread association of at least some types of mushrooms with ghost on the one hand, and with thunder or lightning on the other (see, for example, Lévi-Strauss 1976).


*taliuk turn, go around


PAN     *taliuk turn, go around

Amis taliyokperimeter, area around the outside; go around
Cebuano taliyukturn the body around

Note:   This item may contain a fossilized prefix *ta-.


*taltal hit, pound, crush


PWMP     *taltal hit, pound, crush

Ilokano taltálto crush, bray, comminute
Isneg taltālto crush
Toba Batak taltalhit, beat, hack
Balinese taltalhit repeatedly


*taluk young plant shoot


PMP     *taluk young plant shoot     [doublet: *taruk]

Casiguran Dumagat talúkwet rice seedlings
Hanunóo táluksprout, shoot (to be transplanted); transplanting
Manggarai talokyoung bamboo


*taluki kind of fabric (silk?)


PMP     *taluki kind of fabric (silk?)

Ilokano talóki(obs.) silk of one piece
Old Javanese talukia particular kind of fabric (perhaps muslin)
Balinese talukikind of batik
Kambera talukikind of silk used as a veil

Note:   Also Sangir talukeʔ ‘kind of weaving motif’. This item may be a Chinese loan, but if so, its etymology remains unclear.


*tama₁ appropriate, suitable, right; fit together; hit the mark


PAN     *tama₁ appropriate, suitable, right; fit together; hit the mark     [disjunct: *tamaq₁]

Amis tamato find; to be right; to hit on target
Ilokano t<um>ámato hit with a missile; hit a target
  mai-támato happen at a convenient time; coincide
Casiguran Dumagat támaright, correct, good, accurate, exact
  məg-tamato get a good yield from a rice harvest
  pa-tama-ento make right, to correct
Ibaloy tama-anto hit on, especially of something done timely, fortuitously (as selling one’s vegetables when the price is high; or hitting on the ‘heart of the matter’); such a fortuitous happening, as with gold strikes
Toba Batak tamasuitable, appropriate
Old Javanese ka-tama-nstruck, hit by
Javanese ke-tama-nto get struck
  ke-tama-n larato get sick, to catch a disease
  ke-tama-n asmarato fall in love at first sight
  namato strike
Tae' si-tamaget along, be well-disposed toward one another; make peace, be reconciled
Rotinese tamafit together well (as planks that are joined)


*tama₂ enter, penetrate; bold, of persons


PMP     *tama₂ enter, penetrate; bold, of persons     [disjunct: *tamaq₂]

Kayan tamaʔthe act of sexual intercourse
  namaʔthe male act of sexual intercourse
Malagasy tamipenetrated, entered, appearing; to be at hand
  tami tranoburglary (‘enter house’)
  mi-tamibe fierce, rush into danger, or to an attack
  ma-namito attack (a town, etc.), to penetrate into a town
  tami-nato be attacked in front
Old Javanese tamato enter, penetrate; to have penetrated into, mastered thoroughly, accomplished in
  t<um>amato enter, set foot in, appear in; to penetrate as far as (of weapons); to hit
Balinese tamabe ready, be on hand, never be tongue-tied, be bold
Sasak tamato enter (as a ship into a harbor)
Tajio ntamato enter, go inside
Tae' tamain, into; to the east; to the west
  pa-tama-iput something in, fill with
Proto-South Sulawesi *tamato enter
Mandar tamato enter
  met-tamato enter
  pet-tama-iput something in, insert
Makasarese an-tamato enter, go inside
Sika tamato enter, go inside
Tetun tamato enter, to introduce, to penetrate
  tama-kimpertinent, brash, not timid
Erai tamato enter


PWMP     *ka-tama-an (gloss uncertain)

Old Javanese ka-tama-npenetrated by, affected by, moved by, full of
Tae' ka-tama-nwhere something has gone in; place where something has entered

Note:   Also Sasak tamaʔ ‘greedy, grasping’.


*tamadaw kind of wild ruminant


PWMP     *tamadaw kind of wild ruminant

Aklanon tamárawspecies of wild carabao found only on Mindoro
Cebuano tamaráwkind of wild water buffalo
Iban temadauwild ox: Bos javanicus d'Atton (formerly Bos sondaicus)

Note:   Also Malay tembadau ‘the Borneo wild ox (a variant of Bos sondaicus); in some outlying dialects Bos mindorensis’. Kelabit temedhur, Bintulu temeɗu and similar forms that refer to the native rhinoceros in various of the indigenous languages of Borneo appear to be distinct.


*tamanu a tree: Calophyllum inophyllum


POC     *tamanu a tree: Calophyllum inophyllum

Mussau tamanukind of large-leafed Calophyllum found in the interior (cp. ŋitau 'Calophyllum of the shore')
Tongan tamanutree sp.
Niue tamanua tree: Calophyllum inophyllum (= fetau)
Samoan tamanularge tree (Callophyllum sp.), with timber used for canoes and furniture
Rarotongan tamanuthe native mahogany: Calophyllum inophyllum
Hawaiian kamani, kamanilarge tree (Calophyllum inophyllum, at home on shores of the Indian and western Pacific Oceans, with shiny, oblong leaves to eight inches long, white flowers much like orange blossoms, and globose green fruits about an inch in diameter. The wood is hard and was formerly made into calabashes.

Note:   In POc this term evidently contrasted with *pitaquR ‘Calophyllum inophyllum’. The difference of meaning remains unclear, but may have concerned interior and coastal varieties of the tree, as reflected in Mussau.


*tamaq₁ appropriate, suitable; fit together


PMP     *tamaq₁ appropriate, suitable; fit together     [disjunct: *tama₁]

Tagalog támaʔcorrect, right; hitting the mark
Bikol mag-támaʔto win; to hit it right; to hit the bull’s eye; usually
  ma-tamáʔ-anto get hit by something; fig. to feel the effects of something (such as a drink of liquor)
Hanunóo támaʔright, correct, true
Aklanon támaʔright, correct, enough; to hit directly, make a bullseye, hit straight on
Hiligaynon támaʔcorrect, well, extremely, excessively
Cebuano támaʔfor something to hit squarely on something; be just exactly on time; make something fit; stop doing something bad
Central Tagbanwa tamato be correct; to hit the target
Maranao tamaʔenough, alright
Toba Batak tamasuitable, appropriate
Rotinese tamafit together well (as planks that are joined)


*tamaq₂ enter, penetrate; bold, of persons


PMP     *tamaq₂ enter, penetrate; bold, of persons     [disjunct: *tama₂]

Yakan tamaʔfor something to be penetrated or pierced (by a knife or bullet); covered with (wounds or bullet holes)
Kadazan Dusun tamaʔbrave, bold
  ka-tamaʔdare, bold, brave
Malagasy tamipenetrated, entered, appearing; to be at hand
  tami tranoburglary (‘enter house’)
  mi-tamibe fierce, rush into danger, or to an attack
  ma-namito attack (a town, etc.), to penetrate into a town
  tami-nato be attacked in front
Tetun tamato enter, to introduce, to penetrate
  tama-kimpertinent, brash, not timid
Erai tamato enter

Note:   Also Iban tamaʔ ‘enter, go in’, namaʔ ka bilik ‘take up residence in bilik (single-family room in longhouse) and become one of the family, especially by marrying into it’, Erai tamo ‘to enter’. Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *tama ‘penetrate; hit the mark; correct, straight’, which appears to conflate distinct cognate sets.


*tambak₁ hit, pound on


PMP     *tambak₁ hit, pound on

Proto-South Sulawesi *tamba(k)hit, pound
Hawu dababeat on with both hands

Note:   With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’.


*tambak₂ dam, dyke, embankment; to heap up


PWMP     *tambak₂ dam, dyke, embankment; to heap up

Ilokano tambákdam, dike, bank
  ag-tambákto build a dike
Ibaloy i-tambakto pile, heap something up
Tagalog tambákembankment, terrace; mound; a bank or heap of earth, stones, sand, etc.; pile; a mass like a hill or mound; the piling up, e.g. of official papers not acted upon
  i-tambákto dump; to empty out or throw down so as to make a pile or heap; to dump into a place
  má-tambak-ánto be encumbered; to be filled or blocked up; to be oversupplied; to be glutted; to be overwhelmed; to be snowed under
  mag-tambákto make a heap or pile of sand, soil, stones, etc.
Bikol tambákheap, mound, pile
  tambak-ónto heap or pile up
Romblomanon tambaksomething is covered over by someone with soil, stones, the shallow ocean
Masbatenyo támbakpiled, packed tightly, chock full
  tambak-ónto pile something
Aklanon támbakpile; to pile up (one on top of another); fill (hole)
Waray-Waray tambákheap; pile; mass; mound
Maranao tambakrampart, heap
  tambak-ento heap up, as earth
Binukid tambakto cover (something) over with dirt
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tambakto fill in a hole; to cover something over with some substance
Mapun tambakan orderly stacking of rocks or earth (as used for the foundation of a house on the seashore, for a wharf, for a retaining wall surrounding a grave or rice field, etc.)
  nambakto make an orderly stack of rocks or earth
Yakan mag-tambakto place something on top of something else; pile up on top
Tausug mag-tambakto level (a low place), fill in (ground); pile stones (often over a grave)
Ngaju Dayak tambaka burial place for those families that do not preserve the corpse and later reinter the bones in an elevated mausoleum built on wooden posts
Malay tambakbanking; filling; levelling up
  me-nambakto reclaim (low-lying land)
Acehnese s<ɨn>ambaʔdyke, dam, mound of earth, wall, rampart, parapet
Simalur tambaʔgrave; canal
Karo Batak tambaka dyke, a damming up of water; an artificial pond made by damming
  nambak-ito dam up by building a dyke
Toba Batak tambakburial mound that one properly undertakes and plants with trees
Nias tambaa filling up
  ma-nambato fill up
  fa-tambabecome equal, be even (of a number)
Sundanese tambakwhat serves to block off or divert water; also, to lie in a heap, heap up to obstruct the inflow or outflow of water
  di-tambakdammed up, held in by a dyke
  nambakto obstruct or divert (of water, with a dyke or dam)
Old Javanese tambakwall, dike, dam, fence
  tambak saya(of warriors) defence, rampart (against the enemy)
Javanese tambaka pond near the shore where certain sea fish (bandeng) are cultivated; a dike or dam for regulating water
  nambakto regulate the flow of; to tackle a problem;to overcome an obstacle
Balinese tambakdam, dyke; a pool formed from a dammed stream; fishpond; to block, obstruct, dam
Sasak tambakfishpond
Mongondow tambakburial place


PWMP     *ma-tambak heaped up, as an obstruction

Tagalog má-tambákto be put aside in some place so as to form a big heap or mound, as garbage, old papers, etc.; to be or become piled up, as official papers requiring action, or as goods, etc.
Old Javanese (m)a-tambakwith a wall, etc.; to stand like a wall or dam, tightly packed (along the way), blocking (the way); a certain functionary (inspector or dikes?)


PWMP     *ka-tambak-an (gloss uncertain)

Yakan ka-tambak-anbe affected by something that piles up on top (as a house struck by a falling tree)
Old Javanese ka-tambak-anto provide with a dam, be provided with a dam


PWMP     *t<um>ambak to pile up earth or rocks, heap up so as to obstruct

Tagalog t<um>umbákto accumulate or pile up
Acehnese t<ɨm>ambaʔto dam up, make a dyke; heap up earth; fill up
Old Javanese t<um>ambakto put oneself in the way


PWMP     *tambak-an (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano tambak-anto build a dike across or around
Ibaloy tambak-anto pile something against, on, etc. something else
Tagalog tambák-ana dump; a dumping place
  tambak-ánto fill up a place by dumping sand, earth, stones, rubbish, etc.
Romblomanon tambāk-ana shallow-sea fish trap
Masbatenyo tambak-ándumping place, junk yard
Mapun tambak-anto make an orderly stack of rocks or earth
Yakan tambak-anto place something on top of something else; pile up on top
Sundanese tambak-andam, dyke

Note:   Also Manggarai tamba ‘fishpond’.


*tamban a fish: sardine spp.


PWMP     *tamban a fish: sardine spp.

Ilokano tambánkind of sardine
Hanunóo támbandark-colored fish about 15 cm. long
Cebuano tambanname given to sardines of several species
Maranao tambanminnow, anchovy
Malay ikan tambansardine; generic for various Clupeidae
Sundanese tambanmarine fish sp.
Balinese tambankind of small sea fish
Sasak tambana sea fish, apparently the sardine


*tambaŋuŋu large catfish that lives in river estuaries: genus Arius


PWMP     *tambaŋuŋu large catfish that lives in river estuaries: genus Arius

Cebuano tambaŋúŋukind of large, fleshy catfish living in river estuaries
Makasarese tambanunukind of fish, lighter-colored than barrukaŋ (barrukaŋ = kind of fish that lives in river mouths and swamps, smooth, shiny and scaleless, gray and black with barbels on the mouth and poisonous spines on the back)

Note:   I assume that Makasarese tambanunu shows irregular replacement of the rarer and more marked velar nasal with its alveolar counterpart.


*tambu forbidden, taboo


PCEMP     *tambu forbidden, taboo

Yamdena tamburestrain, prevent, forbid
Fordata tabuforbid, prevent


POC     *tabu forbidden, taboo

Tigak tapholy
Tawala tabuforbidden (said to be a Suau loan)
Molima tabu-gua food forbidden to me
Tubetube tabudon’t
Cheke Holo tabutaboo, prohibited, sacred
Roviana tabuput a taboo (under certain circumstances) on food; perhaps an introduced term
Eddystone/Mandegusu tabucharm, sacred object; forbidden, taboo
Bugotu tabusacred, forbidden, holy; a prohibition placed on use or handling of anything
Nggela tambuset apart; forbidden, taboo; dedicated; sacred, holy; a priest; abominable, hateful, immoral
Kwaio abusacred, taboo
Lau ābutaboo, holy
Toqabaqita abutaboo, not allowed, forbidden
'Āre'āre āpusacred, forbidden, taboo; used also as a prohibitive, dehortative to children
Arosi abudehortatory: don’t; sacred, in a few names of places, etc.
Gilbertese tabuprohibition, interdiction; sacred; forbidden, prohibited (generally used with religious meaning of sacred, consecrated)
  tabu-ato forbid, prohibit, interdict
Marshallese jabwitaboo (archaic)
Woleaian tab(u)taboo, ban, ritual restriction protected by supernatural sanction (marked by a taboo sign); be prohibited by taboo, restricted by taboo
Wayan tabube forbidden, prohibited by strong communal sanction, e.g. of traditional custom, modern law; (of a place or thing) be prohibited from use; prohibition, restriction; holiness, sacredness
Fijian tabuforbidden, prohibited, implying a religious sanction, but now used also for legal prohibition, such as “no admission’; sacred, holy, unapproachable
Tongan tapuprohibited, unlawful
Niue tapusacred, prohibited to common people
  fale tapuchurch
Samoan tapube forbidden
  tapu-ibe under an interdiction or ‘taboo’
Tuvaluan tapuprohibited
Kapingamarangi dabusacred; restricted; taboo
Nukuoro dabuforbidden; awesome
Rennellese taputaboo, forbidden, sacred, hallowed, restricted; sacredness, forbidden or sacred place; to observe taboos, as on the Sabbath
Maori tapuunder religious or superstitious restriction; a condition affecting persons, places, and things, and arising from innumerable causes
  tāpu-imark to indicate claim or right to property
Hawaiian kaputaboo, prohibition


POC     *paka-tabu to forbid, make taboo

Vitu va-tabu-tabu-ato forbid
Cheke Holo fa-tabuto make taboo
Kwaio faʔa-abu-ato taboo, forbid ritually, make sacred
Lau fā-ābuconsecrate
Arosi haʔa-abuforbid
Niue faka-taputo make sacred
Samoan faʔa-tapu-laʔaset a limit to
Rennellese haka-taputo make taboo; to dedicate, as a church
Hawaiian hoʔo-kapumake taboo, prohibit, sanctify, consecrate


POC     *tabu-na taboo

Nauna tapundehortative; don’t
Penchal rat rapu-ntaboo
Loniu topu-ntaboo
Bipi drapu-ntaboo
Wuvulu ʔapu-nacommand of prohibition; taboo
Eddystone/Mandegusu tabu-nashrine, skull-house, sacred or forbidden place; sacred thing
'Āre'āre āpu-nataboo (there are four varieties of taboo, each causing a different sickness)
Bauro apu-nadon’t


POC     *tabu-ni-a be tabooed

Roviana tabu-ni-aput a taboo on food
'Āre'āre āpu-ni-aput a taboo under curse; forbid
Samoan tapu-inabe forbidden by someone


POC     *tapu-tapu strictly forbidden

Kwaio abu-abusacred area beside men’s house where adalo (ancestral spirits) are addressed
Tongan topu-tapusacred, holy
Niue tapu-tapustrictly prohibited
Samoan tapu-tapustrictly forbidden
Rennellese tapu-tapudiminutive of tapu; small sacredness
Maori tapu-tapucharm, incantation
Hawaiian kapu-kapudignity, regal appearance; entitled to respect and reverence, difficult of access because of rank, dignity and station

Note:   Also Numfor kābus ‘taboo; tree branch or anything else placed on fruit tree or other object by its owner in order to make others afraid to approach the marked object lest ill fortune befall them’, Arosi puna ‘sacred, taboo’, puna apuro ‘a place taboo (puna) to the avenger of blood to which he comes decked in his ornaments; anyone else going there is puna from returning (apuro) alive, and is killed’. Since *t > k is regular the Numfor word initially appears to support PEMP *tambus, but the long vowel is unexplained, and the final consonant fails to agree with the absence of a final consonant in the Yamdena and Fordata words.

This is one of the key cultural terms in the POc lexicon, designating a type of social control that was enforced by supernatural sanctions. Because of the nature of the sanctions the term itself often came to mean ‘sacred’ or ‘holy’. However, it evidently was also used either alone or in suffixed form as a general dehortative. It is unclear how POc *tabu differed in meaning from POc *pali, which continued PAn *paliSi ‘taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite’.


*tambuluk puffy area around the throat of some birds


PWMP     *tambuluk puffy area around the throat of some birds

Cebuano tambúlukthe hackles of roosters
Malay tembolokcrop (of bird)


*tamiaŋ kind of bamboo


PMP     *tamiaŋ kind of bamboo     [doublet: *amiaŋ 'generic for plants with stinging hairs or hairs that cause itchiness']

Malay bulu temiaŋthe bamboo of which blowpipes are made: Bambusa wrayi
Sundanese awi tamiaŋkind of thin bamboo (used for blowpipes and thread spools)
Old Javanese tamyaŋkind of bamboo
Kambera tamiaŋukind of thin bamboo: Schistostachyum blumei, used for spears, trail or pitfall spikes, and plaited to make walling

Note:   Also Malay tembiaŋ idem. This comparison was first recognized in print by Verheijen (1984).


*tamiŋ type of shield


PMP     *tamiŋ type of shield

Aklanon tamíŋshield
Hiligaynon tamíŋarmor, shield
Cebuano tamiŋshield
Maranao tamiŋshield
Subanen/Subanun tamiŋround shield (Churchill 1913)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tamiŋround shield
Kambera temiŋushield
Hawu tamishield

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun tamin shield (Gossens 1924), Sundanese taméŋ, Old Javanese tamyaŋ, Javanese tamèŋ, Balinese, Sasak tamiaŋ ‘round shield, buckler’. Round and oblong shields are distinguished terminologically in many Austronesian languages, and it seems likely from the Manobo (Western Bukidnon) and Subanen/Subanun glosses, together with the glosses of the Javanese, Balinese, and Sasak variants, that *tamiŋ referred exclusively to round shields.


*tamiq to taste, try


PMP     *tamiq to taste, try     [disjunct: *tamis]

Aklanon tamíʔtest food, taste (using one's finger)
Hotti/Hoti tamichew
Rennellese tamitaste
  tami-tamitaste a little, as to try


*tamis to taste, try


PMP     *tamis to taste, try     [disjunct: *tamiq]

Banggai tamistest, taste, sample
Bare'e me-tamitaste, try
Tae' tammiʔchew so as to enjoy the juice and reject the refuse, as when chewing sugarcane
Hotti/Hoti tamichew
Rennellese tamitaste
  tami-tamitaste a little, as to try

Note:   For an earlier discussion of this comparison see (Blust 1978a:24).


*tampar flatfish, flounder


PWMP     *tampar flatfish, flounder

Malay ikan tampara flatfish: Pseudorhombus arsuis
Chamorro tampattype of fish: Bothus mancus (Bothidae), flounder, flatfish


*tampeŋ plug or dam up


PWMP     *tampeŋ plug or dam up

Malagasy tampinastopped, corked, plugged
Sasak tampeŋdam up

Note:   With root *-peŋ ‘plug up, dam; cover’.


*tampil attach, connect, join


PWMP     *tampil attach, connect, join     [doublet: *tampir]

Maranao tampilincluded with, identified with, favor one side
Iban tampiljoin, attach, tie on
  kaban tampilrelative by marriage
  nampilmarry into a family


*tampipiq telescoping basket, double basket


PPh     *tampipiq telescoping basket, double basket

Ilokano tampípikind of rectangular light bamboo trunk with flat sides, used for traveling
  i-tampípito place provisions, etc. in the tampípi
Bontok tampípikind of basket with fitting cover, for general storage (< Ilokano)
Ibaloy tampipilightweight box for keeping one’s clothes, blankets, that can be used as a travelling bag
Tagalog tampípiʔa native clothes trunk or chest made of bamboo, rattan or a certain kind of palm leaves
Bikol tampípiʔa travelling bag made of woven reeds
  tampipíʔ-onto place something into or carry in a tampípiʔ
Tausug tampípiʔa (double telescoping) basket made of coconut leaves

Note:   Also Maranao tampipi ‘double, telescoping basket’. Possibly a product of borrowing from Tagalog, Ilokano, or both.


*tampir attach, connect, join


PWMP     *tampir attach, connect, join     [doublet: *tampil]

Maranao tampirinclude, side with one party in controversy
Iban (Lemanak) tampirjoin, attach, tie on


*tampuk clap, thud


PWMP     *tampuk clap, thud     [disjunct: *tampun]

Kankanaey tampókclap one's hands, applaud
Old Javanese tampokcoming down with a thud

Note:   With root *-puk₁ ‘beat, crack, thud’.


*tampuŋ collect, gather


PWMP     *tampuŋ collect, gather

Maranao tampoŋgather
Malay (Java) tampoŋtap and collect latex in a cup
Bahasa Indonesia tampuŋreceive and collect together (produce from an area, excess produce, etc.)

Note:   With root *-puŋ ‘assemble, collect, gather’.


*tamtam smack the lips


PAN     *tamtam smack the lips

Paiwan tj-alʸ-amtjamsmack one's lips
Maranao tantamtaste
Chamorro tamtamtest, try out, sip, taste
Buli camcamsmack the lips

Note:   Also Maranao taʔam ‘taste, as of food’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taʔam ‘taste s.t.’, Nggela tata chewed pulp. Earlier reconstructed as *(CtT)aqam (CtT)aqam ‘taste, flavor’ (Blust 1978a:24).


*tamu smack the lips while eating


PCEMP     *tamu smack the lips while eating

Rotinese tamumake a smacking sound while eating, as a pig does
Motu tamu-tamusmack the lips while eating

Note:   Also Iban (Scott 1956) tamuʔ ‘feed up, fatten (usually animals)’.


*tanduk tanduk plant sp.


PWMP     *tanduk tanduk plant sp.

Ilokano tan-tandókGynandropsis pentaphylla (L.) DC.. An erect capparidaceous herb with digitate, long-petioled leaves ... and white flowers tinged with purple; it is considered a caustic
Malay tandok-tandokplants with curiously shaped flowers; Strophanthus dichotomus, Ervatamia spp.

Note:   This reconstruction may contain Dempwolff's (1934-38) *tanduk ‘horn’.


