Updated: 11/21/2015
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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Cognate Sets




*wáak crow


PPh     *wáak crow

Ilokano wakkind of crow
Itawis wakcrow (bird)
Bontok wáʔakcaw (crow), squeal (frightened pig)
Hanunóo wákcommon crow (Corvus macrorhynchus); apheresis of the form ʔuwák, q.v.
Tboli waka bird similar to the crow

Note:   Forms such as Hanunóo wák suggest that this reconstruction is identical to *uak ‘crow’. Bontok wáak, however, appears to be incompatible with this interpretation.


*wada be, exist, have; wealthy; not exist, not have


PMP     *wada be, exist, have; wealthy; not exist, not have

Maloh adadon't
Malay adaexistence; to be; present; to appertain to; (vulg.) to have
  ber-adahave; rather wealthy, not lacking in means
Mentawai baraexist, be present
Old Javanese oranot
Javanese orānot (in narrative predicates), no (as a reply, contradiction, etc.)
Madurese badhabe, have
Balinese adabe, exist; existence, being (Low Balinese)
Chamorro guahahave, there is, there exists
  gu-in-ahawealth, affluence, riches, large possessions esp. of worldly estate
Bimanese warahave; wealthy


PWMP     *wada-q be, exist, have; not exist, not have

Itbayaten wara-warathings, property, belongings
Gaddang wárathere is, there are
Bontok wádabring about; make; form; create; father a child; there is, there exists
Ilokano wadáto have; to be (somewhere), there is, there are, there was, there were; some
Kankanaey wádathere is, there was; to be; be present; exist
Pangasinan walábeing in existence (often translatable by English 'to have' when referring to possessions, etc.)
Tagalog waláʔnone, nothing; absent
Aklanon waeáʔdisappear, become nothing; run out of; left without
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) wazaʔnothing; without; negative
Sasak araʔbe, exist, be born
Uma araʔthere is none


PWMP     *wada-i be, exist, have; not be, not have

Cebuano waráybe gone, not in existence (colloquial)
Iban adaiborn, be born, give birth; supply, provide; have, possess

Note:   Also Isneg wadʔóy ‘there is (used in songs)’, Bontok wadʔáy ‘bring about; make; form; create; father a child; there is, there exists’, Ifugaw wa ‘there is’, Ilokano addá ‘to have; to be (somewhere), there is, there are, there was, there were; some’. Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *wada ‘Vorhandensein, Nichtsein’. This apparently contradictory gloss is difficult to improve: the idea of existence or possession is clearly reflected in the northern Philippines, in Iban, Malay, Mentawai, and Chamorro, while a negative sense is clearly reflected in the central and southern Philippines, in Maloh, in Old Javanese and Modern Javanese, and in Uma (Toraja) of central Sulawesi. These opposing senses do not coexist (without some morphological or lexical modification) in any attested language, and it is unclear how they can be reconciled in a reconstructed gloss. Forms such as Tagalog waláʔ and Cebuano waráy appear to be morphologically complex, and show a puzzling parallelism to the morphology of vocatives (Blust 1979).


*wadaŋ collarbone, clavicle


PAN     *wadaŋ collarbone, clavicle

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) Hali-wazaŋ-anclavicle, collarbone
Itbayaten ari-dawaŋ <Mcollar bone, clavicle
Isneg ali-wadāŋcollar bone, clavicle
Kankanaey ali-wadáŋrib (used only in tales)
Ilokano ali-wadáŋcollar bone, clavicle
Toba Batak hali-adaŋcollarbone

Note:   Also Kankanaey ali-madáŋ ‘clavicle, collarbone’. Although this morpheme took the *qali-, *kali- prefix, the particular prefixal variant is presently indeterminate, as Puyuma reflects *qaNi-, Itbayaten reflects *qari-, the Cordilleran languages reflect *qali-, and Toba Batak reflects *kali-.


