Updated: 3/29/2014
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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets


te        ti    to    tu    


*ta negative marker: no, not


PCMP     *ta negative marker: no, not

Rotinese ta(k)not present, not exist; no, not
Kemak ta-ino, not
Leti tanot exist; no, not
Erai tanot
Kisar kanot (existential negation)
  kaanot (nominal negation)
  ka-ununot yet
Wetan ta(a)not
  (a)ta…ammanot at all, there is nothing but
Elat tano, not
Geser te-ino, not
Watubela te-ino, not
Paulohi ta ~ ta-mano, not
Asilulu tanot, esp. in fast speech or as an emphatic sentence-final particle
Sekar -tano, not


*taba reward, pay


POC     *taba reward, pay

Manam taba-ito reward; sacrifice
Bugotu tabato pay; wages; reward; price
Nggela tambato hire, pay wages; wages, pay; a reward, prize in a race

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*tambak hit, pound on


PMP     *tambak hit, pound on

Proto-South Sulawesi *tamba(k)hit, pound
Hawu dababeat on with both hands

Note:   With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’.


*tamban a fish: sardine spp.


PWMP     *tamban a fish: sardine spp.

Ilokano tambánkind of sardine
Hanunóo támbandark-colored fish about 15 cm. long
Cebuano tambanname given to sardines of several species
Maranao tambanminnow, anchovy
Malay ikan tambansardine; generic for various Clupeidae
Sundanese tambanmarine fish sp.
Balinese tambankind of small sea fish
Sasak tambana sea fish, apparently the sardine


*tabaN head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?)


PAN     *tabaN head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?)

Kavalan tabanhead trophy
Amis tafada disembodied head gotten in headhunting or war


PMP     *taban booty, war captive; what is taken in war; elopement, captured bride

Tagalog t<um>ábanto hold onto; to hold something to keep it or oneself from falling
Agutaynen mag-taban-anto elope
Aklanon tábansnatch with one’s jaws (like a dog stealing food)
Mansaka tabanto plunder
Maranao tabanwin, winnings; beat
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tavanspoils of war, loot
Tiruray tabanthe spoils or winnings; to win in fighting or betting
Lun Dayeh tabana kidnapping, an abduction
  nabanto kidnap, abduct, take or carry away without the owner’s permission
Kelabit (Bario) tabanrunning away with someone or something, kidnapping, elopement
Melanau (Mukah) tabanto seize, grasp, hold
  pə-tabanhold onto something
Ngaju Dayak tawanbe captured
  tawan-anwhat is captured (prisoners in war, a crocodile, a snake)
Malagasy (Provincial) tavanaprisoners of war
Iban tabancarry off, carry along, i.e. without leave (and so liable to fine), but with no intention of theft, and not by force; abscond or elope with, i.e. without consent of parents or tuai rumah (head of longhouse)
Malay tawantaking captive
Acehnese tawantake captive, make a war captive, take as booty
Karo Batak er-tabancapture something or someone, make someone a war captive
Toba Batak tabanbooty
  par-tabanone who captures or plunders, plunderer
  tar-tabanbe captured, be taken captive
Dairi-Pakpak Batak tabanwhat is plundered, looted or taken captive
Old Javanese tawanwhat is carried off, booty, a captive
Sasak tabanbooty; to loot, take as booty
  taban sesatothe confiscation of another person’s cattle that have strayed into one’s fields and caused damage
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tawaNto capture


PWMP     *ma-naban to carry off, kidnap, loot a place

Agutaynen ma-nabanto elope
Kelabit (Bario) nabanrun away with, kidnap, elope
Ngaju Dayak ma-nawanto catch, capture
Malay me-nawanto conquer, subdue, lead into captivity
Balinese nabancatch and keep an animal that has strayed onto your land until it is redeemed by its owner
  ta-taban-anan animal so retained


PWMP     *maR-taban to carry off, kidnap, loot a place

Tagalog mag-tábanhold onto something with one’s hand or hands
Bikol mag-tábankidnap or abduct a woman; carry a woman off
Agutaynen mag-tabanto carry away wrongfully or forcefully; snatch or grab by the mouth, as an animal stealing food
Hiligaynon mag-tábanrun away with, take away, elope
Cebuano mag-tábanto elope
Tausug mag-tabanto capture property, loot, plunder; (usually for many people) to strive to get a share of something
Toba Batak mar-tabanto capture; plunder
Dairi-Pakpak Batak mer-tabanfall into the hands of someone through plunder; capture someone from his village in a raid


PWMP     *t<in>aban be carried off, as loot or a captive in war; what is carried off

Agutaynen t<in>abanbe snatched or carried away wrongfully (as a fish by a hungry cat)
Tiruray t<en>aban-anone who is defeated
Old Javanese t<in>awanto carry off as captive or booty, to loot


PWMP     *taban-an (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog tabán-anto hold onto; to hold something to keep it or oneself from falling
Javanese tawan-anan enemy captive, prisoner of war
Sasak taban-ancattle confiscated from another person as compensation for damage caused by them wandering into one’s fields


PWMP     *taban-en be kidnapped or abducted

Bikol tabán-onbe kidnapped or abducted
Hiligaynon tabán-onbe carried off, taken away, as in elopement
Lun Dayeh teban-enwill be taken away without the owner’s permission
Kelabit (Bario) teban-enbe kidnapped, be carried off
Malay tawan-anprisoner; conquest
Karo Batak taban-enbooty, loot, war captive
Dairi-Pakpak Batak taban-enwar captive

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak taban-an ‘what is captured (prisoners in war, a crocodile, a snake)’. The meaning of PMP *taban seems clearly to have been ‘booty, loot; what is taken by force, as in war, or elopement’. This is consistent with the more specific meaning ‘head trophy’ (trophy taken in headhunting), which is reflected in the two known Formosan reflexes (both members of the East Formosan subgroup), but it is unclear whether the meaning in PAn was as narrowly restricted as this.


*tabaŋ help, assist


PMP     *tabaŋ help, assist

Cebuano tábaŋhelp, give a hand
Maranao tabaŋhelp, contribution, relief, aid, support, cooperate
Proto-Micronesian *tapatapa, *tapaŋ-ihelp, support, aid, benefit


*tabas cut away underbrush


PWMP     *tabas cut away underbrush

Hanunóo tábascutting down, clearing underbrush and small trees as in preparing a kaiŋin
Sasak tabascut, level or smooth, cut off the top

Note:   Also Iban tawas (expected **tabas) ‘cleared, not overgrown’, Minangkabau tabas (expected **tawas) ‘cutting down small plants; in contrast to felling timber teban)’.


*tabe hold tightly or firmly


POC     *tabe hold tightly or firmly

Tolai tabehold something so that someone else will not take it
Arosi abecarry something against the chest, as firewood
Wayan tabehold or carry a burden in the extended arms, esp. resting on both palms extended horizontally in front, as a tray (it is polite to hold a gift in this manner when presenting it)
Fijian tabehold or carry with the hands under
  i-tabea small oval basket without handles
  tabe-tabethe bringing of food in this basket
Tongan tapeshallow basket

Note:   Tongan tape may be a borrowing of Fijian i-tabe.


*ta(m)beŋ block, obstruct


PWMP     *ta(m)beŋ block, obstruct

Tiruray tambeŋstop a small flow of water by setting an impediment
Balinese tambeŋobstruct, block; be obstinate
  tabeŋstopper, cork

Note:   With root *-beŋ₂ ‘block, stop, dam’.


*ta(m)bid attach, fasten


PWMP     *ta(m)bid attach, fasten

Hanunóo támbidhanging, as of a bamboo container from the rafters of a house
Aklanon tabídattach, join
Hiligaynon tabídlink together with a rope or string, attach to
Iban tambitfastening; latch, button


*tambu forbidden, taboo


PCEMP     *tambu forbidden, taboo

Yamdena tamburestrain, prevent, forbid
Fordata tabuforbid, prevent


POC     *tabu forbidden, taboo

Tigak tapholy
Molima tabu-gua food forbidden to me
Tawala tabuforbidden (said to be a Suau loan)
Tubetube tabudon’t
Roviana tabuput a taboo (under certain circumstances) on food; perhaps an introduced term
Eddystone/Mandegusu tabucharm, sacred object; forbidden, taboo
Cheke Holo tabutaboo, prohibited, sacred
Bugotu tabusacred, forbidden, holy; a prohibition placed on use or handling of anything
Nggela tambuset apart; forbidden, taboo; dedicated; sacred, holy; a priest; abominable, hateful, immoral
Lau ābutaboo, holy
Kwaio abusacred, taboo
Toqabaqita abutaboo, not allowed, forbidden
'Āre'āre āpusacred, forbidden, taboo; used also as a prohibitive, dehortative to children
Arosi abudehortatory: don’t; sacred, in a few names of places, etc.
Gilbertese tabuprohibition, interdiction; sacred; forbidden, prohibited (generally used with religious meaning of sacred, consecrated)
  tabu-ato forbid, prohibit, interdict
Marshallese jabwitaboo (archaic)
Woleaian tab(u)taboo, ban, ritual restriction protected by supernatural sanction (marked by a taboo sign); be prohibited by taboo, restricted by taboo
Wayan tabube forbidden, prohibited by strong communal sanction, e.g. of traditional custom, modern law; (of a place or thing) be prohibited from use; prohibition, restriction; holiness, sacredness
Fijian tabuforbidden, prohibited, implying a religious sanction, but now used also for legal prohibition, such as “no admission’; sacred, holy, unapproachable
Tongan tapuprohibited, unlawful
Niue tapusacred, prohibited to common people
  fale tapuchurch
Samoan tapube forbidden
  tapu-ibe under an interdiction or ‘taboo’
Tuvaluan tapuprohibited
Kapingamarangi dabusacred; restricted; taboo
Nukuoro dabuforbidden; awesome
Rennellese taputaboo, forbidden, sacred, hallowed, restricted; sacredness, forbidden or sacred place; to observe taboos, as on the Sabbath
Maori tapuunder religious or superstitious restriction; a condition affecting persons, places, and things, and arising from innumerable causes
  tāpu-imark to indicate claim or right to property
Hawaiian kaputaboo, prohibition


POC     *paka-tabu to forbid, make taboo

Vitu va-tabu-tabu-ato forbid
Cheke Holo fa-tabuto make taboo
Lau fā-ābuconsecrate
Kwaio faʔa-abu-ato taboo, forbid ritually, make sacred
Arosi haʔa-abuforbid
Niue faka-taputo make sacred
Samoan faʔa-tapu-laʔaset a limit to
Rennellese haka-taputo make taboo; to dedicate, as a church
Hawaiian hoʔo-kapumake taboo, prohibit, sanctify, consecrate


POC     *tabu-na taboo

Wuvulu ʔapu-nacommand of prohibition; taboo
Loniu topu-ntaboo
Bipi drapu-ntaboo
Penchal rat rapu-ntaboo
Nauna tapundehortative; don’t
Eddystone/Mandegusu tabu-nashrine, skull-house, sacred or forbidden place; sacred thing
'Āre'āre āpu-nataboo (there are four varieties of taboo, each causing a different sickness)
Bauro apu-nadon’t


POC     *tabu-ni-a be tabooed

Roviana tabu-ni-aput a taboo on food
'Āre'āre āpu-ni-aput a taboo under curse; forbid
Samoan tapu-inabe forbidden by someone


POC     *tapu-tapu strictly forbidden

Kwaio abu-abusacred area beside men’s house where adalo (ancestral spirits) are addressed
Tongan topu-tapusacred, holy
Niue tapu-tapustrictly prohibited
Samoan tapu-tapustrictly forbidden
Rennellese tapu-tapudiminutive of tapu; small sacredness
Maori tapu-tapucharm, incantation
Hawaiian kapu-kapudignity, regal appearance; entitled to respect and reverence, difficult of access because of rank, dignity and station

Note:   Also Numfor-Biak kābus ‘taboo; tree branch or anything else placed on fruit tree or other object by its owner in order to make others afraid to approach the marked object lest ill fortune befall them’, Arosi puna ‘sacred, taboo’, puna apuro ‘a place taboo (puna) to the avenger of blood to which he comes decked in his ornaments; anyone else going there is puna from returning (apuro) alive, and is killed’. Since *t > k is regular the Numfor-Biak word initially appears to support PEMP *tambus, but the long vowel is unexplained, and the final consonant fails to agree with the absence of a final consonant in the Yamdena and Fordata words.

This is one of the key cultural terms in the POc lexicon, designating a type of social control that was enforced by supernatural sanctions. Because of the nature of the sanctions the term itself often came to mean ‘sacred’ or ‘holy’. However, it evidently was also used either alone or in suffixed form as a general dehortative. It is unclear how POc *tabu differed in meaning from POc *pali, which continued PAn *paliSi ‘taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite’.


*tabuD strew, scatter


PWMP     *tabuD strew, scatter     [disjunct: *tabuR]

Malay taburscattering; sowing; diffusion over a surface
Bolaang Mongondow tabudstrew, scatter seed


*tambuluk puffy area around the throat of some birds


PWMP     *tambuluk puffy area around the throat of some birds

Cebuano tambúlukthe hackles of roosters
Malay tembolokcrop (of bird)


*tabuni placenta, afterbirth


PMP     *tabuni placenta, afterbirth

Ngaju Dayak tabuniplacenta, afterbirth
  ma-nabunitake the afterbirth away
Malagasy tavónithe afterbirth, the placenta
Malay tembuniplacenta
Taje (Tanampedagi) tavuniafterbirth


POC     *tapuni placenta, afterbirth

Kwaio afuniplacenta; in pagan childbirth must be buried under mother’s bed in childbirth hut to avoid supernatural danger to her
Arosi ahunito bury, cover, conceal, hide

Note:   Also Mapun tamuni ‘placenta (the placenta should be placed in a hollowed-out coconut shell and then buried by the midwife at a place where a road forks)’, Yakan temuni ‘placenta’, Tausug tamuniŋ ‘placenta; something worthless or of very little value’, Pendau tauni- ‘afterbirth’. The relationship between *tabun ‘to bury’ and *tabuni ‘placenta, afterbirth’ remains unclear’. Over much of the Austronesian world the placenta is/was regarded as the younger sibling of the newborn child, and was buried after the birth, hence the possibility that *tabuni may derive from *tabun-i 'to bury (something)'. This possibility is somewhat strengthened by the recognition that in many languages the name for the placenta is a descriptive term, as with Bontok baley ‘home; shelter; living place; any place which gives protection, as a bird nest, spider web, rat hole, water buffalo pasture or the sheath of a bolo; placenta’, Dampelas banua ŋanaʔ ‘afterbirth’ (lit. ‘house of the child’), Maranao dalem a kandaŋ ‘placenta’ (lit. ‘inside the womb’), or Pohnpeian ieŋen seri ‘placenta’ (lit. ‘companion of the child’), suggesting that there was no monomorphemic word that corresponded to the meaning of the English gloss.


*tabuRi conch shell trumpet


PMP     *tabuRi conch shell trumpet     [doublet: *tabuRiq]

Tiruray temburia shell trumpet; to blow the temburi
Selaru fturi <Mtriton shell
Asilulu tahuliconch shell (Strombus spp.); conch shell trumpet
Alune tabuliconch shell trumpet
Kamarian tahuritrumpet shell
Soboyo tafuhishell, blown to call up the wind when a canoe is launched on a voyage
Kowiai tafurtriton shell


POC     *tapuRi conch shell trumpet

Nali drahconch shell trumpet
Loniu tahconch shell trumpet
Ahus nhahconch shell trumpet
Pak dohuconch shell trumpet
Kuruti drohconch shell trumpet
Likum cahconch shell trumpet
Penchal rahuyconch shell trumpet
Nauna tahuyconch shell trumpet
Sori dapconch shell trumpet
Yapese yabultype of conch shell; horn, trumpet, siren
Tolai tauru <Aconch shell, Strombus epidromus, and other varieties
Vitu tavureconch shell (blown to signal new arrivals, danger, etc.)
Lusi tavurshell trumpet
Kairiru tourconch shell
Wogeo taurconch shell trumpet
Manam tauru <Aconch shell trumpet
Gedaged tauzkind of mollusk, triton
Takia toulconch shell trumpet
Gitua tavurekind of shell, particular the Pacific trumpet shell, but includes other Cymatiidae species and Bursidae species
Bugotu tavuliconch shell used as trumpet
Nggela tavulispecies of mollusc, gastropod, Charonia tritonis; a trumpet; the sound of a trumpet
Sa'a ähuriconch shell, triton, blown at the end, used to summon people
Arosi ahuriconch, usually a Triton shell blown at the side; blown only on solemn occasions, e.g. at a death, or at feasts
Proto-Micronesian *tawuitriton or trumpet shell
Chuukese sewitriton shell; trumpet made from triton shell
Puluwat hawiconch trumpet
Woleaian tawiiconch shell trumpet
Pohnpeian sewiconch shell, conch shell trumpet
Mokilese jowiconch shell
Sonsorol-Tobi tauiconch shell
Wayan tavuigastropod shellfish taxon; Pacific (or Triton’s) trumpet, Charonia tritonis, used as a horn; the shell of these animals
Fijian davuia large univalve shellfish, the trumpet shell or Triton, used as a horn or trumpet, chiefly on canoes

Note:   Also Cebuano tambúli ~ tambúliʔ ‘melongena, kind of conch; horn made from the horn of a water buffalo or a conch’, Malay buri ‘a trumpet’, Aua tauru ‘conch shell trumpet’ (expected **afui), Mbula twiiri ‘trumpet shell, Triton, a large sea shell which is blown as a horn for signalling’, Gilbertese tau ‘Triton conch, trumpet shell’, Mota tauwe ‘conch shell used as a trumpet’.

The conch shell trumpet is well-known in the Pacific, where it played an important traditional role in the launching of voyaging canoes, the calling of members of the village to ceremonies, providing an alert to imminent danger, etc. However, this reconstruction presents special problems, since its PMP status depends crucially on Tiruray (and the indirect support provided by the Palauan evidence for the doublet *tabuRiq). In addition, a number of languages in the Philippines reflect a word with irregular *R > l, as with the Cebuano form just cited or similar forms in other languages of the Philippines (see Note to *tabuRiq). These appear to be loanwords, although the usual appeal to Malay as a source language does not work well here. Given the limited set of forms that he compared, Dempwolff (1938) erroneously reconstructed *tam-buri ‘triton shell trumpet’. It is now clear that the rhotic in this form was *R, and that there is no comparative evidence for prenasalization of the medial stop. Both of these observations were first made for Proto-Oceanic *tapuRi by Ross (1988:147).

The limited pattern of survival of this form in both the Philippines and Indonesia suggests that it either disappeared among groups that moved inland to a montane environment where the conch was not easily obtained, or was replaced among lowlanders through contact-induced culture change. All in all the pattern of distribution for reflexes of PMP *tabuRi (and its doublet form *tabuRiq) suggests that survival was most strongly favored in areas of cultural conservatism, and disfavored where traditional practices either competed or conflicted with those introduced from outside, as among hispanized Filipinos, where the use of animal horns apparently came to be favored over shell trumpets, or among the peoples of western Indonesia, where overlays of Indian and Islamic cultural influence have altered many aspects of the traditional cultures of lowland groups.


*tabuRiq conch shell trumpet


PMP     *tabuRiq conch shell trumpet     [doublet: *tabuRi]

Palauan debuseʔconch shell; sound of conch shell; horn
Watubela tuwulikconch shell


POC     *tapuRiq conch shell trumpet

Kaiwa tavulkTriton shell (Ross 1988:147)

Note:   Also Tagalog tambúliʔ ‘a native horn, bugle or trumpet made of horn’, Mapun tabuliʔ ‘a kind of horn made from any large seashell or horn of an animal’; nabuliʔ ~ tabuliʔ-an ‘to blow a shell-type horn (as to warn or summon someone)’, Yakan tabuliʔ ‘triton, a big sea shell (used as a signal instrument in old times)’, Tausug tambuliʔ ‘chambered nautilus; a trumpet made of this shell’.


*tada natural cockspur


PMP     *tada natural cockspur (cf *tazi, artificial cockspur)     [disjunct: *tara]

Iban tadanatural spur of a cock
Proto-Sangiric *tadacockspur
Simalur taraartificial cockspur
Mentawai taracockspur
Bare'e tara-manucockspur
Buginese tara-manuʔcockspur
Tae' taranatural cockspur
  buku taraanklebone
Bimanese taracockspur

Note:   This comparison was first recognized in print by H. Kähler (1961). Mills (1973:894) tries unconvincingly to connect Buginese tara-manuʔ ‘cockspur’ with *taRaq ‘to hew, chop (wood)’.


*tadal to look upward; face upward


POC     *tadal to look upward; face upward

Duke of York ta-tadato look or face upwards
Manam tadato look up
  tádal-ito look up to somebody, something
Gedaged tadto look (upwards)
Gitua tadasupine
Cheke Holo tadalook up, turn face upwards
Bugotu tadato look up; up
  rei tadato lift up the eyes
  va-tadaraise up, set up, turn right way up; set one’s shield against the enemy
Nggela tandaup, upwards; face up
  tandal-agito put face up
  tanda-tandaface up; to look up


*ta(n)dem remember


PWMP     *ta(n)dem remember

Maranao tademmemory; recollect, remember
Malagasy (Merina) tándrinaremembered

Note:   With root *-dem₂ ‘think, ponder, brood, remember’.


*tanduk tanduk plant sp.


PWMP     *tanduk tanduk plant sp.

Ilokano tan-tandókGynandropsis pentaphylla (L.) DC.. An erect capparidaceous herb with digitate, long-petioled leaves ... and white flowers tinged with purple; it is considered a caustic
Malay tandok-tandokplants with curiously shaped flowers; Strophanthus dichotomus, Ervatamia spp.

Note:   This reconstruction may contain Dempwolff's (1934-38) *tanduk ‘horn’.


*taeb high tide (?)


PWMP     *taeb high tide (?)

Tagalog táibhigh tide
Bikol táʔobhigh tide
Hanunóo táʔubhigh tide
Cebuano táʔubhigh tide
  taʔúb-unsea at high tide
Palawan Batak táʔebsea, ocean; flood, high tide
Palauan dáobsea, ocean, saltwater
Bolaang Mongondow taabflood

Note:   Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *ta( )eb ‘high tide; flood’.


*taŋgap receive, accept


PWMP     *taŋgap receive, accept

Kapampangan taŋgapreceive, accept
Tagalog taŋgápaccepted, admitted, received
Tiruray taŋgafreceive, accept
Old Javanese taŋgapaccept, take, receive (also with person as object)
Balinese taŋgaptake into the hand, accept, receive

Note:   Possibly equivalent to Dempwolff's (1934-38) *taŋgap ‘seize, hold firmly’.


*tageRaŋ ribcage


PAN     *tageRaŋ ribcage

Pazeh takaxaŋribs
Puyuma tageraŋchest
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) tahraŋchest, breast
Itbayaten tagraŋrib
Bontok tadláŋthe ribs of the body
Kankanaey tadláŋrib
Ifugaw tagláŋribs; side of a human chest (what is enclosed by the ribs)
Ifugaw (Batad) tagláŋribcage of a person or animal; i.e. the upper backbone and the ribs
Pangasinan tagláŋrib, frame
Sambal (Botolan) tagyáŋrib
Kapampangan tagyáŋrib
Hanunóo tagyáŋrib
Kenyah (Long Anap) tegaaŋribs
Miri tagréŋribs
Kiput tegeriëribs

Note:   Also Isneg taʔgāŋ ‘ribs’, Aborlan Tagbanwa takgaŋ ‘hard ribs’ (saŋgaŋɨn ‘soft ribs’), Tombonuwo tikogaŋ, Labuk-Kinabatangan Eastern Kadazan tikagaŋ, Kelabit (Bario) segeraŋ ‘ribs’. The last three forms imply an etymon *tigeRaŋ, with prepenultimate *i, but this is otherwise unknown.


*taŋgiRi a fish: the Spanish mackerel


PWMP     *taŋgiRi a fish: the Spanish mackerel     [doublet: *taŋiRi]

Ilokano taŋgígikind of marine fish resembling a bonito; its meat is much esteemed
Malay teŋgiriSpanish mackerel: Scomberomorus (Cybium) spp.


*tahep-i to winnow


PMP     *tahep-i₁ to winnow

Cebuano táphiwinnow it!
Malay tampito winnow
Javanese tapito winnow
Sasak tampiʔto winnow
Yamdena tafito winnow
Buruese tapi-hto winnow

Note:   For details of the development of this morphologically complex form in the languages of the central Philippines cf. Zorc (1977). It is worth noting that Sasak tampiʔ shows both secondary prenasalization and a secondary final glottal stop. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *tapi ‘separate chaff from grain (= winnow)’, but there are various problems with his proposed cognate set.


*tai ñamuk mosquito net


POC     *tai ñamuk mosquito net     [doublet: *tau ñamuk]

Marshallese taiṇaṃmosquito net
Tongan tainamumosquito net
Futunan tainamumosquito net
Anuta tainamumosquito net
Rarotongan tai-namuliterally means, the entangler of mosquitoes, or, that which catches mosquitoes; a mosquito net

Note:   Also Pohnpeian tein amwise, Mokilese sei, Samoan taʔinamu ‘mosquito net’.


*tail tree with fiber used to make fish nets


POC     *tail tree with fiber used to make fish nets

Loniu taycatch fish
Bipi taycatch fish with a net
Motu taia tree the inner bark of which is used for rope-making (Hibiscus tiliaceus)
Roviana tailifishline formerly made from the bark of the pusi (Lyonsia sp.)

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*ta(ŋ)kas₁ agile, quick


PMP     *ta(ŋ)kas agile, quick

Javanese taŋkasswift-moving
Ngadha tika-takanimble, agile, quick

Note:   With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile, energetic’.


*taŋkas₂ loosen, untie


PWMP     *taŋkas loosen, untie     [doublet: *beŋkas, *ka(s)kas]

Bikol taŋkásremove (as a necktie, a cover), take off (as a necktie), pull out (as a plug), disconnect
Kadazan taŋkasunbolt, loosen things, fittings
Uma taŋkaʔset free, release; remove something that clings fast

Note:   Also Palauan meŋe-dóked ‘untie, unfasten’. This item is assumed to contain a root *-kas₂.


*ta(ŋ)keb₁ cover, overlapping part


PWMP     *ta(ŋ)keb cover, overlapping part

Maranao takebeyelid
Sundanese taŋkeb-anmoveable corner of smoke-vent in roof
Javanese taŋkeboverlapping portion of a double-breasted jacket
Balinese taŋkebcover up (with a basket, etc.)

Note:   With root *-keb₁ ‘cover’.


*taŋkeb₂ fall face downward


PWMP     *taŋkeb fall face downward

Tagalog taŋkabto fall, hurting one's lip or chin
Dairi-Pakpak Batak taŋkepface downward; to fall face downward

Note:   With root *-keb₂ ‘face downward’. Adelaar (1981) maintains that Northern Batak reflects final voiced stops as the homorganic nasal, while Southern Batak reflects them as the homorganic voiceless stop. Although this is normally true, both Karo Batak and Dairi-Pakpak Batak occasionally exhibit a voiceless final stop from an earlier voiced stop, as with *ruqag ‘wide, spacious’ > Karo Batak ruhak ‘spacious, wide, of an opening’ (Blust 1983-1984).


*taked₁ back of leg


PWMP     *taked₁ back of leg

Casiguran Dumagat tikedfoot, leg; footprints
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) takɨdheel
Bilaan (Sarangani) takadheel
Kelabit (Bario) takedpopliteal area, back of knee
Kenyah (Long Anap) taketleg, foot

Note:   Also Rungus Dusun hakod ‘leg’, Bisaya (Limbang) akod ‘back part of heel’. Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *taked, *tiNked ‘heel’.


*taked₂ climb


PWMP     *taked₂ climb

Isneg taŋkād (length unexpl.)climb
Bikol tukád <Mgo uphill
Kenyah (Long Wat) takətanything used to climb
Kayan (Uma Juman) takəranything used to climb
Gorontalo taʔoduclimb

Note:   Also Bontok tíkid ‘climb a trail’. Zorc (1971) posits PPh *taked ‘climb a hill’.


*takep to fold over, double


PWMP     *takep to fold over, double

Maranao takepdouble, multiply
Tiruray takefto double something, make it twice as much
Balinese takepbe folded over, closed

Note:   With root *-kep₁ ‘fold, double over’.


*ta(ŋ)ket adhere, stick to


PWMP     *ta(ŋ)ket adhere, stick to

Sasak taŋketcompanion
Bare'e takastick, adhere, cling fast to something, attach oneself to

Note:   With root *-keC ‘adhesive, sticky’.


*ta(ŋ)kup (or ta(ŋ)kequpʔ) cover, enclose


PWMP     *ta(ŋ)kup (or ta(ŋ)kequpʔ) cover, enclose

Ilokano takúpto patch, mend by patching
Cebuano takúpshutter
  takʔupclose, be closed
Melanau (Mukah) takuplid, cover
Malay taŋkupcapture under a hollow
Tae' takoʔcup the two hands together to hold something

Note:   With root *-kup ‘enclose, cover’.