*taneq earth, soil, land


PMP     *taneq earth, soil, land

Yami tanamud, earth, soil, land (as opposed to sea)
Itbayaten tanasoil, earth, ground
  tana-enland, territory
Kalamian Tagbanwa tanɨkearth (ground)
Agutaynen tanekground, land; earth, soil, dirt; land owned by somebody
  ma-tanek-ena person who owns a lot of land
  ma-tanek-tanekdiscolored, with a reddish color, particularly of white clothes that are still dirty even after being washed
Maranao tanaʔalight, as thing in air; go down, as from a steep thing; relevance
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tanaʔground; earth; land; dirt; region; to come to earth
Mapun tanaʔground, dirt; land; soil, country
Yakan tanaʔdry rice field, swidden
  mag-tanaʔto plant (or make something into) a dry rice field
Tboli tonokearth, ground, soil; land as distinguished from sea or sky
Kadazan Dusun tanaʔsoil, land, earth, ground
Tombonuwo tanaʔearth, soil, dirt
Ida'an Begak tanaʔlow
Bisaya (Limbang) tanəʔearth, soil
Lun Dayeh tanaʔearth, soil; ground; land; the world
Kelabit tanaʔearth, soil; world
Narum tanaʔearth, soil
Kenyah tanaʔland
Kenyah (Long Anap) tanaʔearth, soil, land
Kayan tanaearth, soil, ground; floor
Kayan (Uma Juman) tanaearth, soil
Kiput tanaaʔearth
Bintulu tanəʔearth, soil
Melanau (Mukah) tanaʔearth, soil
Tunjung tanaaʔearth
Ngaju Dayak tanarice field
  ma-nanawork in the fields; make a rice field somewhere
Ma'anyan taneʔearth
Malagasy taniearth, land, soil; a country, a kingdom
  i-taniout of doors
  tani-be(‘big land’) the mainland of Madagascar, a word used to distinguish the mainland from the surrounding islands
Samihim taneʔearth
Iban tanahearth, soil, land, ground, country
  tanah baru(‘new land’) land that is recently first cleared and still fertile
Jarai tənahearth, soil
Malay tanahland; state, country; surface of soil, especially with regard to ownership; surface of soil with regard to its character; soil itself and its character
  tanah liatclay (‘sticky earth’)
  tanah na(m)palmarl, edible earth
  tanah raya(‘great land’) continent
  di-tanahoutside the house;out of doors
Acehnese tanɔhground, land, earth
  tanɔh kliət(‘sticky earth’) clay, potter’s clay
  meu-tanɔhowning land
Gayō tanohearth, soil
  mu-tanohpossessing land
Karo Batak tanehearth, ground, territory, district
Toba Batak tanoearth, ground, land
  tano liatclay (‘sticky earth’)
Nias tanõearth, soil, land
Lampung tanohland
Sundanese tanɨhearth, ground; dust
Old Javanese tanahland, country
Javanese tanahland, country; parcel of land
  tuan tanahlandlord
Balinese tanahground, land, earth, soil (mainly as agricultural object, but also as building material, and as a political unit)
  tanah hampoha sort of clay eaten by pregnant women
  tanah putihchalk (‘white earth’)
Sasak tanaʔearth, soil, ground; land
Sangir ən-tanaearth, ground, land
Tontemboan tanaʔ ma-tuʔaland that has returned to bush (‘old land’)
  tanaʔ walethe space under the house
  wale tanaʔhouse on the ground, not raised on piles, with the earth as floor
Pendau tanoearth, soil
Dampelas tanoearth, soil
Banggai tanoearth, ground; world
Uma tanaʔearth, soil
Bare'e tanaground, earth, soil, land
  tana ma-puyuclay (‘sticky earth’)
  tana Morithe land of the Mori
  man-tanadig in the ground
  men-tanaof animals, hide in the mud, crawl into the ground
Tae' tanaground, earth, land; world
  tana ToraaToraja country
Makasarese tanaland, wet ricefield
Wolio tanaearth, ground, land, territory, country
  tana ikandeedible earth
Chamorro tanoʔworld, earth, land, soil, ground
Bimanese danaearth, soil, land
Manggarai tanaland, soil, earth, territory
  tana liliŋclay (‘waxy earth’)
Rembong tanaʔearth, soil
Ngadha tanaearth, soil, land; district, tract of ground
Sika tanaland, earth, ground
  tana ihi-ŋproducts of the land, harvest
Lamaholot tanaearth, land, district, territory
  ləwo tanavillage
Lamboya pan-tanaearth
Kambera tanaland, district, territory
  tana Humbathe island of Sumba
  tana dítauplands, east Sumba; the visible world
  tana wàlowlands, west Sumba; the unseen world
Rotinese tanemud
Kei tan bulred sticky earth
  tuan tanoverseer of the common village land ‘lord of the land’)
  tana-tdistrict, land, ground, earth, black earth
Buruese tanaland
  tana Buruthe land of Buru
Kayeli tana isoearthquake (‘shaking ground’)
Waropen analand, bush, earth


POC     *tanoq earth, soil, land; down; westward

Nauna tandown
  kan-tanearth, soil
Penchal randown
Loniu tanearth, ground, soil; down
Bipi dandown
Aua anosoil
Lusi tanoearth, ground
Lakalai -talodown; westward
Gedaged tansoil, ground; land; garden, field; earth; world
Takia tanearth, soil
Gitua tanoground, earth
  tano sisiŋiared earth (= clay)
Motu tanoearth; soil; country; land
  tano aiashore; on land
  tano badathe earth; the land, as distinguished from sky and sea (‘big land’)
Bugotu tanoearth, ground
Kwaio anoland, ground
Lau anoearth, land; garden land (rarely used)
  ano-anolow, as a house
  ano-ano-alow, humble, subject to
'Āre'āre ānogarden, garden-ground
Sa'a anoground, garden ground
  siho hai anocome down to the ground
Arosi anothe ground, earth, soil, the land
  ano-iaa landslip
  ano-anolow, of shrub, tree, house, hill; lowering, of clouds; a drop of liquid left at the bottom of a vessel
Gilbertese tanosand, soil, clay, ground, land
  tano-ato cover with sand, to dirty with clay
Chuukese sɔɔn(obsolete) the earth (as distinct from heaven); level place, prepared site
Puluwat sɔɔnsurface, ground, floor, bottom; to be lower
Woleaian tal(o)earth, soil, ground; west, downward
Mota tanoearth, ground
Mosina tanearth
Merig tanearth
Tolomako tanoearth
Northeast Ambae tanoearth
Naman ne-tinearth
Rerep ne-tanearth
Port Sandwich na-ranearth
North Ambrym tanearth
Visina poro-tanoearth
Tonga na-tanearth
Nakanamanga na-tanoearth
Kwamera tanaearth
Iaai kɔnɔearth


PPh     *t<um>aneq go overland, hike

Tboli t<m>onokto walk, hike; to be dirty from the soil
Tontemboan t<um>anaʔgo by land, go overland


PMP     *taneq pulut clay, sticky earth

Kelabit tanaʔ pulutclay (‘sticky earth’)


POC     *tanoq pulut clay, sticky earth

Mota tano pul ~ tano puluttenacious earth, red, black, volcanic earth which sticks, used in building wona (stone feasting platform) at Gaua


PMP     *taneq tumbuq anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’)

Iban tanah tumbohtermite mound (lit. ‘growing earth’)


POC     *tanoq tubuq anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’)

Motu tano tubuant-hill (lit. ‘growing earth’)


POC     *tanoq tanoq dusty, full of dust or dirt

'Āre'āre āno-ānodust
Gilbertese tano-tanofull of sand (food)

Note:   Also Tiruray tunaʔ ‘earth, ground, soil’, Sundanese tanah ‘land, district, estate’, Leti, Wetan tani ‘earth, ground, soil’, Kayeli tain ‘ground, earth, soil, sand’. Dempwolff (1938) posited doublets *tanah and *tanəh ‘earth, land’, assigning Ngaju Dayak tana ‘rice field’ to the first of these, and tanah ‘a land’ as in tanah Jawa ‘the land of Java’ or tanah belanda ‘Holland’ to the second. However, the basis for this distinction is shaky. Ngaju Dayak tana is a native term, while tanah is clearly a borrowing of Banjarese tanah. Many languages have merged PAn *a and *e before the reflex of word-final *q, usually after it became a glottal stop. It is the neutralization of this phonemic distinction before glottal stop that has given rise to the impression that there was a variant *tanaq, which probably never existed. In addition to the subentries cited above the recurrent pattern of a reflex of *taneq + a place name suggests that the expression *taneq + place name existed in PMP times.

Finally, in some Oceanic languages, where final consonants have been lost, the reflexes of POc *tanoq ‘earth, soil’ and *tanom ‘to plant, bury’ can be difficult to distinguish, and in fact are often combined by lexicographers or comparativists, as with Keesing (1975), who gives Kwaio ano ‘land, ground’, a clear reflex of POc *tanoq, but the subentry anom-ia ‘plant, bury’, which is just as clearly a reflex of POc *tanom, or Fox (1974), who gives Lau ano ‘earth, land’, but the subentry ano-mila ‘burying’, which exemplifies the same problem. Similarly, Bender et al (2003) posit proto-Micronesian *tano ‘ground, low’, but refer additionally to e.g. Tongan tano ‘place of burial, cemetery’, which clearly reflects POc *tanom.


*tanzak step, leap


PWMP     *tanzak step, leap

Javanese tanjaka certain leaping move in the classical dance
Bare'e tadaplace the foot on something higher, e.g. in order to take a big step or a leap, or to reach a higher place

Note:   With root *-zak ‘step, tread’.


*taNek to cook anything but rice


PAN     *taNek to cook anything but rice

Saisiyat t<om>aləkto cook
Pazeh talek-iCook it! (sweet potatoes, fish, meat, but not rice)
Paiwan tjalʸekto cook food in advance (as for journey)


PMP     *tanek to cook

Cebuano tanukto boil starchy foods, but not rice: ears of corn, root crops, bananas
Binukid tanekto steam (immature unpounded rice to harden the grains so it can be dried and pounded)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tanekto steam immature unpounded rice in order to harden the grains so that it may be pounded and cooked
Lun Dayeh tanekboiling of something
  ne-tanekboiled by mistake
Kelabit tanekboiling of water, cooking vegetables, cook meat
Kayan tanekcooked in water, boiled (as maize)
Malagasy mi-tanikato boil, to cook
Iban tanakto cook (usually not rice)
Malay tanakboiling (rice)
  ber-tanak nasito boil rice
Old Javanese pa-tanek-ankitchen
Totoli ma-tanokboiled, cooked
Mandar tanaʔboil, cook
Makasarese tanaʔcoconut milk from which oil is boiled out; smelting of tin or lead


PWMP     *ma-nanek to boil, to cook

Lun Dayeh nanekto boil something
Kelabit nanekto boil water, cook
Bahasa Indonesia me-nanakto boil rice in a pot
Totoli ma-nanokto boil, to cook


PWMP     *maR-tanek to boil, to cook

Bikol mag-tanókto parboil rice
Masbatenyo mag-tanókto boil food
Malay ber-tanakto boil rice
Mandar mat-tanaʔto boil, to cook


PAN     *t<in>aNek boiled foods other than rice?


PMP     *t<in>anek boiled foods other than rice

Paiwan (Western) tj<in>alʸekprepared food (especially taken along for journey); cooked food in general
Cebuano t<in>anúkcooked root crops, bananas, or corn
Lun Dayeh t<in>anekboiled by someone
Old Javanese t<in>anekto cook, to boil


PAN     *t<um>aNek to cook anything but rice

Saisiyat t<om>aləkto cook
Pazeh mu-talekto cook (side dishes, meaning anything but rice)


PMP     *t<um>anek to cook anything but rice

Old Javanese t<um>anekto cook, boil


PAN     *taNek-en to be cooked

Pazeh talek-ento be cooked; what is cooked


PMP     *tanek-en to be cooked

Bikol tanok-ónto parboil rice
Masbatenyo tanuk-ónto boil food (as jackfruit seeds)
Malagasy taneh-inato be boiled, to be cooked


*taNiud mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta)


PAN     *taNiud mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta)

Tsou tahzucumulberry tree and fruit
Kanakanabu taníucumulberry tree and fruit
Saaroa talhiusumulberry tree and fruit
Rukai (Budai) taɭíuDumulberry tree and fruit
Yami (Imorod) tanyodmulberry tree and fruit
Itbayaten tañoda species of tree, mulberry: Morus alba Linn., with white flowers and edible fruit

Note:   This comparison was first noted by Tsuchida (1976:141).


*tañam try, taste


PAN     *tañam try, taste

Atayal talamtry, taste; ask about the future; tell the future
Pazeh mu-talamto try, taste
  xi-talamto taste
Amis tanamtry to do something; taste
Thao tazamtaste; try
  pu-tazamtry or test something
Bunun tanamtry
Maranao tanampleasant, comfortable

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) pa-a-talam ‘to try’, Kavalan talam ‘taste’, talam ‘to taste something’, Bintulu ñam ‘taste’. With root *-ñam ‘savory, tasty, taste’.


*taŋan finger, toe


PMP     *taŋan finger, toe

Ilokano taŋánthumb, great toe
Pangasinan taŋánthumb, big toe
Malagasy tánanahand, foreleg of quadrupeds
Malay taŋanhand
Selaru taŋafinger, toe
Sekar taga-nfinger, toe

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *taŋan ‘hand’, but forms with this or clearly related meanings are confined to WMP languages. His inclusion of Fijian taŋa ‘sack’ and similar forms in other Oceanic languages (e.g., Gedaged taŋ ‘net bag used by women’) appears to confuse distinct cognate sets.


*taŋaR to seize property and run off with it; to elope


PPh     *taŋaR to seize property and run off with it; to elope

Hanunóo taŋágbiting or holding something in the mouth, as ants do
  mag-taŋághold on by biting
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taŋagto take something of someone else’s without permission and leave with it
Tiruray taŋarto elope when both persons are single
Proto-Gorontalic *taŋagomarry by elopement
Mongondow taŋagabduct, elope with, carry off, plunder
  mo-naŋagto elope with an unmarried girl (elopement with a married woman is moŋ-agow)


*taŋeb lid, cover


PMP     *taŋeb lid, cover

Bontok taŋəbto cover, as a pot or vat
Kankanaey taŋébto cover
Maranao taŋebclose door or window
Palauan dáŋeblid, cover
Kambera taŋalid, cover


*taŋ(e)buq kind of coarse grass


PWMP     *taŋ(e)buq kind of coarse grass

Tagalog tambóʔcoarse reed-like grass (used in making brooms)
Hanunóo taŋbuʔoffshoot, sucker -- referring to bamboo
Cebuano taŋbuʔcoarse grass of swamps with a hollow stem, used for the manufacture of brooms and hats: Phragmites vulgaris
Malay tamboha shrub: Euthemis leucocarpa

Note:   Also Maranao tamboʔo ‘a herb: Hyptis brevipes Poir.’.


*taŋgap receive, accept


PWMP     *taŋgap receive, accept

Kapampangan taŋgapreceive, accept
Tagalog taŋgápaccepted, admitted, received
Tiruray taŋgafreceive, accept
Old Javanese taŋgapaccept, take, receive (also with person as object)
Balinese taŋgaptake into the hand, accept, receive

Note:   Possibly equivalent to Dempwolff's (1934-38) *taŋgap ‘seize, hold firmly’.


*taŋgiRi Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorus spp.


PWMP     *taŋgiRi Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorus spp.     [doublet: *taŋiRi]

Ibatan taŋgigia kind of fish resembling a barracuda
Ilokano taŋgígikind of marine fish, usually eaten raw in kilawen (a raw meat dish), Spanish mackerel
Tagalog taŋgíŋgiSpanish mackerel
Bikol taŋgígiSpanish mackerel
Masbatenyo taŋgígiSpanish mackerel fish
Waray-Waray taŋgígiSpanish mackerel fish
Iban teŋgíriScombroid marine fish, Cybium spp., mackerel
Malay təŋgíriSpanish mackerel: Scomberomorus (Cybium) spp.
Minangkabau taŋgíriSpanish mackerel: Scomberomorus (Cybium) spp.
Sundanese taŋgiriname of a seafish, the mackerel

Note:   Tagalog taŋgíŋgi is unusual in showing secondary prenasalization of *R after its change to a voiced velar stop.


*taŋguŋ carry on a shoulder pole


PWMP     *taŋguŋ carry on a shoulder pole

Kadazan Dusun taŋguŋcarry over the shoulder with a long stick
Ida'an Begak taŋguŋyoke; carry with yoke
Malay taŋgoŋsupporting (on the shoulder); bearing up a heavy weight from below; (fig.) bearing up under trouble or misfortune; standing security for another
Old Javanese taŋguŋcarrying, bearing, burden, load
  a-naŋguŋto carry, bear
  t<in>aŋguŋto carry, bear
Javanese taŋguŋto vouch for, accept responsibility for; security, pledge (e.g. for a loan); responsibility, obligation
  naŋguŋcarry over the shoulder on a shoulder pole so that the weight is balanced fore and aft
Balinese naŋguŋcarry something on a pole on the shoulders of two men
Sasak taŋguŋvouch for, be responsible for


PWMP     *ka-taŋguŋ bearable, able to be carried

Kadazan Dusun ka-taŋguŋcan carry something on the shoulder with a long stick
Sundanese ka-taŋguŋbearable, able to be carried

Note:   Also Dampelas taŋkuaŋ, Tanampedagi Taje taŋguaŋ ‘carry on the shoulder with a stick’. These forms raise the possibility that the reconstruction was *taŋguaŋ, with reduction of the vowel sequence in all languages outside the Tomini-Tolitoli group.


*taŋiRi Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorini spp.


PMP     *taŋiRi Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorini spp.     [doublet: *taŋgiRi]

Aklanon taŋígilarge, delicious fish
Cebuano taŋígikind of Spanish mackerel, silvery white and black color, with no scales, popularly eaten raw: Scomberomorus commersoni and guttatus, and others
Maranao taŋigiSpanish mackerel: Scomberomorus commersoni Lacepède
Malay təŋiriSpanish mackerel: Scomberomorus (Cybium) spp.
Acehnese taŋirɔεkind of sea fish
Sasak təŋiria seafish that lacks scales, the Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus Cybium
Sangir taŋihikind of fish, the large growth stage of the pangaluang
Komodo taŋiria fish: Scomberomorus guttatus
Kambera taŋirikind of large sea fish: Scomberomorus Cybium
Fordata tnirikind of large fish
Kairiru taŋirmackerel (two types)
Wogeo taŋira sea fish, Spanish mackerel
Manam taŋirikind of fish
Gedaged taŋiza white marine fish about 30 inches long, like a mackerel
Gitua taŋirmackerel, wahoo
Numbami taŋilimarlin, sailfish
Roviana taŋiria fish generally got by trolling, a species of kingfish
'Āre'āre aniria fish
Proto-Micronesian *taŋirituna
Gilbertese taŋiiyellowfin tuna (Bender et al. 2003)
Chuukese seŋiryellowtail tuna fish
Puluwat háŋiryellowfin tuna, sometimes more than a fathom in length
Woleaian taŋir(i)king-size tuna fish
Samoan taŋīkind of fish
Nukuoro daŋiifish sp.

Note:   Also Tagalog tanigiʔ ‘Spanish mackerel’, Yakan taŋīʔ ~ taŋiŋiʔ ‘Spanish mackerel, family Scombridae’, Javanese teŋiri ‘a certain ocean fish’ (< Malay). Lou, , Penchal taŋini, Titan taŋili, Wuvulu tanixi ‘Spanish mackerel’, Sa'a aaŋili ‘kingfish’. All reflexes of this word in the Admiralty islands appear to be loans from a still unidentified source distinct from Tok Pisin taŋir.


*taŋkas₂ loosen, untie


PWMP     *taŋkas loosen, untie     [doublet: *beŋkas, *ka(s)kas]

Bikol taŋkásremove (as a necktie, a cover), take off (as a necktie), pull out (as a plug), disconnect
Kadazan Dusun taŋkasunbolt, loosen things, fittings
Uma taŋkaʔset free, release; remove something that clings fast

Note:   Also Palauan meŋe-dóked ‘untie, unfasten’. This item is assumed to contain a root *-kas₂.


*taŋkeb₂ fall face downward


PWMP     *taŋkeb fall face downward

Tagalog taŋkabto fall, hurting one's lip or chin
Dairi-Pakpak Batak taŋkepface downward; to fall face downward

Note:   With root *-keb₂ ‘face downward’. Adelaar (1981) maintains that Northern Batak reflects final voiced stops as the homorganic nasal, while Southern Batak reflects them as the homorganic voiceless stop. Although this is normally true, both Karo Batak and Dairi-Pakpak Batak occasionally exhibit a voiceless final stop from an earlier voiced stop, as with *ruqag ‘wide, spacious’ > Karo Batak ruhak ‘spacious, wide, of an opening’ (Blust 1983-1984).


*taŋkis to parry, turn an attack or accusation aside


PWMP     *taŋkis to parry, turn an attack or accusation aside

Maranao taŋkisparry, fence, dodge, ward off
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taŋkisto fend off a blow with one’s hands or arm
Tiruray taŋkisto parry, to turn something aside
Tboli taŋkisdenial; to deny, as charges made against one; to be dissenting
Ngaju Dayak taŋkisparrying; what is parried (blow, thrust, etc.)
  ma-naŋkisto parry
  pa-naŋkiswhat is often or always parried
  tara-taŋkisable to be parried
Malay taŋkisparrying by striking aside (used of fencers or duelists)
  taŋkis-kanto ward off
Old Javanese takis ~ taŋkisrepelling, warding off; defense; clash, collision; shield?, weapon of defence?
Javanese taŋkisflood control dike along a riverbank; shield, breastplate
  naŋkisto ward off
  pe-naŋkisact of holding against attack
Balinese taŋkiswarding off, parrying
  naŋkisto ward off, parry (blows)
Sasak taŋkisto ward off, parry

Note:   Also Sasak taŋklis ‘to ward off, parry’. Much of this distribution may be due to borrowing from Malay.


*taŋuy to swim


PWMP     *taŋuy to swim     [doublet: *laŋuy, *naŋuy₂]

Sambal (Botolan) taŋuyto swim
Ngaju Dayak taŋoyswimming
  ha-naŋoyto swim

Note:   Possibly a back-formation from a prefixed form in which n- was assumed to result from nasal substitution.


*ta(m)pak slap, strike with the hand


PWMP     *ta(m)pak slap, strike with the hand

Bontok tapákto slap the face; a slap on the face
Kankanaey tampákslap in the face; box the ears
Ngaju Dayak tapakstruck with the flat of the hand

Note:   Also Bontok tadpák ‘to slap’. With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.