*wagwág₁ rice variety


PPh     *wagwág₁ rice variety

Ilokano wagwága variety of awned early rice with light-colored hull, few awns, and white kernel
Casiguran Dumagat wagwágvariety of paddy (wet) rice
Kapampangan wagwágvalued variety of rice
Tagalog wagwágspecies of rice grain
Aklanon wágwagrice (traditional variety)
Cebuano wagwágvariety of white paddy rice with strong panicles maturing late and giving a heavy yield


*wagwág₂ shake something vigorously (as a sack to


PPh     *wagwág₂ shake something vigorously (as a sack to remove the contents)

Isneg wagwágshake (a blanket, a mat, etc.)
Ilokano wagwágshake a person, a screen, etc.; shake, make to tremble or shiver
Ifugaw wagwágshake out what is filling a container, e.g. a sack the contents of which cannot be poured out and emptied without shaking
Pangasinan wagwágshake out a sack, empty a container
Tagalog wagwágto dry (wet cloth) by shaking up; shake the dust off (clothes, mats, floor rugs, curtains, etc.); clean (cloth or the like) of dust, dirt, or soapsuds by shaking in water without rubbing
Bikol wagwágshake out (a rug, clothes to remove dust or lint)

Note:   Also Bontok wayagwag ‘shake something, as clothes in order to remove ants’.


*wahiR fresh water; stream, river


PMP     *wahiR fresh water; stream, river

Ilokano wáigbrook, run, small creek, rivulet, streamlet
Bontok wáʔilstream; creek
Cebuano wahígriver
Maranao igwater, liquid
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) wahigwater; river; stream
  mele-wahigwatery; filled with liquid; juicy
Tiruray wayegwater (loan)
Kadazan vaigwater
Malay air, ayerwater; liquid; stream
Simalur oilwater, sap
Nias w̃esap
Rejang bioawater
Sundanese cailiquid, sap, juice; wet; water; river
Balinese wewater (High Balinese)
Bare'e wewater
Tae' waiwater
Mandar waiwater; river
Proto-South Sulawesi *waiwater


PCEMP     *waiR₁ fresh water

Bimanese oiwater
Sika wairwater
  wair uranrainwater
  wair tahiseawater
Lamaholot waiwater
Lamboya wewater
Kambera waiwater
  wai lukuriver water
  wai tehikuseawater
Hawu eiwater
Kédang weiwater, stream
Erai erwater; river; place where there is water
Leti w̃erawater
Moa gerawater
Selaru werwater
Ujir waywater
Dobel kwarwater
Watubela alwater
Bonfia wai(s)water
Proto-Ambon *wayerwater
Alune kwelewater; river
Kayeli waelewater; stream
Soboyo wayowater; river
Buli wai, wayawater; river
Kurudu wayriver
Serui-Laut wayariver
Numfor warriver, brook, stream
  war masensaltwater
Waropen ghaiwater


POC     *waiR₂ fresh water

Lou wefresh water
Nali polo-wayriver
Likum gwayfresh water
  gway seloriver
Sori gayfresh water; river
Lindrou gwafresh water
Wedau wairawater; water vessel; calabash
Motu sina-vairiver (= "mother of waters")
Lau kwaiwater
Kwaio kwairiver; water
'Āre'āre waifresh water (as opposed to āsi 'saltwater'); moisture, sap, juice; river
Sa'a waifresh water; stream, river
Arosi waiwater
Araki aiwater; fresh, drinkable water, collected from rain or from rivers
Lonwolwol wEwater
  wEl (ʔ)creek, ravine, water-hole
Anejom n-waifresh water
Rotuman vaiwater; natural water-hole or bathing pool; well
Fijian waiwater, liquid of any kind
Tongan vailiquid, esp. fresh water (as opposed to tahi = saltwater)
  vai-tupuspring, well, or water from a spring or well
Samoan vaiwater (esp. fresh water as opposed to salt water)
Rennellese baiwater (usually fresh, although salt water found inland may be called bai, as may the lake in the center of Rennell Island); juice, sauce, liquid
Maori waiwater; liquid, oil, etc.
Rarotongan waiwater (general term)
Hawaiian waiwater, liquid of any kind other than sea water; juice, sap, honey; any liquid discharged from the body, as blood, semen; river, stream (in place-names)