*takut fear


PAN     *takut fear

Siraya takotfear
Ifugaw tákutfear; to fear; to frighten somebody
Ibaloy takotfear for one’s bodily safety
Pangasinan takótfear
  an-takotshy, timid
Kapampangan tákutfear
Tagalog tákotfear
  takótafraid, frightened, feeling fear; nervous, timid, tremulous
  takót na takótvery frightened; panic-stricken; demoralized by fear
Bikol tákotfear
Lun Dayeh tootfear, fright
  ŋe-tootto scare or frighten someone
Kelabit (Bario) taʔutfear
Kayan takutbe afraid of, in fear of; be frightened by
Kayan (Uma Juman) takutfear; afraid
Murik takutfear; afraid
Malagasy táhotrafear, dread, horror, terror
Malay takutfear
Simalur mana-taʔudto frighten
  taʔut-ito frighten
Toba Batak tahutfear, fright; dread; anxiety
Old Javanese takutfear
Balinese takutfear; to fear, be afraid of
Sasak takutbe afraid
Sangir takuʔfear, dread
Banggai takutfear
  maŋa-takutto frighten
Tae' takuʔto fear
Palauan dáktfear, awe
Bimanese dahufear; afraid
Lamaholot takutbe afraid
Komodo n-dahuʔafraid


PMP     *ka-takut (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog ka-tákut-tákotterrible, terrifying
Old Javanese ka-takutfear; object of fear
Tae' ka-takuʔbe afraid of something
Palauan ke-dáktbe afraid of each other
Bimanese ka-dahuto frighten

Note:   Bimanese ka-dahu may reflect *paka-takut, and it is possible that the prefixed element in the other forms cited together here actually has disparate sources.


PAN     *ma-takut fearful, afraid

Siraya ma-takotfear
Ibaloy ma-tekotinclined to fear, fearful
Pangasinan ma-takótafraid
Kapampangan ma-tákutafraid
Tagalog ma-tákotafraid, scared; apprehensive, worried or anxious
Bikol ma-tákotto be afraid, frightened, jittery, nervous, panicky, scared
Lun Dayeh me-tootafraid, have fear
Kelabit (Bario) me-taʔutto frighten, make afraid
Malagasy ma-táhotrato dread, fear, be afraid
Simalur ma-taʔudanxious, afraid
Toba Batak ma-tahutto fear, be afraid
Sangir ma-takuʔto fear, be afraid
  ma-ma-takuʔto frighten
Banggai ma-takutafraid, be afraid
Tae' ma-takuʔafraid, frightened
Palauan me-dáktto fear, be afraid of
Bimanese dahuto fear, be afraid
Kambera mandautato fear, be afraid of
Hawu medaʔuto fear, be afraid
Leti mtatuto fear, be afraid
Wetan mtaatato be afraid of
Watubela ma-takutto fear, be afraid
Asilulu mataʔuto fear, be afraid
Soboyo mantakuto fear, be afraid
Numfor-Biak mkākto fear, be afraid


POC     *matakut fear; fearful, afraid

Yapese daguwfear
Wuvulu maʔauafraid
Seimat ma-mataafraid
Mussau ma-matautuafraid
Nakanai matauafraid
Mbula motobe afraid, fear
  pa-motofrighten someone
Gitua mataguzi ~ mataguzato fear, be afraid
Tubetube mataus-istate of being afraid
Tawala matoutato fear, be frightened
Molima matautaafraid
Dobuan matautaafraid
Selau matutafraid, frightened
  asana a mat-matutperson who takes fright easily; coward
Roviana matagutuafraid, fearful
Eddystone/Mandegusu matatuto fear, be afraid
Bugotu mataguto fear, be afraid
Nggela mataguto fear, be afraid
  matagu-nito be afraid of
  matagu-poua coward
Kwaio maʔuafraid; shy
  faʔa-maʔu-ato frighten
  maʔu-niabe afraid of
Lau mouto fear, be afraid
  mou-taiafraid, afraid of
Sa'a mäʔuto fear, be afraid
  mäʔu-ta-the fear of (something)
'Āre'āre maʔuto be afraid
  maʔu-niato fear, be afraid of
Gilbertese maakufear, dread, terror, fright, dismay
Pohnpeian masakbe afraid of, to fear
Chuukese mésék(ú)to be afraid
Puluwat mehak(úw)to be afraid; to be fearsome
Woleaian metag(iu)to be afraid, scared of
Mota matagutbe afraid of
  matag-tagto fear (rare, but true Mota word)
Northeast Ambae matakufear
Raga mataxufear
Nasarian i-metaktakfear
Nakanamanga matakufear
Anejom e-mtaγfear
Wayan matakube afraid, frightened, fearful; fear, fright
  mataku-cifear something, be afraid or frightened of something
  mata-matakube always afraid, timid, cowardly
Niue matakuto fear, be afraid
  mataku-takufear (n.); to fear, be nervous
  mataku-taku-inafeared, dreaded; frightened
Samoan mataʔuto fear, hold in awe
  mataʔu-tiabe dreadful, awful; be terrible, fearful
Rennellese matakuto be afraid, cowardly; to fear
  mataku-tiato be dangerous, feared
  mataku-takuto be afraid, cowardly
Anuta matakuto be afraid, frightened; fear
Tuvaluan matakuafraid
Kapingamarangi madagufear, be afraid; be shy; shyness
  madagu-dagufear, be afraid
Nukuoro madaguafraid, scared
  madagu-dagucowardly (concerning others or supernaturals)
Rarotongan matakufear, dread, terror; afraid, timid, struck with fear; undecided; to be afraid, timid or doubtful
  mataku-takuto be in the state or condition of being afraid, timid; to entertain fear; to be possessed of forebodings; to hesitate
Maori matakuto be afraid; fearful, afraid; inspiring fear; incompatible; averse
  mataku-riabe feared
Hawaiian makaʔufear; frightened, afraid


PWMP     *ma-nakut (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog ma-nákotto scare people, to intimidate, to threaten with harm
Malay me-nakutbe in a state of fear


PWMP     *pa-takut to frighten, make afraid

Kelabit (Bario) pe-taʔutto frighten, make afraid
Sasak pe-takutcausing fear, arousing fear

Note:   This form of the causative prefix with *takut is clearly in competition with the causative of stative verbs, *paka-. It is possible that the Kelabit (Bario) and Sasak forms given here are historically secondary reformations from *paka-takut.


PMP     *paka-takut to frighten, cause to fear

Malagasy faha-tahor-anafear, dread
Sangir ma-paka-takuʔto frighten, incite fear
Tae' paka-takuʔto frighten
Soboyo paka-takufrightened
Wayan vaka-matakube fearsome, frightening, terrifying; be dreadful, terribly bad, wicked; be dangerous; be formidable, powerful, commanding respect
Niue faka-mataku-takuto frighten
Samoan faʔa-mataʔuto frighten, threaten
Tuvaluan faka-matakudangerous
Rennellese haka-matakuto frighten, scare; to be amazing, terrifying, dangerous, surprising
Hawaiian hoʔo-makaʔuto frighten, scare, terrify, make afraid; to pretend fear


PWMP     *pa-nakut provoke fear (?)

Tagalog pa-nákotscarecrow
Malay pe-nakutcoward
Toba Batak pa-nahutprovoke fear
Sasak pe-nakutprecipitating fear


PWMP     *ka-takut-an be struck by fear; a state of fear or worry

Kapampangan ka-takut-anfear
Tagalog ka-takut-anto fear or be afraid of something or someone; a state of being afraid; fear, dread
Malagasy ha-tahor-anafear, dread
Malay ke-takut-anpanic
Bahasa Indonesia ke-takut-ana state of fear; a feeling of fear; a condition of fear; hesitation; worry; anxiety; be struck by fear
Tae' ka-ma-takur-anbe afraid; fear

Note:   The Tae' form shows that some of these constructions may have been innovated in the separate histories of the languages in which they are found, since in at least this case the circumfixation of ka- -an took place only after prefixation with ma-.


PMP     *t<um>akut become afraid

Tagalog t<um>ákotto frighten, to alarm, to scare
Kelabit (Bario) t<em>aʔutto seem afraid
Acehnese t<eum>akōtfrightened, afraid, anxious about
Kemak t<em>autto fear


PWMP     *takut-an easily frightened, cowardly

Ibaloy tekot-anto fear something (as a current in trying to cross a river)
Sangir takut-aŋtimid, frightened (said, for example, of a child, and thus not a scornful term)
Bahasa Indonesia takut-takut-aneasily startled; afraid of things; shy; hesitant
Tae' takur-ancowardly


PWMP     *takut-en to frighten someone

Pangasinan takot-ento frighten
Tagalog takut-ínto frighten, to make afraid, to scare; to intimidate; to bluff; to threaten
Bikol ta-takt-ónafraid, fearful, frightened, jittery, nervous, panicky; meek, timid
  pa-takút-onto make someone afraid, to intimidate, menace, scare, terrify
Toba Batak tahut-onto fear, be afraid
Old Javanese takut-takut-enin the grip of fear
Sasak takut-into frighten someone

Note:   Also Saisiyat tikot ‘fear’, Ibaloy taʔkot ‘fear’, me-taʔkot-an ‘to equip a ricefield with scare devices’, Sasak takut-aŋ ‘be afraid of something’, Buli tjait ‘fear’, am-tjait ‘to fear’, Manam matakur ‘to fear, be afraid of’.

Siraya takot is given here as a probable base, given the attested form matakot ‘fear’, the the clear evidence for *ma-takut in many other languages. It is clear that the morpheme boundary in *ma-takut had already been lost in POc, and perhaps earlier, as suggested by nearly all known reflexes in eastern Indonesia. This raises questions about the position of Bimanese and Yapese, both of which reflect *takut as an independent base.


*talaq the morning (evening) star: Venus


PMP     *talaq the morning (evening) star: Venus     [doublet: *mantalaq]

Tagalog tálaʔbright star, planet
Mansaka bonta-taraʔmorning star
Bimanese ntarastar
Manggarai ntalastar
Ngadha dalastar
Sika dalastar

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) gives *(t)ala(q) ‘star’, but his cognate set is weak.


*talas break, burst


PMP     *talas break, burst

Maranao talasbreak, burst
Buli talasburst, crack


*talaw timid, fearful; coward


PAN     *talaw timid, fearful; coward

Isneg mag-tálawrun away, escape, slip off, vanish
Ilokano ag-tálawflee, run away, hasten off, escape
Bikol taláwcowardly, yellow, chicken; a coward
Cebuano tálawback off, be afraid to do something for lacking nerve
Maranao talaocoward
Kadazan t-um-ahoubecome a coward
Moken talauashamed, shy


PAN     *ma-talaw fearful, cowardly

Amis ma-talawafraid
Ilokano ma-tálawsuccumb, sink down, die, grow faint
Bolaang Mongondow mo-talowfaint-hearted, cowardly

Note:   Mills (1975:848) assigns Bolaang Mongondow talow to PAn *talu ‘defeated, overcome’. While *talu can be attributed to PMP (Tagalog tálo ‘surpassed, defeated’, Karo Batak, Old Javanese talu ‘defeated’, Kambera talu ‘defeat’) it evidently was distinct -- both phonologically and semantically -- from *talaw.


*tales taro: Colocasia esculenta


PMP     *tales taro: Colocasia esculenta

Hanunóo tálusa taro with yellowing leaves
Palawan Batak tälästaro (Revel-Macdonald 1979:53)
Nias talõa tuber: Caladium
Minangkabau talasa cultivated yam, Colocasia antiquorum
Rejang taleusa root crop: Colocasia antiquorum
Sundanese taleuskind of tuber
Old Javanese talestaro, Colocasia antiquorum
  pa-tales-antaro field or garden
Javanese talestaro
  naleshaving the texture of cooked taro (said of rice that is gummy from being cooked in too much water)
Palauan dáittaro (plant)
Rotinese talekind of water plant with large leaves (Jonker 1908)
  taletaro; icon for a male person (Fox 1993)
  ta-taleskind of water plant with large leaves; Dengka dialect (Jonker 1908)
Tetun talasan aroid plant with highly-prized edible tubers


POC     *talos taro: Colocasia esculenta

Motu taloa vegetable: Arum esculentum
Marovo talotaro
Kwaio alotaro (generic); unit of 100 taro for a feast
  alo-nataro corm
Lau alotaro
Toqabaqita alotaro (plant and corm)
'Āre'āre ārotaro (several varieties)
Arosi aroa name for taro in some names of varieties
Bauro arotaro
V'ënen Taut tarotaro
Paamese tārotaro
Makatea tarotaro
Nakanamanga na-taletaro
Fijian dalothe taro plant, much used as a food, Colocasia esculenta
Tongan talotaro, kind of arum with edible tuberous root, Caladium esculentum
Niue talothe taro plant (Colocasia esculenta). Five groups are recognized, each with many varieties, the groups being distinguished according to differences in color and the marking of the petioles, or leaf stalks
Samoan talotaro, a cultivated plant (Colocasia sp.), the corm of which is one of the most important sources of food
  talo-abe plentiful in taro
Futunan talotaro (generic): Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott var. antiquorum Schott
Tuvaluan talotaro, a cultivated plant, Colocasia esculenta
Nukuoro daloplant sp.: taro (Colocasia esculenta), also the corm of this plant
Rennellese tagotaro, Colocasia esculenta (one of the most important foods, the gift of the god Tupuimatangi)
Anuta tarotaro, Colocasia esculenta
Rarotongan taroan esculent tuber which is much cultivated for food purposes and of which there are several varieties: Colocasia esculenta
Maori taroColocasia antiquorum, a plant cultivated for food
Hawaiian kalotaro (Colocasia esculenta), a kind of aroid cultivated since ancient times for food… In Hawaii taro has been the staple from earliest times to the present, and its cultivation developed greatly, including more than 300 forms

Note:   Also Tontemboan taleʔColocasia antiquorum, used as pig fodder’, Roviana talo ‘taro: Colocasia antiquorum’ (one of the staple foods of the Roviana people, with at least 18 varieties), Rotuman tar-kura ‘kind of taro’, tar-tea ‘kind of taro’ (< Polynesian). This form has a very wide, but thin distribution, being richly attested in Sumatra and Java, the southeast Solomons, central and southern Vanuaut, and Central Pacific languages, but it is rare elsewhere. Although Colocasia species are of central importance in the diet of Polynesian peoples, it is clear that this tuber is of only marginal dietary significance in AN-speaking societies that cultivate rice. It therefore seems likely that it was also a minor food item in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian society that came to achieve greater importance in some areas once rice cultivation was lost. The Roviana form is regarded as irregular, since this language normally retains final consonants, and we would therefore expect **taloso; at the same time this raises the question whether the POc form should be *talos or *talo.


*tali tali plant sp.


PWMP     *tali tali plant sp.

Bahasa Indonesia tali taliplant with beautiful blossom: Quamaclit pennata
Sangir tali-talikind of edible sea plant


*taliŋa kind of tree fungus


PMP     *taliŋa₂ kind of tree fungus

Itbayaten taliŋaedible tree fungus
  kayuhtree, wood
  taliŋa nu kayuhsp. of fungus
Isneg talíŋaear
  danāgthin and filthy spirits. Those who inhabit a balísi (Ficus indica) tree affect with fever or deafness anybody who dares throw stones at their abode
  talíŋa danāgkind of large bracket fungus
Nias taliŋaear
  oroname of a spirit
  taliŋa-orokind of mushroom
Tae' taliŋa balao(lit. 'rat's ear') kind of fungus that grows on the underside of a decayed bamboo betuŋ
Seimat taxiŋear
  paximalevolent bush spirit with visible, humanlike body
  taxiŋ i paximushroom
Nggela taliŋafungus, mushrooms on mbiluma tree
Sa'a äliŋelarge fungi, some edible, growing on logs
Woleaian taliŋear
  pachthunder, lightning
Puluwat háliŋear, earlobe
  hoomághost, bad ghost of the dead; malevolent spirit (feared, as they are believed to devour humans)
  háliŋá-n hoomátree fungus, mushroom
Chuukese seniŋe-n soomáany of a large number of fungi ("ghost's or spirit's ear") such as Auricularia, Ganoderma tropicum, etc.
Rotuman faliaŋ ne ʔatuatoadstool of fungus, lit. "ghost's ear"
Samoan taliŋaear; name given to several types of fungus, including jew's-ear,
  taliŋa-ʔimoa(lit. "rat's ear") sp. fungus

Note:   Also Paiwan ka-tsaluŋa ‘half-moon-shaped tree-fungus (grows in tiers)’, Chamorro talaŋa ‘ear’, hayu ‘stick, wood’, talaŋa hayu ‘type of fungus, dark brownish and quite slippery when wet, usually attaches to decayed wood and looks just like the ear of people’. This item clearly is identical with Dempwolff's (1934-38) *taliŋa ‘ear’, but various compounds probably existed in PMP which indicated the widespread association of at least some types of mushrooms with ghost on the one hand, and with thunder or lightning on the other (see, for example, Lévi-Strauss 1976).


*taliuk turn, go around


PAN     *taliuk turn, go around

Amis taliyokperimeter, area around the outside; go around
Cebuano taliyukturn the body around

Note:   This item may contain a fossilized prefix *ta-.


*taltal hit, pound, crush


PWMP     *taltal hit, pound, crush

Isneg taltālto crush
Ilokano taltálto crush, bray, comminute
Toba Batak taltalhit, beat, hack
Balinese taltalhit repeatedly


*taluk young plant shoot


PMP     *taluk young plant shoot     [doublet: *taruk]

Casiguran Dumagat talúkwet rice seedlings
Hanunóo táluksprout, shoot (to be transplanted); transplanting
Manggarai talokyoung bamboo


*taluki kind of fabric (silk?)


PMP     *taluki kind of fabric (silk?)

Ilokano talóki(obs.) silk of one piece
Old Javanese talukia particular kind of fabric (perhaps muslin)
Balinese talukikind of batik
Kambera talukikind of silk used as a veil

Note:   Also Sangir talukeʔ ‘kind of weaving motif’. This item may be a Chinese loan, but if so, its etymology remains unclear.


*tama appropriate, suitable; fit together


PMP     *tama appropriate, suitable; fit together     [disjunct: *tamaq]

Ilokano támato happen, etc. opportunely; timely, seasonably, conveniently, suitably fitly
Toba Batak tamasuitable, appropriate
Balinese tamabe ready, be on hand, never be tongue-tied, be bold
Tae' si-tamaget along, be well-disposed toward one another; make peace, be reconciled
Rotinese tamafit together well (as planks that are joined)

Note:   Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *tama ‘penetrate; hit the mark; correct, straight’, but appears to confuse two distince cognate sets, the second illustrated by Iban tamaʔ, Malagasy tamy, Erai, Tetun tama ‘enter’.


*tamadaw kind of wild ruminant


PWMP     *tamadaw kind of wild ruminant

Aklanon tamárawspecies of wild carabao found only on Mindoro
Cebuano tamaráwkind of wild water buffalo
Iban temadauwild ox: Bos javanicus d'Atton (formerly Bos sondaicus)

Note:   Also Malay tembadau ‘the Borneo wild ox (a variant of Bos sondaicus); in some outlying dialects Bos mindorensis’. Kelabit (Bario) temedhur, Bintulu temeɗu and similar forms that refer to the native rhinoceros in various of the indigenous languages of Borneo appear to be distinct.


*tamanu a tree: Calophyllum inophyllum


POC     *tamanu a tree: Calophyllum inophyllum

Mussau tamanukind of large-leafed Calophyllum found in the interior (cp. ŋitau 'Calophyllum of the shore')
Tongan tamanutree sp.
Niue tamanua tree: Calophyllum inophyllum (= fetau)
Samoan tamanularge tree (Callophyllum sp.), with timber used for canoes and furniture
Rarotongan tamanuthe native mahogany: Calophyllum inophyllum
Hawaiian kamani, kamanilarge tree (Calophyllum inophyllum, at home on shores of the Indian and western Pacific Oceans, with shiny, oblong leaves to eight inches long, white flowers much like orange blossoms, and globose green fruits about an inch in diameter. The wood is hard and was formerly made into calabashes.

Note:   In POc this term evidently contrasted with *pitaquR ‘Calophyllum inophyllum’. The difference of meaning remains unclear, but may have concerned interior and coastal varieties of the tree, as reflected in Mussau.


*tamaq appropriate, suitable; fit together


PMP     *tamaq appropriate, suitable; fit together     [disjunct: *tama]

Tagalog támaʔcorrect, right; hitting the mark
Hiligaynon támaʔcorrect, well, extremely, excessively
Maranao tamaʔenough, alright
Toba Batak tamasuitable, appropriate
Rotinese tamafit together well (as planks that are joined)


*tamiaŋ kind of bamboo


PMP     *tamiaŋ kind of bamboo     [doublet: *amiaŋ 'generic for plants with stinging hairs or hairs that cause itchiness']

Malay bulu temiaŋthe bamboo of which blowpipes are made: Bambusa wrayi
Sundanese awi tamiaŋkind of thin bamboo (used for blowpipes and thread spools)
Old Javanese tamyaŋkind of bamboo
Kambera tamiaŋukind of thin bamboo: Schistostachyum blumei, used for spears, trail or pitfall spikes, and plaited to make walling

Note:   Also Malay tembiaŋ idem. This comparison was first recognized in print by Verheijen (1984).


*tamiŋ type of shield


PMP     *tamiŋ type of shield

Aklanon tamíŋshield
Cebuano tamiŋshield
Maranao tamiŋshield
Hiligaynon tamíŋarmor, shield
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tamiŋround shield
Subanen/Subanun tamiŋround shield (Churchill 1913)
Hawu tamishield

Note:   Also Sundanese taméŋ, Old Javanese tamyaŋ, Kambera temiŋ ‘shield’, Javanese tamèŋ, Balinese, Sasak tamiaŋ ‘round shield, buckler’. Round and oblong shields are distinguished terminologically in many Austronesian languages, and it seems likely from the Manobo (Western Bukidnon) and Subanen/Subanun glosses, together with the glosses of the Javanese, Balinese, and Sasak variants, that *tamiŋ referred exclusively to round shields.


*tamiq, tamis taste, try


PMP     *tamiq, tamis taste, try

Aklanon tamíʔtest food, taste (using one's finger)
Bare'e me-tamitaste, try
Banggai tamistest, taste, sample
Tae' tammiʔchew so as to enjoy the juice and reject the refuse, as when chewing sugarcane
Hotti/Hoti tamichew
Rennellese tamitaste
  tami-tamitaste a little, as to try

Note:   For an earlier discussion of this comparison see (Blust 1978a:24).


*tamtam smack the lips


PAN     *tamtam smack the lips

Paiwan tj-alʸ-amtjamsmack one's lips
Maranao tantamtaste
Chamorro tamtamtest, try out, sip, taste
Buli camcamsmack the lips

Note:   Also Maranao taʔam ‘taste, as of food’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taʔam ‘taste s.t.’, Nggela tata chewed pulp. Earlier reconstructed as *(CtT)aqam (CtT)aqam ‘taste, flavor’ (Blust 1978a:24).


*tamu smack the lips while eating


PCEMP     *tamu smack the lips while eating

Rotinese tamumake a smacking sound while eating, as a pig does
Motu tamu-tamusmack the lips while eating

Note:   Also Iban (Scott 1956) tamuʔ ‘feed up, fatten (usually animals)’.


*taneq earth, soil, land


PMP     *taneq earth, soil, land

Yami tanamud, earth, soil, land (as opposed to sea)
Itbayaten tanasoil, earth, ground
  tana-enland, territory
Kalamian Tagbanwa tanɨkearth (ground)
Agutaynen tanekground, land; earth, soil, dirt; land owned by somebody
  ma-tanek-ena person who owns a lot of land
  ma-tanek-tanekdiscolored, with a reddish color, particularly of white clothes that are still dirty even after being washed
Maranao tanaʔalight, as thing in air; go down, as from a steep thing; relevance
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tanaʔground; earth; land; dirt; region; to come to earth
Tboli tonokearth, ground, soil; land as distinguished from sea or sky
Mapun tanaʔground, dirt; land; soil, country
Yakan tanaʔdry rice field, swidden
  mag-tanaʔto plant (or make something into) a dry rice field
Ida'an Begak tanaʔlow
Kadazan tanaʔsoil, land, earth, ground
Tombonuwo tanaʔearth, soil, dirt
Bisaya (Limbang) tanəʔearth, soil
Lun Dayeh tanaʔearth, soil; ground; land; the world
Kelabit (Bario) tanaʔearth, soil; world
Kenyah tanaʔland
Kenyah (Long Anap) tanaʔearth, soil, land
Kayan tanaearth, soil, ground; floor
Kayan (Uma Juman) tanaearth, soil
Kiput tanaaʔearth
Narum tanaʔearth, soil
Bintulu tanəʔearth, soil
Melanau (Mukah) tanaʔearth, soil
Tunjung tanaaʔearth
Ngaju Dayak tanarice field
  ma-nanawork in the fields; make a rice field somewhere
Samihim taneʔearth
Ma'anyan taneʔearth
Malagasy taniearth, land, soil; a country, a kingdom
  i-taniout of doors
  tani-be(‘big land’) the mainland of Madagascar, a word used to distinguish the mainland from the surrounding islands
Iban tanahearth, soil, land, ground, country
  tanah baru(‘new land’) land that is recently first cleared and still fertile
Jarai tənahearth, soil
Malay tanahland; state, country; surface of soil, especially with regard to ownership; surface of soil with regard to its character; soil itself and its character
  tanah liatclay (‘sticky earth’)
  tanah na(m)palmarl, edible earth
  tanah raya(‘great land’) continent
  di-tanahoutside the house;out of doors
Acehnese tanɔhground, land, earth
  tanɔh kliət(‘sticky earth’) clay, potter’s clay
  meu-tanɔhowning land
Gayo tanohearth, soil
  mu-tanohpossessing land
Karo Batak tanehearth, ground, territory, district
Toba Batak tanoearth, ground, land
  tano liatclay (‘sticky earth’)
Nias tanõearth, soil, land
Lampung tanohland
Old Javanese tanahland, country
Javanese tanahland, country; parcel of land
  tuan tanahlandlord
Sundanese tanɨhearth, ground; dust
Balinese tanahground, land, earth, soil (mainly as agricultural object, but also as building material, and as a political unit)
  tanah hampoha sort of clay eaten by pregnant women
  tanah putihchalk (‘white earth’)
Sasak tanaʔearth, soil, ground; land
Sangir ən-tanaearth, ground, land
Tontemboan tanaʔ ma-tuʔaland that has returned to bush (‘old land’)
  tanaʔ walethe space under the house
  wale tanaʔhouse on the ground, not raised on piles, with the earth as floor
Banggai tanoearth, ground; world
Dampelas tanoearth, soil
Pendau tanoearth, soil
Bare'e tanaground, earth, soil, land
  tana ma-puyuclay (‘sticky earth’)
  tana Morithe land of the Mori
  man-tanadig in the ground
  men-tanaof animals, hide in the mud, crawl into the ground
Uma tanaʔearth, soil
Tae' tanaground, earth, land; world
  tana ToraaToraja country
Makasarese tanaland, wet ricefield
Wolio tanaearth, ground, land, territory, country
  tana ikandeedible earth
Chamorro tanoʔworld, earth, land, soil, ground
Bimanese danaearth, soil, land
Manggarai tanaland, soil, earth, territory
  tana liliŋclay (‘waxy earth’)
Rembong tanaʔearth, soil
Ngadha tanaearth, soil, land; district, tract of ground
Sika tanaland, earth, ground
  tana ihi-ŋproducts of the land, harvest
Lamboya pan-tanaearth
Kambera tanaland, district, territory
  tana Humbathe island of Sumba
  tana dítauplands, east Sumba; the visible world
  tana wàlowlands, west Sumba; the unseen world
Rotinese tanemud
Lamaholot tanaearth, land, district, territory
  ləwo tanavillage
Kei tan bulred sticky earth
  tuan tanoverseer of the common village land ‘lord of the land’)
  tana-tdistrict, land, ground, earth, black earth
Kayeli tana isoearthquake (‘shaking ground’)
Buruese tanaland
  tana Buruthe land of Buru
Waropen analand, bush, earth


POC     *tanoq earth, soil, land; down; westward

Loniu tanearth, ground, soil; down
Bipi dandown
Nauna tandown
  kan-tanearth, soil
Penchal randown
Aua anosoil
Nakanai -talodown; westward
Lusi tanoearth, ground
Gitua tanoground, earth
  tano sisiŋiared earth (= clay)
Gedaged tansoil, ground; land; garden, field; earth; world
Takia tanearth, soil
Motu tanoearth; soil; country; land
  tano aiashore; on land
  tano badathe earth; the land, as distinguished from sky and sea (‘big land’)
Bugotu tanoearth, ground
Kwaio anoland, ground
Lau anoearth, land; garden land (rarely used)
  ano-anolow, as a house
  ano-ano-alow, humble, subject to
Sa'a anoground, garden ground
  siho hai anocome down to the ground
'Āre'āre ānogarden, garden-ground
Arosi anothe ground, earth, soil, the land
  ano-iaa landslip
  ano-anolow, of shrub, tree, house, hill; lowering, of clouds; a drop of liquid left at the bottom of a vessel
Gilbertese tanosand, soil, clay, ground, land
  tano-ato cover with sand, to dirty with clay
Chuukese sɔɔn(obsolete) the earth (as distinct from heaven); level place, prepared site
Puluwat sɔɔnsurface, ground, floor, bottom; to be lower
Woleaian tal(o)earth, soil, ground; west, downward
Mosina tanearth
Merig tanearth
Mota tanoearth, ground
Northeast Ambae tanoearth
Tolomako tanoearth
Port Sandwich na-ranearth
Rerep ne-tanearth
Litzlitz ne-tinearth
Ranon tanearth
Visina poro-tanoearth
Tonga na-tanearth
Nakanamanga na-tanoearth
Kwamera tanaearth
Iaai kɔnɔearth


PPh     *t<um>aneq go overland, hike

Tboli t<m>onokto walk, hike; to be dirty from the soil
Tontemboan t<um>anaʔgo by land, go overland


PMP     *taneq pulut clay, sticky earth

Kelabit (Bario) tanaʔ pulutclay (‘sticky earth’)


POC     *tanoq pulut clay, sticky earth

Mota tano pul ~ tano puluttenacious earth, red, black, volcanic earth which sticks, used in building wona (stone feasting platform) at Gaua


PMP     *taneq tumbuq anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’)

Iban tanah tumbohtermite mound (lit. ‘growing earth’)


POC     *tanoq tubuq anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’)

Motu tano tubuant-hill (lit. ‘growing earth’)


POC     *tanoq tanoq dusty, full of dust or dirt

'Āre'āre āno-ānodust
Gilbertese tano-tanofull of sand (food)

Note:   Also Tiruray tunaʔ ‘earth, ground, soil’, Sundanese tanah ‘land, district, estate’, Leti, Wetan tani ‘earth, ground, soil’, Kayeli tain ‘ground, earth, soil, sand’. Dempwolff (1938) posited doublets *tanah and *tanəh ‘earth, land’, assigning Ngaju Dayak tana ‘rice field’ to the first of these, and tanah ‘a land’ as in tanah Jawa ‘the land of Java’ or tanah belanda ‘Holland’ to the second. However, the basis for this distinction is shaky. Ngaju Dayak tana is a native term, while tanah is clearly a borrowing of Banjarese tanah. Many languages have merged PAn *a and *e before the reflex of word-final *q, usually after it became a glottal stop. It is the neutralization of this phonemic distinction before glottal stop that has given rise to the impression that there was a variant *tanaq, which probably never existed. In addition to the subentries cited above the recurrent pattern of a reflex of *taneq + a place name suggests that the expression *taneq + place name existed in PMP times.