*tapal a patch, as on clothing


PWMP     *tapal a patch, as on clothing     [doublet: *Capel]

Ilokano tápalcataplasm, poultice, plaster, patch
Bontok tápalreinforce; strengthen by binding a piece of wood to a weak or broken section; to bind a split to a broken limb
Tagalog tápalmending patch (of cloth); poultice, plaster
Bikol tápalpatch, pocket
  mag-tápalto sew this type of pocket
Hanunóo tápalplaster, poultice
Cebuano tápallay something over a small area and stick it (as in placing a medicinal plaster on the body)
Mansaka tompalto patch (as a garment)


*tape₁ to flow, run, of water


POC     *tape₁ to flow, run, of water

Nggela taveto flow, of liquids, air; current, tide; a freshet, flood
  tave-tito flow over
Kwaio afeflow, drip, run down, dissolve, current
  afe-siacarry away, of wave, current or stream; slip away from
Toqabaqita afecurrent in the ocean
  afe-lautrample grass, vegetation when walking on or through it
  afe-rakoqaof flood water, high water in a stream, river (after heavy rains): subside, go down
'Āre'āre ʔahesurf, flooded river, current caused by tide, wind, rain; tidal-rip; to flow; a current, stream; to drip quickly
  ʔahe-tahato flow
  ahe-ta ni waia dry river bed
Sa'a ahesurf, currents from wind or tide, tide-rip; to flow; to melt away, to waste, to disappear
  ahes-ito cause to drift
Arosi aheto flow, as a current; to float gently along in water or air; to dissolve into liquid; to be in flood, to come down in a freshet
  ahe-aurua waterfall (auru = ‘down’)
Fijian daveto flow, of liquids in a small stream (drōdrō is stronger, and dobui the strongest word); commonly of the flow of blood
  dave-kakathe sound of a rushing violent stream
  dave-nabe carried away by a flood
  dave-taan opening in a reef that a canoe may pass through
Tongan tafeto flow, to run (of liquids)
  tafe-ʔaŋaplace or gutter, etc. where something flows
Niue tafeto flow
  faka-tafeto express (as oil from copra)
Futunan tafeto flow (rapidly)
Samoan tafeto flow, run; a flow
  ta-tafe(of water), race, flow swiftly
  tāfe-aŋaparty of castaways or people cast adrift; party of people in exile or banishment
  tafe-tototo bleed
Tuvaluan tafeto flow
Rennellese taheto float, drift; current, especially where offshore waves meet sea waves; to have blood in saliva, especially of persons with tuberculosis
  tahe-ʔaŋableeding in saliva
Anuta tapeocean current
Maori tahemenses; sap of a tree; to exude, drop, flow
  ta-tahedrippings, issue, exudation, as gum of trees, etc.
  whaka-taheto lead off water, etc., as into a drain
Hawaiian kaheto flow, trickle, drop, melt, menstruate; in heat, of a bitch; a run or school of fish


POC     *tape-a be carried away by water

Toqabaqita afe-afloat in the sea, be carried by the sea
  afe-fe-aforeign place: an island, country other than one’s own
Tongan tāfe-ato be flooded by running water, or to be washed away or carried along by a stream
Niue tafe-abe carried away by a current; a sickness of women (causing continual menstruation)
Samoan tafe-abe carried away (by current, etc.), to drift
Nukuoro dahe-ato drift
Rennellese tahe-ato soar
Anuta tape-ato drift


POC     *tape-tape flow swiftly

Kwaio afe-afecurrent
Arosi ahe-aheto float gently; a flood, freshet
  ahe-ahe-aan early name for foreign ships, whalers on the south coast
Fijian i-dave-davethe channel of a stream, or its source
Niue tafe-tafeflowing freely

Note:   Also Tolai tavit ‘to run, of water; to flow, as blood from a cut or wound’, Sa'a tahe ‘to rise, of floodwaters’, 'Āre'āre tahe-a ‘to rise (of the sea on the land)’, Rarotongan tae ‘to leak, to melt, to flow, to ooze, to trickle, to discharge’, aka-tae ‘to let any fluid into or out of a vessel through a leak; to make to flow or run out, as water through a pipe, or as in turning on a tap to allow water to flow or run’.


*tape₂ abortion


POC     *tape₂ abortion

Arosi tahean abortion
Maori taheabortion
  whaka-taheto cause to abort


*tapeS winnow


PAN     *tapeS winnow

Kavalan tapeswinnow; winnowing
Pazeh mu-tapesto winnow
  tapes-iwinnow it!
Thao tapishwinnowing
  t<m>apishto winnow
  tapsh-iwinnow it!


PMP     *tahep winnow

Itbayaten tahepwinnowing; chaff, husks of grain, rough particles when corn is ground (kapaN-, maN-, ma-, naN-)
Bontok tapá <Mto winnow rice; rice husks
Casiguran Dumagat tapto winnow rice
Tagalog tahípup and down movement of rice grains being winnowed on a flat basket
  mag-tahípto winnow (cereals, as rice) on a flat basket by throwing the grains up for the chaff to be blown away by the wind and catching them back with the basket as they fall
Bikol mag-tahóp-anto winnow by throwing grain up and down in a winnowing basket so that the grain falls back into the basket and the wind blows the chaff away (mag-, -on)
Hanunóo tahúpwinnowing
Aklanon tahópto sift
Cebuano tahúpchaff of cereals; separate the husk from husked grains
Mansaka taapto winnow
Kayan tapto winnow a tray (full of rice grains)
Buol mo-naupto winnow


PMP     *tahep-an winnowing basket

Itbayaten tahp-anto winnow
Bontok tap-ʔánbe winnowed, of rice
Tagalog táhip-anthe flat basket used in winnowing
Cebuano taph-an-an <Mground cereals to be winnowed; place where winnowing is done
Kenyah tap-anwinnowing fan
Kenyah (Long Anap) tap-anwinnowing basket
Murik tap-anwinnowing basket
  nap-anto winnow
Kayan tap-anwinnowing tray
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tap-anwinnowing basket (also used as a sieve)


PAN     *CapeS-i to winnow

Puyuma Tap-iwinnow
  T-em-ap-ito winnow


PMP     *tahep-i₂ winnow

Itbayaten tahp-i <Mwinnow (imperative)
Bontok tapʔia wide, flat basket, used as a drying tray
Cebuano taph-iwinnow (imperative)

Note:   Also Bontok t-in-ap-i ‘a wide, flat basket, used as a drying tray’, Aklanon taeáph-an ‘sifter’.


*tapis₁ skirt, sarong


PMP     *tapis₁ skirt, sarong     [doublet: *tapiq]

Tagalog tápisapronlike cloth worn over skirt of mestiza dress
Bikol tápiswrap-around skirt
Cebuano tápis, tapíspiece of cloth worn around the waist or upper body as a skirt
Tetun taiswoven material, cloth, clothing
Selaru taissarong of native material


*tapis₂ to skim over the surface


PMP     *tapis₂ to skim over the surface

Maranao tapisskim; long-legged water bird
Tolai tapskim
Nggela tavito slip, turn suddenly; go crookedly, as a knife, or a kite in the air
Wayan tavibrush lightly, sweep something; peel something
Fijian taviskim along, skid off a flat surface, as the tiŋga (reed used in a game of throwing) on level ground
Tongan tafito sweep; sweep away, get rid of
  tafi-abe swept away, as by a wave

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*tapuk flock together


PMP     *tapuk flock together

Sundanese tapukto heap, pile up; swarm together (as ants on sugar)
Arosi ahuflock together

Note:   With root *-puk₃ ‘gather, flock together’.


*ta(m)pun gather, assemble


PMP     *ta(m)pun gather, assemble     [disjunct: *tampuk]

Sangir tampuŋgather, collect, assemble
Arosi ahucome together in a group, flock together

Note:   With root *-pun ‘assemble, collect, gather’.


*tapus end, complete, finish


PAN     *tapus₁ end, complete, finish

Favorlang/Babuza taposall


PWMP     *tapus₂ finished, completed

Hanunóo tapúsfinished, as a song, task or story
Aklanon tapósto finish, complete, end, come to a close
Hiligaynon tapúsfinished, completed
Palawan Batak tapus-ánend
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tapusthe end, the finish; to complete or finish
Makasarese tappusuʔcompletely, entirely, all over

Note:   With root *-pus₁ ‘end, finish’. Mills (1975:850, 895) posits Proto-South Sulawesi *ta(m)pus ‘disappear; all gone’.


*taqan set a trap


PAN     *taqan set a trap     [doublet: *taqen]

Favorlang/Babuza taansnare for catching wild beasts
Cebuano taʔanset a trap of any sort
Maranao taʔanset trap for catch
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taʔanset a trap or place a fish weir in order to catch something
Malay tahanset (snares and traps)
Palauan me-laʔel (deʔal-l)set a trap


*taqay feces, excrement


PMP     *taqay feces, excrement     [doublet: *taqi]

Kayan (Uma Juman) taʔefeces, excrement
Mongondow taʔayfeces, excrement


POC     *taqe₂ feces, excrement

Lou tefeces, excrement
Pak defeces, excrement
Loniu tefeces, excrement
Ere drefeces, excrement
Sori deyfeces, excrement
Mendak tefeces, excrement
Tolai taki-ŋgumy excrement
  taki-myour excrement
  take-nahis/her excrement
Vitu taheexcreta, feces
  tahe-taherubbish, waste
Kove tahefeces, excrement
Lakalai la (ta)-tahefeces; leftover trash
  la tahe la magowart (lit. ‘feces of the sea’?)
Wogeo taefeces, excrement
Manam taʔefeces, excrement
Gitua tae-shit, residue
  taliŋa taeear wax
Selau tefeces, excrement
Takuu taeexcrement, feces, shit
  kai taeexclamation of frustration or contempt: Eat shit!
  tuu taeink of an octopus or cuttlefish, sepia
Mono-Alu ta-taeexcrement
Roviana taeexcreta
Vangunu tae-naexcrement
Eddystone/Mandegusu tea <Mfeces
Kilokaka taʔeexcrement
Nggela taedung, feces
Kwaio ae-neexcrement; anus, region around the anus
'Āre'āre ae-naanus
Sa'a aefeces, ordure
Arosi aedung; food in process of digestion
Mota taeexcrement, dung; bits, remnants, inferior parts
Aore tae-excrement
Tangoa te-excrement
Central Maewo taeexcrement
Raga te-excrement
Paamese ta-excrement
Tonga na taʔe-nexcrement
Makatea taeexcrement
Wayan dung, feces, excrement, shit; unusable parts of shellfish; waste material, useless substance on a surface, scum
  tā ni laŋilight scudding clouds
  tā ni siŋabrown growth, probably algae, appearing on surfaces of ponds or lakes in very dry weather (lit. ‘shit of the sun’)
Fijian to excrete
  dē-nathe excrement, properly of animals (cf. ‘excrement, generally human’). Bau, however, does not make the distinction made in Lau, and this word is there commoner than .
  vaka-dē-nato excrete on
  dē ni laŋilight scudding clouds
  dē ni osea plant, Euphorbia hirta
Tongan taʔefeces, excrement, dung; also used in the language of anger, contempt, or pity for me‘a (thing, stuff)
  taʔe-ʔi(lit. ‘dung-of’), as in ho‘o ta‘e‘i peni (your rotten old pen, etc.) --- in the language of abuse
Niue excrement
Futunan taʔeexcrement
Samoan taefeces, excrement
  tae-abe dirty, disgusting, filthy
  tae-feʔeoctopus ink, sepia
  tea-iʔabrown sediment which forms when undiluted coconut cream is boiled (lit. ‘fish shit’)
  tae-laŋofly-speck; freckle (or similar small spot)
  tae-ʔotian herb (Ageratum sp.), the goatweed
Tuvaluan taeexcrement
Kapingamarangi dae-daeresidue from coconut oil; soft flesh of coconut husk (under fibers); to defecate (children’s language)
Nukuoro daeguts, intestines; buttocks
Rennellese taʔefeces, dung, excreta of various kinds (ear wax, octopus ink, sea-slug eggs); fragments as of turmeric or Derris; suds; also an endearing and demeaning term, and used as an insult as in ‘I am your feces’ (I respect and love you and humiliate myself before you)
Anuta taeentrails; excrement
  tae-pikointestines (lit. ‘crooked feces’)
Rarotongan tu-taeoffal, excrement, feces, dung
  tu-tae atuaa species of fungi, the puff-ball
Maori tū-taedung
  tū-tae atuaLycoperdon sp., puff-ball; fungi (lit. ‘ghost feces’)
Hawaiian kū-kaeexcreta
  kū-kae akuaa brownish substance, sometimes noticed under trees in the shape of paste squeezed from a tube; if the substance contains red, it is believed to be the excreta of the ghost of a dying person, and a sign that someone is dying


PMP     *t<in>aqay intestines

Kayan (Uma Juman) tənaʔeintestines


POC     *tinaqe intestines

Mota tinae-guts
Merlav tinae-guts
Tangoa tine-guts
Northeast Ambae sinae-guts
Makatea tinaeguts
Futunan tinaʔepregnant
Samoan tinaeguts, entrails
Tuvaluan tinaebelly, stomach
Kapingamarangi dinaesolar plexus; be pregnant
  dinae madaŋistomach distended by gas
Nukuoro dinaebelly; the edible white part of clam meat
Rennellese tinaʔebelly, abdomen, womb; bulging portion of a flying fish torch; breast of a bird

Note:   Rather than reflecting the more widely-distributed form that ends with *-i, nearly all Oceanic languages appear to continue the PMP variant *taqay. Some of the languages of Vanuatu have a reflex with final high vowel, as with Lolomatui, Lolsiwoi, Mafea tai- ‘excrement’, but this is assumed to be a secondary development from POc *taqe.


*taqe negative marker


POC     *taqe₁ negative marker

Arosi aeno, not, negative particle
Proto-Micronesian *tai, ta-not
Buma taeno
Tongan tae(preposed or prefixed), not, un-, in-, non- or without


*taq(e)baŋ lacking in salt


PWMP     *taq(e)baŋ lacking in salt

Tagalog tabáŋtastelessness, insipidity
Bikol taʔbáŋbland, flat, insipid, tasteless; lacking in salt or other spices
Aklanon tábʔáŋfresh drinking water; insipid, flat, tasteless
Cebuano tabʔáŋflat in taste, lacking sugar or salt
Chamorro taʔpaŋrinse -- salt water by using fresh water


*taqen set a snare


PMP     *taqen set a snare

Ilokano taénbet, water
Hanunóo taʔúncocking, as a gun or a trap
Aklanon taʔónfish trap in river
Cebuano taʔúnset a trap or fishline in place; offer a part of the body to receive blows or abuse; place something as a bet
Maranao taʔan <Aset trap for catch
Binukid taento set (a fish trap or fish line) in place
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taʔan <Ato set a trap or place a fish weir in order to catch something
Mansaka taʔan <Ato set a trap or place a fish weir in order to catch something
Tausug mag-taunto set (a fish trap, as a bubu basket trap); something (especially money) risked in a game of chance, bet
Kayan (Uma Juman) taʔənset a trap (as the buvuʔ fish trap)
Malay tahanto set (snares and traps)
  tahan bubuto set basket traps for fish
Toba Batak taónset up, of a deadfall trap
  ma-naon dotonput out the fishnets to make a catch
  ma-naon-ito catch; to set up a deadfall trap
  taon-taon-andeadfall trap, noose trap
Sundanese taheunwhat one uses to trap something (in the broadest sense), deadfall trap, noose trap, poison, etc.
  naheunto set a trap


POC     *taqon set a snare

Lakalai ta-tahoto set a snare
Niue ta-taoto hide, lie in wait, lie in ambush, keep a look-out

Note:   Also Cebuano taʔán ‘set a trap of any sort’ (as a bubu fish trap). This term evidently referred to the setting of a trap so that the hunter had then only to wait for the prey to fall victim to it. Recurrent references to the bubu fish trap in the Philippines and western Indonesia, suggest that this was one specific referent that the verb *taqen applied to, but the agreement of Malay and Lakalai in point to setting up a snare suggest that it applied as well to land-based traps in which the prey was caught by a noose.


*taqo cook in earth oven


POC     *taqo cook in earth oven

Mono-Alu taocook on hot stones, cover with leaves in stone-cooking
Nggela taoto be on oven, of leaves in cooking
Tongan taʔoto bake
Samoan taocook (in a stone oven)
Rennellese taʔobake in the oven, boil in a saucepan, cook in any way except over an open fire

Note:   Also Hawaiian kāō (length unexpl.) ‘to bake in the oven without leaf wrapping, as taro, breadfruit’.


*taqu right side


PAN     *taqu₁ right side     [doublet: *tuqu]

Lun Dayeh t<in>uəh <Mright side
Kenyah (Long Anap) taʔuright side
Kenyah (Long San) taʔəwright side
Murik taʔuhright side
Bintulu taʔəwright side
Melanau (Mukah) layan taʔəwright side
Melanau Dalat (Kampung Kekan) lian taʔəwright side
Kanowit taʔəwright side
Tunjung tauʔright side
Murung ka-touright side
[Ngaju Dayak tauto be able; to know; to understand]
Katingan gan-tauright side
Cape Cumberland tu-tua <Mright hand
Samoan ta-tauright hand
Rarotongan mā-tau-tauto have a familiar knowledge of, to be perfectly used to certain procedures or ways
Hawaiian ʔā-kauright (not left)


PMP     *ma-taqu₂ right side

Nauna kal-matu-right side
Lou kal-moru-right side
Nali motright side
Wuvulu maʔauright side
Selau matouright side
Mono-Alu matau-naright side
Varisi matau-naright side
Lungga matua <Mright side
Mota matua <Mthe right hand; belonging to the right hand
Mosina moto <Mright hand
Merlav mato <Mright hand
Central Santo matua <Mright hand
Tambotalo natua <Mright hand
Ngwatua ŋʷatua- <Mright hand
Northeast Ambae matue <Mright hand
Raga mwatua <Mright hand
Vovo na-matu <Mright hand
Mapremo marua <Mright hand
Makatea matauright hand
Lelepa matua <Mright hand
Southwest Tanna mʷatu- <Mright hand
Iaai metâright side
Wayan matauthe right, right-hand side; right, right hand; be right-handed
Fijian matauright, as opposed to left
  vaka-mataucleverly, in a right-handed way
Tongan mataʔuright-handed; right (not left)
Niue matauright (as opposed to left)
Samoan matauhull side of a canoe (as opposed to the outrigger)
Tuvaluan matauclever; experienced; right hand; fast
Nukuoro madauright side
Anuta pai matauright side
  nima matauright hand
Maori matauright, on the right hand; the right hand

Note:   Also Sebop taʔuʔ, Penan (Long Labid) naʔauʔ, Long Merigam Penan nauʔ ‘right side’, Roviana matao-na ‘right (opposite of left)’. It is very likely that this comparison is identical to PMP *taqu, *ma-taqu ‘to know how, be able to, be skilled at’, given the universal association of the right hand with skill, aptitude, correctness and the like.


*taqul to howl, of a dog


PPh     *taqul to howl, of a dog

Ilokano ag-taúlto bark
  ma-naúlprone to barking
  ag-t<inn>aúlto bark at each other
  taul-ánto bark at
Bontok taulto raise the head, as when attempting to see over something, or of a dog when baying
Pangasinan taólbark (of dog)
Tagalog taʔóla disease of infants or small children causing convulsions
Bikol taʔólto bark, bay, howl, whine (dogs)
Maranao taólto shriek, cry
Binukid taulfor a dog, to howl (as when its owner leaves it behind)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taʔulof a dog, to howl
Mansaka taolto howl; to bark
Tausug mag-taul(for dogs) to howl
  pag-taulthe howling of a dog
  t<um>aul(for dogs) to howl

Note:   Also Ifugaw taól ‘yelping of a dog’, Bikol tahól ‘to bark, bay, howl, whine (dogs)’.


*taqun year, season


PMP     *taqun year, season

Ilokano tawényear; age
  ag-tawénto be so many years old, to have as age
  ka-tawénperson born the same year as someone else
  maka-tawénof the duration of one year
  ma-tawén-anto be one year old, to come of age
  t<um>awénfirst-year anniversary
Kankanaey taónchronology; calculation of time
Ifugaw (Batad) tawónyear, unit time measurement
Casiguran Dumagat taonyear
  taon-taonyearly, every year
Ibaloy tawenyear
  man-tawento be a certain age
  on-tawento be a year old (as debt, baby, time of a person in a place)
Pangasinan taónage, year
  pa-naónseason, in season
Tagalog taʔónyear; per annum, per year; for each year
  i-taʔónto do or make at the same time with; to make coincide
  ká-taʔónincidental, occurring by chance
  má-taʔónto happen at the same time as something else
  maká-taʔónto fortunately find someone or something one needs very badly
  mápa-taʔónto happen to coincide with a certain event or happening
  má-taʔun-ánto happen to meet someone by chance
  t<um>aʔónto take advantage of the opportune time
  táʔún-anyearly; annual; once a year
  táʔun-ínto do or make at the same time with; to make coincide
  táʔún-táʔónannually; yearly; each year; every year
  ká-taʔónincidental, occurring by chance
Bikol taʔónyear
  maŋ-taʔónto complete one year
  pag-ka-ká-taʔónchance, opportunity
  taʔun-ánto be completed within one year
  taʔón-taʔónevery year; annual; annually; perennial
Agutaynen takonyear
  mag-pa-takonwithin a year; for one year
  nan-takonlast year
  t<om>akonnext year
  takon-anyears gone by
Palawan Batak taʔónyear
Maranao taʔonfamine
Binukid taunhunger season
Mapun taunyear; first planting season (when the dry season is about to end in May)
  taun-anmore than a year
  taun-taunevery year
Kadazan Dusun tounyear
  son-tounone year
  toun-tounevery year
Tombonuwo tounyear
Bisaya (Limbang) taunyear
Berawan (Long Terawan) taunyear
Narum taʔaunyear
Miri taʔonyear
Kiput tonyear
Bintulu taʔunyear
Melanau (Mukah) taʔunyear
Melanau Dalat taʔunyear
Malagasy taúnayear, time, season
Iban taunyear, cycle of seasons
Jarai thunyear
Rhade thunyear
Malay tahunyear (solar, lunar, seasonal from rice crop to rice crop, etc.)
  mə-nahunchronic; annual; year-long
  bər-tahun-tahunchronic; annual; year-long
Rejang taweun ~ tawunyear
Old Javanese tahunyear; (seasonal) crop
  pira-piraŋ tahun-ənto keep thinking: how many years...
Sasak taunwet season
  bə -taun-anlong preserved (of fruits)
Tae' taunthe time that the rice needs to grow from seed to mature plant
  maʔ-tauna year long
  pa-naun-anthe Toraja agricultural year
  paʔ-taun-anthe Toraja agricultural year
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *taquNyear
Mandar tauŋyear
Buginese tauŋyear
Makasarese tauŋyear
Muna taghuyear
Kambera ndauŋuyear, annual
  ndau humbaSumbanese year, of six months
  ndau jawanon-Sumbanese year, of twelve months
Hawu tauyear (Fox n.d.)
Atoni tɔnyear
Alune tauneyear
Tolai taunseason, time, period
Proto-Micronesian *tauseason, sun
Hiw toyear
Mota tauseason, either of planting, or of the maturity of what is planted
  o tau namthe season of planting yams
  tau matuathe season when yams are fit to dig
Piamatsina taun-iyear
Wusi-Valui taunyear
Tangoa taun-iyear
Marino tauyear
Makatea tauyear
Rotuman fauyear; crop, harvest: of crops that are produced annually, such as oranges, yams, pineapples, and sometimes (Spondias dulcis)
Tongan taʔuyear; age; yam season, yam crop or harvest
  taʔu motuʔaage
Niue tauyear, season
  tau tupuspringtime (‘growing season’)
Futunan taʔuseason for harvesting yams
  taʔu laʔādry season
Samoan tauseason (warm, cold, etc.); climate; weather
Tuvaluan tauperiod; season
  tau titi, tau malostage in child’s life when it is appropriate to wear titi [pandanus leaf skirt], if female, or malo [breech cloth], if male
Kapingamarangi tauseason; to perish
Nukuoro dauseason
Rennellese taʔuseason
  taʔu ikafish season, late July until January, especially for flying fish and large fish caught on lines at night after catching flying fish that are used as bait
Anuta tauyear
Rarotongan taua season or period
Maori tauseason, year, the recurring cycle being the predominating idea rather than the definite time measurement
Hawaiian kauperiod of time, lifetime; any season, especially summer; session of a legislature; term, semester; time of late night before dawn

Note:   Also Isneg tawán ‘year’ (<Ilokano), Ibaloy tawʔen ‘year’, Yakan tahun ‘year’ (< Malay), Tausug tahun ‘a year’ (< Malay), tahun-tahun ‘every, or each year’, Mongondow taoŋ ‘year’.

Although the terms ‘year’ and ‘season’ occur in a number of the glosses cited here, it is clear that these must be connected more with the growing cycle of food plants and with greater or lesser rainfall than with vegetative changes in the natural environment of the kind associated with the seasons in temperate climates. In some specific locations the association may be with annually cycling events of other kinds, as the runs of flying fish in Rennell, but the most common recurrent theme appears to be the cycle of planting and harvesting yams. In this connection note that in some of the languages of the Solomons the word for ‘year’ (and hence ‘season’) appears to reflect PMP *qubi ‘yam’, as with Poleo, Malagheti, Tolo, Malango uvi ‘yam; year’, and in many of the languages of Vanuatu innovative terms for ‘yam’ and ‘year’ are homophones, as with Peterara ndamu, Apma ndam, Paamese ouh (possibly < *qubi), Letemboi nə-dam, Unua no-rom, Ranon rem, Toak huram, Faulili auh or Imreang ne-aku ‘yam; year’.


