Updated: 11/20/2014
Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Sub-Groups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References      Roots      Loans      Noise      Formosan      

Blust's
Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets

*t   

te        ti    to    tu    

30486

*ta negative marker: no, not

7691

PCMP     *ta negative marker: no, not

CMP
Rotinese ta(k)not present, not exist; no, not
Kemak ta-ino, not
Leti tanot exist; no, not
Erai tanot
Kisar kanot (existential negation)
  kaanot (nominal negation)
  ka-ununot yet
Wetan ta(a)not
  (a)ta…ammanot at all, there is nothing but
Elat tano, not
Geser te-ino, not
Watubela te-ino, not
Paulohi ta ~ ta-mano, not
Asilulu tanot, esp. in fast speech or as an emphatic sentence-final particle
Sekar -tano, not

30138

*taba reward, pay

6881

POC     *taba reward, pay

OC
Manam taba-ito reward; sacrifice
Bugotu tabato pay; wages; reward; price
Nggela tambato hire, pay wages; wages, pay; a reward, prize in a race

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.

28374

*tambak₁ hit, pound on

5492

PMP     *tambak₁ hit, pound on

WMP
Proto-South Sulawesi *tamba(k)hit, pound
CMP
Hawu dababeat on with both hands

Note:   With root *-bak₂ ‘sound of a heavy smack’.

30817

*tambak₂ dam, dyke, embankment; to heap up

8570

PWMP     *tambak₂ dam, dyke, embankment; to heap up

WMP
Ilokano tambákdam, dike, bank
  ag-tambákto build a dike
Ibaloy i-tambakto pile, heap something up
Tagalog tambákembankment, terrace; mound; a bank or heap of earth, stones, sand, etc.; pile; a mass like a hill or mound; the piling up, e.g. of official papers not acted upon
  i-tambákto dump; to empty out or throw down so as to make a pile or heap; to dump into a place
  má-tambak-ánto be encumbered; to be filled or blocked up; to be oversupplied; to be glutted; to be overwhelmed; to be snowed under
  mag-tambákto make a heap or pile of sand, soil, stones, etc.
Bikol tambákheap, mound, pile
  tambak-ónto heap or pile up
Aklanon támbakpile; to pile up (one on top of another); fill (hole)
Waray-Waray tambákheap; pile; mass; mound
Masbatenyo támbakpiled, packed tightly, chock full
  tambak-ónto pile something
Romblomanon tambaksomething is covered over by someone with soil, stones, the shallow ocean
Maranao tambakrampart, heap
  tambak-ento heap up, as earth
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tambakto fill in a hole; to cover something over with some substance
Binukid tambakto cover (something) over with dirt
Mapun tambakan orderly stacking of rocks or earth (as used for the foundation of a house on the seashore, for a wharf, for a retaining wall surrounding a grave or rice field, etc.)
  nambakto make an orderly stack of rocks or earth
Yakan mag-tambakto place something on top of something else; pile up on top
Tausug mag-tambakto level (a low place), fill in (ground); pile stones (often over a grave)
Ngaju Dayak tambaka burial place for those families that do not preserve the corpse and later reinter the bones in an elevated mausoleum built on wooden posts
Malay tambakbanking; filling; levelling up
  me-nambakto reclaim (low-lying land)
Acehnese s<ɨn>ambaʔdyke, dam, mound of earth, wall, rampart, parapet
Simalur tambaʔgrave; canal
Karo Batak tambaka dyke, a damming up of water; an artificial pond made by damming
  nambak-ito dam up by building a dyke
Toba Batak tambakburial mound that one properly undertakes and plants with trees
Nias tambaa filling up
  ma-nambato fill up
  fa-tambabecome equal, be even (of a number)
Old Javanese tambakwall, dike, dam, fence
  tambak saya(of warriors) defence, rampart (against the enemy)
Javanese tambaka pond near the shore where certain sea fish (bandeng) are cultivated; a dike or dam for regulating water
  nambakto regulate the flow of; to tackle a problem;to overcome an obstacle
Sundanese tambakwhat serves to block off or divert water; also, to lie in a heap, heap up to obstruct the inflow or outflow of water
  di-tambakdammed up, held in by a dyke
  nambakto obstruct or divert (of water, with a dyke or dam)
Balinese tambakdam, dyke; a pool formed from a dammed stream; fishpond; to block, obstruct, dam
Sasak tambakfishpond
Bolaang Mongondow tambakburial place

8571

PWMP     *ma-tambak heaped up, as an obstruction

WMP
Tagalog má-tambákto be put aside in some place so as to form a big heap or mound, as garbage, old papers, etc.; to be or become piled up, as official papers requiring action, or as goods, etc.
Old Javanese (m)a-tambakwith a wall, etc.; to stand like a wall or dam, tightly packed (along the way), blocking (the way); a certain functionary (inspector or dikes?)

8572

PWMP     *ka-tambak-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Yakan ka-tambak-anbe affected by something that piles up on top (as a house struck by a falling tree)
Old Javanese ka-tambak-anto provide with a dam, be provided with a dam

8573

PWMP     *t<um>ambak to pile up earth or rocks, heap up so as to obstruct

WMP
Tagalog t<um>umbákto accumulate or pile up
Acehnese t<ɨm>ambaʔto dam up, make a dyke; heap up earth; fill up
Old Javanese t<um>ambakto put oneself in the way

8574

PWMP     *tambak-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Ilokano tambak-anto build a dike across or around
Ibaloy tambak-anto pile something against, on, etc. something else
Tagalog tambák-ana dump; a dumping place
  tambak-ánto fill up a place by dumping sand, earth, stones, rubbish, etc.
Masbatenyo tambak-ándumping place, junk yard
Romblomanon tambāk-ana shallow-sea fish trap
Mapun tambak-anto make an orderly stack of rocks or earth
Yakan tambak-anto place something on top of something else; pile up on top
Sundanese tambak-andam, dyke

Note:   Also Manggarai tamba ‘fishpond’.

28375

*tamban a fish: sardine spp.

5493

PWMP     *tamban a fish: sardine spp.

WMP
Ilokano tambánkind of sardine
Hanunóo támbandark-colored fish about 15 cm. long
Cebuano tambanname given to sardines of several species
Maranao tambanminnow, anchovy
Malay ikan tambansardine; generic for various Clupeidae
Sundanese tambanmarine fish sp.
Balinese tambankind of small sea fish
Sasak tambana sea fish, apparently the sardine

30273

*tabaN head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?)

7176

PAN     *tabaN head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?)

Formosan
Kavalan tabanhead trophy
Amis tafada disembodied head gotten in headhunting or war

7177

PMP     *taban booty, war captive; what is taken in war; elopement, captured bride

WMP
Tagalog t<um>ábanto hold onto; to hold something to keep it or oneself from falling
Agutaynen mag-taban-anto elope
Aklanon tábansnatch with one’s jaws (like a dog stealing food)
Mansaka tabanto plunder
Maranao tabanwin, winnings; beat
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tavanspoils of war, loot
Tiruray tabanthe spoils or winnings; to win in fighting or betting
Lun Dayeh tabana kidnapping, an abduction
  nabanto kidnap, abduct, take or carry away without the owner’s permission
Kelabit tabanrunning away with someone or something, kidnapping, elopement
Melanau (Mukah) tabanto seize, grasp, hold
  pə-tabanhold onto something
Ngaju Dayak tawanbe captured
  tawan-anwhat is captured (prisoners in war, a crocodile, a snake)
Malagasy (Provincial) tavanaprisoners of war
Iban tabancarry off, carry along, i.e. without leave (and so liable to fine), but with no intention of theft, and not by force; abscond or elope with, i.e. without consent of parents or tuai rumah (head of longhouse)
Malay tawantaking captive
Acehnese tawantake captive, make a war captive, take as booty
Karo Batak er-tabancapture something or someone, make someone a war captive
Toba Batak tabanbooty
  par-tabanone who captures or plunders, plunderer
  tar-tabanbe captured, be taken captive
Dairi-Pakpak Batak tabanwhat is plundered, looted or taken captive
Old Javanese tawanwhat is carried off, booty, a captive
Sasak tabanbooty; to loot, take as booty
  taban sesatothe confiscation of another person’s cattle that have strayed into one’s fields and caused damage
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tawaNto capture

7178

PWMP     *ma-naban to carry off, kidnap, loot a place

WMP
Agutaynen ma-nabanto elope
Kelabit nabanrun away with, kidnap, elope
Ngaju Dayak ma-nawanto catch, capture
Malay me-nawanto conquer, subdue, lead into captivity
Balinese nabancatch and keep an animal that has strayed onto your land until it is redeemed by its owner
  ta-taban-anan animal so retained

7179

PWMP     *maR-taban to carry off, kidnap, loot a place

WMP
Tagalog mag-tábanhold onto something with one’s hand or hands
Bikol mag-tábankidnap or abduct a woman; carry a woman off
Agutaynen mag-tabanto carry away wrongfully or forcefully; snatch or grab by the mouth, as an animal stealing food
Hiligaynon mag-tábanrun away with, take away, elope
Cebuano mag-tábanto elope
Tausug mag-tabanto capture property, loot, plunder; (usually for many people) to strive to get a share of something
Toba Batak mar-tabanto capture; plunder
Dairi-Pakpak Batak mer-tabanfall into the hands of someone through plunder; capture someone from his village in a raid

7180

PWMP     *t<in>aban be carried off, as loot or a captive in war; what is carried off

WMP
Agutaynen t<in>abanbe snatched or carried away wrongfully (as a fish by a hungry cat)
Tiruray t<en>aban-anone who is defeated
Old Javanese t<in>awanto carry off as captive or booty, to loot

7181

PWMP     *taban-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Tagalog tabán-anto hold onto; to hold something to keep it or oneself from falling
Javanese tawan-anan enemy captive, prisoner of war
Sasak taban-ancattle confiscated from another person as compensation for damage caused by them wandering into one’s fields

7182

PWMP     *taban-en be kidnapped or abducted

WMP
Bikol tabán-onbe kidnapped or abducted
Hiligaynon tabán-onbe carried off, taken away, as in elopement
Lun Dayeh teban-enwill be taken away without the owner’s permission
Kelabit teban-enbe kidnapped, be carried off
Malay tawan-anprisoner; conquest
Karo Batak taban-enbooty, loot, war captive
Dairi-Pakpak Batak taban-enwar captive

Note:   Also Ngaju Dayak taban-an ‘what is captured (prisoners in war, a crocodile, a snake)’. The meaning of PMP *taban seems clearly to have been ‘booty, loot; what is taken by force, as in war, or elopement’. This is consistent with the more specific meaning ‘head trophy’ (trophy taken in headhunting), which is reflected in the two known Formosan reflexes (both members of the East Formosan subgroup), but it is unclear whether the meaning in PAn was as narrowly restricted as this.

28353

*tabaŋ help, assist

5471

PMP     *tabaŋ help, assist

WMP
Cebuano tábaŋhelp, give a hand
Maranao tabaŋhelp, contribution, relief, aid, support, cooperate
OC
Proto-Micronesian *tapatapa, *tapaŋ-ihelp, support, aid, benefit

30799

*tambaŋuŋu large catfish that lives in river estuaries: genus Arius

8543

PWMP     *tambaŋuŋu large catfish that lives in river estuaries: genus Arius

WMP
Cebuano tambaŋúŋukind of large, fleshy catfish living in river estuaries
Makasarese tambanunukind of fish, lighter-colored than barrukaŋ (barrukaŋ = kind of fish that lives in river mouths and swamps, smooth, shiny and scaleless, gray and black with barbels on the mouth and poisonous spines on the back)

Note:   I assume that Makasarese tambanunu shows irregular replacement of the rarer and more marked velar nasal with its alveolar counterpart.

28352

*tabas cut away underbrush

5470

PWMP     *tabas cut away underbrush

WMP
Hanunóo tábascutting down, clearing underbrush and small trees as in preparing a kaiŋin
Sasak tabascut, level or smooth, cut off the top

Note:   Also Iban tawas (expected **tabas) ‘cleared, not overgrown’, Minangkabau tabas (expected **tawas) ‘cutting down small plants; in contrast to felling timber teban)’.

30037

*tabe hold tightly or firmly

6735

POC     *tabe hold tightly or firmly

OC
Tolai tabehold something so that someone else will not take it
Arosi abecarry something against the chest, as firewood
Wayan tabehold or carry a burden in the extended arms, esp. resting on both palms extended horizontally in front, as a tray (it is polite to hold a gift in this manner when presenting it)
Fijian tabehold or carry with the hands under
  i-tabea small oval basket without handles
  tabe-tabethe bringing of food in this basket
Tongan tapeshallow basket

Note:   Tongan tape may be a borrowing of Fijian i-tabe.

28410

*ta(m)beŋ block, obstruct

5529

PWMP     *ta(m)beŋ block, obstruct

WMP
Tiruray tambeŋstop a small flow of water by setting an impediment
Balinese tambeŋobstruct, block; be obstinate
  tabeŋstopper, cork

Note:   With root *-beŋ₂ ‘block, stop, dam’.

28411

*ta(m)bid attach, fasten

5530

PWMP     *ta(m)bid attach, fasten

WMP
Hanunóo támbidhanging, as of a bamboo container from the rafters of a house
Aklanon tabídattach, join
Hiligaynon tabídlink together with a rope or string, attach to
Iban tambitfastening; latch, button

30099

*tambu forbidden, taboo

6819

PCEMP     *tambu forbidden, taboo

CMP
Yamdena tamburestrain, prevent, forbid
Fordata tabuforbid, prevent

6820

POC     *tabu forbidden, taboo

OC
Tigak tapholy
Molima tabu-gua food forbidden to me
Tawala tabuforbidden (said to be a Suau loan)
Tubetube tabudon’t
Roviana tabuput a taboo (under certain circumstances) on food; perhaps an introduced term
Eddystone/Mandegusu tabucharm, sacred object; forbidden, taboo
Cheke Holo tabutaboo, prohibited, sacred
Bugotu tabusacred, forbidden, holy; a prohibition placed on use or handling of anything
Nggela tambuset apart; forbidden, taboo; dedicated; sacred, holy; a priest; abominable, hateful, immoral
Lau ābutaboo, holy
Kwaio abusacred, taboo
Toqabaqita abutaboo, not allowed, forbidden
'Āre'āre āpusacred, forbidden, taboo; used also as a prohibitive, dehortative to children
Arosi abudehortatory: don’t; sacred, in a few names of places, etc.
  haʔa-abuforbid
Gilbertese tabuprohibition, interdiction; sacred; forbidden, prohibited (generally used with religious meaning of sacred, consecrated)
  tabu-ato forbid, prohibit, interdict
Marshallese jabwitaboo (archaic)
Woleaian tab(u)taboo, ban, ritual restriction protected by supernatural sanction (marked by a taboo sign); be prohibited by taboo, restricted by taboo
Wayan tabube forbidden, prohibited by strong communal sanction, e.g. of traditional custom, modern law; (of a place or thing) be prohibited from use; prohibition, restriction; holiness, sacredness
Fijian tabuforbidden, prohibited, implying a religious sanction, but now used also for legal prohibition, such as “no admission’; sacred, holy, unapproachable
Tongan tapuprohibited, unlawful
Niue tapusacred, prohibited to common people
  fale tapuchurch
Samoan tapube forbidden
  tapu-ibe under an interdiction or ‘taboo’
Tuvaluan tapuprohibited
Kapingamarangi dabusacred; restricted; taboo
Nukuoro dabuforbidden; awesome
Rennellese taputaboo, forbidden, sacred, hallowed, restricted; sacredness, forbidden or sacred place; to observe taboos, as on the Sabbath
Maori tapuunder religious or superstitious restriction; a condition affecting persons, places, and things, and arising from innumerable causes
  tāpu-imark to indicate claim or right to property
Hawaiian kaputaboo, prohibition

6821

POC     *paka-tabu to forbid, make taboo

OC
Vitu va-tabu-tabu-ato forbid
Cheke Holo fa-tabuto make taboo
Lau fā-ābuconsecrate
Kwaio faʔa-abu-ato taboo, forbid ritually, make sacred
Arosi haʔa-abuforbid
Niue faka-taputo make sacred
Samoan faʔa-tapu-laʔaset a limit to
Rennellese haka-taputo make taboo; to dedicate, as a church
Hawaiian hoʔo-kapumake taboo, prohibit, sanctify, consecrate

6822

POC     *tabu-na taboo

OC
Wuvulu ʔapu-nacommand of prohibition; taboo
Loniu topu-ntaboo
Bipi drapu-ntaboo
Penchal rat rapu-ntaboo
Nauna tapundehortative; don’t
Eddystone/Mandegusu tabu-nashrine, skull-house, sacred or forbidden place; sacred thing
'Āre'āre āpu-nataboo (there are four varieties of taboo, each causing a different sickness)
Bauro apu-nadon’t

6823

POC     *tabu-ni-a be tabooed

OC
Roviana tabu-ni-aput a taboo on food
'Āre'āre āpu-ni-aput a taboo under curse; forbid
Samoan tapu-inabe forbidden by someone

6824

POC     *tapu-tapu strictly forbidden

OC
Kwaio abu-abusacred area beside men’s house where adalo (ancestral spirits) are addressed
Tongan topu-tapusacred, holy
Niue tapu-tapustrictly prohibited
Samoan tapu-tapustrictly forbidden
Rennellese tapu-tapudiminutive of tapu; small sacredness
Maori tapu-tapucharm, incantation
Hawaiian kapu-kapudignity, regal appearance; entitled to respect and reverence, difficult of access because of rank, dignity and station

Note:   Also Numfor kābus ‘taboo; tree branch or anything else placed on fruit tree or other object by its owner in order to make others afraid to approach the marked object lest ill fortune befall them’, Arosi puna ‘sacred, taboo’, puna apuro ‘a place taboo (puna) to the avenger of blood to which he comes decked in his ornaments; anyone else going there is puna from returning (apuro) alive, and is killed’. Since *t > k is regular the Numfor word initially appears to support PEMP *tambus, but the long vowel is unexplained, and the final consonant fails to agree with the absence of a final consonant in the Yamdena and Fordata words.

This is one of the key cultural terms in the POc lexicon, designating a type of social control that was enforced by supernatural sanctions. Because of the nature of the sanctions the term itself often came to mean ‘sacred’ or ‘holy’. However, it evidently was also used either alone or in suffixed form as a general dehortative. It is unclear how POc *tabu differed in meaning from POc *pali, which continued PAn *paliSi ‘taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite’.

28354

*tabuD strew, scatter

5472

PWMP     *tabuD strew, scatter     [disjunct: *tabuR]

WMP
Malay taburscattering; sowing; diffusion over a surface
Bolaang Mongondow tabudstrew, scatter seed

28376

*tambuluk puffy area around the throat of some birds

5494

PWMP     *tambuluk puffy area around the throat of some birds

WMP
Cebuano tambúlukthe hackles of roosters
Malay tembolokcrop (of bird)

30537

*tabuni placenta, afterbirth

7820

PMP     *tabuni placenta, afterbirth

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tabuniplacenta, afterbirth
  ma-nabunitake the afterbirth away
Malagasy tavónithe afterbirth, the placenta
Malay tembuniplacenta
Taje (Tanampedagi) tavuniafterbirth

7821

POC     *tapuni placenta, afterbirth

OC
Kwaio afuniplacenta; in pagan childbirth must be buried under mother’s bed in childbirth hut to avoid supernatural danger to her
Arosi ahunito bury, cover, conceal, hide

Note:   Also Mapun tamuni ‘placenta (the placenta should be placed in a hollowed-out coconut shell and then buried by the midwife at a place where a road forks)’, Yakan temuni ‘placenta’, Tausug tamuniŋ ‘placenta; something worthless or of very little value’, Pendau tauni- ‘afterbirth’. The relationship between *tabun ‘to bury’ and *tabuni ‘placenta, afterbirth’ remains unclear’. Over much of the Austronesian world the placenta is/was regarded as the younger sibling of the newborn child, and was buried after the birth, hence the possibility that *tabuni may derive from *tabun-i 'to bury (something)'. This possibility is somewhat strengthened by the recognition that in many languages the name for the placenta is a descriptive term, as with Bontok baley ‘home; shelter; living place; any place which gives protection, as a bird nest, spider web, rat hole, water buffalo pasture or the sheath of a bolo; placenta’, Dampelas banua ŋanaʔ ‘afterbirth’ (lit. ‘house of the child’), Maranao dalem a kandaŋ ‘placenta’ (lit. ‘inside the womb’), or Pohnpeian ieŋen seri ‘placenta’ (lit. ‘companion of the child’), suggesting that there was no monomorphemic word that corresponded to the meaning of the English gloss.

30567

*tabuRi conch shell trumpet

7935

PMP     *tabuRi conch shell trumpet     [doublet: *tabuRiq]

WMP
Tiruray temburia shell trumpet; to blow the temburi
CMP
Selaru fturi <Mtriton shell
Asilulu tahuliconch shell (Strombus spp.); conch shell trumpet
Alune tabuliconch shell trumpet
Kamarian tahuritrumpet shell
Soboyo tafuhishell, blown to call up the wind when a canoe is launched on a voyage
SHWNG
Kowiai tafurtriton shell

7936

POC     *tapuRi conch shell trumpet

OC
Nali drahconch shell trumpet
Loniu tahconch shell trumpet
Ahus nhahconch shell trumpet
Pak dohuconch shell trumpet
Kuruti drohconch shell trumpet
Likum cahconch shell trumpet
Penchal rahuyconch shell trumpet
Nauna tahuyconch shell trumpet
Sori dapconch shell trumpet
Yapese yabultype of conch shell; horn, trumpet, siren
Tolai tauru <Aconch shell, Strombus epidromus, and other varieties
Vitu tavureconch shell (blown to signal new arrivals, danger, etc.)
Lusi tavurshell trumpet
Kairiru tourconch shell
Wogeo taurconch shell trumpet
Manam tauru <Aconch shell trumpet
Gedaged tauzkind of mollusk, triton
Takia toulconch shell trumpet
Gitua tavurekind of shell, particular the Pacific trumpet shell, but includes other Cymatiidae species and Bursidae species
Kilivila tauyatriton
Bugotu tavuliconch shell used as trumpet
Nggela tavulispecies of mollusc, gastropod, Charonia tritonis; a trumpet; the sound of a trumpet
Sa'a ähuriconch shell, triton, blown at the end, used to summon people
Arosi ahuriconch, usually a Triton shell blown at the side; blown only on solemn occasions, e.g. at a death, or at feasts
Proto-Micronesian *tawuitriton or trumpet shell
Chuukese sewitriton shell; trumpet made from triton shell
Puluwat hawiconch trumpet
Woleaian tawiiconch shell trumpet
Pohnpeian sewiconch shell, conch shell trumpet
Mokilese jowiconch shell
Sonsorol-Tobi tauiconch shell
Wayan tavuigastropod shellfish taxon; Pacific (or Triton’s) trumpet, Charonia tritonis, used as a horn; the shell of these animals
Fijian davuia large univalve shellfish, the trumpet shell or Triton, used as a horn or trumpet, chiefly on canoes

Note:   Also Cebuano tambúli ~ tambúliʔ ‘melongena, kind of conch; horn made from the horn of a water buffalo or a conch’, Malay buri ‘a trumpet’, Aua tauru ‘conch shell trumpet’ (expected **afui), Mbula twiiri ‘trumpet shell, Triton, a large sea shell which is blown as a horn for signalling’, Gilbertese tau ‘Triton conch, trumpet shell’, Mota tauwe ‘conch shell used as a trumpet’.

The conch shell trumpet is well-known in the Pacific, where it played an important traditional role in the launching of voyaging canoes, the calling of members of the village to ceremonies, providing an alert to imminent danger, etc. However, this reconstruction presents special problems, since its PMP status depends crucially on Tiruray (and the indirect support provided by the Palauan evidence for the doublet *tabuRiq). In addition, a number of languages in the Philippines reflect a word with irregular *R > l, as with the Cebuano form just cited or similar forms in other languages of the Philippines (see Note to *tabuRiq). These appear to be loanwords, although the usual appeal to Malay as a source language does not work well here. Given the limited set of forms that he compared, Dempwolff (1938) erroneously reconstructed *tam-buri ‘triton shell trumpet’. It is now clear that the rhotic in this form was *R, and that there is no comparative evidence for prenasalization of the medial stop. Both of these observations were first made for Proto-Oceanic *tapuRi by Ross (1988:147).

The limited pattern of survival of this form in both the Philippines and Indonesia suggests that it either disappeared among groups that moved inland to a montane environment where the conch was not easily obtained, or was replaced among lowlanders through contact-induced culture change. All in all the pattern of distribution for reflexes of PMP *tabuRi (and its doublet form *tabuRiq) suggests that survival was most strongly favored in areas of cultural conservatism, and disfavored where traditional practices either competed or conflicted with those introduced from outside, as among hispanized Filipinos, where the use of animal horns apparently came to be favored over shell trumpets, or among the peoples of western Indonesia, where overlays of Indian and Islamic cultural influence have altered many aspects of the traditional cultures of lowland groups.

28378

*tabuRiq conch shell trumpet

5496

PMP     *tabuRiq conch shell trumpet     [doublet: *tabuRi]

WMP
Palauan debuseʔconch shell; sound of conch shell; horn
CMP
Watubela tuwulikconch shell

7928

POC     *tapuRiq conch shell trumpet

OC
Kaiwa tavulkTriton shell (Ross 1988:147)

Note:   Also Tagalog tambúliʔ ‘a native horn, bugle or trumpet made of horn’, Mapun tabuliʔ ‘a kind of horn made from any large seashell or horn of an animal’; nabuliʔ ~ tabuliʔ-an ‘to blow a shell-type horn (as to warn or summon someone)’, Yakan tabuliʔ ‘triton, a big sea shell (used as a signal instrument in old times)’, Tausug tambuliʔ ‘chambered nautilus; a trumpet made of this shell’.

28355

*tada natural cockspur

5473

PMP     *tada natural cockspur (cf *tazi, artificial cockspur)     [disjunct: *tara]

WMP
Iban tadanatural spur of a cock
Proto-Sangiric *tadacockspur
Simalur taraartificial cockspur
Mentawai taracockspur
Bare'e tara-manucockspur
Buginese tara-manuʔcockspur
Tae' taranatural cockspur
  buku taraanklebone
CMP
Bimanese taracockspur

Note:   This comparison was first recognized in print by H. Kähler (1961). Mills (1973:894) tries unconvincingly to connect Buginese tara-manuʔ ‘cockspur’ with *taRaq ‘to hew, chop (wood)’.

30724

*tadal to look upward; face upward

8328

POC     *tadal to look upward; face upward

OC
Duke of York ta-tadato look or face upwards
Manam tadato look up
  tádal-ito look up to somebody, something
Gedaged tadto look (upwards)
Gitua tadasupine
Cheke Holo tadalook up, turn face upwards
Bugotu tadato look up; up
  rei tadato lift up the eyes
  va-tadaraise up, set up, turn right way up; set one’s shield against the enemy
Nggela tandaup, upwards; face up
  tandal-agito put face up
  tanda-tandaface up; to look up

28414

*ta(n)dem remember

5533

PWMP     *ta(n)dem remember

WMP
Maranao tademmemory; recollect, remember
Malagasy tándrinaremembered

Note:   With root *-dem₂ ‘think, ponder, brood, remember’.

28388

*tanduk tanduk plant sp.

5506

PWMP     *tanduk tanduk plant sp.

WMP
Ilokano tan-tandókGynandropsis pentaphylla (L.) DC.. An erect capparidaceous herb with digitate, long-petioled leaves ... and white flowers tinged with purple; it is considered a caustic
Malay tandok-tandokplants with curiously shaped flowers; Strophanthus dichotomus, Ervatamia spp.

Note:   This reconstruction may contain Dempwolff's (1934-38) *tanduk ‘horn’.

28356

*taeb high tide (?)

5474

PWMP     *taeb high tide (?)

WMP
Tagalog táibhigh tide
Bikol táʔobhigh tide
Hanunóo táʔubhigh tide
Cebuano táʔubhigh tide
  taʔúb-unsea at high tide
Palawan Batak táʔebsea, ocean; flood, high tide
Palauan dáobsea, ocean, saltwater
Bolaang Mongondow taabflood

Note:   Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *ta( )eb ‘high tide; flood’.

28406

*taŋgap receive, accept

5525

PWMP     *taŋgap receive, accept

WMP
Kapampangan taŋgapreceive, accept
Tagalog taŋgápaccepted, admitted, received
Tiruray taŋgafreceive, accept
Old Javanese taŋgapaccept, take, receive (also with person as object)
Balinese taŋgaptake into the hand, accept, receive

Note:   Possibly equivalent to Dempwolff's (1934-38) *taŋgap ‘seize, hold firmly’.

29876

*tageRaŋ ribcage

6535

PAN     *tageRaŋ ribcage

Formosan
Pazeh takaxaŋribs
Puyuma tageraŋchest
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) tahraŋchest, breast
WMP
Itbayaten tagraŋrib
Bontok tadláŋthe ribs of the body
Kankanaey tadláŋrib
Ifugaw tagláŋribs; side of a human chest (what is enclosed by the ribs)
Ifugaw (Batad) tagláŋribcage of a person or animal; i.e. the upper backbone and the ribs
Pangasinan tagláŋrib, frame
Sambal (Botolan) tagyáŋrib
Kapampangan tagyáŋrib
Hanunóo tagyáŋrib
Kenyah (Long Anap) tegaaŋribs
Miri tagréŋribs
Kiput tegeriëribs

Note:   Also Isneg taʔgāŋ ‘ribs’, Aborlan Tagbanwa takgaŋ ‘hard ribs’ (saŋgaŋɨn ‘soft ribs’), Tombonuwo tikogaŋ, Labuk-Kinabatangan Eastern Kadazan tikagaŋ, Kelabit segeraŋ ‘ribs’. The last three forms imply an etymon *tigeRaŋ, with prepenultimate *i, but this is otherwise unknown.

28407

*taŋgiRi a fish: the Spanish mackerel

5526

PWMP     *taŋgiRi a fish: the Spanish mackerel     [doublet: *taŋiRi]

WMP
Ilokano taŋgígikind of marine fish resembling a bonito; its meat is much esteemed
Malay teŋgiriSpanish mackerel: Scomberomorus (Cybium) spp.