Finally, in some Oceanic languages, where final consonants have been lost, the reflexes of POc *tanoq ‘earth, soil’ and *tanom ‘to plant, bury’ can be difficult to distinguish, and in fact are often combined by lexicographers or comparativists, as with Keesing (1975), who gives Kwaio ano ‘land, ground’, a clear reflex of POc *tanoq, but the subentry anom-ia ‘plant, bury’, which is just as clearly a reflex of POc *tanom, or Fox (1974), who gives Lau ano ‘earth, land’, but the subentry ano-mila ‘burying’, which exemplifies the same problem. Similarly, Bender et al (2003) posit proto-Micronesian *tano ‘ground, low’, but refer additionally to e.g. Tongan tano ‘place of burial, cemetery’, which clearly reflects POc *tanom.


*taNek to cook anything but rice


PAN     *taNek to cook anything but rice

Saisiyat t<om>aləkto cook
Pazeh talek-iCook it! (sweet potatoes, fish, meat, but not rice)
Paiwan tjalʸekto cook food in advance (as for journey)


PMP     *tanek to cook

Cebuano tanukto boil starchy foods, but not rice: ears of corn, root crops, bananas
Binukid tanekto steam (immature unpounded rice to harden the grains so it can be dried and pounded)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tanekto steam immature unpounded rice in order to harden the grains so that it may be pounded and cooked
Lun Dayeh tanekboiling of something
  ne-tanekboiled by mistake
Kelabit (Bario) tanekboiling of water, cooking vegetables, cook meat
Kayan tanekcooked in water, boiled (as maize)
Iban tanakto cook (usually not rice)
Malay tanakboiling (rice)
  ber-tanak nasito boil rice
Malagasy mi-tanikato boil, to cook
Totoli ma-tanokboiled, cooked
Mandar tanaʔboil, cook
Makasarese tanaʔcoconut milk from which oil is boiled out; smelting of tin or lead


PWMP     *ma-nanek to boil, to cook

Lun Dayeh nanekto boil something
Kelabit (Bario) nanekto boil water, cook
Bahasa Indonesia me-nanakto boil rice in a pot
Totoli ma-nanokto boil, to cook


PWMP     *maR-tanek to boil, to cook

Bikol mag-tanókto parboil rice
Masbatenyo mag-tanókto boil food
Malay ber-tanakto boil rice
Mandar mat-tanaʔto boil, to cook


PAN     *t<in>aNek boiled foods other than rice?


PMP     *t<in>anek boiled foods other than rice

Paiwan (Western) tj<in>alʸekprepared food (especially taken along for journey); cooked food in general
Cebuano t<in>anúkcooked root crops, bananas, or corn
Lun Dayeh t<in>anekboiled by someone
Old Javanese t<in>anekto cook, to boil


PAN     *t<um>aNek to cook anything but rice

Saisiyat t<om>aləkto cook
Pazeh mu-talekto cook (side dishes, meaning anything but rice)


PMP     *t<um>anek to cook anything but rice

Old Javanese t<um>anekto cook, boil


PAN     *taNek-en to be cooked

Pazeh talek-ento be cooked; what is cooked


PMP     *tanek-en to be cooked

Bikol tanok-ónto parboil rice
Masbatenyo tanuk-ónto boil food (as jackfruit seeds)
Malagasy taneh-inato be boiled, to be cooked


*taNiud mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta)


PAN     *taNiud mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta)

Kanakanabu taníucumulberry tree and fruit
Saaroa talhiusumulberry tree and fruit
Tsou tahzucumulberry tree and fruit
Rukai (Budai) taɭíuDumulberry tree and fruit
Yami (Imorod) tanyodmulberry tree and fruit
Itbayaten tañoda species of tree, mulberry: Morus alba Linn., with white flowers and edible fruit

Note:   This comparison was first noted by Tsuchida (1976:141).


*tañam try, taste


PAN     *tañam try, taste

Atayal talamtry, taste; ask about the future; tell the future
Pazeh mu-talamto try, taste
  xi-talamto taste
Thao tazamtaste; try
  pu-tazamtry or test something
Bunun tanamtry
Amis tanamtry to do something; taste
Maranao tanampleasant, comfortable

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) pa-a-talam ‘to try’, Kavalan talam ‘taste’, t<m>alam ‘to taste something’. With root *-ñam ‘savory, tasty, taste’.


*taŋan finger, toe


PMP     *taŋan finger, toe

Ilokano taŋánthumb, great toe
Pangasinan taŋánthumb, big toe
Malay taŋanhand
Malagasy (Merina) tánanahand, foreleg of quadrupeds
Selaru taŋafinger, toe
Sekar taga-nfinger, toe

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *taŋan ‘hand’, but forms with this or clearly related meanings are confined to Koroni languages. His inclusion of Fijian taŋa ‘sack’ and similar forms in other Oceanic languages (e.g., Gedaged taŋ ‘net bag used by women’) appears to confuse distinct cognate sets.


*taŋeb lid, cover


PMP     *taŋeb lid, cover

Bontok taŋebto cover, as a pot or vat
Kankanaey taŋébto cover
Maranao taŋebclose door or window
Palauan dáŋeblid, cover
Kambera taŋalid, cover


*taŋ(e)buq kind of coarse grass


PWMP     *taŋ(e)buq kind of coarse grass

Hanunóo taŋbuʔoffshoot, sucker -- referring to bamboo
Tagalog tambóʔcoarse reed-like grass (used in making brooms)
Cebuano taŋbuʔcoarse grass of swamps with a hollow stem, used for the manufacture of brooms and hats: Phragmites vulgaris
Malay tamboha shrub: Euthemis leucocarpa

Note:   Also Maranao tamboʔo ‘a herb: Hyptis brevipes Poir.’.


*taŋuy to swim


PWMP     *taŋuy to swim     [doublet: *laŋuy, *naŋuy₂]

Sambal (Botolan) taŋuyto swim
Ngaju Dayak taŋoyswimming
  ha-naŋoyto swim

Note:   Possibly a back-formation from a prefixed form in which n- was assumed to result from nasal substitution.


*ta(m)pak slap, strike with the hand


PWMP     *ta(m)pak slap, strike with the hand

Kankanaey tampákslap in the face; box the ears
Ngaju Dayak tapakstruck with the flat of the hand

Note:   With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.


*tapal a patch, as on clothing


PWMP     *tapal a patch, as on clothing     [doublet: *Capel]

Bontok tápalreinforce; strengthen by binding a piece of wood to a weak or broken section; to bind a split to a broken limb
Ilokano tápalcataplasm, poultice, plaster, patch
Tagalog tápalmending patch (of cloth); poultice, plaster
Bikol tápalpatch, pocket
  mag-tápalto sew this type of pocket
Hanunóo tápalplaster, poultice
Cebuano tápallay something over a small area and stick it (as in placing a medicinal plaster on the body)
Mansaka tompalto patch (as a garment)


*tampar flatfish, flounder


PWMP     *tampar flatfish, flounder

Malay ikan tampara flatfish: Pseudorhombus arsuis
Chamorro tampattype of fish: Bothus mancus (Bothidae), flounder, flatfish


*tampeŋ plug or dam up


PWMP     *tampeŋ plug or dam up

Malagasy (Merina) tampinastopped, corked, plugged
Sasak tampeŋdam up

Note:   With root *-peŋ ‘plug up, dam; cover’.


*tapeS winnow


PAN     *tapeS winnow

Pazeh mu-tapesto winnow
Kavalan tapeswinnow; winnowing
Pazeh tapes-iwinnow it!
Thao tapishwinnowing
  t<m>apishto winnow
  tapsh-iwinnow it!


PMP     *tahep winnow

Itbayaten tahepwinnowing; chaff, husks of grain, rough particles when corn is ground (kapaN-, maN-, ma-, naN-)
Casiguran Dumagat tapto winnow rice
Bontok tapá <Mto winnow rice; rice husks
Tagalog tahípup and down movement of rice grains being winnowed on a flat basket
  mag-tahípto winnow (cereals, as rice) on a flat basket by throwing the grains up for the chaff to be blown away by the wind and catching them back with the basket as they fall
Bikol mag-tahóp-anto winnow by throwing grain up and down in a winnowing basket so that the grain falls back into the basket and the wind blows the chaff away (mag-, -on)
Hanunóo tahúpwinnowing
Aklanon tahópto sift
Cebuano tahúpchaff of cereals; separate the husk from husked grains
Mansaka taapto winnow
Kayan tapto winnow a tray (full of rice grains)


PMP     *tahep-an winnowing basket

Itbayaten tahp-anto winnow
Bontok tap-ánbe winnowed, of rice
Tagalog táhip-anthe flat basket used in winnowing
Cebuano taph-an-an <Mground cereals to be winnowed; place where winnowing is done
Kenyah tap-anwinnowing fan
Murik tap-anwinnowing basket
  nap-anto winnow
Kayan tap-anwinnowing tray
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tap-anwinnowing basket (also used as a sieve)


PAN     *CapeS-i to winnow

Puyuma Tap-iwinnow
  T-em-ap-ito winnow


PMP     *tahep-i₂ winnow

Itbayaten tahp-i <Mwinnow (imperative)
Bontok tap-ia wide, flat basket, used as a drying tray
Cebuano taph-iwinnow (imperative)

Note:   Also Bontok t-in-ap-i ‘a wide, flat basket, used as a drying tray’, Aklanon taeáph-an ‘sifter’.


*tampil attach, connect, join


PWMP     *tampil attach, connect, join     [doublet: *tampir]

Maranao tampilincluded with, identified with, favor one side
Iban tampiljoin, attach, tie on
  kaban tampilrelative by marriage
  nampilmarry into a family


*tampir attach, connect, join


PWMP     *tampir attach, connect, join     [doublet: *tampil]

Maranao tampirinclude, side with one party in controversy
Iban (Lemanak) tampirjoin, attach, tie on


*tapis₁ skirt, sarong


PMP     *tapis₁ skirt, sarong     [doublet: *tapiq]

Tagalog tápisapronlike cloth worn over skirt of mestiza dress
Bikol tápiswrap-around skirt
Cebuano tápis, tapíspiece of cloth worn around the waist or upper body as a skirt
Tetun taiswoven material, cloth, clothing
Selaru taissarong of native material


*tapis₂ to skim over the surface


PMP     *tapis₂ to skim over the surface

Maranao tapisskim; long-legged water bird
Tolai tapskim
Nggela tavito slip, turn suddenly; go crookedly, as a knife, or a kite in the air
Wayan tavibrush lightly, sweep something; peel something
Fijian taviskim along, skid off a flat surface, as the tiŋga (reed used in a game of throwing) on level ground
Tongan tafito sweep; sweep away, get rid of
  tafi-abe swept away, as by a wave

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*tampuk clap, thud


PWMP     *tampuk clap, thud     [disjunct: *tampun]

Kankanaey tampókclap one's hands, applaud
Old Javanese tampokcoming down with a thud

Note:   With root *-puk₁ ‘beat, crack, thud’.


*tapuk flock together


PMP     *tapuk flock together

Sundanese tapukto heap, pile up; swarm together (as ants on sugar)
Arosi ahuflock together

Note:   With root *-puk₃ ‘gather, flock together’.


*ta(m)pun gather, assemble


PMP     *ta(m)pun gather, assemble     [disjunct: *tampuk]

Sangir tampuŋgather, collect, assemble
Arosi ahucome together in a group, flock together

Note:   With root *-pun ‘assemble, collect, gather’.


*tampuŋ collect, gather


PWMP     *tampuŋ collect, gather

Maranao tampoŋgather
Bahasa Indonesia tampuŋreceive and collect together (produce from an area, excess produce, etc.)
Malay (Java) tampoŋtap and collect latex in a cup

Note:   With root *-puŋ ‘assemble, collect, gather’.


*tapus end, complete, finish


PAN     *tapus₁ end, complete, finish

Favorlang taposall


PWMP     *tapus₂ finished, completed

Hanunóo tapúsfinished, as a song, task or story
Aklanon tapósto finish, complete, end, come to a close
Hiligaynon tapúsfinished, completed
Palawan Batak tapus-ánend
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tapusthe end, the finish; to complete or finish
Makasarese tappusuʔcompletely, entirely, all over

Note:   With root *-pus₁ ‘end, finish’. Mills (1975:850, 895) posits Proto-South Sulawesi *ta(m)pus ‘disappear; all gone’.


*taqan set a trap


PAN     *taqan set a trap     [doublet: *taqen]

Favorlang taansnare for catching wild beasts
Cebuano taʔanset a trap of any sort
Maranao taʔanset trap for catch
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taʔanset a trap or place a fish weir in order to catch something
Palauan me-laʔel (deʔal-l)set a trap
Malay tahanset (snares and traps)


*taqay feces, excrement


PMP     *taqay feces, excrement     [doublet: *taqi]

Kayan (Uma Juman) taʔefeces, excrement
Bolaang Mongondow taʔayfeces, excrement


POC     *taqe₂ feces, excrement

Ere drefeces, excrement
Loniu tefeces, excrement
Lou tefeces, excrement
Pak defeces, excrement
Sori deyfeces, excrement
Mendak tefeces, excrement
Tolai taki-ŋgumy excrement
  taki-myour excrement
  take-nahis/her excrement
Vitu taheexcreta, feces
  tahe-taherubbish, waste
Nakanai la (ta)-tahefeces; leftover trash
  la tahe la magowart (lit. ‘feces of the sea’?)
Kove tahefeces, excrement
Wogeo taefeces, excrement
Manam taʔefeces, excrement
Gitua tae-shit, residue
  taliŋa taeear wax
Selau tefeces, excrement
Fauro ta-taeexcrement
Mono-Alu tae-naexcrement
Vangunu tae-naexcrement
Roviana taeexcreta
Eddystone/Mandegusu tea <Mfeces
Kilokaka taʔeexcrement
Nggela taedung, feces
Kwaio ae-neexcrement; anus, region around the anus
Sa'a aefeces, ordure
Arosi aedung; food in process of digestion
'Āre'āre ae-naanus
Mota taeexcrement, dung; bits, remnants, inferior parts
Central Maewo taeexcrement
Raga te-excrement
Aore tae-excrement
Tangoa te-excrement
Paamese ta-excrement
Tonga na taʔe-nexcrement
Makatea taeexcrement
Wayan dung, feces, excrement, shit; unusable parts of shellfish; waste material, useless substance on a surface, scum
  tā ni laŋilight scudding clouds
  tā ni siŋabrown growth, probably algae, appearing on surfaces of ponds or lakes in very dry weather (lit. ‘shit of the sun’)
Fijian to excrete
  dē-nathe excrement, properly of animals (cf. ‘excrement, generally human’). Bau, however, does not make the distinction made in Lau, and this word is there commoner than .
  vaka-dē-nato excrete on
  dē ni laŋilight scudding clouds
  dē ni osea plant, Euphorbia hirta
Tongan taʔefeces, excrement, dung; also used in the language of anger, contempt, or pity for me‘a (thing, stuff)
  taʔe-ʔi(lit. ‘dung-of’), as in ho‘o ta‘e‘i peni (your rotten old pen, etc.) --- in the language of abuse
Niue excrement
Futunan taʔeexcrement
Samoan taefeces, excrement
  tae-abe dirty, disgusting, filthy
  tae-feʔeoctopus ink, sepia
  tea-iʔabrown sediment which forms when undiluted coconut cream is boiled (lit. ‘fish shit’)
  tae-laŋofly-speck; freckle (or similar small spot)
  tae-ʔotian herb (Ageratum sp.), the goatweed
Tuvaluan taeexcrement
Kapingamarangi dae-daeresidue from coconut oil; soft flesh of coconut husk (under fibers); to defecate (children’s language)
Nukuoro daeguts, intestines; buttocks
Takuu taeexcrement, feces, shit
  kai taeexclamation of frustration or contempt: Eat shit!
  tuu taeink of an octopus or cuttlefish, sepia
Rennellese taʔefeces, dung, excreta of various kinds (ear wax, octopus ink, sea-slug eggs); fragments as of turmeric or Derris; suds; also an endearing and demeaning term, and used as an insult as in ‘I am your feces’ (I respect and love you and humiliate myself before you)
Anuta taeentrails; excrement
  tae-pikointestines (lit. ‘crooked feces’)
Rarotongan tu-taeoffal, excrement, feces, dung
  tu-tae atuaa species of fungi, the puff-ball
Maori tū-taedung
  tū-tae atuaLycoperdon sp., puff-ball; fungi (lit. ‘ghost feces’)
Hawaiian kū-kaeexcreta
  kū-kae akuaa brownish substance, sometimes noticed under trees in the shape of paste squeezed from a tube; if the substance contains red, it is believed to be the excreta of the ghost of a dying person, and a sign that someone is dying


PMP     *t<in>aqay intestines

Kayan (Uma Juman) tənaʔeintestines


POC     *tinaqe intestines

Mota tinae-guts
Merlav tinae-guts
Northeast Ambae sinae-guts
Tangoa tine-guts
Makatea tinaeguts
Futunan tinaʔepregnant
Samoan tinaeguts, entrails
Tuvaluan tinaebelly, stomach
Kapingamarangi dinaesolar plexus; be pregnant
  dinae madaŋistomach distended by gas
Nukuoro dinaebelly; the edible white part of clam meat
Rennellese tinaʔebelly, abdomen, womb; bulging portion of a flying fish torch; breast of a bird

Note:   Rather than reflecting the more widely-distributed form that ends with *-i, nearly all Oceanic languages appear to continue the PMP variant *taqay. Some of the languages of Vanuatu have a reflex with final high vowel, as with Lolomatui, Lolsiwoi, Mafea tai- ‘excrement’, but this is assumed to be a secondary development from POc *taqe.


*taqe negative marker


POC     *taqe₁ negative marker

Arosi aeno, not, negative particle
Buma taeno
Proto-Micronesian *tai, ta-not
Tongan tae(preposed or prefixed), not, un-, in-, non- or without


*taq(e)baŋ lacking in salt


PWMP     *taq(e)baŋ lacking in salt

Tagalog tabáŋtastelessness, insipidity
Aklanon tábʔáŋfresh drinking water; insipid, flat, tasteless
Bikol taʔbáŋbland, flat, insipid, tasteless; lacking in salt or other spices
Cebuano tabʔáŋflat in taste, lacking sugar or salt
Chamorro taʔpaŋrinse -- salt water by using fresh water


*taqo cook in earth oven


POC     *taqo cook in earth oven

Mono-Alu taocook on hot stones, cover with leaves in stone-cooking
Nggela taoto be on oven, of leaves in cooking
Tongan taʔoto bake
Samoan taocook (in a stone oven)
Rennellese taʔobake in the oven, boil in a saucepan, cook in any way except over an open fire

Note:   Also Hawaiian kāō (length unexpl.) ‘to bake in the oven without leaf wrapping, as taro, breadfruit’.


*taqu right side


PAN     *taqu₁ right side     [doublet: *tuqu]

Lun Dayeh t<in>uəh <Mright side
Kenyah (Long Anap) taʔuright side
Kenyah (Long San) taʔəwright side
Murik taʔuhright side
Bintulu taʔəwright side
Melanau (Dalat) lian taʔəwright side
Melanau (Mukah) layan taʔəwright side
Kanowit taʔəwright side
Ngaju Dayak [tau]to be able; to know; to understand
Katingan gan-tauright side
Murung ka-touright side
Tunjung tauʔright side
Cape Cumberland tu-tua <Mright hand
Samoan ta-tauright hand
Rarotongan mā-tau-tauto have a familiar knowledge of, to be perfectly used to certain procedures or ways
Hawaiian ʔā-kauright (not left)


PMP     *ma-taqu₂ right side

Nauna kal-matu-right side
Lou kal-moru-right side
Nali motright side
Wuvulu maʔauright side
Selau matouright side
Mono-Alu matau-naright side
Varisi matau-naright side
Lungga matua <Mright side
Mota matua <Mthe right hand; belonging to the right hand
Mosina moto <Mright hand
Merlav mato <Mright hand
Northeast Ambae matue <Mright hand
Ngwatua ŋʷatua- <Mright hand
Raga mwatua <Mright hand
Central Santo matua <Mright hand
Tambotalo natua <Mright hand
Vovo na-matu <Mright hand
Mapremo marua <Mright hand
Makatea matauright hand
Lelepa matua <Mright hand
Southwest Tanna mʷatu- <Mright hand
Iaai metâright side
Wayan matauthe right, right-hand side; right, right hand; be right-handed
Fijian matauright, as opposed to left
  vaka-mataucleverly, in a right-handed way
Tongan mataʔuright-handed; right (not left)
Niue matauright (as opposed to left)
Samoan matauhull side of a canoe (as opposed to the outrigger)
Tuvaluan matauclever; experienced; right hand; fast
Nukuoro madauright side
Anuta pai matauright side
  nima matauright hand
Maori matauright, on the right hand; the right hand

Note:   Also Sebop taʔuʔ, Penan (Long Labid) naʔauʔ, Long Merigam Penan nauʔ ‘right side’, Roviana matao-na ‘right (opposite of left)’. It is very likely that this comparison is identical to PMP *taqu, *ma-taqu ‘to know how, be able to, be skilled at’, given the universal association of the right hand with skill, aptitude, correctness and the like.


*tara cockspur


PMP     *tara cockspur     [disjunct: *tada]

Simalur taraartificial cockspur
Buginese tara-manuʔcockspur
Bimanese taracockspur


*tariŋ bamboo sp.


PWMP     *tariŋ bamboo sp.     [doublet: *periŋ, *teriŋ]

Quop Land Dayak tariŋbamboo sp.
Sentah Land Dayak tariŋbamboo sp.
Dampelas tariŋk.o. large, strong bamboo
Wolio tarik.o. bamboo
Muna tarik.o. small bamboo, made into fences


*taRabas plant sp.


PWMP     *taRabas plant sp.

Hanunóo tagábaslong-leaved variety of kusúl (Kaempferia galanga Linn.); many medicinal and religious uses
Malay terawasa simple used in making beboréh (yellow cosmetic of saffron and coconut oil rubbed on the body in Java on ceremonial occasions)


*taRah to wait


PAN     *taRah to wait

Pazeh (maxu)-taxato wait
Thao mi-talhawait for someone
Bunun (Takituduh) mal-ta-talahto wait
Tsou m-oo-troto wait
Saaroa m-ara-a-taa-tarato ambush
Amis talato wait
  pa-talato prepare


PAN     *ma-naRah to wait

Atayal (Squliq) mə-nagato wait
Saisiyat (Tungho) may-naato wait
Yami (Imorod) mapa-nalato wait
  pa-nala-ento wait
Itbayaten ma-na-nayacan wait
  na-naya-enwatch and wait for
Kapampangan ma-náyawaiting for someone, something


PAN     *t<um>aRah to wait

Seediq (Truku) t<əm>agato wait
Kanakanabu t<um>á-tarato ambush

Note:   PAn *taRah ‘to wait’ is intriguing for several reasons. First, it is one of the few cognate sets in which prefixation with *maN- appears in Formosan languages. Second, reflexes of *ma-naRah vs. *t<um>aRah are found even within the Atayalic group, distinguishing dialects of Atayal from those of Seediq (Li 2004:688), thus implying that *maN- was active in the relatively recent history of these languages, despite its general absence in Taiwan. Third, *taRah carries a variety of different affixes in all languages that reflect it, and it is very difficult to find examples of the simple base. Part of this comparison was first recognized by Tsuchida (1976:232).


*taRaq hewing with an adze


PAN     *taRaq hewing with an adze

Thao talhaqchips from adzing wood
  ma-talhaqwill adze, will shape with an adze
  shan-talhaq-anbe adzed by someone, be shaped or worked by someone with an adze
Ilokano tagáto trim, shape (by cutting); kind of small gray bird that nests in tree holes it bores
Aklanon tagáʔto strike with a sharp object
Cebuano tágaʔcut down trees
Ida'an Begak tagaʔadze
Lun Dayeh taraʔclear-cutting of jungle for farming
Malay tarahplaning with an adze; shaping, rough-hewing
Old Javanese ta-tahsmall chisel, punch
  a-na-tahto shape with a punch
  t<in>a-tahto shape with a punch
Balinese tahahthe blade of a kind of machete, chopper
Tae' tarato rough hew, shape with an adze
Palauan o-láseʔtool for carving/chopping (< *pa-naRaq)
Chamorro tagaʔhack, chop
Rembong tarato hew (wood)
Rotinese talaadze (carpenter’s tool); to work with an adze
Tetun taato be cut by hitting, to make a blow with a cutting implement
  taa ahito strike a flint
  taa ulu-nto cut off a head, to decapitate
Kei tārscallop shell, used as a coconut rasp
Asilulu talato cut down (as a banana plant); to scrape, to rasp
  ta-talacoconut rasp
Buruese taha-hto fell, cut down
Manam tarato beat off, to strike off (branches), to hollow out (of canoes)
Motu tara-iato adze; to chop; to cut wood; to sting (of hornet); to peck food (of fowls)
Arosi arato chop, cut, cut down a tree; to lop off branches, break off; to hoe; to make equal, level
Mota tarato hew, chop, cut, as with a lakae(tridacna shell adze)
Mosina tarcut
Wayan (of solid object) be cut by chopping or slashing; chopped, hacked, axed, adzed, slashed; be carved, shaped by cutting; be built, made (of boat, keel)
  tā-sicut, chop, carve, build something; what is cut, etc.
Fijian to chop with knife or axe
Tongan to hit (in various senses); to hit, strike, beat; scoop up coarse sand, also applied to scooping up fish with a hand net
Niue to strike; to kill; to adze; to build; to cast (a speaer or a dart); to wield
Futunan to beat, hit (with a stick); to cut (wood) for construction; to build (with wood)
Samoan (of blow) strike, hit; (of tree) fell, cut down; (of timber) adze, chip into shape, hew; (of bilge water) bail out; (of tattoo) apply, put on
Tuvaluan taahit; beat; chop; fell a tree; a large wedge used in splitting trees; build a canoe; drive fish; strike (of a clock)
  taa-taastrum a stringed instrument
Rennellese taato hit, strike, cut, kill, murder; tattoo; to carve or make, as a canoe; to tap, as to soften bii fruit; to strike, as birds dive down for fish; to beat, as the sounding board; to net, as flying fish; to scoop up, as swarms of ... fish in seine or net
Anuta taa ~ tato strike, to hit; an implement used for striking (i.e. a club); to chop down; to cut; to build (as in cutting out the shape/building a canoe)
Rarotongan to kill, to put to death, to slay, to overcome, to destroy, to slaughter; an assault, sudden attack; to beat or dash out, as in bailing a canoe; to pound or beat, as in washing clothes with a stick or stone on a flat surface
Maori dash; aim a blow at; strike, beat with a stick, etc.; whip a top; dash water out of a canoe; so bail; cut; tattoo; carve, fashion
Hawaiian to hit, strike, hack, thrust, toss, fling, hurl, dash, especially with a quick hard stroke


PWMP     *ma-naRaq to hew with an adze

Ilokano man-nagawoodpecker
Cebuano ma-nagaʔ-nagaʔwoodcutter
Lun Dayeh naraʔcut down trees to make a farm, fell trees
Malay me-narahto hew a piece of wood into the outline of what it is intended to be, finer carving (ukir) being done with a knife
Sangir ma-nahashape tree trunks into timbers or planks (by adzing)
Bare'e man-taʔato hew, shape, give form to, make the general design of something (as a coffin from a log)
Tae' man-tarato shape with an adze, work wood with an adze
Palauan me-láseʔto chop, whittle, carve (log for canoe); build (house); (cat) claw at


PWMP     *t<in>aRaq (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano t<in>agachips of wood, stone, etc.
Lun Dayeh t<in>araʔfelled by someone
Palauan d<el>áseʔthing carved


PAN     *t<um>aRaq to adze wood, hew wood with an adze

Pazeh mu-taxato cut wood or bamboo into small pieces
Thao t<m>alhaqto shape a log by hewing it with an adze
Kavalan t<m>arito chop with an axe
Lun Dayeh t<em>araʔclear-felling trees on the farm with an axe
Palauan d<m>áseʔto chop, whittle, carve (log for canoe); build (house); (cat) claw at


PWMP     *taRaq-en (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano taga-ento trim, shape (by cutting)
Lun Dayeh tere-ina place which is going to be cleared of wood
Palauan desáʔ-elthing being carved/thing to be carved


PAN     *taRaq-i Adze it!, Hew it!