*tara cockspur


PMP     *tara cockspur     [disjunct: *tada]

Simalur taraartificial cockspur
Buginese tara-manuʔcockspur
Bimanese taracockspur


*tariŋ bamboo sp.


PWMP     *tariŋ bamboo sp.     [doublet: *periŋ, *teriŋ]

Quop Land Dayak tariŋbamboo sp.
Sentah Land Dayak tariŋbamboo sp.
Dampelas tariŋk.o. large, strong bamboo
Wolio tarik.o. bamboo
Muna tarik.o. small bamboo, made into fences


*taRabas plant sp.


PWMP     *taRabas plant sp.

Hanunóo tagábaslong-leaved variety of kusúl (Kaempferia galanga Linn.); many medicinal and religious uses
Malay terawasa simple used in making beboréh (yellow cosmetic of saffron and coconut oil rubbed on the body in Java on ceremonial occasions)


*taRah to wait


PAN     *taRah to wait

Pazeh (maxu)-taxato wait
Amis talato wait
  pa-talato prepare
Thao mi-talhawait for someone
Bunun (Takituduh) mal-ta-talahto wait
Tsou m-oo-troto wait
Saaroa m-ara-a-taa-tarato ambush


PAN     *ma-naRah to wait

Saisiyat (Tungho) may-naato wait
Atayal (Squliq) mə-nagato wait
Yami (Imorod) mapa-nalato wait
  pa-nala-ento wait
Itbayaten ma-na-nayacan wait
  na-naya-enwatch and wait for
Kapampangan ma-náyawaiting for someone, something


PAN     *t<um>aRah to wait

Seediq (Truku) t<əm>agato wait
Kanakanabu t<um>á-tarato ambush

Note:   PAn *taRah ‘to wait’ is intriguing for several reasons. First, it is one of the few cognate sets in which prefixation with *maN- appears in Formosan languages. Second, reflexes of *ma-naRah vs. *t<um>aRah are found even within the Atayalic group, distinguishing dialects of Atayal from those of Seediq (Li 2004:688), thus implying that *maN- was active in the relatively recent history of these languages, despite its general absence in Taiwan. Third, *taRah carries a variety of different affixes in all languages that reflect it, and it is very difficult to find examples of the simple base. Part of this comparison was first recognized by Tsuchida (1976:232).


*taRaq hewing with an adze


PAN     *taRaq hewing with an adze

Thao talhaqchips from adzing wood
  ma-talhaqwill adze, will shape with an adze
  shan-talhaq-anbe adzed by someone, be shaped or worked by someone with an adze
Ilokano tagáto trim, shape (by cutting); kind of small gray bird that nests in tree holes it bores
Aklanon tagáʔto strike with a sharp object
Cebuano tágaʔcut down trees
Ida'an Begak tagaʔadze
Lun Dayeh taraʔclear-cutting of jungle for farming
Malay tarahplaning with an adze; shaping, rough-hewing
Old Javanese ta-tahsmall chisel, punch
  a-na-tahto shape with a punch
  t<in>a-tahto shape with a punch
Balinese tahahthe blade of a kind of machete, chopper
Tae' tarato rough hew, shape with an adze
Palauan o-láseʔtool for carving/chopping (< *pa-naRaq)
Chamorro tagaʔhack, chop
Rembong tarato hew (wood)
Rotinese talaadze (carpenter’s tool); to work with an adze
Tetun taato be cut by hitting, to make a blow with a cutting implement
  taa ahito strike a flint
  taa ulu-nto cut off a head, to decapitate
Kei tārscallop shell, used as a coconut rasp
Asilulu talato cut down (as a banana plant); to scrape, to rasp
  ta-talacoconut rasp
Buruese taha-hto fell, cut down
Numfor karto hack, shape by adzing (a canoe)
Manam tarato beat off, to strike off (branches), to hollow out (of canoes)
Numbami talachop, carve (as a log in making a canoe)
Motu tara-iato adze; to chop; to cut wood; to sting (of hornet); to peck food (of fowls)
Arosi arato chop, cut, cut down a tree; to lop off branches, break off; to hoe; to make equal, level
Mota tarato hew, chop, cut, as with a lakae(tridacna shell adze)
Mosina tarcut
Wayan (of solid object) be cut by chopping or slashing; chopped, hacked, axed, adzed, slashed; be carved, shaped by cutting; be built, made (of boat, keel)
  tā-sicut, chop, carve, build something; what is cut, etc.
Fijian to chop with knife or axe
Tongan to hit (in various senses); to hit, strike, beat; scoop up coarse sand, also applied to scooping up fish with a hand net
Niue to strike; to kill; to adze; to build; to cast (a speaer or a dart); to wield
Futunan to beat, hit (with a stick); to cut (wood) for construction; to build (with wood)
Samoan (of blow) strike, hit; (of tree) fell, cut down; (of timber) adze, chip into shape, hew; (of bilge water) bail out; (of tattoo) apply, put on
Tuvaluan taahit; beat; chop; fell a tree; a large wedge used in splitting trees; build a canoe; drive fish; strike (of a clock)
  taa-taastrum a stringed instrument
Rennellese taato hit, strike, cut, kill, murder; tattoo; to carve or make, as a canoe; to tap, as to soften bii fruit; to strike, as birds dive down for fish; to beat, as the sounding board; to net, as flying fish; to scoop up, as swarms of ... fish in seine or net
Anuta taa ~ tato strike, to hit; an implement used for striking (i.e. a club); to chop down; to cut; to build (as in cutting out the shape/building a canoe)
Rarotongan to kill, to put to death, to slay, to overcome, to destroy, to slaughter; an assault, sudden attack; to beat or dash out, as in bailing a canoe; to pound or beat, as in washing clothes with a stick or stone on a flat surface
Maori dash; aim a blow at; strike, beat with a stick, etc.; whip a top; dash water out of a canoe; so bail; cut; tattoo; carve, fashion
Hawaiian to hit, strike, hack, thrust, toss, fling, hurl, dash, especially with a quick hard stroke


PWMP     *ma-naRaq to hew with an adze

Ilokano man-nagawoodpecker
Cebuano ma-nagaʔ-nagaʔwoodcutter
Lun Dayeh naraʔcut down trees to make a farm, fell trees
Malay me-narahto hew a piece of wood into the outline of what it is intended to be, finer carving (ukir) being done with a knife
Sangir ma-nahashape tree trunks into timbers or planks (by adzing)
Bare'e man-taʔato hew, shape, give form to, make the general design of something (as a coffin from a log)
Tae' man-tarato shape with an adze, work wood with an adze
Palauan me-láseʔto chop, whittle, carve (log for canoe); build (house); (cat) claw at


PWMP     *t<in>aRaq (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano t<in>agachips of wood, stone, etc.
Lun Dayeh t<in>araʔfelled by someone
Palauan d<el>áseʔthing carved


PAN     *t<um>aRaq to adze wood, hew wood with an adze

Kavalan t<m>arito chop with an axe
Pazeh mu-taxato cut wood or bamboo into small pieces
Thao t<m>alhaqto shape a log by hewing it with an adze
Lun Dayeh t<em>araʔclear-felling trees on the farm with an axe
Palauan d<m>áseʔto chop, whittle, carve (log for canoe); build (house); (cat) claw at


PWMP     *taRaq-en (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano taga-ento trim, shape (by cutting)
Lun Dayeh tere-ina place which is going to be cleared of wood
Palauan desáʔ-elthing being carved/thing to be carved


PAN     *taRaq-i Adze it!, Hew it!

Pazeh taxaʔ-iCut it!
Thao talhaq-iAdze it!
Gapapaiwa tara-tara-ito fell trees
Arosi ara-ito chop, cut, cut down a tree
Northeast Ambae ta-icut
Tongan taaʔ-ito chop, to cut or carve (e.g. a canoe) by chopping

Note:   Also Iban taras ‘trim, shape, plane, esp. hew with adze or axe’, Selau tarsa ‘shape a plank, hew, plane’, Rotuman ‘to cut or chop down (tree or branch)’. The central sense of this term evidently was ‘to shape wood by adzing’, and it presumably would have applied primarily to the shaping of timbers in house construction, and of tree trunks into the hulls of canoes. Given its meaning it implies the use of adzes as distinct from axes, machetes, and knives, and therefore the existence of a PAn term for ‘adze’ which is yet to be reconstructed. Working with an adze involves a striking motion toward the actor, a semantic feature of this term that crops up in other senses, as in Asilulu ta-tala ‘coconut rasp’, Arosi ara ‘to hoe’, or the Tongan and Rennellese forms that refer to scooping up sand or small fish. In Fijian and the Polynesian languages, on the other hand, the original sense of movement toward the actor in adzing wood evolved into a generalized notion of hitting, chopping, cutting, bailing water (by ‘striking’ at it with a paddle or bailer), or more abstractly, of killing.


*taRaqan squirrelfish: Holocentrus spp.


PMP     *taRaqan squirrelfish: Holocentrus spp.

Yami talanSquirrelfish spp. (Tsuchida 1984)
Itbayaten tayaansquirrelfish; in folk belief, when one has a person whom he hates or dislikes he catches tayaan fish and takes out its siit (spine on the body of the fish) and lets tayaan go back to the water; then he either tries to harm the person directly by the spine, or he places it where the person frequents, hoping that the person will step on it and get hurt. Once a person is pricked on a part of his body he will soon meet his death or calamity; if one uses siit no tayaan and pricks the abdomen of a certain bedbug, together with an incantation, all other bedbugs will disappear
Palauan desáʔelspiny squirrelfish: Holocentrus spinifer
Lakalai e-talahakind of fish
Motu taraname of a fish
Marshallese jerasquirrelfish: Holocentrus spp.
Pohnpeian sarasquirrelfish: Adoryx spinifer
Chuukese sara (saraa)yellow-lined squirrel fish (Holocentrus ensifer Jordan and Evermann)
Puluwat har'akind of red fish
Woleaian sera (seraa)kind of fish
Tongan taʔakind of red, edible fish
Niue taakind of red fish
Samoan malauname given to red squirrel-fishes belonging to genera Holocentrus and Myripristis
  tā-malauname given to certain fishes of genus Holocentrus when about 1 ft. in length
Nukuoro daasquirrelfish

Note:   Yami normally reflects *R as y, but other examples of *R > l are known (*kaRaŋ > kalaŋ ‘crab’, *(d)aRaq > ralaʔ ‘blood’). Nuclear Micronesian reflexes confirm the indications of Palauan and Tongan that this form was trisyllabic, as an original disyllable would be reflected without final vowel.


*ta(R)kes wrap around, encircle


PAN     *ta(R)kes wrap around, encircle

Amis takecembrace
Kadazan Dusun tagkosto girdle

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.


*taRpis thinness, fineness of texture


PWMP     *taRpis thinness, fineness of texture

Tagalog tagpísfineness, sveltness, thinness
Old Javanese tapisthin layer

Note:   With root *-pis₂ ‘thin, fine, of texture’.


*taRum indigo plant and dye: Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) and Indigofera tinctoria L.


PMP     *taRum indigo plant and dye: Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) and Indigofera tinctoria L.

Kapampangan tayomshrub that provides a blue dye (Bergaño 1860)
Bikol tágomindigo, species of plant from which a blue dye is extracted
  mag-tágomto tint or dye with indigo
  tagóm-onto tint or dye with indigo
Hanunóo tágumindigo plant (Indigofera tinctoria Linn.); the leaves are used for dyeing and for rubbing on neck swellings
Romblomanon tāguman indigo plant, Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) or Indigofera tinctoria (Linn.)
Aklanon tagómmedicinal tree
Hiligaynon tagúmblue
Cebuano tágumindigo: Indigofera suffruticosa
  gi-tágumdye something dark or stain something
  mu-tágumbecome dark or black (as skin xposed too long in the sun)
Maranao tagomIndigofera suffruticosa Mill. --- leaves used to color things black; black, blacken, dark color: black, brown, blue or gray
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taɣuma certain leaf of a vine which is used as a black dye for dyeing abaca fiber
Ngaju Dayak tahuma creeper that produces purple-colored fruit that people use to dye woven fabric
  ma-nahumto dye fabric with this substance
Iban tarumindigo plant, unidentified (probably creeper Marsdenia tinctoria R, Br., and not Indian Indigofera tinctoria L.); the blue-black dye made from it
  narumto dye with indigo
Rhade krŭmdye made from indigo plant
Malay tarumindigo plant (indigo dye is nila); usually Indigofera tinctoria, the Indian indigo plant; native nila is made by cutting up tarum leaves, steeping them in water, and finally boiling them with lime or chalk; dark-colored (as the skin or fur of various animals)
Old Javanese tomindigo plant
Javanese tomindigo tree whose leaves (nila) are used for dye
  ŋe-tomto plant indigo trees
  pa-tom-anindigo plantation
Balinese tahumindigo plant
Sasak tarumindigo, indigo plant; to dye blue
Sangir tahuŋindigo, Indigofera tinctoria, used as a dyestuff
Mongondow taguma creeper that yields a greenish-black dye
Tae' tarunindigo plant, Indigofera; its extract is used to dye clothes blue; blue in color
  tarun-tarun-anbluish; bright blue, as translucent water
Makasarese taruŋa plant resembling the indigo plant, but yielding no indigo; probably Cassia tagera
Muna taukind of plant the leaves of which are used as green dye
Bimanese dauindigo plant
Manggarai taroŋIndigofera spp.
Ngadha taruindigo; to dye with indigo
Li'o taruindigo
Lamaholot taʔūthe indigo plant (Pogostemon cablin), used for dyeing woven fabrics
Rotinese tau-kthe indigo plant, indigo; dark blue
  tau isi-kindigo dye
  tau-taublue-black (as rain clouds)
Tetun tauna bush (Indigofera) whose leaves are used for making a blue dye for cloth

Note:   Also Ilokano táyumIndigofera suffruticosa, the indigo plant’, táyum-táyum ‘Indigo hirsuta, herb with reddish-brown stems covered with purplish hairs’ (< Tagalog, ultimately from Kapampangan), Tagalog táyom ‘indigo plant; indigo blue, mag-táyom, tayúm-in ‘to stain or tinge with indigo’, tayúm-an ‘indigo plantation’, tayum-án ‘place where clothes are dyed’ (< Kapampangan), Sundanese tarum ‘name of the nila, or indigo plant’ (< Malay), Mongondow alom ‘indigo plant’.


*taRuq to store, put away for safekeeping, hide valuables; to place a bet in gambling; lay an egg


PMP     *taRuq to store, put away for safekeeping, hide valuables; to place a bet in gambling; lay an egg

Ilokano tárocompetition in tolerance; stake; wager; bet
  ag-tároto place a bet
Tagalog tagóʔhidden; kept out of sight; inconspicuous, not visible; obscure, hidden from view; secret, occult; latent, hidden, concealed
  i-tágoʔto hide; to conceal
Hanunóo táguʔhiding (as hiding something in a cave)
Romblomanon tāguʔsomeone or something hides or takes shelter in a given location
  pa-nāguʔsomeone’s hiding or taking shelter in a given location
Masbatenyo tágoʔsecluded, of a place
  taguʔ-ónkeep safe, take care of
Cebuano táguʔhidden from view (as a house behind trees); to hide, keep away from view or knowledge; put away in a safe place for future use
  ka-táguʔ-unfeel very much like hiding oneself
Maranao tagoʔput (as rice in a pot), place; contents (as of a sack); keep (as money for someone), hide (as money for safekeeping)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taGuʔto put inside
Mansaka tágoʔhidden, concealed; to hide, to conceal (as money)
  ka-tagow-anhiding place
Lun Dayeh taruʔmake, do
Kelabit taruʔmaking, doing; putting, placing
Ngaju Dayak tarohwager (in betting or in games)
  ba-tarohto bet, place a wager on something in gambling
Malay tarohdepositing; staking; having, putting, or keeping in a place of safety
  pə-taroh-anstakes in gambling
  taroh hatito take a fancy to
Acehnese tarōhput down, wager (in a game or gambling contest)
  tarōh luathe wagers of the bystanders at a cockfight
Gayō taroha wager, a bet
  be-te-tarohto wager, place a bet
Karo Batak taruhput down, of a wager
  er-taruhto wager, place a bet
Toba Batak pa-taru-honto escort someone who is leaving
Sundanese taruha bet, wager
  duit taruhthe money that one puts down or wagers in a game
Old Javanese tohstake (in game, gambling, wager, competition, combat); main stake (in combat), the person on whom one relies as the main or sole support
  bwat tohgambling
  a-mwat tohto gamble
  maka-tohto have as a stake, put up for stake; to stake, risk
Javanese tohgambling stake; birthmark
  ŋe-tohto bet something, i.e. use something as a gambling stake
Sasak taroʔa wager, a bet on something; to insert; place a bet
Proto-Minahasan *tahuʔput into, store in
Tombulu tahuʔput into, put away, store inside
Mongondow lin-taguʔto keep, preserve, lay away (in the heart)
Ponosakan tauʔto put away
Lamaholot taʔoto place, put, set, lay down
Tetun tauto place, to put, to set
  tau morasto apply ointment to cure an ailment; to entrust with (valuables, etc.)
Wetan tarito put away, pack up, lay down, leave
Yamdena n-ba-taruto wager, place a bet
Fordata n-tarulaying of eggs; to lay an egg
Buruese tahu-hto place or set
Wuvulu ʔauto put
Vitu taru laŋariato put something up
  taruh-iato put, place
Lakalai taluto put in; to plant; to put down on the ground, as a bundle carried on the head
Motu taru-ato cover, as with a sheet, to wrap oneself in
  taru-adihoto put down, of a loaded kiapa (native netted bag)
  taru-ahanaito put out from fence
Bugotu taluto put, place, appoint; used as auxiliary verb to denote continuance of action
  talu-aStop! Wait a minute! Refrain!
Nggela taluto put, place, set
Kwaio aluto put, keep
Lau aluto place, put, lay down; to give, send; to bury; to have, to be; to become, change into
Toqabaqita alu-aput, put down, place (as a mat on the ground); put on (as hat, shoes); bury (a corpse); have, possess, own (other than domestic animals and pets); offer a bounty for killing someone
Sa'a äluto put, to place; to change into, to become
Wayan taube located, situated, positioned, placed, put; be in, at or on a place
  i-tau-tauplace for putting things
  tau-nito put or place something, lay something down, deposit something


PWMP     *ma-naRuq (gloss uncertain)

Agutaynen ma-nalokto hide from
Lun Dayeh naruʔto make, to do
Kelabit naruʔto make, do; put, place
Malay mə-narohto have; to keep; to harbor; to entertain in one’s heart
Karo Batak naruhto guide, escort
  naruh-ibring something somewhere (as rice from the field to the village); to supply, fetch (as water)
Toba Batak ma-naru-i asarto build a nest
Sundanese naruh-anto bet on something
Mongondow mo-naguʔto store, keep, lay away, put away; leave behind (an inheritance); to withhold, keep in the heart; to inculcate, impress on someone


PWMP     *maR-taRuq to lay down, put down, put away

Tagalog mag-tágoʔto hide; to hide oneself; to lurk; to hide something; to keep something secret; to save or put away for the future; to put something away in its proper place
Masbatenyo mag-tágoʔto hide, conceal, evade
Agutaynen mag-talokto hide something somewhere; to keep or reserve something for future use
Malay bər-tarohto bet; to deposit stakes
Acehnese meu-tarōhto wager, place a bet on something
Toba Batak mar-taruto place a bet, wager something
Sangir məʔ-tahoput in, stash away, hide


PMP     *pa-taRuq something given to another for safekeeping (?)

Tagalog pa-tágoʔsomething given to another for safekeeping
  pa-tagóʔcovert; secret; hidden; disguised
Hanunóo pa-táguʔhiding oneself
Malay pə-taroha trust; something confided
Fordata n-fa-tarubring something to a specified place


PWMP     *t<in>aRuq what is laid, placed or put down

Tagalog t<in>ágoʔhidden (as money)
Cebuano t<in>águʔsomething hidden
Lun Dayeh t<in>aruʔmade or done by someone
Karo Batak t<in>aruhegg
Toba Batak t<in>aruegg
  mar-t<in>aruto lay an egg
Mongondow s<in>aguʔwhat is put aside or given to someone for safekeeping


PWMP     *t<um>aRuq (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog t<um>ágoʔto hide; to hide oneself; to lurk
Old Javanese t<um>oh-ito put up a stake (for someone or something), bet on, vouch for, guarantee


PWMP     *taRuq-an (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog tagu-ána place for hiding or keeping things (as money); harbor; covert; any place of shelter; children’s game of hide-and-seek
Hanunóo taguʔ-ánbe hidden, be concealed, as an object
Masbatenyo taguʔ-ánhideout, hiding place
Cebuano táguʔ-an-anhiding place; hideout
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taGuʔ-ana container
Toba Batak taru-an maŋan, taru-an minumhave a servant who brings you food and drink


PWMP     *taRuq taRuq (gloss uncertain)

Cebuano táguʔ-táguʔgame of hide-and-seek
Toba Batak taru-tarudung, manure

Note:   Also Hanunóo tayáʔ ‘bet, wager, stake’, Ida’an Begak taru ‘put’ (< Malay). The basic sense of this term appears to have been to put something of value aside for future use, hence its connection with hiding in some languages. In a number of languages in western Indonesia it is associated with placing a bet in gambling, evidently a sense that developed in Malay and then spread to other languages through contact.


*taRutum porcupine fish


PMP     *taRutum porcupine fish     [doublet: *taRutuŋ]

Palauan derúdmporcupine fish
Waay tarutumfish with spiny skin (called durian in Ambon) (Ludeking 1868)


*taRutuŋ porcupine fish, puffer fish, Diodon sp.


PMP     *taRutuŋ porcupine fish, puffer fish, Diodon sp.     [doublet: *taRutum]

Cebuano tagutuŋ-anporcupine fish, Diodon sp.
Murut (Timugon) tautuŋporcupine
Lun Dayeh terutuŋporcupine
Dohoi tohotuŋporcupine
Ma'anyan tetuŋporcupine
Karo Batak tarutuŋkind of durian
Toba Batak tarutuŋdurian tree and its fruit
Asilulu talutunseveral fish, including diagonal-banded toado, also called black-lined pufferfish (Arothron aerostaticus Jenyns), Myers’ porcupine fish (Dicotylichthys myersi Ogilby), and three-bar porcupine fish (D. punctulatus Kaup)
Kowiai/Koiwai tarutunporcupine fish
Gilbertese tautipuffer fish, Diodon
Pohnpeian seiporcupine fish; soursop, Annona muricata
Rotuman faufufish which inflates itself when caught: covered with spikes like a porcupine
Samoan tautufish (Diodon sp.) with very sharp spines
Rennellese tautugeneral name for balloon fish (porcupine fish)

Note:   Also Kenyah (Long Anap) setuŋ, Kayan ketuŋ ‘porcupine’. This remarkable comparison is of special interest for at least two reasons. First, it is customarily assumed that *R > r immediately preceding a dental consonant in Palauan (*uRat > ŋurd ‘vein, artery’), but otherwise became s (*(d)aRaq > rásech ‘blood’, *zaRum > rasm ‘needle’). However, derúdm suggests that *R > r in Palauan if the following syllable began with a dental consonant, even if the intervening vowel was not lost.

The second noteworthy feature of this cognate set is its range of semantic reflexes. Subgrouping considerations make it all but certain that the word referred originally to the puffer fish or porcupine fish, as this meaning is reflected both in Oceanic and in WMP languages. Among Austronesian speakers that became reoriented to a primarily inland environment the meaning was shifted to cover other roundish, spiny biota (porcupine, durian). A parallel semantic extension is seen in Pohnpeian sei, where the reference to the soursop could hardly be original, as the plant is said to be a native of tropical America (Merrill 1954:152). For the conditions governing the split *t > s or Ø in Pohnpeian see Rehg (1984). Both Gilbertese and Pohnpeian evidently reflect earlier *tauti (see Blust 1970a).