PMP     *wahiR bahaq floodwaters

Malay air bahfreshet; floodwater in motion; the seasonal flooding of the ricefields


PCEMP     *waiR baaq flood waters

Hawu ei waflood waters


POC     *waiR pāq flood waters

Tongan vai fāflood (from a river), river in flood


PWMP     *wahiR ni mata tears

Malay air matatears
Tae' wai matatears


PCEMP     *waiR ni mata tears

Hawu ei na madatears
Fijian wai ni matatears

Note:   Also Ifugaw waél ‘creek’, Iban aiʔ ‘water, liquid, liquor, juice, sap’, Sasak aiʔ ‘water’, Manggarai wae ‘water’, Rembong waeʔ ‘water; river; liquid’, Ngadha vae ‘liquid, juice, water, brook, lake’, Rotinese oe ‘water, liquid, sap, juice, semen’, Tetun we ‘water’, we-n ‘juice, sap’, Paulohi waele ‘water’, Kamarian waer ‘water’, Buruese wae ‘water, stream, creek, river’, wae-n ‘fluid’. PMP *wahiR, one of the most widespread and characteristic Austronesian morphemes, often has reflexes in place names.


*wai mango sp.


PMP     *wai mango sp.

Proto-Sangiric *uaimango
Sangir waimango tree and fruit
Hawu wo-waikind of red forest fruit
Kowiai i-waimango


POC     *na wai, na waiwai mango

Jotafa we, weimango (Galis 1955:275, sub buyai)
Nali no-weymango
Titan we-weymango
Loniu we-wimango
Lenkau a-weymango
Nauna wI-wIymango
Motu vai-vaiwild mango (also Mangifera indica)
Gitua wo-waimango

Note:   Also Maranao wani ‘Mangifera odorata Griff.’. Chowning (1963) reconstructs "PMel" *wai ‘Mangifera indica’. Since PMP *pahuq evidently referred to the Mangifera indica, I assume that PMP *wai designated other varieties, although *wai may well have become a generic term in POc. Tsuchida (1977) attributes Tsou suai, Bunun (Ishbukun) suaiʔ ‘mango’ to borrowing from Southern Minangkabau soai-a. If the direction of borrowing was the reverse of that assumed by Tsuchida, however, these forms, in conjunction with the above cognate set, may indicate a PAn etymon *Suai.


*waip water container


PEMP     *waip water container

Buli waifwater ladle, bucket made of sago bark
Arosi waicoconut shell water bottle
Rotuman vaicask
Samoan vaiwater-bottle (Pratt 1984); coco-nut gourd (Milner 1966)
Rennellese baicoconut-shell bottle
Anuta vaiwater container
  vai niucoconut shell water bottle
Maori waivessel to hold water, etc.; calabash

Note:   The OC forms cited here may reflect POc *waiR ‘fresh water’. If so, all that can be inferred is a second gloss for this reconstructed form.


*waka knob on the head of a club


POC     *waka knob on the head of a club

Sa'a waʔaa boss on the head of adze handle, on canoe haku (stem or stern) in prow, on back of kiekie clubs, etc.
Fijian wakakind of club with many knots at the head, and really just a root


*waŋka canoe


PCEMP     *waŋka canoe

Komodo waŋkaboat, canoe
Manggarai waŋkaboat
Rembong waŋkaboat
Buruese wagacanoe, boat, ship
Proto-Ambon *wagacanoe


PEMP     *waŋka outrigger canoe with dugout hull

Moor waʔacanoe
Dusner wakcanoe
Numfor wa(i)single or double outrigger canoe. Used only of canoes with dugout hulls
Ansus wacanoe
Waropen ghaboat, canoe