Pazeh taxaʔ-iCut it!
Thao talhaq-iAdze it!
Gapapaiwa tara-tara-ito fell trees
Arosi ara-ito chop, cut, cut down a tree
Northeast Ambae ta-icut
Tongan taaʔ-ito chop, to cut or carve (e.g. a canoe) by chopping

Note:   Also Iban taras ‘trim, shape, plane, esp. hew with adze or axe’, Selau tarsa ‘shape a plank, hew, plane’, Rotuman ‘to cut or chop down (tree or branch)’. The central sense of this term evidently was ‘to shape wood by adzing’, and it presumably would have applied primarily to the shaping of timbers in house construction, and of tree trunks into the hulls of canoes. Given its meaning it implies the use of adzes as distinct from axes, machetes, and knives, and therefore the existence of a PAn term for ‘adze’ which is yet to be reconstructed. Working with an adze involves a striking motion toward the actor, a semantic feature of this term that crops up in other senses, as in Asilulu ta-tala ‘coconut rasp’, Arosi ara ‘to hoe’, or the Tongan and Rennellese forms that refer to scooping up sand or small fish. In Fijian and the Polynesian languages, on the other hand, the original sense of movement toward the actor in adzing wood evolved into a generalized notion of hitting, chopping, cutting, bailing water (by ‘striking’ at it with a paddle or bailer), or more abstractly, of killing.


*taRaqan squirrelfish: Holocentrus spp.


PMP     *taRaqan squirrelfish: Holocentrus spp.

Yami talanSquirrelfish spp. (Tsuchida 1984)
Palauan desáʔelspiny squirrelfish: Holocentrus spinifer
Motu taraname of a fish
Marshallese jerasquirrelfish: Holocentrus spp.
Pohnpeian sarasquirrelfish: Adoryx spinifer
Chuukese sara (saraa)yellow-lined squirrel fish (Holocentrus ensifer Jordan and Evermann)
Woleaian sera (seraa)kind of fish
Puluwat har'akind of red fish
Tongan taʔakind of red, edible fish
Niue taakind of red fish
Samoan malauname given to red squirrel-fishes belonging to genera Holocentrus and Myripristis
  tā-malauname given to certain fishes of genus Holocentrus when about 1 ft. in length
Nukuoro daasquirrelfish

Note:   Yami normally reflects *R as y, but other examples of *R > l are known (*kaRaŋ > kalaŋ ‘crab’, *(d)aRaq > ralaʔ ‘blood’). Nuclear Micronesian reflexes confirm the indications of Palauan and Tongan that this form was trisyllabic, as an original disyllable would be reflected without final vowel.


*ta(R)kes wrap around, encircle


PAN     *ta(R)kes wrap around, encircle

Amis takecembrace
Kadazan tagkosto girdle

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.


*taRpis thinness, fineness of texture


PWMP     *taRpis thinness, fineness of texture

Tagalog tagpísfineness, sveltness, thinness
Old Javanese tapisthin layer

Note:   With root *-pis₂ ‘thin, fine, of texture’.


*taRum indigo plant and dye: Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) and Indigofera tinctoria L.


PMP     *taRum indigo plant and dye: Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) and Indigofera tinctoria L.

Kapampangan tayomshrub that provides a blue dye (Bergaño 1860)
Bikol tágomindigo, species of plant from which a blue dye is extracted
  mag-tágomto tint or dye with indigo
  tagóm-onto tint or dye with indigo
Hanunóo tágumindigo plant (Indigofera tinctoria Linn.); the leaves are used for dyeing and for rubbing on neck swellings
Hiligaynon tagúmblue
Aklanon tagómmedicinal tree
Romblomanon tāguman indigo plant, Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) or Indigofera tinctoria (Linn.)
Cebuano tágumindigo: Indigofera suffruticosa
  gi-tágumdye something dark or stain something
  mu-tágumbecome dark or black (as skin xposed too long in the sun)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taɣuma certain leaf of a vine which is used as a black dye for dyeing abaca fiber
Maranao tagomIndigofera suffruticosa Mill. --- leaves used to color things black; black, blacken, dark color: black, brown, blue or gray
Ngaju Dayak tahuma creeper that produces purple-colored fruit that people use to dye woven fabric
  ma-nahumto dye fabric with this substance
Iban tarumindigo plant, unidentified (probably creeper Marsdenia tinctoria R, Br., and not Indian Indigofera tinctoria L.); the blue-black dye made from it
  narumto dye with indigo
Rhade krŭmdye made from indigo plant
Malay tarumindigo plant (indigo dye is nila); usually Indigofera tinctoria, the Indian indigo plant; native nila is made by cutting up tarum leaves, steeping them in water, and finally boiling them with lime or chalk; dark-colored (as the skin or fur of various animals)
Old Javanese tomindigo plant
Javanese tomindigo tree whose leaves (nila) are used for dye
  ŋe-tomto plant indigo trees
  pa-tom-anindigo plantation
Balinese tahumindigo plant
Sasak tarumindigo, indigo plant; to dye blue
Sangir tahuŋindigo, Indigofera tinctoria, used as a dyestuff
Bolaang Mongondow taguma creeper that yields a greenish-black dye
Tae' tarunindigo plant, Indigofera; its extract is used to dye clothes blue; blue in color
  tarun-tarun-anbluish; bright blue, as translucent water
Makasarese taruŋa plant resembling the indigo plant, but yielding no indigo; probably Cassia tagera
Muna taukind of plant the leaves of which are used as green dye
Bimanese dauindigo plant
Manggarai taroŋIndigofera spp.
Ngadha taruindigo; to dye with indigo
Li'o taruindigo
Rotinese tau-kthe indigo plant, indigo; dark blue
  tau isi-kindigo dye
  tau-taublue-black (as rain clouds)
Tetun tauna bush (Indigofera) whose leaves are used for making a blue dye for cloth
Lamaholot taʔūthe indigo plant (Pogostemon cablin), used for dyeing woven fabrics

Note:   Also Ilokano táyumIndigofera suffruticosa, the indigo plant’, táyum-táyum ‘Indigo hirsuta, herb with reddish-brown stems covered with purplish hairs’ (< Tagalog, ultimately from Kapampangan), Tagalog táyom ‘indigo plant; indigo blue, mag-táyom, tayúm-in ‘to stain or tinge with indigo’, tayúm-an ‘indigo plantation’, tayum-án ‘place where clothes are dyed’ (< Kapampangan), Sundanese tarum ‘name of the nila, or indigo plant’ (< Malay), Bolaang Mongondow alom ‘indigo plant’.


*taRutum porcupine fish, puffer fish, Diodon sp.


PMP     *taRutum porcupine fish, puffer fish, Diodon sp.     [doublet: *taRutuŋ]

Cebuano tagutuŋ-anporcupine fish, Diodon sp.
Palauan derúdmporcupine fish
Timugon Murut tautuŋporcupine
Lun Dayeh terutuŋporcupine
Ma'anyan tetuŋporcupine
Dohoi tohotuŋporcupine
Karo Batak tarutuŋkind of durian
Toba Batak tarutuŋdurian tree and its fruit
Waay tarutumfish with spiny skin (called durian in Ambon) (Ludeking 1868)
Kowiai tarutunporcupine fish
Pohnpeian seiporcupine fish; soursop, Annona muricata
Gilbertese tautipuffer fish, Diodon
Rotuman faufufish which inflates itself when caught: covered with spikes like a porcupine
Rennellese tautugeneral name for balloon fish (porcupine fish)
Samoan tautufish (Diodon sp.) with very sharp spines

Note:   Also Kenyah (Long Anap) setuŋ, Kayan ketuŋ ‘porcupine’. This remarkable comparison is of special interest for at least two reasons. First, it is customarily assumed that *R > r immediately preceding a dental consonant in Palauan (*uRat > ŋurd ‘vein, artery’), but otherwise became s (*(d)aRaq > rásech ‘blood’, *zaRum > rasm ‘needle’). However, derúdm suggests that *R > r in Palauan if the following syllable began with a dental consonant, even if the intervening vowel was not lost.

The second noteworthy feature of this cognate set is its range of semantic reflexes. Subgrouping considerations make it all but certain that the word referred originally to the puffer fish or porcupine fish, as this meaning is reflected both in Oceanic and in Koroni languages. Among Austronesian speakers that became reoriented to a primarily inland environment the meaning was shifted to cover other roundish, spiny biota (porcupine, durian). A parallel semantic extension is seen in Pohnpeian sei, where the reference to the soursop could hardly be original, as the plant is said to be a native of tropical America (Merrill 1954:152). For the conditions governing the split *t > s or Ø in Pohnpeian see Rehg (1984). Both Gilbertese and Pohnpeian evidently reflect earlier *tauti (see Blust 1970a).


*tata₁ elder male relative


PMP     *tata₁ elder male relative

Cebuano tátafather; address of respect to a father, esp. among Muslims; address of respect to an old man, esp. a close relative
Ibaloy tata-ŋfather
Sambal (Botolan) tata-yfather
Chamorro tatafather
Patpatar tatafather
Ma'anyan tata-ʔelder sibling
Numfor-Biak kaka-mother's brother
Mendak tatamother's brother (vocative)


*tata₂ near


POC     *tata₂ near

Eddystone/Mandegusu tatanear, close at hand
Roviana tataclose, near; almost
Tongan tatanear
Niue tatanear; closely related
  faka-tatadraw near


*tatadu large green hairless stinging caterpillar


PWMP     *tatadu large green hairless stinging caterpillar     [doublet: *katadu]

Maranao tatarocaterpillar
Lun Dayeh tetaduhcaterpillar

Note:   Also Kankanaey atatádo ‘bluish white caterpillar living on the taro plant’, Malay ulat centadu, ulat sentadu, Minangkabau sintadu, tintadu, (Negri Sembilan) mentadu ‘large green hairy caterpillar, believed by Malays to develop into a squirrel’, Bolaang Mongondow tantaduʔ, tontaduʔ ‘large caterpillar sp.’.


*tau ñamuk mosquito net


POC     *tau ñamuk mosquito net     [doublet: *tai ñamuk]

Chuukese tówunómwmosquito net, sleeping canopy
Puluwat tównómwmosquito net, formerly of loomed cloth
Woleaian taulomw(u)sheet, mosquito net
Fijian tau-namumosquito net
Rennellese tau-namumosquito net; to sleep under a mosquito net
Nukuoro dau namumosquito net

Note:   Also Nggela taonamu, Toqabaqita taunamo, Arosi tao namu ~ tau namu, Wayan tau namo ‘mosquito net’, all of which appear to be loans from one or more undetermined sources.


*tawan kind of fruit tree: Pometia pinnata


PMP     *tawan kind of fruit tree: Pometia pinnata

Bolaang Mongondow tawankind of tree: Pometia pinnata Merr.
Bare'e tawaa large, tall tree: Dysoxylum acutangulum; the wood is too heavy for boats and isn’t favored for building houses
Ambai tawaa tree: Pometia spp.
Ansus tawana tree: Pometia spp.
Wandamen tawaa tree: Pometia spp.
Waropen kawanoa tree: Pometia spp.
Nauna tawtree with yellow flower
Lou taa tree with edible fruit: Pometia pinnata
Loniu tawtree with red fruit --- bark used to poison fish
Wuvulu awashore tree with fruit that flying foxes eat
Aua awashore tree with red flower
Mussau taontree with sweet fruit: Pometia pinnata
Sa'a awaa tree: Nephelium pinnatum
Arosi awaa tree, sp. of lychee, but the San Cristobal species is only edible by birds
Mota tawana fruit tree: Nephelium pinnatum
Rotuman favaa tree: Pometia pinnata; fruit nearly globular with green rind, edible slightly sweet jelly-like flesh and a large stone
Fijian dawaa large tree, Pometia pinnata, Sapindaceae. It bears a fruit with jelly-like flesh and a large stone the size of a plum.
Tongan tavakind of tree bearing fruit with a large stone surrounded by jelly-like flesh
Niue tavaa tree: Pometia pinnata
Samoan tavalarge tree (Pometia sp.)

Note:   The Oceanic reflexes of this term are extensively doumented in Ross (2008:343-344).


*taytay single log bridge (?)


PMP     *taytay single log bridge (?)

Ibaloy taytaya bridge
  i-taytayto use something in making a bridge (as cable, steel)
Pangasinan taytáybridge
Kapampangan tétebridge
Tagalog taytáybamboo plank or bridge
Hanunóo taytáysitting or perching on a single crosspiece
  t<um>aytáyto sit down, perch (on something)
Cebuano taytáymountain range; bridge; make a bridge
  pa-naytáytravel along a mountain ridge
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teyteya bridge; a type of design used in weaving
  pe-neyteyto cross a log bridge
Mansaka taytayto walk along something narrow (as a plank, log, or a narrow bridge)
Binukid taytaybridge; to make a bridge, to put a bridge over (something); to cross, travel over a bridge
Tiruray titaya bridge; to cross a bridge
  titay beruŋona center purlin in house construction
Mapun pa-titito cross over a bridge (to a place)
Yakan mag-teyteyto walk (as on a tightrope or balance beam)
Tausug mag-taytayto cross a bridge (to a place)
  t<um>aytayto cross a bridge (to a place)
Ngaju Dayak t<al>etaysteps, ladder (specifically, a slanting log with steps cut into it that is used as a native ladder)
Malagasy mi-tetito walk through, to pass through, to go from place ot place, as houses or towns, to tread on
Iban titilow bridge, timber causeway, board walk; usually distinct from batang (felled tree or logs laid end to end), and andau (bridge); walk along narrow way or in single file
Malay titinarrow footway, of a plank bridge; gangway; log across a stream, or even of a bough as a footway from one part of a tree to another; also of bridges generally
Gayo teteflooring (generally of bamboo)
Simalur titibridge
  titi-n tiuʔtwo thin beams on the roof scaffolding that run parallel to the roof beams (lit. ‘rat path’ or ‘rat footbridge’)
Sundanese netestand on something on the tips of one’s toes; also, stand or be supported with the point of the foot on the edge of something
Old Javanese titifootbridge
Balinese titia bridge. a wooden plank across a ditch
  titi-n-inbe bridged by someone
Sasak teteplank bridge, native bridge; bridge of the souls in the Afterworld
  bə-tetewalk over a bridge
Tontemboan tetebridge
  t<um>etecross over a bridge
Bolaang Mongondow totoya bridge, formerly not much more than a tree trunk or bamboo over the water
Tae' tetea small bridge, plank bridge; walk over a plank bridge
  me-tetemake a plank bridge
Makasarese teteplank bridge, a plank or tree trunk laid across a stream or ravine
  pa-tetecross over something (as a plank bridge); walk shakily, as people do
Palauan didbridge
  didí-l a ʔarmbeams/rafters at ends and sides of house (on which rats often run)
Buli tetimprovised bridge made of a single plank or tree trunk


POC     *tete single log bridge; stairs, ladder

Manam tetestairs, ladder
Gedaged tetladder (a pole used as a ladder), stairs, step (anything that may serve as a step); a small tree standing near a large one used as a ladder; a bridge; wharf; companionway, stile, gangway, catwalk, drawbridge
Molima teteto walk along a ridge or branch of tree; to go towards the reef
Bugotu teteto climb up on a fishing tripod
Nggela tetea row, rank, line; to cross a stream on a log or bridge; to descend a ladder not using hands; a bridge
  tete ni ihuthe bridge of the nose


PWMP     *ma-naytay walk over a plank or log bridge

Pangasinan man-taytáycross a bridge
Yakan neyteyto walk (as on a tightrope or balance beam)
Nias nete-netepath, bridge
Bolaang Mongondow mo-notoywalk over a bridge
Palauan me-lídto cross over (log/stones being used as a bridge)


PWMP     *taytay-an log or plank bridge

Ibaloy taytay-anto bridge something (as a river)
Cebuano taytay-anbridge; means by which something is obtained
Mapun titiy-ana bridge (often made of bamboo or wood)
Yakan teytey-ana footbridge, small bridge, catwalk (it is usually made of a board or a log)
Tausug taytay-ana bridge (usually made of bamboo or wood)
Ngaju Dayak tatæ-ana wooden walkway or bridge (as from the house to the river; what is bridged over
Malagasy tetez-anaa bridge
Malay titi-an batustepping-stones
Dampelas tente-ana bridge
Pendau tinte-ana bridge

Note:   This term appears to have referred primarily to single log or plank bridges of a type commonly improvised in traveling when there is a need to cross a narrow water obstacle or ravine. It may have also been used in an expression that described certain narrow beams that form part of the roof support, where rats were commonly seen running (cf. Simalur and Palauan).


*tanzak step, leap


PWMP     *tanzak step, leap

Javanese tanjaka certain leaping move in the classical dance
Bare'e tadaplace the foot on something higher, e.g. in order to take a big step or a leap, or to reach a higher place

Note:   With root *-zak ‘step, tread’.


*ta(n)zeg stand


PWMP     *ta(n)zeg stand

Bontok ta-k-degstand up
Ifugaw ta-ʔ-dogstand up from a sitting position
Bilaan (Sarangani) tadagto stand
Balinese tajegstand erect; be directly overhead (sun)
Sasak tanjekto erect, place upright in the ground

Note:   Also Palawan Batak (Reid 1971) tindɨg, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hi-tindeg ‘stand up’, Karo Batak tandek ‘stand, standing, as a bottle on a table’, Manggarai tedek ‘stand erect’. This item is assumed to contain a root *-zeg ‘stand erect’ (cf. Dempwolff (1934-38) *zegzeg ‘firm foothold’).

TOP      te        ti    to    tu    



*tebaR loud, sonorous, booming


PWMP     *tebaR loud, sonorous, booming

Ilokano tebbágloud, sonorous, richly resonant, ringing, strong
Malay tebardeep-sounding (but not echoing), of a booming noise


*tebaS to cut, clear vegetation


PAN     *tebaS to cut, clear vegetation     [doublet: *tebas 'chop off, fell']

Paiwan tjevasto cut, prune, clear (vegetation)
Kankanaey tébacut down, as a bunch of bananas
Tagalog tibáʔcutting down a banana plant for its fruits
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tevaʔcut a bunch of bananas
Maranao tebaʔcut banana stalk
Iban tebaʔcut small plants through, esp. bamboo
Malagasy (Merina) tevycut down trees to make a clearing in a forest
Proto-Ambon *tebacut off

Note:   Replaces *teba ‘fell banana stalk’ in Blust (1970). Based on Toba Batak toba ‘name of the country around Lake Toba’, Javanese teba ‘gathering place for birds, animals; scope, territory’, Malagasy tevy (see above). Fijian tova ‘a flat piece of land, formerly planted with yams’, Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *teba ‘land appropriated by clearing of forest’.


*tebek pierce, stab


PAN     *tebek pierce, stab

Kavalan tbeqstab
Isneg tabbáʔbe cut by an edged instrument; to string, to thread (beads, tobacco leaves, pieces of meat, etc.)
Bontok tebékstick or wire used for piercing, as in order to test if food is cooked; to pierce, as food to see if it is cooked, or pieces of meat when stringing them together
Kankanaey tebékto bore; to drill; to perforate; to pierce; to run through (with a spear, sharp stick, etc.)
Bikol taboklance a boil; wound a fighting cock with a spur (of the opponent cock)
Hanunóo tubukawl
Cebuano tubúkpoke at a point; put a period or dot
Maranao tebekpoke, prod with sharp point; aim; stitch
Tiruray tebekto prick, to inject something or someone
Tboli tebekfork; any sharp instrument
Kelabit (Bario) tebʰekmark left by piercing; pierced (as by needle, knife)
Melanau (Mukah) tebekstab, stabbing
Malagasy (Merina) tevikaa stitch; a bore in the lobe of the ear
Kayan tevekcut the throat (as of a slaughtered pig)
Iban tebakpierce, prick, be pricked (as by a thorn)
Malay tebakiron crowbar used for stone-breaking by Sumatran miners
Karo Batak tebekpointed, sharp, as a dibble stick
Nias towoshave, cut with a razor
Old Javanese teweka pointed weapon for stabbing
Balinese tebekstab, make a hole in something, make a hole in the ground for planting seedlings; a hole in the ground for a seedling
Sasak tebekcut deeply, pierce deeply
Bolaang Mongondow mo-tobokpoke holes in something thin (as leather)
Banggai tobokprick, pierce, stick (with a weapon)
Bare'e tobopointed, sharp, as a beak or the point of a knife
Buginese tebbaʔnotch or incise, as a tree
Yamdena tebaksting, prick, spear; point out, decide
Buli tepatusks of a boar or elephant; pierce or wound with a tusk


PWMP     *tebek-en be pierced, be stabbed

Isneg tabba-ānto string, to thread (beads, tobacco leaves, pieces of meat, etc.)
Bontok tebk-énpierced
Kankanaey tebk-énbored, drilled, perforated
Bikol tabok-ónlanced, wounded
Malagasy (Merina) teveh-inabe bored, be pierced
Bolaang Mongondow into tobok-onthe one who will undergo the ceremony of ear-piercing


PWMP     *t<in>ebek was pierced, was stabbed

Isneg s-im-baʔstring of beads
Kelabit (Bario) s-i-bʰekwas pierced, was stabbed
Melanau (Mukah) t-i-bekwas stabbed


PAN     *t<um>ebek to pierce, to stab

Kavalan t<um>beqto stab
Cebuano tu-m-bukpoke a finger or something pointed at something; point out, pinpoint
Bintulu t-um-bekto stab
Melanau (Mukah) t-u-bekto stab
Old Javanese t-um-uwekstab with a kris


PWMP     *maŋ-tebek to pierce, to stab

Kelabit (Bario) nebʰekpierce, stab
Sasak nebekcutting deeply (of an instrument)
Bolaang Mongondow mo-nobokthe ceremony of ear-piercing

Note:   Also Cebuano tubúk ‘poke at a point; put a period or dot’, Ngaju Dayak tewek ‘be stabbed (with a knife or dagger; with a lance: puno)’, Karo Batak tebak ‘to pierce with a knife’, Tae' tibok ‘stab with a knife or kris’, tobok ‘stab with a knife or kris’, Makasarese toboʔ ‘kris’, Wolio tobo ‘kris’, tobok-i ‘stab with a kris’, Bimanese tuɓa ‘to lance, pierce with a lance or similar sharp weapon; stab’, Rembong tewak ‘stab into the earth; dig up tubers with a hoe’, Lamaholot tubak ‘stab’.

Dempwolff's (1934-38) inclusion of Fijian teve ‘circumcise’, Tongan tefe ‘circumcise’, Samoan tefe ‘circumcise’ is unconvincing, and cognates in Oceanic languages are still unknown. This morpheme evidently referred to piercing with a sharp, pointed implement which made only a dot-like perforation as opposed to a longitudinal incision. It applied to soft or pliant surfaces (apparently not to boring through wood or other hard material), and included e.g. the piercing of ear-lobes and soft tubers, the skewering of materials to be strung stitching with a needle, perforating with an awl, stabbing into flesh, and dibbling in soft soil.


*te(m)bek tap, thump


PMP     *te(m)bek tap, thump

Kayan tebeksound of heart thumping
Buruese tefe-tap; mallet for hammering bark into cloth

Note:   With root *-bek ‘sound of breaking, etc.’.


*tebel constipated


PPh     *tebel constipated

Isneg tabbálsuffer from costiveness or constipation
Tagalog tibíconstipation, costiveness
Bikol tubólconstipated
Masbatenyo tubolhard feces


*tebteb to cut off, prune; cut down


PWMP     *tebteb to cut off, prune; cut down

Kankanaey tebtébto fell, cut down, hew down, cut off
Balinese tebtebcut off short, prune, cut to a point


*tebuk to pound, as rice


PWMP     *tebuk₁ to pound, as rice

Balinese tebukpound rice to dehusk it; thresh
Gorontalo tobuʔoto pound, as rice

Note:   With root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud, splash’.


*tebuR natural spring, fresh water spring


PMP     *tebuR natural spring, fresh water spring     [doublet: *Cebuj]    [disjunct: *tubuR]

Tagalog tubógpool of water
Tiruray tebuga stagnant pool of water; to make a pool to hold water
Tboli tebulcontinuous trickle of water, as a spring


POC     *topuR natural spring, fresh water spring

Mota tovspring below high water mark; the brackish water of such a spring


*tebuS sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum


PAN     *tebuS sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum     [doublet: *CebuS]

Saisiyat ka-tboʃsugarcane
Pazeh tubussugarcane
Thao tufúshsugarcane: Saccharum officinarum
Kavalan təbussugarcane
Amis təfossugarcane
  mi-tfosto harvest sugarcane
Paiwan tjevussugarcane: Saccharum officinarum


PMP     *tebuh₁ sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum

Sambal (Botolan) təboʔsugarcane
Kapampangan atbúsugarcane
Tagalog tubósugarcane
  mag-tubóto plant sugarcane
  tubuh-ánsugarcane plantation
Bikol tubósugarcane
  mag-tubóto plant sugarcane
  ka-tubu-ána field of sugarcane
Hanunóo tubúsugarcane
Masbatenyo tubósugarcane
Romblomanon tubusugarcane plant or stalk, Saccharum officinarum (Linn.)
Hiligaynon tubúsugarcane
Aklanon tubósugarcane
  ka-túbw-ansugarcane plantation
Waray-Waray tubósugarcane
Cebuano tubúsugarcane
  ka-tubh-ansugarcane plantation
Mapun tabbusugarcane
Subanun (Siocon) tobusugarcane
Mansaka tobosugarcane
Binukid tubúsugarcane
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tevusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Maranao teboSaccharum officinarum L., sugarcane
Yakan tebbusugarcane
  mag-tebbuto cut or plant sugarcane
  tebbuh-ana sugarcane field
Tausug tubusugarcane
Ida'an Begak təbpusugarcane
Kadazan tobusugarcane
Tombonuwo tobusugarcane
Kelabit (Bario) təbʰuhsugarcane
Kenyah (Long Anap) təpusugarcane
Kayan tevoʔsugarcane
Kayan (Uma Juman) təvoʔsugarcane
Murik təbuʔsugarcane
Berawan (Long Terawan) təppuhsugarcane
Kiput təsəwsugarcane
Narum təfawsugarcane
Miri təfuhsugarcane
Bintulu təɓəwsugarcane
Melanau (Mukah) təbəwsugarcane
Ngaju Dayak tewusugarcane
Iban tebusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Malay tebusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Jarai təbəwsugarcane
Rade kəbəwsugarcane
Karo Batak təbusugarcane
Toba Batak tobusugarcane
Nias tõwusugarcane
Sangir tuwu <Asugarcane
Bare'e towusugarcane, planted as a sweet snack
Uma towusugarcane
Tae' taʔbusugarcane
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *towusugarcane
Muna towusugarcane
Wolio towusugarcane
Buginese təbbusugarcane
Makasarese taʔbusugarcane
Chamorro tuputype of plant -- Saccharum officinarum, sugarcane
Palauan debsugarcane
Manggarai téusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Ngadha tevusugarcane
Kambera tíbusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Tetun tohusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Wetan tewisugarcane
Leti tewusugarcane
Kisar keusugarcane
Erai tehusugarcane
Kédang tehusugarcane
Selaru téhsugarcane
Yamdena tefusugarcane
Fordata tevusugarcane
Asilulu tehusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Kamarian tehusugarcane
Kayeli tebosugarcane
Buruese tefusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Soboyo tofusugarcane
Kowiai tofsugarcane
Buli topsugarcane
Irarutu tofsugarcane
Numfor-Biak kobsugarcane
Serui-Laut tovusugarcane
Windesi tobusugarcane
Waropen kowusugarcane


POC     *na topu sugarcane

Nali druhsugarcane
Ere druhsugarcane
Loniu tuhsugarcane
Levei cuhsugarcane
Nauna tuhsugarcane
Leipon ndohsugarcane
Penchal rupsugarcane
Drehet khuhsugarcane
Wuvulu tofuwild cane: Saccharum edule
Mussau tousugarcane
Tigak tusugarcane
Tanga tufsugarcane
Label tohsugarcane
Tolai tupsugar, sugarcane
Nakanai la tovusugarcane (generic; Saccharum sp.)
Vitu tovusugarcane
Lusi too <Asugarcane
Wogeo tousugarcane
Manam tousugarcane
Takia tousugarcane
Gapapaiwa tomsugarcane
Tawala tomsugarcane
Motu tohusugarcane, Saccharum spp.
Dobuan tousugarcane
Molima towusugarcane (generic)
Kilivila tousugarcane
Mono-Alu tohusugarcane
Halia tohusugarcane
Selau tousugarcane
Marovo tovusugarcane
Talise tovusugarcane
Nggela tovusugarcane
Kwaio ofusugarcane
Lau ofusugarcane
Sa'a oohusugarcane
'Āre'āre ōhusugarcane
Arosi rohusugarcane
Buma tosugarcane
Gilbertese toua whole pandanus fruit (chewed like sugarcane; cf. Bender et al 2003a)
Chuukese woow ~ wowusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Puluwat woowsugarcane
Woleaian wousugarcane
Pohnpeian sehusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Kosraean tuhsugarcane
Mota tousugarcane
Northeast Ambae toβusugarcane
Ngwatua topusugarcane
Cape Cumberland toβusugarcane
Araki oβusugarcane
Paamese a-tehsugarcane
Namakir na toβsugarcane
Anejom ne-tosugarcane
Wayan tovusugarcane
Fijian dovusugarcane, sugar: Saccharum officinarum

Note:   Also Tetun touhu, Mbula teu ‘sugarcane, (Saccharum officinarum). The high vowel reflex of POc *o in a number of the languages of New Ireland and nearly all languages of the Admiralty Islands is unexplained, but may indicate a POc doublet *na tupu.