*tasik sea, saltwater


PMP     *tasik sea, saltwater

Tagalog tásiksaltwater filtered through sand in the process of salt-making; brine; very salty water
Bikol tásikbrine, concentrated saltwater solution; a salt pond
  tasík-onto preserve something by salting
Masbatenyo tásiksalted fish (fish which has been preserved with salt)
Aklanon tásikbrine, salty water
Waray-Waray tasikbroth of rice porridge
  ma-tasikfull of broth; filled with broth
Cebuano tásikthe liquid residue of sea water that has been crystallized in salt making; liquid residue after milling sugar
Yakan tahiksea; ocean; sea water
  mag-tahik-tahikto be used to doing something on/in/at the sea (as traveling by boat, fishing, swimming, looking for shellfish, etc.)
Murung tasiksea, ocean
Ngaju Dayak tasiksea, ocean
  ma-nasikgo to sea
Kapuas tasiksea, ocean
Dusun Deyah tasiksea, ocean
Ma'anyan tahiksea, ocean
Proto-Chamic *tasiʔsea; ocean
Rhade kəsiʔsea, ocean
Malay taseklake
Old Javanese tasiksea
  maka-tasikhaving as sea, surrounded by sea
Javanese tasiksea, ocean
Madurese taseʔsea
Balinese tasiksalt; sea, ocean (in court and literary language)
  tasik-into be made salty
Totoli sasiksea
Petapa Taje tasi/tasiksea
Uma tahiʔsea
Bare'e tasisea, saltwater
  mbo-tasito smell or taste like seawater
  oru n-tasibottom of the sea
  puse n-tasithe middle point of the sea, where [in native conception] the inflowing and outflowing water causes it to ebb and flow (lit. ‘navel of the sea’)
  wawo n-tasisurface of the sea
  wiwi n-tasiseashore, beach
  tasi rayainland sea, bay with narrow entrance
Tae' tasiksea
  tasik mapuluʔthe safe sea, where no catastrophes occur (lit. ‘sea of glue’)
Mandar sasiʔsea
  mo-sasiʔgo to the sea, seek one’s livelihood at sea
  po-sasiʔsailor, one who makes his life at sea
Buginese tasiʔsea (poetic)
Makasarese tasiʔsea
Wolio tasiwater which has been used for cooking rice, left to stand for a few days, and then used for stiffening weaving yarn
Muna tehisea
Chamorro tasisea, ocean, beach
Manggarai taciksea
Rembong tasiksea
Palu'e tahisea
Sika tahisea, saltwater
Lamaholot tahiksea, saltwater
Kambera tehikusea
  tehiku míni‘male’ sea: shoreline that is not dry even in ebbtide, where a river exits into the sea
  tehiku kawini‘female’ sea: area on both sides of a river’s debouchment into the sea, that is dry at ebbtide
  wai tehikusaltwater, seawater
Hawu dahisea
Rotinese tasisea
  tasi oesaltwater, seawater
Atoni tasisea
Tetun tasisea, ocean
Mambai taisasea
Leti taskisaltwater, sea
Selaru tasisea, saltwater
  r-tasito salt
Yamdena tasiksaltwater, sea
Kamarian tasisalt
Nauna təssaltwater, salt
Lou set <Msea, saltwater
Lenkau tressaltwater
Loniu tassea, saltwater
Nali drassea, saltwater
Titan drassaltwater
Leipon ndassea, saltwater
Sori dahsaltwater, salt
Seimat taxsea (in combination)
Wuvulu ʔaxisaltwater, salt
Aua arisaltwater, salt
Yapese daaysaltwater, seawater; tide, flow of saltwater; tidal season
Mendak tassaltwater, salt
Tanga tessaltwater
Label tāsisea, saltwater
Bali (Uneapa) darikisea
Lusi tarisea
Manam taristreaming, flood
Numbami taisaltwater, sea, ocean; salt
Motu tadisea water
Selau tasisaltwater, salt
Banoni taghisi <Msea, saltwater, more a place than a liquid; gutsini more a liquid
Cheke Holo tahiocean, sea; salt
  ta-tahitaste salty
Kokota tahisea
Zabana tahisea
Bugotu tahisea, saltwater, salt; a vessel for holding saltwater
Nggela tahithe sea; surf, a wave; salt
Ghari tasisea
Kwaio asisea, salt, sea water
Lau asisea, saltwater
  fafo-asifoothills (lit. ‘above the sea’)
  fafo-na asisurface of the sea
Toqabaqita asisea, ocean; sea water, saltwater; saltwater person (not a Toqabaqita person); salt
'Āre'āre āsisea, saltwater
  āsi maethe quiet sea in the lagoon (lit. ‘dead sea’)
  āsi maurithe open sea (lit. ‘living sea’)
Sa'a äsisea, saltwater; salt (late use); a month, January
  äsi e honuhigh spring tide
  äsi deuneap tide
Arosi asisea, saltwater, salt
Gilbertese tarisea, saltwater, seawater
  te tarisalt
  tari-akito salt, to be salted
Marshallese lǫ-jetocean, sea (lit. ‘in the sea/at sea’)
Pohnpeian se:docean, sea
Mokilese jedsea water; salt
Chuukese sáát, seti-nsaltwater, sea; salted water; illness caused by sea spirits
Puluwat háát, heti-nsea, ocean, tide; salt
Woleaian sat(i)sea, ocean (archaic)
Mota tassea, saltwater; the name of the lake at Gaua, so called because the water of it is not pei, simple water, but tas, brackish
  Tasmatea district of Mota to leeward where the sea is quiet or dead; generally the lee side of an island
Tolomako tasisea
Mafea tasisea
Araki rasisea; salt
  rasisea, saltwater
Peterara tasisea; salt
Raga tahisea; salt
Sowa zassea; salt
Atchin n-tassea; salt
Sesivi tessea
Sesake na tasisea
  na tas lolosalt
Nakanamanga na tasisea
Southwest Tanna tahiksea
Wayan tacicoast, seashore, sea, from the perspective of the land; be salty in taste; saltiness, salty taste
  wai tacisea, a body of sea-water; salt water
  taci-tacibe salty to the taste; have salt added, be salted; be a bit salty
Fijian tacithe sea
  wai taciwai taci
Tongan tahisea; sea-water; tide
Niue tahithe sea (more especially near the coast, as compared with moana, the open sea); the coast
Futunan taisea; tide
Samoan taitide; game or fish in season
  i taion the side towards the sea (as opposed to i uta: on the side towards the land)
Tuvaluan taisea; tide
Kapingamarangi taisaltwater, salt; lagoon; sea; tide
Nukuoro dailagoon; sea; salt
Rennellese taiocean, lake, salt water; seafood (poetic)
  tai maaŋagobrackish sea water, especially the Lake [in the middle of Rennell]
Anuta taiwater covering the reef
Rarotongan taithe sea, sea or salt water; the coast or land bordering the sea, as opposed to uta, inland; tide; wave or waves, as of the sea
Maori taithe sea, generally antithetical to uta; the coast, as opposed to uta, inland; tide; wave
  tai-tai nunuispring tides
  tai-tai ririkineap tides
Hawaiian kaisea, sea water; area near the sea; current in the sea; insipid, brackish, tasteless
  i kaitowards the sea
  ma-kaion the sea side, toward the sea, in the direction of the sea

Note:   Also Jarai rəsiʔ ‘sea, ocean’, Mbula tai ‘ocean, sea’, Woleaian tat(i) ‘sea, sea water’. While this term clearly mean ‘sea, saltwater’ in PMP, it has undergone various semantic changes in the daughter languages. In Proto-Philippines it was replaced by a reflex of PMP *daRat ‘littoral sea’ as the general term for ‘sea’, retaining only its sense of ‘saltwater’, and in Polynesian and some other Oceanic languages it acquired an additional sense of ‘tide’.


*tata₁ elder male relative


PMP     *tata₁ elder male relative

Ibaloy tata-ŋfather
Patpatar tatafather
Sambal (Botolan) tata-yfather
Cebuano tátafather; address of respect to a father, esp. among Muslims; address of respect to an old man, esp. a close relative
Ma'anyan tata-ʔelder sibling
Chamorro tatafather
Numfor kaka-mother's brother
Mendak tatamother's brother (vocative)


*tata₂ near


POC     *tata₂ near

Roviana tataclose, near; almost
Eddystone/Mandegusu tatanear, close at hand
Tongan tatanear
Niue tatanear; closely related
  faka-tatadraw near


*tatadu large green hairless stinging caterpillar


PWMP     *tatadu large green hairless stinging caterpillar     [doublet: *katadu]

Maranao tatarocaterpillar
Lun Dayeh tetaduhcaterpillar
Pendau tantaducaterpillar (moth)

Note:   Also Kankanaey atatádo ‘bluish white caterpillar living on the taro plant’, Malay ulat centadu, ulat sentadu, Minangkabau sintadu, tintadu, (Negri Sembilan) mentadu ‘large green hairy caterpillar, believed by Malays to develop into a squirrel’, Mongondow tantaduʔ, tontaduʔ ‘large caterpillar sp.’.


*tau ñamuk mosquito net


POC     *tau ñamuk mosquito net     [doublet: *tai ñamuk]

Chuukese tówunómwmosquito net, sleeping canopy
Puluwat tównómwmosquito net, formerly of loomed cloth
Woleaian taulomw(u)sheet, mosquito net
Fijian tau-namumosquito net
Nukuoro dau namumosquito net
Rennellese tau-namumosquito net; to sleep under a mosquito net

Note:   Also Nggela taonamu, Toqabaqita taunamo, Arosi tao namu ~ tau namu, Wayan tau namo ‘mosquito net’, all of which appear to be loans from one or more undetermined sources.


*tawaD to bargain, haggle over the price


PWMP     *tawaD to bargain, haggle over the price

Kapampangan táwadto bargain
  tawar-anbargain for something
Tagalog táwaddiscount; bargaining; asking for a discount; haggling over prices
  mag-pa-táwadto give a discount to a buyer
  ma-táwadto be able to get a discount or reduction in buying something
Bikol táwada discount
  mag-táwadto bargain, dicker, haggle for something; to bargain for a particular price
Hanunóo táwaddiscount; bargaining; pardon
Romblomanon tāwadsomething is bargained for by someone for a particular price
  pa-tāwadforgiveness; someone is forgiven
Masbatenyo táwaddiscount
  mag-táwadto bargain, haggle, request a discount
Aklanon táwaddiscount
  pa-táwadto forgive
Waray-Waray táwadthe act of haggling or asking for a discount over prices of commodities; a discount
Mapun tawada discount (< Tagalog?)
  ma-tawadto give a discount
Iban tawarbargain, bid, haggle (< Malay?)
Malay tawarbargaining; bidding; offering a lower price
Sundanese tawarhaggle, bargain, bid for goods
Balinese tawahmake an offer to someone, haggle over a price
Tae' taaʔ-ito bargain, haggle over the price
Mandar mat-tawarto bargain, haggle over the price

Note:   Also Makasarese tawaraʔ ‘haggle over the price of something’ (< Malay).


*tawan kind of fruit tree: Pometia pinnata


PMP     *tawan kind of fruit tree: Pometia pinnata

Mongondow tawankind of tree: Pometia pinnata Merr.
Bare'e tawaa large, tall tree: Dysoxylum acutangulum; the wood is too heavy for boats and isn’t favored for building houses
Wandamen tawaa tree: Pometia spp.
Waropen kawanoa tree: Pometia spp.
Ansus tawana tree: Pometia spp.
Ambai tawaa tree: Pometia spp.
Nauna tawtree with yellow flower
Lou taa tree with edible fruit: Pometia pinnata
Loniu tawtree with red fruit --- bark used to poison fish
Wuvulu awashore tree with fruit that flying foxes eat
Aua awashore tree with red flower
Mussau taontree with sweet fruit: Pometia pinnata
Lau ākwaspecies of hardwood: Pometia pinnata
Sa'a awaa tree: Nephelium pinnatum
Arosi awaa tree, sp. of lychee, but the San Cristobal species is only edible by birds
Mota tawana fruit tree: Nephelium pinnatum
Rotuman favaa tree: Pometia pinnata; fruit nearly globular with green rind, edible slightly sweet jelly-like flesh and a large stone
Fijian dawaa large tree, Pometia pinnata, Sapindaceae. It bears a fruit with jelly-like flesh and a large stone the size of a plum.
Tongan tavakind of tree bearing fruit with a large stone surrounded by jelly-like flesh
Niue tavaa tree: Pometia pinnata
Samoan tavalarge tree (Pometia sp.)

Note:   The Oceanic reflexes of this term are extensively doumented in Ross (2008:343-344).


*tawaR₁ tasteless; neutralize something efficacious, as an antidote for poison


PWMP     *tawaR₁ tasteless; neutralize something efficacious, as an antidote for poison

Tboli tawala potent medicine used to remove the poison of snakebites
Iban tawarremedy, cure (< Malay?)
Malay tawarwithout flavor or distinctive character in two senses: (i) tasteless, (ii) innocuous; in the second sense tawar is used of a poison or charm being rendered harmless or of a disease losing its virus
  air tawarfresh water (in contrast to salt)
Sasak tawah ~ tawarinsipid, neutral (of taste); brackish (of river water)
Mandar ma-tawarinsipid, as opposed to salty or sweet

Note:   Iban tabar ‘tasteless, insipid, unseasoned; ineffective, innocuous; neutralize’ supports Proto-Malayic *tabaR, which in turn implies that the Tboli form given here may be a loan from Malay.


*tawaR₂ to call, summon; chant to call the spirits


PWMP     *tawaR₂ to call, summon; chant to call the spirits

Casiguran Dumagat tawahto call out (saying something to somone who is a distance away)
Tagalog táwagcall; summons; term; name; a word that means any object, or any one of a group of objects; request; reminder
  ipa-táwagto page; to try to find a person at a hotel, etc., by getting someone to call his name
  i-táwagto call or summon a doctor, priest, etc. for someone
  pa-táwagto allow itself to be called by a certain name or appellation; a call; a summons sent; an order to appear at a certain place
  ka-tawag-anterm; terminology; a word or group of words used in connection with some special subject; nomenclature; a set or system of names or terms
  t<um>awagto call, to summon; to hail; to call or signal to; to term; to name; to style
  tawag-ánthe act of calling each other by certain names; the name itself used in calling each other; the act of calling each other by telephone, telegram, etc.
  tawag-into call; to summon
Bikol mag-táwagto say something loud enough for others to hear, particularly at a time when everyone else is quiet (such as at night); to complain about something loud enough for the whole neighborhood to hear
Romblomanon tawagsomeone calls someone else, or calls the name of someone; someone calls a gathering of people; the name by which someone or something is called
Masbatenyo mag-táwagto call, summon, hail
  tawag-ónbe called, be summoned, be hailed
Aklanon tawágto call (for), page
  pa-nawágto call out
Hiligaynon tawágcall, telephone call, beacon
  mag-tawágto call, to beacon
Maranao tawagcall, summon; convoke spirit
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tawagto summon someone; to call something by a name
Mansaka tawagto call to; to chant (as to the spirits)
  tawag-anshaman’s altar
Lun Dayeh tawara call, an invitation
  tawar mengeiʔa chant to call the omen bird mengeiʔ
  nawarto call someone, invite someone
Nias tawamagical formula
  man-tawaconjure up by magical formula

Note:   Also Itbayaten tawag ‘idea of calling’ (< Tagalog), Ilokano táwag ‘phone call; calling on the phone’, táwag ‘to call on the phone’ (< Tagalog), Pangasinan man-táwag ‘to call, summon’, Mapun tawag ‘a summons to appear’, nawag ‘to announce with information that requires someone to appear before someone’, tawag-an ‘to summon someone to appear’ (< Tagalog or other Central Philippine language), Tiruray tawag ‘to call’ (< Tagalog), tabar ‘to call’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tawar ‘to say magic incantations over a bleeding wound to make it stop, over a broken bone to make it knit, or over a burn to make it heal quickly, etc.’. Despite its modern applications in languages like Tagalog, the agreement of Mansaka, Lun Dayeh, Nias, and even the Muslim Maranao in referring to the invocation of spirits through chanting suggests an earlier and more specialized sense of this term in association with shamanic rites.


*taytay single log bridge (?)


PMP     *taytay single log bridge (?)

Ibaloy taytaya bridge
  i-taytayto use something in making a bridge (as cable, steel)
Pangasinan taytáybridge
Kapampangan tétebridge
Tagalog taytáybamboo plank or bridge
Hanunóo taytáysitting or perching on a single crosspiece
  t<um>aytáyto sit down, perch (on something)
Cebuano taytáymountain range; bridge; make a bridge
  pa-naytáytravel along a mountain ridge
Binukid taytaybridge; to make a bridge, to put a bridge over (something); to cross, travel over a bridge
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teyteya bridge; a type of design used in weaving
  pe-neyteyto cross a log bridge
Mansaka taytayto walk along something narrow (as a plank, log, or a narrow bridge)
Tiruray titaya bridge; to cross a bridge
  titay beruŋona center purlin in house construction
Mapun pa-titito cross over a bridge (to a place)
Yakan mag-teyteyto walk (as on a tightrope or balance beam)
Tausug mag-taytayto cross a bridge (to a place)
  t<um>aytayto cross a bridge (to a place)
Ngaju Dayak t<al>etaysteps, ladder (specifically, a slanting log with steps cut into it that is used as a native ladder)
Malagasy mi-tetito walk through, to pass through, to go from place ot place, as houses or towns, to tread on
Iban titilow bridge, timber causeway, board walk; usually distinct from batang (felled tree or logs laid end to end), and andau (bridge); walk along narrow way or in single file
Malay titinarrow footway, of a plank bridge; gangway; log across a stream, or even of a bough as a footway from one part of a tree to another; also of bridges generally
Gayō teteflooring (generally of bamboo)
Simalur titibridge
  titi-n tiuʔtwo thin beams on the roof scaffolding that run parallel to the roof beams (lit. ‘rat path’ or ‘rat footbridge’)
Sundanese netestand on something on the tips of one’s toes; also, stand or be supported with the point of the foot on the edge of something
Old Javanese titifootbridge
Balinese titia bridge. a wooden plank across a ditch
  titi-n-inbe bridged by someone
Sasak teteplank bridge, native bridge; bridge of the souls in the Afterworld
  bə-tetewalk over a bridge
Tontemboan tetebridge
  t<um>etecross over a bridge
Mongondow totoya bridge, formerly not much more than a tree trunk or bamboo over the water
Tae' tetea small bridge, plank bridge; walk over a plank bridge
  me-tetemake a plank bridge
Makasarese teteplank bridge, a plank or tree trunk laid across a stream or ravine
  pa-tetecross over something (as a plank bridge); walk shakily, as people do
Palauan didbridge
  didí-l a ʔarmbeams/rafters at ends and sides of house (on which rats often run)
Buli tetimprovised bridge made of a single plank or tree trunk


POC     *tete single log bridge; stairs, ladder

Manam tetestairs, ladder
Gedaged tetladder (a pole used as a ladder), stairs, step (anything that may serve as a step); a small tree standing near a large one used as a ladder; a bridge; wharf; companionway, stile, gangway, catwalk, drawbridge
Molima teteto walk along a ridge or branch of tree; to go towards the reef
Bugotu teteto climb up on a fishing tripod
Nggela tetea row, rank, line; to cross a stream on a log or bridge; to descend a ladder not using hands; a bridge
  tete ni ihuthe bridge of the nose


PWMP     *ma-naytay walk over a plank or log bridge

Pangasinan man-taytáycross a bridge
Yakan neyteyto walk (as on a tightrope or balance beam)
Nias nete-netepath, bridge
Mongondow mo-notoywalk over a bridge
Palauan me-lídto cross over (log/stones being used as a bridge)


PWMP     *taytay-an log or plank bridge

Ibaloy taytay-anto bridge something (as a river)
Cebuano taytay-anbridge; means by which something is obtained
Mapun titiy-ana bridge (often made of bamboo or wood)
Yakan teytey-ana footbridge, small bridge, catwalk (it is usually made of a board or a log)
Tausug taytay-ana bridge (usually made of bamboo or wood)
Ngaju Dayak tatæ-ana wooden walkway or bridge (as from the house to the river; what is bridged over
Malagasy tetez-anaa bridge
Malay titi-an batustepping-stones
Pendau tinte-ana bridge
Dampelas tente-ana bridge

Note:   This term appears to have referred primarily to single log or plank bridges of a type commonly improvised in traveling when there is a need to cross a narrow water obstacle or ravine. It may have also been used in an expression that described certain narrow beams that form part of the roof support, where rats were commonly seen running (cf. Simalur and Palauan).


*ta(n)zeg stand


PWMP     *ta(n)zeg stand

Bontok takdəgstand up
Ifugaw ta-ʔ-dogstand up from a sitting position
Blaan (Sarangani) tadagto stand
Balinese tajegstand erect; be directly overhead (sun)
Sasak tanjekto erect, place upright in the ground

Note:   Also Palawan Batak (Reid 1971) tindɨg, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hi-tindeg ‘stand up’, Karo Batak tandek ‘stand, standing, as a bottle on a table’, Manggarai tedek ‘stand erect’. This item is assumed to contain a root *-zeg ‘stand erect’ (cf. Dempwolff (1934-38) *zegzeg ‘firm foothold’).

TOP      te        ti    to    tu    



*tebaR loud, sonorous, booming


PWMP     *tebaR loud, sonorous, booming

Ilokano tebbágloud, sonorous, richly resonant, ringing, strong
Malay tebardeep-sounding (but not echoing), of a booming noise


*tebáR₁ to answer


PPh     *tebáR₁ to answer

Itawis tabbágan answer, reply
  mat-tabbágto answer, to reply
Bontok təbálto answer, as when one is called
Ifugaw tobálanswer, approving speech; ritual invocation and its concluding prayer
Ifugaw (Batad) tobalfor someone to respond to a question (or to being called); for someone to promise to give something to someone as an inheritance, a gift; to promise to sell a field to someone
Ibaloy man-tebalto converse, of two people talking together, or multiple people talking to one
  ma-tbalfriendly person, one who initiates conversation
Cebuano tubágto answer (a question, correspondence; talk back, retort; exchange heated words; for an uncommon event to recur or be followed by something similar (in folk belief, a not-so-common event is followed by something similar); answer for, take responsibility; bear someone’s expenses; something which happens after something in response to it
  t<ul>ubág-unresponsibility that one has to answer for
  tubág-tubágto talk back insolently; a heated exchange of words; responsive or alternate making of sound
  tubág-túbagto sing, read something alternatingly or with a responsive reading
  ma-tubág-tubág-uninclined to talk back insolently
Mansaka tobagto answer; to reply


PPh     *ma-nebaR to answer, as in answering a question

Bontok ma-nbalto answer
Cebuano ma-nubágto answer questions

Note:   Also Bikol simbág ‘acknowledgement, answer, response, reply’, mag-simbág ‘to answer or respond to someone’, Maranao sembag ‘to answer, reply, respond’.


*tebaS to cut, clear vegetation


PAN     *tebaS to cut, clear vegetation     [doublet: *tebas 'chop off, fell']

Paiwan tjevasto cut, prune, clear (vegetation)
Kankanaey tébacut down, as a bunch of bananas
Tagalog tibáʔcutting down a banana plant for its fruits
Maranao tebaʔcut banana stalk
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tevaʔcut a bunch of bananas
Malagasy tevycut down trees to make a clearing in a forest
Iban tebaʔcut small plants through, esp. bamboo
Proto-Ambon *tebacut off

Note:   Replaces *teba ‘fell banana stalk’ in Blust (1970). Based on Toba Batak toba ‘name of the country around Lake Toba’, Javanese teba ‘gathering place for birds, animals; scope, territory’, Malagasy tevy (see above). Fijian tova ‘a flat piece of land, formerly planted with yams’, Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *teba ‘land appropriated by clearing of forest’.