POC     *waŋka outrigger canoe with dugout hull; passengers in a canoe

Wuvulu wacanoe
Seimat wacanoe
Tanga waŋoutrigger canoe of dugout type
Label wagacanoe
Duke of York aŋgacanoe
Kove waghacanoe
Gedaged waglarge canoe that goes out on the high seas, has one or two masts and a large platform; ship, boat
Gitua waŋgacanoe
Dobuan wagacanoe
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka waga, wakaa canoe of any kind, but esp. a large, boarded-up canoe
Kilivila wagacanoe
Roviana vakaa vessel--used distinctively of a non-native craft
  tie vakawhite man
Cheke Holo vakaship, boat
Ghari waŋgacanoe
Tanimbili n-oŋgocanoe
Gilbertese waany vehicle, any means of conveyance; canoe, boat, bicycle, cart
Marshallese wacanoe; ship; boat; vehicle
Chuukese waaboat, ship, canoe, vessel, conveyance, automobile, airplane, vehicle
Puluwat waacanoe, vehicle of any kind, bicycle, container, people in a canoe; possessive classifier for vehicles
Mota akacanoe
Hiw wakəcanoe
Ureparapara n-okcanoe
Araki akaboat
Lingarak n-uaŋkcanoe
Jawe waŋboat, canoe
Rotuman vakacanoe
Fijian waŋgaa sailing canoe, of various kinds
Tongan vakaboat, canoe, ship, of any kind; aeroplane
Niue vakacanoe, vessel
Samoan vaʔaboat, ship, vessel, craft
  vaʔa-leleaircraft, plane
Rennellese bakacanoe; vehicle or receptacle of any kind (bicycle, airplane, automobile, truck, tractor, train, tramway); crew or passengers in a vehicle; log or tree to be made into a canoe
Kapingamarangi wagacanoe
Rarotongan vakacanoe; tribe, clan, nation
Maori wakacanoe in general; any long narrow receptacle, as trough for water, box for feathers, etc.; crew of a canoe; tribe
Hawaiian waʔacanoe; trench, furrow

Note:   Based on the comparison Javanese waŋkaŋ ‘ship’, Ngaju Dayak waŋkaŋ ‘Chinese junk’, Fijian waŋga ‘canoe’, Tongan, Futunan vaka, Samoan vaʔa ‘canoe’ Dempwolff (1934-38) reconstructed *waŋkaŋ ‘water vehicle, ship, canoe’. This long accepted etymology actually is highly problematic.

First, reflexes with a final nasal are known in only five languages, and in each case these refer specifically to Chinese junks: Ngaju Dayak waŋkaŋ ‘Chinese junk’, tanah waŋkaŋ ‘China’; Malay waŋkaŋ ‘Chinese ocean-going junk’, limau waŋkaŋ ‘imported Chinese oranges’; Acehnese, Javanese, Makasarese waŋkaŋ ‘Chinese junk (boat)’.

Second, neither the Malay nor the Javanese words can regularly reflect *waŋkaŋ, since *w- disappeared in Malay and *wa- became Javanese o.

Moreover, the word in Ngaju Dayak, which is spoken in the interior river systems of Southeast Borneo, clearly is a loan from the coastal Banjarese. It appears likely, then, that waŋkaŋ is a loan from some southern form of Chinese (Fukienese? Hakka?) which was borrowed into Malay and Javanese.

In apparent contradiction to this conclusion are reflexes in CMP, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, and especially OC languages, where the probability of early borrowing from Chinese is all but non-existent. Since most OC languages have lost original final consonants, many OC reflexes could derive from *waŋkaŋ. In those languages which normally preserve the final consonant, however, no final consonant is found in this word (Dobuan, Roviana), thus supporting *waŋka, not *waŋkaŋ. Doran (1981) has chosen this form as the title of a book on Austronesian canoe origins, but he combines a genuine Oceanic cognate set with such non-cognate WMP forms as Tagalog baŋkaʔ ‘boat’, Malagasy lakana (Prov. laka) ‘canoe’.