*tendan wages, salary


PWMP     *tendan wages, salary

Maranao tendanreward, bribe, hire, salary
Melanau (Mukah) tidanpayment for a service, or for work done
Bolaang Mongondow tondanwages
Gorontalo tonelobride price

Note:   Also Isneg taŋdān ‘wages, salary, fee’, Hanunóo táŋdan ‘direct payment of beads to a seer ... for his services’, Sangir tendéŋ ‘payment for work, especially to smiths’. The Isneg and Hanunóo forms suggest an etymon *taŋ(e)dan, but the first syllable vowel is difficult to reconcile with that in the other forms. Melanau (Mukah) tidan is assumed to be an i-ablaut form of an unrecorded base **tedan.


*tedaʔ leftover, remainder


PAN     *tedaʔ leftover, remainder     [doublet: *tida]

Paiwan tjezasomething saved, left over; a remainder
  pu-tjezaleave over, save (esp. food)
Bikol tadáʔsomething left over, remainder
Iban tedaʔleavings, remnant, left-overs


*te(n)dem recall, recollect, remember


PWMP     *te(n)dem recall, recollect, remember

Tiruray tedemremember
Bare'e tondorecall, melancholic recollection

Note:   With root *-dem₂ ‘think, ponder; brood; remember’.


*tedis crush with the thumbnail (as a louse)


PWMP     *tedis crush with the thumbnail (as a louse)     [disjunct: *tedes]

Tagalog tiríscrushing (of lice) between thumbnails
Kayan teréhcrush with thumb-nail (as a louse)


*te(n)duk skewer; to skewer (as meat)


PWMP     *te(n)duk skewer; to skewer (as meat)

Tagalog turókbe pierced (by a pointed instrument, as a pin, needle or the like)
  tundókpiercing meat with a skewer
Kayan tedukskewer; skewered meat

Note:   Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *tu(d)ek ‘prick, pierce’.


*teduŋ take shelter, cover the head


PMP     *teduŋ take shelter, cover the head     [doublet: *tuduŋ 'head covering']

Isneg taddóŋany kind of large leaf used for covering the head as a protection against rain, etc.
Casiguran Dumagat tedúŋhold a cloth or a large leaf over the head (as a protection against rain or the hot sun)
Sasak tedoŋprotect oneself agains sun or rain (by placing something on or over the head
Balinese teduŋumbrella or sunshade (of paper or silk)
Proto-Minahasan *təruŋshelter
Buginese tedduŋumbrella
Manggarai tesoŋtake shelter
Kambera tiduŋucarry on the head (as a water pot)

Note:   With root *-duŋ ‘shelter, protect’. Part of this comparison was first noted in print by van der Veen (1940).


*tegaŋ dry, dehydrated


PWMP     *tegaŋ dry, dehydrated

Tagalog tigáŋextremely dry, said of soil
Kayan tegaŋdry (as clothes), dried out

Note:   With root *-gaŋ ‘dry, dehydrated’.


*tegas clear, straightforward


PMP     *tegas clear, straightforward

Javanese tegasclear, unambiguous, firm
Manggarai tehasstraightforward; clarify


*tegel unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn


PMP     *tegel unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn     [doublet: *te(ŋ)ger]

Maranao tegelforce, impose, require, demand
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teɣelto force something or someone
Karo Batak tegelfirm, unyielding (esp. of thinking, courage)
Javanese tegelhave the courage to do something terrible; unmerciful
Sasak tegelhold tight, cling to
Manggarai tegelinflexible


*teger unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn


PMP     *teger unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn     [doublet: *tegel]

Iban tegarstrong, powerful
Malay tegarstiff, unbending, obstinate
Malay (Jakarta) tegerstubborn
Sundanese tegerstand firm, steadfast; energetic, courageous, undaunted
Manggarai tegerinflexible; stubborn
  teŋgersteadfast; stubborn


*teguŋ to boom, resound


PAN     *teguŋ to boom, resound

Paiwan (Western) tjeguŋto make noise
Kayan teguŋbooming sound, as made by drum or gong

Note:   With root *-guŋ ‘deep resounding sound’.


*teka₁ to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete


PMP     *teka₁ to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete

Mapun takkato arrive; to reach or be able to reach a destination
  ka-takka-hanto have something or someone come or arrive to you
  (ka)-takka-handestination; to have a feeling or emotion come upon you (like hunger, anger, sickness, tiredness, love, etc.)
  mag-takka-takkacome and go continuously; to fluctuate (as the price or availability of something, one’s good and bad traits, etc.)
  takka-hanto report someone to the authorities
Yakan tekkaarrival
  mag-tekkato raid, attack, arrive at (someone’s place with evil intent)
  mag-tekka-tekkasometimes; occasionally
  magka-tekkafor something to arrive
  ka-tekkah-anfor something to come to someone, arrive at someone; the place or time of someone’s arrival
  tekka-unto arrive
Kenyah təkafeeling (as a sickly feeling)
Acehnese təkato come, arrive
Rejang tekoto come, arrive
Old Javanese təkato come, arrive, reach one’s goal; coming
  ka-təkaarrived; (come) as far as, including
  ka-təka-n(“reached by something”) to suffer, undergo; to succeed in, manage to, win; to reach, up to
  t<um>əkato come, arrive, reach one’s goal
Javanese tekato come, arrive; to go on, continue; (up) to, until; to get to, reach; upon reaching
  ke-teka-nto be visited
  t<um>ekato go to, head for
Balinese tekato come, arrive
  teka-haŋbe caused to come, be brought
  teka-hinbe come to, be visited
  teka-ncoming, arrival
Bare'e tokapresent, on hand, available because it has been brought (to a place)
  to-tokaone who has come, guest, visitor, foreigner
Wolio tokabe already present, be there beforehand
Muna tokafinished, complete, in order
Makasarese takkato come
Manggarai tekacome from, appear, suddenly come into view
Ngadha tekato meet, encounter, be met
Hawu dəkato come
Kambera tàkato arrive, come; therefore; next, afterwards
Lamaholot təkaat, to, toward; in the direction of


POC     *toka₁ to meet, encounter

Futunan tokato meet, gather (as an assembly of people)

Note:   Also Berawan (Long Terawan) təka ‘to meet’. The relation of Kenyah təka to the other forms cited here might be questioned, but the semantic relationship of this form to the rest is supported by the extended meaning of Mapun (ka)-takka-han, which incorporates both the notion of a personal arrival and of the ‘arrival’ of an emotional or physical state that settles on one. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed this form on the basis of data from Javanese, Sa'a and Fijian. However, the words in the latter two languages appear to be better placed with PMP *tekas ‘come to rest in a definite place, settle down’.


*teka₂ elder sibling of the same sex


PMP     *teka₂ elder sibling of the same sex

Bintulu təkaelder sibling
Siang oŋkaelder sibling


POC     *toka elder sibling of the same sex

Lusi toaelder sibling
Manam toka ~ toʔaelder sibling
Wogeo toxaelder sibling
Varisi toga-naelder sibling of the same sex (kaka = vocative)
Gilbertese tokahigh rank, noble, chief, lord; rich landlord having servants

Note:   Also Long Jegan toka, Melanau (Dalat) tika ‘elder sibling’. The lack of an initial consonant in Siang oŋka raises the question whether this reconstruction is bimorphemic, in parallel with *ama : *t-ama ‘father’, *ina : *tina ‘mother’, *empu : *tempu ‘grandparent’, and other kinship terms in which the referential form is distinguished by an initial *t- (cf. Blust 1979). However, this would imply a base form *eka for which comparative support is currently unknown. However this issue is resolved, the morphological and semantic relationship of *teka to the much better-supported *kaka ‘elder sibling of the same sex’ remains obscure.


*tekas come to rest in a definite place, settle down, as birds on a tree


PMP     *tekas come to rest in a definite place, settle down, as birds on a tree

Maranao tekasvacation or rest in a definite place
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tokato perch, alight (as a fly or bird)


POC     *toka₃ sit, squat; come to rest; stay in a place; settle down, as birds on a tree

Seimat toto sit
  to-tositting, at rest
Lou tukto sit
Mussau tokato sit
Gedaged tostill, calm, quiet; contented, at peace, serene, at rest, quiescent, motionless
Takia tokquiet
Tubetube toato perch, of a bird
Roviana togasaid of a flock of belama (frigate birds) settling in a naru (Casuarina tree)
Nggela togato dwell
Sa'a oʔato settle, of birds; to squat on the haunches
Arosi oʔato stay, dwell, abide; to settle, of birds
Bauro ogato sit
Mota togato abide, dwell, endure, live, behave, be
Northeast Ambae tokato sit
Sowa -dokto sit
Wayan tokacome to rest, be at rest; (of a boat) run aground, strike bottom in shallow water; (of a whale or dolphin) be stranded, beached
  vaka-tokabe brought ashore or beached
Fijian tokato sit on the heels, squat; to be placed, situated, of people and small objects; to place, put on (garments); adhere to; to ride (horse)
  toka-rakato lie in wait for
Tongan toka(of a boat) to run aground, or to rest on the bottom; (of running water, of particles in suspension, or of people, etc.) to come to rest, to settle down, to reach a calm or settled state
Futunan tokato calm down (of the wind)
Samoan toʔa(of liquid, or solid body in a liquid, etc.) be still, settle down; (of boat), run around, strike; (of people) stop; sea rock, reef; calm, relief
  to-toʔabe calm, steady
Tuvaluan tokaready; peaceful, be in peace
  faka-tokato prepare
Nukuoro dogaland on (as a bird lands on the branch of a tree)
Rennellese tokato be or get well; to be in good health, cured of sickness, recovered; to be calm, quiet, of persons or the sea; to recover
Anuta tokaa boulder in the sea which is submerged at least part of the time
Rarotongan tokacongealment, anything congealed, frozen, etc.; to pass from fluid to solid, to coagulate, to curdle; a general term or name for stone or stones or rock of any description
Maori tokastone, rock; firm, solid; satisfied, contented; wait, stay still
Hawaiian koʔacoral, coral head

Note:   Also Tontemboan təkaʔ ‘arrival at a place; to settle down, of birds on a branch’. Although this reconstruction is firmly established on the POc level, the PMP form is far less certain, and its possible relationship to PMP *teka ‘to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete’ remains an open question. Whereas PMP *teka seems clearly to be a verb of motion, referring to coming, arrival and the like, PMP *tekas has a much more static sense, as of something for which motion or agitation has ceased.

The breadth of linked meanings across reflexes of this form is remarkable, ranging from the notion of birds settling down from flight on the branches of a tree (Proto-Bungku-Tolaki, Sa'a, Arosi, Nukuoro), to sitting (many), to boats running aground (Wayan, Tongan), to general calmness (Tongan, Futunan, Samoan, Rennellese), to congealment (hence cessation of flowing motion) in Rarotongan, to rock (as in ‘firm as a rock’) in Anuta, Rarotongan, Maori and possibly Hawaiian."


*teked prop, support


PMP     *teked prop, support

Madurese tekketpress down
Ngadha dekeprop, support
Motu tostay of house; prop of fence; brace

Note:   With root *-ked ‘prop, support’. Ngadha deke presumably reflects *nteked.


*tekek dull throaty sound


PMP     *tekek dull throaty sound

Javanese tekekstrangle
Manggarai tekekimitation of the sound of a bunch of frogs

Note:   With root *-kek ‘shriek, creak, cluck, chuckle’.


*tekes bind firmly


PWMP     *tekes bind firmly

Maranao tekeshold firmly or strongly, bind
Balinese tekesfasten, fix in place (esp. the hair, with a band of linen or a ribbon), done by men

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.


*tekik high-pitched sound


PWMP     *tekik high-pitched sound

Maranao tekiksharp sound, like that of a fowl
Kenyah tekikstone used for striking fire; to strike fire
Javanese tekèkstriped gecko lizard

Note:   With root *-kik ‘shrill throaty sound’.


*tekiq high-pitched sound; chirp of a gecko


PAN     *tekiq high-pitched sound; chirp of a gecko

Amis tkiʔmake a sound; the sound of rocks hitting
Maranao tekiʔgecko
Tetun tekigecko

Note:   With probable root *-kiq ‘high-pitched throaty sound’. Cf. *leŋkiq.


*tektek gecko, house lizard (onom.)


PMP     *tektek₁ gecko, house lizard (onom.)     [doublet: *cekcek]

Ilokano tektékcry of the common house lizard; tick of a clock
Maranao t-ag-etekhouse lizard
Tiruray t-er-ektekhouse lizard: Hemidactylus frenatus Duméril and Bibron
Bintulu tetekgecko, house lizard
Buli tektekkind of small frog; drop, drip

Note:   Also Tagalog tukóʔ, Cebuano tikíʔ, tukúʔ ‘gecko’, Maranao tekoʔ ‘large house lizard’, Rotinese teke ‘gecko; cry of the gecko’. This reconstruction probably is identical to Dempwolff's (1934-38) *TekTek ‘knock, rap, beat’ (from the chirping sound). Buli tektek (expected **tota) is taken to be an onomatopoetic retention.


*tekuk bend or pull down (as a branch)


PMP     *tekuk bend or pull down (as a branch)     [doublet: *teku, *tekuq]

Malay tekokbent down roughly; creased; rumpled
Sundanese tekuktake a man or animal firmly by the neck and bend the head down
Old Javanese tekukbend or fold over
Balinese tekukbent, crumpled
Manggarai tekokbent over (as when carrying a heavy burden)

Note:   With root *-kuk₁ ‘bent, crooked’.


*tekuŋ bow the head


PMP     *tekuŋ bow the head

Old Javanese tekuŋsit bowed and in silence
Javanese tekuŋhaving the arms folded across the chest while meditating
Manggarai tekoŋbent over; curved
Sika tekuŋlet the head hang

Note:   With root *-kuŋ ‘bend, curve’.


*tekuq bend, hook


PMP     *tekuq bend, hook     [doublet: *teku, *tekuk]

Maranao tekoʔbend, curve
Narum tekoʔhook
Buruese teku-kcause to lean or bow; cut (a banana stalk, etc.) part way through in order to bend it down

Note:   With root *-ku(q) ‘bend, curve’.


*tela split, crack


PMP     *tela split, crack

Sundanese tɨladried and cracked clay soil
Javanese telacrack, split
Manggarai telato split, show a crack

Note:   Also Old Javanese telā, with unexplained long vowel. This item may contain a variant of the root *-laq ‘split’.


*telaŋ bamboo sp.


PWMP     *telaŋ bamboo sp.

Kelabit (Bario) telaŋmedium-sized species of bamboo
Malay buloh telaŋbamboo of the genus Gigantochloa
Tae' tallaŋkind of slender bamboo
Buginese tellaŋkind of bamboo

Note:   Mills (1975:854) proposes PAn *tɨlaŋ ‘bamboo or rattan sp.’. However, he fails to cite adequate supporting evidence, giving e.g., Malay buŋa telaŋ ‘a dark-blue flower of pea-flower shape growing on Clitorea ternatea’, but missing buloh telaŋ.


*teleb sink, vanish from sight


PMP     *teleb sink, vanish from sight

Tiruray telebcover something
Sundanese telebstay submerged for a long time without fatigue
Sasak telepsubmerge, sink
Manggarai telepbe hidden, disappear for a moment

Note:   With root *-leb ‘sink, disappear’.


*telem sink, disappear under water


PMP     *telem sink, disappear under water     [doublet: *teleŋ]

Sundanese tɨlɨmgo under water, plunge in, immerse, duck or dive under
Manggarai telemsink, go under, disappear by degrees

Note:   Mills (1975:854) gives Proto-South Sulawesi *tɨlliŋ ‘to sink’, suggesting a possible connection with PAn *telen ‘to swallow’. The core of this comparison was first recognized in print by Verheijen (1967-70).


*teleŋ sink, disappear under water


PWMP     *teleŋ sink, disappear under water     [doublet: *telem]

Melanau (Mukah) pe-teleŋdiving in the water for pleasure, or when bathing
Buginese telleŋsink, submerge
Makasarese tallaŋsink, sink away


*teli female genitalia


PMP     *teli female genitalia     [doublet: *tila, *tilay]

Kiput se-telayvagina
Karo Batak telivagina
Balinese telivulva
Kambera talipars pudenda mulieris (also used of animals)
Niue tolea woman's private parts
Samoan toleclitoris
Maori torepudenda muliebria

Note:   Also Ifugaw tiːli ‘vagina’, Tagalog tilin, Soboyo teli ‘clitoris’.


*temu all around, surrounding


PMP     *temu all around, surrounding

Maranao temojoin, encircle (as in battle)
Makasarese tammuall around, surrounded
Manggarai temucomplete, entire, all around

Note:   Part of this comparison was first noted in print by Verheijen (1967-70).


*temud mumble, grumble


PWMP     *temud mumble, grumble

Maranao temodmumble, grumble
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) temud-mudmurmur or grumble to oneself about something
Bahasa Indonesia temut-temutmumble

Note:   Also Hiligaynon kúmud ‘grumble, murmur, sulk’.


*teñeb submerge


PAN     *teñeb submerge

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) tenepsubmerge
Ilokano tánebsubmerge partly, immerse in part

Note:   With root *-ñeb ‘dive, submerge’.


*teñej sink, set (sun)


PMP     *teñej sink, set (sun)

Cebuano túnudconvey below the surface of the water or into a pit; for the sun to set
Rotinese tenasink, set (of the sun)

Note:   With root *-ñej ‘submerge, sink, drown’.


*teŋ buzz, hum


PMP     *teŋ buzz, hum

Maranao teŋringing in ear
Karo Batak teŋ(onom.) flang!
Javanese ṭeŋpurr, hum, buzz
Manggarai teŋbuzzing or ringing in the ear

Note:   Also Paiwan teŋ ‘moan (as person), whine (as dog)’.


*teŋeR kind of mangrove, Ceriops spp., with bark used for dyeing


PMP     *teŋeR kind of mangrove, Ceriops spp., with bark used for dyeing

Aklanon tuŋógtree with bark used as food coloring
Cebuano tuŋúgkind of mangrove, the bark of which is used for dyeing and as an ingredient of coconut palm toddy; bark of this mangrove
Binukid teŋegkind of tree, the bark of which is used as an ingredient of toddy (to make it red)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teŋega certain tree and its bark, probably Ceriops Roxburghiana. The bark is mixed with palm wine, giving the wine a reddish color
Iban teŋarmangrove, Ceriops, esp. C. tagal and other species yielding dark tannin, used locally
Malay teŋara low tree, Ceriops candolleana, found in mangrove swamps; its bark is used for tanning
Palauan déŋesoriental mangrove: Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam.
Mussau toŋomangrove sp. with edible fruit
Gedaged toŋmangrove tree: Rhizophora mucronata
Gitua toŋormangrove: Bruguiera sp.
Nggela toŋoa mangrove
Arosi oŋomangrove
Gilbertese toŋomangrove
Rotuman foŋomangrove
Fijian doŋothe mangrove: Bruguiera gymnorhiza; the long roots or branches are good for firewood; the bark is used for a tanning dye (brown)
Tongan toŋomangrove; native hair-dye (originally made from the bark of the mangrove; to dye the hair
Niue toŋoa legendary tree (said to be the mangrove, one of which is supposed to have formerly existed in a chasm near the Hakupu coast)
Samoan toŋogeneral name given to the mangroves, which include a large shrub (Rhizophora sp.) and a tree (Bruguiera sp.)
Tuvaluan toŋomangrove: Rhizophora mucronata
Rennellese toŋomangrove, Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lamk.; its wood is used for fuel and posts; its seeds are eaten at the Lake with fish soup

Note:   Also Kadazan toŋo ‘mangrove’, ka-taŋa-an ‘mangrove swamp’, Simalur teŋəl ‘mangrove’, Makasarese taŋŋereʔ ‘a tree: Ceriops candolleana; it yields good timber, and its bark is used in tanning and to add a bitter taste to rice wine’, Nukuoro doŋa ‘oriental mangrove (Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam.)’.


*teŋiC grimace at pain


PAN     *teŋiC grimace at pain

Paiwan (Western) tjeŋitsgrimace at pain
Rejang teŋitan expression of pain on the face; a mouth distorted with pain

Note:   With root *-ŋiC ‘anger, irritation’.


*teŋteŋ drone, droning tone


PAN     *teŋteŋ drone, droning tone

Paiwan tj-em-eŋtjeŋto whisper
Itbayaten teŋteŋ-enstrum, pluck the strings of musical instruments

Note:   With root *-teŋ₁ ‘hum, drone’.


*teŋuq nape of the neck


PMP     *teŋuq nape of the neck

Maranao teŋoʔnape, back of the neck
Melanau (Mukah) təŋuʔneck
Manggarai teŋunape of the neck
Ngadha teŋuneck

Note:   Replaces *[CtT]eŋkuk ‘nape of the neck’ in Blust (1970).


*tepa woven material; mat


PWMP     *tepa woven material; mat

Berawan (Batu Belah) tepamat
Karo Batak tepaforge, mold, make
Sundanese tepawhat is woven

Note:   Also Samal tepo ‘mat’.


*tempak split, break off


PMP     *tempak split, break off

Bontok tempáksplit a section off, of wood or stone, as in order to lighten a load
Manggarai tempakbreaking easily, brittle, friable

Note:   With root *-pak₂ ‘split, crack, break’.


*tepeŋ taste, test, try


PMP     *tepeŋ taste, test, try

Tagalog tipíŋsavor at the tip of the tongue
Maranao tepeŋtry, attempt, test, experiment
Buruese tepeto taste
Motu toho-ato try
Arosi oho-ŋaan attempt, try
  oho-ŋitry, test; tempt
Sa'a ohoattempt, make trial of
'Āre'āre oho-naattempt, try (in compounds); sample, taste (of drinks)
Wayan vaka-tovo-tovodo an experiment or test
Samoan tofotest, sample, experiment; (of a dish) taste
Hawaiian kohoguess, election, choice; choose, select


*tepes squeeze, press down


PWMP     *tepes squeeze, press down

Maranao tepespress down between the lips, suck
Malay tepasfull up
  me-nepasto pack full
Balinese tepessqueeze, press, pinch


*tepiR mat


PMP     *tepiR mat

Proto-Sangiric *təpiRmat
Proto-Minahasan *təpehmat
Sasak tipah, tiper <Mmat
Bimanese dipimat

Note:   Also Makasarese tappereʔ ‘mat’. Bimanese dipi was earlier assigned to (2) *depen ‘mat’ (Blust 1980), a reconstruction which now appears to have been proposed in error. If the Sangiric and Minahasan languages form a larger subgroup, as Sneddon (1984:11-12) tentatively suggests, the order of reconstructed vowels in *tepiR is arbitrary on present evidence.


*tepuk hit, sound of hitting, clapping, thumping


PAN     *tepuk hit, sound of hitting, clapping, thumping

Puyuma təpukto hit
Karo Batak tepukclap the hands (as in a dance or game)
Malagasy (Merina) téfokaexplosion
Manggarai tempokto break (young shoots, etc.)
  tempukto break (tubers)

Note:   With root *-puk₁ ‘throb, thud, clap, break’.


*tepuq brittle


PWMP     *tepuq brittle

Bikol tapóʔbrittle (as dry twigs)
Bare'e topubrittle, easily broken off

Note:   With root *-puq ‘brittle’.


*te(m)pus end, conclude, finish


PMP     *te(m)pus end, conclude, finish

Dairi-Pakpak Batak tempusconclusion, end, as of a conversation or discussion
Balinese teposbreak off, interrupt, end in
Arosi ohucomplete, finished; completely

Note:   With root *-pus₁ ‘end, finish’.


*teras quick, fast


PWMP     *teras quick, fast

Maranao terasmove quickly from one place to another
Sundanese terasbe done with haste

Note:   Also Buruese tara ‘swift, rapid (as the flow of a stream)’.


*teriŋ bamboo sp.


PMP     *teriŋ bamboo sp.     [doublet: *periŋ, *tariŋ]

Maranao teriŋBambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex Wendl.
Bolaang Mongondow toliŋbamboo sp.
Rotinese teli(k)large, rude sort of bamboo, used for bow and arrow

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon), Tiruray keriŋBambusa vulgaris’.


*terter shiver, tremble


PAN     *terter shiver, tremble     [doublet: *tirtir₁]

Saisiyat man-tetetremble
Maranao tetershiver, tremble

Note:   Also Malay gemetar, gentar, getar ‘trembling, quivering’, Sundanese geter ‘quake, tremble’, Old Javanese keter ‘trembling, shaking’.


*teRel impose one’s will, force or compel someone to do something


PWMP     *teRel impose one’s will, force or compel someone to do something

Maranao tegelto force, impose, require, demand
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teγelto force something or someone
Malay teralinsistence; importuning; browbeating (of an overseer shouting at his coolies to make them work, etc.


*teRi k.o. small fish


PMP     *teRi k.o. small fish

Malay ikan terithe small anchovy: Stolephorus tri, known in Singapore as the ‘Macassar red fish’
Sasak terivery small sea sprat, eaten dried
Sangir tehikind of small fish (= Malay ikan lompa)

Note:   Also Balinese teri ‘sp. of fish’ (probably < Malay).


*tetas rip or tear open


PMP     *tetas rip or tear open

Malay tetasslitting open, ripping up
Manggarai tetastear, break open
Buruese teta-h(of a line) snapped

Note:   With root *-tas ‘cut through, sever; rip’.


*tetu to peck


PCMP     *tetu to peck

Ngadha tetupeck, peck up; eat (of animals)
Paulohi tetuto peck


*tenzeg, te(n)dek upright, erect


PMP     *tenzeg, te(n)dek upright, erect

Ilokano teddékpost, pillar
Ngaju Dayak tenjekupright, erect
Manggarai tendekstand upright (as bamboo spikes)

Note:   *tenzeg contains a root *-zeg ‘stand erect’.


*tezek stand erect; upright (posts)


PMP     *tezek stand erect; upright (posts)

Ilokano teddékpost, pillar, column, shaft; headman, chief
Tagalog tírikbuild, erect, construct, put upright
  tiríkstraight upward
Proto-Minahasan *təndəkpost, stake; to stick (post) in ground
Manggarai tedek, tendekstand upright
Ngadha tedéfence, bulwark

TOP      te        ti    to    tu    


*təlu thick


PCEMP     *təlu thick

Geser ba-toluthick
Watubela ba-toluthick
Hitu ha-təluthick
Larike ihu-tilothick
Alune təluthick
Nuaulu kapi-toru-nethick
Buruese ef-telothick


POC     *matolu thick

Ghari matoluthick
Gilbertese matenthick, thickness
Kosraean mahtolthick, dense
Pohnpeian mosulthick
Marshallese mijelthick, as of clouds; thickness
Northeast Ambae matoluthick
Vovo ti-matolthick
Tongan matoluthick --- of board or paper, etc., but not of stick or thread; thick, dense --- of mist (kakapu), forest (vao), etc. Opp. manifi; shrub with very thick leaves.
Niue matoluthick, as a tree
Tuvaluan maatoluthick
Rennellese matogukind of vine, Hoya sp., with thick leaves that are heated and placed on sores
Kapingamarangi maadoluthick (object); heavy or dense rain
Nukuoro maadoluthick (object); heavy or dense, of rain
Anuta maatoruthick
Rarotongan mātoruthick; thickness, the thick part of anything
Maori mātorucrowd
Hawaiian mākoluthick, heavy, deep, as clouds; thick-coated, as with dust; laden, as a high chief with taboo


POC     *matolu-tolu very thick, really thick

Gilbertese maten-tenthick, thickness
Kosraean mahtol-tolvery thick; nunb; stubborn
Marshallese wōt mijel-jelraining cats and dogs
Rarotongan mātoru-toruto be thick, to be on many layers, as of timber; to be thick or strong, as of a beverage
Hawaiian mākolu-koluchubby; thick, as a plank

Note:   Also Futunan mātotolu ‘thick, as a carpet’, Anuta matatoru ‘thick’.