28357

*tahep-i to winnow

5475

PMP     *tahep-i₁ to winnow

WMP
Cebuano táphiwinnow it!
Malay tampito winnow
Javanese tapito winnow
Sasak tampiʔto winnow
CMP
Yamdena tafito winnow
Buruese tapi-hto winnow

Note:   For details of the development of this morphologically complex form in the languages of the central Philippines cf. Zorc (1977). It is worth noting that Sasak tampiʔ shows both secondary prenasalization and a secondary final glottal stop. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *tapi ‘separate chaff from grain (= winnow)’, but there are various problems with his proposed cognate set.

30148

*tai ñamuk mosquito net

6892

POC     *tai ñamuk mosquito net     [doublet: *tau ñamuk]

OC
Marshallese taiṇaṃmosquito net
Tongan tainamumosquito net
Futunan tainamumosquito net
Anuta tainamumosquito net
Rarotongan tai-namuliterally means, the entangler of mosquitoes, or, that which catches mosquitoes; a mosquito net

Note:   Also Pohnpeian tein amwise, Mokilese sei, Samoan taʔinamu ‘mosquito net’.

30150

*tail tree with fiber used to make fish nets

6894

POC     *tail tree with fiber used to make fish nets

OC
Loniu taycatch fish
Bipi taycatch fish with a net
Motu taia tree the inner bark of which is used for rope-making (Hibiscus tiliaceus)
Roviana tailifishline formerly made from the bark of the pusi (Lyonsia sp.)

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.

28418

*ta(ŋ)kas₁ agile, quick

5537

PMP     *ta(ŋ)kas agile, quick

WMP
Javanese taŋkasswift-moving
CMP
Ngadha tika-takanimble, agile, quick

Note:   With root *-kas₃ ‘swift, agile, energetic’.

28408

*taŋkas₂ loosen, untie

5527

PWMP     *taŋkas loosen, untie     [doublet: *beŋkas, *ka(s)kas]

WMP
Bikol taŋkásremove (as a necktie, a cover), take off (as a necktie), pull out (as a plug), disconnect
Kadazan taŋkasunbolt, loosen things, fittings
Uma taŋkaʔset free, release; remove something that clings fast

Note:   Also Palauan meŋe-dóked ‘untie, unfasten’. This item is assumed to contain a root *-kas₂.

28419

*ta(ŋ)keb₁ cover, overlapping part

5538

PWMP     *ta(ŋ)keb cover, overlapping part

WMP
Maranao takebeyelid
Sundanese taŋkeb-anmoveable corner of smoke-vent in roof
Javanese taŋkeboverlapping portion of a double-breasted jacket
Balinese taŋkebcover up (with a basket, etc.)

Note:   With root *-keb₁ ‘cover’.

28409

*taŋkeb₂ fall face downward

5528

PWMP     *taŋkeb fall face downward

WMP
Tagalog taŋkabto fall, hurting one's lip or chin
Dairi-Pakpak Batak taŋkepface downward; to fall face downward

Note:   With root *-keb₂ ‘face downward’. Adelaar (1981) maintains that Northern Batak reflects final voiced stops as the homorganic nasal, while Southern Batak reflects them as the homorganic voiceless stop. Although this is normally true, both Karo Batak and Dairi-Pakpak Batak occasionally exhibit a voiceless final stop from an earlier voiced stop, as with *ruqag ‘wide, spacious’ > Karo Batak ruhak ‘spacious, wide, of an opening’ (Blust 1983-1984).

28358

*taked₁ back of leg

5476

PWMP     *taked₁ back of leg

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat tikedfoot, leg; footprints
Manobo (Kalamansig Cotabato) takɨdheel
Bilaan (Sarangani) takadheel
Kelabit takedpopliteal area, back of knee
Kenyah (Long Anap) taketleg, foot

Note:   Also Rungus Dusun hakod ‘leg’, Bisaya (Limbang) akod ‘back part of heel’. Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *taked, *tiNked ‘heel’.

28359

*taked₂ climb

5477

PWMP     *taked₂ climb

WMP
Isneg taŋkād (length unexpl.)climb
Bikol tukád <Mgo uphill
Kenyah (Long Wat) takətanything used to climb
  nakətclimb
Kayan (Uma Juman) takəranything used to climb
  nakərclimb
Gorontalo taʔoduclimb

Note:   Also Bontok tíkid ‘climb a trail’. Zorc (1971) posits PPh *taked ‘climb a hill’.

28360

*takep to fold over, double

5478

PWMP     *takep to fold over, double

WMP
Maranao takepdouble, multiply
Tiruray takefto double something, make it twice as much
Balinese takepbe folded over, closed

Note:   With root *-kep₁ ‘fold, double over’.

28420

*ta(ŋ)ket adhere, stick to

5539

PWMP     *ta(ŋ)ket adhere, stick to

WMP
Sasak taŋketcompanion
Bare'e takastick, adhere, cling fast to something, attach oneself to

Note:   With root *-keC ‘adhesive, sticky’.

30792

*taŋkis to parry, turn an attack or accusation aside

8525

PWMP     *taŋkis to parry, turn an attack or accusation aside

WMP
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taŋkisto fend off a blow with one’s hands or arm
Maranao taŋkisparry, fence, dodge, ward off
Tiruray taŋkisto parry, to turn something aside
Tboli taŋkisdenial; to deny, as charges made against one; to be dissenting
Ngaju Dayak taŋkisparrying; what is parried (blow, thrust, etc.)
  ma-naŋkisto parry
  pa-naŋkiswhat is often or always parried
  tara-taŋkisable to be parried
Malay taŋkisparrying by striking aside (used of fencers or duelists)
  taŋkis-kanto ward off
Old Javanese takis ~ taŋkisrepelling, warding off; defense; clash, collision; shield?, weapon of defence?
Javanese taŋkisflood control dike along a riverbank; shield, breastplate
  naŋkisto ward off
  pe-naŋkisact of holding against attack
Balinese taŋkiswarding off, parrying
  naŋkisto ward off, parry (blows)
Sasak taŋkisto ward off, parry

Note:   Also Sasak taŋklis ‘to ward off, parry’. Much of this distribution may be due to borrowing from Malay.

28421

*ta(ŋ)kup (or ta(ŋ)kequpʔ) cover, enclose

5540

PWMP     *ta(ŋ)kup (or ta(ŋ)kequpʔ) cover, enclose

WMP
Ilokano takúpto patch, mend by patching
Cebuano takúpshutter
  takʔupclose, be closed
Melanau (Mukah) takuplid, cover
Malay taŋkupcapture under a hollow
Tae' takoʔcup the two hands together to hold something

Note:   With root *-kup ‘enclose, cover’.

30377

*takut fear

7425

PAN     *takut fear

Formosan
Siraya takotfear
WMP
Ifugaw tákutfear; to fear; to frighten somebody
Ibaloy takotfear for one’s bodily safety
Pangasinan takótfear
  an-takotshy, timid
Kapampangan tákutfear
  maka-tákutfrightening
Tagalog tákotfear
  takótafraid, frightened, feeling fear; nervous, timid, tremulous
  takót na takótvery frightened; panic-stricken; demoralized by fear
Bikol tákotfear
Lun Dayeh tootfear, fright
  ŋe-tootto scare or frighten someone
Kelabit taʔutfear
Kayan takutbe afraid of, in fear of; be frightened by
Kayan (Uma Juman) takutfear; afraid
Murik takutfear; afraid
Malagasy táhotrafear, dread, horror, terror
Malay takutfear
Simalur mana-taʔudto frighten
  taʔut-ito frighten
Toba Batak tahutfear, fright; dread; anxiety
Old Javanese takutfear
  pi-takutscarecrow
Balinese takutfear; to fear, be afraid of
Sasak takutbe afraid
Sangir takuʔfear, dread
Banggai takutfear
  maŋa-takutto frighten
Tae' takuʔto fear
Palauan dáktfear, awe
CMP
Bimanese dahufear; afraid
Lamaholot takutbe afraid
Komodo n-dahuʔafraid

7426

PMP     *ka-takut (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Tagalog ka-tákut-tákotterrible, terrifying
Old Javanese ka-takutfear; object of fear
Tae' ka-takuʔbe afraid of something
Palauan ke-dáktbe afraid of each other
CMP
Bimanese ka-dahuto frighten


Note:   Bimanese ka-dahu may reflect *paka-takut, and it is possible that the prefixed element in the other forms cited together here actually has disparate sources.

7427

PAN     *ma-takut fearful, afraid

Formosan
Siraya ma-takotfear
WMP
Ibaloy ma-tekotinclined to fear, fearful
Pangasinan ma-takótafraid
Kapampangan ma-tákutafraid
Tagalog ma-tákotafraid, scared; apprehensive, worried or anxious
Bikol ma-tákotto be afraid, frightened, jittery, nervous, panicky, scared
Lun Dayeh me-tootafraid, have fear
Kelabit me-taʔutto frighten, make afraid
Malagasy ma-táhotrato dread, fear, be afraid
Simalur ma-taʔudanxious, afraid
Toba Batak ma-tahutto fear, be afraid
Sangir ma-takuʔto fear, be afraid
  ma-ma-takuʔto frighten
Banggai ma-takutafraid, be afraid
Tae' ma-takuʔafraid, frightened
Palauan me-dáktto fear, be afraid of
CMP
Bimanese dahuto fear, be afraid
Kambera mandautato fear, be afraid of
Hawu medaʔuto fear, be afraid
Leti mtatuto fear, be afraid
Wetan mtaatato be afraid of
Watubela ma-takutto fear, be afraid
Asilulu mataʔuto fear, be afraid
Soboyo mantakuto fear, be afraid
SHWNG
Numfor mkākto fear, be afraid

7428

POC     *matakut fear; fearful, afraid

OC
Yapese daguwfear
Wuvulu maʔauafraid
Seimat ma-mataafraid
Mussau ma-matautuafraid
Lakalai matauafraid
Mbula motobe afraid, fear
  pa-motofrighten someone
Gitua mataguzi ~ mataguzato fear, be afraid
Tubetube mataus-istate of being afraid
Tawala matoutato fear, be frightened
Molima matautaafraid
Dobuan matautaafraid
Selau matutafraid, frightened
  asana a mat-matutperson who takes fright easily; coward
Roviana matagutuafraid, fearful
Eddystone/Mandegusu matatuto fear, be afraid
Bugotu mataguto fear, be afraid
Nggela mataguto fear, be afraid
  matagu-nito be afraid of
  matagu-poua coward
Kwaio maʔuafraid; shy
  faʔa-maʔu-ato frighten
  maʔu-niabe afraid of
Lau mouto fear, be afraid
  mou-taiafraid, afraid of
Sa'a mäʔuto fear, be afraid
  mäʔu-ta-the fear of (something)
'Āre'āre maʔuto be afraid
  maʔu-niato fear, be afraid of
Gilbertese maakufear, dread, terror, fright, dismay
Pohnpeian masakbe afraid of, to fear
Chuukese mésék(ú)to be afraid
Puluwat mehak(úw)to be afraid; to be fearsome
Woleaian metag(iu)to be afraid, scared of
Mota matagutbe afraid of
  matag-tagto fear (rare, but true Mota word)
Northeast Ambae matakufear
Raga mataxufear
Nasarian i-metaktakfear
Nakanamanga matakufear
Anejom e-mtaγfear
Wayan matakube afraid, frightened, fearful; fear, fright
  mataku-cifear something, be afraid or frightened of something
  mata-matakube always afraid, timid, cowardly
Niue matakuto fear, be afraid
  mataku-takufear (n.); to fear, be nervous
  mataku-taku-inafeared, dreaded; frightened
Samoan mataʔuto fear, hold in awe
  mataʔu-tiabe dreadful, awful; be terrible, fearful
Rennellese matakuto be afraid, cowardly; to fear
  mataku-tiato be dangerous, feared
  mataku-takuto be afraid, cowardly
Anuta matakuto be afraid, frightened; fear
Tuvaluan matakuafraid
Kapingamarangi madagufear, be afraid; be shy; shyness
  madagu-dagufear, be afraid
Nukuoro madaguafraid, scared
  madagu-dagucowardly (concerning others or supernaturals)
  madagu-aŋafear
Rarotongan matakufear, dread, terror; afraid, timid, struck with fear; undecided; to be afraid, timid or doubtful
  mataku-takuto be in the state or condition of being afraid, timid; to entertain fear; to be possessed of forebodings; to hesitate
Maori matakuto be afraid; fearful, afraid; inspiring fear; incompatible; averse
  mataku-riabe feared
Hawaiian makaʔufear; frightened, afraid

7429

PWMP     *ma-nakut (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Tagalog ma-nákotto scare people, to intimidate, to threaten with harm
Malay me-nakutbe in a state of fear

7430

PWMP     *pa-takut to frighten, make afraid

WMP
Kelabit pe-taʔutto frighten, make afraid
Sasak pe-takutcausing fear, arousing fear


Note:   This form of the causative prefix with *takut is clearly in competition with the causative of stative verbs, *paka-. It is possible that the Kelabit and Sasak forms given here are historically secondary reformations from *paka-takut.

7431

PMP     *paka-takut to frighten, cause to fear

WMP
Malagasy faha-tahor-anafear, dread
Sangir ma-paka-takuʔto frighten, incite fear
Tae' paka-takuʔto frighten
CMP
Soboyo paka-takufrightened
OC
Wayan vaka-matakube fearsome, frightening, terrifying; be dreadful, terribly bad, wicked; be dangerous; be formidable, powerful, commanding respect
Niue faka-mataku-takuto frighten
Samoan faʔa-mataʔuto frighten, threaten
Tuvaluan faka-matakudangerous
Rennellese haka-matakuto frighten, scare; to be amazing, terrifying, dangerous, surprising
Hawaiian hoʔo-makaʔuto frighten, scare, terrify, make afraid; to pretend fear

7432

PWMP     *pa-nakut provoke fear (?)

WMP
Tagalog pa-nákotscarecrow
Malay pe-nakutcoward
Toba Batak pa-nahutprovoke fear
Sasak pe-nakutprecipitating fear

7433

PWMP     *ka-takut-an be struck by fear; a state of fear or worry

WMP
Kapampangan ka-takut-anfear
Tagalog ka-takut-anto fear or be afraid of something or someone; a state of being afraid; fear, dread
Malagasy ha-tahor-anafear, dread
Malay ke-takut-anpanic
Bahasa Indonesia ke-takut-ana state of fear; a feeling of fear; a condition of fear; hesitation; worry; anxiety; be struck by fear
Tae' ka-ma-takur-anbe afraid; fear


Note:   The Tae' form shows that some of these constructions may have been innovated in the separate histories of the languages in which they are found, since in at least this case the circumfixation of ka- -an took place only after prefixation with ma-.

7434

PMP     *t<um>akut become afraid

WMP
Tagalog t<um>ákotto frighten, to alarm, to scare
Kelabit t<em>aʔutto seem afraid
Acehnese t<eum>akōtfrightened, afraid, anxious about
CMP
Kemak t<em>autto fear

7435

PWMP     *takut-an easily frightened, cowardly

WMP
Ibaloy tekot-anto fear something (as a current in trying to cross a river)
Sangir takut-aŋtimid, frightened (said, for example, of a child, and thus not a scornful term)
Bahasa Indonesia takut-takut-aneasily startled; afraid of things; shy; hesitant
Tae' takur-ancowardly

7436

PWMP     *takut-en to frighten someone

WMP
Pangasinan takot-ento frighten
Tagalog takut-ínto frighten, to make afraid, to scare; to intimidate; to bluff; to threaten
Bikol ta-takt-ónafraid, fearful, frightened, jittery, nervous, panicky; meek, timid
  pa-takút-onto make someone afraid, to intimidate, menace, scare, terrify
Toba Batak tahut-onto fear, be afraid
Old Javanese takut-takut-enin the grip of fear
Sasak takut-into frighten someone

Note:   Also Saisiyat tikot ‘fear’, Ibaloy taʔkot ‘fear’, me-taʔkot-an ‘to equip a ricefield with scare devices’, Sasak takut-aŋ ‘be afraid of something’, Buli tjait ‘fear’, am-tjait ‘to fear’, Manam matakur ‘to fear, be afraid of’.

Siraya takot is given here as a probable base, given the attested form matakot ‘fear’, the the clear evidence for *ma-takut in many other languages. It is clear that the morpheme boundary in *ma-takut had already been lost in POc, and perhaps earlier, as suggested by nearly all known reflexes in eastern Indonesia. This raises questions about the position of Bimanese and Yapese, both of which reflect *takut as an independent base.

30785

*talaŋ-talaŋ a marine fish: probably the horse mackerel

8516

PWMP     *talaŋ-talaŋ a marine fish: probably the horse mackerel

WMP
Malay ikan talaŋhorse mackerel: generic for large species of Chorinemus, the small or young being seliap
Simalur talaŋ-talaŋkind of fish
Nias tala-talakind of fish
Sasak talaŋname of a sea fish
Sangir talaŋkind of fish; when smoked it can be kept for a long time
Makasarese talaŋ-talaŋmiddle growth stage of the lari (sea fish with five stripes)

Note:   Some languages support the reconstruction of a simple base *talaŋ, and others the reduplicated base *talaŋ-talaŋ. I assume that the latter was original, and has been shortened in languages that reflect the simple base.

28361

*talaq the morning (evening) star: Venus

5479

PMP     *talaq the morning (evening) star: Venus     [doublet: *mantalaq]

WMP
Tagalog tálaʔbright star, planet
  man-talaʔGLOSS
Mansaka bonta-taraʔmorning star
CMP
Bimanese ntarastar
Manggarai ntalastar
Ngadha dalastar
Sika dalastar

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) gives *(t)ala(q) ‘star’, but his cognate set is weak.

28362

*talas break, burst

5480

PMP     *talas break, burst

WMP
Maranao talasbreak, burst
SHWNG
Buli talasburst, crack

28363

*talaw timid, fearful; coward

5481

PAN     *talaw timid, fearful; coward

WMP
Isneg mag-tálawrun away, escape, slip off, vanish
  na-taláwcoward
Ilokano ag-tálawflee, run away, hasten off, escape
Bikol taláwcowardly, yellow, chicken; a coward
Cebuano tálawback off, be afraid to do something for lacking nerve
  talaw-ancowardly
Maranao talawcoward
Kadazan t-um-ahoubecome a coward
Moken talauashamed, shy

7421

PAN     *ma-talaw fearful, cowardly

Formosan
Amis ma-talawafraid
WMP
Ilokano ma-tálawsuccumb, sink down, die, grow faint
Bolaang Mongondow mo-talowfaint-hearted, cowardly

Note:   Mills (1975:848) assigns Bolaang Mongondow talow to PAn *talu ‘defeated, overcome’. While *talu can be attributed to PMP (Tagalog tálo ‘surpassed, defeated’, Karo Batak, Old Javanese talu ‘defeated’, Kambera talu ‘defeat’) it evidently was distinct -- both phonologically and semantically -- from *talaw.

30390

*tales taro: Colocasia esculenta

7486

PMP     *tales taro: Colocasia esculenta

WMP
Hanunóo tálusa taro with yellowing leaves
Palawan Batak tälästaro (Revel-Macdonald 1979:53)
Nias talõa tuber: Caladium
Minangkabau talasa cultivated yam, Colocasia antiquorum
Rejang taleusa root crop: Colocasia antiquorum
Sundanese taleuskind of tuber
Old Javanese talestaro, Colocasia antiquorum
  pa-tales-antaro field or garden
Javanese talestaro
  naleshaving the texture of cooked taro (said of rice that is gummy from being cooked in too much water)
Palauan dáittaro (plant)
CMP
Rotinese talekind of water plant with large leaves (Jonker 1908)
  taletaro; icon for a male person (Fox 1993)
  ta-taleskind of water plant with large leaves; Dengka dialect (Jonker 1908)
Tetun talasan aroid plant with highly-prized edible tubers

7487

POC     *talos taro: Colocasia esculenta

OC
Motu taloa vegetable: Arum esculentum
Marovo talotaro
Kwaio alotaro (generic); unit of 100 taro for a feast
  alo-nataro corm
Lau alotaro
Toqabaqita alotaro (plant and corm)
'Āre'āre ārotaro (several varieties)
Arosi aroa name for taro in some names of varieties
Bauro arotaro
V'ënen Taut tarotaro
Paamese tārotaro
Makatea tarotaro
Nakanamanga na-taletaro
Fijian dalothe taro plant, much used as a food, Colocasia esculenta
Tongan talotaro, kind of arum with edible tuberous root, Caladium esculentum
Niue talothe taro plant (Colocasia esculenta). Five groups are recognized, each with many varieties, the groups being distinguished according to differences in color and the marking of the petioles, or leaf stalks
Samoan talotaro, a cultivated plant (Colocasia sp.), the corm of which is one of the most important sources of food
  talo-abe plentiful in taro
Futunan talotaro (generic): Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott var. antiquorum Schott
Tuvaluan talotaro, a cultivated plant, Colocasia esculenta
Nukuoro daloplant sp.: taro (Colocasia esculenta), also the corm of this plant
Rennellese tagotaro, Colocasia esculenta (one of the most important foods, the gift of the god Tupuimatangi)
Anuta tarotaro, Colocasia esculenta
Rarotongan taroan esculent tuber which is much cultivated for food purposes and of which there are several varieties: Colocasia esculenta
Maori taroColocasia antiquorum, a plant cultivated for food
Hawaiian kalotaro (Colocasia esculenta), a kind of aroid cultivated since ancient times for food… In Hawaii taro has been the staple from earliest times to the present, and its cultivation developed greatly, including more than 300 forms

Note:   Also Tontemboan taleʔColocasia antiquorum, used as pig fodder’, Roviana talo ‘taro: Colocasia antiquorum’ (one of the staple foods of the Roviana people, with at least 18 varieties), Rotuman tar-kura ‘kind of taro’, tar-tea ‘kind of taro’ (< Polynesian). This form has a very wide, but thin distribution, being richly attested in Sumatra and Java, the southeast Solomons, central and southern Vanuaut, and Central Pacific languages, but it is rare elsewhere. Although Colocasia species are of central importance in the diet of Polynesian peoples, it is clear that this tuber is of only marginal dietary significance in AN-speaking societies that cultivate rice. It therefore seems likely that it was also a minor food item in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian society that came to achieve greater importance in some areas once rice cultivation was lost. The Roviana form is regarded as irregular, since this language normally retains final consonants, and we would therefore expect **taloso; at the same time this raises the question whether the POc form should be *talos or *talo.

28364

*tali tali plant sp.

5482

PWMP     *tali tali plant sp.

WMP
Bahasa Indonesia tali taliplant with beautiful blossom: Quamaclit pennata
Sangir tali-talikind of edible sea plant

28366

*taliŋa kind of tree fungus

5484

PMP     *taliŋa₂ kind of tree fungus

WMP
Itbayaten taliŋaedible tree fungus
  kayuhtree, wood
  taliŋa nu kayuhsp. of fungus
Isneg talíŋaear
  danāgthin and filthy spirits. Those who inhabit a balísi (Ficus indica) tree affect with fever or deafness anybody who dares throw stones at their abode
  talíŋa danāgkind of large bracket fungus
Nias taliŋaear
  oroname of a spirit
  taliŋa-orokind of mushroom
Tae' taliŋa balao(lit. 'rat's ear') kind of fungus that grows on the underside of a decayed bamboo betuŋ
OC
Seimat taxiŋear
  paximalevolent bush spirit with visible, humanlike body
  taxiŋ i paximushroom
Nggela taliŋafungus, mushrooms on mbiluma tree
Sa'a äliŋelarge fungi, some edible, growing on logs
Woleaian taliŋear
  pachthunder, lightning
  taliŋe-li-pachmushroom
Puluwat háliŋear, earlobe
  hoomághost, bad ghost of the dead; malevolent spirit (feared, as they are believed to devour humans)
  háliŋá-n hoomátree fungus, mushroom
Chuukese seniŋe-n soomáany of a large number of fungi ("ghost's or spirit's ear") such as Auricularia, Ganoderma tropicum, etc.
Rotuman faliaŋ ne ʔatuatoadstool of fungus, lit. "ghost's ear"
Samoan taliŋaear; name given to several types of fungus, including jew's-ear,
  taliŋa-ʔimoa(lit. "rat's ear") sp. fungus

Note:   Also Paiwan ka-tsaluŋa ‘half-moon-shaped tree-fungus (grows in tiers)’, Chamorro talaŋa ‘ear’, hayu ‘stick, wood’, talaŋa hayu ‘type of fungus, dark brownish and quite slippery when wet, usually attaches to decayed wood and looks just like the ear of people’. This item clearly is identical with Dempwolff's (1934-38) *taliŋa ‘ear’, but various compounds probably existed in PMP which indicated the widespread association of at least some types of mushrooms with ghost on the one hand, and with thunder or lightning on the other (see, for example, Lévi-Strauss 1976).

28365

*taliuk turn, go around

5483

PAN     *taliuk turn, go around

Formosan
Amis taliyokperimeter, area around the outside; go around
WMP
Cebuano taliyukturn the body around

Note:   This item may contain a fossilized prefix *ta-.

28367

*taltal hit, pound, crush

5485

PWMP     *taltal hit, pound, crush

WMP
Isneg taltālto crush
Ilokano taltálto crush, bray, comminute
Toba Batak taltalhit, beat, hack
Balinese taltalhit repeatedly

28369

*taluk young plant shoot

5487

PMP     *taluk young plant shoot     [doublet: *taruk]

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat talúkwet rice seedlings
Hanunóo táluksprout, shoot (to be transplanted); transplanting
CMP
Manggarai talokyoung bamboo

28368

*taluki kind of fabric (silk?)

5486

PMP     *taluki kind of fabric (silk?)

WMP
Ilokano talóki(obs.) silk of one piece
Old Javanese talukia particular kind of fabric (perhaps muslin)
Balinese talukikind of batik
CMP
Kambera talukikind of silk used as a veil

Note:   Also Sangir talukeʔ ‘kind of weaving motif’. This item may be a Chinese loan, but if so, its etymology remains unclear.

28373

*tama appropriate, suitable; fit together

5491

PMP     *tama appropriate, suitable; fit together     [disjunct: *tamaq]

WMP
Ilokano támato happen, etc. opportunely; timely, seasonably, conveniently, suitably fitly
Toba Batak tamasuitable, appropriate
Balinese tamabe ready, be on hand, never be tongue-tied, be bold
Tae' si-tamaget along, be well-disposed toward one another; make peace, be reconciled
CMP
Rotinese tamafit together well (as planks that are joined)

Note:   Zorc (n.d.) gives PPh *tama ‘penetrate; hit the mark; correct, straight’, but appears to confuse two distince cognate sets, the second illustrated by Iban tamaʔ, Malagasy tamy, Erai, Tetun tama ‘enter’.

28370

*tamadaw kind of wild ruminant

5488

PWMP     *tamadaw kind of wild ruminant

WMP
Aklanon tamárawspecies of wild carabao found only on Mindoro
Cebuano tamaráwkind of wild water buffalo
Iban temadauwild ox: Bos javanicus d'Atton (formerly Bos sondaicus)

Note:   Also Malay tembadau ‘the Borneo wild ox (a variant of Bos sondaicus); in some outlying dialects Bos mindorensis’. Kelabit temedhur, Bintulu temeɗu and similar forms that refer to the native rhinoceros in various of the indigenous languages of Borneo appear to be distinct.

28371

*tamanu a tree: Calophyllum inophyllum

5489

POC     *tamanu a tree: Calophyllum inophyllum

OC
Mussau tamanukind of large-leafed Calophyllum found in the interior (cp. ŋitau 'Calophyllum of the shore')
Tongan tamanutree sp.
Niue tamanua tree: Calophyllum inophyllum (= fetau)
Samoan tamanularge tree (Callophyllum sp.), with timber used for canoes and furniture
Rarotongan tamanuthe native mahogany: Calophyllum inophyllum
Hawaiian kamani, kamanilarge tree (Calophyllum inophyllum, at home on shores of the Indian and western Pacific Oceans, with shiny, oblong leaves to eight inches long, white flowers much like orange blossoms, and globose green fruits about an inch in diameter. The wood is hard and was formerly made into calabashes.

Note:   In POc this term evidently contrasted with *pitaquR ‘Calophyllum inophyllum’. The difference of meaning remains unclear, but may have concerned interior and coastal varieties of the tree, as reflected in Mussau.

28372

*tamaq appropriate, suitable; fit together

5490

PMP     *tamaq appropriate, suitable; fit together     [disjunct: *tama]

WMP
Tagalog támaʔcorrect, right; hitting the mark
Hiligaynon támaʔcorrect, well, extremely, excessively
Maranao tamaʔenough, alright
Toba Batak tamasuitable, appropriate
CMP
Rotinese tamafit together well (as planks that are joined)

28379

*tamiaŋ kind of bamboo

5497

PMP     *tamiaŋ kind of bamboo     [doublet: *amiaŋ 'generic for plants with stinging hairs or hairs that cause itchiness']

WMP
Malay bulu temiaŋthe bamboo of which blowpipes are made: Bambusa wrayi
Sundanese awi tamiaŋkind of thin bamboo (used for blowpipes and thread spools)
Old Javanese tamyaŋkind of bamboo
CMP
Kambera tamiaŋukind of thin bamboo: Schistostachyum blumei, used for spears, trail or pitfall spikes, and plaited to make walling

Note:   Also Malay tembiaŋ idem. This comparison was first recognized in print by Verheijen (1984).

28381

*tamiŋ type of shield

5499

PMP     *tamiŋ type of shield

WMP
Aklanon tamíŋshield
Cebuano tamiŋshield
Maranao tamiŋshield
Hiligaynon tamíŋarmor, shield
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tamiŋround shield
Subanen/Subanun tamiŋround shield (Churchill 1913)
CMP
Hawu tamishield

Note:   Also Sundanese taméŋ, Old Javanese tamyaŋ, Kambera temiŋ ‘shield’, Javanese tamèŋ, Balinese, Sasak tamiaŋ ‘round shield, buckler’. Round and oblong shields are distinguished terminologically in many Austronesian languages, and it seems likely from the Manobo (Western Bukidnon) and Subanen/Subanun glosses, together with the glosses of the Javanese, Balinese, and Sasak variants, that *tamiŋ referred exclusively to round shields.