*tebek pierce, stab


PAN     *tebek pierce, stab

Kavalan tbeqstab
Isneg tabbáʔbe cut by an edged instrument; to string, to thread (beads, tobacco leaves, pieces of meat, etc.)
Bontok təbə́kstick or wire used for piercing, as in order to test if food is cooked; to pierce, as food to see if it is cooked, or pieces of meat when stringing them together
Kankanaey tebékto bore; to drill; to perforate; to pierce; to run through (with a spear, sharp stick, etc.)
Bikol taboklance a boil; wound a fighting cock with a spur (of the opponent cock)
Hanunóo tubukawl
Cebuano tubúkpoke at a point; put a period or dot
Maranao tebekpoke, prod with sharp point; aim; stitch
Tiruray tebekto prick, to inject something or someone
Tboli tebekfork; any sharp instrument
Kelabit tebʰekmark left by piercing; pierced (as by needle, knife)
Kayan tevekcut the throat (as of a slaughtered pig)
Melanau (Mukah) tebekstab, stabbing
Malagasy tevikaa stitch; a bore in the lobe of the ear
Iban tebakpierce, prick, be pricked (as by a thorn)
Malay tebakiron crowbar used for stone-breaking by Sumatran miners
Karo Batak tebekpointed, sharp, as a dibble stick
Nias towoshave, cut with a razor
Old Javanese teweka pointed weapon for stabbing
Balinese tebekstab, make a hole in something, make a hole in the ground for planting seedlings; a hole in the ground for a seedling
Sasak tebekcut deeply, pierce deeply
Mongondow mo-tobokpoke holes in something thin (as leather)
Balantak tobokto stab
Banggai tobokprick, pierce, stick (with a weapon)
Bare'e tobopointed, sharp, as a beak or the point of a knife
Buginese tebbaʔnotch or incise, as a tree
Yamdena tebaksting, prick, spear; point out, decide
Ujir tafakto stab
Buli tepatusks of a boar or elephant; pierce or wound with a tusk


PWMP     *tebek-en be pierced, be stabbed

Isneg tabba-ānto string, to thread (beads, tobacco leaves, pieces of meat, etc.)
Bontok təbk-ə́npierced
Kankanaey tebk-énbored, drilled, perforated
Bikol tabok-ónlanced, wounded
Malagasy teveh-inabe bored, be pierced
Mongondow into tobok-onthe one who will undergo the ceremony of ear-piercing


PWMP     *t<in>ebek was pierced, was stabbed

Isneg s-im-baʔstring of beads
Kelabit s-i-bʰekwas pierced, was stabbed
Melanau (Mukah) t-i-bekwas stabbed


PAN     *t<um>ebek to pierce, to stab

Kavalan t<um>beqto stab
Cebuano tu-m-bukpoke a finger or something pointed at something; point out, pinpoint
Bintulu t-um-bekto stab
Melanau (Mukah) t-u-bekto stab
Old Javanese t-um-uwekstab with a kris


PWMP     *maŋ-tebek to pierce, to stab

Kelabit nebʰekpierce, stab
Sasak nebekcutting deeply (of an instrument)
Mongondow mo-nobokthe ceremony of ear-piercing

Note:   Also Cebuano tubúk ‘poke at a point; put a period or dot’, Ngaju Dayak tewek ‘be stabbed (with a knife or dagger; with a lance: puno)’, Karo Batak tebak ‘to pierce with a knife’, Tae' tibok ‘stab with a knife or kris’, tobok ‘stab with a knife or kris’, Makasarese toboʔ ‘kris’, Wolio tobo ‘kris’, tobok-i ‘stab with a kris’, Bimanese tuɓa ‘to lance, pierce with a lance or similar sharp weapon; stab’, Rembong tewak ‘stab into the earth; dig up tubers with a hoe’, Lamaholot tubak ‘stab’.

Dempwolff's (1934-38) inclusion of Fijian teve ‘circumcise’, Tongan tefe ‘circumcise’, Samoan tefe ‘circumcise’ is unconvincing, and cognates in Oceanic languages are still unknown. This morpheme evidently referred to piercing with a sharp, pointed implement which made only a dot-like perforation as opposed to a longitudinal incision. It applied to soft or pliant surfaces (apparently not to boring through wood or other hard material), and included e.g. the piercing of ear-lobes and soft tubers, the skewering of materials to be strung stitching with a needle, perforating with an awl, stabbing into flesh, and dibbling in soft soil.


*te(m)bek tap, thump


PMP     *te(m)bek tap, thump

Kayan tebeksound of heart thumping
Buruese tefe-tap; mallet for hammering bark into cloth

Note:   With root *-bek ‘sound of breaking, etc.’.


*tebel constipated


PPh     *tebel constipated

Isneg tabbálsuffer from costiveness or constipation
Tagalog tibíconstipation, costiveness
Bikol tubólconstipated
Masbatenyo tubolhard feces


*tebeŋ felling of trees, as in preparing a swidden


PWMP     *tebeŋ felling of trees, as in preparing a swidden

Kelabit təbʰəŋthe felling of a large tree
Kayan teveŋfelling trees, farming
Iban tebaŋfelling; to fell
Malay təbaŋto fell (big trees)
  pə-nəbaŋaxe for felling large trees
Pendau toboŋto fell a tree
Dampelas toboŋcut down
Makasarese taʔbaŋto cut down, fell (as a banana tree past its prime yielding)


PWMP     *ma-nebeŋ to fell trees, as in preparing a swidden

Kelabit nəbʰəŋto fell large trees, as in clearing ground for a swidden
Kayan neveŋto cut down trees
Malay mə-nəbaŋto fell (big trees)
Dampelas mo-noboŋto cut down, as trees
Bare'e man-towoto cut down, fell trees, clear land for planting
  mo-nowothe annual clearing of fallow land to secure land for planting

Note:   Also Javanese tebaŋ-an ‘field from which the crop has been harvested’, nebaŋ to harvest plants, especially sugarcane’ (probably < Malay).


*tebteb to cut off, prune; cut down


PWMP     *tebteb to cut off, prune; cut down

Yami tebtebdull a knife or an axe; cut off
  tebteb-ento cut
Ivatan tebtebto cut
Kankanaey tebtébto fell, cut down, hew down, cut off
Balinese tebtebcut off short, prune, cut to a point

Note:   Thanks to Andrew Pick for pointing out the Bashiic members of this comparison, and of several others scattered throughout the dictionary.


*tebuk to pound, as rice


PWMP     *tebuk₁ to pound, as rice

Balinese tebukpound rice to dehusk it; thresh
Gorontalo tobuʔoto pound, as rice

Note:   With root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud, splash’.


*tebuR natural spring, fresh water spring


PMP     *tebuR natural spring, fresh water spring     [doublet: *Cebuj]    [disjunct: *tubuR]

Tagalog tubógpool of water
Tiruray tebuga stagnant pool of water; to make a pool to hold water
Tboli tebulcontinuous trickle of water, as a spring


POC     *topuR natural spring, fresh water spring

Mota tovspring below high water mark; the brackish water of such a spring


*tebuS sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum


PAN     *tebuS sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum     [doublet: *CebuS]

Kavalan təbussugarcane
Saisiyat ka-tboʃsugarcane
Pazeh tubussugarcane
Amis təfossugarcane
  mi-tfosto harvest sugarcane
Thao tufúshsugarcane: Saccharum officinarum
Paiwan tjevussugarcane: Saccharum officinarum


PMP     *tebuh₁ sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum

Sambal (Botolan) təboʔsugarcane
Kapampangan atbúsugarcane
Tagalog tubósugarcane
  mag-tubóto plant sugarcane
  tubuh-ánsugarcane plantation
Bikol tubósugarcane
  mag-tubóto plant sugarcane
  ka-tubu-ána field of sugarcane
Hanunóo tubúsugarcane
Romblomanon tubusugarcane plant or stalk, Saccharum officinarum (Linn.)
Masbatenyo tubósugarcane
Aklanon tubósugarcane
  ka-túbw-ansugarcane plantation
Waray-Waray tubósugarcane
Hiligaynon tubúsugarcane
Cebuano tubúsugarcane
  ka-tubh-ansugarcane plantation
Maranao teboSaccharum officinarum L., sugarcane
Subanon tobusugarcane
Binukid tubúsugarcane
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tevusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Mansaka tobosugarcane
Mapun tabbusugarcane
Yakan tebbusugarcane
  mag-tebbuto cut or plant sugarcane
  tebbuh-ana sugarcane field
Tausug tubusugarcane
Kadazan Dusun tobusugarcane
Tombonuwo tobusugarcane
Ida'an Begak təbpusugarcane
Kelabit təbʰuhsugarcane
Berawan (Long Terawan) təppuhsugarcane
Narum təfawsugarcane
Miri təfuhsugarcane
Kenyah (Long Anap) təpusugarcane
Murik təbuʔsugarcane
Kayan tevoʔsugarcane
Kayan (Uma Juman) təvoʔsugarcane
Kiput təsəwsugarcane
Bintulu təɓəwsugarcane
Melanau (Mukah) təbəwsugarcane
Ngaju Dayak tewusugarcane
Iban tebusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Jarai təbəwsugarcane
Rhade kəbəwsugarcane
Malay tebusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Karo Batak təbusugarcane
Toba Batak tobusugarcane
Nias tõwusugarcane
Sangir tuwu <Asugarcane
Uma towusugarcane
Bare'e towusugarcane, planted as a sweet snack
Tae' taʔbusugarcane
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *towusugarcane
Buginese təbbusugarcane
Makasarese taʔbusugarcane
Wolio towusugarcane
Muna towusugarcane
Palauan debsugarcane
Chamorro tuputype of plant -- Saccharum officinarum, sugarcane
Manggarai téusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Ngadha tevusugarcane
Kédang tehusugarcane
Kambera tíbusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Tetun tohusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Erai tehusugarcane
Kisar keusugarcane
Leti tewusugarcane
Wetan tewisugarcane
Selaru téhsugarcane
Yamdena tefusugarcane
Fordata tevusugarcane
Kamarian tehusugarcane
Asilulu tehusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Buruese tefusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Kayeli tebosugarcane
Soboyo tofusugarcane
Kowiai/Koiwai tofsugarcane
Buli topsugarcane
Irarutu tofsugarcane
Windesi tobusugarcane
Numfor kobsugarcane
Waropen kowusugarcane
Serui-Laut tovusugarcane


POC     *na topu sugarcane

Nauna tuhsugarcane
Penchal rupsugarcane
Loniu tuhsugarcane
Nali druhsugarcane
Ere druhsugarcane
Leipon ndohsugarcane
Levei cuhsugarcane
Drehet khuhsugarcane
Wuvulu tofuwild cane: Saccharum edule
Mussau tousugarcane
Tigak tusugarcane
Tanga tufsugarcane
Label tohsugarcane
Tolai tupsugar, sugarcane
Vitu tovusugarcane
Lusi too <Asugarcane
Lakalai la tovusugarcane (generic; Saccharum sp.)
Wogeo tousugarcane
Manam tousugarcane
Takia tousugarcane
Gapapaiwa tomsugarcane
Motu tohusugarcane, Saccharum spp.
Kilivila tousugarcane
Tawala tomsugarcane
Dobuan tousugarcane
Molima towusugarcane (generic)
Halia tohusugarcane
Selau tousugarcane
Mono-Alu tohusugarcane
Marovo tovusugarcane
Nggela tovusugarcane
Talise tovusugarcane
Kwaio ofusugarcane
Lau ofusugarcane
'Āre'āre ōhusugarcane
Sa'a oohusugarcane
Arosi rohusugarcane
Gilbertese toua whole pandanus fruit (chewed like sugarcane; cf. Bender et al 2003a)
Kosraean tuhsugarcane
Pohnpeian sehusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Chuukese woow ~ wowusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Puluwat woowsugarcane
Woleaian wousugarcane
Buma tosugarcane
Mota tousugarcane
Cape Cumberland toβusugarcane
Araki oβusugarcane
Ngwatua topusugarcane
Northeast Ambae toβusugarcane
Paamese a-tehsugarcane
Namakir na toβsugarcane
Anejom ne-tosugarcane
Wayan tovusugarcane
Fijian dovusugarcane, sugar: Saccharum officinarum

Note:   Also Tetun touhu, Mbula teu ‘sugarcane, (Saccharum officinarum). The high vowel reflex of POc *o in a number of the languages of New Ireland and nearly all languages of the Admiralty Islands is unexplained, but may indicate a POc doublet *na tupu.


*tedaʔ leftover, remainder


PAN     *tedaʔ leftover, remainder     [doublet: *tida]

Paiwan tjezasomething saved, left over; a remainder
  pu-tjezaleave over, save (esp. food)
Bikol tadáʔsomething left over, remainder
Iban tedaʔleavings, remnant, left-overs
Selaru teraleftovers
Fordata tera-nleftovers, remainder


*te(n)dem recall, recollect, remember


PWMP     *te(n)dem recall, recollect, remember

Tiruray tedemremember
Bare'e tondorecall, melancholic recollection

Note:   With root *-dem₂ ‘think, ponder; brood; remember’.


*tedis crush with the thumbnail (as a louse)


PWMP     *tedis crush with the thumbnail (as a louse)     [disjunct: *tedes]

Tagalog tiríscrushing (of lice) between thumbnails
Kayan teréhcrush with thumb-nail (as a louse)


*te(n)duk skewer; to skewer (as meat)


PWMP     *te(n)duk skewer; to skewer (as meat)

Tagalog turókbe pierced (by a pointed instrument, as a pin, needle or the like)
  tundókpiercing meat with a skewer
Kayan tedukskewer; skewered meat

Note:   Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *tu(d)ek ‘prick, pierce’.


*teduŋ take shelter, cover the head


PMP     *teduŋ take shelter, cover the head     [doublet: *tuduŋ 'head covering']

Isneg taddóŋany kind of large leaf used for covering the head as a protection against rain, etc.
Casiguran Dumagat tedúŋhold a cloth or a large leaf over the head (as a protection against rain or the hot sun)
Subanon toduŋto carry (on the head); covering of the head against sun or rain
Balinese teduŋumbrella or sunshade (of paper or silk)
Sasak tedoŋprotect oneself agains sun or rain (by placing something on or over the head
Proto-Minahasan *təruŋshelter
Buginese tedduŋumbrella
Manggarai tesoŋtake shelter
Kambera tiduŋucarry on the head (as a water pot)

Note:   With root *-duŋ ‘shelter, protect’. Part of this comparison was first noted in print by van der Veen (1940).


*tegaŋ dry, dehydrated


PWMP     *tegaŋ dry, dehydrated

Tagalog tigáŋextremely dry, said of soil
Kayan tegaŋdry (as clothes), dried out

Note:   With root *-gaŋ ‘dry, dehydrated’.


*tegas clear, straightforward


PMP     *tegas clear, straightforward

Javanese tegasclear, unambiguous, firm
Manggarai tehasstraightforward; clarify


*tegel unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn


PMP     *tegel unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn     [doublet: *te(ŋ)ger]

Maranao tegelforce, impose, require, demand
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teɣelto force something or someone
Karo Batak tegelfirm, unyielding (esp. of thinking, courage)
Javanese tegelhave the courage to do something terrible; unmerciful
Sasak tegelhold tight, cling to
Manggarai tegelinflexible


*teger unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn


PMP     *teger unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn     [doublet: *tegel]

Iban tegarstrong, powerful
Malay tegarstiff, unbending, obstinate
Malay (Jakarta) tegerstubborn
Sundanese tegerstand firm, steadfast; energetic, courageous, undaunted
Manggarai tegerinflexible; stubborn
  teŋgersteadfast; stubborn


*teguŋ to boom, resound


PAN     *teguŋ to boom, resound

Paiwan (Western) tjeguŋto make noise
Kayan teguŋbooming sound, as made by drum or gong

Note:   With root *-guŋ ‘deep resounding sound’.


*teka₁ to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete


PMP     *teka₁ to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete

Mapun takkato arrive; to reach or be able to reach a destination
  ka-takka-hanto have something or someone come or arrive to you
  (ka)-takka-handestination; to have a feeling or emotion come upon you (like hunger, anger, sickness, tiredness, love, etc.)
  mag-takka-takkacome and go continuously; to fluctuate (as the price or availability of something, one’s good and bad traits, etc.)
  takka-hanto report someone to the authorities
Yakan tekkaarrival
  mag-tekkato raid, attack, arrive at (someone’s place with evil intent)
  mag-tekka-tekkasometimes; occasionally
  magka-tekkafor something to arrive
  ka-tekkah-anfor something to come to someone, arrive at someone; the place or time of someone’s arrival
  tekka-unto arrive
Kenyah təkafeeling (as a sickly feeling)
Acehnese təkato come, arrive
Rejang tekoto come, arrive
Old Javanese təkato come, arrive, reach one’s goal; coming
  ka-təkaarrived; (come) as far as, including
  ka-təka-n(“reached by something”) to suffer, undergo; to succeed in, manage to, win; to reach, up to
  t<um>əkato come, arrive, reach one’s goal
Javanese tekato come, arrive; to go on, continue; (up) to, until; to get to, reach; upon reaching
  ke-teka-nto be visited
  t<um>ekato go to, head for
Balinese tekato come, arrive
  teka-haŋbe caused to come, be brought
  teka-hinbe come to, be visited
  teka-ncoming, arrival
Bare'e tokapresent, on hand, available because it has been brought (to a place)
  to-tokaone who has come, guest, visitor, foreigner
Makasarese takkato come
Wolio tokabe already present, be there beforehand
Muna tokafinished, complete, in order
Manggarai tekacome from, appear, suddenly come into view
Ngadha tekato meet, encounter, be met
Lamaholot təkaat, to, toward; in the direction of
Kambera tàkato arrive, come; therefore; next, afterwards
Hawu dəkato come


POC     *toka₁ to meet, encounter

Futunan tokato meet, gather (as an assembly of people)

Note:   Also Berawan (Long Terawan) təka ‘to meet’. The relation of Kenyah təka to the other forms cited here might be questioned, but the semantic relationship of this form to the rest is supported by the extended meaning of Mapun (ka)-takka-han, which incorporates both the notion of a personal arrival and of the ‘arrival’ of an emotional or physical state that settles on one. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed this form on the basis of data from Javanese, Sa'a and Fijian. However, the words in the latter two languages appear to be better placed with PMP *tekas ‘come to rest in a definite place, settle down’.


*teka₂ elder sibling of the same sex


PMP     *teka₂ elder sibling of the same sex

Bintulu təkaelder sibling
Siang oŋkaelder sibling


POC     *toka elder sibling of the same sex

Lusi toaelder sibling
Wogeo toxaelder sibling
Manam toka ~ toʔaelder sibling
Varisi toga-naelder sibling of the same sex (kaka = vocative)
Gilbertese tokahigh rank, noble, chief, lord; rich landlord having servants

Note:   Also Long Jegan toka, Melanau Dalat tika ‘elder sibling’. The lack of an initial consonant in Siang oŋka raises the question whether this reconstruction is bimorphemic, in parallel with *ama : *t-ama ‘father’, *ina : *tina ‘mother’, *empu : *tempu ‘grandparent’, and other kinship terms in which the referential form is distinguished by an initial *t- (cf. Blust 1979). However, this would imply a base form *eka for which comparative support is currently unknown. However this issue is resolved, the morphological and semantic relationship of *teka to the much better-supported *kaka ‘elder sibling of the same sex’ remains obscure.


*tekak to cackle


PWMP     *tekak to cackle

Maranao tekakcackle
Kayan tekakthe cackling of hens
Singhi Land Dayak bi-tokakto cackle

Note:   With root *-kak₁ ‘cackle, laugh loudly’.


*tekaŋ a step, a stride


PWMP     *tekaŋ a step, a stride

Yakan tekaŋa step (in walking)
  mag-tekaŋto take a step (in walking)
  tekaŋ-anstride, pace (in walking)
Iban tekaŋclimb a tree with a rope thrown over a branch (hence by shinnying up?)
Madurese tekkaŋbe wide apart, of the legs
  nekkaŋwalk with the legs wide apart

Note:   With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’.


*tekas come to rest in a definite place, settle down, as birds on a tree


PMP     *tekas come to rest in a definite place, settle down, as birds on a tree

Maranao tekasvacation or rest in a definite place
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tokato perch, alight (as a fly or bird)


POC     *toka₃ sit, squat; come to rest; stay in a place; settle down, as birds on a tree

Lou tukto sit
Seimat toto sit
  to-tositting, at rest
Mussau tokato sit
Gedaged tostill, calm, quiet; contented, at peace, serene, at rest, quiescent, motionless
Takia tokquiet
Tubetube toato perch, of a bird
Roviana togasaid of a flock of belama (frigate birds) settling in a naru (Casuarina tree)
Nggela togato dwell
Sa'a oʔato settle, of birds; to squat on the haunches
Arosi oʔato stay, dwell, abide; to settle, of birds
Bauro ogato sit
Mota togato abide, dwell, endure, live, behave, be
Northeast Ambae tokato sit
Sowa -dokto sit
Wayan tokacome to rest, be at rest; (of a boat) run aground, strike bottom in shallow water; (of a whale or dolphin) be stranded, beached
  vaka-tokabe brought ashore or beached
Fijian tokato sit on the heels, squat; to be placed, situated, of people and small objects; to place, put on (garments); adhere to; to ride (horse)
  toka-rakato lie in wait for
Tongan toka(of a boat) to run aground, or to rest on the bottom; (of running water, of particles in suspension, or of people, etc.) to come to rest, to settle down, to reach a calm or settled state
Futunan tokato calm down (of the wind)
Samoan toʔa(of liquid, or solid body in a liquid, etc.) be still, settle down; (of boat), run around, strike; (of people) stop; sea rock, reef; calm, relief
  to-toʔabe calm, steady
Tuvaluan tokaready; peaceful, be in peace
  faka-tokato prepare
Nukuoro dogaland on (as a bird lands on the branch of a tree)
Rennellese tokato be or get well; to be in good health, cured of sickness, recovered; to be calm, quiet, of persons or the sea; to recover
Anuta tokaa boulder in the sea which is submerged at least part of the time
Rarotongan tokacongealment, anything congealed, frozen, etc.; to pass from fluid to solid, to coagulate, to curdle; a general term or name for stone or stones or rock of any description
Maori tokastone, rock; firm, solid; satisfied, contented; wait, stay still
Hawaiian koʔacoral, coral head

Note:   Also Tontemboan təkaʔ ‘arrival at a place; to settle down, of birds on a branch’. Although this reconstruction is firmly established on the POc level, the PMP form is far less certain, and its possible relationship to PMP *teka ‘to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete’ remains an open question. Whereas PMP *teka seems clearly to be a verb of motion, referring to coming, arrival and the like, PMP *tekas has a much more static sense, as of something for which motion or agitation has ceased.

The breadth of linked meanings across reflexes of this form is remarkable, ranging from the notion of birds settling down from flight on the branches of a tree (Proto-Bungku-Tolaki, Sa'a, Arosi, Nukuoro), to sitting (many), to boats running aground (Wayan, Tongan), to general calmness (Tongan, Futunan, Samoan, Rennellese), to congealment (hence cessation of flowing motion) in Rarotongan, to rock (as in ‘firm as a rock’) in Anuta, Rarotongan, Maori and possibly Hawaiian."


*teked prop, support


PMP     *teked prop, support

Madurese tekketpress down
Ngadha dekeprop, support
Motu tostay of house; prop of fence; brace

Note:   With root *-ked ‘prop, support’. Ngadha deke presumably reflects *nteked.


*tekek dull throaty sound


PMP     *tekek dull throaty sound

Javanese tekekstrangle
Manggarai tekekimitation of the sound of a bunch of frogs

Note:   With root *-kek ‘shriek, creak, cluck, chuckle’.