It is now simplest to conclude that *waŋka was an innovation which appeared in northeastern Indonesia prior to the separation of the CMP and EMP language groups from one another, but after the separation of PCEMP from all other Austronesian languages. Under this interpretation, the similarity of the native term *waŋka to the apparent loanword waŋkaŋ must be considered a remarkable coincidence. Under this interpretation, Mongondow waŋga (for expected **waŋka) ‘boat’ is best regarded as a loan from some still undetermined CMP source.


*waŋkaŋ spread the legs apart


PMP     *waŋkaŋ spread the legs apart

Bontok wákaŋto stride, walk with large steps
Ifugaw wákaŋgreat steps in walking
Javanese onkaŋsit with feet dangling
Bimanese waŋgathigh
Manggarai waŋgaŋwalk with the legs wide apart; lie on back with legs spread open while sleeping

Note:   With root *-kaŋ₁ ‘spread apart, as the legs’. Amis wakaŋ ‘lie on one's back’ may be related.


*wakaq split


PMP     *wakaq split

Manobo (Western Bukidnon) wakaʔrip or pull off the jaw; pull two halves of bamboo apart
Manggarai wagasplit
Rembong wagaʔsplit
'Āre'āre waʔasplit, cut in sections; yam section
Sa'a waʔabe split, cut into sections; to split, divide fish; shred, cut up yams for planting
Arosi waʔato split; burst through, as a pig through a fence

Note:   With root *-kaq₂ ‘open forcibly, split’.


*wakaR root


PMP     *wakaR root

Itbayaten wakaysweet potato, camote (Ipomoea batatas)
Bontok wákalany vine used for tying
Ifugaw wákalthongs of litúku lianas
Tarakan ba-bakagroot
Bisaya (Limbang) akawvine, creeper
Tring walvine, creeper
Kenyah akacreeper
Murik akahvine, creeper, aerial root
Kayan (Uma Juman) akahvines, creepers, exclusive of rattan
Bintulu bakəhlarge root, vine (used as a substitute for ñipa ‘snake’ when one is in the jungle, out of fear that use of the word ñipa will attract snakes)
Melanau (Mukah) akahcreeper, vine; (aerial) root
Singhi Land Dayak bokahcreeping root
Iban akarcreeper or anything used for binding or generally as a substitute for rotan (except in mat-making)
Malay akarroot; root-fibre; creeping or climbing plant; liana
Nias waʔaroot
Balinese akahroot, tree root
Sasak akah, akarroot
[Palu'e wakaroot]
Rotinese okaroot, tendril
Erai ai-akarroot
Leti wāraroot
Moa gaararoot
Yamdena wakarroot
Dobel kwaʔarmedicine, drug
Watubela akalroot
Proto-Ambon *wakarroot
Kamarian waarroot
Buli root
Ansus woaroot
Windesi warroot
Mussau oaroot
Numbami wokaroot
Selau ara-root
Bugotu ogaroot
Nggela ogasmall roots
Kahua waga-naroot
Nemi waa-nroot
Iaai wââ-nroot
Rotuman vaʔaroots (fibrous)
Fijian wakathe root of a plant
Niue vakaroot


POC     *wakaR-a root

Vitu voraka <Mroot
Bali (Uneapa) vakararoot
Morouas ara-root
Proto-Micronesian *wakararoot


PEMP     *wakaR-i root

Woi wariroot
Pom wa-wariroot
Waropen ghai, wairoot
Irarutu kwakareroot
Ngwatua kakwari <Mroot
Tambotalo uariroot
Araki xuari <Mroot

Note:   Also Bintulu waka ‘root’ (Ray 1913). Reflexes of *wakaR ‘root’ and *wakat ‘mangrove root’ may be difficult to distinguish in OC languages (which typically have lost original final consonants). However, close attention to the semantics suggests that only *wakaR survived in POc. This conclusion is strengthened by reflexes of *wakaR in Oceanic languages which preserve final consonants (as Mussau), and by the apparently suffixed forms with *-a and *-i (although the morphology of these longer forms remains obscure). Despite its reflexes in many WMP languages, PMP *wakaR evidently did not mean ‘vine’ (cf. *waRej ‘vine’), although in addition to ‘root (generic)’ it may have referred more particularly to creeping roots.