28380

*tamiq, tamis taste, try

5498

PMP     *tamiq, tamis taste, try

WMP
Aklanon tamíʔtest food, taste (using one's finger)
Bare'e me-tamitaste, try
Banggai tamistest, taste, sample
Tae' tammiʔchew so as to enjoy the juice and reject the refuse, as when chewing sugarcane
CMP
Hotti/Hoti tamichew
OC
Rennellese tamitaste
  tami-tamitaste a little, as to try

Note:   For an earlier discussion of this comparison see (Blust 1978a:24).

28387

*tamtam smack the lips

5505

PAN     *tamtam smack the lips

Formosan
Paiwan tj-alʸ-amtjamsmack one's lips
WMP
Maranao tantamtaste
Chamorro tamtamtest, try out, sip, taste
SHWNG
Buli camcamsmack the lips

Note:   Also Maranao taʔam ‘taste, as of food’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taʔam ‘taste s.t.’, Nggela tata chewed pulp. Earlier reconstructed as *(CtT)aqam (CtT)aqam ‘taste, flavor’ (Blust 1978a:24).

30149

*tamu smack the lips while eating

6893

PCEMP     *tamu smack the lips while eating

CMP
Rotinese tamumake a smacking sound while eating, as a pig does
OC
Motu tamu-tamusmack the lips while eating

Note:   Also Iban (Scott 1956) tamuʔ ‘feed up, fatten (usually animals)’.

30607

*taneq earth, soil, land

8059

PMP     *taneq earth, soil, land

WMP
Yami tanamud, earth, soil, land (as opposed to sea)
Itbayaten tanasoil, earth, ground
  tana-enland, territory
Kalamian Tagbanwa tanɨkearth (ground)
Agutaynen tanekground, land; earth, soil, dirt; land owned by somebody
  ma-tanek-ena person who owns a lot of land
  ma-tanek-tanekdiscolored, with a reddish color, particularly of white clothes that are still dirty even after being washed
Maranao tanaʔalight, as thing in air; go down, as from a steep thing; relevance
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tanaʔground; earth; land; dirt; region; to come to earth
Tboli tonokearth, ground, soil; land as distinguished from sea or sky
Mapun tanaʔground, dirt; land; soil, country
Yakan tanaʔdry rice field, swidden
  mag-tanaʔto plant (or make something into) a dry rice field
Ida'an Begak tanaʔlow
Kadazan tanaʔsoil, land, earth, ground
Tombonuwo tanaʔearth, soil, dirt
Bisaya (Limbang) tanəʔearth, soil
Lun Dayeh tanaʔearth, soil; ground; land; the world
Kelabit tanaʔearth, soil; world
Kenyah tanaʔland
Kenyah (Long Anap) tanaʔearth, soil, land
Kayan tanaearth, soil, ground; floor
Kayan (Uma Juman) tanaearth, soil
Kiput tanaaʔearth
Narum tanaʔearth, soil
Bintulu tanəʔearth, soil
Melanau (Mukah) tanaʔearth, soil
Tunjung tanaaʔearth
Ngaju Dayak tanarice field
  ma-nanawork in the fields; make a rice field somewhere
Samihim taneʔearth
Ma'anyan taneʔearth
Malagasy taniearth, land, soil; a country, a kingdom
  i-taniout of doors
  tani-be(‘big land’) the mainland of Madagascar, a word used to distinguish the mainland from the surrounding islands
Iban tanahearth, soil, land, ground, country
  tanah baru(‘new land’) land that is recently first cleared and still fertile
Jarai tənahearth, soil
Malay tanahland; state, country; surface of soil, especially with regard to ownership; surface of soil with regard to its character; soil itself and its character
  tanah liatclay (‘sticky earth’)
  tanah na(m)palmarl, edible earth
  tanah raya(‘great land’) continent
  di-tanahoutside the house;out of doors
Acehnese tanɔhground, land, earth
  tanɔh kliət(‘sticky earth’) clay, potter’s clay
  meu-tanɔhowning land
Gayō tanohearth, soil
  mu-tanohpossessing land
Karo Batak tanehearth, ground, territory, district
Toba Batak tanoearth, ground, land
  tano liatclay (‘sticky earth’)
Nias tanõearth, soil, land
Lampung tanohland
Old Javanese tanahland, country
Javanese tanahland, country; parcel of land
  tuan tanahlandlord
Sundanese tanɨhearth, ground; dust
Balinese tanahground, land, earth, soil (mainly as agricultural object, but also as building material, and as a political unit)
  tanah hampoha sort of clay eaten by pregnant women
  tanah putihchalk (‘white earth’)
Sasak tanaʔearth, soil, ground; land
Sangir ən-tanaearth, ground, land
Tontemboan tanaʔ ma-tuʔaland that has returned to bush (‘old land’)
  tanaʔ walethe space under the house
  wale tanaʔhouse on the ground, not raised on piles, with the earth as floor
Banggai tanoearth, ground; world
Dampelas tanoearth, soil
Pendau tanoearth, soil
Bare'e tanaground, earth, soil, land
  tana ma-puyuclay (‘sticky earth’)
  tana Morithe land of the Mori
  man-tanadig in the ground
  men-tanaof animals, hide in the mud, crawl into the ground
Uma tanaʔearth, soil
Tae' tanaground, earth, land; world
  tana ToraaToraja country
Makasarese tanaland, wet ricefield
Wolio tanaearth, ground, land, territory, country
  tana ikandeedible earth
Chamorro tanoʔworld, earth, land, soil, ground
CMP
Bimanese danaearth, soil, land
Manggarai tanaland, soil, earth, territory
  tana liliŋclay (‘waxy earth’)
Rembong tanaʔearth, soil
Ngadha tanaearth, soil, land; district, tract of ground
Sika tanaland, earth, ground
  tana ihi-ŋproducts of the land, harvest
Lamboya pan-tanaearth
Kambera tanaland, district, territory
  tana Humbathe island of Sumba
  tana dítauplands, east Sumba; the visible world
  tana wàlowlands, west Sumba; the unseen world
Rotinese tanemud
Lamaholot tanaearth, land, district, territory
  ləwo tanavillage
Kei tan bulred sticky earth
  tuan tanoverseer of the common village land ‘lord of the land’)
  tana-tdistrict, land, ground, earth, black earth
Kayeli tana isoearthquake (‘shaking ground’)
Buruese tanaland
  tana Buruthe land of Buru
SHWNG
Waropen analand, bush, earth

8060

POC     *tanoq earth, soil, land; down; westward

OC
Loniu tanearth, ground, soil; down
Bipi dandown
Nauna tandown
  kan-tanearth, soil
Penchal randown
Aua anosoil
Lakalai -talodown; westward
  o-talodown
Lusi tanoearth, ground
Gitua tanoground, earth
  tano sisiŋiared earth (= clay)
Gedaged tansoil, ground; land; garden, field; earth; world
Takia tanearth, soil
Motu tanoearth; soil; country; land
  tano aiashore; on land
  tano badathe earth; the land, as distinguished from sky and sea (‘big land’)
Bugotu tanoearth, ground
Kwaio anoland, ground
Lau anoearth, land; garden land (rarely used)
  ano-anolow, as a house
  ano-ano-alow, humble, subject to
Sa'a anoground, garden ground
  siho hai anocome down to the ground
'Āre'āre ānogarden, garden-ground
Arosi anothe ground, earth, soil, the land
  ano-iaa landslip
  ano-anolow, of shrub, tree, house, hill; lowering, of clouds; a drop of liquid left at the bottom of a vessel
Gilbertese tanosand, soil, clay, ground, land
  tano-ato cover with sand, to dirty with clay
Chuukese sɔɔn(obsolete) the earth (as distinct from heaven); level place, prepared site
Puluwat sɔɔnsurface, ground, floor, bottom; to be lower
Woleaian tal(o)earth, soil, ground; west, downward
Mosina tanearth
Merig tanearth
Mota tanoearth, ground
Northeast Ambae tanoearth
Tolomako tanoearth
Port Sandwich na-ranearth
Rerep ne-tanearth
Litzlitz ne-tinearth
Ranon tanearth
Visina poro-tanoearth
Tonga na-tanearth
Nakanamanga na-tanoearth
Kwamera tanaearth
Iaai kɔnɔearth

8061

PPh     *t<um>aneq go overland, hike

WMP
Tboli t<m>onokto walk, hike; to be dirty from the soil
Tontemboan t<um>anaʔgo by land, go overland

8062

PMP     *taneq pulut clay, sticky earth

WMP
Kelabit tanaʔ pulutclay (‘sticky earth’)

8063

POC     *tanoq pulut clay, sticky earth

OC
Mota tano pul ~ tano puluttenacious earth, red, black, volcanic earth which sticks, used in building wona (stone feasting platform) at Gaua

8064

PMP     *taneq tumbuq anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’)

WMP
Iban tanah tumbohtermite mound (lit. ‘growing earth’)

8065

POC     *tanoq tubuq anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’)

OC
Motu tano tubuant-hill (lit. ‘growing earth’)

8066

POC     *tanoq tanoq dusty, full of dust or dirt

OC
'Āre'āre āno-ānodust
Gilbertese tano-tanofull of sand (food)

Note:   Also Tiruray tunaʔ ‘earth, ground, soil’, Sundanese tanah ‘land, district, estate’, Leti, Wetan tani ‘earth, ground, soil’, Kayeli tain ‘ground, earth, soil, sand’. Dempwolff (1938) posited doublets *tanah and *tanəh ‘earth, land’, assigning Ngaju Dayak tana ‘rice field’ to the first of these, and tanah ‘a land’ as in tanah Jawa ‘the land of Java’ or tanah belanda ‘Holland’ to the second. However, the basis for this distinction is shaky. Ngaju Dayak tana is a native term, while tanah is clearly a borrowing of Banjarese tanah. Many languages have merged PAn *a and *e before the reflex of word-final *q, usually after it became a glottal stop. It is the neutralization of this phonemic distinction before glottal stop that has given rise to the impression that there was a variant *tanaq, which probably never existed. In addition to the subentries cited above the recurrent pattern of a reflex of *taneq + a place name suggests that the expression *taneq + place name existed in PMP times.

Finally, in some Oceanic languages, where final consonants have been lost, the reflexes of POc *tanoq ‘earth, soil’ and *tanom ‘to plant, bury’ can be difficult to distinguish, and in fact are often combined by lexicographers or comparativists, as with Keesing (1975), who gives Kwaio ano ‘land, ground’, a clear reflex of POc *tanoq, but the subentry anom-ia ‘plant, bury’, which is just as clearly a reflex of POc *tanom, or Fox (1974), who gives Lau ano ‘earth, land’, but the subentry ano-mila ‘burying’, which exemplifies the same problem. Similarly, Bender et al (2003) posit proto-Micronesian *tano ‘ground, low’, but refer additionally to e.g. Tongan tano ‘place of burial, cemetery’, which clearly reflects POc *tanom.

30347

*taNek to cook anything but rice

7331

PAN     *taNek to cook anything but rice

Formosan
Saisiyat t<om>aləkto cook
Pazeh talek-iCook it! (sweet potatoes, fish, meat, but not rice)
Paiwan tjalʸekto cook food in advance (as for journey)

7332

PMP     *tanek to cook

WMP
Cebuano tanukto boil starchy foods, but not rice: ears of corn, root crops, bananas
Binukid tanekto steam (immature unpounded rice to harden the grains so it can be dried and pounded)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tanekto steam immature unpounded rice in order to harden the grains so that it may be pounded and cooked
Lun Dayeh tanekboiling of something
  ne-tanekboiled by mistake
Kelabit tanekboiling of water, cooking vegetables, cook meat
Kayan tanekcooked in water, boiled (as maize)
Iban tanakto cook (usually not rice)
Malay tanakboiling (rice)
  ber-tanak nasito boil rice
Malagasy mi-tanikato boil, to cook
Totoli ma-tanokboiled, cooked
Mandar tanaʔboil, cook
Makasarese tanaʔcoconut milk from which oil is boiled out; smelting of tin or lead

7333

PWMP     *ma-nanek to boil, to cook

WMP
Lun Dayeh nanekto boil something
Kelabit nanekto boil water, cook
Bahasa Indonesia me-nanakto boil rice in a pot
Totoli ma-nanokto boil, to cook

7334

PWMP     *maR-tanek to boil, to cook

WMP
Bikol mag-tanókto parboil rice
Masbatenyo mag-tanókto boil food
Malay ber-tanakto boil rice
Mandar mat-tanaʔto boil, to cook

7335

PAN     *t<in>aNek boiled foods other than rice?

7336

PMP     *t<in>anek boiled foods other than rice

Formosan
Paiwan (Western) tj<in>alʸekprepared food (especially taken along for journey); cooked food in general
WMP
Cebuano t<in>anúkcooked root crops, bananas, or corn
Lun Dayeh t<in>anekboiled by someone
Old Javanese t<in>anekto cook, to boil

7337

PAN     *t<um>aNek to cook anything but rice

Formosan
Saisiyat t<om>aləkto cook
Pazeh mu-talekto cook (side dishes, meaning anything but rice)

7338

PMP     *t<um>anek to cook anything but rice

WMP
Old Javanese t<um>anekto cook, boil
  pa-tanek-ankitchen

7339

PAN     *taNek-en to be cooked

Formosan
Pazeh talek-ento be cooked; what is cooked

7340

PMP     *tanek-en to be cooked

WMP
Bikol tanok-ónto parboil rice
Masbatenyo tanuk-ónto boil food (as jackfruit seeds)
Malagasy taneh-inato be boiled, to be cooked

30306

*taNiud mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta)

7254

PAN     *taNiud mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta)

Formosan
Kanakanabu taníucumulberry tree and fruit
Saaroa talhiusumulberry tree and fruit
Tsou tahzucumulberry tree and fruit
Rukai (Budai) taɭíuDumulberry tree and fruit
WMP
Yami (Imorod) tanyodmulberry tree and fruit
Itbayaten tañoda species of tree, mulberry: Morus alba Linn., with white flowers and edible fruit

Note:   This comparison was first noted by Tsuchida (1976:141).

28403

*tañam try, taste

5522

PAN     *tañam try, taste

Formosan
Atayal talamtry, taste; ask about the future; tell the future
Pazeh mu-talamto try, taste
  xi-talamto taste
Thao tazamtaste; try
  pu-tazamtry or test something
Bunun tanamtry
Amis tanamtry to do something; taste
WMP
Maranao tanampleasant, comfortable

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) pa-a-talam ‘to try’, Kavalan talam ‘taste’, t<m>alam ‘to taste something’. With root *-ñam ‘savory, tasty, taste’.

28404

*taŋan finger, toe

5523

PMP     *taŋan finger, toe

WMP
Ilokano taŋánthumb, great toe
Pangasinan taŋánthumb, big toe
Malay taŋanhand
Malagasy tánanahand, foreleg of quadrupeds
CMP
Selaru taŋafinger, toe
Sekar taga-nfinger, toe

Note:   Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *taŋan ‘hand’, but forms with this or clearly related meanings are confined to WMP languages. His inclusion of Fijian taŋa ‘sack’ and similar forms in other Oceanic languages (e.g., Gedaged taŋ ‘net bag used by women’) appears to confuse distinct cognate sets.

30791

*taŋaR to seize property and run off with it; to elope

8524

PPh     *taŋaR to seize property and run off with it; to elope

WMP
Hanunóo taŋágbiting or holding something in the mouth, as ants do
  mag-taŋághold on by biting
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taŋagto take something of someone else’s without permission and leave with it
Tiruray taŋarto elope when both persons are single
Proto-Gorontalic *taŋagomarry by elopement
Bolaang Mongondow taŋagabduct, elope with, carry off, plunder
  mo-naŋagto elope with an unmarried girl (elopement with a married woman is moŋ-agow)

28405

*taŋeb lid, cover

5524

PMP     *taŋeb lid, cover

WMP
Bontok taŋəbto cover, as a pot or vat
Kankanaey taŋébto cover
Maranao taŋebclose door or window
Palauan dáŋeblid, cover
CMP
Kambera taŋalid, cover

28417

*taŋ(e)buq kind of coarse grass

5536

PWMP     *taŋ(e)buq kind of coarse grass

WMP
Hanunóo taŋbuʔoffshoot, sucker -- referring to bamboo
Tagalog tambóʔcoarse reed-like grass (used in making brooms)
Cebuano taŋbuʔcoarse grass of swamps with a hollow stem, used for the manufacture of brooms and hats: Phragmites vulgaris
Malay tamboha shrub: Euthemis leucocarpa

Note:   Also Maranao tamboʔo ‘a herb: Hyptis brevipes Poir.’.

30740

*taŋuy to swim

8383

PWMP     *taŋuy to swim     [doublet: *laŋuy, *naŋuy₂]

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) taŋuyto swim
Ngaju Dayak taŋoyswimming
  ha-naŋoyto swim

Note:   Possibly a back-formation from a prefixed form in which n- was assumed to result from nasal substitution.

28412

*ta(m)pak slap, strike with the hand

5531

PWMP     *ta(m)pak slap, strike with the hand

WMP
Kankanaey tampákslap in the face; box the ears
Ngaju Dayak tapakstruck with the flat of the hand

Note:   With root *-pak₁ ‘slap, clap’.

28390

*tapal a patch, as on clothing

5508

PWMP     *tapal a patch, as on clothing     [doublet: *Capel]

WMP
Bontok tápalreinforce; strengthen by binding a piece of wood to a weak or broken section; to bind a split to a broken limb
Ilokano tápalcataplasm, poultice, plaster, patch
Tagalog tápalmending patch (of cloth); poultice, plaster
Bikol tápalpatch, pocket
  mag-tápalto sew this type of pocket
Hanunóo tápalplaster, poultice
Cebuano tápallay something over a small area and stick it (as in placing a medicinal plaster on the body)
Mansaka tompalto patch (as a garment)

29877

*tampar flatfish, flounder

6536

PWMP     *tampar flatfish, flounder

WMP
Malay ikan tampara flatfish: Pseudorhombus arsuis
Chamorro tampattype of fish: Bothus mancus (Bothidae), flounder, flatfish

30891

*tape₁ to flow, run, of water

8720

POC     *tape₁ to flow, run, of water

OC
Nggela taveto flow, of liquids, air; current, tide; a freshet, flood
  tave-tito flow over
Kwaio afeflow, drip, run down, dissolve, current
  afe-siacarry away, of wave, current or stream; slip away from
Toqabaqita afecurrent in the ocean
  afe-fediarrhoea
  afe-lautrample grass, vegetation when walking on or through it
  afe-rakoqaof flood water, high water in a stream, river (after heavy rains): subside, go down
Sa'a ahesurf, currents from wind or tide, tide-rip; to flow; to melt away, to waste, to disappear
  ahes-ito cause to drift
Arosi aheto flow, as a current; to float gently along in water or air; to dissolve into liquid; to be in flood, to come down in a freshet
  ahe-aurua waterfall (auru = ‘down’)
'Āre'āre ʔahesurf, flooded river, current caused by tide, wind, rain; tidal-rip; to flow; a current, stream; to drip quickly
  ʔahe-tahato flow
  ahe-ta ni waia dry river bed
Fijian daveto flow, of liquids in a small stream (drōdrō is stronger, and dobui the strongest word); commonly of the flow of blood
  dave-kakathe sound of a rushing violent stream
  dave-nabe carried away by a flood
  dave-taan opening in a reef that a canoe may pass through
Tongan tafeto flow, to run (of liquids)
  tafe-ʔaŋaplace or gutter, etc. where something flows
Niue tafeto flow
  faka-tafeto express (as oil from copra)
Futunan tafeto flow (rapidly)
Samoan tafeto flow, run; a flow
  ta-tafe(of water), race, flow swiftly
  tafe-ŋacurrent
  tāfe-ŋaflood
  tāfe-aŋaparty of castaways or people cast adrift; party of people in exile or banishment
  tafe-tototo bleed
Tuvaluan tafeto flow
Rennellese taheto float, drift; current, especially where offshore waves meet sea waves; to have blood in saliva, especially of persons with tuberculosis
  tahe-ʔaŋableeding in saliva
Anuta tapeocean current
Maori tahemenses; sap of a tree; to exude, drop, flow
  ta-tahedrippings, issue, exudation, as gum of trees, etc.
  whaka-taheto lead off water, etc., as into a drain
Hawaiian kaheto flow, trickle, drop, melt, menstruate; in heat, of a bitch; a run or school of fish

8721

POC     *tape-a be carried away by water

OC
Toqabaqita afe-afloat in the sea, be carried by the sea
  afe-fe-aforeign place: an island, country other than one’s own
Tongan tāfe-ato be flooded by running water, or to be washed away or carried along by a stream
Niue tafe-abe carried away by a current; a sickness of women (causing continual menstruation)
Samoan tafe-abe carried away (by current, etc.), to drift
Nukuoro dahe-ato drift
Rennellese tahe-ato soar
Anuta tape-ato drift

8722

POC     *tape-tape flow swiftly

OC
Kwaio afe-afecurrent
Arosi ahe-aheto float gently; a flood, freshet
  ahe-ahe-aan early name for foreign ships, whalers on the south coast
Fijian i-dave-davethe channel of a stream, or its source
Niue tafe-tafeflowing freely

Note:   Also Tolai tavit ‘to run, of water; to flow, as blood from a cut or wound’, Sa'a tahe ‘to rise, of floodwaters’, 'Āre'āre tahe-a ‘to rise (of the sea on the land)’, Rarotongan tae ‘to leak, to melt, to flow, to ooze, to trickle, to discharge’, aka-tae ‘to let any fluid into or out of a vessel through a leak; to make to flow or run out, as water through a pipe, or as in turning on a tap to allow water to flow or run’.

30892

*tape₂ abortion

8723

POC     *tape₂ abortion

OC
Arosi tahean abortion
Maori taheabortion
  whaka-taheto cause to abort

28382

*tampeŋ plug or dam up

5500

PWMP     *tampeŋ plug or dam up

WMP
Malagasy tampinastopped, corked, plugged
Sasak tampeŋdam up

Note:   With root *-peŋ ‘plug up, dam; cover’.

25879

*tapeS winnow

1992

PAN     *tapeS winnow

Formosan
Pazeh mu-tapesto winnow
Kavalan tapeswinnow; winnowing
Pazeh tapes-iwinnow it!
Thao tapishwinnowing
  t<m>apishto winnow
  tapsh-iwinnow it!

1993

PMP     *tahep winnow

WMP
Itbayaten tahepwinnowing; chaff, husks of grain, rough particles when corn is ground (kapaN-, maN-, ma-, naN-)
Casiguran Dumagat tapto winnow rice
Bontok tapá <Mto winnow rice; rice husks
Tagalog tahípup and down movement of rice grains being winnowed on a flat basket
  mag-tahípto winnow (cereals, as rice) on a flat basket by throwing the grains up for the chaff to be blown away by the wind and catching them back with the basket as they fall
Bikol mag-tahóp-anto winnow by throwing grain up and down in a winnowing basket so that the grain falls back into the basket and the wind blows the chaff away (mag-, -on)
Hanunóo tahúpwinnowing
  mag-tahúpwinnow
Aklanon tahópto sift
Cebuano tahúpchaff of cereals; separate the husk from husked grains
Mansaka taapto winnow
Kayan tapto winnow a tray (full of rice grains)

1994

PMP     *tahep-an winnowing basket

WMP
Itbayaten tahp-anto winnow
Bontok tap-ʔánbe winnowed, of rice
Tagalog táhip-anthe flat basket used in winnowing
Cebuano taph-an-an <Mground cereals to be winnowed; place where winnowing is done
Kenyah tap-anwinnowing fan
Kenyah (Long Anap) tap-anwinnowing basket
Murik tap-anwinnowing basket
  nap-anto winnow
Kayan tap-anwinnowing tray
Bidayuh (Bukar-Sadong) tap-anwinnowing basket (also used as a sieve)

1995

PAN     *CapeS-i to winnow

Formosan
Puyuma Tap-iwinnow
  T-em-ap-ito winnow

1996

PMP     *tahep-i₂ winnow

WMP
Itbayaten tahp-i <Mwinnow (imperative)
Bontok tapʔia wide, flat basket, used as a drying tray
Cebuano taph-iwinnow (imperative)

Note:   Also Bontok t-in-ap-i ‘a wide, flat basket, used as a drying tray’, Aklanon taeáph-an ‘sifter’.

28383

*tampil attach, connect, join

5501

PWMP     *tampil attach, connect, join     [doublet: *tampir]

WMP
Maranao tampilincluded with, identified with, favor one side
Iban tampiljoin, attach, tie on
  kaban tampilrelative by marriage
  nampilmarry into a family

30890

*tampipiq telescoping basket, double basket

8719

PPh     *tampipiq telescoping basket, double basket

WMP
Ilokano tampípikind of rectangular light bamboo trunk with flat sides, used for traveling
  i-tampípito place provisions, etc. in the tampípi
Bontok tampípikind of basket with fitting cover, for general storage (< Ilokano)
Ibaloy tampipilightweight box for keeping one’s clothes, blankets, that can be used as a travelling bag
Tagalog tampípiʔa native clothes trunk or chest made of bamboo, rattan or a certain kind of palm leaves
Bikol tampípiʔa travelling bag made of woven reeds
  tampipíʔ-onto place something into or carry in a tampípiʔ
Tausug tampípiʔa (double telescoping) basket made of coconut leaves

Note:   Also Maranao tampipi ‘double, telescoping basket’. Possibly a product of borrowing from Tagalog, Ilokano, or both.

28384

*tampir attach, connect, join

5502

PWMP     *tampir attach, connect, join     [doublet: *tampil]

WMP
Maranao tampirinclude, side with one party in controversy
Iban (Lemanak) tampirjoin, attach, tie on

28391

*tapis₁ skirt, sarong

5509

PMP     *tapis₁ skirt, sarong     [doublet: *tapiq]

WMP
Tagalog tápisapronlike cloth worn over skirt of mestiza dress
Bikol tápiswrap-around skirt
Cebuano tápis, tapíspiece of cloth worn around the waist or upper body as a skirt
CMP
Tetun taiswoven material, cloth, clothing
Selaru taissarong of native material

30204

*tapis₂ to skim over the surface

7037

PMP     *tapis₂ to skim over the surface

WMP
Maranao tapisskim; long-legged water bird
OC
Tolai tapskim
Nggela tavito slip, turn suddenly; go crookedly, as a knife, or a kite in the air
Wayan tavibrush lightly, sweep something; peel something
Fijian taviskim along, skid off a flat surface, as the tiŋga (reed used in a game of throwing) on level ground
Tongan tafito sweep; sweep away, get rid of
  tafi-abe swept away, as by a wave

Note:   Possibly a chance resemblance.

28385

*tampuk clap, thud

5503

PWMP     *tampuk clap, thud     [disjunct: *tampun]

WMP
Kankanaey tampókclap one's hands, applaud
Old Javanese tampokcoming down with a thud

Note:   With root *-puk₁ ‘beat, crack, thud’.

28392

*tapuk flock together

5510

PMP     *tapuk flock together

WMP
Sundanese tapukto heap, pile up; swarm together (as ants on sugar)
OC
Arosi ahuflock together

Note:   With root *-puk₃ ‘gather, flock together’.

28413

*ta(m)pun gather, assemble

5532

PMP     *ta(m)pun gather, assemble     [disjunct: *tampuk]

WMP
Sangir tampuŋgather, collect, assemble
OC
Arosi ahucome together in a group, flock together

Note:   With root *-pun ‘assemble, collect, gather’.

28386

*tampuŋ collect, gather

5504

PWMP     *tampuŋ collect, gather

WMP
Maranao tampoŋgather
Bahasa Indonesia tampuŋreceive and collect together (produce from an area, excess produce, etc.)
Malay (Java) tampoŋtap and collect latex in a cup

Note:   With root *-puŋ ‘assemble, collect, gather’.

28393

*tapus end, complete, finish

5511

PAN     *tapus₁ end, complete, finish

Formosan
Favorlang taposall

5512

PWMP     *tapus₂ finished, completed

WMP
Hanunóo tapúsfinished, as a song, task or story
Aklanon tapósto finish, complete, end, come to a close
Hiligaynon tapúsfinished, completed
Palawan Batak tapus-ánend
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tapusthe end, the finish; to complete or finish
Makasarese tappusuʔcompletely, entirely, all over

Note:   With root *-pus₁ ‘end, finish’. Mills (1975:850, 895) posits Proto-South Sulawesi *ta(m)pus ‘disappear; all gone’.