*teken downward pressure; bamboo punting pole


PMP     *teken downward pressure; bamboo punting pole

Ilokano tekkénbamboo pole used to propel a boat; tall, thin person
  t<in>ekken-anpoling in competition, pole vault
Isneg takkána bamboo used for poling a canoe upstream, a raft, etc.
Itawis tákkanboatman’s pole
Kapampangan atkánpropel a boat with a punting pole (Bergaño 1860)
Tagalog tikína bamboo pole for propelling boats in shallow streams
  t<um>ikínto punt; to propel a boat by thrusting with a pole against the bottom of a shallow stream
  tikin-ánto punt
Aklanon tukónbamboo pole
Hiligaynon tukúnpole used for support
Cebuano tukúnprop up; propel oneself by pushing on a pole (of poling a boat in shallow water); pole for propelling or for supporting
Maranao tekencane or staff for walking; press abdomen to hasten parturition
Mapun nakkonto press down on something
Yakan nekkento press or push down on something with the hand
Tboli tkento press or weigh something down; to hold or put something heavy on top of something else to keep it from moving (as a paperweight)
Tausug tukuna pole used to propel a small boat in shallow water
  t<um>ukunto propel a small boat with a pole in shallow water
  tukun-anto propel a small boat with a pole in shallow water
Kelabit təkənboat pole, punting pole
  nəkənto pole a boat in shallow water
  s<in>əkənwas poled by someone
Kayan tekena pole for poling a canoe
  nekento pole a canoe
Ngaju Dayak tekena long pole for punting a boat (as in strong currents, shallow water, or in narrow, winding streams where one cannot use a rudder)
  ma-nekenpropel a boat with a punting pole
Malagasy téhinastaff, stick, walking stick
  mi-téhinato walk with a staff; to lean on a person in walking
Iban tekanpress down, hence figuratively, oppress, subdue
Malay təkanpressure downward with a flat surface, in contrast to pressure with a point (as a man pressing dough to get an impression of it, an athlete putting pressure on a rival’s limb to get an idea of his strength, etc.)
Rejang tekeunpress!
Old Javanese təkənstick, prop, support
Balinese tekenstaff, stick
Sasak təkənpost, pillar (of a house or granary); mast of a boat
Bare'e tokostick, staff; measure word for some objects
Proto-South Sulawesi *tɨkɨnstick, staff
Makasarese takkaŋstick, staff, walking stick
  takkaŋ bodohumorous for ‘penis’ (lit. short stick)
Palauan dékelpole for boat, canoe, raft, etc; spare motor (for boat)
Watubela tokonpunting pole


POC     *tokon bamboo punting pole; to pole a boat in shallow water

Nauna topunting pole for propelling a canoe
Lou tuŋpunting pole for propelling a canoe
Penchal ropunting pole for propelling a canoe
Loniu topunting pole for propelling a canoe
Nali to-nepunting pole for propelling a canoe
Likum dopunting pole for propelling a canoe
Bipi dopunting pole for propelling a canoe
Gedaged toka stick, pole, cane, staff, switch; brace
Gitua togopole
Selau tokonopunting pole for propelling a canoe
Fijian dokothe poles with which canoes are propelled
Tongan toko-ʔito pole a boat or canoe along, to punt; the pole used in this way
Niue tokoto support; a prop, stays of a roof
Futunan tokopunting pole, long pole used to propel a canoe in shallow water
Samoan toʔopunting pole; wife (jocular); housepost; to punt
  toʔo limapress with both hands
Tuvaluan tokopole to propel canoe at low tide
Kapingamarangi dogoto punt (a canoe); punting pole
Nukuoro dogoto punt (propel a canoe by poling); punt pole
Rennellese tokopole, as for a canoe; to pole, as a canoe; to use as a pole or support
Rarotongan tokoa pole or rake used for propelling; to propel with a pole, as a canoe; to support or strut with a pole, to prop up; to push or force to a distance, by using a pole to give the required impelling force
Maori tokopole, rod, particularly poles used in sacred rites; stilt; propel with a pole; support with a pole, prop up; push or force to a distance; divorce, separate husband and wife
Hawaiian koʔobrace, support, prop; pole as used in pushing a canoe


PWMP     *teken-en be poled forward, of a boat in shallow water

Mapun takkon-unto press down on something
Yakan tekken-unpress down on it!
Malagasy tehén-inato be pushed forward, used of a canoe
Palauan dekel-élfriend, mainstay in times of need


PMP     *teken-teken (gloss uncertain)

Old Javanese təkən-təkənto be a support


POC     *tokon-tokon (gloss uncertain)

Niue toko-tokostaff, walking stick, support
Samoan toʔo- toʔowalking stick
Tuvaluan toko-tokopole a canoe
Rarotongan toko-tokoto prop up or strut or support extensively with several or many props or struts, etc.; to keep on pushing or poling with a pole; the act of propping or strutting, etc.; a walking stick, that which is used as a support, such as a staff or walking staff; to walk with a stick or staff
Maori toko-tokostaff, rod; walking stick; prop up; dispel, drive to a distance; walk with a stick

Note:   Some of the forms assigned to this set in the meaning ‘prop, support’ may reflect PMP *teked ‘prop, support’, as the two forms have merged in nearly all Oceanic languages.


*tekes bind firmly


PWMP     *tekes bind firmly

Maranao tekeshold firmly or strongly, bind
Balinese tekesfasten, fix in place (esp. the hair, with a band of linen or a ribbon), done by men

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.


*tekik high-pitched sound


PWMP     *tekik high-pitched sound

Maranao tekiksharp sound, like that of a fowl
Kenyah tekikstone used for striking fire; to strike fire
Javanese tekèkstriped gecko lizard

Note:   With root *-kik ‘shrill throaty sound’.


*tekiq high-pitched sound; chirp of a gecko


PAN     *tekiq high-pitched sound; chirp of a gecko

Amis tkiʔmake a sound; the sound of rocks hitting
Maranao tekiʔgecko
Tetun tekigecko

Note:   With probable root *-kiq ‘high-pitched throaty sound’. Cf. *leŋkiq.


*tektek₁ chopping to pieces, cutting up, as meat or vegetables


PAN     *tektek₁ chopping to pieces, cutting up, as meat or vegetables

Saisiyat təktəkto chop wood
Pazeh teketek-to mince, to chop into small pieces (as vegetables)
Amis tektekto peck, with reference to birds and chickens
Thao ta-tiktik-ancutting board used to chop pig fodder, etc.
Bunun tuktuktree-cutter, wood-cutter (person)
Bontok təktə́kto make a hole in wood, as to ascertain whether it is resinous or not; to have a deep cut, as from the blow of an axe
Casiguran Dumagat təktəkto drip (of the dripping of liquid)
Hanunóo túktukmincing, chopping into small pieces, as of meat
Romblomanon tuktuksomething is chopped or cut into pieces (as coconut)
Aklanon túktukto chop continually; tenderize (meat) by pounding it with a blade
Bintulu tətəkcutting, chopping, hacking
Ngaju Dayak teteka piece; that which has been chopped into pieces
  ba-tetekcut off, chopped into pieces
Malagasy tétikaornamental cuttings in the skin; the act of cutting up small pieces (in the provinces it means ‘deforesting’)
Iban tetakcut up, cut into lengths, cut off or to a length (as in cutting wood for punting poles)
Malay tətakto hack
Toba Batak toktoka portion, share
Sundanese tɨktɨkpieces (of objects that have been hacked or chopped off)
Old Javanese tətəkcut, slash
Javanese tetekchopped off (pieces of bamboo, etc.)
Balinese tektekchop into small pieces
Sasak tətəkcut off with chopper, chop off
Totoli tatakchip, slash, hew
Dondo totoʔchip, slash, hew
Selaru r-tetakchop into short pieces
  te-tetaka chisel
Yamdena n-tetakcut through, chop through at right angles
  n-tetak ulu-ncut off someone’s head
  te-tetaka chisel
Kamarian teteto cut
Paulohi tetecut through meat or bone with a cleaver
Alune teta ~ tetecut off, chop off, split into two pieces
Proto-Ambon *tətəcut off; behead
Asilulu teteto cut something which is not very thick until it is severed (as in beheading an enemy)
  ha-tetekind of chisel; to chisel wood
Buruese tetea chisel
  tete-hto cut, as rattan; to chop off, as a finger; to butcher, as a pig


POC     *totok chop, hack, mince, cut up

Manam tototo cut off, to cut down
  tótok-ito cut down, to cut off
Mota totocut with light chopping strokes, chop, chip, beat
  totog-agchop into


PWMP     *ma-nektek chop or hack into pieces

Kankanaey men-tektékto clack the tongue against the palate
Ngaju Dayak ma-netekto cut into pieces
Toba Batak ma-noktokhack off wood
  ma-noktoh-ichop meat into small pieces
Sundanese nɨktɨkhack off, chop off
Old Javanese a-nətəkto cut, cut up; to slash at
Balinese nektekto chop into small pieces
Totoli ma-natakto chip, slash, hew
Dondo mo-notoʔto chip, slash, hew


PAN     *t<in>ektek was chopped up

Thao t<in>iktikwas chopped up
Malagasy t<in>etikabe chopped up


PAN     *t<um>əktək to chop, hack, cut off

Thao t<m>iktikchop meat or vegetables with a cleaver
Penan (Long Merigam) mətəkto cut, chop
Bintulu tutəkto cut, chop, hack
Tunjung motokto cut


PAN     *tektek-en be chopped into pieces, be minced, as meat or vegetables; what is chopped up or minced

Thao tiktik-inbe chopped, of meat or vegetables; chop it up
Kankanaey tektek-énto pound slightly
Malagasy tetih-inato be cut into small pieces

Note:   Also Kavalan taktak ‘to cut (meat or vegetables); to cut off’, Fordata f-tetat ‘a chisel’, n-tetat ‘chop into small pieces’, ta-tetat ‘cutting board for chopping up fish’. This form is presumably onomatopoetic, from the sound of a cleaver repeatedly striking a cutting board, hence the semantics of forms such as Casiguran Dumagat təktək, or Kankanaey men-tekték.


*tektek₂ gecko, house lizard (onom.)


PAN     *tektek₂ gecko, house lizard (onom.)     [doublet: *cekcek]

Puyuma təktəkgecko
Itbayaten tektekhouse lizard
Ilokano tektékcry of the common house lizard; tick of a clock
Ibaloy tektekkind of insect similar to cricket, whose call is “tek-tek-tek”
Maranao t-ag-etekhouse lizard
Tiruray t-er-ektekhouse lizard: Hemidactylus frenatus Duméril and Bibron
Bintulu tətəkgecko, house lizard
Mongondow totokgecko, house lizard
Gorontalo totoʔogecko, house lizard
Buli tektekkind of small frog; drop, drip

Note:   Also Tagalog tukóʔ, Cebuano tikíʔ, tukúʔ ‘gecko’, Maranao tekoʔ ‘large house lizard’, Rotinese teke ‘gecko; cry of the gecko’. This form probably derives from the similarity of the gecko’s staccato chirp to the sound of a cleaver striking a cutting board. Buli tektek (expected **tota) is taken to be an onomatopoetic retention.


*tekuk bend or pull down (as a branch)


PMP     *tekuk bend or pull down (as a branch)     [doublet: *teku, *tekuq]

Malay tekokbent down roughly; creased; rumpled
Sundanese tekuktake a man or animal firmly by the neck and bend the head down
Old Javanese tekukbend or fold over
Balinese tekukbent, crumpled
Manggarai tekokbent over (as when carrying a heavy burden)

Note:   With root *-kuk₁ ‘bent, crooked’.


*tekuŋ bow the head


PMP     *tekuŋ bow the head

Old Javanese tekuŋsit bowed and in silence
Javanese tekuŋhaving the arms folded across the chest while meditating
Manggarai tekoŋbent over; curved
Sika tekuŋlet the head hang

Note:   With root *-kuŋ ‘bend, curve’.


*tekuq bend, hook


PMP     *tekuq bend, hook     [doublet: *teku, *tekuk]

Maranao tekoʔbend, curve
Narum tekoʔhook
Buruese teku-kcause to lean or bow; cut (a banana stalk, etc.) part way through in order to bend it down

Note:   With root *-ku(q) ‘bend, curve’.


*tela split, crack


PMP     *tela split, crack

Sundanese tɨladried and cracked clay soil
Javanese telacrack, split
Manggarai telato split, show a crack

Note:   Also Old Javanese telā, with unexplained long vowel. This item may contain a variant of the root *-laq ‘split’.


*telaŋ bamboo sp.


PWMP     *telaŋ bamboo sp.

Kelabit telaŋmedium-sized species of bamboo
Malay buloh telaŋbamboo of the genus Gigantochloa
Tae' tallaŋkind of slender bamboo
Buginese tellaŋkind of bamboo

Note:   Mills (1975:854) proposes PAn *tɨlaŋ ‘bamboo or rattan sp.’. However, he fails to cite adequate supporting evidence, giving e.g., Malay buŋa telaŋ ‘a dark-blue flower of pea-flower shape growing on Clitorea ternatea’, but missing buloh telaŋ.


*teleb sink, vanish from sight


PMP     *teleb sink, vanish from sight

Tiruray telebcover something
Sundanese telebstay submerged for a long time without fatigue
Sasak telepsubmerge, sink
Manggarai telepbe hidden, disappear for a moment

Note:   With root *-leb ‘sink, disappear’.


*telem sink, disappear under water


PMP     *telem sink, disappear under water     [doublet: *teleŋ]

Sundanese tɨlɨmgo under water, plunge in, immerse, duck or dive under
Manggarai telemsink, go under, disappear by degrees

Note:   Mills (1975:854) gives Proto-South Sulawesi *tɨlliŋ ‘to sink’, suggesting a possible connection with PAn *telen ‘to swallow’. The core of this comparison was first recognized in print by Verheijen (1967-70).


*teleŋ sink, disappear under water


PWMP     *teleŋ sink, disappear under water     [doublet: *telem]

Melanau (Mukah) pe-teleŋdiving in the water for pleasure, or when bathing
Buginese telleŋsink, submerge
Makasarese tallaŋsink, sink away


*teli female genitalia


PMP     *teli female genitalia     [doublet: *tila, *tilay]

Kiput sə-təlayvagina
Karo Batak telivagina
Balinese telivulva
Kambera talipars pudenda mulieris (also used of animals)
Niue tolea woman's private parts
Samoan toleclitoris
Maori torepudenda muliebria

Note:   Also Ifugaw tiːli ‘vagina’, Tagalog tilin, Soboyo teli ‘clitoris’.


*telu three


PAN     *telu three

Basai tsuthree
Kavalan turuthree
  kin-turuthree (people)
  u-turuthree (things)
Saisiyat toloʔthree
Seediq təruʔthree
Pazeh turuthree
Amis tolothree
Thao turuthree
  kun-turu-zdo something three times
  lhin-turu-z-injdivide something into three parts
  lhun-turu-zdo something three times
  mu-turu-zthree times
Bunun tauthree
Tsou turuthree
Kanakanabu u-túluthree
Saaroa u-tuluthree
Rukai (Maga) túruthree
Rukai (Mantauran) toɭothree
Proto-Rukai *toɭothree
Puyuma teɭuthree
  mi-ta-teɭuthree (people) together
Paiwan tjeluthree
  ma-ka-tjelu-lʸthree (times, days, occasions)
Yami ipi-tlothird time, three times
Itbayaten a-tlothree
  ka-ka-tloa third part, one-third
Ilokano tallóthree
Ibanag telluthree
Agta (Dupaningan) tallóthree
Isneg tallóthree
Itawis tálluthree
Bontok tulúthree, to be three
Kankanaey tulóthree
Ifugaw tulúthree, third, thrice
Ifugaw (Batad) tuluthe number three
Yogad telluthree
Gaddang telluthree
Casiguran Dumagat ə-təluthree
Ibaloy tedothree --- the cardinal number; three stars that appear together in a line; the group is said to reach its zenith at dawn during harvest time (August); could be the three bright summer stars, Vega, Deneb, and Altair
Pangasinan talóthree
Kapampangan atlúthree
Bikol tulóthree
Hanunóo túluthree, a cardinal number
Masbatenyo tulóthree
Waray-Waray tulóthree
Cebuano tulúnumeral three
Maranao telothree
Binukid tulúthree
Mansaka torothree
Tiruray telewthree
Mapun talluthree
Yakan telluthree
Tboli tlucardinal number 3
Tausug three
Kadazan Dusun tohuthree
Tombonuwo toluthree
Murut (Timugon) taluthree
Ida'an Begak təlluthree
Bisaya (Limbang) taluthree
Lun Dayeh təluhthree
  tə-təluhin groups of three
Kelabit təluhthree; we (trial, incl.)
Sa'ban lawthree
Berawan (Long Terawan) təlohthree
Narum təlawthree
Miri təlauh ~ təlohthree
Kenyah teluthree
Kayan teloʔthree; we (paucal, incl.)
Kayan (Uma Juman) teluʔthree; we (trial, incl.)
Kiput təlawthree
Bintulu tələwthree
Melanau (Mukah) tələwthree; we (plural, incl.)
Melanau (Sarikei) təlawthree; we (paucal, incl.)
Tunjung təluthree
Siang toluthree
Dohoi toluʔthree
Ba'amang teluʔthree
Lawangan toluʔthree
Paku toluthree
Taboyan toluʔthree
Dusun Deyah toluthree
Ma'anyan telothree
Malagasy télothree
Samihim telothree
Iban teluadd or twist strands into a rope, splice
Jarai kləwthree
Rhade tləwthree
Malay teluthree; triple (in certain expressions only, as tiga is the ordinary word for ‘three’)
  susun teluin a triple row or layer
  buah keras telua hard fruit with three pips
Malay (Jakarta) min-telurelative in the third degree, third cousin
Acehnese lheəthree
  bintaŋ lheəthe three brightly shining stars in the middle of Orion
Simalur təlu ~ təlothree (in some combinations, and in women’s speech)
  təlu fəŋiin three days/the day after tomorrow
Karo Batak teluthree
Dairi-Pakpak Batak teluthree
Toba Batak toluthree
  pa-tolu-nathe day after tomorrow
  sa-par-tolua third
  si-paha-toluthe third month
Nias tõluthree
Mentawai teluthree
Enggano ʔa-koru ~ ʔa-koduthree
  ʔa-koru-paraparents with one child
Lampung teluthree
Old Javanese təluthree
Javanese teluthree
Madurese telloʔthree
Balinese teluthree
Sasak təluthree
  sən-təluʔwind in the third strand (in making rope)
Sangir təlluthree
Tondano təluthree
Tontemboan təluthree
Mongondow toluthree
  toluʔthree (only in serial counting)
Balantak toluthree
Banggai toluthree
  siŋgo-tolu-konthree by three, three each
Uma toluthree
Bare'e touthree
Tae' talluthree
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *toluthree (bound numeral)
  *o-toluthree (independent numeral)
Mandar talluthree
Buginese telluthree
Makasarese talluthree
Wolio taluthree
Muna toluthree (form used in counting and prefixed to nouns)
  to-toluthree, be three
Palauan e-deythree
Chamorro tuluthree
Bimanese toluthree
Komodo teluthree
Manggarai teluthree
Rembong teluthree
Ngadha teluthree
Sika teluthree
Lamaholot təlothree
Solorese telothree
Kédang teluthree
Kambera tílu ~ tailuthree
Hawu teluthree
Rotinese teluthree
  telu huluthirty
Atoni tenuthree
Tetun toluthree
Kisar wo-keluthree
Leti wo-teluthree
Wetan wo-telithree
Selaru ena-télthree
Yamdena télthree
  na-ŋ-télithe third
Kamarian teruthree
Alune teluthree
Asilulu teluthree
Larike tiduthree
Buruese telothree
  ka-telo-ra constellation of three stars
Soboyo toluthree
Kowiai/Koiwai torthree


PEMP     *tolu three

Buli tolthree
Irarutu torthree
Dusner toruthree
Wandamen toruthree
Ron korthree
Numfor kiorthree
Munggui bo-toruthree
Serui-Laut bo-toruthree
Lou teli-pthree
Penchal tulu-pthree
Loniu ma-colo-hthree
Nali ma-royo-hthree
Ere tula-hthree
Leipon ma-culo-hthree
Kuruti tolo-hthree
Sori taro-pthree
Lindrou talo-hthree
Bipi talo-hthree
Seimat tolu-huthree
Wuvulu oluthree
Mussau toluthree
Tigak po-tulthree
Mendak e-runthree
  even tunthree (in answer to question)
Tanga k’-tulthree
Tolai u-tulthree
Bali (Uneapa) te-toluthree
Vitu toluthree; we (pl. incl.)
Amara telthree
Lusi toluthree
Lakalai -toluthree
Kairiru tuolthree
Wogeo tolthree
Manam tolithree
Gedaged tolthree
Takia u-tolthree
Mbula telthree
  pa telthree times
  tel-tel-ŋathree by three, in threes
Motu toithree
Molima toithree
Babatana tuluthree
Bugotu toluthree
  va-tolu-ithird, third time
  vi-toluthe third day, back or forward, not counting today
Nggela toluthree
  na tolu-nathe third
Kwaio oluthree
Lau oluthree
  olu-na ~ ou-nathird
Toqabaqita uluthree
'Āre'āre oruthree
Sa'a oluthree
  olu-nethird, third time
Arosi oruthree
Proto-Micronesian *teluthree
Gilbertese tenu-athree
Kosraean tol(u)three
Marshallese jiluthree
Pohnpeian sili- ~ silūthree
Mokilese jili-three
Chuukese éénthe number three [used in serial counting or to name the number in the abstract, but not used as a numerical adjective]
Puluwat yéélthree (sequential)
  yeluuqthree (general)
Woleaian seli- ~ yelithree
Mota ni-tol(u)three
Merlav i-tolthree
Mafea toluthree
Tangoa mo-toluthree
Araki roluthree
Raga toluthree
Atchin e-tulthree
Malfaxal i-tulthree
Paamese e-telthree
Makatea toruthree
Mele-Fila toruthree
  taa-touwe, plural inclusive
Rotuman foluthree
Wayan tolube three, three
  a-tolube three each
  viā-tolube every third one
Fijian toluthree
  yā-toluthree each
Tongan toluthree
  kita-u-tolufirst person plural inclusive
Niue toluthree, third
Futunan toluthree
  tā-toufirst person plural inclusive postposed personal pronoun
Samoan toluthree
  tā-toufirst person plural inclusive conjunct verbal pronoun (pre-basic and post-basic); we (you and we, speaking of three or more people); first person plural inclusive disjunct verbal pronoun first person inclusive nominal pronoun
Tuvaluan toluthree
  o-touyour (plural possessor)
Kapingamarangi doluthree
Nukuoro doluthree
  oo-douyour [3] several
Rennellese toguthree, third, three times; to be three in number, third, three times
  kita-touwe, us (plural, inclusive)
Anuta toruthree
  ta-tou ~ taa-toufirst person plural inclusive personal and possessive pronoun; we, us; our, ours
Rarotongan totunumeral three
  ta-toufirst person plural inclusive pronoun
Maori toruthree, third
  tā-toufirst person plural inclusive pronoun
  te toruthe third month
Hawaiian koluthree
  -kouindicator of plurality in the plural pronouns and possessives only
  kā-kouwe (plural, inclusive)


PMP     *telu-ŋa-puluq thirty

Ilokano tallo púlothirty
Kelabit təluh ŋəh puluʔthirty
Tondano təlu ŋa puluʔthirty
Muna tolu fuluthirty


POC     *tolu-ŋa-puluq thirty

Lamaholot pulu təlothirty
Tanga k’-tul-‘n-samfulthirty
Motu toi-a-huithirty
Roviana tolo-ŋa-vuluthirty
Rotuman fol-aŋ-huluthirty
Fijian tolu-sa-ŋa-vuluthirty
Tongan tolu-ŋo-fuluthirty
Niue tolu-ŋo-fuluthirty
Samoan tolu-ŋa-fuluthirty
Tuvaluan tolu-ŋa-fuluthirty


PMP     *i-telu (gloss uncertain)

Tontemboan i-teluwhat is concerned with bringing the total to three
Muna i-toluthree days; commemoration on the third day after someone’s death
Fordata i-teluthree


PWMP     *in-telu three times

Kadazan Dusun in-tohuthree times
Tombonuwo in-toluthree times
Murut (Timugon) in-taluthree times
Malagasy in-teluthree times
Mongondow in-toluthe third


PAN     *ka-telu (gloss uncertain)

Kavalan q-turuthree (of days, months)


PMP     *ka-teluₐ all three, three together, three in total

Yami ka-tlothree in total
Bontok ka-tluto divide into three or thirds
Ibaloy ka-tdothird day of aremag/siling funeral celebration
Romblomanon ka-ta-tlúthree times
Cebuano ka-tulúthree times
Yakan ka-talluall three that one has (of anything)
Old Javanese ka-təluthree (all together)
Javanese ka-teluthree times; times three; (for) the third time; third in a series
Madurese ma-telloʔadd up to three, total three
Mongondow ko-toluthree times
Banggai ko tolu-nothe third