TOP      te        ti    to    tu    



*-ti 1p deixis and spatial reference: this; here


PAN     *-i-ti this, here

Bunun itihere
Sambal (Botolan) ba-ytithis
Palawan Batak ʔitithere (3p)
Aborlan Tagbanwa itithat (3p remote)
Bisaya (Bukit) itithis
Kenyah (Long Dunin) itithat (3p)
  k-itithere (3p)
Kayan (Uma Juman) h-itihthere (3p)
Tunjung itihthis
Ma'anyan itithis
Malagasy (Merina) itýthis (near at hand)
Dusun Malang tithis
Singhi Land Dayak itisthis

Note:   Also Ujir atih ‘that’, Kayan atih ‘that (demonst. adj., object further away); then (adv. longer ago)’, Malagasy atý ‘here’.


*tia to weave, as a net


POC     *tia to weave, as a net

Nggela tiato weave
  tia-tiaa woven wristlet; a piece of sewn thatch
Rotuman fiato weave or make (a net or web)
Tongan siato weave (a net or a web)
Niue tiato mesh, to make netting
Nukuoro dia-diato make a cover for something (e.g. a coconut shell) by plaiting or lashing around it
Rarotongan tiato bind or lash, such as in binding or lashing the lugs of the mouth of a sack filled with copra
  tia-tiabound, lashed


*tiaN abdomen, belly


PAN     *tiaN abdomen, belly

Saisiyat tialbelly (upper abdomen)
Pazeh tialbelly, abdomen
Thao tiazupper abdomen, abdomen above the navel
  ki-tiaz-anhave a stomach ache
  k<m>a-tiaz-anbe hit in the stomach
Bunun tianstomach
Kavalan m-tianpregnant (human)
  s-tian-anhave a stomach ache, abdominal pain (such as diarrhea)
Amis tiyadbelly, stomach
  ci-tiyad-to cigrashe has a belly (i.e. she is pregnant)
Puyuma tialbelly
Paiwan tjialʸbelly
  tj<m>ialʸhave a large belly


PMP     *tian abdomen, belly

Ilokano tiánbelly, abdomen; womb, uterus
Casiguran Dumagat tianbelly
Sambal (Botolan) tiánbelly
Kapampangan atyanstomach
Tagalog tiyánabdomen; the belly; paunch
  tiyan-ínto suffer from stomachache
Hanunóo tiyánbelly; back (referring to a hunter’s bow)
Kalamian Tagbanwa tianbelly
Romblomanon tiyánthe abdomen, stomach or womb of a person or animal; the inner surface of bamboo
Hiligaynon tiyánstomach, abdomen
Aklanon tiyánstomach, abdomen; womb
  tiyan-ánhaving a large, curved stomach; fish with a big stomach
Cebuano tíyanstomach; pregnancy
  tiyán-unhaving a prominent stomach
Maranao tianstomach, abdomen
Tausug tiyanstomach, belly
Kadazan tizanabdomen, belly
Kayan tianthe skin and flesh of an animal’s underbelly, breast bone, etc.
Berawan (Long Terawan) tijanbelly, abdomen
Berawan (Batu Belah) tijenbelly, abdomen
Kiput ticinbelly, abdomen
Narum tijiənbelly, abdomen
Minangkabau tianuterus
  dalam tianpregnant
Sasak tianbelly, abdomen
  ke-tian-anhave a swollen belly (from sickness)
  pe-tian-aŋto impregnate a woman
Sangir tiaŋbelly, abdomen
Bolaang Mongondow sianbelly, abdomen
  monogu-sianbecome pregnant
Banggai tiauterus, womb; belly
Totoli tianbelly
Boano tianbelly
Bare'e mo-tianalook after a child
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tiaNbelly
Tolaki tiabelly
Palauan diylabdomen; womb
  klou a delelhave a pot belly; have a large belly (e.g., when pregnant)
Lamboya tibelly
Waiyewa tiabelly
Elat tia-belly
Paulohi tia-belly
Asilulu tia-belly; pregnant
Alune tia-belly
Kamarian tia-belly
Kayeli tianepregnant
Nali dria-nbelly, abdomen
Lou tia-nbelly, abdomen
Nauna tibelly, abdomen
Penchal ria-nbelly, abdomen
Seimat uli tia-nbelly, abdomen (uli = ‘skin’)
Wuvulu ʔiapregnant
Tolai tia-naabdomen, belly; the human body from the lower ribs to the thighs; the outside skin of the abdomen
Nakanai la-tia-gumy belly, stomach (of human being); occasionally, my emotions, desires
  la-tia-lamiddle, center
Kairiru tiye-belly
Mono-Alu tia-nabelly, abdomen
Roviana tia-nabelly, abdomen
Eddystone/Mandegusu tiabelly, abdomen
Kokota tia-nabelly, abdomen
Cheke Holo thiʔabody part, belly
Poro thiʔa-ñabelly, abdomen
Lau īabelly
Sa'a iebelly, stomach, bowels, womb
Proto-Micronesian *tiastomach, belly, abdomen
Marshallese jebelly, stomach, innards
Ulithian sie-stomach
Cape Cumberland tia-belly, abdomen
Tolomako tia-belly, abdomen
Aore tia-belly, abdomen
Namakir na-tia-ŋbelly, abdomen
Maori tiaabdomen, stomach; navel; mother, parent


PMP     *tian-an pregnant (lit. ‘in the belly')

Banggai tian-anpregnant
  mon-tian-aŋ-gonpregnant with
Bare'e tianapregnant
Makasarese tian-aŋpregnant (also applied to the rice plant when the grains are full)
Raluana (Matupit) tiananto be in an advanced stage of pregnancy
Kairiru tyenpregnant
Lau īanapregnant, of a woman; enlarged stomach, of a man
Toqabaqita ianapregnant
  iana thalabe pregnant out of wedlock (thala = of life, thoughts, situations: lack substance, solidity
'Āre'āre ianapregnant
Mota tianapregnant

Note:   Also Chamorro tuyan ‘stomach, belly, abdomen’. Both Saisiyat and Thao distinguish the upper abdomen (above the navel) from the lower abdomen (below the navel), and a similar distinction is made in some Philippine languages, as Ibaloy. While a reflex of *tiaN refers to the upper abdomen in both Saisiyat and Thao, and probably had a similar sense in PAn, a corresponding term for ‘lower abdomen’ has not yet been reconstructed. Roviana and Eddystone/Mandegusu regularly preserve final consonants through the addition of an echo vowel, and in body-part terms that ended in POc *n this gave rise to an ambiguity as to whether the final syllable –na was part of the base or was the 3rd person singular possessive suffix, which was required with such nouns. While we would expect **tiana, **tiana-na in these languages, then, they each (or their immediate common ancestor) reanalyzed tiana as tia-na. Finally, PMP *tian-an seems clearly to have carried the locative suffix *-an, the conceptual representation of pregnancy being something like ‘in the belly’.


*ti(m)bak clap, make a clapping sound


PWMP     *ti(m)bak clap, make a clapping sound

Kankanaey tibákto clap
Malay témbakfiring shots
Old Javanese témbakfire at, hit (with a gun)

Note:   With root *-bak ‘pound, thud’. Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned the Malay and Javanese reflexes to *tembak ‘to shoot’, but both languages contain a mid-front vowel in the penult.


*tibal small drum


PCMP     *tibal small drum

Leti tiwladrum
Wetan tiwlasmall drum
Kisar kiwaldrum
Selaru tihalsmall drum
Alune tibalegong
Paulohi tihaledrum
Kamarian tiharnative drum
Kowiai tifardrum


*tibu pool, deep place in water; swamp


PCMP     *tibu₁ pool, deep place in water; swamp

Manggarai tiwupond, pool, deep place in water
Ngadha tivupuddle, bog, pool, pond, small lake
Fordata tivudeep hole in the reef
Paulohi tihulake
Buruese tifubay, lake, swamp


*tibuk pound, throb


PAN     *tibuk pound, throb

Amis mi-tivukpound rice
Ifugaw tibúknoise made by somebody who plunges into deep water
Tagalog tibókthrob, pulsation
Malay timbokheavy, downward blow with the side or flat of the fist

Note:   With root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud’.


*tidem dark, obscure; black


PMP     *tidem dark, obscure; black

Ngaju Dayak tiremblack
Old Javanese tiḍemlosing its lustre, fading, dimmed
Javanese tiḍemdarkened, obscured
Sasak tidemwith the eyes closed
Gedaged tidomnight, darkness, gloom, obscurity

Note:   With root *-dem₁ ‘dark; overcast’. Dempwolff (1934-38) proposed *tiDem ‘dark’, based only on the Ngaju Dayak and Javanese cognates. For the semantics of Sasak tidem, cf. note to *qi(n)dem.


*tiduR to sleep


PMP     *tiduR to sleep     [doublet: *tuduR]

Casiguran Dumagat maka-tidugable to sleep
  məg-ka-tidugto lie down
  ka-tidug-ensleeping place
  pa-tidug-ənto put to sleep
  tidug-ənto lay something down
Binukid tidug-a ~ tirug-ato sleep; to go to sleep
  tirug-ah-ento be sleepy
Samal tuli <Mto sleep
Murik tiruhto sleep
Tunjung tiroto sleep
Katingan tiruhto sleep
Ngaju Dayak tirohsleep
  ba-tirohto sleep
  tapa-tirohfall asleep
  ta-tirohsluggish, indolent
Siang tiruyto sleep
Lundu tidurto sleep
Malay tidurto sleep (of commoners); the sleep of princes is beradu. Malays explain sleep as the temporary departure of the bird-like semangat or spirit of life.
  tidur-kanto put to sleep
Bolaang Mongondow siugsleep; dream
  ko-siu-siugalready sleeping, while sleeping
  to-siug-ansleeping place
Tae' tindodream that one no longer recalls, dream that has a certain significance
  pa-tindo-anplace to lie down,; sleeping place
  pa-tindo-an tauplacenta (reclining place for people)
Palu'e tuli <Mto sleep


PMP     *ma-tiduR sleeping; to sleep     [doublet: *ma-tuduR]

Agta mə-sidugto sleep
Dupaningan Agta ma-tídugto sleep
Casiguran Dumagat ma-tidugto sleep
Bolaang Mongondow mo-siuglie down, sleep, go to sleep
Tae' ma-tindoto lie down
Buginese ma-tinroto sleep


POC     *matiruR to sleep

Nali matilto sleep
Ere amtir <Mto sleep
Loniu metito sleep
Lou merit <Mto sleep
Likum metinto sleep
Levei mesiŋto sleep
Nauna metilto sleep
Lindrou madinto sleep
Leipon menderto sleep
Sori matihto sleep
Kuruti mentirto sleep
Lenkau merihto sleep
Seimat matito sleep
Wuvulu maʔikuto sleep
Hiw mitiγto sleep
Faulili matiluto sleep
Makura matirto sleep
Paamese matilto sleep

Note:   Also Sasak tindoʔ ‘to sleep’; to thicken, as coconut oil that has been left to stand overnight’, tindoʔ-aŋ ‘to lie down’, Proto-South Sulawesi *tindo ‘to sleep’.


*tidus spoon, ladle


PWMP     *tidus spoon, ladle     [doublet: *qidus]

Cebuano tilússpoon made of a coconut shell
Bintulu tiɗusspoon

Note:   Bintulu tiɗus (with implosive ɗ rather than r) apparently is a loan, though the source is unknown.


*tiŋgaʔ ear pendant


PWMP     *tiŋgaʔ ear pendant

Kapampangan tiŋgaʔearrings (once a sign of slavery)
Iban tiŋgaʔear pendant worn by men

Note:   Evidently distinct from *timeRaq ‘tin, lead’ (cf. Kapampangan tiŋga-púti ‘tin, lead’, Iban timah ‘lead, solder’).


*tigtig glancing blow; chop


PWMP     *tigtig glancing blow; chop

Kapampangan tigtigplay a musical instrument
Maranao titigcut, chop
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tiɣtigstrike a glancing blow on a stone; strike a light with a flint and steel
Melanau (Matu) titighack, cut in pieces
Iban titikstrike (matches)
Malay titekheavy pounding blow; hammering
Balinese tigtigbeat, strike (with a stick), hit, scourge


*tik to plait (as a mat)


POC     *tik₂ to plait (as a mat)

Lou tikto plait (mats or baskets)
Mota tigfinish off the plaiting of a mat


*ti(ŋ)kaŋ spread the legs


PWMP     *ti(ŋ)kaŋ spread the legs

Ifugaw tíkaŋsmall split in a piece of wood
Cebuano tikáŋplace a foot on a step, rung, or any foothold
  tikaŋ-káŋlie or lean on one's back and spread the legs
Balinese tiŋkaŋstand with the feet wide apart

Note:   With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread open, as the legs’.


*tiŋkas cease


PWMP     *tiŋkas cease

Maranao tiŋkasend, cease
Javanese tiŋkas(of rain) stop, subside


*ti(ŋ)keb close up


PWMP     *ti(ŋ)keb close up

Tboli tikebdoor
Sundanese tiŋkebthe closing of a shop, etc.

Note:   With root *-keb₁ ‘cover’.


*tiked heel


PMP     *tiked heel     [doublet: *taked₁ 'back of the leg']

Casiguran Dumagat tikedfoot, leg; footprints
Mamanwa tikedheel
Tboli tikedheel
Bolaang Mongondow siŋkodheel
Selaru tikaheel

Note:   Casiguran Dumagat tiked can be assigned either to *tiked or to *taked.


*tikek cry of the gecko


PMP     *tikek cry of the gecko

Ilokano tikékkind of house lizard
Rotinese tékecall, sound produced by the gecko

Note:   With root *-kek ‘shriek, creak, cluck, chuckle’.


*tikel bend


PAN     *tikel bend     [doublet: *tikur]

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) tikerbend
Sundanese tikelfolded double
Balinese tikelcrack (a stick) and bend it double without separating the parts; bend something double (a rope); multiply


*tikep catch, seize


PWMP     *tikep catch, seize     [disjunct: *sikep]

Isneg sikāpcatch (a hog, etc.)
Javanese tikepcatch, seize

Note:   With root *-kep₂ ‘seize, grasp, embrace’.


*ti(ŋ)kes wind around, encircle


PWMP     *ti(ŋ)kes wind around, encircle

Maranao tikesbracelet
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tikesornamental knee bands
Sundanese tiŋkesmodel for a sarong that is to be woven (consists of a bamboo pole on which the threads are wound according to the way in which they will be used)

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.


*tiŋkuq graze, strike lightly against


PMP     *tiŋkuq graze, strike lightly against

Aklanon tíŋkoʔclink, hit lightly against (as glasses carried in a tray)
Tboli tiŋkukbump, hit against
Iban tiŋkohstrike (matches, flint and steel, etc.)
Kambera tikuticking sound (as of a watch)


*tikur bend, curve


PWMP     *tikur bend, curve     [doublet: *tikug]

Ilokano tíkorbend, turn, curve, crook (of a river, etc.)
Tiruray tikur(of routes) being the long way to some place
Javanese ṭékorbent, crooked (of a leg, foot, etc.)

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) tekur, tiker ‘to bend’.


*tikuRas a bird: partridge?


PAN     *tikuRas a bird: partridge?

Thao tikulhata dark brown, sparrow-size bird with a long tail that is much prized for its meat (called ‘bamboo chicken’ in Taiwanese). It is gregarious and calls out loudly when feeding in flocks. The male has an additional toe which is used in fighting.
Bunun tikulaspartridge
Amis tikolaca quail, bamboo partridge
Cebuano tikúgaskind of rail found in rice fields or marshy areas, 5-6” high and used for food: the white-breasted swamphen: Amaurornia phoenicurus
Maranao tikogasbird which is blue and seems to grunt; prefers water

Note:   Also Amis tikokay ‘a quail, bamboo partridge’.


*tila vulva, vagina


PMP     *tila vulva, vagina     [doublet: *tilay]

Gaddang silavagina
Rotinese tilavagina
Atoni tina-fvagina
Samoan tela(not in decent use) clitoris

Note:   Also Ifugaw (Reid 1971) tiːli, Kiput se-telaiʔ, Gorontalo tele ‘vagina’.


*tilay vulva, vagina


PWMP     *tilay vulva, vagina     [doublet: *tila]

Mentawai tiläivulva
Serawai tilayvagina
Bare'e tileclitoris


*tilanzaŋ naked


PWMP     *tilanzaŋ naked

Maloh tilandaŋnaked
Malay telanjaŋ, tilanjaŋnude; bare; exposed (of the body)
Sangir tilandaŋnaked

Note:   Also Karo Batak kelanjaŋ ‘naked’.


*tilem dark, black


PWMP     *tilem dark, black

Kankanaey tilémblack pig, hog, swine
Old Javanese tilemnight of the dark moon
Balinese tilemlast day of the moon, new moon

Note:   With root *-lem₁ ‘dark’.


*tilen to swallow


PMP     *tilen to swallow     [doublet: *telen]

Gaddang silon-ɨnto swallow
Sambal (Botolan) itlɨn <Mto swallow
Fijian tiloto swallow


*tilib to fly


PWMP     *tilib to fly

Rungus Dusun tilibblown away
Uma Baloi tilipto fly
Kejaman me-nilipto fly
Proto-Minahasan *telebfly away; fade

Note:   A reflex of PMP *Rebek ‘to fly’ appears in several PWMP languages, including Chamorro (gupu) and Palauan (-sebk). The term must, therefore, have been retained in PWMP. PWMP *tilip, by contrast, may have meant ‘fly away’.


*tiliŋ ringing sound


PWMP     *tiliŋ ringing sound

Bikol tilíŋ-tilíŋsmall bell; to tinkle
Cebuano tilíŋ-tilíŋring with the sound of tiny bells or the telephone
Kenyah tiliŋa cricket

Note:   With root *-liŋ₁ ‘clear ringing sound’.


*tilu earwax


PMP     *tilu earwax     [doublet: *tuli]

Itbayaten tiluearwax, cerumen
Casiguran Dumagat tilóearwax
Manggarai tiluear
Sika tilu-near
Hawu wo-diluear
Tetun tilu-near

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) Tiruk ‘earwax’.


*timel flea


PWMP     *timel flea     [doublet: *qatimela]

Ilokano tímelflea
Ifugaw tímolflea
Ibaloy timelflea
Pangasinan timélflea
Lun Dayeh gi-timelbug
Kelabit (Bario) ge-simelclothes louse


*timeRaq tin


PWMP     *timeRaq tin

Tagalog tiŋgáʔlead (the metal)
Bikol timgáʔ ~ tiŋgáʔlead (metal)
  mag-timgáʔplace lead in
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) timeɣaʔlead (metal)
Kelabit (Bario) semeraʔlead (metal)
Iban timahlead
Malay timahtin; also a generic term covering zinc or spelter, lead
Karo Batak timahlead, bullet
Toba Batak timalead, tin, zinc
Rejang timeaʔtin
Old Javanese timahtin
Javanese timahtin, lead, zinc
Sundanese timahlead, tin
Balinese timahlead, tin, zinc
Sasak timahlead, tin
Proto-Gorontalic *timogatin

Note:   Also Amis, Puyuma timra ‘bullet’, Mapun timbuhaʔ ‘the metal lead (used especially for making sinkers for fishing)’, Maranao timbegaʔ ‘lead – metal’, Tiruray timera ‘lead, as a metal’, Yakan timbuhaʔ ‘lead; a lead weight on a fishing line, sinker’, Sangir timbeha, Bare'e tamoro ‘lead, tin’ (said to be an analogically reformed borrowing of Buginese tumerra), Tae' tumarra ‘lead (metal)’, Mandar tumarra, Buginese tumerra ‘tin, lead’, Makasarese tumbera ‘lead (metal)’, Wolio timara ‘lead, zinc, tin’, Muna timara ‘lead (metal)’, Komodo tembiŋa ‘lead (metal)’, Kambera tambura ‘tin’, Wetan tmioora ‘lead; tin’, Kei tim ‘lead, tin’.

This comparison raises a number of questions. The first reaction of many would be to dismiss it as a loanword that probably postdates Indian cultural contact beginning around 2,000 BP. There is no question that many or all of the forms cited in this note and probably some cited in the above comparison are loanwords, but the entire set cannot be dismissed, as in many cases the sound correspondences are regular and fairly complex. If the entire set of forms is a product of borrowing then it is necessary to identify a source language, and in most widely-attested loan distributions in island Southeast Asia this is Malagasy. However, Malay timah can hardly have been the source of most Philippine forms or of Kelabit (Bario) səməraʔ, which collectively point to a protoform in a language ancestral to at least the languages of the Philippines and much of western Indonesia, implying a time-depth of perhaps 4,000 years.


*timij chin, jaw


PAN     *timij chin, jaw     [disjunct: *timid]

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) timizchin
Paiwan tjimizchin, mandible, jaw


PMP     *timid chin, jaw     [disjunct: *timij]

Atta siːmikchin
Isneg símidchin
Ilokano tímidchin
Isinay símidchin
Ifugaw tímidpointlike tip of the upper lip; tip of the chin; may be used in the sense of lip
Ibaloy timidchin’
Pangasinan timírchin
Hanunóo tímidchin’
Rotinese timichin, jaw
Tetun timirbeard, whiskers, chin


*timtim sip, taste slightly


PPh     *timtim sip, taste slightly

Ilokano tímtimto sip, taste; remove the end of
Ifugaw timtímto open and close the mouth frequently, as frogs do
Ibaloy timtimmovement of the lips accompanied by little or no sound
  on-timtimto murmur, mutter
Tagalog pag-timtímtasting without swallowing
Bikol timtímto taste something with just the tip of the tongue or lightly with the lips
Masbatenyo mag-timtímto taste
Cebuano timtímtaste or sample liquid (as in testing soup)

Note:   Also Ilokano simsím ‘to taste; test the quality; eat just a little’, ka-simsím ‘just weaned (animals)’.


*timuR south or east wind


PAN     *timuR₁ south or east wind

Papora timoreast
Kavalan timuRsouth wind
  t<m>imuRto blow, of the south wind
Amis timolsouth
Siraya taga-timogsouth
Puyuma timuɭsouth, meaning on the side of the sea, the bottom


PMP     *timuR₂ southeast monsoon

Yami cimoyrain
  ma-cimoyto rain, be raining
Itbayaten timoyrain
  ma-timoyto rain, be raining
  ka-tia-timoyrainy season
  ka-timoy-anbe caught in the rain
Tagalog tímogsouth, south wind
  ka-timug-anthe southern region; south wind
Bikol tímogthe east or southeast wind
  timóg-anthe direction of this wind (a wind coming from this direction signals the passing of a typhoon)
Hanunóo tímugsouth wind, south
Aklanon tímogthe east wind
Masbatenyo tímognorth
Waray-Waray timog-ansouth
Cebuano tímugwind that hits Cebu from the east
Yakan timula strong east wind (with strong rain), storm
Timugon Murut timugwater
Iban timureast
  bintaŋ timurthe Morning Star
Malay timureast
  bintaŋ timurthe Morning Star
  timur lautnortheast
Karo Batak timurthe east
Sasak timuʔeast
  be-timuʔtravel east
Sangir timuhəʔsouth
  aŋiŋ timuhəʔsouth wind
Tontemboan timusouth, south wind
  t<um>imugo or head southward
Proto-Gorontalic *timuhoeast, east wind
Palauan dímessouth, south wind
Rotinese timueast, the direction of dawn; east monsoon
Lamaholot timueast
Selaru timureast, eastward
Yamdena timureast, eastward, east monsoon; the Tanimbarese on the east coast of Yamdena island
Fordata timureast, east monsoon
Kei timureast, east side, east monsoon
Asilulu timuleast wind, east monsoon season
Buruese timuthe southeast monsoon
Soboyo timusouth
  wohe timusouth wind
Buli simisouth, south wind
Gedaged timwind, breeze
Motu si-simulight shower
Samoan timu(be) rainy
Tuvaluan timurain
Futunan timublast of strong wind
Anuta timuto rain lightly, drizzle
Rennellese timuto rile, devastate, as by wind and storm

Note:   Also Kapampangan timug ‘southwest monsoon wind’ (< Tagalog), Mapun timu east wind, east’, Maranao timor ‘wind’ (< Malay), Tausug timul ~ timur ‘the name of a wind the blows from the northeast’ (< Malay), Ngaju Dayak timor ‘east, east wind’ (< Banjarese), Wolio timbu ‘east, rainy season’, Muna timbu ‘east monsoon, rain from the east’, Rotuman timu ‘continuous heavy rain’ (from an unspecified Polynesian source).

This term is clearly the mate of PAn *SabaRat ‘south wind (?)’, PMP *habaRat ‘southwest monsoon’. Since Taiwan lies just outside the monsoon climatic zone the meaning of these terms in PAn is somewhat less clearcut than the PMP equivalents, which clearly refer to the seasonal rain-bearing winds that are associated in the northern Philippines, where PMP probably was spoken, with the southwest and southeast monsoons. The directional content of reflexes necessarily changed as Austronesian speakers expanded southward from Taiwan and the Philippines to the Equator and beyond, but the connection with the monsoons is maintained in much of insular Southeast Asia and the western Pacific. Further east, beyond the reach of the monsoon regime the combination of seasonality, direction, rain and wind that characterizes the monsoons is lost, but various components of the meaning are retained, especially in Polynesian languages, where reflexes include references to rain, strong wind and destruction caused by storms.


*timus salt


PWMP     *timus salt

Bikol mag-tímosto place a tiny bit of salt on the tongue
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) timussalt; to salt something
Maranao timosflavoring salt
Bolaang Mongondow simut-onsalt
Banggai timus-onsalt

Note:   Also Mapun timus ‘salt’, timus-un ‘to salt something’ (from a Bisayan source), Tiruray timus ‘salt; to add salt to food’ (from Maranao or another Danaw language). It is possible that this is a Greater Central Philippines lexical innovation that reached Banggai through Bolaang Mongondow.


*tiŋi listen


PMP     *tiŋi listen

Hanunóo tíŋilisten
Kambera tiŋilisten


*tipak slap, sound of slapping or clapping


PWMP     *tipak slap, sound of slapping or clapping

Kankanaey tipákslap in the face, box the ears of
Karo Batak tipakkick in an upward direction

Note:   With root *-pak₁ ‘clap, slap’.


*tiptip trim, cut the tips off


PWMP     *tiptip trim, cut the tips off

Cebuano tiptipcut the tip off something with scissors or shears; cut close to the surface or ground
Toba Batak tiptipcut off, trim


*ti(m)puk clap, clack


PWMP     *ti(m)puk clap, clack

Kankanaey tipókto clap, clack
Karo Batak timpukstrike candle-nuts together (a game)
  be-timpuk-anbutt one another (of goats)

Note:   With root *-puk₁ ‘throb, thud, clap, break’.


*timpus finish, use up


PWMP     *timpus finish, use up

Maranao timposact through to the finish, endure
Mandar tippusout of breath

Note:   With root *-pus₁ ‘end, finish’.


*tiqaw goatfish spp.


PMP     *tiqaw₁ goatfish spp.

Cebuano tiawkind of goatfish
Chamorro tiʔaogoatfishes: Upeneus vittatus (family Mullidae)
Rotinese tiokind of small but ritually important fish
Motu siofish sp.
Loniu tiwthe Samoan goatfish: Mulloidichthys samoensis
Seimat tiotibarbelled fish four to five feet in length
Mota tioa fish with barbels, like mullet

Note:   To explain Kanakanabu ciʔáu, Saaroa ciʔau, Tsou czou ‘riverine fish (considered best in taste)’, Paiwan tsiqaw ‘fish (generic)’, Tsuchida (1976:165) posits Proto-South Formosan *Ciq₁au ‘fish’. Zorc (1981) extends this to "Proto-Hesperonesian-Formosan" *Ciqaw ‘fish’, but cites no supporting evidence. It remains to be shown that the Formosan forms belong in the present cognate set.


*tiqtiq drip, drain


PWMP     *tiqtiq drip, drain

Bikol títiʔto drip; pour drop by drop
Cebuano tiʔtíʔdrain, consume to the last drop or bit
Chamorro teʔteʔdrain pus, puncture an infection for purposes of draining


*tirtir₁ shiver, tremble


PMP     *tirtir₁ shiver, tremble     [doublet: *terter]

Karo Batak tirtirshiver with cold
Pohnpeian sisshiver
Nggela ka-titishake, shiver as with cold
Tongan tetetremble, shiver, quiver or vibrate; (of the teeth) to chatter
Hawaiian haʔu-kekequiver, shiver


*tirtir₂ rap, tap


PWMP     *tirtir₂ rap, tap

Cebuano tiltilrap, tap lightly
Malay titirrapping out a sound, especially as a signal
Sundanese titirbeating on a cymbal, drum, etc.; roll (of drums)


*tiRis drip, ooze through


PMP     *tiRis drip, ooze through

Tagalog tígispouring of liquid from one container to another
Bikol mag-tígisto pour water into a jug or pitcher; to fill with water
Aklanon tígisto pour out
Cebuano tígispour liquid into a drinking receptacle
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tiɣisof liquid, to drip or flow in a tiny stream
Binukid tigispitch (of a tree); sap (from a plant); for something cut to drip out
Yakan tīsdrip (a small amount of liquid that drains off something)
Malay tirisoozing through; dripping, leaking (of rain coming through a thatched roof)
Mota tirto drop, drip, as water


PWMP     *tiRis-an (gloss uncertain)

Tagalog tigis-ánreceptacle or container into which a liquid is poured
Bikol tigís-anto fill with water
Bahasa Indonesia tiris-anplace where a leak occurs

Note:   Also Maranao bigis ‘drip, ooze’, igis ‘drip, dribble’. The semantic distinction between PWMP *tiRis and PAn *tuduq ‘to leak, drip, as a leaky roof’ is somewhat unclear, but two possibilities present themselves: 1. *tiRis may have referred to a smaller influx of water penetrating through an opening, or 2. *tiRis may have referred to water oozing through roof thatch or other material without producing well-formed drops, since it seems clear that *tuduq also meant ‘a drop of water’, whereas *tiRis evidently did not.