28394

*taqan set a trap

5513

PAN     *taqan set a trap     [doublet: *taqen]

Formosan
Favorlang taansnare for catching wild beasts
WMP
Cebuano taʔanset a trap of any sort
Maranao taʔanset trap for catch
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taʔanset a trap or place a fish weir in order to catch something
Palauan me-laʔel (deʔal-l)set a trap
Malay tahanset (snares and traps)

30586

*taqay feces, excrement

7978

PMP     *taqay feces, excrement     [doublet: *taqi]

WMP
Kayan (Uma Juman) taʔefeces, excrement
Bolaang Mongondow taʔayfeces, excrement

7979

POC     *taqe₂ feces, excrement

OC
Ere drefeces, excrement
Loniu tefeces, excrement
Lou tefeces, excrement
Pak defeces, excrement
Sori deyfeces, excrement
Mendak tefeces, excrement
Tolai taki-ŋgumy excrement
  taki-myour excrement
  take-nahis/her excrement
Vitu taheexcreta, feces
  tahe-taherubbish, waste
Lakalai la (ta)-tahefeces; leftover trash
  la tahe la magowart (lit. ‘feces of the sea’?)
Kove tahefeces, excrement
Wogeo taefeces, excrement
Manam taʔefeces, excrement
Gitua tae-shit, residue
  taliŋa taeear wax
  tae-taecloud
Selau tefeces, excrement
Fauro ta-taeexcrement
Mono-Alu tae-naexcrement
Vangunu tae-naexcrement
Roviana taeexcreta
Eddystone/Mandegusu tea <Mfeces
Kilokaka taʔeexcrement
Nggela taedung, feces
Kwaio ae-neexcrement; anus, region around the anus
Sa'a aefeces, ordure
Arosi aedung; food in process of digestion
  ae-niapolluted
'Āre'āre ae-naanus
Mota taeexcrement, dung; bits, remnants, inferior parts
Central Maewo taeexcrement
Raga te-excrement
Aore tae-excrement
Tangoa te-excrement
Paamese ta-excrement
Tonga na taʔe-nexcrement
Makatea taeexcrement
Wayan dung, feces, excrement, shit; unusable parts of shellfish; waste material, useless substance on a surface, scum
  tā ni laŋilight scudding clouds
  tā ni siŋabrown growth, probably algae, appearing on surfaces of ponds or lakes in very dry weather (lit. ‘shit of the sun’)
Fijian to excrete
  dē-nathe excrement, properly of animals (cf. ‘excrement, generally human’). Bau, however, does not make the distinction made in Lau, and this word is there commoner than .
  vaka-dē-nato excrete on
  dē ni laŋilight scudding clouds
  dē ni osea plant, Euphorbia hirta
Tongan taʔefeces, excrement, dung; also used in the language of anger, contempt, or pity for me‘a (thing, stuff)
  taʔe-ʔi(lit. ‘dung-of’), as in ho‘o ta‘e‘i peni (your rotten old pen, etc.) --- in the language of abuse
Niue excrement
Futunan taʔeexcrement
Samoan taefeces, excrement
  tae-abe dirty, disgusting, filthy
  tae-feʔeoctopus ink, sepia
  tea-iʔabrown sediment which forms when undiluted coconut cream is boiled (lit. ‘fish shit’)
  tae-laŋofly-speck; freckle (or similar small spot)
  tae-laŋo-afreckled
  tae-ʔotian herb (Ageratum sp.), the goatweed
Tuvaluan taeexcrement
Kapingamarangi dae-daeresidue from coconut oil; soft flesh of coconut husk (under fibers); to defecate (children’s language)
  duu-daefeces
Nukuoro daeguts, intestines; buttocks
  duu-daefeces
Takuu taeexcrement, feces, shit
  kai taeexclamation of frustration or contempt: Eat shit!
  tuu taeink of an octopus or cuttlefish, sepia
Rennellese taʔefeces, dung, excreta of various kinds (ear wax, octopus ink, sea-slug eggs); fragments as of turmeric or Derris; suds; also an endearing and demeaning term, and used as an insult as in ‘I am your feces’ (I respect and love you and humiliate myself before you)
Anuta taeentrails; excrement
  tae-pikointestines (lit. ‘crooked feces’)
Rarotongan tu-taeoffal, excrement, feces, dung
  tu-tae atuaa species of fungi, the puff-ball
Maori tū-taedung
  tū-tae atuaLycoperdon sp., puff-ball; fungi (lit. ‘ghost feces’)
Hawaiian kū-kaeexcreta
  kū-kae akuaa brownish substance, sometimes noticed under trees in the shape of paste squeezed from a tube; if the substance contains red, it is believed to be the excreta of the ghost of a dying person, and a sign that someone is dying

7980

PMP     *t<in>aqay intestines

WMP
Kayan (Uma Juman) tənaʔeintestines

7981

POC     *tinaqe intestines

OC
Mota tinae-guts
Merlav tinae-guts
Northeast Ambae sinae-guts
Tangoa tine-guts
Makatea tinaeguts
Futunan tinaʔepregnant
Samoan tinaeguts, entrails
Tuvaluan tinaebelly, stomach
Kapingamarangi dinaesolar plexus; be pregnant
  dinae madaŋistomach distended by gas
Nukuoro dinaebelly; the edible white part of clam meat
Rennellese tinaʔebelly, abdomen, womb; bulging portion of a flying fish torch; breast of a bird

Note:   Rather than reflecting the more widely-distributed form that ends with *-i, nearly all Oceanic languages appear to continue the PMP variant *taqay. Some of the languages of Vanuatu have a reflex with final high vowel, as with Lolomatui, Lolsiwoi, Mafea tai- ‘excrement’, but this is assumed to be a secondary development from POc *taqe.

30587

*taqe negative marker

7982

POC     *taqe₁ negative marker

OC
Arosi aeno, not, negative particle
Buma taeno
Proto-Micronesian *tai, ta-not
Tongan tae(preposed or prefixed), not, un-, in-, non- or without

28395

*taq(e)baŋ lacking in salt

5514

PWMP     *taq(e)baŋ lacking in salt

WMP
Tagalog tabáŋtastelessness, insipidity
Aklanon tábʔáŋfresh drinking water; insipid, flat, tasteless
Bikol taʔbáŋbland, flat, insipid, tasteless; lacking in salt or other spices
Cebuano tabʔáŋflat in taste, lacking sugar or salt
Chamorro taʔpaŋrinse -- salt water by using fresh water

30865

*taqen set a snare

8688

PMP     *taqen set a snare

WMP
Ilokano taénbet, water
Hanunóo taʔúncocking, as a gun or a trap
  naka-taʔúncocked
Aklanon taʔónfish trap in river
Cebuano taʔúnset a trap or fishline in place; offer a part of the body to receive blows or abuse; place something as a bet
Maranao taʔan <Aset trap for catch
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taʔan <Ato set a trap or place a fish weir in order to catch something
Mansaka taʔan <Ato set a trap or place a fish weir in order to catch something
Binukid taento set (a fish trap or fish line) in place
Tausug mag-taunto set (a fish trap, as a bubu basket trap); something (especially money) risked in a game of chance, bet
Kayan (Uma Juman) taʔənset a trap (as the buvuʔ fish trap)
Malay tahanto set (snares and traps)
  tahan bubuto set basket traps for fish
Toba Batak taónset up, of a deadfall trap
  ma-naon dotonput out the fishnets to make a catch
  ma-naon-ito catch; to set up a deadfall trap
  taon-taon-andeadfall trap, noose trap
Sundanese taheunwhat one uses to trap something (in the broadest sense), deadfall trap, noose trap, poison, etc.
  naheunto set a trap

8689

POC     *taqon set a snare

OC
Lakalai ta-tahoto set a snare
Niue ta-taoto hide, lie in wait, lie in ambush, keep a look-out

Note:   Also Cebuano taʔán ‘set a trap of any sort’ (as a bubu fish trap). This term evidently referred to the setting of a trap so that the hunter had then only to wait for the prey to fall victim to it. Recurrent references to the bubu fish trap in the Philippines and western Indonesia, suggest that this was one specific referent that the verb *taqen applied to, but the agreement of Malay and Lakalai in point to setting up a snare suggest that it applied as well to land-based traps in which the prey was caught by a noose.

30480

*taqo cook in earth oven

7683

POC     *taqo cook in earth oven

OC
Mono-Alu taocook on hot stones, cover with leaves in stone-cooking
Nggela taoto be on oven, of leaves in cooking
Tongan taʔoto bake
Samoan taocook (in a stone oven)
Rennellese taʔobake in the oven, boil in a saucepan, cook in any way except over an open fire

Note:   Also Hawaiian kāō (length unexpl.) ‘to bake in the oven without leaf wrapping, as taro, breadfruit’.

30547

*taqu right side

7845

PAN     *taqu₁ right side     [doublet: *tuqu]

WMP
Lun Dayeh t<in>uəh <Mright side
Kenyah (Long Anap) taʔuright side
Kenyah (Long San) taʔəwright side
Murik taʔuhright side
Bintulu taʔəwright side
Melanau (Dalat) lian taʔəwright side
Melanau (Mukah) layan taʔəwright side
Kanowit taʔəwright side
[Ngaju Dayak tauto be able; to know; to understand]
Katingan gan-tauright side
Murung ka-touright side
Tunjung tauʔright side
OC
Cape Cumberland tu-tua <Mright hand
Samoan ta-tauright hand
Rarotongan mā-tau-tauto have a familiar knowledge of, to be perfectly used to certain procedures or ways
Hawaiian ʔā-kauright (not left)

7846

PMP     *ma-taqu₂ right side

OC
Nauna kal-matu-right side
Lou kal-moru-right side
Nali motright side
Wuvulu maʔauright side
Selau matouright side
Mono-Alu matau-naright side
Varisi matau-naright side
Lungga matua <Mright side
Mota matua <Mthe right hand; belonging to the right hand
Mosina moto <Mright hand
Merlav mato <Mright hand
Northeast Ambae matue <Mright hand
Ngwatua ŋʷatua- <Mright hand
Raga mwatua <Mright hand
Central Santo matua <Mright hand
Tambotalo natua <Mright hand
Vovo na-matu <Mright hand
Mapremo marua <Mright hand
Makatea matauright hand
Lelepa matua <Mright hand
Southwest Tanna mʷatu- <Mright hand
Iaai metâright side
Wayan matauthe right, right-hand side; right, right hand; be right-handed
Fijian matauright, as opposed to left
  vaka-mataucleverly, in a right-handed way
Tongan mataʔuright-handed; right (not left)
Niue matauright (as opposed to left)
Samoan matauhull side of a canoe (as opposed to the outrigger)
Tuvaluan matauclever; experienced; right hand; fast
Nukuoro madauright side
Anuta pai matauright side
  nima matauright hand
Maori matauright, on the right hand; the right hand

Note:   Also Sebop taʔuʔ, Penan (Long Labid) naʔauʔ, Long Merigam Penan nauʔ ‘right side’, Roviana matao-na ‘right (opposite of left)’. It is very likely that this comparison is identical to PMP *taqu, *ma-taqu ‘to know how, be able to, be skilled at’, given the universal association of the right hand with skill, aptitude, correctness and the like.

30921

*taqun year, season

8767

PMP     *taqun year, season

WMP
Ilokano tawényear; age
  ag-tawénto be so many years old, to have as age
  ka-tawénperson born the same year as someone else
  maka-tawénof the duration of one year
  pa-nawéntime
  ma-tawén-anto be one year old, to come of age
  t<um>awénfirst-year anniversary
  tawén-tawényearly
Casiguran Dumagat taonyear
  taon-taonyearly, every year
Kankanaey taónchronology; calculation of time
Ifugaw (Batad) tawónyear, unit time measurement
Ibaloy tawenyear
  man-tawento be a certain age
  on-tawento be a year old (as debt, baby, time of a person in a place)
Pangasinan taónage, year
  pa-naónseason, in season
  t<in>aónannual
Tagalog taʔónyear; per annum, per year; for each year
  i-taʔónto do or make at the same time with; to make coincide
  ká-taʔónincidental, occurring by chance
  má-taʔónto happen at the same time as something else
  maká-taʔónto fortunately find someone or something one needs very badly
  mápa-taʔónto happen to coincide with a certain event or happening
  má-taʔun-ánto happen to meet someone by chance
  t<um>aʔónto take advantage of the opportune time
  táʔún-anyearly; annual; once a year
  táʔun-ínto do or make at the same time with; to make coincide
  táʔún-táʔónannually; yearly; each year; every year
  ká-taʔónincidental, occurring by chance
Bikol taʔónyear
  maŋ-taʔónto complete one year
  pag-ka-ká-taʔónchance, opportunity
  taʔun-ánto be completed within one year
  taʔón-taʔónevery year; annual; annually; perennial
Agutaynen takonyear
  mag-pa-takonwithin a year; for one year
  nan-takonlast year
  t<om>akonnext year
  takon-anyears gone by
  takon-takonyearly
Palawan Batak taʔónyear
Maranao taʔonfamine
Binukid taunhunger season
Mapun taunyear; first planting season (when the dry season is about to end in May)
  taun-anmore than a year
  taun-taunevery year
Kadazan tounyear
  son-tounone year [+ Phil lgs.]
  toun-tounevery year
Tombonuwo tounyear
Bisaya (Limbang) taunyear
Berawan (Long Terawan) taunyear
Kiput tonyear
Narum taʔaunyear
Miri taʔonyear
Bintulu taʔunyear
Melanau (Mukah) taʔunyear
Melanau (Dalat - Kampung Kekan) taʔunyear
Malagasy taúnayear, time, season
Iban taunyear, cycle of seasons
Jarai thunyear
Rhade thunyear
Malay tahunyear (solar, lunar, seasonal from rice crop to rice crop, etc.)
  mə-nahunchronic; annual; year-long
  bər-tahun-tahunchronic; annual; year-long
Rejang taweun ~ tawunyear
Old Javanese tahunyear; (seasonal) crop
  pira-piraŋ tahun-ənto keep thinking: how many years...
Sasak taunwet season
  bə -taun-anlong preserved (of fruits)
Tae' taunthe time that the rice needs to grow from seed to mature plant
  maʔ-tauna year long
  pa-naun-anthe Toraja agricultural year
  paʔ-taun-anthe Toraja agricultural year
Mandar tauŋyear
Buginese tauŋyear
Makasarese tauŋyear
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *taquNyear
Muna taghuyear
CMP
Atoni tɔnyear
Kambera ndauŋuyear, annual
  ndau humbaSumbanese year, of six months
  ndau jawanon-Sumbanese year, of twelve months
Hawu tauyear (Fox n.d.)
Alune tauneyear
OC
Tolai taunseason, time, period
Hiw toyear
Mota tauseason, either of planting, or of the maturity of what is planted
  o tau namthe season of planting yams
  tau matuathe season when yams are fit to dig
Marino tauyear
Wusi-Valui taunyear
Piamatsina taun-iyear
Tangoa taun-iyear
Makatea tauyear
Rotuman fauyear; crop, harvest: of crops that are produced annually, such as oranges, yams, pineapples, and sometimes (Spondias dulcis)
Tongan taʔuyear; age; yam season, yam crop or harvest
  taʔu motuʔaage
Niue tauyear, season
  tau tupuspringtime (‘growing season’)
Futunan taʔuseason for harvesting yams
  taʔu laʔādry season
Samoan tauseason (warm, cold, etc.); climate; weather
Tuvaluan tauperiod; season
  tau titi, tau malostage in child’s life when it is appropriate to wear titi [pandanus leaf skirt], if female, or malo [breech cloth], if male
Kapingamarangi tauseason; to perish
Nukuoro dauseason
Rennellese taʔuseason
  taʔu ikafish season, late July until January, especially for flying fish and large fish caught on lines at night after catching flying fish that are used as bait
Anuta tauyear
Rarotongan taua season or period
Maori tauseason, year, the recurring cycle being the predominating idea rather than the definite time measurement
Hawaiian kauperiod of time, lifetime; any season, especially summer; session of a legislature; term, semester; time of late night before dawn

Note:   Also Isneg tawán ‘year’ (<Ilokano), Ibaloy tawʔen ‘year’, Yakan tahun ‘year’ (< Malay), Tausug tahun ‘a year’ (< Malay), tahun-tahun ‘every, or each year’, Bolaang Mongondow taoŋ ‘year’.

Although the terms ‘year’ and ‘season’ occur in a number of the glosses cited here, it is clear that these must be connected more with the growing cycle of food plants and with greater or lesser rainfall than with vegetative changes in the natural environment of the kind associated with the seasons in temperate climates. In some specific locations the association may be with annually cycling events of other kinds, as the runs of flying fish in Rennell, but the most common recurrent theme appears to be the cycle of planting and harvesting yams. In this connection note that in some of the languages of the Solomons the word for ‘year’ (and hence ‘season’) appears to reflect PMP *qubi ‘yam’, as with Poleo, Malagheti, Tolo, Malango uvi ‘yam; year’, and in many of the languages of Vanuatu innovative terms for ‘yam’ and ‘year’ are homophones, as with Peterara ndamu, Apma ndam, Paamese ouh (possibly < *qubi), Letemboi nə-dam, Unua no-rom, Ranon rem, Toak huram, Faulili auh or Imreang ne-aku ‘yam; year’.

28398

*tara cockspur

5517

PMP     *tara cockspur     [disjunct: *tada]

WMP
Simalur taraartificial cockspur
Buginese tara-manuʔcockspur
CMP
Bimanese taracockspur

29884

*tariŋ bamboo sp.

6546

PWMP     *tariŋ bamboo sp.     [doublet: *periŋ, *teriŋ]

WMP
Quop Land Dayak tariŋbamboo sp.
Sentah Land Dayak tariŋbamboo sp.
Dampelas tariŋk.o. large, strong bamboo
Wolio tarik.o. bamboo
Muna tarik.o. small bamboo, made into fences

28396

*taRabas plant sp.

5515

PWMP     *taRabas plant sp.

WMP
Hanunóo tagábaslong-leaved variety of kusúl (Kaempferia galanga Linn.); many medicinal and religious uses
Malay terawasa simple used in making beboréh (yellow cosmetic of saffron and coconut oil rubbed on the body in Java on ceremonial occasions)

29990

*taRah to wait

6679

PAN     *taRah to wait

Formosan
Pazeh (maxu)-taxato wait
Thao mi-talhawait for someone
Bunun (Takituduh) mal-ta-talahto wait
Tsou m-oo-troto wait
Saaroa m-ara-a-taa-tarato ambush
Amis talato wait
  pa-talato prepare

6680

PAN     *ma-naRah to wait

Formosan
Atayal (Squliq) mə-nagato wait
Saisiyat (Tungho) may-naato wait
WMP
Yami (Imorod) mapa-nalato wait
  pa-nala-ento wait
Itbayaten ma-na-nayacan wait
  na-naya-enwatch and wait for
Kapampangan ma-náyawaiting for someone, something

6681

PAN     *t<um>aRah to wait

Formosan
Seediq (Truku) t<əm>agato wait
Kanakanabu t<um>á-tarato ambush

Note:   PAn *taRah ‘to wait’ is intriguing for several reasons. First, it is one of the few cognate sets in which prefixation with *maN- appears in Formosan languages. Second, reflexes of *ma-naRah vs. *t<um>aRah are found even within the Atayalic group, distinguishing dialects of Atayal from those of Seediq (Li 2004:688), thus implying that *maN- was active in the relatively recent history of these languages, despite its general absence in Taiwan. Third, *taRah carries a variety of different affixes in all languages that reflect it, and it is very difficult to find examples of the simple base. Part of this comparison was first recognized by Tsuchida (1976:232).

30636

*taRaq hewing with an adze

8137

PAN     *taRaq hewing with an adze

Formosan
Thao talhaqchips from adzing wood
  ma-talhaqwill adze, will shape with an adze
  shan-talhaq-anbe adzed by someone, be shaped or worked by someone with an adze
WMP
Ilokano tagáto trim, shape (by cutting); kind of small gray bird that nests in tree holes it bores
Aklanon tagáʔto strike with a sharp object
Cebuano tágaʔcut down trees
Ida'an Begak tagaʔadze
Lun Dayeh taraʔclear-cutting of jungle for farming
Malay tarahplaning with an adze; shaping, rough-hewing
Old Javanese ta-tahsmall chisel, punch
  a-na-tahto shape with a punch
  t<in>a-tahto shape with a punch
Balinese tahahthe blade of a kind of machete, chopper
Tae' tarato rough hew, shape with an adze
Palauan o-láseʔtool for carving/chopping (< *pa-naRaq)
Chamorro tagaʔhack, chop
CMP
Rembong tarato hew (wood)
Rotinese talaadze (carpenter’s tool); to work with an adze
Tetun taato be cut by hitting, to make a blow with a cutting implement
  taa ahito strike a flint
  taa ulu-nto cut off a head, to decapitate
Kei tārscallop shell, used as a coconut rasp
Asilulu talato cut down (as a banana plant); to scrape, to rasp
  ta-talacoconut rasp
Buruese taha-hto fell, cut down
OC
Manam tarato beat off, to strike off (branches), to hollow out (of canoes)
Motu tara-iato adze; to chop; to cut wood; to sting (of hornet); to peck food (of fowls)
Arosi arato chop, cut, cut down a tree; to lop off branches, break off; to hoe; to make equal, level
Mota tarato hew, chop, cut, as with a lakae(tridacna shell adze)
Mosina tarcut
Wayan (of solid object) be cut by chopping or slashing; chopped, hacked, axed, adzed, slashed; be carved, shaped by cutting; be built, made (of boat, keel)
  tā-sicut, chop, carve, build something; what is cut, etc.
Fijian to chop with knife or axe
Tongan to hit (in various senses); to hit, strike, beat; scoop up coarse sand, also applied to scooping up fish with a hand net
Niue to strike; to kill; to adze; to build; to cast (a speaer or a dart); to wield
Futunan to beat, hit (with a stick); to cut (wood) for construction; to build (with wood)
Samoan (of blow) strike, hit; (of tree) fell, cut down; (of timber) adze, chip into shape, hew; (of bilge water) bail out; (of tattoo) apply, put on
Tuvaluan taahit; beat; chop; fell a tree; a large wedge used in splitting trees; build a canoe; drive fish; strike (of a clock)
  taa-taastrum a stringed instrument
Rennellese taato hit, strike, cut, kill, murder; tattoo; to carve or make, as a canoe; to tap, as to soften bii fruit; to strike, as birds dive down for fish; to beat, as the sounding board; to net, as flying fish; to scoop up, as swarms of ... fish in seine or net
Anuta taa ~ tato strike, to hit; an implement used for striking (i.e. a club); to chop down; to cut; to build (as in cutting out the shape/building a canoe)
Rarotongan to kill, to put to death, to slay, to overcome, to destroy, to slaughter; an assault, sudden attack; to beat or dash out, as in bailing a canoe; to pound or beat, as in washing clothes with a stick or stone on a flat surface
Maori dash; aim a blow at; strike, beat with a stick, etc.; whip a top; dash water out of a canoe; so bail; cut; tattoo; carve, fashion
Hawaiian to hit, strike, hack, thrust, toss, fling, hurl, dash, especially with a quick hard stroke

8138

PWMP     *ma-naRaq to hew with an adze

WMP
Ilokano man-nagawoodpecker
Cebuano ma-nagaʔ-nagaʔwoodcutter
Lun Dayeh naraʔcut down trees to make a farm, fell trees
Malay me-narahto hew a piece of wood into the outline of what it is intended to be, finer carving (ukir) being done with a knife
Sangir ma-nahashape tree trunks into timbers or planks (by adzing)
  ma-na-nahaadze
Bare'e man-taʔato hew, shape, give form to, make the general design of something (as a coffin from a log)
Tae' man-tarato shape with an adze, work wood with an adze
Palauan me-láseʔto chop, whittle, carve (log for canoe); build (house); (cat) claw at

8139

PWMP     *t<in>aRaq (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Ilokano t<in>agachips of wood, stone, etc.
Lun Dayeh t<in>araʔfelled by someone
Palauan d<el>áseʔthing carved

8140

PAN     *t<um>aRaq to adze wood, hew wood with an adze

Formosan
Pazeh mu-taxato cut wood or bamboo into small pieces
Thao t<m>alhaqto shape a log by hewing it with an adze
Kavalan t<m>arito chop with an axe
WMP
Lun Dayeh t<em>araʔclear-felling trees on the farm with an axe
Palauan d<m>áseʔto chop, whittle, carve (log for canoe); build (house); (cat) claw at

8141

PWMP     *taRaq-en (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Ilokano taga-ento trim, shape (by cutting)
Lun Dayeh tere-ina place which is going to be cleared of wood
Palauan desáʔ-elthing being carved/thing to be carved

8142

PAN     *taRaq-i Adze it!, Hew it!

Formosan
Pazeh taxaʔ-iCut it!
Thao talhaq-iAdze it!
OC
Gapapaiwa tara-tara-ito fell trees
Arosi ara-ito chop, cut, cut down a tree
Northeast Ambae ta-icut
Tongan taaʔ-ito chop, to cut or carve (e.g. a canoe) by chopping

Note:   Also Iban taras ‘trim, shape, plane, esp. hew with adze or axe’, Selau tarsa ‘shape a plank, hew, plane’, Rotuman ‘to cut or chop down (tree or branch)’. The central sense of this term evidently was ‘to shape wood by adzing’, and it presumably would have applied primarily to the shaping of timbers in house construction, and of tree trunks into the hulls of canoes. Given its meaning it implies the use of adzes as distinct from axes, machetes, and knives, and therefore the existence of a PAn term for ‘adze’ which is yet to be reconstructed. Working with an adze involves a striking motion toward the actor, a semantic feature of this term that crops up in other senses, as in Asilulu ta-tala ‘coconut rasp’, Arosi ara ‘to hoe’, or the Tongan and Rennellese forms that refer to scooping up sand or small fish. In Fijian and the Polynesian languages, on the other hand, the original sense of movement toward the actor in adzing wood evolved into a generalized notion of hitting, chopping, cutting, bailing water (by ‘striking’ at it with a paddle or bailer), or more abstractly, of killing.

28397

*taRaqan squirrelfish: Holocentrus spp.

5516

PMP     *taRaqan squirrelfish: Holocentrus spp.

WMP
Yami talanSquirrelfish spp. (Tsuchida 1984)
Palauan desáʔelspiny squirrelfish: Holocentrus spinifer
OC
Motu taraname of a fish
Marshallese jerasquirrelfish: Holocentrus spp.
Pohnpeian sarasquirrelfish: Adoryx spinifer
Chuukese sara (saraa)yellow-lined squirrel fish (Holocentrus ensifer Jordan and Evermann)
Woleaian sera (seraa)kind of fish
Puluwat har'akind of red fish
Tongan taʔakind of red, edible fish
Niue taakind of red fish
Samoan malauname given to red squirrel-fishes belonging to genera Holocentrus and Myripristis
  tā-malauname given to certain fishes of genus Holocentrus when about 1 ft. in length
Nukuoro daasquirrelfish
Lakalai e-talahakind of fish

Note:   Yami normally reflects *R as y, but other examples of *R > l are known (*kaRaŋ > kalaŋ ‘crab’, *(d)aRaq > ralaʔ ‘blood’). Nuclear Micronesian reflexes confirm the indications of Palauan and Tongan that this form was trisyllabic, as an original disyllable would be reflected without final vowel.

28416

*ta(R)kes wrap around, encircle

5535

PAN     *ta(R)kes wrap around, encircle

Formosan
Amis takecembrace
WMP
Kadazan tagkosto girdle

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.

28399

*taRpis thinness, fineness of texture

5518

PWMP     *taRpis thinness, fineness of texture

WMP
Tagalog tagpísfineness, sveltness, thinness
Old Javanese tapisthin layer

Note:   With root *-pis₂ ‘thin, fine, of texture’.

30595

*taRum indigo plant and dye: Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) and Indigofera tinctoria L.

7996

PMP     *taRum indigo plant and dye: Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) and Indigofera tinctoria L.

WMP
Kapampangan tayomshrub that provides a blue dye (Bergaño 1860)
Bikol tágomindigo, species of plant from which a blue dye is extracted
  mag-tágomto tint or dye with indigo
  tagóm-onto tint or dye with indigo
Hanunóo tágumindigo plant (Indigofera tinctoria Linn.); the leaves are used for dyeing and for rubbing on neck swellings
Hiligaynon tagúmblue
Aklanon tagómmedicinal tree
Romblomanon tāguman indigo plant, Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) or Indigofera tinctoria (Linn.)
Cebuano tágumindigo: Indigofera suffruticosa
  gi-tágumdye something dark or stain something
  mu-tágumbecome dark or black (as skin xposed too long in the sun)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) taɣuma certain leaf of a vine which is used as a black dye for dyeing abaca fiber
Maranao tagomIndigofera suffruticosa Mill. --- leaves used to color things black; black, blacken, dark color: black, brown, blue or gray
Ngaju Dayak tahuma creeper that produces purple-colored fruit that people use to dye woven fabric
  ma-nahumto dye fabric with this substance
Iban tarumindigo plant, unidentified (probably creeper Marsdenia tinctoria R, Br., and not Indian Indigofera tinctoria L.); the blue-black dye made from it
  narumto dye with indigo
Rhade krŭmdye made from indigo plant
Malay tarumindigo plant (indigo dye is nila); usually Indigofera tinctoria, the Indian indigo plant; native nila is made by cutting up tarum leaves, steeping them in water, and finally boiling them with lime or chalk; dark-colored (as the skin or fur of various animals)
Old Javanese tomindigo plant
Javanese tomindigo tree whose leaves (nila) are used for dye
  ŋe-tomto plant indigo trees
  pa-tom-anindigo plantation
Balinese tahumindigo plant
Sasak tarumindigo, indigo plant; to dye blue
Sangir tahuŋindigo, Indigofera tinctoria, used as a dyestuff
Bolaang Mongondow taguma creeper that yields a greenish-black dye
Tae' tarunindigo plant, Indigofera; its extract is used to dye clothes blue; blue in color
  tarun-tarun-anbluish; bright blue, as translucent water
Makasarese taruŋa plant resembling the indigo plant, but yielding no indigo; probably Cassia tagera
Muna taukind of plant the leaves of which are used as green dye
CMP
Bimanese dauindigo plant
Manggarai taroŋIndigofera spp.
Ngadha taruindigo; to dye with indigo
Li'o taruindigo
Rotinese tau-kthe indigo plant, indigo; dark blue
  tau isi-kindigo dye
  tau-taublue-black (as rain clouds)
Tetun tauna bush (Indigofera) whose leaves are used for making a blue dye for cloth
Lamaholot taʔūthe indigo plant (Pogostemon cablin), used for dyeing woven fabrics

Note:   Also Ilokano táyumIndigofera suffruticosa, the indigo plant’, táyum-táyum ‘Indigo hirsuta, herb with reddish-brown stems covered with purplish hairs’ (< Tagalog, ultimately from Kapampangan), Tagalog táyom ‘indigo plant; indigo blue, mag-táyom, tayúm-in ‘to stain or tinge with indigo’, tayúm-an ‘indigo plantation’, tayum-án ‘place where clothes are dyed’ (< Kapampangan), Sundanese tarum ‘name of the nila, or indigo plant’ (< Malay), Bolaang Mongondow alom ‘indigo plant’.

30855

*taRutum porcupine fish

8671

PMP     *taRutum porcupine fish     [doublet: *taRutuŋ]

WMP
Palauan derúdmporcupine fish
CMP
Waay tarutumfish with spiny skin (called durian in Ambon) (Ludeking 1868)

28400

*taRutuŋ porcupine fish, puffer fish, Diodon sp.