POC     *ka-tolu (gloss uncertain)

Ngwatua ka-toluthree
Sesake ke-tulthree
Pango ka-tulthree


PWMP     *ma-nelu twist together rope out of three strands

Ifugaw (Batad) ma-nuluto be able to produce three things in a specified period of time, as for stone walling to produce three pesos a day in earnings, or for a man to be a three basket per week weaver
Toba Batak ma-nolutwist together rope out of three strands
Javanese neluto form a group of three; to hold a ceremonial feast for a woman in the third month of pregnancy
Sangir ma-nəllutwist a third strand into a rope that already has two
Tontemboan mə-nəlu-nəlufor only three to remain, for three still to remain


PAN     *ma-telu (gloss uncertain)

Paiwan ma-tjeluthree persons
Ifugaw (Batad) ma-tuluto be three units of measure, of length, quantity, size, time, value, weight
Madurese ma-telloʔsplit into three parts
Tontemboan ma-təluof a third woman, to join two others in pounding rice


POC     *ma-tolu (gloss uncertain)

Nukuoro ma-toluthirty


PWMP     *maka-telu (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog maká-tatlóthrice, three times
Bikol maka-tulóto have three
Cebuano maka-tulúthree times
Balinese maka-talu-na period of three days
Makasarese maka-talluthird
  maka-tallu-nathe third


PWMP     *maR-telu to divide into three parts

Bikol mag-tuloto divide into three
Tausug mag-tudivide into three equal parts
Malagasy mi-téloto divide into three


PMP     *pa-telu (gloss uncertain)

Yakan pa-telluto make something three (as in dividing cookies into three batches)
Tontemboan pa-təlu-təlu-nput three in each pile
Fordata fa-teluthree times


POC     *pa-tolu (gloss uncertain)

Bugotu va-tolu-ithird, third time
Mota va-toliuthird


PMP     *paka-telu to triple, multiply by three

Malagasy faha-telothe third; three fathoms; an enemy
Dairi-Pakpak Batak peke-teluname of the third month
Palauan ok-e-deythirty
Chamorro faha-tothree times


POC     *paka-tolu to triple, multiply by three

Arosi haʔa-oruthree times
Gilbertese ka-tenu-ato triple
Wayan vaka-tolube three times, thrice
Fijian vaka-toluthree times
Samoan faʔa-toluthree times
Rennellese haka-toguto do three times, third; 15th night of the moon; to be this night


PWMP     *paR-telu-en (gloss uncertain)

Bikol pag-tulo-onto divide into three; to send three at a time; to go three at a time
Madurese par-tello-na path that branches three ways


PWMP     *pin-telu three times

Bontok pin-ta<l>lúthree, play counting
Kankanaey pin-tulóthree, one of the numbers used by children
Ibaloy pin-tedothree times, thrice
  ka-pin-tedothe third time
Makasarese pin-tallu(-ŋ)three times


PAN     *Sika-telu third

Kavalan siqa-turuthree times
Paiwan si-ka-tjeluthird
  nu-si-ka-tjeluday after tomorrow
  ta-si-ka-tjeluday before yesterday


PMP     *ika-telu third

Yami ika-tlothird
Itbayaten icha-tlothird
Tagalog ika-tlóthird
Bikol ika-tulóthird
Romblomanon íka-tluthird (action, person, situation, thing, time, unit of measurement)
Masbatenyo ika-tulóthird
Hiligaynon iká-tluthird
Cebuano ika-tulúthird
Binukid ika-tulúthird
Tboli ge-tluthird
Kadazan Dusun ko-tohu(the) third
Tombonuwo ko-toluthird
Murut (Timugon) ka-taluthird, the third
Sasak kə-təluthe third
Tontemboan ka-təluthird, the third
Rotinese ka-telu-kthe third
Soboyo ka-toluthe third


POC     *ika-tolu third

Wayan ikā-toluthird
Fijian i katoluthe third


PAN     *ta-telu three (of humans)

Amis ta-tolothree, of humans
Thao ta-turuthree, of humans
Yami ta-tlothree (people)
Itbayaten ta-tlothree
Ibaloy ta-tdothree (especially in counting people)
Sambal (Botolan) ta-tlothree
Tagalog tatlóthree
Romblomanon ta-tluthree (actions, people, pieces of something, situations, things, times, units of measurement
Aklanon tátlothree
  tátlo(h)to raise or lower to three, make three
Hiligaynon tátluthree
Manobo (Ata) ta-toluthree
Binukid ta-tulúthree; to be in threes, to do, make three (of something)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) te-teluthree
Manobo (Tigwa) ta-tɨluthree
Balinese ta-telutriad, three
Sangir ta-təllu bauʔthree pieces (of round things)


POC     *ta-tolu three (of people)

Motu ta-toithree (of people)


PPh     *ka-telu-an (gloss uncertain)

Itbayaten ka-tlw-anthird month
Ifugaw ka-tluw-ánadd a third one
Bikol ka-tulu-anthirds
Hiligaynon ka-ta-tlu-anthirty
Cebuano ka-tlu-anthirty
Malagasy ha-telo-anathree days
Sangir ka-təllu-aŋOrion’s belt
Tontemboan ka-təlu-anthe three stars in Orion’s belt
Mongondow ko-tolu-anOrion’s belt


PWMP     *ka-telu-en (gloss uncertain)

Murut (Timugon) ka-talu-onsomething that is tallied or totaled as amounting to three
Karo Batak ke-telū-nthe day after the day after tomorrow, three days hence
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ke-telu-nthe period of the third planting of rice, at which time yam plantings are seen here and there


PPh     *t<in>elu made of three parts, as triple-strand rope

Ilokano t<in>allótwilled work of three warp crossings
Tagalog t<in>a-tlótripartite, divided into three parts
Cebuano t<in>ulúinto three, in threes
  t<in>ulu-tulúkind of rope made of three strands
Tontemboan t<in>əlubrought up to three
Mongondow lubid s<in>olucord or twine made of three strands


PPh     *t<um>elu (gloss uncertain)

Ifugaw (Batad) t<um>ulufor something to become three, especially through natural processes such as reproduction
Tontemboan t<um>əluof a third woman, to join two others in pounding rice


PWMP     *telu-an to join with to make three

Bontok tulu-wanto make three; to join with (two others); a third one
Tagalog ta-tlú-hanin groups of three; in threes
Masbatenyo tulúh-ansuitable for three (refers to something which is adequate for three portions, usually used in terms of food)
Tontemboan təlu-anname of a small river that is formed by the confluence of the Rano Pengkor, Rano Sue, and Winaluian rivers


PWMP     *telu-en be divided into three (?)

Ilokano tallu-ento do three times
Bontok tulu-wənto divide into three or thirds; one third
Ifugaw tulu-wónto give (make, lay, etc.) three of the same kind (value, size, etc.)
Tagalog ta-tlu-hínto triple; to make or become three times as much
Malagasy telo-ina ~ telo-vinato be divided into three
Gayō tulu-nthird day hence
Mongondow tolu-onmake with three strands (of cord)


PPh     *telu-gan three (in children’s games)

Bontok tulú-ganthree, play counting
Kankanaey tuló-ganthree, one of the numbers used by children
Hanunóo tulu-kánthree, used only in a children’s counting game


PMP     *telu-telu three each, three by three

Ilokano talló-tallóa kind of vine with trifoliate leaves
  tal-tallóonly three
Bontok tullu-tulluto be in units of three (as when dividing meat into portions)
Ifugaw tulu-tulualways three; three by three
  tullu-tullufor people to be three at a time in a particular state doing something, of one group repeating an action, or two or more groups acting successively
Bikol tuló-túlo~ tu-tulóonly three
  mag-tuló-túloto divide into three; to send three at a time
Murut (Timugon) talu-taluthe three of them, all three
Malagasy tsi-telo-telothree by three
Nias tõlu-tõluthree each, three by three
Javanese telu-teluby threes
Balinese ta-telu-ta-teluin threes, three at a time
Tontemboan təlu-təluby threes, in groups of three
Makasarese tallu-talluall three; only three; three, in games of cards and dice
Rotinese telu-teluthree at a time, three by three
Yamdena té-télthree by three, three at a time


POC     *tolu-tolu three each, three by three

Wayan tolu-tolugroup of threes, in threes, as a threesome, all three
Fijian tolu-toluall three
Maori toru-torufew

Note:   Also Bintulu ləw, Sundanese tilu ‘three’, ka-tilu ‘third’. Although this basic reference of this term was to the numeral ‘three’, several languages also point to the use of an affixed form in PWMP that cannot yet be reconstructed meaning ‘to twist three strands together in making rope’, and others include a reflex of *telu in the name for Orion’s belt. Moreover, since *telu-gan is not likely a product of chance or borrowing, it appears necessary to infer that there were special numeral forms used in children’s counting games, at least in Proto-Philippines (the suffix in Hanunóo does not correspond perfectly to the similar form in Cordilleran languages, but seems clearly to indicate a historical relationship). Finally, for unknown reasons many Oceanic languages show the wrong penultimate vowel in this form, sometimes reflecting *a, *e, or *u.


*tempak split, break off


PMP     *tempak split, break off

Bontok təmpáksplit a section off, of wood or stone, as in order to lighten a load
Manggarai tempakbreaking easily, brittle, friable

Note:   With root *-pak₂ ‘split, crack, break’.


*temu all around, surrounding


PMP     *temu all around, surrounding

Maranao temojoin, encircle (as in battle)
Makasarese tammuall around, surrounded
Manggarai temucomplete, entire, all around

Note:   Part of this comparison was first noted in print by Verheijen (1967-70).


*temud mumble, grumble


PWMP     *temud mumble, grumble

Maranao temodmumble, grumble
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) temud-mudmurmur or grumble to oneself about something
Bahasa Indonesia temut-temutmumble

Note:   Also Hiligaynon kúmud ‘grumble, murmur, sulk’.


*tendan wages, salary


PWMP     *tendan wages, salary

Maranao tendanreward, bribe, hire, salary
Melanau (Mukah) tidanpayment for a service, or for work done
Mongondow tondanwages
Gorontalo tonelobride price

Note:   Also Isneg taŋdān ‘wages, salary, fee’, Hanunóo táŋdan ‘direct payment of beads to a seer ... for his services’, Sangir tendéŋ ‘payment for work, especially to smiths’. The Isneg and Hanunóo forms suggest an etymon *taŋ(e)dan, but the first syllable vowel is difficult to reconcile with that in the other forms. Melanau (Mukah) tidan is assumed to be an i-ablaut form of an unrecorded base **tedan.


*tenun to weave (cloth, baskets)


PAN     *tenun to weave (cloth, baskets)     [doublet: *tinun]

Kavalan pi-t<um>nun-anloom
  t<um>nunto weave (cloth, a mat)
Thao tnunweaving (abstract stem)
Puyuma tənunweave
Paiwan tjenunto weave
  tja-tjenun-enthreads already placed on the loom
Kenyah tenunwoven
Kayan tənunwoven cloth in general; cloth woven by hand
Malagasy ténonathe warp and the weft; weaving
  ma-nénonato weave
Iban tenunweaving
  nenunto weave
Malay tenunweaving; the art or process of making cloth from cotton, silk or fiber
  me-nenunto weave
  tenun-anmethod or style or product of weaving
Acehnese teuneunto drive in the weft (in weaving)
Gayō tenunweaving
  be-tenunto weave
Toba Batak tonunweaving
  ma-nonunto weave something
Minangkabau tanunweaving
Old Javanese a-nenunto weave, intertwine
Javanese nenunto weave
  pa-nenun-anweaving loom
  pa-tenun-anplace (especially factory) where weaving is done
  tenun-anfabric, woven material
Balinese tenunweave
  nenunto weave
Tialo tonunto weave cloth
Lauje tonuŋto weave cloth
Tajio tonuŋto weave cloth
Tae' tannunto weave; threads for weaving
  tannun-anweave for someone
Makasarese tannuŋloom; threads for weaving
Wolio tanuto weave
  i-tanufabric, textile
Komodo tenuŋto weave, to plait
Manggarai tenuŋto weave
Ngadha tenuto weave
  ŋani tenuloom
  tenu atéto think, consider, reflect on
Kambera tínuŋuto weave
Leti tennuto weave
Wetan tennito weave

Note:   Also Wetan tienni ‘to weave’.


PAN     *ta-tenun-an loom

Thao ta-tnun-anback loom
Puyuma ta-tənun-anframe of the weaving loom


PAN     *t<in>enun was woven by someone; what was woven

Kavalan t<in>nunhave woven
Thao t<i>nunwas woven; what was woven, weave
Old Javanese t<in>ənunto weave, intertwine


PAN     *t<um>enun to weave

Saisiyat t<om>nonto weave (cloth, mat)
Favorlang/Babuza t<um>enonto weave
Thao t<u>nunto weave (usually cloth)
Puyuma t<əm>ənunto weave
Paiwan tj<m>enunto weave (cloth)
Tae' t<um>annunto weave

Note:   Also Pazeh tuʔun ‘to weave (cloth); to weave (a mat)’, saa-tuʔun ‘weaving instruments in general’, ta-tuʔun-an ‘a weaving machine’, Tialo toun ‘to weave cloth’.


PAN     *tenun-an loom

Paiwan tjenun-anloom
Malay (Sumatra) tenun-anloom
Javanese tenun-anloom
Makasarese tannuŋ-aŋwhat one has set up to weave with; kind of indicator for counting the quantity of threads


PAN     *t<in>enun-an woven cloth

Kavalan t<in>nun-annative cloth
Puyuma t<in>ənun-anwoven material


PAN     *tenun-en to be woven by someone

Thao tnun-inbe woven
Malagasy tenom-inato be woven

Note:   Malagasy tenom-ina may be a hypercorrection, since *-m > -n, but the alveolar nasal then alternates with its labial source before a suffix.

Note:   Also Bare'e tanu ‘to weave (< Buginese; only known by the Muslim population in the coastal regions’), Manggarai tenu ‘to weave’, Rotinese tenu ‘to weave’, te-tenu-k ‘weaving, the practice of weaving; loom’, Kisar kenna ‘to weave’.

Along with PAn *baRija, PMP *balija ‘batten of the loom’ this comparison provides solid evidence that the simple backstrap loom was used during the initial Neolithic settlement of Taiwan by speakers of Proto-Austronesian. The use of bark cloth evidently existed side-by-side with loom weaving of textiles, and when loom weaving was lost in some areas, as in interior Sulawesi, and much of the Pacific, bark cloth became the sole material used for clothing.

Weaving among Oceanic-speaking peoples is confined to a few villages on the north coast of New Guinea, the Caroline islands of Micronesia, and the Banks and Torres Islands of northern Vanuatu. Since cognate linguistic forms have not been found it is unclear whether this tradition represents a continuation of the practice from PAn, or is an independent invention after it had first been lost.


*tenzek upright, erect


PMP     *tenzeg, te(n)dek upright, erect

Ilokano teddékpost, pillar
  teddékpost, pillar, column, shaft; headman, chief
Tagalog tírikbuild, erect, construct, put upright
  tiríkstraight upward
Ngaju Dayak tenjekupright, erect
Proto-Minahasan *təndəkpost, stake; to stick (post) in ground
Manggarai tendekstand upright (as bamboo spikes)
  tedek, tendekstand upright
Ngadha tedéfence, bulwark

Note:   Possibly with a variant of the root *-zeg ‘stand erect’.


*teñeb submerge


PAN     *teñeb submerge

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) tenepsubmerge
Ilokano tánebsubmerge partly, immerse in part

Note:   With root *-ñeb ‘dive, submerge’.


*teñej sink, set (sun)


PMP     *teñej sink, set (sun)

Cebuano túnudconvey below the surface of the water or into a pit; for the sun to set
Rotinese tenasink, set (of the sun)

Note:   With root *-ñej ‘submerge, sink, drown’.


*teŋ buzz, hum


PMP     *teŋ buzz, hum

Maranao teŋringing in ear
Karo Batak teŋ(onom.) flang!
Javanese ṭeŋpurr, hum, buzz
Manggarai teŋbuzzing or ringing in the ear

Note:   Also Paiwan teŋ ‘moan (as person), whine (as dog)’.


*teŋeR kind of mangrove, Ceriops spp., with bark used for dyeing


PMP     *teŋeR kind of mangrove, Ceriops spp., with bark used for dyeing

Aklanon tuŋógtree with bark used as food coloring
Cebuano tuŋúgkind of mangrove, the bark of which is used for dyeing and as an ingredient of coconut palm toddy; bark of this mangrove
Binukid teŋegkind of tree, the bark of which is used as an ingredient of toddy (to make it red)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teŋega certain tree and its bark, probably Ceriops Roxburghiana. The bark is mixed with palm wine, giving the wine a reddish color
Iban teŋarmangrove, Ceriops, esp. C. tagal and other species yielding dark tannin, used locally
Malay teŋara low tree, Ceriops candolleana, found in mangrove swamps; its bark is used for tanning
Palauan déŋesoriental mangrove: Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam.
Mussau toŋomangrove sp. with edible fruit
Gedaged toŋmangrove tree: Rhizophora mucronata
Gitua toŋormangrove: Bruguiera sp.
Nggela toŋoa mangrove
Arosi oŋomangrove
Gilbertese toŋomangrove
Rotuman foŋomangrove
Fijian doŋothe mangrove: Bruguiera gymnorhiza; the long roots or branches are good for firewood; the bark is used for a tanning dye (brown)
Tongan toŋomangrove; native hair-dye (originally made from the bark of the mangrove; to dye the hair
Niue toŋoa legendary tree (said to be the mangrove, one of which is supposed to have formerly existed in a chasm near the Hakupu coast)
Samoan toŋogeneral name given to the mangroves, which include a large shrub (Rhizophora sp.) and a tree (Bruguiera sp.)
Tuvaluan toŋomangrove: Rhizophora mucronata
Rennellese toŋomangrove, Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lamk.; its wood is used for fuel and posts; its seeds are eaten at the Lake with fish soup

Note:   Also Kadazan Dusun toŋo ‘mangrove’, ka-taŋa-an ‘mangrove swamp’, Simalur teŋəl ‘mangrove’, Makasarese taŋŋereʔ ‘a tree: Ceriops candolleana; it yields good timber, and its bark is used in tanning and to add a bitter taste to rice wine’, Nukuoro doŋa ‘oriental mangrove (Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam.)’.


*teŋiC grimace at pain


PAN     *teŋiC grimace at pain

Paiwan (Western) tjeŋitsgrimace at pain
Rejang teŋitan expression of pain on the face; a mouth distorted with pain

Note:   With root *-ŋiC ‘anger, irritation’.


*teŋteŋ drone, droning tone


PAN     *teŋteŋ drone, droning tone

Paiwan tj-em-eŋtjeŋto whisper
Itbayaten teŋteŋ-enstrum, pluck the strings of musical instruments

Note:   With root *-teŋ₁ ‘hum, drone’.


*teŋuq nape of the neck


PMP     *teŋuq nape of the neck

Maranao teŋoʔnape, back of the neck
Melanau (Mukah) təŋuʔneck
Manggarai teŋunape of the neck
Ngadha teŋuneck

Note:   Replaces *[CtT]eŋkuk ‘nape of the neck’ in Blust (1970).


*tepa woven material; mat


PWMP     *tepa woven material; mat

Berawan (Batu Belah) tepamat
Karo Batak tepaforge, mold, make
Sundanese tepawhat is woven

Note:   Also Samal tepo ‘mat’.


*tepak to slap


PMP     *tepak to slap

Malagasy téfakaclapping the hands, applause by clapping of the hands
Banjarese tapakslap, blow with the open hand
  ma-napakto slap
Malay təpakpat, slight slap
Old Javanese təpakblow of the (flat) hand, smack
  a-təpak jajato beat one’s breast
  a-nəpakto hit with the (flat) hand, smack; to hit (stamp) with the foot
  təpak-anto accompany with rhythmic beating (clapping?) of the hands
Javanese tepakfly swatter
Madurese tempakto stamp, kick
Balinese tepakthe flat of the hand or the flank; to hit with the flat of the hand (e.g. a drum)
Sasak təpakstrike with the flat of the hand (as a table top)
Bimanese topato slap
Lamaholot təpakhit with the open hand, slap; clap on the ears


PWMP     *tepak-tepak sound of rhythmic pattering

Casiguran Dumagat təpak-təpakthe sound of feet hitting against the ground; the sound of a person or animal walking or running
Iban tepa-tepakmaking a pattering sound (as rain rattling on the roof)

Note:   Also Kankanaey tépag ‘to knock on, to rap’. Dempwolff included Samoan tofa ‘stick used to spread the stones of an oven when they are hot’, but there appears to be no compelling reason to accept this etymology, as forms in nearly all other languages are clearly onomatopoetic. With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.


*tepeŋ taste, test, try


PMP     *tepeŋ taste, test, try

Tagalog tipíŋsavor at the tip of the tongue
Maranao tepeŋtry, attempt, test, experiment
Buruese tepeto taste
Motu toho-ato try
'Āre'āre oho-naattempt, try (in compounds); sample, taste (of drinks)
Sa'a ohoattempt, make trial of
Arosi oho-ŋaan attempt, try
  oho-ŋitry, test; tempt
Wayan vaka-tovo-tovodo an experiment or test
Samoan tofotest, sample, experiment; (of a dish) taste
Hawaiian kohoguess, election, choice; choose, select


*tepes squeeze, press down


PWMP     *tepes squeeze, press down

Maranao tepespress down between the lips, suck
Malay tepasfull up
  me-nepasto pack full
Balinese tepessqueeze, press, pinch


*tepiR mat


PMP     *tepiR mat

Sasak tipah, tiper <Mmat
Proto-Sangiric *təpiRmat
Proto-Minahasan *təpehmat
Bimanese dipimat

Note:   Also Makasarese tappereʔ ‘mat’. Bimanese dipi was earlier assigned to (2) *depen ‘mat’ (Blust 1980), a reconstruction which now appears to have been proposed in error. If the Sangiric and Minahasan languages form a larger subgroup, as Sneddon (1984:11-12) tentatively suggests, the order of reconstructed vowels in *tepiR is arbitrary on present evidence.


*teptep firefly


PMP     *teptep firefly

Tagalog ali-taptápfirefly
Aklanon ali-táptapglowworm, founds on rocks at high tide


POC     *totop firefly

Tanga kel-totfirefly
Takia lu-totfirefly
Nduke alal-totovoluminous flying insect; its light flashes on-off
Rennellese ʔagi-tofirefly, seen inland, a rare phenomenon; believed to be the embodiment of the goddess Sikingimoemoe, and might not be killed

Note:   The Oceanic members of this comparison were supplied by Osmond (2011a:399).


*tepuk hit, sound of hitting, clapping, thumping


PAN     *tepuk hit, sound of hitting, clapping, thumping

Puyuma təpukto hit
Malagasy téfokaexplosion
Karo Batak tepukclap the hands (as in a dance or game)
Manggarai tempokto break (young shoots, etc.)
  tempukto break (tubers)

Note:   With root *-puk₁ ‘throb, thud, clap, break’.


*tepuq brittle


PWMP     *tepuq brittle

Bikol tapóʔbrittle (as dry twigs)
Bare'e topubrittle, easily broken off

Note:   With root *-puq ‘brittle’.


*te(m)pus end, conclude, finish


PMP     *te(m)pus end, conclude, finish

Dairi-Pakpak Batak tempusconclusion, end, as of a conversation or discussion
Balinese teposbreak off, interrupt, end in
Arosi ohucomplete, finished; completely

Note:   With root *-pus₁ ‘end, finish’.


*teras quick, fast


PWMP     *teras quick, fast

Maranao terasmove quickly from one place to another
Sundanese terasbe done with haste

Note:   Also Buruese tara ‘swift, rapid (as the flow of a stream)’.


*teriŋ bamboo sp.


PMP     *teriŋ bamboo sp.     [doublet: *periŋ, *tariŋ]

Maranao teriŋBambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex Wendl.
Mongondow toliŋbamboo sp.
Rotinese teli(k)large, rude sort of bamboo, used for bow and arrow

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon), Tiruray keriŋBambusa vulgaris’.


*terter shiver, tremble


PAN     *terter shiver, tremble     [doublet: *tirtir₁]