It is possible that Mota tir is a reflex of the far better-attested *tuduq with irregular *u > i, as found in a few other forms. If so, this reconstruction can be justified only for PWMP, not for PMP.


*tiRtiR cut, chop


PWMP     *tiRtiR cut, chop     [disjunct: *tigtig 'hit, beat, strike']

Maranao titigcut, chop
Balinese tihtihcut into very small pieces; smooth with a machete


*tisuk stab, stick into


PWMP     *tisuk stab, stick into

Hiligaynon tisúkstick into
Sundanese tisukstabbing
  nisukto stab, as with a kris

Note:   With root *-suk ‘insert, penetrate, enter’.


*titey suspension bridge


PMP     *titey suspension bridge     [doublet: *teytey]

Maranao titaifootbridge
Tiruray titaybridge; cross a bridge
Malay titinarrow footway (of a plank bridge, gangway, log across a stream, or even of a bough as a footway from one part of a tree to another)
Old Javanese titifootbridge
Palauan didbridge
Proto-Ambon *tita(y)bridge

Note:   Maranao titai regularly reflects *teytey, and Tiruray titay shows phonological irregularities which mark it as a loan from Maranao or one of the other Danaw languages. It is possible that all of the forms assembled here will ultimately be assignable to *teytey.


*titi breast; suck the breast


PMP     *titi breast; suck the breast     [disjunct: *titiq]

Aklanon títinipple, teat (childrens word)
Cebuano títibreast; suck the breast
Muna títiwomans breast; suck on the breast
Soboyo títisuckling, infant


*titik drip, leak


PMP     *titik drip, leak     [doublet: *titis]

Malay titékdrop, liquid particle; dot or spot left by a liquid particle such as a drop of ink
Javanese titikto drip
Manggarai titikdrip, leak
Rembong titikdrip, leak


*titiq breast; suck the breast


PMP     *titiq breast; suck the breast     [disjunct: *titi]

Hiligaynon títiʔnipple, feeding bottle
  mag-títiʔsuck the breast, feed from a bottle
Lun Dayeh titiʔthe sucking of something; feeding an infant with mothers milk
  nitiʔto breastfeed an infant
Bintulu titiʔfemale breast
Rejang titiʔsmall, little; infant
Muna titiwomans breast; suck on the breast
Soboyo titisuckling, infant
Hiw titbreast

Note:   Also Malay tetek mamilla; teat; breast in relation to sucking only. This word can be reconstruced next to the far better supported *susu female breast. It it possible that *titiq was primarily used as a childrens word, with special reference to sucking at the breast, while *susu was a more general descriptive term.


*titis drip, ooze


PMP     *titis drip, ooze     [doublet: *titik]

Ngaju Dayak titisdrip, trickle
Malay titisa gentle drop (as of water)
Javanese titisgutter, eaves
Rotinese titidrip, flow
Buruese titi-kto drop, trickle, like medicine from a dropper, etc.
  titi-na drop
Roviana titisisprinkle, shake off
Fijian titiooze, flow gently, as gum from a tree


*titu puppy; young animal in general?


PAN     *titu₁ puppy; young animal in general?

Pazeh titulittle animal (puppy, kitten, piglet, calf, etc.)
  mali-tituto give birth (of animals)


PMP     *titu₂ puppy

Yami citodog
Itbayaten titodog
Isneg sítopuppy – just before it is born
  sit-sitó ~ sis-sitópuppy – just before it is born
Dupaningan Agta títupuppy
  ta-titusmall puppy
Maranao titopuppy; call for a dog

Note:   Also Ilokano títit, tititan ‘to call a puppy’, Ibanag kítu, Atta ítu ‘dog’, Isneg kíto ‘dog’, kit-kitó ‘puppy, pup’, Bikol títoʔ ~ tútoʔ ‘a call for dogs (such as ‘Here boy!’), Kalamian Tagbanwa kiruʔ, Tiruray ituʔ ‘dog’.


*tiup blowing on, fanning


PMP     *tiup blowing on, fanning     [doublet: *Seyup]

Malagasy (Merina) tsiókawind, breeze, air
Taboyan s-ɨn-iupto blow
Banjarese ta-tiupbellows
  tiupto blow
Iban tiupblow, puff, fan
Malay tiupblowing, puffing
Sangir tiuʔblow, blow out, blow away
Hawu ta-tiuto blow (Fox, J. n.d.)
Dhao/Ndao tiuto blow


PWMP     *maŋ-tiup to blow on, fan

Malay me-niupto blow (as on a fire), to play (flute, etc.)
Sangir ma-niuʔto blow, blow out, blow away

Note:   Also Maloh tiap ‘to blow’. The apparent morphological agreement in Malay me-niup-niup ‘to inflame (a dispute, etc.)’, Malagasy ma-n'io-ts'ioka ‘breezy’ is assumed to be convergent. Some forms assigned to *tiup might conceivably reflect *taR-Seyup. However, since this cannot be the case with the reflexes in Banjarese, Iban, Malay or Sangir, I am forced (like Dempwolff (1934-38)) to posit a doublet. Moreover, since the sequences *-iV- and *-eyV- are distinguished only by Central Philippine languages, and a reflex of *tiup is unknown in any member of this group, it is unclear whether the present form should be written *tipu or *teyup.


*ti(n)zak step, tread


PWMP     *ti(n)zak step, tread

Minangkabau tijakstepping, treading
Banggai tindakstamp with the foot

Note:   With root *-zak ‘step, tread’.


*ti(n)zeg stand erect


PMP     *ti(n)zeg stand erect

Maranao tindegstand
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hi-tindegstand up
Mandar tindaʔerect, upright
Manggarai tindekerect; to stand up (of the tail, etc.), set upright
  tidekerect (penis)

Note:   With root *-zeg ‘stand erect’. Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *tiNdeg ‘stand’.

TOP      te        ti    to    tu    



*tobV fishnet float


PCEMP     *tobV fishnet float

Kei tobfloat on a fishhook
Numfor-Biak kobfloat (of fishing line, fishnet)


POC     *topV fishnet float

Seimat toptree with light wood used for fishnet floats
  kaka-topfishnet float

Note:   Also Buli tob ‘wooden float attached to the sack of a dragnet’.


*toka put out to sea, embark on a voyage


POC     *toka₂ put out to sea, embark on a voyage

Eddystone/Mandegusu tokaembark, depart, put out to sea
Roviana tokaset out on a voyage
Fijian tokatake a boat

TOP      te        ti    to    tu    



*tuaD kind of fish net or trap


PWMP     *tuaD kind of fish net or trap

Ilokano tuádvery large net used to fish ipon (kind of fish which hatches in sea water, but grows and spawns in rivers)
Karo Batak tuarsmall fish-trap placed with opening stream-upwards


*tuaj bend over, with bottom up


PWMP     *tuaj bend over, with bottom up (cf *balin-tuaj)

Casiguran Dumagat tuwádbent over (standing, but with the hands on the floor); upside down
Bikol tuwádbend over with one's rear end sticking up in the air
Hanunóo tuwádstate of being upside down, head forward, buttocks protruding backwards
Aklanon tuwádput one's rear end out to, bend over and stick one's buttocks toward
Maranao toadsquat---position on all fours (hands and feet)
Bolaang Mongondow tuadbare the buttocks (a terrible insult)
Tae' tuaʔturn around, turn upside down

Note:   Also Tagalog tuwág ‘with head low and buttocks or lower extremity upward; upside-down’.


*tubak to stab


PCMP     *tubak to stab     [doublet: *tebek]

Bimanese tuɓato lance, pierce with a lance or similar sharp weapon; stab
Lamaholot tubakstab


*tu(m)bak clash together


PMP     *tu(m)bak clash together

Ifugaw túbakhew off large pieces of wood for logs
Kambera tumbakustrike, knock against (as a buffalo butting with its horns against a fence)

Note:   With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’.


*tu(m)bas dregs


PWMP     *tu(m)bas dregs

Malay habis tumbasto the last drop; to the bitter end; to the uttermost. Stronger than habis (ended, exhausted)
Bolaang Mongondow tubatwaste, what is thrown away, as a chewed betel quid or a fruit from which the juice has been sucked


*tumbiriŋ lie on one's side


PWMP     *tumbiriŋ lie on one's side

Malay tembiriŋouter edge
Tae' tumbiriŋlie on one's side (sub biriŋ)


*tubu inflammation of the skin


POC     *tubu inflammation of the skin

Molima tubu-tubuelephantiasis of the legs
Roviana tubusore, ulcer
Arosi ubuswelling, boil
Fijian tu-tubuan eruption on the skin: herpes, hives


*tumbun heap, pile; cover up


PWMP     *tumbun heap, pile; cover up

Bontok tobónto heap; to stack; to pile up; to gather together, of many objects
Kankanaey tubónhigh, heaped up; piled up
Banggai tumbuncovered with

Note:   With root *-bun ‘heap, cover with earth; collect, assemble’.


*tubuʔ plant sprout


PMP     *tubuʔ plant sprout     [disjunct: *Cubuq]

Iban tubuʔyoung edible shoot of bamboo
Motu tuhu-tuhuyoung shoot
Fijian tuvushoot up, of a tree
  tuvu-ka-nathe top of a tree


*tu(n)daŋ to sit


PMP     *tu(n)daŋ to sit

Banggai tudaŋto sit, of birds; roost
Buginese tudaŋsit
Bare'e tundasit
Geser ma-toransit
Buli to-tolaŋsit

Note:   With irregular lowering of *u to o in the PCEMP languages Geser and Buli.


*tudaq throw


PMP     *tudaq throw

Tboli tudaʔthrow
Bolaang Mongondow tudaʔthrow
Wolio tudathrow
Tetun tudathrow

Note:   Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *tu(d)aq ‘throw’.


*tudiq tree sp.: Sesbania grandiflora


PMP     *tudiq tree sp.: Sesbania grandiflora

Maranao todiʔa tree bearing edible pods and flowers, Sesbania grandiflora (Linn.) Pers.
Tiruray tudiʔa tree bearing edible pods and flowers, Sesbania grandiflora (Linn.) Pers.
Manggarai turia tree: Sesbania grandiflora
Tetun turia tree whose flower is used as a vegetable: Sesbania grandiflora

Note:   Manggarai turi appears in Verheijen (1982), but not in Verheijen (1967-70) or Verheijen (1984).


*tuduk skewer, spit for roasting


PMP     *tuduk skewer, spit for roasting     [doublet: *teduk]

Ilokano túdokspit. A slender pointed rod of iron for holding meat, fish, eggplants, etc. while the latter are being roasted over the fire
Manggarai tudukpoking, stabbing, pricking, transfixing (as roasts before the fire or on the spit)


*tuduq to leak, drip, as a leaky roof; a drop of water


PAN     *tuduq to leak, drip, as a leaky roof; a drop of water

Thao tusuqa leak, as in a roof or a container for liquids; dripping water
Paiwan tjuzuqa drop (of water)
  tj<m>uzuqto drip
  tj<in>uzuq-ana drop of water that has fallen
Itbayaten toroleakage, leak
Ilokano túdorain
  ag-túdoto rain
Isneg túdorain
Bontok tódoleak
Kankanaey men-tódoto gutter; to leak; to rain through (applied to rain passing through the roof)
Ifugaw túdudripping; rain drops which fall on the floor of a house because there is a little hole in the grass covering the house
Ifugaw (Batad) tūdufor something to leak (as a rain hat, a water pot)
Kapampangan tulu(ʔ)drop; flow; spill; pour
  ka-tulu-anspilling, outpouring (sometimes used as a veiled reference to venereal disease)
Tagalog túloʔdrip; dripping; drop; dropping (of liquid); leak; leakage; leaking; trickle, a small flow or flowing
  pa-tuluʔ-anto have medicinal drops put in one’s eyes, ears, etc.
Hanunóo túruʔexuding, dripping (out), coming out, with reference to liquids; a drop of any liquid
Hiligaynon túluʔone drop, one drip
  mag-túluʔto drip, to leak, to fall in drops
Aklanon túeoʔto drip, leak (of faucet, water)
  pa-túeoʔto let trickle or drip
Masbatenyo mag-turóʔto drip, leak, trickle, dribble
  pa-turúʔ-oncause to drip
  turuʔ-ánbe dripped on
Waray-Waray túroʔthe leaking out of liquid, leakage; that which drips or leaks out, a drop of water; leaking, leaky
Cebuano túluʔdrop (as a teardrop); leak so as to cause dripping (as a leaking roof); drip, leak through; for drops to fall; leaky
Binukid tuluʔdrop (of a liquid); to drip, leak through (something); for drops to fall, run or trickle down
Tausug tūʔa drop (of liquid); a dripping or leak (from a faucet or a wound)
  mag-tūʔto drip
Kayan turuleaking; leaky
Kayan (Uma Juman) turuto leak, of the roof
Bintulu turuʔleak in the roof
Ngaju Dayak ha-turodrip through
Iban tudohleak from above (as a leaking roof)
Old Javanese ka-turuh-andripped upon, affected (destroyed ) by rain and humidity
Javanese turuhleak, drip through (a roof); fade, as colors in the wash (Pigeaud 1938)
Balinese tuduhbe leaky
Sangir turoa leak in the roof
Bolaang Mongondow tuyuʔto drip, leak
  to-tuyuʔa drop of liquid
Muna turua drop (as of palm wine being tapped from a tree); to drip, come down (of rain), trickle’
Palauan dúreʔleaking water; leak
Chamorro tuhoʔdrip, leak, trickle, fall in or form drops, spot with rain, pour drop by drop
Tetun turuto drip, to fall in drips or drops (as tears)
Selaru k-turdrip, leak
Yamdena n-turdrip, leak
  turu-na drop of liquid


POC     *turuq leak, drip

Vitu turudrip (as blood)
Gitua turusprinkle water on
Motu hetu-turuto drop, drip (of liquids, rain, etc.)
Arosi suruto leak (as a roof)
Fijian turuto drip, drop, of liquids (as with a leaky roof)
  turu-vato drip on
  i turu-turua drop
  turu drāthe menses
Tongan tulu-tādrop (of a liquid); to drip
  tu-tuluto leak or be leaky, of a roof or anything above one
  tuluʔ-iato be wet (or damaged by wetness) as a result of leaks in the roof, etc.
Futunan tuluto drip
  tuluʔ-ito drip onto, as a doctor putting drops in the eyes
Samoan tu-tulu(of a house) let the rain come in, be leaky
  tulu-iput drops into
  tulu-tuludrip; cry; eaves
  faʔa-tulu-tulupour in drops
Rennellese tuguto leak, drip; leak, dripping
  tuguʔ-ito drip, as a boil; to drip sap, of various vines
Kapingamarangi tuluto leak
Nukuoro tuluooze a lot at one time
Rarotongan turuto leak or drip
Maori turuto leak or drip
  turu-turuto leak or drip
  whaka-turucause to drip
Hawaiian kuluto drip, leak, trickle; to flow, as tears; a drop; general name for distilled liquor; dystentery, gonorrhea


PMP     *ma-tuduq leaking, dripping (as a leaky roof)

Itbayaten ma-toroto be leaking (of the roof and the like)
Ilokano ma-tudu-anto be caught in the rain
  ma-tu-túdorainy season
Dobel ma-turuto drip


PWMP     *ma-nuduq to leak, as a roof

Bontok ma-nódoto leak, as a roof
Ngaju Dayak ma-nurodrip through (as water seeping through an old roof)


PAN     *t<in>uduq dripped; what dripped

Thao t<in>usuqdripped, has dripped
Kapampangan t<in>ulu(ʔ)dripped
Cebuano t<in>úluʔdrip plentifully; drops; shedding of tears, blood or anything in drops; noise of dripping


PPh     *t<um>uduq to drip, to leak

Ilokano t<um>údoto rain
Ifugaw t<um>úduit rains, it will rain
Kapampangan t<um>ulu(ʔ)to drip
Tagalog t<um>úloʔto drip, to dribble; to leak, to fall in drops; to trickle; to stream; to seep,
Tausug t<um>ūʔfor a liquid or the surface it is on to drip
Sangir t<um>uroto drip, as water from a leaking roof


PAN     *tuduq-en to drip

Thao tusuq-indrip, of water from a leaking roof, be leaking
Muna turu-wo(dew) drops


PWMP     *tuduq-an to drip

Tausug tūʔ-anto drip
Balinese tuduh-anleak, a leaking spot
Makasarese turo-aŋto leak (as a roof)

Note:   Also Tae' tiʔdo ‘to drip’, toʔdo ‘to drip; edge of the roof from which rainwater drips down’, Makasarese tiro-aŋ ‘to leak (as a roof)’, Chamorro tuʔoʔ ‘drip, leak, trickle’, Bugotu tudu ‘to drip, of water or tears; a drop’, Lau ʔudu ‘to drip, drop (of liquids); a drip, drop of water’, Sa'a uduudu ‘to drip’.


*tuduR to sleep


PAN     *tuduR to sleep     [doublet: *tiduR]

Ilokano túrogsleep (n.)
  ag-pa-túrogto put to sleep; order someone to sleep
  maki-túrogto sleep with someone
  turʔógsleepyhead, lazy person who continually sleeps
  tu-turog-anthe desire to sleep
Isinay mak-ka-túrugto sleep
Sambal (Botolan) túluyto sleep
Tagalog túlogsleep; rest; slumber; stagnant, not active; sluggish; dull; torpid
  tulógasleep, sleeping
  ma-pa-túlogto be put to sleep
  t<um>úlogto sleep; to slumber
  tulúg-anto sleep in or on something
Bikol túrogsleep, slumber
  mag-túrogto sleep, to slumber
  mapa-túrogto fall asleep
  mag-turóg-anto act like one is sleeping; to feign sleep
  pa-turóg-onto put someone to sleep (as a child)
  turóg-turógmimosa (plant with leaves that close up when touched)
Hanunóo túrugsleep
Hiligaynon túlugsleep, slumber
Aklanon túeogto be asleep; to sleep off/through
  paŋ-túeogpyjamas, sleeping clothes
Masbatenyo turógsleeping, asleep
  maka-túrogsleep, fall asleep
  ka-turog-ánbedroom, sleeping room
Cebuano túluggo, put to sleep; for lard and oil to congeal; for tops to spin steadily without a wobble; be sleepy
  hika-túlugfall asleep
  paka-túluginduce, put to sleep
  ka-tulg-án-anplace one sleeps
  ma-tulúg-unfond of sleeping, always sleeping
Maranao torogto sleep
Mamanwa torogto sleep
Mansaka torogto sleep
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) tudugto sleep
Manobo (Sarangani) tədog-ito sleep
Tausug tūgsleep
Tombonuwo turuw-turuw piyuʔsleep fitfully (lit. ‘sleep like a chicken’)
Kayan tudusleep, to sleep
  tudu dawto oversleep in the morning (daw = ‘day’)
Kayan (Uma Juman) tuduto sleep
Kayan (Uma Bawang) tuduʔto sleep
Berawan (Long Terawan) turoto sleep
Melanau (Mukah) tuduyto sleep
  mə-nuduyto put someone (as a child) to sleep
  maləm pə-tuduynuptial night
  t<ən>uduyto have been put to sleep by someone
Taboyan turuyto sleep
Malagasy turi (< *turuy)sleep
Old Javanese turūsleep
  a-nuru-nurūto put to sleep, sing to sleep, sing a lullaby to
  a-turu-turūto have a sleep, take a nap
  sa-pa-turw-ansleeping together
  t<in>urw-anto sing to sleep, lull to sleep; to sleep with
Javanese turuto sleep; to go to bed
  nurulull someone to sleep; sleep in or on; sleep in the same bed with
  pa-nuruplace for sleeping; bed, bedroom
Balinese turusleep
  turo-n-in pabe slept with by someone
Bare'e man-turulet up in intensity (of wind or heat)
Uma turulie down to sleep
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *turuRto sleep
Muna tu-turu matasleepy
Palauan dursaction of sleeping
  dus-al-lplace for sleeping, bed
Lamaholot turuʔlie down, sleep
Kisar nam-ku-kuruhe is sleeping
Asilulu tululslumber
  tulu helubedtime (about 10:00 PM)
Buli tulito sleep


POC     *turuR to sleep

Blablanga turuto lseep
Kmagha tʰuruto lseep


PWMP     *ka-tuduR sleep together, sleep with someone

Ilokano ka-túrogto sleep with someone
Ibanag ka-turugto sleep
Isinay ka-túrugsleep
Aklanon ka-tueógto be asleep; to doze off, fall asleep
  kue-ka-túeogto pretend to be asleep
Masbatenyo ka-túrogsleep, slumber, nap, snooze
Cebuano ka-túlugsleep
Kalagan ka-tulugto sleep
Uma ka-turulying down, sleeping
Palauan ke-dúrssleep together


PAN     *ma-tuduR to doze

Babuza ma-turuto doze


PMP     *ma-tuduRₐ sleeping; to sleep

Ilokano ma-túrogto sleep; coagulate
  ma-turog-anto fall asleep while on watch
Isneg ma-túdogto sleep
Gaddang ma-turogto sleep
Sambal (Botolan) ma-toloyto sleep
Tagalog ma-túlogto sleep; to slumber
Bikol ma-túrogsleep; slumber
Hanunóo ma-túruggo to sleep; sleep
Hiligaynon ma-túlugto go to sleep, to fall asleep
Subanun (Siocon) mo-tulugto sleep
Tausug ma-tūgto sleep
Tombonuwo mo-turuwto sleep
Malagasy ma-turito sleep
Old Javanese (m)a-turūto sleep
Gorontalo mo-tuluhuto sleep
  pō-tuluhesleeping place
Dampelas me-turuto sleep
Totoli mo-tuluto sleep
Tolaki mo-turuto sleep
Bare'e mo-turulie down (to sleep)
Bonerate mo-turuto sleep
Kisar na-ma-kuruto sleep
Alune ma-tulusleep
Buli am-tuli <Mto sleep


POC     *maturuR to sleep

Yapese moolto sleep (?)
Nggela maturuto sleep
  maturu manusleep in daytime and on til morning
  maturu mateto doze
Ghari maturuto sleep
Longgu mauruto sleep
Sa'a mäuruto sleep, to slumber
'Āre'āre mauruto sleep, slumber
  mauru hāhi-ato watch with a dead person
  mauru suusuupretend to sleep
Arosi mauruto sleep
  maurur-aʔito be sleepless
Bauro maurusleep, droop, wilt
Gilbertese matusleep, nap, immobility
  Te ka-matuProtestant (because they close their eyes to pray)
  matu-tuto sleep, to slumber, to be still, to close (a knife), to pass (cards)
Marshallese mājursleep; asleep
Pohnpeian ka-mairto put to sleep
Chuukese méwúrto sleep
Woleaian masiuriuto sleep
Puluwat mawúŕto sleep, go to bed; to pass the night, as a ship in the lagoon
Sonsorol-Tobi madilto sleep
Mota matur(u)to close the eyes, have the eyes shut, sleep
Marino maturuto sleep
Raga maturuto sleep
Sa mcurto sleep
North Malo maturuto sleep
Uripiv maturto sleep
Nakanamanga maturuto sleep
Iaai mokutrlie down, sleep


PPh     *maka-tuduR able to sleep

Atta makka-tudukto sleep
Ilokano maka-pa-túrogsomething that causes someone to sleep, sleeping pill
Isneg maka-túdogable to sleep
Tagalog maka-túlogable to sleep
  máka-tulógto fall asleep
Subanun (Sindangan) mək-tulugto sleep


PWMP     *ka-tuduR-en drop off to sleep, fall asleep when one should stay awake

Aklanon ka-tueóg-onsleep
Masbatenyo ka-turog-ónsleepy, drowsy, lethargic, heavy-eyed, tired
Javanese ke-turu-ndrop off to sleep accidentally, doze


PWMP     *pa-tuduR put someone down to sleep

Aklanon pa-túeogto put to sleep, hypnotize
Melanau (Mukah) maləm pə-tuduynuptial night
Uma po-turulying down, sleeping
  po-po-turulay someone down to sleep


PWMP     *pa-tuduR-an sleeping place; bed

Ilokano pa-turog-anput someone to sleep; sleeping quarters, bed
Old Javanese pa-turw-ansleeping place, bed-chamber, bed
Bare'e po-turu-asleeping place


PMP     *t<in>uduR (gloss uncertain)

Melanau (Mukah) t<ən>uduyto have been put down to sleep by someone
Bare'e t<in>urulying down (without sleeping)
Lamaholot t<ən>uruʔa sleeping person


PWMP     *tuduR-an sleeping place; bed

Tagalog tulug-ánroom or place to sleep
Bikol turóg-ana sleeping place
Tausug tūg-ana place to sleep
Old Javanese turw-anthe act of sleeping; sleeping place, bed-chamber, bed

Note:   Also Romblomanon tūdu ‘sound, of sleep’, Talise, Tolo makuru ‘to sleep’.


*tuduS knee


PAN     *tuduS knee

Kavalan tusuz <Mknee
Amis toros ~ tosorknee
  pi-tosorto kneel
Puyuma tuɖuknee (Katipul dialect, used in ritual context)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) tuzuknee


PMP     *tuhud knee

Yami (Iraralay) toodknee
Yami (Imorod) otodknee
Itbayaten tohodknee
Agta tudknee
Isneg atúdknee
Casiguran Dumagat todknee
Itawis atúdknee
Gaddang tuudknee
Sambal (Botolan) tuʔulknee
Kapampangan tuʔud ~ tudknee
  apuŋ tudgreat grandson
Tagalog túhodknee
Bikol túhodknee
  apóʔ-on sa túhodgreat grandparent
  maka-ápoʔ sa túhodgreat grandchild
Hiligaynon túhudknee
Aklanon túhodknee
Masbatenyo túhodknee
Waray-Waray túhodknee
Cebuano túhudknee
  mu-tuhudreach nearly as high as the knees
  túhud-túhudask for a girl’s hand from her parents
Mansaka tóodknee
Tiruray ʔeturknee
Tboli tud bukolkneel down to show humbleness; descendants, strength of supporting relatives, grandchildren; supporter (bukol = knee)
Bisaya (Bukit) atudknee
Tarakan atudknee
Iban tutknee
Pendau tuʔuknee
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tuuknee
Muna tuuknee; hit something with the knee
Bimanese ta-tuʔuknee (probably < *tuta ‘head’ + *tuhud)
Manggarai tuʔusknee
Palu'e tuknee
Li'o mbukuknee
Sika turknee
Atoni tu-kknee
Tetun turknee
Soboyo tu-ñknee


POC     *tur knee

Molima tu-tuknee
Mono-Alu tū-naknee
Eddystone/Mandegusu tu-tuknee
Rotuman knee


PPh     *taRa-tuhud up to the knees

Casiguran Dumagat taga-todknee high (of the growth of rice, or the depth of a river)
Cebuano taga-túhudup to the knees


PMP     *qulu tuhud₁ kneecap

Bolongan lutudknee
Narum uhauʔ tautknee
Malay lututknee
Padoe ulutuknee
Tolaki lutuknee
Hawu rutuknee
Dhao/Ndao urutuknee
Lamaholot loto(r)knee


POC     *lutur knee

Wuvulu luʔuknee

Note:   Also Manam tuʔu ‘knee’, with unexplained medial glottal stop, Bisaya (Limbang) ulu atud ‘kneecap’, Long Terawan Berawan ulo lem, Batu Belah Berawan luləm, Tring uluh aləp, Dalat Melanau (Kampung Kekan) uləw təŋaləb, Sarikei Melanau ulaw paʔ ‘knee’, and Iban palaʔ tut ‘knee cap’, which join morphemes meaning ‘head’ and ‘knee’ to form a compound ‘head of the knee’ that presumably meant ‘kneecap’, parallel to reflexes of *qulu tuhud in other languages. PCEMP *turu ‘knee’ may be a continuation of this form, but if so it implies that PAn *tuduS persisted as PMP *tuduh, alongside the far better-attested PMP *tuhud, despite the fact that PAn CVS regularly metathesized to PMP *hVC (Blust 1993, and that no reflexes of *tuduh have ever been found in WMP languages.


*tuek bow the head, nod


PWMP     *tuek bow the head, nod

Kankanaey toékbow the head
Kayan tuekbowing of head, nodding

Note:   Possibly identical to the "monosyllabic" root *-tuk₁ ‘bend, curve’, found in several reconstructed disyllabic word-bases.


*tugal dibble stick


PWMP     *tugal dibble stick

Kayan (Uma Juman) tugaldibble stick
Iban tugaldibble stick
Malay tugaldibble stick
Banggai tugal, tuŋgalplant rice
Bolaang Mongondow to-tugaldibble stick


PWMP     *ma-nugal to dibble

Kapuas ma-nugalto dibble
Malay me-nugalcultivation of "dry rice", or planting on dry soil generally
Bolaang Mongondow mo-nugalto dibble

Note:   Also Isneg tugkál ‘to stick, fix, plant, drive into the ground’, Minangkabau tugar, Malay (Kedah) tukal ‘dibble stick’, Javanese tugar ‘digging stick’, Uma tujaʔ ‘to plant’.