5519

PMP     *taRutuŋ porcupine fish, puffer fish, Diodon sp.     [doublet: *taRutum]

WMP
Cebuano tagutuŋ-anporcupine fish, Diodon sp.
Timugon Murut tautuŋporcupine
Lun Dayeh terutuŋporcupine
Ma'anyan tetuŋporcupine
Dohoi tohotuŋporcupine
Karo Batak tarutuŋkind of durian
Toba Batak tarutuŋdurian tree and its fruit
SHWNG
Kowiai tarutunporcupine fish
OC
Pohnpeian seiporcupine fish; soursop, Annona muricata
Gilbertese tautipuffer fish, Diodon
Rotuman faufufish which inflates itself when caught: covered with spikes like a porcupine
Rennellese tautugeneral name for balloon fish (porcupine fish)
Samoan tautufish (Diodon sp.) with very sharp spines

Note:   Also Kenyah (Long Anap) setuŋ, Kayan ketuŋ ‘porcupine’. This remarkable comparison is of special interest for at least two reasons. First, it is customarily assumed that *R > r immediately preceding a dental consonant in Palauan (*uRat > ŋurd ‘vein, artery’), but otherwise became s (*(d)aRaq > rásech ‘blood’, *zaRum > rasm ‘needle’). However, derúdm suggests that *R > r in Palauan if the following syllable began with a dental consonant, even if the intervening vowel was not lost.

The second noteworthy feature of this cognate set is its range of semantic reflexes. Subgrouping considerations make it all but certain that the word referred originally to the puffer fish or porcupine fish, as this meaning is reflected both in Oceanic and in WMP languages. Among Austronesian speakers that became reoriented to a primarily inland environment the meaning was shifted to cover other roundish, spiny biota (porcupine, durian). A parallel semantic extension is seen in Pohnpeian sei, where the reference to the soursop could hardly be original, as the plant is said to be a native of tropical America (Merrill 1954:152). For the conditions governing the split *t > s or Ø in Pohnpeian see Rehg (1984). Both Gilbertese and Pohnpeian evidently reflect earlier *tauti (see Blust 1970a).

30922

*tasik sea, saltwater

8768

PMP     *tasik sea, saltwater

WMP
Tagalog tásiksaltwater filtered through sand in the process of salt-making; brine; very salty water
Bikol tásikbrine, concentrated saltwater solution; a salt pond
  tasík-onto preserve something by salting
Aklanon tásikbrine, salty water
Masbatenyo tásiksalted fish (fish which has been preserved with salt)
Waray-Waray tasikbroth of rice porridge
  ma-tasikfull of broth; filled with broth
Cebuano tásikthe liquid residue of sea water that has been crystallized in salt making; liquid residue after milling sugar
Yakan tahiksea; ocean; sea water
  mag-tahik-tahikto be used to doing something on/in/at the sea (as traveling by boat, fishing, swimming, looking for shellfish, etc.)
Kapuas tasiksea, ocean
Murung tasiksea, ocean
Dusun Deyah tasiksea, ocean
Ma'anyan tahiksea, ocean
Ngaju Dayak tasiksea, ocean
  ma-nasikgo to sea
Proto-Chamic *tasiʔsea; ocean
Rade kəsiʔsea, ocean
Malay taseklake
Old Javanese tasiksea
  maka-tasikhaving as sea, surrounded by sea
Javanese tasiksea, ocean
Madurese taseʔsea
Balinese tasiksalt; sea, ocean (in court and literary language)
  tasik-into be made salty
Petapa Taje tasi/tasiksea
Totoli sasiksea
Uma tahiʔsea
Bare'e tasisea, saltwater
  mbo-tasito smell or taste like seawater
  oru n-tasibottom of the sea
  puse n-tasithe middle point of the sea, where [in native conception] the inflowing and outflowing water causes it to ebb and flow (lit. ‘navel of the sea’)
  wawo n-tasisurface of the sea
  wiwi n-tasiseashore, beach
  tasi rayainland sea, bay with narrow entrance
Tae' tasiksea
  tasik mapuluʔthe safe sea, where no catastrophes occur (lit. ‘sea of glue’)
Mandar sasiʔsea
  mo-sasiʔgo to the sea, seek one’s livelihood at sea
  po-sasiʔsailor, one who makes his life at sea
Buginese tasiʔsea (poetic)
  pat-tasiʔsailor
Makasarese tasiʔsea
Wolio tasiwater which has been used for cooking rice, left to stand for a few days, and then used for stiffening weaving yarn
Muna tehisea
Chamorro tasisea, ocean, beach
CMP
Manggarai taciksea
Rembong tasiksea
Palu'e tahisea
Sika tahisea, saltwater
Hawu dahisea
Kambera tehikusea
  tehiku míni‘male’ sea: shoreline that is not dry even in ebbtide, where a river exits into the sea
  tehiku kawini‘female’ sea: area on both sides of a river’s debouchment into the sea, that is dry at ebbtide
  wai tehikusaltwater, seawater
Rotinese tasisea
  tasi oesaltwater, seawater
Atoni tasisea
Tetun tasisea, ocean
Mambai taisasea
Lamaholot tahiksea, saltwater
Leti taskisaltwater, sea
Selaru tasisea, saltwater
  r-tasito salt
  tasi-sisalt
Yamdena tasiksaltwater, sea
Kamarian tasisalt
OC
Nali drassea, saltwater
Loniu tassea, saltwater
Lou set <Msea, saltwater
Titan drassaltwater
Nauna təssaltwater, salt
Leipon ndassea, saltwater
Lenkau tressaltwater
Sori dahsaltwater, salt
Seimat taxsea (in combination)
Wuvulu ʔaxisaltwater, salt
Aua arisaltwater, salt
Mendak tassaltwater, salt
Selau tasisaltwater, salt
Yapese daaysaltwater, seawater; tide, flow of saltwater; tidal season
Tanga tessaltwater
Label tāsisea, saltwater
Lusi tarisea
Manam taristreaming, flood
Motu tadisea water
Kokota tahisea
Cheke Holo tahiocean, sea; salt
  ta-tahitaste salty
Bugotu tahisea, saltwater, salt; a vessel for holding saltwater
Nggela tahithe sea; surf, a wave; salt
Tandai tasisea
Ghari tasisea
Kwaio asisea, salt, sea water
Lau asisea, saltwater
  fafo-asifoothills (lit. ‘above the sea’)
  fafo-na asisurface of the sea
Toqabaqita asisea, ocean; sea water, saltwater; saltwater person (not a Toqabaqita person); salt
Sa'a äsisea, saltwater; salt (late use); a month, January
  äsi e honuhigh spring tide
  äsi deuneap tide
Arosi asisea, saltwater, salt
'Āre'āre āsisea, saltwater
  āsi maethe quiet sea in the lagoon (lit. ‘dead sea’)
  āsi maurithe open sea (lit. ‘living sea’)
Mota tassea, saltwater; the name of the lake at Gaua, so called because the water of it is not pei, simple water, but tas, brackish
  Tasmatea district of Mota to leeward where the sea is quiet or dead; generally the lee side of an island
Peterara tasisea; salt
Raga tahisea; salt
Sowa zassea; salt
Tolomako tasisea
Mafea tasisea
Araki rasisea; salt
Atchin n-tassea; salt
Sesivi tessea
Sesake na tasisea
  na tas lolosalt
Nakanamanga na tasisea
  tas-menasalt
Southwest Tanna tahiksea
Gilbertese tarisea, saltwater, seawater
  te tarisalt
  tari-akito salt, to be salted
Puluwat háát, heti-nsea, ocean, tide; salt
Woleaian sat(i)sea, ocean (archaic)
Chuukese sáát, seti-nsaltwater, sea; salted water; illness caused by sea spirits
Pohnpeian se:docean, sea
Mokilese jedsea water; salt
Marshallese lǫ-jetocean, sea (lit. ‘in the sea/at sea’)
Araki rasisea, saltwater
Wayan tacicoast, seashore, sea, from the perspective of the land; be salty in taste; saltiness, salty taste
  wai tacisea, a body of sea-water; salt water
  taci-tacibe salty to the taste; have salt added, be salted; be a bit salty
Fijian tacithe sea
  wai taciwai taci
Tongan tahisea; sea-water; tide
Niue tahithe sea (more especially near the coast, as compared with moana, the open sea); the coast
Futunan taisea; tide
Samoan taitide; game or fish in season
  i taion the side towards the sea (as opposed to i uta: on the side towards the land)
Tuvaluan taisea; tide
Kapingamarangi taisaltwater, salt; lagoon; sea; tide
Nukuoro dailagoon; sea; salt
Rennellese taiocean, lake, salt water; seafood (poetic)
  tai maaŋagobrackish sea water, especially the Lake [in the middle of Rennell]
Anuta taiwater covering the reef
Rarotongan taithe sea, sea or salt water; the coast or land bordering the sea, as opposed to uta, inland; tide; wave or waves, as of the sea
Maori taithe sea, generally antithetical to uta; the coast, as opposed to uta, inland; tide; wave
  tai-taitide
  tai-tai nunuispring tides
  tai-tai ririkineap tides
Hawaiian kaisea, sea water; area near the sea; current in the sea; insipid, brackish, tasteless
  i kaitowards the sea
  ma-kaion the sea side, toward the sea, in the direction of the sea

Note:   Also Jarai rəsiʔ ‘sea, ocean’, Mbula tai ‘ocean, sea’, Woleaian tat(i) ‘sea, sea water’. While this term clearly mean ‘sea, saltwater’ in PMP, it has undergone various semantic changes in the daughter languages. In Proto-Philippines it was replaced by a reflex of PMP *daRat ‘littoral sea’ as the general term for ‘sea’, retaining only its sense of ‘saltwater’, and in Polynesian and some other Oceanic languages it acquired an additional sense of ‘tide’.

28402

*tata₁ elder male relative

5521

PMP     *tata₁ elder male relative

WMP
Cebuano tátafather; address of respect to a father, esp. among Muslims; address of respect to an old man, esp. a close relative
Ibaloy tata-ŋfather
Sambal (Botolan) tata-yfather
Chamorro tatafather
Patpatar tatafather
Ma'anyan tata-ʔelder sibling
SHWNG
Numfor kaka-mother's brother
OC
Mendak tatamother's brother (vocative)

30058

*tata₂ near

6759

POC     *tata₂ near

OC
Eddystone/Mandegusu tatanear, close at hand
Roviana tataclose, near; almost
Tongan tatanear
Niue tatanear; closely related
  faka-tatadraw near
  fe-tata-akiadjacent

28401

*tatadu large green hairless stinging caterpillar

5520

PWMP     *tatadu large green hairless stinging caterpillar     [doublet: *katadu]

WMP
Maranao tatarocaterpillar
Lun Dayeh tetaduhcaterpillar

Note:   Also Kankanaey atatádo ‘bluish white caterpillar living on the taro plant’, Malay ulat centadu, ulat sentadu, Minangkabau sintadu, tintadu, (Negri Sembilan) mentadu ‘large green hairy caterpillar, believed by Malays to develop into a squirrel’, Bolaang Mongondow tantaduʔ, tontaduʔ ‘large caterpillar sp.’.

30147

*tau ñamuk mosquito net

6891

POC     *tau ñamuk mosquito net     [doublet: *tai ñamuk]

OC
Chuukese tówunómwmosquito net, sleeping canopy
Puluwat tównómwmosquito net, formerly of loomed cloth
Woleaian taulomw(u)sheet, mosquito net
Fijian tau-namumosquito net
Rennellese tau-namumosquito net; to sleep under a mosquito net
Nukuoro dau namumosquito net

Note:   Also Nggela taonamu, Toqabaqita taunamo, Arosi tao namu ~ tau namu, Wayan tau namo ‘mosquito net’, all of which appear to be loans from one or more undetermined sources.

30225

*tawan kind of fruit tree: Pometia pinnata

7083

PMP     *tawan kind of fruit tree: Pometia pinnata

WMP
Bolaang Mongondow tawankind of tree: Pometia pinnata Merr.
Bare'e tawaa large, tall tree: Dysoxylum acutangulum; the wood is too heavy for boats and isn’t favored for building houses
SHWNG
Ambai tawaa tree: Pometia spp.
Ansus tawana tree: Pometia spp.
Wandamen tawaa tree: Pometia spp.
Waropen kawanoa tree: Pometia spp.
OC
Nauna tawtree with yellow flower
Lou taa tree with edible fruit: Pometia pinnata
Loniu tawtree with red fruit --- bark used to poison fish
Wuvulu awashore tree with fruit that flying foxes eat
Aua awashore tree with red flower
Mussau taontree with sweet fruit: Pometia pinnata
Lau ākwaspecies of hardwood: Pometia pinnata
Sa'a awaa tree: Nephelium pinnatum
Arosi awaa tree, sp. of lychee, but the San Cristobal species is only edible by birds
Mota tawana fruit tree: Nephelium pinnatum
Rotuman favaa tree: Pometia pinnata; fruit nearly globular with green rind, edible slightly sweet jelly-like flesh and a large stone
Fijian dawaa large tree, Pometia pinnata, Sapindaceae. It bears a fruit with jelly-like flesh and a large stone the size of a plum.
Tongan tavakind of tree bearing fruit with a large stone surrounded by jelly-like flesh
Niue tavaa tree: Pometia pinnata
Samoan tavalarge tree (Pometia sp.)

Note:   The Oceanic reflexes of this term are extensively doumented in Ross (2008:343-344).

30744

*taytay single log bridge (?)

8390

PMP     *taytay single log bridge (?)

WMP
Ibaloy taytaya bridge
  i-taytayto use something in making a bridge (as cable, steel)
Pangasinan taytáybridge
Kapampangan tétebridge
Tagalog taytáybamboo plank or bridge
Hanunóo taytáysitting or perching on a single crosspiece
  t<um>aytáyto sit down, perch (on something)
Cebuano taytáymountain range; bridge; make a bridge
  pa-naytáytravel along a mountain ridge
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teyteya bridge; a type of design used in weaving
  pe-neyteyto cross a log bridge
Mansaka taytayto walk along something narrow (as a plank, log, or a narrow bridge)
Binukid taytaybridge; to make a bridge, to put a bridge over (something); to cross, travel over a bridge
Tiruray titaya bridge; to cross a bridge
  titay beruŋona center purlin in house construction
Mapun pa-titito cross over a bridge (to a place)
Yakan mag-teyteyto walk (as on a tightrope or balance beam)
Tausug mag-taytayto cross a bridge (to a place)
  t<um>aytayto cross a bridge (to a place)
Ngaju Dayak t<al>etaysteps, ladder (specifically, a slanting log with steps cut into it that is used as a native ladder)
Malagasy mi-tetito walk through, to pass through, to go from place ot place, as houses or towns, to tread on
Iban titilow bridge, timber causeway, board walk; usually distinct from batang (felled tree or logs laid end to end), and andau (bridge); walk along narrow way or in single file
Malay titinarrow footway, of a plank bridge; gangway; log across a stream, or even of a bough as a footway from one part of a tree to another; also of bridges generally
Gayō teteflooring (generally of bamboo)
Simalur titibridge
  titi-n tiuʔtwo thin beams on the roof scaffolding that run parallel to the roof beams (lit. ‘rat path’ or ‘rat footbridge’)
Sundanese netestand on something on the tips of one’s toes; also, stand or be supported with the point of the foot on the edge of something
Old Javanese titifootbridge
Balinese titia bridge. a wooden plank across a ditch
  titi-n-inbe bridged by someone
Sasak teteplank bridge, native bridge; bridge of the souls in the Afterworld
  bə-tetewalk over a bridge
Tontemboan tetebridge
  t<um>etecross over a bridge
Bolaang Mongondow totoya bridge, formerly not much more than a tree trunk or bamboo over the water
Tae' tetea small bridge, plank bridge; walk over a plank bridge
  me-tetemake a plank bridge
Makasarese teteplank bridge, a plank or tree trunk laid across a stream or ravine
  pa-tetecross over something (as a plank bridge); walk shakily, as people do
Palauan didbridge
  didí-l a ʔarmbeams/rafters at ends and sides of house (on which rats often run)
SHWNG
Buli tetimprovised bridge made of a single plank or tree trunk

8391

POC     *tete single log bridge; stairs, ladder

OC
Manam tetestairs, ladder
Gedaged tetladder (a pole used as a ladder), stairs, step (anything that may serve as a step); a small tree standing near a large one used as a ladder; a bridge; wharf; companionway, stile, gangway, catwalk, drawbridge
Molima teteto walk along a ridge or branch of tree; to go towards the reef
Bugotu teteto climb up on a fishing tripod
Nggela tetea row, rank, line; to cross a stream on a log or bridge; to descend a ladder not using hands; a bridge
  tete ni ihuthe bridge of the nose

8392

PWMP     *ma-naytay walk over a plank or log bridge

WMP
Pangasinan man-taytáycross a bridge
Yakan neyteyto walk (as on a tightrope or balance beam)
Nias nete-netepath, bridge
Bolaang Mongondow mo-notoywalk over a bridge
Palauan me-lídto cross over (log/stones being used as a bridge)

8393

PWMP     *taytay-an log or plank bridge

WMP
Ibaloy taytay-anto bridge something (as a river)
Cebuano taytay-anbridge; means by which something is obtained
Mapun titiy-ana bridge (often made of bamboo or wood)
Yakan teytey-ana footbridge, small bridge, catwalk (it is usually made of a board or a log)
Tausug taytay-ana bridge (usually made of bamboo or wood)
Ngaju Dayak tatæ-ana wooden walkway or bridge (as from the house to the river; what is bridged over
Malagasy tetez-anaa bridge
Malay titi-an batustepping-stones
Dampelas tente-ana bridge
Pendau tinte-ana bridge

Note:   This term appears to have referred primarily to single log or plank bridges of a type commonly improvised in traveling when there is a need to cross a narrow water obstacle or ravine. It may have also been used in an expression that described certain narrow beams that form part of the roof support, where rats were commonly seen running (cf. Simalur and Palauan).

28389

*tanzak step, leap

5507

PWMP     *tanzak step, leap

WMP
Javanese tanjaka certain leaping move in the classical dance
Bare'e tadaplace the foot on something higher, e.g. in order to take a big step or a leap, or to reach a higher place

Note:   With root *-zak ‘step, tread’.

28415

*ta(n)zeg stand

5534

PWMP     *ta(n)zeg stand

WMP
Bontok takdəgstand up
Ifugaw ta-ʔ-dogstand up from a sitting position
Bilaan (Sarangani) tadagto stand
Balinese tajegstand erect; be directly overhead (sun)
Sasak tanjekto erect, place upright in the ground

Note:   Also Palawan Batak (Reid 1971) tindɨg, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) hi-tindeg ‘stand up’, Karo Batak tandek ‘stand, standing, as a bottle on a table’, Manggarai tedek ‘stand erect’. This item is assumed to contain a root *-zeg ‘stand erect’ (cf. Dempwolff (1934-38) *zegzeg ‘firm foothold’).

TOP      te        ti    to    tu    

te

28422

*tebaR loud, sonorous, booming

5541

PWMP     *tebaR loud, sonorous, booming

WMP
Ilokano tebbágloud, sonorous, richly resonant, ringing, strong
Malay tebardeep-sounding (but not echoing), of a booming noise

28423

*tebaS to cut, clear vegetation

5542

PAN     *tebaS to cut, clear vegetation     [doublet: *tebas 'chop off, fell']

Formosan
Paiwan tjevasto cut, prune, clear (vegetation)
WMP
Kankanaey tébacut down, as a bunch of bananas
Tagalog tibáʔcutting down a banana plant for its fruits
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tevaʔcut a bunch of bananas
Maranao tebaʔcut banana stalk
Iban tebaʔcut small plants through, esp. bamboo
Malagasy tevycut down trees to make a clearing in a forest
CMP
Proto-Ambon *tebacut off

Note:   Replaces *teba ‘fell banana stalk’ in Blust (1970). Based on Toba Batak toba ‘name of the country around Lake Toba’, Javanese teba ‘gathering place for birds, animals; scope, territory’, Malagasy tevy (see above). Fijian tova ‘a flat piece of land, formerly planted with yams’, Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *teba ‘land appropriated by clearing of forest’.

28424

*tebek pierce, stab

5543

PAN     *tebek pierce, stab

Formosan
Kavalan tbeqstab
WMP
Isneg tabbáʔbe cut by an edged instrument; to string, to thread (beads, tobacco leaves, pieces of meat, etc.)
Bontok təbə́kstick or wire used for piercing, as in order to test if food is cooked; to pierce, as food to see if it is cooked, or pieces of meat when stringing them together
Kankanaey tebékto bore; to drill; to perforate; to pierce; to run through (with a spear, sharp stick, etc.)
Bikol taboklance a boil; wound a fighting cock with a spur (of the opponent cock)
Hanunóo tubukawl
Cebuano tubúkpoke at a point; put a period or dot
Maranao tebekpoke, prod with sharp point; aim; stitch
Tiruray tebekto prick, to inject something or someone
Tboli tebekfork; any sharp instrument
Kelabit tebʰekmark left by piercing; pierced (as by needle, knife)
Melanau (Mukah) tebekstab, stabbing
Malagasy tevikaa stitch; a bore in the lobe of the ear
Kayan tevekcut the throat (as of a slaughtered pig)
Iban tebakpierce, prick, be pricked (as by a thorn)
Malay tebakiron crowbar used for stone-breaking by Sumatran miners
Karo Batak tebekpointed, sharp, as a dibble stick
Nias towoshave, cut with a razor
Old Javanese teweka pointed weapon for stabbing
  tuwekkris
Balinese tebekstab, make a hole in something, make a hole in the ground for planting seedlings; a hole in the ground for a seedling
Sasak tebekcut deeply, pierce deeply
Bolaang Mongondow mo-tobokpoke holes in something thin (as leather)
Banggai tobokprick, pierce, stick (with a weapon)
Bare'e tobopointed, sharp, as a beak or the point of a knife
Buginese tebbaʔnotch or incise, as a tree
CMP
Yamdena tebaksting, prick, spear; point out, decide
SHWNG
Buli tepatusks of a boar or elephant; pierce or wound with a tusk

5544

PWMP     *tebek-en be pierced, be stabbed

WMP
Isneg tabba-ānto string, to thread (beads, tobacco leaves, pieces of meat, etc.)
Bontok təbk-ə́npierced
Kankanaey tebk-énbored, drilled, perforated
Bikol tabok-ónlanced, wounded
Malagasy teveh-inabe bored, be pierced
Bolaang Mongondow into tobok-onthe one who will undergo the ceremony of ear-piercing

5545

PWMP     *t<in>ebek was pierced, was stabbed

WMP
Isneg s-im-baʔstring of beads
Kelabit s-i-bʰekwas pierced, was stabbed
Melanau (Mukah) t-i-bekwas stabbed

5546

PAN     *t<um>ebek to pierce, to stab

Formosan
Kavalan t<um>beqto stab
WMP
Cebuano tu-m-bukpoke a finger or something pointed at something; point out, pinpoint
Bintulu t-um-bekto stab
Melanau (Mukah) t-u-bekto stab
Old Javanese t-um-uwekstab with a kris

5547

PWMP     *maŋ-tebek to pierce, to stab

WMP
Kelabit nebʰekpierce, stab
Sasak nebekcutting deeply (of an instrument)
Bolaang Mongondow mo-nobokthe ceremony of ear-piercing

Note:   Also Cebuano tubúk ‘poke at a point; put a period or dot’, Ngaju Dayak tewek ‘be stabbed (with a knife or dagger; with a lance: puno)’, Karo Batak tebak ‘to pierce with a knife’, Tae' tibok ‘stab with a knife or kris’, tobok ‘stab with a knife or kris’, Makasarese toboʔ ‘kris’, Wolio tobo ‘kris’, tobok-i ‘stab with a kris’, Bimanese tuɓa ‘to lance, pierce with a lance or similar sharp weapon; stab’, Rembong tewak ‘stab into the earth; dig up tubers with a hoe’, Lamaholot tubak ‘stab’.

Dempwolff's (1934-38) inclusion of Fijian teve ‘circumcise’, Tongan tefe ‘circumcise’, Samoan tefe ‘circumcise’ is unconvincing, and cognates in Oceanic languages are still unknown. This morpheme evidently referred to piercing with a sharp, pointed implement which made only a dot-like perforation as opposed to a longitudinal incision. It applied to soft or pliant surfaces (apparently not to boring through wood or other hard material), and included e.g. the piercing of ear-lobes and soft tubers, the skewering of materials to be strung stitching with a needle, perforating with an awl, stabbing into flesh, and dibbling in soft soil.

28468

*te(m)bek tap, thump

5592

PMP     *te(m)bek tap, thump

WMP
Kayan tebeksound of heart thumping
CMP
Buruese tefe-tap; mallet for hammering bark into cloth

Note:   With root *-bek ‘sound of breaking, etc.’.

29880

*tebel constipated

6541

PPh     *tebel constipated

WMP
Isneg tabbálsuffer from costiveness or constipation
Tagalog tibíconstipation, costiveness
Bikol tubólconstipated
Masbatenyo tubolhard feces
  tubul-ónconstipated

28425

*tebteb to cut off, prune; cut down

5548

PWMP     *tebteb to cut off, prune; cut down

WMP
Kankanaey tebtébto fell, cut down, hew down, cut off
Balinese tebtebcut off short, prune, cut to a point

28426

*tebuk to pound, as rice

5549

PWMP     *tebuk₁ to pound, as rice

WMP
Balinese tebukpound rice to dehusk it; thresh
Gorontalo tobuʔoto pound, as rice

Note:   With root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud, splash’.

28427

*tebuR natural spring, fresh water spring

5550

PMP     *tebuR natural spring, fresh water spring     [doublet: *Cebuj]    [disjunct: *tubuR]

WMP
Tagalog tubógpool of water
Tiruray tebuga stagnant pool of water; to make a pool to hold water
Tboli tebulcontinuous trickle of water, as a spring

5551

POC     *topuR natural spring, fresh water spring

OC
Mota tovspring below high water mark; the brackish water of such a spring

30573

*tebuS sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum

7952

PAN     *tebuS sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum     [doublet: *CebuS]

Formosan
Saisiyat ka-tboʃsugarcane
Pazeh tubussugarcane
Thao tufúshsugarcane: Saccharum officinarum
Kavalan təbussugarcane
  la-tbussweet
Amis təfossugarcane
  mi-tfosto harvest sugarcane
Paiwan tjevussugarcane: Saccharum officinarum

7953

PMP     *tebuh₁ sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum

WMP
Sambal (Botolan) təboʔsugarcane
Kapampangan atbúsugarcane
Tagalog tubósugarcane
  mag-tubóto plant sugarcane
  tubuh-ánsugarcane plantation
Bikol tubósugarcane
  mag-tubóto plant sugarcane
  ka-tubu-ána field of sugarcane
Hanunóo tubúsugarcane
Masbatenyo tubósugarcane
Romblomanon tubusugarcane plant or stalk, Saccharum officinarum (Linn.)
Hiligaynon tubúsugarcane
Aklanon tubósugarcane
  ka-túbw-ansugarcane plantation
Waray-Waray tubósugarcane
Cebuano tubúsugarcane
  ka-tubh-ansugarcane plantation
Mapun tabbusugarcane
Subanun (Siocon) tobusugarcane
Mansaka tobosugarcane
Binukid tubúsugarcane
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tevusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Maranao teboSaccharum officinarum L., sugarcane
Yakan tebbusugarcane
  mag-tebbuto cut or plant sugarcane
  tebbuh-ana sugarcane field
Tausug tubusugarcane
Ida'an Begak təbpusugarcane
Kadazan tobusugarcane
Tombonuwo tobusugarcane
Kelabit təbʰuhsugarcane
Kenyah (Long Anap) təpusugarcane
Kayan tevoʔsugarcane
Kayan (Uma Juman) təvoʔsugarcane
Murik təbuʔsugarcane
Berawan (Long Terawan) təppuhsugarcane
Kiput təsəwsugarcane
Narum təfawsugarcane
Miri təfuhsugarcane
Bintulu təɓəwsugarcane
Melanau (Mukah) təbəwsugarcane
Ngaju Dayak tewusugarcane
Iban tebusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Malay tebusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Jarai təbəwsugarcane
Rade kəbəwsugarcane
Karo Batak təbusugarcane
Toba Batak tobusugarcane
Nias tõwusugarcane
Sangir tuwu <Asugarcane
Bare'e towusugarcane, planted as a sweet snack
Uma towusugarcane
Tae' taʔbusugarcane
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *towusugarcane
Muna towusugarcane
Wolio towusugarcane
Buginese təbbusugarcane
Makasarese taʔbusugarcane
Chamorro tuputype of plant -- Saccharum officinarum, sugarcane
Palauan debsugarcane
CMP
Manggarai téusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Ngadha tevusugarcane
Kambera tíbusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Tetun tohusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Wetan tewisugarcane
Leti tewusugarcane
Kisar keusugarcane
Erai tehusugarcane
Kédang tehusugarcane
Selaru téhsugarcane
Yamdena tefusugarcane
Fordata tevusugarcane
Asilulu tehusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Kamarian tehusugarcane
Kayeli tebosugarcane
Buruese tefusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Soboyo tofusugarcane
SHWNG
Kowiai tofsugarcane
Buli topsugarcane
Irarutu tofsugarcane
Numfor kobsugarcane
Serui-Laut tovusugarcane
Windesi tobusugarcane
Waropen kowusugarcane

7954

POC     *na topu sugarcane

OC
Nali druhsugarcane
Ere druhsugarcane
Loniu tuhsugarcane
Levei cuhsugarcane
Nauna tuhsugarcane
Leipon ndohsugarcane
Penchal rupsugarcane
Drehet khuhsugarcane
Wuvulu tofuwild cane: Saccharum edule
Mussau tousugarcane
Tigak tusugarcane
Tanga tufsugarcane
Label tohsugarcane
Tolai tupsugar, sugarcane
Lakalai la tovusugarcane (generic; Saccharum sp.)
Vitu tovusugarcane
Lusi too <Asugarcane
Wogeo tousugarcane
Manam tousugarcane
Takia tousugarcane
Gapapaiwa tomsugarcane
Tawala tomsugarcane
Motu tohusugarcane, Saccharum spp.
Dobuan tousugarcane
Molima towusugarcane (generic)
Kilivila tousugarcane
Mono-Alu tohusugarcane
Halia tohusugarcane
Selau tousugarcane
Marovo tovusugarcane
Talise tovusugarcane
Nggela tovusugarcane
Kwaio ofusugarcane
Lau ofusugarcane
Sa'a oohusugarcane
'Āre'āre ōhusugarcane
Arosi rohusugarcane
Buma tosugarcane
Gilbertese toua whole pandanus fruit (chewed like sugarcane; cf. Bender et al 2003a)
Chuukese woow ~ wowusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Puluwat woowsugarcane
Woleaian wousugarcane
Pohnpeian sehusugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
Kosraean tuhsugarcane
Mota tousugarcane
Northeast Ambae toβusugarcane
Ngwatua topusugarcane
Cape Cumberland toβusugarcane
Araki oβusugarcane
Paamese a-tehsugarcane
Namakir na toβsugarcane
Anejom ne-tosugarcane
Wayan tovusugarcane
Fijian dovusugarcane, sugar: Saccharum officinarum

Note:   Also Tetun touhu, Mbula teu ‘sugarcane, (Saccharum officinarum). The high vowel reflex of POc *o in a number of the languages of New Ireland and nearly all languages of the Admiralty Islands is unexplained, but may indicate a POc doublet *na tupu.

28455

*tendan wages, salary

5579

PWMP     *tendan wages, salary

WMP
Maranao tendanreward, bribe, hire, salary
Melanau (Mukah) tidanpayment for a service, or for work done
Bolaang Mongondow tondanwages
Gorontalo tonelobride price

Note:   Also Isneg taŋdān ‘wages, salary, fee’, Hanunóo táŋdan ‘direct payment of beads to a seer ... for his services’, Sangir tendéŋ ‘payment for work, especially to smiths’. The Isneg and Hanunóo forms suggest an etymon *taŋ(e)dan, but the first syllable vowel is difficult to reconcile with that in the other forms. Melanau (Mukah) tidan is assumed to be an i-ablaut form of an unrecorded base **tedan.

28428

*tedaʔ leftover, remainder

5552

PAN     *tedaʔ leftover, remainder     [doublet: *tida]

Formosan
Paiwan tjezasomething saved, left over; a remainder
  pu-tjezaleave over, save (esp. food)
WMP
Bikol tadáʔsomething left over, remainder
Iban tedaʔleavings, remnant, left-overs
CMP
Selaru teraleftovers
Fordata tera-nleftovers, remainder

28471

*te(n)dem recall, recollect, remember

5595

PWMP     *te(n)dem recall, recollect, remember

WMP
Tiruray tedemremember
Bare'e tondorecall, melancholic recollection

Note:   With root *-dem₂ ‘think, ponder; brood; remember’.

28429

*tedis crush with the thumbnail (as a louse)

5553

PWMP     *tedis crush with the thumbnail (as a louse)     [disjunct: *tedes]

WMP
Tagalog tiríscrushing (of lice) between thumbnails
Kayan teréhcrush with thumb-nail (as a louse)

28472

*te(n)duk skewer; to skewer (as meat)

5596

PWMP     *te(n)duk skewer; to skewer (as meat)

WMP
Tagalog turókbe pierced (by a pointed instrument, as a pin, needle or the like)
  tundókpiercing meat with a skewer
Kayan tedukskewer; skewered meat

Note:   Cf. Zorc (n.d.) PPh *tu(d)ek ‘prick, pierce’.

28430

*teduŋ take shelter, cover the head

5554

PMP     *teduŋ take shelter, cover the head     [doublet: *tuduŋ 'head covering']

WMP
Isneg taddóŋany kind of large leaf used for covering the head as a protection against rain, etc.
Casiguran Dumagat tedúŋhold a cloth or a large leaf over the head (as a protection against rain or the hot sun)
Sasak tedoŋprotect oneself agains sun or rain (by placing something on or over the head
Balinese teduŋumbrella or sunshade (of paper or silk)
Proto-Minahasan *təruŋshelter
Buginese tedduŋumbrella
CMP
Manggarai tesoŋtake shelter
Kambera tiduŋucarry on the head (as a water pot)

Note:   With root *-duŋ ‘shelter, protect’. Part of this comparison was first noted in print by van der Veen (1940).

28432

*tegaŋ dry, dehydrated

5556

PWMP     *tegaŋ dry, dehydrated

WMP
Tagalog tigáŋextremely dry, said of soil
Kayan tegaŋdry (as clothes), dried out

Note:   With root *-gaŋ ‘dry, dehydrated’.

28431

*tegas clear, straightforward

5555

PMP     *tegas clear, straightforward

WMP
Javanese tegasclear, unambiguous, firm
CMP
Manggarai tehasstraightforward; clarify

28433

*tegel unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn

5557

PMP     *tegel unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn     [doublet: *te(ŋ)ger]

WMP
Maranao tegelforce, impose, require, demand
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teɣelto force something or someone
Karo Batak tegelfirm, unyielding (esp. of thinking, courage)
Javanese tegelhave the courage to do something terrible; unmerciful
Sasak tegelhold tight, cling to
CMP
Manggarai tegelinflexible

28434

*teger unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn

5558

PMP     *teger unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn     [doublet: *tegel]

WMP
Iban tegarstrong, powerful
Malay tegarstiff, unbending, obstinate
Malay (Jakarta) tegerstubborn
Sundanese tegerstand firm, steadfast; energetic, courageous, undaunted
CMP
Manggarai tegerinflexible; stubborn
  teŋgersteadfast; stubborn

28435

*teguŋ to boom, resound

5559

PAN     *teguŋ to boom, resound

Formosan
Paiwan (Western) tjeguŋto make noise
WMP
Kayan teguŋbooming sound, as made by drum or gong

Note:   With root *-guŋ ‘deep resounding sound’.

30574

*teka₁ to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete

7955

PMP     *teka₁ to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete

WMP
Mapun takkato arrive; to reach or be able to reach a destination
  ka-takkaarrival
  ka-takka-hanto have something or someone come or arrive to you
  (ka)-takka-handestination; to have a feeling or emotion come upon you (like hunger, anger, sickness, tiredness, love, etc.)
  mag-takka-takkacome and go continuously; to fluctuate (as the price or availability of something, one’s good and bad traits, etc.)
  takka-hanto report someone to the authorities
Yakan tekkaarrival
  mag-tekkato raid, attack, arrive at (someone’s place with evil intent)
  mag-tekka-tekkasometimes; occasionally
  magka-tekkafor something to arrive
  ka-tekkah-anfor something to come to someone, arrive at someone; the place or time of someone’s arrival
  tekka-unto arrive
Kenyah təkafeeling (as a sickly feeling)
Acehnese təkato come, arrive
Rejang tekoto come, arrive
Old Javanese təkato come, arrive, reach one’s goal; coming
  ka-təkaarrived; (come) as far as, including
  ka-təka-n(“reached by something”) to suffer, undergo; to succeed in, manage to, win; to reach, up to
  t<um>əkato come, arrive, reach one’s goal
Javanese tekato come, arrive; to go on, continue; (up) to, until; to get to, reach; upon reaching
  ke-teka-nto be visited
  t<um>ekato go to, head for
Balinese tekato come, arrive
  teka-haŋbe caused to come, be brought
  teka-hinbe come to, be visited
  teka-ncoming, arrival
Bare'e tokapresent, on hand, available because it has been brought (to a place)
  to-tokaone who has come, guest, visitor, foreigner
Wolio tokabe already present, be there beforehand
Muna tokafinished, complete, in order
Makasarese takkato come
CMP
Manggarai tekacome from, appear, suddenly come into view
Ngadha tekato meet, encounter, be met
Hawu dəkato come
Kambera tàkato arrive, come; therefore; next, afterwards
Lamaholot təkaat, to, toward; in the direction of

7956

POC     *toka₁ to meet, encounter

OC
Futunan tokato meet, gather (as an assembly of people)

Note:   Also Berawan (Long Terawan) təka ‘to meet’. The relation of Kenyah təka to the other forms cited here might be questioned, but the semantic relationship of this form to the rest is supported by the extended meaning of Mapun (ka)-takka-han, which incorporates both the notion of a personal arrival and of the ‘arrival’ of an emotional or physical state that settles on one. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed this form on the basis of data from Javanese, Sa'a and Fijian. However, the words in the latter two languages appear to be better placed with PMP *tekas ‘come to rest in a definite place, settle down’.

30725

*teka₂ elder sibling of the same sex

8329

PMP     *teka₂ elder sibling of the same sex

WMP
Bintulu təkaelder sibling
Siang oŋkaelder sibling

8330

POC     *toka elder sibling of the same sex

OC
Lusi toaelder sibling
Manam toka ~ toʔaelder sibling
Wogeo toxaelder sibling
Varisi toga-naelder sibling of the same sex (kaka = vocative)
Gilbertese tokahigh rank, noble, chief, lord; rich landlord having servants

Note:   Also Long Jegan toka, Melanau (Dalat) tika ‘elder sibling’. The lack of an initial consonant in Siang oŋka raises the question whether this reconstruction is bimorphemic, in parallel with *ama : *t-ama ‘father’, *ina : *tina ‘mother’, *empu : *tempu ‘grandparent’, and other kinship terms in which the referential form is distinguished by an initial *t- (cf. Blust 1979). However, this would imply a base form *eka for which comparative support is currently unknown. However this issue is resolved, the morphological and semantic relationship of *teka to the much better-supported *kaka ‘elder sibling of the same sex’ remains obscure.

28436

*tekas come to rest in a definite place, settle down, as birds on a tree

5560

PMP     *tekas come to rest in a definite place, settle down, as birds on a tree

WMP
Maranao tekasvacation or rest in a definite place
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tokato perch, alight (as a fly or bird)

7927

POC     *toka₃ sit, squat; come to rest; stay in a place; settle down, as birds on a tree

OC
Seimat toto sit
  to-tositting, at rest
Lou tukto sit
Mussau tokato sit
Gedaged tostill, calm, quiet; contented, at peace, serene, at rest, quiescent, motionless
Takia tokquiet
Tubetube toato perch, of a bird
Roviana togasaid of a flock of belama (frigate birds) settling in a naru (Casuarina tree)
Nggela togato dwell
Sa'a oʔato settle, of birds; to squat on the haunches
Arosi oʔato stay, dwell, abide; to settle, of birds
Bauro ogato sit
Mota togato abide, dwell, endure, live, behave, be
Northeast Ambae tokato sit
Sowa -dokto sit
Wayan tokacome to rest, be at rest; (of a boat) run aground, strike bottom in shallow water; (of a whale or dolphin) be stranded, beached
  vaka-tokabe brought ashore or beached
Fijian tokato sit on the heels, squat; to be placed, situated, of people and small objects; to place, put on (garments); adhere to; to ride (horse)
  toka-rakato lie in wait for
Tongan toka(of a boat) to run aground, or to rest on the bottom; (of running water, of particles in suspension, or of people, etc.) to come to rest, to settle down, to reach a calm or settled state
Futunan tokato calm down (of the wind)
Samoan toʔa(of liquid, or solid body in a liquid, etc.) be still, settle down; (of boat), run around, strike; (of people) stop; sea rock, reef; calm, relief
  toʔa-toʔacalmly
  to-toʔabe calm, steady
Tuvaluan tokaready; peaceful, be in peace
  faka-tokato prepare
Nukuoro dogaland on (as a bird lands on the branch of a tree)
Rennellese tokato be or get well; to be in good health, cured of sickness, recovered; to be calm, quiet, of persons or the sea; to recover
Anuta tokaa boulder in the sea which is submerged at least part of the time
Rarotongan tokacongealment, anything congealed, frozen, etc.; to pass from fluid to solid, to coagulate, to curdle; a general term or name for stone or stones or rock of any description
Maori tokastone, rock; firm, solid; satisfied, contented; wait, stay still
Hawaiian koʔacoral, coral head

Note:   Also Tontemboan təkaʔ ‘arrival at a place; to settle down, of birds on a branch’. Although this reconstruction is firmly established on the POc level, the PMP form is far less certain, and its possible relationship to PMP *teka ‘to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete’ remains an open question. Whereas PMP *teka seems clearly to be a verb of motion, referring to coming, arrival and the like, PMP *tekas has a much more static sense, as of something for which motion or agitation has ceased.

The breadth of linked meanings across reflexes of this form is remarkable, ranging from the notion of birds settling down from flight on the branches of a tree (Proto-Bungku-Tolaki, Sa'a, Arosi, Nukuoro), to sitting (many), to boats running aground (Wayan, Tongan), to general calmness (Tongan, Futunan, Samoan, Rennellese), to congealment (hence cessation of flowing motion) in Rarotongan, to rock (as in ‘firm as a rock’) in Anuta, Rarotongan, Maori and possibly Hawaiian."

28437

*teked prop, support

5561

PMP     *teked prop, support

WMP
Madurese tekketpress down
CMP
Ngadha dekeprop, support
OC
Motu tostay of house; prop of fence; brace

Note:   With root *-ked ‘prop, support’. Ngadha deke presumably reflects *nteked.

28438

*tekek dull throaty sound

5562

PMP     *tekek dull throaty sound

WMP
Javanese tekekstrangle
CMP
Manggarai tekekimitation of the sound of a bunch of frogs

Note:   With root *-kek ‘shriek, creak, cluck, chuckle’.

28439

*tekes bind firmly

5563

PWMP     *tekes bind firmly

WMP
Maranao tekeshold firmly or strongly, bind
Balinese tekesfasten, fix in place (esp. the hair, with a band of linen or a ribbon), done by men

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.

28440

*tekik high-pitched sound

5564

PWMP     *tekik high-pitched sound

WMP
Maranao tekiksharp sound, like that of a fowl
Kenyah tekikstone used for striking fire; to strike fire
Javanese tekèkstriped gecko lizard

Note:   With root *-kik ‘shrill throaty sound’.

28441

*tekiq high-pitched sound; chirp of a gecko

5565

PAN     *tekiq high-pitched sound; chirp of a gecko

Formosan
Amis tkiʔmake a sound; the sound of rocks hitting
WMP
Maranao tekiʔgecko
CMP
Tetun tekigecko

Note:   With probable root *-kiq ‘high-pitched throaty sound’. Cf. *leŋkiq.

28442

*tektek gecko, house lizard (onom.)

5566

PMP     *tektek₁ gecko, house lizard (onom.)     [doublet: *cekcek]

WMP
Ilokano tektékcry of the common house lizard; tick of a clock
Maranao t-ag-etekhouse lizard
Tiruray t-er-ektekhouse lizard: Hemidactylus frenatus Duméril and Bibron
Bintulu tetekgecko, house lizard
SHWNG
Buli tektekkind of small frog; drop, drip

Note:   Also Tagalog tukóʔ, Cebuano tikíʔ, tukúʔ ‘gecko’, Maranao tekoʔ ‘large house lizard’, Rotinese teke ‘gecko; cry of the gecko’. This reconstruction probably is identical to Dempwolff's (1934-38) *TekTek ‘knock, rap, beat’ (from the chirping sound). Buli tektek (expected **tota) is taken to be an onomatopoetic retention.

28443

*tekuk bend or pull down (as a branch)

5567

PMP     *tekuk bend or pull down (as a branch)     [doublet: *teku, *tekuq]

WMP
Malay tekokbent down roughly; creased; rumpled
Sundanese tekuktake a man or animal firmly by the neck and bend the head down
Old Javanese tekukbend or fold over
Balinese tekukbent, crumpled
CMP
Manggarai tekokbent over (as when carrying a heavy burden)

Note:   With root *-kuk₁ ‘bent, crooked’.

28445

*tekuŋ bow the head

5569

PMP     *tekuŋ bow the head

WMP
Old Javanese tekuŋsit bowed and in silence
Javanese tekuŋhaving the arms folded across the chest while meditating
CMP
Manggarai tekoŋbent over; curved
Sika tekuŋlet the head hang

Note:   With root *-kuŋ ‘bend, curve’.

28444

*tekuq bend, hook

5568

PMP     *tekuq bend, hook     [doublet: *teku, *tekuk]

WMP
Maranao tekoʔbend, curve
Narum tekoʔhook
CMP
Buruese teku-kcause to lean or bow; cut (a banana stalk, etc.) part way through in order to bend it down

Note:   With root *-ku(q) ‘bend, curve’.

28446

*tela split, crack

5570

PMP     *tela split, crack

WMP
Sundanese tɨladried and cracked clay soil
Javanese telacrack, split
CMP
Manggarai telato split, show a crack

Note:   Also Old Javanese telā, with unexplained long vowel. This item may contain a variant of the root *-laq ‘split’.

28447

*telaŋ bamboo sp.

5571

PWMP     *telaŋ bamboo sp.

WMP
Kelabit telaŋmedium-sized species of bamboo
Malay buloh telaŋbamboo of the genus Gigantochloa
Tae' tallaŋkind of slender bamboo
Buginese tellaŋkind of bamboo

Note:   Mills (1975:854) proposes PAn *tɨlaŋ ‘bamboo or rattan sp.’. However, he fails to cite adequate supporting evidence, giving e.g., Malay buŋa telaŋ ‘a dark-blue flower of pea-flower shape growing on Clitorea ternatea’, but missing buloh telaŋ.

28448

*teleb sink, vanish from sight

5572

PMP     *teleb sink, vanish from sight

WMP
Tiruray telebcover something
Sundanese telebstay submerged for a long time without fatigue
Sasak telepsubmerge, sink
CMP
Manggarai telepbe hidden, disappear for a moment

Note:   With root *-leb ‘sink, disappear’.

28449

*telem sink, disappear under water

5573

PMP     *telem sink, disappear under water     [doublet: *teleŋ]

WMP
Sundanese tɨlɨmgo under water, plunge in, immerse, duck or dive under
CMP
Manggarai telemsink, go under, disappear by degrees

Note:   Mills (1975:854) gives Proto-South Sulawesi *tɨlliŋ ‘to sink’, suggesting a possible connection with PAn *telen ‘to swallow’. The core of this comparison was first recognized in print by Verheijen (1967-70).

28450

*teleŋ sink, disappear under water

5574

PWMP     *teleŋ sink, disappear under water     [doublet: *telem]

WMP
Melanau (Mukah) pe-teleŋdiving in the water for pleasure, or when bathing
Buginese telleŋsink, submerge
Makasarese tallaŋsink, sink away

28451

*teli female genitalia

5575

PMP     *teli female genitalia     [doublet: *tila, *tilay]

WMP
Kiput se-telayvagina
Karo Batak telivagina
Balinese telivulva
CMP
Kambera talipars pudenda mulieris (also used of animals)
OC
Niue tolea woman's private parts
Samoan toleclitoris
Maori torepudenda muliebria

Note:   Also Ifugaw tiːli ‘vagina’, Tagalog tilin, Soboyo teli ‘clitoris’.

30753

*telu three

8414

PAN     *telu three

Formosan
Seediq təruʔthree
Basai tsuthree
Kavalan turuthree
  kin-turuthree (people)
  saqa-turuthird
  u-turuthree (things)
Saisiyat toloʔthree
Pazeh turuthree
Thao turuthree
  kun-turu-zdo something three times
  lhin-turu-z-injdivide something into three parts
  lhun-turu-zdo something three times
  ma-turu-zthirty
  mu-turu-zthree times
Bunun tauthree
Tsou turuthree
Kanakanabu u-túluthree
Saaroa u-tuluthree
Proto-Rukai *toɭothree
Rukai (Maga) túruthree
Rukai (Mantauran) toɭothree
Amis tolothree
Puyuma teɭuthree
  mi-ta-teɭuthree (people) together
Paiwan tjeluthree
  ma-ka-tjelu-lʸthree (times, days, occasions)
WMP
Yami ipi-tlothird time, three times
Itbayaten a-tlothree
  ka-ka-tloa third part, one-third
Ilokano tallóthree
Ibanag telluthree
Agta (Dupaningan) tallóthree
Casiguran Dumagat ə-təluthree
Gaddang telluthree
Yogad telluthree
Isneg tallóthree
Itawis tálluthree
Bontok tulúthree, to be three
Kankanaey tulóthree
Ifugaw tulúthree, third, thrice
Ifugaw (Batad) tuluthe number three
Ibaloy tedothree --- the cardinal number; three stars that appear together in a line; the group is said to reach its zenith at dawn during harvest time (August); could be the three bright summer stars, Vega, Deneb, and Altair
Pangasinan talóthree
Kapampangan atlúthree
Bikol tulóthree
Hanunóo túluthree, a cardinal number
Waray-Waray tulóthree
Masbatenyo tulóthree
Cebuano tulúnumeral three
Maranao telothree
Mansaka torothree
Binukid tulúthree
Tiruray telewthree
Mapun talluthree
Tboli tlucardinal number 3
Yakan telluthree
Tausug three
Ida'an Begak təlluthree
Kadazan tohuthree
Timugon Murut taluthree
Tombonuwo toluthree
Bisaya (Limbang) taluthree
Lun Dayeh təluhthree
  tə-təluhin groups of three
Kelabit təluhthree; we (trial, incl.)
Sa'ban lawthree
Kenyah teluthree
Kayan teloʔthree; we (paucal, incl.)
Kayan (Uma Juman) teluʔthree; we (trial, incl.)
Berawan (Long Terawan) təlohthree
Kiput təlawthree
Narum təlawthree
Miri təlauh ~ təlohthree
Bintulu tələwthree
Melanau (Mukah) tələwthree; we (plural, incl.)
Melanau (Sarikei) təlawthree; we (paucal, incl.)
Taboyan toluʔthree
Lawangan toluʔthree
Dusun Deyah toluthree
Samihim telothree
Paku toluthree
Ma'anyan telothree
Tunjung təluthree
Ba'amang teluʔthree
Dohoi toluʔthree
Siang toluthree
Malagasy télothree
Iban teluadd or twist strands into a rope, splice
Rhade tləwthree
Jarai kləwthree
Malay teluthree; triple (in certain expressions only, as tiga is the ordinary word for ‘three’)
  susun teluin a triple row or layer
  buah keras telua hard fruit with three pips
Malay (Jakarta) min-telurelative in the third degree, third cousin
Acehnese lheəthree
  bintaŋ lheəthe three brightly shining stars in the middle of Orion
Karo Batak teluthree
Dairi-Pakpak Batak teluthree
Toba Batak toluthree
  pa-tolu-nathe day after tomorrow
  sa-par-tolua third
  si-paha-toluthe third month
Simalur təlu ~ təlothree (in some combinations, and in women’s speech)
  təlu fəŋiin three days/the day after tomorrow
Nias tõluthree
Mentawai teluthree
Enggano ʔa-koru ~ ʔa-koduthree
  ʔa-koru-paraparents with one child
Lampung teluthree
Old Javanese təluthree
Javanese teluthree
Madurese telloʔthree
Balinese teluthree
Sasak təluthree
  sən-təluʔwind in the third strand (in making rope)
Sangir təlluthree
Tondano təluthree
Tontemboan təluthree
Bolaang Mongondow toluthree
  toluʔthree (only in serial counting)
Banggai toluthree
  siŋgo-tolu-konthree by three, three each
Bare'e touthree
Uma toluthree
Tae' talluthree
Mandar talluthree
Buginese telluthree
Makasarese talluthree
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *toluthree (bound numeral)
  *o-toluthree (independent numeral)
Wolio taluthree
Muna toluthree (form used in counting and prefixed to nouns)
  to-toluthree, be three
Palauan e-deythree
Chamorro tuluthree
CMP
Bimanese toluthree
Komodo teluthree
Manggarai teluthree
Rembong teluthree
Ngadha teluthree
Sika teluthree
Kambera tílu ~ tailuthree
Hawu teluthree
Rotinese teluthree
  telu huluthirty
Atoni tenuthree
Tetun toluthree
Lamaholot təlothree
Kédang teluthree
Leti wo-teluthree
Wetan wo-telithree
Kisar wo-keluthree
Selaru ena-télthree
Yamdena télthree
  na-ŋ-télithe third
Asilulu teluthree
Kamarian teruthree
Alune teluthree
Buruese telothree
  ka-telo-ra constellation of three stars
Soboyo toluthree
SHWNG
Kowiai torthree

8415

PEMP     *tolu three

SHWNG
Buli tolthree
Munggui bo-toruthree
Serui-Laut bo-toruthree
Wandamen toruthree
Dusner toruthree
Irarutu torthree
Ron korthree
Numfor kiorthree
OC
Nali ma-royo-hthree
Ere tula-hthree
Loniu ma-colo-hthree
Leipon ma-culo-hthree
Kuruti tolo-hthree
Sori taro-pthree
Bipi talo-hthree
Lindrou talo-hthree
Penchal tulu-pthree
Lou teli-pthree
Seimat tolu-huthree
Wuvulu oluthree
Mussau toluthree
Mendak e-runthree
  even tunthree (in answer to question)
Tigak po-tulthree
Tanga k’-tulthree
Tolai u-tulthree
Vitu toluthree; we (pl. incl.)
Lakalai -toluthree
Lusi toluthree
Kairiru tuolthree
Wogeo tolthree
Manam tolithree
Gedaged tolthree
Takia u-tolthree
Mbula telthree
  pa telthree times
  tel-tel-ŋathree by three, in threes
Motu toithree
Molima toithree
Babatana tuluthree
Bugotu toluthree
  va-tolu-ithird, third time
  va-tolu-ñathird
  vi-toluthe third day, back or forward, not counting today
  tolu-ñathird
Nggela toluthree
  na tolu-nathe third
Kwaio oluthree
  olu-nathird
Lau oluthree
  olu-na ~ ou-nathird
Toqabaqita uluthree
Sa'a oluthree
  olu-nethird, third time
Arosi oruthree
  oru-nathird
'Āre'āre oruthree
Proto-Micronesian *teluthree
Chuukese éénthe number three [used in serial counting or to name the number in the abstract, but not used as a numerical adjective]
  wúnúthree
Puluwat yéélthree (sequential)
  yeluuqthree (general)
Woleaian seli- ~ yelithree
Pohnpeian sili- ~ silūthree
Mokilese jili-three
Marshallese jiluthree
Kosraean tol(u)three
Gilbertese tenu-athree
Mota ni-tol(u)three
  va-toliuthree
Merlav i-tolthree
Raga toluthree
Mafea toluthree
Tangoa mo-toluthree
Araki roluthree
Atchin e-tulthree
Malfaxal i-tulthree
Paamese e-telthree
Makatea toruthree
Rotuman foluthree
Wayan tolube three, three
  a-tolube three each
  viā-tolube every third one
Fijian toluthree
  yā-toluthree each
Tongan toluthree
  kita-u-tolufirst person plural inclusive
Niue toluthree, third
Futunan toluthree
  tā-toufirst person plural inclusive postposed personal pronoun
Samoan toluthree
  tā-toufirst person plural inclusive conjunct verbal pronoun (pre-basic and post-basic); we (you and we, speaking of three or more people); first person plural inclusive disjunct verbal pronoun first person inclusive nominal pronoun
Tuvaluan toluthree
  o-touyour (plural possessor)
Kapingamarangi doluthree
Nukuoro doluthree
  oo-douyour [3] several
Rennellese toguthree, third, three times; to be three in number, third, three times
  kita-touwe, us (plural, inclusive)
Anuta toruthree
  ta-tou ~ taa-toufirst person plural inclusive personal and possessive pronoun; we, us; our, ours
Mele-Fila toruthree
  taa-touwe, plural inclusive
Rarotongan totunumeral three
  ta-toufirst person plural inclusive pronoun
Maori toruthree, third
  tā-toufirst person plural inclusive pronoun
  te toruthe third month
Hawaiian koluthree
  -kouindicator of plurality in the plural pronouns and possessives only
  kā-kouwe (plural, inclusive)

8416

PMP     *telu-ŋa-puluq thirty

WMP
Ilokano tallo púlothirty
Kelabit təluh ŋəh puluʔthirty
Tondano təlu ŋa puluʔthirty
Muna tolu fuluthirty

8417

POC     *tolu-ŋa-puluq thirty

CMP
Lamaholot pulu təlothirty
OC
Tanga k’-tul-‘n-samfulthirty
Motu toi-a-huithirty
Roviana tolo-ŋa-vuluthirty
Rotuman fol-aŋ-huluthirty
Fijian tolu-sa-ŋa-vuluthirty
Tongan tolu-ŋo-fuluthirty
Niue tolu-ŋo-fuluthirty
Samoan tolu-ŋa-fuluthirty
Tuvaluan tolu-ŋa-fuluthirty

8418

PMP     *i-telu (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Tontemboan i-teluwhat is concerned with bringing the total to three
Muna i-toluthree days; commemoration on the third day after someone’s death
CMP
Fordata i-teluthree

8419

PWMP     *in-telu three times

WMP
Kadazan in-tohuthree times
Timugon Murut in-taluthree times
Tombonuwo in-toluthree times
Malagasy in-teluthree times
Bolaang Mongondow in-toluthe third

8420

PAN     *ka-telu (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Kavalan q-turuthree (of days, months)

8421

PMP     *ka-teluₐ all three, three together, three in total

WMP
Yami ka-tlothree in total
Bontok ka-tluto divide into three or thirds
Ibaloy ka-tdothird day of aremag/siling funeral celebration
Romblomanon ka-ta-tlúthree times
Cebuano ka-tulúthree times
Yakan ka-talluall three that one has (of anything)
Old Javanese ka-təluthree (all together)
Javanese ka-teluthree times; times three; (for) the third time; third in a series
Madurese ma-telloʔadd up to three, total three
Bolaang Mongondow ko-toluthree times
Banggai ko tolu-nothe third

8422

POC     *ka-tolu (gloss uncertain)

OC
Ngwatua ka-toluthree
Sesake ke-tulthree
Pango ka-tulthree

8423

PWMP     *ma-nelu twist together rope out of three strands

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) ma-nuluto be able to produce three things in a specified period of time, as for stone walling to produce three pesos a day in earnings, or for a man to be a three basket per week weaver
Toba Batak ma-nolutwist together rope out of three strands
Javanese neluto form a group of three; to hold a ceremonial feast for a woman in the third month of pregnancy
Sangir ma-nəllutwist a third strand into a rope that already has two
Tontemboan mə-nəlu-nəlufor only three to remain, for three still to remain

8424

PAN     *ma-telu (gloss uncertain)

Formosan
Paiwan ma-tjeluthree persons
WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) ma-tuluto be three units of measure, of length, quantity, size, time, value, weight
Madurese ma-telloʔsplit into three parts
Tontemboan ma-təluof a third woman, to join two others in pounding rice