*tu(g)tug knock, pound, beat


PWMP     *tu(g)tug knock, pound, beat     [doublet: *tuktuk, *dugdug]

Maranao totogknock, hit, sounding board
Melanau (Dalat - Kampung Teh) tutugpound (food substances)
Old Javanese tutugstrike (knock, bump) against, hit


*tui a tree: Dolichandrone spathacea


PMP     *tui a tree: Dolichandrone spathacea

Ilokano tuía glabrous bignoniaceous tree with opposite, pinnate leaves, terminal, few-flowered racemes, and white flowers: Dolichandrone spathacea
Iban tuiʔkind of tree: Ixonanthes icosandra
Malay tuilarge tree: Radermachera gigantea or Ixonanthes icosandra
Manggarai tui, ntuiforest tree with rather small leaves: Linociera, Dolichandrone spathacea
Rotinese tuilarge tree that grows beside rivers and lakes
Yamdena tuikind of timber tree
Gedaged tuia tree (Leguminosae) the stem of which is used to make canoes
Roviana tuitree with inedible bean-like fruit
Nggela tuisp. of tree

Note:   The core of this comparison was first recognized in print by Verheijen (1984). Fijian tui-tui ‘a plant, Aleurites moluccana, Euphorbiaceae’, Niue tui-tui, Hawaiian ku-kui ‘the candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana appear to derive from PEMP *tuRi-tuRi ‘candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana’ (cf. Numfor-Biak kukĕr ‘tree with edible nut’).


*tuil lever; prop


PWMP     *tuil lever; prop

Tboli tuwilany instrument used in prying off a lid
Murik tuiljack, lever
Iban tuiltongue, pin (of a buckle)
Malay tuiljack, lever
Sangir tuileʔa prop; to prop

Note:   Also Malay kuil ‘thrust up by leverage’. I assume that Hiligaynon túhil ‘poke with a stick’ and similar forms in other Bisayan dialects do not belong here.


*tuiq bird sp.


PAN     *tuiq bird sp.

Paiwan tjuiqbird sp.
Maranao toiʔsmall bird that makes the sound "twit, twit"


*tu(ŋ)kab open up, uncover


PWMP     *tu(ŋ)kab open up, uncover

Kankanaey tukábto open, set open, uncover, unmuffle
Maranao tokabto open (as a grave)
Cebuano túkabopen by pushing something aside, lifting a cover
Iban tuŋkapfind or ferret out, discover by diligent inquiry, research

Note:   With root *-kab ‘open, uncover’.


*tukad runged ladder; rung of a ladder


PWMP     *tukad runged ladder; rung of a ladder

Casiguran Dumagat tukadpush a ladder out away from the floor
Ilokano tukádrung, rundle, step (of a ladder)
Kadazan tukadladder, staircase
Lawangan tukarsteps (=ladder)
Ma'anyan tukatsteps (=ladder)
Banggai tukalladder, steps
Uma tukaʔladder
Gorontalo tu-tuaduladder
Bolaang Mongondow tukadladder, originally a notched log
Bare'e tuka nu ejarung of a ladder
Makasarese tukaʔstairs, ladder

Note:   Mills (1975:867) attributes the Sulawesian forms to Dempwolff's (1934-38) *(t)ukat ‘to climb’, commenting that the reconstruction should be altered to *(t)ukad. While Hiligaynon tukád ‘ascend, go up’ and similar forms in other Philippine languages support the change of *tukat to *tukad, it seems likely that we are dealing here with two distinct cognate sets.


*tu(ŋ)kad prop, support; staff


PWMP     *tu(ŋ)kad prop, support; staff     [doublet: *tu(ŋ)ked]

Kadazan ko-tukad-anact of supporting or propping; act of putting up a ladder
Balinese tuŋkadstick, staff

Note:   Apparently distinct from PAn *tukad ‘runged ladder’. Zorc (n.d.) reconstructs PPh *tukud ‘post; support’.


*tukas open


PWMP     *tukas open

Cebuano tukásopen a shutter, curtain, etc.
Maranao tokasveranda, porch
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tuhasopen
Lara’ Land Dayak nukasopen

Note:   Also Cebuano tuklás ‘open a shutter, curtain, etc.; be opened’. With root *-kas₂ ‘loosen, undo, untie’.


*tukik poke, prod, peck


PMP     *tukik poke, prod, peck

Ilokano tukkíkpoke, prod, prick, punch
Malay (Sumatra) tukékwoodpecker
Tolai tukto probe

Note:   Also Yamdena tuki ‘poke with the finger, a stick; hatch, of eggs; peck, of birds’ (*tukik would expectably yield **tukik). Carro (1956) gives Ilokano tugkík as a synonym of tukkík. Pairs of this type may shed light on one of the sources of the often-puzzling geminate stops in Ilokano: *tu-R-kik > tugkík, tukkík.


*tukil bamboo vessel


PWMP     *tukil bamboo vessel

Casiguran Dumagat tukiljoint of bamboo tube used to catch the sap dripping from a cut stem of a coconut or nipa palm (from which wine is made)
Tagalog tukillength of bamboo (used as container); bamboo tube
Malay (Kedah) tukilbamboo vessel


*tuktuk₁ beak of a bird; to peck


PAN     *tuktuk₁ beak of a bird; to peck

Paiwan tjuktjukbeak (of bird)
  tj-m-uktjukto peck; to strike (as a snake)
Yami toktokto peck
Bontok toktokthe beak of a bird; to peck
Kapampangan tuktukbill, beak (of a bird)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tuktukbeak of a bird; the hole made in a tree by a bird pecking; to peck
Murik tuntukbeak of a bird; pecking
  nuntukto peck
Nias (Southern) tututhe bite of a snake
Toba Batak tuktukbeak of a bird
Balinese tuktukbeak of a bird
Javanese tutukmouth [Krama Inggil speech level]
Tetun tututo peck (birds); to prod with the end of an object

Note:   Also Tiruray tukoʔ ‘bill, beak; to peck’, Malay (Jakarta) cotok ‘beak’, Javanese cucuk (Pigeaud 1938) ‘pointed beak (of a chicken, etc.)’, (Horne 1974) ‘beak’. Almost certainly the reduplicated root found in Dempwolff's (1934-38) *pa(n)tuk ‘to peck’ (cf. Javanese patuk ‘beak’). Tsuchida (1976:220) includes the Paiwan word (given as t-m-uktuk ‘to peck’) with forms in other languages that appear to reflect *tuktuk ‘knock, pound, beat’.


*tuktuk₂ top, summit, crown


PAN     *tuktuk₂ top, summit, crown

Proto-Siraya *tuktuktop, summit, crown
Siraya (Gravius) tuktukskull
Siraya (Utrecht ms.) tuktuktop, summit, crown
Ilokano toktókcrown of the head; top, summit (of a hill, tree, etc.)
Ifugaw tuktukforehead; also applied to the top of a hill or mountain
Ibaloy toktokhead; other physical features corresponding to the head, with qualifying ni phrase, e.g. toktok ni shontog ‘top of the mountain
Tagalog tuktóktop, tip (of head, mountain, etc.)
Balinese tuktuktop, tip, extremity
Kei tututop, peak, extremity, upper part; south


*tuku prop, post


PAN     *tuku prop, post

Amis tokothe large center beam of a house or a ship's mast
Cebuano tukúprop stick or post; prop up with a pole or post


*tu(ŋ)kub cover


PWMP     *tu(ŋ)kub cover     [disjunct: *su(ŋ)kub]

Balinese tukubcover, covering; storey of a house
Bolaang Mongondow tuŋkubcover over, cover (with a basket, etc.)

Note:   With root *-kub₁ ‘cover’.


*tukud prop, support


PWMP     *tukud prop, support     [doublet: *tukad, *tuked, *tuku]

Itbayaten tokodsupport, reinforcing support, vertical support, prop
Ilokano túkodprop, brace
  pa-núkodpole for sounding the depths of water
  tukod-ento measure the depth of, fathom
  tukon-túkodbrace used to support a roof
Casiguran Dumagat tukódprop, support (of a pole or board set vertically to hold up something above it); to hold a bow vertically, with the end resting on the ground
Bontok tókodhouse post
Kankanaey túkudpillar; post on which the houses rest
Ifugaw túkudpost of an Ifugaw house or gramary; the two posts of the paladáng standing loom
Tagalog túkodsupport; bracket; brace; prop
Cebuano túkudbrace, prop; erect a house or building; put up a business
  tag-túkudfounder, organizer
  ka-tukúr-anfounding, establishment
  tukud-túkudfabricate a story, especially one with a dubious motive; fabrication
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tukuda cornerpost; the handle of an umbrella; the leg of a table or chair; to establish something
Maranao tokodpost, support, leg
Berawan (Long Terawan) tukonprop, support

Note:   Also Isneg túkid ‘prop; sturdy stakes that strengthen a fence of canes of bamboo grass; also sections of heavy bamboo, etc. that support the weakest parts of temporary buildings’, Bontok tolkod ‘house post’. With root *-kud ‘cane, staff, walking stick’.


*tu(ŋ)kuk beak; to peck


PWMP     *tu(ŋ)kuk beak; to peck     [doublet: *tukik 'poke, prod, peck']

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tuŋkuktap something lightly
Singhi Land Dayak tukukbeak
Karo Batak tukukhornbill
Minangkabau tokokto hammer
Mori mo-tuŋkupeck

Note:   Also Kiput tuguk ‘beak of a bird’.


*tu(ŋ)kul huddle, bow the head


PWMP     *tu(ŋ)kul huddle, bow the head

Ifugaw túkolhuddling position of a chicken or a bird which neither moves nor gives a sign of life
Balinese tuŋkulbow the head, be subject to
Old Javanese tuŋkulbending down, bowing the head

Note:   With root *-kul₁ ‘curl, bend’.


*tukuŋ tailless (of birds or fowls), round-tailed (of fowls)


PWMP     *tukuŋ tailless (of birds or fowls), round-tailed (of fowls)

Ilokano tókoŋkind of tailless maritime bird; tailless chicken; the term is also used for other birds without a tail
Tagalog túkoŋtailless bird, fowl or animal
Cebuano tukuŋtailless bird or fowl
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tukuŋchicken without long tail feathers, the tail may be covered with feathers but they turn under close to the body
Sundanese tukuŋkind of fowl with spherical tail
Javanese tukuŋtailless (as a chicken)
Balinese tukuŋamputate, create a stump
Sasak tukuŋtailless (of birds)


*tulak push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water


PMP     *tulak push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water

Itbayaten tolakidea of pushing away
  i-pan-tolakpole for pushing boats
  i-tolakpole and the like to be used for pushing with against something more stable
Casiguran Dumagat tulakto depart in a boat; to shove off in a boat from shore
Pangasinan i-tolákto push
  maŋi-tolákto thrust
Kapampangan túlakto push, shove; set out, depart
Tagalog túlakpush, shove; forced by circumstances
  i-túlakto push, to shove, to repel; to propel; to drive or push on or forward
  t<um>úlakto push, to shove, to boost; to propel, to drive forward
Maranao tolakdisown, renounce; push out to sea, as a boat; cut with a bladed weapon
Iban tulakpush away, shove aside, push off (boat); to reject (as a gift); to refuse (as to see visitors)
Malay tolakrepelling; rejecting; pushing away or pushing off (of keeping off misfortune by the use of scapegoats or propitiatory offerings; of giving up or resigning a post; of discarding a mistress, etc.
Toba Batak tulakbe sent back, rejected
  ma-nulakto send back, reject, turn away
  ma-nulak-honpush something to someone


PWMP     *maR-tulak push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled in shallow water

Tagalog mag-túlakto push, shove, or propel; to force someone to do something undesirable; to push, to shove, to boost
Bikol mag-túlakto depart, leave (a boat)
Malay ber-tolakto push off (of a boat); to put off; to start
Kambera tulakuto prop, support; give a push or shove, push off

Note:   Dempwolff also included Malagasy tólaka ‘prevented by some supernatural power; prevented from overcoming the power of the tangena poison through the influence of witchcraft’, and Polynesian forms such as Tongan tulaki ‘to push over, to knock or tip over’ in this comparison. However, the Malagasy word appears to be associated with Bantu cultural practices, and the Tongan word can only be included on the assumption that it contains a fossilized suffix. Neither word provides a good semantic match with *tulak, which refers primarily to pushing a boat off from shore (by someone in the boat using a pole), and figuratively to pushing away or rejecting something offered or presented.


*tulani bamboo nose flute


PAN     *tulani bamboo nose flute

Kavalan t<m>uranito play a nose flute
  turani-annose flute


PMP     *tulali bamboo flute used to accompany the dallót (a kind of chanting song and dance; pulling one another by the hands)

Ibaloy toladimouth flute made of bolo bamboo
  me-noladito play a flute, or other things that are similar (as rice stalks, straw)
Timugon Murut tulaliflute
Banggai tilalu <Mbamboo flute
  ba-tilaluplay a bamboo flute
Bare'e tuyalimouth flute
Tae' tulalibamboo flute with two small pipes that fit into two larger ones that are bound together; according to some the tulali is a short flute with four holes on the upper side that are played with the index and middle fingers, and two holes on the underside that are played with the thumbs
Kambera taleliflute; to play a flute
Tanga tulalflute, made from a special type of bamboo (funfis), and played by both sexes
Fijian dulalithe Fijian nose-flute

Note:   Also Sangir turali ‘flute’, ma-nurali ‘play a flute’. It is assumed that PAn *tulani underwent a sporadic assimilation to *tulali in PMP. Although it appears to be very sparsely attested, this cognate set is clearly valid, and provides a unique insight into the musical repertoire of early Austronesian speakers. The flute, and more particularly the bamboo nose flute, is the only musical instrument which comparative linguistic evidence allows us to infer as part of PAN culture (evidence of drums, for example, is completely lacking, and gongs had to await the advent of bronze metallurgy, although the wooden slit-gong may have appeared by PMP times). Although a linguistic comparison is currently lacking, it is likely on distributional grounds that the Jew’s harp was also used, most notably in courtship behavior. Finally, the order of appearance of musical instruments in Austronesian culture history may mirror the similar process in human societies more generally.


*tulay bridge


PPh     *tulay bridge

Itbayaten tolaybridge
  tolay-ento make into a bridge
Hanunóo tuláybridge, a general term
Hiligaynon tuláya bridge
Aklanon tueáya bridge
Waray-Waray tuláya bridge
  pag-tuláythe act of crossing a bridge
Masbatenyo tuláya bridge
Romblomanon tulaya bridge
Cebuano tuláya bridge; put a bridge across
Bikol tuláya bridge, a span
  mag-tuláyto bridge or span
  tuláy-tuláya small or makeshift bridge
Maranao tolaybridge
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tuleya bridge
Binukid tulaya bridge


PPh     *tulay-an to bridge or span, build a bridge across something

Itbayaten tolay-anto make a bridge across something
Bikol tulay-ánto bridge or span

Note:   Also Chamorro tohlai ~ tollai ‘bridge’.


*tulduq to point, indicate; to point out, instruct


PPh     *tulduq to point, indicate; to point out, instruct     [doublet: *Cuzuq]

Itbayaten tongdoidea of pointing at something
Isneg mag-toldóto explain, to teach
  toldo-wánpoint at, indicate
  in-to-toldóthe index, or forefinger
Itawis túlduteachings
  mat-túlduto teach; to point
  ma-núlduto teach; to point
Casiguran Dumagat tóldufinger, forefinger; to teach, to point out, to show how, to show where
Bontok tedekpoint at with the finger; dip a finger into a substance such as sugar or salt, for the purpose of conveying it to the mouth
Kapampangan tulduʔpoint at, point out, point to, teach
Hiligaynon túdluʔfinger
  mag-túdluʔto point out, to teach
Cebuano túdluʔpoint at, point out; point, give directions; teach; appoint; index finger

Note:   Also Bikol tukdóʔ ‘to teach someone; to coach, educate, instruct, train, tutor; to point something out; designate, indicate, show, specify’.


*tule cerumen, earwax


POC     *tule cerumen, earwax     [doublet: *tuli]

Nakanai la tuleear-wax
Wayan tuleearwax, cerumen


*tultul blunt, dull


PMP     *tultul blunt, dull

Karo Batak tultulblunt, of a knife
Toba Batak tultulblunt
Bimanese dudublunt, of a blade (cp. dampa 'blunt, of a tip')


*tuluŋ to help, assist


PMP     *tuluŋ to help, assist

Ilokano túloŋhelp, assistance; support
  i-túloŋto give as help or assistance
Itneg túluŋto help
Casiguran Dumagat túluŋto help
Ibaloy toloŋhelp --- especially of help other than with field work (as help with expenses, sick person’s work, government assistance)
  todoŋ-anto help someone
Pangasinan tóloŋhelp, aid, assistance
  on-tóloŋto help
Tagalog túloŋhelp, assistance, aid; financial help; support; relief; something that lessens or frees from pain, burden, or difficulty; lift; helping hand; backing; favor
Kadazan tuhuŋto help
Kelabit (Bario) tuluŋhelp, assistance
  nuluŋto help, assist
Iban tuloŋto help, aid, assist
  penuloŋhelper, assistant
Malay toloŋaid, assistance, help
  me-noloŋto assist
  toloŋ-anaid, assistance
Gayo tuluŋhelp, assistance
  mu-nuluŋto help
Old Javanese tuluŋhelp
Tetun tulunto help, to assist, to aid, to succour
Yamdena n-tuluŋto help
  tal-tuluŋhelp, assistance


PWMP     *ma-tuluŋ (gloss uncertain)

Pangasinan ma-tóloŋhelpful
Old Javanese (m)a-tuluŋto render help (aid, assistance)


PWMP     *ka-tuluŋ-an (gloss uncertain)

Ilokano ka-túloŋ-anhelper, servant
Pangasinan ka-toloŋ-ánally
Kadazan k<in>o-tuhuŋ-anact of having helped; assistance
Bahasa Indonesia ke-toloŋ-anreceive help or assistance


PWMP     *t<um>uluŋ to aid, assist, help

Ilokano t<um>úloŋto aid, assist, help
Bolinao t<um>úluŋto help
Old Javanese t<um>uluŋto help, aid, assist

Note:   Possibly a Malay loanword, but this seem unlikely in the case of Yamdena, which has few Malay loans, and in which the base is affixed with native morphology. The only PMP competitor for a form meaning ‘to help’ is *tabaŋ, which itself is weakly supported.


*tuluy₁ continue


PMP     *tuluy₁ continue

Ilokano túluyto continue
Ifugaw túluycontinue with one's work, story, speech until it is completed
Tagalog tulóycome in, go on
  ma-tulóybe able to, have the chance to, continue
Sundanese tuluyfollow, continue, proceed on
Old Javanese tuluy, tulwi, tuliimmediate continuation
  t-um-uluycontinue immediately, proceed from one thing to the next
Makasarese tulicontinuing, lasting; continuous, constant
Hawu dulicontinue through

Note:   Also Bontok tóley ‘continue’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *tuluy ‘quick, fast’, but apparently confused two distinct cognate sets.


*tuluy₂ stop and visit when passing by


PMP     *tuluy₂ stop and visit when passing by

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tuluystop and visit along the way; stop by for someone or something
Toba Batak tulidrop in, call on, visit someone when travelling
Rotinese tulito stop (and visit) when passing by


*tuluy₃ caught up in, carried along


PWMP     *tuluy₃ caught up in, carried along

Cebuano túluybe caught in a net
Kayan tuluybe caught up in a dense crowd (and carried along); follow a precedent or example
Tae' tulicarry along in its downward course (of something falling, striking other objects and carrying them along with it)


*tuman correct, proper


PWMP     *tuman correct, proper

Aklanon túmanobey, follow, oblige
Cebuano túmanobey; fulfill, realize
Maranao tomanfulfill, effect; true, right, correct
Kenyah tumanproper
Sundanese tumanaccustomed, used to doing something; be familiar with something
Sasak tumanbe accustomed to doing something


*tumaŋ₁ disagreement


PWMP     *tumaŋ₁ disagreement

Bikol túmaŋto rebel, rise up, mutiny against
Malay tumaŋdisagreement, wrangling


*tumaŋ₂ heel


PWMP     *tumaŋ₂ heel

Isneg túmaŋheel
Berawan (Long Teru) tumeŋheel
Berawan (Batu Belah) tuminheel
Berawan (Long Jegan) toməñheel


*tunas sprout, plant shoot


PWMP     *tunas sprout, plant shoot

Maranao tonasremnant; descendant
Tiruray tunoh(in general) a newly sprouted shoot; (specifically) a tobacco seedling; to sprout
Malay tunasaftergrowth; young shoots or sprouts that appear on the ground after a crop or on a severed bough or trunk
  ber-tunasto give out new shoots (of a mutilated tree)
Toba Batak tunasplant shoot, sprout
  mar-tunasto bud, put out shoots, of plants
Rejang tuneusa bud, a shoot
Javanese (Pigeaud) di-tunas-ihacked off (as a tree trunk, etc.)
  tunas-ansprout, plant shoot


*túnaw to melt, dissolve


PPh     *túnaw to melt, dissolve

Itbayaten tonawidea of liquefication
Ilokano ma-túnawto melt, dissolve
  tunaw-ento melt something; shape gold into bullion
Isneg maŋi-túnawto make red-hot (spearheads, blades of axes, etc.)
Casiguran Dumagat tunawto melt, to dissolve (of a burning candle, salt in water, etc.)
Tagalog tunáwmelted; liquid, liquefied; digested (said of food); molten, dissolved
  pa-núnawlaxative; digestion; the power of digesting
  ma-túnawto melt, to dissolve, to liquefy
Bikol mag-túnawto dissolve something; to liquefy, melt, thaw
  pa-tunáw-onto digest food
Hanunóo túnawmelting, dissolving
  ma-túnawdissolve, melt
Hiligaynon ma-túnawto melt (as ice), to digest, to dissolve
Aklanon túnawto melt, dissolve
Waray-Waray tunáwmelted, liquefied
Masbatenyo mag-túnawto melt, dissolve
  ma-túnawbe melted, be dissolved
Romblomanon ma-tūnawfood is digested by someone; something, as a metal, melts with heat
Cebuano túnawmelt, dissolve; be mortified, melt with shame (literary)
  tunáw-anvessel for melting something by heating
Maranao tonaomelt, dissolve
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tunewto melt or dissolve something
Mansaka tonawto dissolve; to melt; to disintegrate
  tonaw-anmold, cast, matrix
Mapun nunawto melt something; to thin something (like paint); to dissolve
Tausug tunaw(of ice or a tablet) dissolved, melted; (of food) digested
  mag-tunawto dissolve, melt (something); to digest (something)


PPh     *tunaw-en to melt, dissolve

Itbayaten tonaw-ento melt, liquefy
Mapun tunaw-unto melt something
Tausug tunaw-unto dissolve, melt (something); to digest (something)

Note:   Also Tiruray tunag ‘to melt something’. Probably a Philippine loan in Mapun.


*tuNa freshwater eel


PAN     *tuNa freshwater eel

Pazeh tulabig eel; bum, idler
Thao tuzageneric for eels apart from the paddy eel (fraq); marine eels are unknown
  pash-tuzá-nkind of wicker eel cage suspended in the water next to a boat and used to keep one’s catch alive until returning to shore
Amis todaan eel
Puyuma tulaan eel
Paiwan tjuɬaeel; penis (jokingly)


PMP     *tuna freshwater eel

Yami tonaeel
Itbayaten tonalarge freshwater eel
  man-to-tonato hunt eels
Cebuano tunásmall, glossy-black, worm-like snake, deadly poisonous, found in moist places in grasses and weeds
Malagasy tonaa species of very large serpent; fig., an eel too large to be used as food because of its resemblance to a tona
Malay tunaname of a mud-snake or eel with a yellowish body; described sometimes as ikan tuna (tuna fish) and sometimes as ular tuna (tuna snake)
Bimanese dunakind of large eel
Manggarai tunawhite eel, Monopterus albus
Ngadha tunaeel
Kambera tunaeel, sp. of Anguilla
Rotinese tunaeel
  tuna busakkind of eel that bites when caught
Tetun tunaa conger eel, Congidae spp.
Kuruti drunlarge freshwater eel
Mondropolon cunfreshwater (river) eel
Penchal runfreshwater eel
Lenkau trunfreshwater eel
Kele drunlong-bodied freshwater (river) eel
Kairiru tunfreshwater eel
Gitua tunafreshwater eel
Nanggu tunaeel
Proto-Micronesian *tunafreshwater eel
Kosraean tonfreshwater eel
Rotuman funafreshwater eel (fuan ne rano); similar kind of saltwater eel (fuan ne sɔsi)
Wayan tunafish (ika) taxon; eels (Anguilliformes), esp. freshwater eels (Muraena spp.)
Fijian dunaan eel
  duna-dunasmaller type of eel
Tongan tunakind of eel
  tuna tahimarine eel
  tuna vaifreshwater eel
Niue tunaeel; freshwater fish found in caves
Futunan tunariver eel
Samoan tunaname given to freshwater eels of genus Anguilla
Tuvaluan tunafreshwater eel, freshwater crayfish
Nukuoro dunalarvae (of mosquito, etc.) found in water
Rennellese tunakind of lake eel; turmeric (ango) tuber; the eel is said to be named for this because of its color
Rarotongan tunageneral term for eel
Maori tunaAnguilla dieffenbachii, the long-finned, and Anguilla australis, the short-finned freshwater eels, and their varieties
  tuna hekemigrating eel (both species migrate to spawn in deep sea)
  tuna poularge-headed eel, not eaten (tapu)
  tuna roafig., the earth (long eel)
Hawaiian kunaa variety of freshwater eel

Note:   Also Wogeo tuña ‘freshwater eel’, Mbula tuunu ‘eel (freshwater or saltwater). The distribution of this term is strange, as it is very common in certain areas (Taiwan, Bashiic languages in the far north of the Philippines, Lesser Sundas, Admiralties, Central Pacific) but rare or completely absent in the intervening ones (the rest of the Philippines and Borneo, most of western Indonesia, the Moluccas, most of the western Pacific). The Wogeo form could be taken as evidence for PAn, PMP *tuña, but since this is contradicted by reflexes in Malay, Admiralty languages and Wayan it is considered to be an irregular development in the individual history of this language.


*tuñen to swallow


PWMP     *tuñen to swallow

Itneg lom-tónɨnto swallow
Kalagan lum-túnonto swallow
Kiput tuñento swallow

Note:   Also Lau ono, ono-mi ‘to swallow, swallow whole’, Arosi ono ‘to swallow’.


*tuŋtuŋ₁ bamboo internode used as a storage container


PWMP     *tuŋtuŋ₁ bamboo internode used as a storage container     [doublet: *putuŋ]

Tiruray tuŋtuŋinternode of bamboo used as a container
Karo Batak nuŋtuŋ-ken (< tuŋtuŋ)turn a bamboo container around and knock it on the floor to empty it completely

Note:   Based on the comparison Malay tuŋtoŋ ‘inverting and rapping, e.g., the bowl of a pipe to knock out the contents; holding up a child by the legs as a punishment’, Malagasy tóntona ‘the act of knocking anything hollow so as to extract what is inside, as a bone to get out the marrow’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *tuŋtuŋ ‘loosen by pounding’.


*tuŋtuŋ₂ peak, top


PWMP     *tuŋtuŋ₂ peak, top     [doublet: *tuktuk₂ 'top, summit, crown']

Aklanon túŋtuŋstand on; upon; be on top (of); step on
  tuŋtúŋ-anplatform, stage
Cebuano tuŋtúŋto step, put on top
Old Javanese tuŋtuŋtop, tip, end, farthest point, the deepest or the highest
Balinese tuŋtuŋpeak, top

Note:   Also Tombulu (Niemann 1869-1870) tuŋtuŋ ‘forehead’ (cp. Tausug tuktuk ‘forehead’).


*tupa painful swelling in limbs


POC     *tupa painful swelling in limbs

Roviana tuvaarthritis, paralysis of arms, face, etc.
Eddystone/Mandegusu tuvapainful swelling in the arm or leg
Wayan tubahave cramp (as in leg muscle)
Samoan tupaswollen (of limbs affected by filarial infection)

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*tupak mend, repair, set in order


POC     *tupak mend, repair, set in order

Roviana tuvakamend, repair
Wayan tuvabe arranged, organized, set out, set in order, sorted out
Fijian tuvaset in order, arrange

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.


*tumpel dull, blunt


PMP     *tumpel dull, blunt     [doublet: *de(m)pul, *dumpul, *tumpul]

Tiruray temful <Mdull, not sharp
Dairi-Pakpak Batak tompelblunt, dull
Selaru tubalblunt, dull


*tumpul dull, blunt


PMP     *tumpul dull, blunt     [doublet: *de(m)pul, *dumpul, *tumpel]

Malay tumpulblunt, of a knife having a dull edge; also (fig.) of intelligence
Karo Batak tumpuldull, of a knife; witless, mentally slow
Nggela tupublunt


*tupul send out new growth, of vegetation


POC     *tupul send out new growth, of vegetation

Roviana tuvulusend out new growth, of trees that have been cut down
Fijian tuvushoot up, of a tree


*tu(m)pus to complete, finish


PMP     *tu(m)pus to complete, finish

Kayan tupuhbe completed (polite term)
Bimanese dumpupiece; remainder
  dumpu roŋkocigarette butt
Manggarai tupuscomplete, finish
  tumpusterminate (of life), be insufficient

Note:   Also Isneg turpús ‘to finish, to end, to complete’. Wit