8425

POC     *ma-tolu (gloss uncertain)

OC
Nukuoro ma-toluthirty

8426

PWMP     *maka-telu (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Tagalog maká-tatlóthrice, three times
Bikol maka-tulóto have three
Cebuano maka-tulúthree times
Balinese maka-talu-na period of three days
Makasarese maka-talluthird
  maka-tallu-nathe third

8427

PWMP     *maR-telu to divide into three parts

WMP
Bikol mag-tuloto divide into three
Tausug mag-tudivide into three equal parts
Malagasy mi-téloto divide into three

8428

PMP     *pa-telu (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Yakan pa-telluto make something three (as in dividing cookies into three batches)
Tontemboan pa-təlu-təlu-nput three in each pile
CMP
Fordata fa-teluthree times

8429

POC     *pa-tolu (gloss uncertain)

OC
Bugotu va-tolu-ithird, third time
  va-tolu-ñathird
Mota va-toliuthird

8430

PMP     *paka-telu to triple, multiply by three

WMP
Malagasy faha-telothe third; three fathoms; an enemy
Dairi-Pakpak Batak peke-teluname of the third month
Palauan ok-e-deythirty
Chamorro faha-tothree times

8431

POC     *paka-tolu to triple, multiply by three

OC
Arosi haʔa-oruthree times
Gilbertese ka-tenu-ato triple
Wayan vaka-tolube three times, thrice
Fijian vaka-toluthree times
Samoan faʔa-toluthree times
Rennellese haka-toguto do three times, third; 15th night of the moon; to be this night

8432

PWMP     *paR-telu-en (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Bikol pag-tulo-onto divide into three; to send three at a time; to go three at a time
Madurese par-tello-na path that branches three ways

8433

PWMP     *pin-telu three times

WMP
Bontok pin-ta<l>lúthree, play counting
Kankanaey pin-tulóthree, one of the numbers used by children
Ibaloy pin-tedothree times, thrice
  ka-pin-tedothe third time
Makasarese pin-tallu(-ŋ)three times

8434

PAN     *Sika-telu third

Formosan
Kavalan siqa-turuthree times
Paiwan si-ka-tjeluthird
  nu-si-ka-tjeluday after tomorrow
  ta-si-ka-tjeluday before yesterday

8435

PMP     *ika-telu third

WMP
Yami ika-tlothird
Itbayaten icha-tlothird
Tagalog ika-tlóthird
Bikol ika-tulóthird
Hiligaynon iká-tluthird
Masbatenyo ika-tulóthird
Romblomanon íka-tluthird (action, person, situation, thing, time, unit of measurement)
Cebuano ika-tulúthird
Binukid ika-tulúthird
Tboli ge-tluthird
Kadazan ko-tohu(the) third
Timugon Murut ka-taluthird, the third
Tombonuwo ko-toluthird
Sasak kə-təluthe third
Tontemboan ka-təluthird, the third
CMP
Rotinese ka-telu-kthe third
Soboyo ka-toluthe third

8436

POC     *ika-tolu third

OC
Wayan ikā-toluthird
Fijian i katoluthe third

8437

PAN     *ta-telu three (of humans)

Formosan
Thao ta-turuthree, of humans
Amis ta-tolothree, of humans
WMP
Yami ta-tlothree (people)
Itbayaten ta-tlothree
Ibaloy ta-tdothree (especially in counting people)
Sambal (Botolan) ta-tlothree
Tagalog tatlóthree
Hiligaynon tátluthree
Aklanon tátlothree
  tátlo(h)to raise or lower to three, make three
Romblomanon ta-tluthree (actions, people, pieces of something, situations, things, times, units of measurement
Manobo (Ata) ta-toluthree
Manobo (Tigwa) ta-tɨluthree
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) te-teluthree
Binukid ta-tulúthree; to be in threes, to do, make three (of something)
Balinese ta-telutriad, three
Sangir ta-təllu bauʔthree pieces (of round things)

8438

POC     *ta-tolu three (of people)

OC
Motu ta-toithree (of people)

8439

PPh     *ka-telu-an (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Itbayaten ka-tlw-anthird month
Ifugaw ka-tluw-ánadd a third one
Bikol ka-tulu-anthirds
Hiligaynon ka-ta-tlu-anthirty
Cebuano ka-tlu-anthirty
Malagasy ha-telo-anathree days
Sangir ka-təllu-aŋOrion’s belt
Tontemboan ka-təlu-anthe three stars in Orion’s belt
Bolaang Mongondow ko-tolu-anOrion’s belt

8440

PWMP     *ka-telu-en (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Timugon Murut ka-talu-onsomething that is tallied or totaled as amounting to three
Karo Batak ke-telū-nthe day after the day after tomorrow, three days hence
Dairi-Pakpak Batak ke-telu-nthe period of the third planting of rice, at which time yam plantings are seen here and there

8441

PPh     *t<in>elu made of three parts, as triple-strand rope

WMP
Ilokano t<in>allótwilled work of three warp crossings
Tagalog t<in>a-tlótripartite, divided into three parts
Cebuano t<in>ulúinto three, in threes
  t<in>ulu-tulúkind of rope made of three strands
Bolaang Mongondow lubid s<in>olucord or twine made of three strands
Tontemboan t<in>əlubrought up to three

8442

PPh     *t<um>elu (gloss uncertain)

WMP
Ifugaw (Batad) t<um>ulufor something to become three, especially through natural processes such as reproduction
Tontemboan t<um>əluof a third woman, to join two others in pounding rice

8443

PWMP     *telu-an to join with to make three

WMP
Bontok tulu-wanto make three; to join with (two others); a third one
Tagalog ta-tlú-hanin groups of three; in threes
Masbatenyo tulúh-ansuitable for three (refers to something which is adequate for three portions, usually used in terms of food)
Tontemboan təlu-anname of a small river that is formed by the confluence of the Rano Pengkor, Rano Sue, and Winaluian rivers

8444

PWMP     *telu-en be divided into three (?)

WMP
Ilokano tallu-ento do three times
Bontok tulu-wənto divide into three or thirds; one third
Ifugaw tulu-wónto give (make, lay, etc.) three of the same kind (value, size, etc.)
Tagalog ta-tlu-hínto triple; to make or become three times as much
Malagasy telo-ina ~ telo-vinato be divided into three
Gayō tulu-nthird day hence
Bolaang Mongondow tolu-onmake with three strands (of cord)

8445

PPh     *telu-gan three (in children’s games)

WMP
Bontok tulú-ganthree, play counting
Kankanaey tuló-ganthree, one of the numbers used by children
Hanunóo tulu-kánthree, used only in a children’s counting game

8446

PMP     *telu-telu three each, three by three

WMP
Ilokano talló-tallóa kind of vine with trifoliate leaves
  tal-tallóonly three
Bontok tullu-tulluto be in units of three (as when dividing meat into portions)
Ifugaw tulu-tulualways three; three by three
  tullu-tullufor people to be three at a time in a particular state doing something, of one group repeating an action, or two or more groups acting successively
Bikol tuló-túlo~ tu-tulóonly three
  mag-tuló-túloto divide into three; to send three at a time
Timugon Murut talu-taluthe three of them, all three
Malagasy tsi-telo-telothree by three
Nias tõlu-tõluthree each, three by three
Javanese telu-teluby threes
Balinese ta-telu-ta-teluin threes, three at a time
Tontemboan təlu-təluby threes, in groups of three
Makasarese tallu-talluall three; only three; three, in games of cards and dice
CMP
Rotinese telu-teluthree at a time, three by three
Yamdena té-télthree by three, three at a time

8447

POC     *tolu-tolu three each, three by three

OC
Wayan tolu-tolugroup of threes, in threes, as a threesome, all three
Fijian tolu-toluall three
Maori toru-torufew

Note:   Also Bintulu ləw, Sundanese tilu ‘three’, ka-tilu ‘third’. Although this basic reference of this term was to the numeral ‘three’, several languages also point to the use of an affixed form in PWMP that cannot yet be reconstructed meaning ‘to twist three strands together in making rope’, and others include a reflex of *telu in the name for Orion’s belt. Moreover, since *telu-gan is not likely a product of chance or borrowing, it appears necessary to infer that there were special numeral forms used in children’s counting games, at least in Proto-Philippines (the suffix in Hanunóo does not correspond perfectly to the similar form in Cordilleran languages, but seems clearly to indicate a historical relationship). Finally, for unknown reasons many Oceanic languages show the wrong penultimate vowel in this form, sometimes reflecting *a, *e, or *u.

28454

*temu all around, surrounding

5578

PMP     *temu all around, surrounding

WMP
Maranao temojoin, encircle (as in battle)
Makasarese tammuall around, surrounded
CMP
Manggarai temucomplete, entire, all around

Note:   Part of this comparison was first noted in print by Verheijen (1967-70).

28453

*temud mumble, grumble

5577

PWMP     *temud mumble, grumble

WMP
Maranao temodmumble, grumble
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) temud-mudmurmur or grumble to oneself about something
Bahasa Indonesia temut-temutmumble

Note:   Also Hiligaynon kúmud ‘grumble, murmur, sulk’.

30901

*tenun to weave (cloth, baskets)

8734

PAN     *tenun to weave (cloth, baskets)     [doublet: *tinun]

Formosan
Thao tnunweaving (abstract stem)
Kavalan pi-t<um>nun-anloom
  t<um>nunto weave (cloth, a mat)
Puyuma tənunweave
Paiwan tjenunto weave
  tja-tjenun-enthreads already placed on the loom
WMP
Kayan tənunwoven cloth in general; cloth woven by hand
Kenyah tenunwoven
Malagasy ténonathe warp and the weft; weaving
  ma-nénonato weave
Iban tenunweaving
  nenunto weave
Malay tenunweaving; the art or process of making cloth from cotton, silk or fiber
  me-nenunto weave
  tenun-anmethod or style or product of weaving
Acehnese teuneunto drive in the weft (in weaving)
Gayō tenunweaving
  be-tenunto weave
Toba Batak tonunweaving
  ma-nonunto weave something
  par-tonun-anloom
Minangkabau tanunweaving
Old Javanese a-nenunto weave, intertwine
Javanese nenunto weave
  pa-nenun-anweaving loom
  pa-tenun-anplace (especially factory) where weaving is done
  tenun-anfabric, woven material
Balinese tenunweave
  nenunto weave
Tajio tonuŋto weave cloth
Lauje tonuŋto weave cloth
Tialo tonunto weave cloth
Tae' tannunto weave; threads for weaving
  tannun-anweave for someone
Makasarese tannuŋloom; threads for weaving
Wolio tanuto weave
  i-tanufabric, textile
CMP
Komodo tenuŋto weave, to plait
Manggarai tenuŋto weave
Ngadha tenuto weave
  ŋani tenuloom
  tenu atéto think, consider, reflect on
Kambera tínuŋuto weave
Leti tennuto weave
Wetan tennito weave
  maka-tenniweaver


Note:   Also Wetan tienni ‘to weave’.

8735

PAN     *ta-tenun-an loom

Formosan
Thao ta-tnun-anback loom
Puyuma ta-tənun-anframe of the weaving loom

8736

PAN     *t<in>enun was woven by someone; what was woven

Formosan
Thao t<i>nunwas woven; what was woven, weave
Kavalan t<in>nunhave woven
WMP
Old Javanese t<in>ənunto weave, intertwine

8737

PAN     *t<um>enun to weave

Formosan
Saisiyat t<om>nonto weave (cloth, mat)
Thao t<u>nunto weave (usually cloth)
Favorlang t<um>enonto weave
Puyuma t<əm>ənunto weave
Paiwan tj<m>enunto weave (cloth)
WMP
Tae' t<um>annunto weave


Note:   Also Pazeh tuʔun ‘to weave (cloth); to weave (a mat)’, saa-tuʔun ‘weaving instruments in general’, ta-tuʔun-an ‘a weaving machine’, Tialo toun ‘to weave cloth’.

8738

PAN     *tenun-an loom

Formosan
Paiwan tjenun-anloom
WMP
Malay (Sumatra) tenun-anloom
Javanese tenun-anloom
Makasarese tannuŋ-aŋwhat one has set up to weave with; kind of indicator for counting the quantity of threads

8739

PAN     *t<in>enun-an woven cloth

Formosan
Kavalan t<in>nun-annative cloth
Puyuma t<in>ənun-anwoven material

8742

PAN     *tenun-en to be woven by someone

Formosan
Thao tnun-inbe woven
WMP
Malagasy tenom-inato be woven


Note:   Malagasy tenom-ina may be a hypercorrection, since *-m > -n, but the alveolar nasal then alternates with its labial source before a suffix.

Note:   Also Bare'e tanu ‘to weave (< Buginese; only known by the Muslim population in the coastal regions’), Manggarai tenu ‘to weave’, Rotinese tenu ‘to weave’, te-tenu-k ‘weaving, the practice of weaving; loom’, Kisar kenna ‘to weave’.

Along with PAn *baRija, PMP *balija ‘batten of the loom’ this comparison provides solid evidence that the simple backstrap loom was used during the initial Neolithic settlement of Taiwan by speakers of Proto-Austronesian. The use of bark cloth evidently existed side-by-side with loom weaving of textiles, and when loom weaving was lost in some areas, as in interior Sulawesi, and much of the Pacific, bark cloth became the sole material used for clothing.

Weaving among Oceanic-speaking peoples is confined to a few villages on the north coast of New Guinea, the Caroline islands of Micronesia, and the Banks and Torres Islands of northern Vanuatu. Since cognate linguistic forms have not been found it is unclear whether this tradition represents a continuation of the practice from PAn, or is an independent invention after it had first been lost.

28465

*teñeb submerge

5589

PAN     *teñeb submerge

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) tenepsubmerge
WMP
Ilokano tánebsubmerge partly, immerse in part
  ma-tnébsink

Note:   With root *-ñeb ‘dive, submerge’.

28466

*teñej sink, set (sun)

5590

PMP     *teñej sink, set (sun)

WMP
Cebuano túnudconvey below the surface of the water or into a pit; for the sun to set
CMP
Rotinese tenasink, set (of the sun)

Note:   With root *-ñej ‘submerge, sink, drown’.

28475

*teŋ buzz, hum

5599

PMP     *teŋ buzz, hum

WMP
Maranao teŋringing in ear
Karo Batak teŋ(onom.) flang!
Javanese ṭeŋpurr, hum, buzz
CMP
Manggarai teŋbuzzing or ringing in the ear

Note:   Also Paiwan teŋ ‘moan (as person), whine (as dog)’.

29881

*teŋeR kind of mangrove, Ceriops spp., with bark used for dyeing

6542

PMP     *teŋeR kind of mangrove, Ceriops spp., with bark used for dyeing

WMP
Aklanon tuŋógtree with bark used as food coloring
Cebuano tuŋúgkind of mangrove, the bark of which is used for dyeing and as an ingredient of coconut palm toddy; bark of this mangrove
Binukid teŋegkind of tree, the bark of which is used as an ingredient of toddy (to make it red)
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teŋega certain tree and its bark, probably Ceriops Roxburghiana. The bark is mixed with palm wine, giving the wine a reddish color
Iban teŋarmangrove, Ceriops, esp. C. tagal and other species yielding dark tannin, used locally
Malay teŋara low tree, Ceriops candolleana, found in mangrove swamps; its bark is used for tanning
Palauan déŋesoriental mangrove: Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam.
OC
Mussau toŋomangrove sp. with edible fruit
Gedaged toŋmangrove tree: Rhizophora mucronata
Gitua toŋormangrove: Bruguiera sp.
Nggela toŋoa mangrove
Arosi oŋomangrove
Gilbertese toŋomangrove
Rotuman foŋomangrove
Fijian doŋothe mangrove: Bruguiera gymnorhiza; the long roots or branches are good for firewood; the bark is used for a tanning dye (brown)
Tongan toŋomangrove; native hair-dye (originally made from the bark of the mangrove; to dye the hair
Niue toŋoa legendary tree (said to be the mangrove, one of which is supposed to have formerly existed in a chasm near the Hakupu coast)
Samoan toŋogeneral name given to the mangroves, which include a large shrub (Rhizophora sp.) and a tree (Bruguiera sp.)
Tuvaluan toŋomangrove: Rhizophora mucronata
Rennellese toŋomangrove, Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lamk.; its wood is used for fuel and posts; its seeds are eaten at the Lake with fish soup

Note:   Also Kadazan toŋo ‘mangrove’, ka-taŋa-an ‘mangrove swamp’, Simalur teŋəl ‘mangrove’, Makasarese taŋŋereʔ ‘a tree: Ceriops candolleana; it yields good timber, and its bark is used in tanning and to add a bitter taste to rice wine’, Nukuoro doŋa ‘oriental mangrove (Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam.)’.

28467

*teŋiC grimace at pain

5591

PAN     *teŋiC grimace at pain

Formosan
Paiwan (Western) tjeŋitsgrimace at pain
WMP
Rejang teŋitan expression of pain on the face; a mouth distorted with pain

Note:   With root *-ŋiC ‘anger, irritation’.

28473

*teŋteŋ drone, droning tone

5597

PAN     *teŋteŋ drone, droning tone

Formosan
Paiwan tj-em-eŋtjeŋto whisper
WMP
Itbayaten teŋteŋ-enstrum, pluck the strings of musical instruments

Note:   With root *-teŋ₁ ‘hum, drone’.

28474

*teŋuq nape of the neck

5598

PMP     *teŋuq nape of the neck

WMP
Maranao teŋoʔnape, back of the neck
Melanau (Mukah) təŋuʔneck
CMP
Manggarai teŋunape of the neck
Ngadha teŋuneck

Note:   Replaces *[CtT]eŋkuk ‘nape of the neck’ in Blust (1970).

28457

*tepa woven material; mat

5581

PWMP     *tepa woven material; mat

WMP
Berawan (Batu Belah) tepamat
Karo Batak tepaforge, mold, make
Sundanese tepawhat is woven

Note:   Also Samal tepo ‘mat’.

28452

*tempak split, break off

5576

PMP     *tempak split, break off

WMP
Bontok təmpáksplit a section off, of wood or stone, as in order to lighten a load
CMP
Manggarai tempakbreaking easily, brittle, friable

Note:   With root *-pak₂ ‘split, crack, break’.

29883

*tepeŋ taste, test, try

6545

PMP     *tepeŋ taste, test, try

WMP
Tagalog tipíŋsavor at the tip of the tongue
Maranao tepeŋtry, attempt, test, experiment
CMP
Buruese tepeto taste
OC
Motu toho-ato try
Arosi oho-ŋaan attempt, try
  oho-ŋitry, test; tempt
Sa'a ohoattempt, make trial of
'Āre'āre oho-naattempt, try (in compounds); sample, taste (of drinks)
Wayan vaka-tovo-tovodo an experiment or test
Samoan tofotest, sample, experiment; (of a dish) taste
Hawaiian kohoguess, election, choice; choose, select

28458

*tepes squeeze, press down

5582

PWMP     *tepes squeeze, press down

WMP
Maranao tepespress down between the lips, suck
Malay tepasfull up
  me-nepasto pack full
Balinese tepessqueeze, press, pinch

28459

*tepiR mat

5583

PMP     *tepiR mat

WMP
Proto-Sangiric *təpiRmat
Proto-Minahasan *təpehmat
Sasak tipah, tiper <Mmat
CMP
Bimanese dipimat

Note:   Also Makasarese tappereʔ ‘mat’. Bimanese dipi was earlier assigned to (2) *depen ‘mat’ (Blust 1980), a reconstruction which now appears to have been proposed in error. If the Sangiric and Minahasan languages form a larger subgroup, as Sneddon (1984:11-12) tentatively suggests, the order of reconstructed vowels in *tepiR is arbitrary on present evidence.

28469

*tepuk hit, sound of hitting, clapping, thumping

5593

PAN     *tepuk hit, sound of hitting, clapping, thumping

Formosan
Puyuma təpukto hit
WMP
Karo Batak tepukclap the hands (as in a dance or game)
Malagasy téfokaexplosion
CMP
Manggarai tempokto break (young shoots, etc.)
  tempukto break (tubers)

Note:   With root *-puk₁ ‘throb, thud, clap, break’.

28460

*tepuq brittle

5584

PWMP     *tepuq brittle

WMP
Bikol tapóʔbrittle (as dry twigs)
Bare'e topubrittle, easily broken off

Note:   With root *-puq ‘brittle’.

28470

*te(m)pus end, conclude, finish

5594

PMP     *te(m)pus end, conclude, finish

WMP
Dairi-Pakpak Batak tempusconclusion, end, as of a conversation or discussion
Balinese teposbreak off, interrupt, end in
OC
Arosi ohucomplete, finished; completely

Note:   With root *-pus₁ ‘end, finish’.

28461

*teras quick, fast

5585

PWMP     *teras quick, fast

WMP
Maranao terasmove quickly from one place to another
Sundanese terasbe done with haste

Note:   Also Buruese tara ‘swift, rapid (as the flow of a stream)’.

29885

*teriŋ bamboo sp.

6547

PMP     *teriŋ bamboo sp.     [doublet: *periŋ, *tariŋ]

WMP
Maranao teriŋBambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex Wendl.
Bolaang Mongondow toliŋbamboo sp.
CMP
Rotinese teli(k)large, rude sort of bamboo, used for bow and arrow

Note:   Also Manobo (Western Bukidnon), Tiruray keriŋBambusa vulgaris’.

28462

*terter shiver, tremble

5586

PAN     *terter shiver, tremble     [doublet: *tirtir₁]

Formosan
Saisiyat man-tetetremble
WMP
Maranao tetershiver, tremble

Note:   Also Malay gemetar, gentar, getar ‘trembling, quivering’, Sundanese geter ‘quake, tremble’, Old Javanese keter ‘trembling, shaking’.

30880

*teRas heartwood of a tree, hard, durable core of wood; ironwood tree

8705

PMP     *teRas heartwood of a tree, hard, durable core of wood; ironwood tree

WMP
Ibanag na-teggaʔhard
Itawis tággathardness; nara tree
  na-tággathard, firm
Tagalog tigáshardness; rigidity; firmness; resistance; stiffness; tautness; inflexibility; being hard, firm or unyielding; resolution; the power of holding firmly to a purpose
  ma-nigásto become hard, referring to parts of the body such as jaws, arms, legs, etc.; to be or become petrified; to become paralyzed with fear, horror, or surprise
  t<um>igásto harden; to become hard; to set; to become fixed; to become firm or hard; to stiffen; to become stiff
Cebuano tugásmolave, kind of wood producing extremely hard timber: Vitex parviflora; make something out of molave
Maranao tegasharden, solidify; salt obtained from boiling and evaporation; tough; hard, white-grained wood
  tegas-oʔtough, hard-headed, self-willed
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teǥasthe mulavi tree or wood
Binukid tegasmolave tree (which has extremely hard wood)
Kayan tahahbelian [ironwood] timber; long-lived; able to endure
  kayoʔ tahahthe belian tree species; used for posts, making boards, etc.
Bintulu tashardwood tree, ironwood
Melanau (Mukah) taashardwood tree, the ironwood
Malagasy tezasomething fixed firm, durability; the inside of a piece of wood, the outside of which is worm-eaten (Provincial); a pillar in a house
Iban terasheartwood; (in Skrang and northern to lower Rejang river) ironwood
Malay terasheartwood (if hard) in a tree; hardwood timber
  pe-terasarrogance
Toba Batak torasinnermost wood of a tree, heartwood
Rejang telasthe center and hardest part of a tree trunk
  tlasa hardwood timber, used for house piles and posts, the heart of a tree trunk, the hardest and strongest timber
Old Javanese twashardness; the hard core; core, heart (as part of the body and as seat of feelings)
  a-twashard
Javanese a-toshard, firm; tough; harsh; careful
  ŋ-a-tosto make something hard
Tontemboan taʔasheartwood of trees
Gorontalo tohetostrong, hard
  poʔo-toheto-lobe strengthened, be made hard
Bolaang Mongondow poko-togat-onit must be made hard; it can’t be moved
Palauan dortironwood tree: Intsia bijuga
CMP
Manggarai terashard, impossible to chew (as corn)
Rotinese tea(k)hard, strong, firm (said of wood, stone, steel, teeth, the heart, the will); the inner core of a tree, especially the lontar palm
Tetun toshard, durable; stiff, difficult to open; subborn
  ulu-n tosrough, coarse, rude, stupid (‘hard head’)
Leti tersehard
Kisar kerhehard, strong
Buruese teha-tironwood tree: Intsia bijuga

8706

POC     *toRas various hardwood trees; heartwood of a tree

OC
Nali drowa hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga (Tok Pisin: kwila)
Ere drowa hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga
Loniu dowa hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga
Lou toa hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga
Penchal rowa hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga (black inside)
Sori towa hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga
Seimat toa hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga (red inside)
Aua oaa hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga
Arosi oraa species of tree from which the best canoes are made; a plank-built canoe
Mota toraa timber tree
Fijian doathe heart wood of a tree, solid, and dark
Tongan toakind of tree with very hard wood: the casuarina or ironwood tree
Niue toathe ironwood tree (Casuarina equisetifolia)
Futunan toaa tree: Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Samoan toatree (Casuarina sp.), the ironwood tree and its timber
Rennellese toaironwood (none on Bellona, and on Rennell only on cliffs; in ancient times ceremonial paddles were placed at the bases of cliffs, and with proper incantations toa branches were said to have fallen down); reddish, finely-branching coral on the sea bottom; when taken ashore toa turns black; named for the ironwood
Anuta toaironwood tree
Rarotongan toathe ironwood tree: Casuarina equisetifolia
Hawaiian koathe largest of native forest trees (Acacia koa), with light-gray bark, crescent-shaped leaves, and white flowers in small, round heads; a legume with fine, red wood, a valuable timber tree, formerly used for canoes, surfboards, calabashes, now for furniture and ukuleles. A small koa was sometimes added to the hula altar to Laka, goddess of the hula, to make the dancer fearless.

8707

PMP     *ma-teRas hard, solid

WMP
Gaddang ma-teggathard
Tagalog ma-tigáshard; firm; not yielding to touch; iron; strong; stern; not yielding; firm; tough, leathery; rigid; not bending; stalwart; firm; steadfast; indomitable; unconquerable; hard; not pleasant; harsh; ugly; unbending
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) me-teǥasdescriptive of a person who can endure torture or discomfort
Binukid ma-tegascharacterized by working hard, energetically, with vigor
Malagasy ma-tezadurable, permanent, lasting
Toba Batak ma-torasripe, old; dark, of a color
  na-toraselders
  ma-noras-ifire a pot to harden it
Bolaang Mongondow mo-togathard, become hard
Mandar ma-terasstrong (as a person who is physically strong)
  aju ma-terasstrong, hard (wood)
Mori Bawah mo-teahard
Padoe mo-teahard
Mekongga mo-tohahard

8708

POC     *ma-toRas hard, solid

OC
Gilbertese matoafirmness, solidity, hardness, resistance
  ka-matoa-toato strengthen, fortify, make resistant
Marshallese majewjewfirm; strong; solid

Note:   Also Agutaynen ma-tegat ‘hard (food, wood); tough (food, meat); matured, aged (wood, fruit)’, tegat ‘to become hard, tough, frozen’, Ngaju Dayak teras ‘heartwood of a tree, the innermost, hardest part of a tree; firm, determined, steadfast’, ma-neras ‘to harden, fortify’, Enggano ei-tora ‘heartwood of a tree’ (said to be a Malay loanword), Sangir ləhasəʔ ‘heartwood’, Wetan teera ‘hard, strong, firm(ly), rigid(ly), fixed’, Rotuman toa ‘ironwood tree’ (Polynesian loan). This word appears to have referred simultaneously to the hard core or heartwood of any tree that has a solid core, and to various types of hardwood trees, although it is hard to say which, since PMP *qipil probably was the Intsia bijuga, and PMP *aRuhu the Casuarina equisetifolia.

30523

*teRel impose one’s will, force or compel someone to do something

7765

PWMP     *teRel impose one’s will, force or compel someone to do something

WMP
Maranao tegelto force, impose, require, demand
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) teγelto force something or someone
Malay teralinsistence; importuning; browbeating (of an overseer shouting at his coolies to make them work, etc.

29886

*teRi k.o. small fish

6548

PMP     *teRi k.o. small fish

WMP
Malay ikan terithe small anchovy: Stolephorus tri, known in Singapore as the ‘Macassar red fish’
Sasak terivery small sea sprat, eaten dried
Sangir tehikind of small fish (= Malay ikan lompa)

Note:   Also Balinese teri ‘sp. of fish’ (probably < Malay).

28463

*tetas rip or tear open

5587

PMP     *tetas rip or tear open

WMP
Malay tetasslitting open, ripping up
CMP
Manggarai tetastear, break open
Buruese teta-h(of a line) snapped

Note:   With root *-tas ‘cut through, sever; rip’.

30487

*tetu to peck

7692

PCMP     *tetu to peck

CMP
Ngadha tetupeck, peck up; eat (of animals)
Paulohi tetuto peck

28456

*tenzeg, te(n)dek upright, erect

5580

PMP     *tenzeg, te(n)dek upright, erect

WMP
Ilokano teddékpost, pillar
Ngaju Dayak tenjekupright, erect
CMP
Manggarai tendekstand upright (as bamboo spikes)

Note:   *tenzeg contains a root *-zeg ‘stand erect’.

28464

*tezek stand erect; upright (posts)

5588

PMP     *tezek stand erect; upright (posts)

WMP
Ilokano teddékpost, pillar, column, shaft; headman, chief
Tagalog tírikbuild, erect, construct, put upright
  tiríkstraight upward
Proto-Minahasan *təndəkpost, stake; to stick (post) in ground
CMP
Manggarai tedek, tendekstand upright
Ngadha tedéfence, bulwark

TOP      te        ti    to    tu    

30052

*təlu thick

6784

PCEMP     *təlu thick

CMP
Geser ba-toluthick
Watubela ba-toluthick
Hitu ha-təluthick
Larike ihu-tilothick
Alune təluthick
Nuaulu kapi-toru-nethick
Buruese ef-telothick

6752

POC     *matolu thick

OC
Ghari matoluthick
Gilbertese matenthick, thickness
Kosraean mahtolthick, dense
Pohnpeian mosulthick
Marshallese mijelthick, as of clouds; thickness
Northeast Ambae matoluthick
Vovo ti-matolthick
Tongan matoluthick --- of board or paper, etc., but not of stick or thread; thick, dense --- of mist (kakapu), forest (vao), etc. Opp. manifi; shrub with very thick leaves.
Niue matoluthick, as a tree
Tuvaluan maatoluthick
Rennellese matogukind of vine, Hoya sp., with thick leaves that are heated and placed on sores
Kapingamarangi maadoluthick (object); heavy or dense rain
Nukuoro maadoluthick (object); heavy or dense, of rain
Anuta maatoruthick
Rarotongan mātoruthick; thickness, the thick part of anything
Maori mātorucrowd
  mātotoruthick
Hawaiian mākoluthick, heavy, deep, as clouds; thick-coated, as with dust; laden, as a high chief with taboo

6753

POC     *matolu-tolu very thick, really thick

OC
Gilbertese maten-tenthick, thickness
Kosraean mahtol-tolvery thick; nunb; stubborn
Marshallese wōt mijel-jelraining cats and dogs
Rarotongan mātoru-toruto be thick, to be on many layers, as of timber; to be thick or strong, as of a beverage
Hawaiian mākolu-koluchubby; thick, as a plank

Note:   Also Futunan mātotolu ‘thick, as a carpet’, Anuta matatoru ‘thick’.

TOP      te        ti    to    tu    

ti

28508

*-ti 1p deixis and spatial reference: this; here

5635

PAN     *-i-ti this, here

Formosan
Bunun itihere
WMP
Sambal (Botolan) ba-ytithis
Palawan Batak ʔitithere (3p)
Aborlan Tagbanwa itithat (3p remote)
Bisaya (Bukit) itithis
  d-itihere
Kenyah (Long Dunin) itithat (3p)
  k-itithere (3p)
Kayan (Uma Juman) h-itihthere (3p)
Tunjung itihthis
Ma'anyan itithis
Malagasy itýthis (near at hand)
Dusun Malang tithis
Singhi Land Dayak itisthis

Note:   Also Ujir atih ‘that’, Kayan atih ‘that (demonst. adj., object further away); then (adv. longer ago)’, Malagasy atý ‘here’.

30534

*tia to weave, as a net

7815

POC     *tia to weave, as a net

OC
Nggela tiato weave
  tia-tiaa woven wristlet; a piece of sewn thatch
Rotuman fiato weave or make (a net or web)
Tongan siato weave (a net or a web)
Niue tiato mesh, to make netting
Nukuoro dia-diato make a cover for something (e.g. a coconut shell) by plaiting or lashing around it
Rarotongan tiato bind or lash, such as in binding or lashing the lugs of the mouth of a sack filled with copra
  tia-tiabound, lashed

30533

*tiaN abdomen, belly

7812

PAN     *tiaN abdomen, belly

Formosan
Saisiyat tialbelly (upper abdomen)
Pazeh tialbelly, abdomen
Thao tiazupper abdomen, abdomen above the navel
  ki-tiaz-anhave a stomach ache
  k<m>a-tiaz-anbe hit in the stomach
Bunun tianstomach
Kavalan m-tianpregnant (human)
  s-tian-anhave a stomach ache, abdominal pain (such as diarrhea)
Amis tiyadbelly, stomach
  ci-tiyad-to cigrashe has a belly (i.e. she is pregnant)
Puyuma tialbelly
Paiwan tjialʸbelly
  tj<m>ialʸhave a large belly

7813

PMP     *tian abdomen, belly

WMP
Ilokano tiánbelly, abdomen; womb, uterus
Casiguran Dumagat tianbelly
Sambal (Botolan) tiánbelly
Kapampangan atyanstomach
Tagalog tiyánabdomen; the belly; paunch
  tiyan-ínto suffer from stomachache
Hanunóo tiyánbelly; back (referring to a hunter’s bow)
Kalamian Tagbanwa tianbelly
Romblomanon tiyánthe abdomen, stomach or womb of a person or animal; the inner surface of bamboo
Hiligaynon tiyánstomach, abdomen
Aklanon tiyánstomach, abdomen; womb
  tiyan-ánhaving a large, curved stomach; fish with a big stomach
Cebuano tíyanstomach; pregnancy
  tiyán-unhaving a prominent stomach
Maranao tianstomach, abdomen
Tausug tiyanstomach, belly
Kadazan tizanabdomen, belly
  moŋ-on-tizanpregnant
  pog-on-tizan-onfetus
Kayan tianthe skin and flesh of an animal’s underbelly, breast bone, etc.
Berawan (Long Terawan) tijanbelly, abdomen
Berawan (Batu Belah) tijenbelly, abdomen
Kiput ticinbelly, abdomen
Narum tijiənbelly, abdomen
Minangkabau tianuterus
  dalam tianpregnant
Sasak tianbelly, abdomen
  be-tianpregnant
  ke-tian-anhave a swollen belly (from sickness)
  pe-tian-aŋto impregnate a woman
Sangir tiaŋbelly, abdomen
  ma-tiaŋpregnant
Bolaang Mongondow sianbelly, abdomen
  monogu-sianbecome pregnant
Banggai tiauterus, womb; belly
Totoli tianbelly
Boano tianbelly
  mo-tianpregnant
Bare'e mo-tianalook after a child
Proto-Bungku-Tolaki *tiaNbelly
Tolaki tiabelly
Palauan diylabdomen; womb
  klou a delelhave a pot belly; have a large belly (e.g., when pregnant)
CMP
Lamboya tibelly
Waiyewa tiabelly
Elat tia-belly
Paulohi tia-belly
Asilulu tia-belly; pregnant
Alune tia-belly
Kamarian tia-belly
Kayeli tianepregnant
OC
Nali dria-nbelly, abdomen
Lou tia-nbelly, abdomen
Nauna tibelly, abdomen
Penchal ria-nbelly, abdomen
Seimat uli tia-nbelly, abdomen (uli = ‘skin’)
Wuvulu ʔiapregnant
Tolai tia-naabdomen, belly; the human body from the lower ribs to the thighs; the outside skin of the abdomen
Lakalai la-tia-gumy belly, stomach (of human being); occasionally, my emotions, desires
  la-tia-lamiddle, center
Kairiru tiye-belly
Mono-Alu tia-nabelly, abdomen
Roviana tia-nabelly, abdomen
Eddystone/Mandegusu tiabelly, abdomen
Kokota tia-nabelly, abdomen
Cheke Holo thiʔabody part, belly
Poro thiʔa-ñabelly, abdomen
Lau īabelly
Sa'a iebelly, stomach, bowels, womb
Proto-Micronesian *tiastomach, belly, abdomen
Marshallese jebelly, stomach, innards
Ulithian sie-stomach
Cape Cumberland tia-belly, abdomen
Tolomako tia-belly, abdomen
Aore tia-belly, abdomen
Namakir na-tia-ŋbelly, abdomen
Maori tiaabdomen, stomach; navel; mother, parent

7814

PMP     *tian-an pregnant (lit. ‘in the belly')

WMP
Banggai tian-anpregnant
  mon-tian-aŋ-gonpregnant with
Bare'e tianapregnant
Makasarese tian-aŋpregnant (also applied to the rice plant when the grains are full)
OC
Label tiananpregnant
Raluana (Matupit) tiananto be in an advanced stage of pregnancy
Kairiru tyenpregnant
Lau īanapregnant, of a woman; enlarged stomach, of a man
Toqabaqita ianapregnant
  iana thalabe pregnant out of wedlock (thala = of life, thoughts, situations: lack substance, solidity
'Āre'āre ianapregnant
Mota tianapregnant

Note:   Also Chamorro tuyan ‘stomach, belly, abdomen’. Both Saisiyat and Thao distinguish the upper abdomen (above the navel) from the lower abdomen (below the navel), and a similar distinction is made in some Philippine languages, as Ibaloy. While a reflex of *tiaN refers to the upper abdomen in both Saisiyat and Thao, and probably had a similar sense in PAn, a corresponding term for ‘lower abdomen’ has not yet been reconstructed. Roviana and Eddystone/Mandegusu regularly preserve final consonants through the addition of an echo vowel, and in body-part terms that ended in POc *n this gave rise to an ambiguity as to whether the final syllable –na was part of the base or was the 3rd person singular possessive suffix, which was required with such nouns. While we would expect **tiana, **tiana-na in these languages, then, they each (or their immediate common ancestor) reanalyzed tiana as tia-na. Finally, PMP *tian-an seems clearly to have carried the locative suffix *-an, the conceptual representation of pregnancy being something like ‘in the belly’.

28513

*ti(m)bak clap, make a clapping sound

5640

PWMP     *ti(m)bak clap, make a clapping sound

WMP
Kankanaey tibákto clap
Malay témbakfiring shots
Old Javanese témbakfire at, hit (with a gun)

Note:   With root *-bak ‘pound, thud’. Dempwolff (1934-38) assigned the Malay and Javanese reflexes to *tembak ‘to shoot’, but both languages contain a mid-front vowel in the penult.

30488

*tibal small drum

7693

PCMP     *tibal small drum

CMP
Leti tiwladrum
Wetan tiwlasmall drum
Kisar kiwaldrum
Selaru tihalsmall drum
Alune tibalegong
Paulohi tihaledrum
Kamarian tiharnative drum
SHWNG
Kowiai tifardrum

30489

*tibu pool, deep place in water; swamp

7694

PCMP     *tibu₁ pool, deep place in water; swamp

CMP
Manggarai tiwupond, pool, deep place in water
Ngadha tivupuddle, bog, pool, pond, small lake
Fordata tivudeep hole in the reef
Paulohi tihulake
Buruese tifubay, lake, swamp

28476

*tibuk pound, throb

5600

PAN     *tibuk pound, throb

Formosan
Amis mi-tivukpound rice
WMP
Ifugaw tibúknoise made by somebody who plunges into deep water
Tagalog tibókthrob, pulsation
Malay timbokheavy, downward blow with the side or flat of the fist

Note:   With root *-buk₂ ‘pound, thud’.

30779

*tindaw see in the distance

8496

PMP     *tindaw see in the distance

WMP
Toba Batak ma-nindosee in the distance
  tindo-anplace where one has a panoramic view

8497

POC     *tiro to look at, watch; look for

OC
Tolai tiro-āmirror, looking-glass; originally applied to a pool on the surface of which a scum was created with the leaves of the kadaka-dolo, used as a mirror; spectacles, glasses; window, any clear glass; to use a mirror
Mono-Alu tilowatch for, look out for
Roviana tiroto read
  tiro-anaa mirror or looking glass
Cheke Holo tiroview, look out at or down upon, as looking out over a vista
  thiroglass; mirror
  thiro thataeyeglasses
Bugotu tiroto look; a pool, window glass, mirror
Nggela tiroto gaze; glass; a looking glass; pupil of the eye
Kwaio ilolook at
  ilo-nunua reflecting pool or mirror
Lau iroto look at fixedly, look for
  iro-fi(a)look for, spy out
Toqabaqita irolook for someone or something, search for someone or something
  iro-alook for, search for
  iro-nunumirror
Sa'a iroto look for, to collect
  iro-hito cause a person to be ill, of the action of a ghost
Arosi iroto look; to stare
  iro-hilook into, look for; stare at, gaze into
  iro-ŋ-aʔigaze at
'Āre'āre irolook for, collect
Proto-Micronesian *tiroto peer, have a look
Puluwat yiŕo- ŋiyto look for, at
Pohnpeian iro-irto look or peer in the distance; to see one’s own reflection; to inspect one’s own appearance; positioned to have a beautiful view
Mokilese iro-ŋto peer at
Mota tiroclear
Wayan tirolook down, lower the eyes
  tiro-vilook down at something
Fijian tiroto look at something reflected in water or a glass; to peep furtively; admire oneself
Tongan sioto look, look at, or see
  sio ofishort-sighted (ofi = ‘near’)
Samoan tiloray or beam of light (e.g. coming through a chink in a coconut-leaf venetian blind)
Nukuoro dilolook at (inspect)
Rennellese tigoto see
Anuta tioto look
Rarotongan tirolook; to view, to survey
Hawaiian kilostargazer, reader of omens, seer, astrologer, necromancer; kind of looking glass (rare); to watch closely, spy, examine, look around, observe, forecast.

8498

POC     *ti-tiro to look, gaze; water used as a mirror

OC
Lakalai la ti-tiromirror, glass; spectacles
Nggela ti-tiroto gaze; glass; a looking glass
Wayan ti-tirolook down, lower the eyes
Fijian i-ti-tirowater used as a mirror

8499

POC     *tiro-tiro to look, look for

OC
Lau iro-irosearch for; a translucent pool, still and clear; a looking glass; pearl shell of nautilus, mother-of-pearl
  iro-iro-airidescent; reflected light, dazzling; silver light of moon on white clouds, moonshine
Sa'a iro-iroto look for, to collect; a pool among rocks used as a mirror; a glass (late use)
Samoan tilo-tiloto look, glance; peep, peer (often with a dishonest or indecent motive)
  faʔa-tilo-tilohaving an ulterior motive, not disinterested
Rarotongan tiro-tiro moethat which is seen whilst asleep or during slumber; a vision, a dream

Note:   Also Lakalai tiloho ‘to peer around, or after; peep at’, Eddystone/Mandegusu tiro-a ‘mirror, looking glass’, Mota ilo ‘see’, Fijian ilo ‘to look at, as a reflection in water or in a mirror’, iro ‘to peep, look slyly at’. This comparison may be valid only on the POc level. Dempwolff (1938) posited doublets *tindaw and *tinzaw, the former based only on Toba Batak tindo and forms in Oceanic languages. However, Toba Batak shows irregular merger of *z with *d in a handful of other forms, and if tindo and its derivatives reflect *tinzaw the comparison with POc *tiro cannot be maintained.

28477

*tidem dark, obscure; black

5601

PMP     *tidem dark, obscure; black

WMP
Ngaju Dayak tiremblack
Old Javanese tiḍemlosing its lustre, fading, dimmed
Javanese tiḍemdarkened, obscured
Sasak tidemwith the eyes closed
OC
Gedaged tidomnight, darkness, gloom, obscurity

Note:   With root *-dem₁ ‘dark; overcast’. Dempwolff (1934-38) proposed *tiDem ‘dark’, based only on the Ngaju Dayak and Javanese cognates. For the semantics of Sasak tidem, cf. note to *qi(n)dem.

30732

*tiduR to sleep

8354

PMP     *tiduR to sleep     [doublet: *tuduR]

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat maka-tidugable to sleep
  məg-ka-tidugto lie down
  ka-tidug-ensleeping place
  pa-tidug-ənto put to sleep
  tidug-ənto lay something down
Binukid tidug-a ~ tirug-ato sleep; to go to sleep
  tirug-ah-ento be sleepy
Samal tuli <Mto sleep
Murik tiruhto sleep
Tunjung tiroto sleep
Katingan tiruhto sleep
Ngaju Dayak tirohsleep
  ba-tirohto sleep
  tapa-tirohfall asleep
  ta-tirohsluggish, indolent
Siang tiruyto sleep
Lundu tidurto sleep
Malay tidurto sleep (of commoners); the sleep of princes is beradu. Malays explain sleep as the temporary departure of the bird-like semangat or spirit of life.
  tidur-kanto put to sleep
Bolaang Mongondow siugsleep; dream
  ko-siu-siugalready sleeping, while sleeping
  to-siug-ansleeping place
Tae' tindodream that one no longer recalls, dream that has a certain significance
  pa-tindo-anplace to lie down,; sleeping place
  pa-tindo-an tauplacenta (reclining place for people)
CMP
Palu'e tuli <Mto sleep

8355

PMP     *ma-tiduR sleeping; to sleep     [doublet: *ma-tuduR]

WMP
Agta mə-sidugto sleep
Agta (Dupaningan) ma-tídugto sleep
Casiguran Dumagat ma-tidugto sleep
Bolaang Mongondow mo-siuglie down, sleep, go to sleep
Tae' ma-tindoto lie down
Buginese ma-tinroto sleep

8356

POC     *matiruR to sleep

OC
Nali matilto sleep
Ere amtir <Mto sleep
Loniu metito sleep
Lou merit <Mto sleep
Likum metinto sleep
Levei mesiŋto sleep
Nauna metilto sleep
Lindrou madinto sleep
Leipon menderto sleep
Sori matihto sleep
Kuruti mentirto sleep
Lenkau merihto sleep
Seimat matito sleep
Wuvulu maʔixuto sleep
Hiw mitiγto sleep
Faulili matiluto sleep
Makura matirto sleep
Paamese matilto sleep

Note:   Also Sasak tindoʔ ‘to sleep’; to thicken, as coconut oil that has been left to stand overnight’, tindoʔ-aŋ ‘to lie down’, Proto-South Sulawesi *tindo ‘to sleep’.

28478

*tidus spoon, ladle

5602

PWMP     *tidus spoon, ladle     [doublet: *qidus]

WMP
Cebuano tilússpoon made of a coconut shell
Bintulu tiɗusspoon

Note:   Bintulu tiɗus (with implosive ɗ rather than r) apparently is a loan, though the source is unknown.

28509

*tiŋgaʔ ear pendant

5636

PWMP     *tiŋgaʔ ear pendant

WMP
Kapampangan tiŋgaʔearrings (once a sign of slavery)
Iban tiŋgaʔear pendant worn by men

Note:   Evidently distinct from *timeRaq ‘tin, lead’ (cf. Kapampangan tiŋga-púti ‘tin, lead’, Iban timah ‘lead, solder’).

28479

*tigtig glancing blow; chop

5603

PWMP     *tigtig glancing blow; chop

WMP
Kapampangan tigtigplay a musical instrument
Maranao titigcut, chop
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tiɣtigstrike a glancing blow on a stone; strike a light with a flint and steel
Melanau (Matu) titighack, cut in pieces
Iban titikstrike (matches)
Malay titekheavy pounding blow; hammering
Balinese tigtigbeat, strike (with a stick), hit, scourge

28485

*tik to plait (as a mat)

5609

POC     *tik₂ to plait (as a mat)

OC
Lou tikto plait (mats or baskets)
Mota tigfinish off the plaiting of a mat

28517

*ti(ŋ)kaŋ spread the legs

5644

PWMP     *ti(ŋ)kaŋ spread the legs

WMP
Ifugaw tíkaŋsmall split in a piece of wood
Cebuano tikáŋplace a foot on a step, rung, or any foothold
  tikaŋ-káŋlie or lean on one's back and spread the legs
Balinese tiŋkaŋstand with the feet wide apart

Note:   With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread open, as the legs’.

28511

*tiŋkas cease

5638

PWMP     *tiŋkas cease

WMP
Maranao tiŋkasend, cease
Javanese tiŋkas(of rain) stop, subside

28518

*ti(ŋ)keb close up

5645

PWMP     *ti(ŋ)keb close up

WMP
Tboli tikebdoor
Sundanese tiŋkebthe closing of a shop, etc.

Note:   With root *-keb₁ ‘cover’.

28480

*tiked heel

5604

PMP     *tiked heel     [doublet: *taked₁ 'back of the leg']

WMP
Casiguran Dumagat tikedfoot, leg; footprints
Mamanwa tikedheel
Tboli tikedheel
Bolaang Mongondow siŋkodheel
CMP
Selaru tikaheel

Note:   Casiguran Dumagat tiked can be assigned either to *tiked or to *taked.

28481

*tikek cry of the gecko

5605

PMP     *tikek cry of the gecko

WMP
Ilokano tikékkind of house lizard
CMP
Rotinese tékecall, sound produced by the gecko

Note:   With root *-kek ‘shriek, creak, cluck, chuckle’.

28482

*tikel bend

5606

PAN     *tikel bend     [doublet: *tikur]

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) tikerbend
WMP
Sundanese tikelfolded double
Balinese tikelcrack (a stick) and bend it double without separating the parts; bend something double (a rope); multiply

28483

*tikep catch, seize

5607

PWMP     *tikep catch, seize     [disjunct: *sikep]

WMP
Isneg sikāpcatch (a hog, etc.)
Javanese tikepcatch, seize

Note:   With root *-kep₂ ‘seize, grasp, embrace’.

28519

*ti(ŋ)kes wind around, encircle

5646

PWMP     *ti(ŋ)kes wind around, encircle

WMP
Maranao tikesbracelet
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tikesornamental knee bands
Sundanese tiŋkesmodel for a sarong that is to be woven (consists of a bamboo pole on which the threads are wound according to the way in which they will be used)

Note:   With root *-kes ‘encircle, wrap firmly around’.

28512

*tiŋkuq graze, strike lightly against

5639

PMP     *tiŋkuq graze, strike lightly against

WMP
Aklanon tíŋkoʔclink, hit lightly against (as glasses carried in a tray)
Tboli tiŋkukbump, hit against
Iban tiŋkohstrike (matches, flint and steel, etc.)
CMP
Kambera tikuticking sound (as of a watch)

28484

*tikur bend, curve

5608

PWMP     *tikur bend, curve     [doublet: *tikug]

WMP
Ilokano tíkorbend, turn, curve, crook (of a river, etc.)
Tiruray tikur(of routes) being the long way to some place
Javanese ṭékorbent, crooked (of a leg, foot, etc.)

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) tekur, tiker ‘to bend’.

30013

*tikuRas a bird: partridge?

6707

PAN     *tikuRas a bird: partridge?

Formosan
Thao tikulhata dark brown, sparrow-size bird with a long tail that is much prized for its meat (called ‘bamboo chicken’ in Taiwanese). It is gregarious and calls out loudly when feeding in flocks. The male has an additional toe which is used in fighting.
Bunun tikulaspartridge
Amis tikolaca quail, bamboo partridge
WMP
Cebuano tikúgaskind of rail found in rice fields or marshy areas, 5-6” high and used for food: the white-breasted swamphen: Amaurornia phoenicurus
Maranao tikogasbird which is blue and seems to grunt; prefers water

Note:   Also Amis tikokay ‘a quail, bamboo partridge’.

28488

*tila vulva, vagina

5612

PMP     *tila vulva, vagina     [doublet: *tilay]

WMP
Gaddang silavagina
CMP
Rotinese tilavagina
Atoni tina-fvagina
OC
Samoan tela(not in decent use) clitoris

Note:   Also Ifugaw (Reid 1971) tiːli, Kiput se-telaiʔ, Gorontalo tele ‘vagina’.

28487

*tilay vulva, vagina

5611

PWMP     *tilay vulva, vagina     [doublet: *tila]

WMP
Mentawai tiläivulva
Serawai tilayvagina
Bare'e tileclitoris

28486

*tilanzaŋ naked

5610

PWMP     *tilanzaŋ naked

WMP
Maloh tilandaŋnaked
Malay telanjaŋ, tilanjaŋnude; bare; exposed (of the body)
Sangir tilandaŋnaked

Note:   Also Karo Batak kelanjaŋ ‘naked’.

28489

*tilem dark, black

5613

PWMP     *tilem dark, black

WMP
Kankanaey tilémblack pig, hog, swine
Old Javanese tilemnight of the dark moon
Balinese tilemlast day of the moon, new moon

Note:   With root *-lem₁ ‘dark’.

28490

*tilen to swallow

5614

PMP     *tilen to swallow     [doublet: *telen]

WMP
Gaddang silon-ɨnto swallow
Sambal (Botolan) itlɨn <Mto swallow
OC
Fijian tiloto swallow

28491

*tilib to fly

5615

PWMP     *tilib to fly

WMP
Rungus Dusun tilibblown away
Uma Baloi tilipto fly
Kejaman me-nilipto fly
Proto-Minahasan *telebfly away; fade

Note:   A reflex of PMP *Rebek ‘to fly’ appears in several PWMP languages, including Chamorro (gupu) and Palauan (-sebk). The term must, therefore, have been retained in PWMP. PWMP *tilip, by contrast, may have meant ‘fly away’.

28492

*tiliŋ ringing sound

5616

PWMP     *tiliŋ ringing sound

WMP
Bikol tilíŋ-tilíŋsmall bell; to tinkle
Cebuano tilíŋ-tilíŋring with the sound of tiny bells or the telephone
Kenyah tiliŋa cricket

Note:   With root *-liŋ₁ ‘clear ringing sound’.

28493

*tilu earwax

5617

PMP     *tilu earwax     [doublet: *tuli]

WMP
Itbayaten tiluearwax, cerumen
  tilu-anear
  tilu-endeafen
Casiguran Dumagat tilóearwax
CMP
Manggarai tiluear
Sika tilu-near
Hawu wo-diluear
Tetun tilu-near

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) Tiruk ‘earwax’.

28494

*timel flea

5618

PWMP     *timel flea     [doublet: *qatimela]

WMP
Ilokano tímelflea
Ifugaw tímolflea
Ibaloy timelflea
Pangasinan timélflea
Lun Dayeh gi-timelbug
Kelabit ge-simelclothes louse

30348

*timeRaq tin

7341

PWMP     *timeRaq tin

WMP
Tagalog tiŋgáʔlead (the metal)
Bikol timgáʔ ~ tiŋgáʔlead (metal)
  mag-timgáʔplace lead in
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) timeɣaʔlead (metal)
Kelabit semeraʔlead (metal)
Iban timahlead
Malay timahtin; also a generic term covering zinc or spelter, lead
Karo Batak timahlead, bullet
Toba Batak timalead, tin, zinc
Rejang timeaʔtin
Old Javanese timahtin
Javanese timahtin, lead, zinc
Sundanese timahlead, tin
Balinese timahlead, tin, zinc
Sasak timahlead, tin
Proto-Gorontalic *timogatin

Note:   Also Amis, Puyuma timra ‘bullet’, Mapun timbuhaʔ ‘the metal lead (used especially for making sinkers for fishing)’, Maranao timbegaʔ ‘lead – metal’, Tiruray timera ‘lead, as a metal’, Yakan timbuhaʔ ‘lead; a lead weight on a fishing line, sinker’, Sangir timbeha, Bare'e tamoro ‘lead, tin’ (said to be an analogically reformed borrowing of Buginese tumerra), Tae' tumarra ‘lead (metal)’, Mandar tumarra, Buginese tumerra ‘tin, lead’, Makasarese tumbera ‘lead (metal)’, Wolio timara ‘lead, zinc, tin’, Muna timara ‘lead (metal)’, Komodo tembiŋa ‘lead (metal)’, Kambera tambura ‘tin’, Wetan tmioora ‘lead; tin’, Kei tim ‘lead, tin’.

This comparison raises a number of questions. The first reaction of many would be to dismiss it as a loanword that probably postdates Indian cultural contact beginning around 2,000 BP. There is no question that many or all of the forms cited in this note and probably some cited in the above comparison are loanwords, but the entire set cannot be dismissed, as in many cases the sound correspondences are regular and fairly complex. If the entire set of forms is a product of borrowing then it is necessary to identify a source language, and in most widely-attested loan distributions in island Southeast Asia this is Malagasy. However, Malay timah can hardly have been the source of most Philippine forms or of Kelabit səməraʔ, which collectively point to a protoform in a language ancestral to at least the languages of the Philippines and much of western Indonesia, implying a time-depth of perhaps 4,000 years.

28495

*timij chin, jaw

5619

PAN     *timij chin, jaw     [disjunct: *timid]

Formosan
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) timizchin
Paiwan tjimizchin, mandible, jaw

5620

PMP     *timid chin, jaw     [disjunct: *timij]

WMP
Atta siːmikchin
Isneg símidchin
Ilokano tímidchin
Isinay símidchin
Ifugaw tímidpointlike tip of the upper lip; tip of the chin; may be used in the sense of lip
Ibaloy timidchin’
Pangasinan timírchin
Hanunóo tímidchin’
CMP
Rotinese timichin, jaw
Tetun timirbeard, whiskers, chin

30349

*timtim sip, taste slightly

7342

PPh     *timtim sip, taste slightly

WMP
Ilokano tímtimto sip, taste; remove the end of
Ifugaw timtímto open and close the mouth frequently, as frogs do
Ibaloy timtimmovement of the lips accompanied by little or no sound
  on-timtimto murmur, mutter
Tagalog pag-timtímtasting without swallowing
Bikol timtímto taste something with just the tip of the tongue or lightly with the lips
Masbatenyo mag-timtímto taste
Cebuano timtímtaste or sample liquid (as in testing soup)

Note:   Also Ilokano simsím ‘to taste; test the quality; eat just a little’, ka-simsím ‘just weaned (animals)’.

30350

*timuR south or east wind

7343

PAN     *timuR₁ south or east wind

Formosan
Papora timoreast
Kavalan timuRsouth wind
  t<m>imuRto blow, of the south wind
Amis timolsouth
Siraya taga-timogsouth
Puyuma timuɭsouth, meaning on the side of the sea, the bottom

7785

PMP     *timuR₂ southeast monsoon

WMP
Yami cimoyrain
  ma-cimoyto rain, be raining
Itbayaten timoyrain
  ma-timoyto rain, be raining
  ka-tia-timoyrainy season
  ka-timoy-anbe caught in the rain
Tagalog tímogsouth, south wind
  ka-timug-anthe southern region; south wind
Bikol tímogthe east or southeast wind
  timóg-anthe direction of this wind (a wind coming from this direction signals the passing of a typhoon)
Hanunóo tímugsouth wind, south
Aklanon tímogthe east wind
Masbatenyo tímognorth
Waray-Waray timog-ansouth
Cebuano tímugwind that hits Cebu from the east
Yakan timula strong east wind (with strong rain), storm
Timugon Murut timugwater
Iban timureast
  bintaŋ timurthe Morning Star
Malay timureast
  bintaŋ timurthe Morning Star
  timur lautnortheast
Karo Batak timurthe east
Sasak timuʔeast
  be-timuʔtravel east
Sangir timuhəʔsouth
  aŋiŋ timuhəʔsouth wind
Tontemboan timusouth, south wind
  t<um>imugo or head southward
Proto-Gorontalic *timuhoeast, east wind
Palauan dímessouth, south wind
CMP
Rotinese timueast, the direction of dawn; east monsoon
Lamaholot timueast
Selaru timureast, eastward
Yamdena timureast, eastward, east monsoon; the Tanimbarese on the east coast of Yamdena island
Fordata timureast, east monsoon
Kei timureast, east side, east monsoon
Asilulu timuleast wind, east monsoon season
Buruese timuthe southeast monsoon