*wakas loosen, undo, uncover


PMP     *wakas loosen, undo, uncover

Ilokano wakásget rid of, deliver oneself of, free oneself of, conclude satisfactorily
Bikol wakáslift the covering of something; uncover; lift someone's skirt
Manggarai waŋkasbreak open, dig up with the roots
Selaru akauntie, loosen
Arosi wagalet loose, set free


PPh     *wakas-án loosen, undo, uncover

Ilokano wakas-ánget rid of, deliver oneself of, free oneself of
Bikol wakas-ánlift the covering of something; uncover

Note:   With root *-kas₂ ‘loosen, undo, untie’.


*wakat mangrove root


PMP     *wakat mangrove root

Kapampangan wakatroot of a tree
Bikol wákatroots of the mangrove tree
Hanunóo wákatvine, a general term
Aklanon wákatroots of mangrove trees
Cebuano wákatintertwine, be intertwined (as mangrove roots); prop roots of mangroves
Murut (Nabaay) bakatroot
Maloh akatorigin, source
  akat kayutree
Ma'anyan wakatroot
Mentawai bakatmangrove
Mongondow wakattree root
  wakat-anshore or swamp tree on high stilt-roots: Rhizophora conjugata
Banggai akatroot
Tae' wakaʔroot
Proto-South Sulawesi *wakatroot
Makasarese akaʔroot
Atoni (hau) baʔatroot of a tree
Tetun bakattree of the seashore
Fordata waʔatshore tree: Rhizophore
Kei wakatmangrove: Rhizophora conjugata
Proto-Ambon *wakatRhizophore
Buruese wakata tree, the mangrove (Rhizophora)
Soboyo waka-ckind of Rhizophore
Kowiai waʔatmangrove tree
Buli wata tree: Rhizophore

Note:   Also Seru ukat ‘root’. Although no CMP language apart from Atoni is known to reflect *wakat in the meaning ‘root’, it seems clear from Bikol, Aklanon, Cebuano wákat and from Mongondow wakat-an that we are dealing here with a single cognate set. Since PMP *wakaR evidently meant ‘root’ (generic) and PMP *teŋeR meant ‘mangrove’ the most likely meaning of *wakat is ‘mangrove roots’. Dempwolff's (1934-38) attempt to relate Malagasy vahatra ‘a colony in progress of settlement’ to *wakaR appears to be misguided, but the Malagasy form may be a metaphorical development from *wakat.


*wákat scatter, strew about


PPh     *wákat scatter, strew about

Bontok wákatspread around, as things which make a mess, scraps, paper, or mud
Kankanaey wákatscattered, spread, strewed about, thrown here and there; fall on the ground, sprawl
Ifugaw wákatscatter all kinds of things, putting them separately
Cebuano wákatscatter, put in disarray (as things scattered around a room)


*waket mangrove root (?)


PWMP     *waket mangrove root (?)     [doublet: *wakat₁]

Maranao waketvine
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) waŋketof strands of vines, abaca fiber, etc., to entwine or entangle
Mandar wakeʔroot


*wakir kind of root


PCEMP     *wakir kind of root

Selaru wakirsoap root
Ujir wakiroot
Dobel kwaʔirroot
Onin wakirroot
Label wakirtree root


*waksí shake off, flick off


PPh     *waksí shake off, flick off

Ilokano waksíshake (a handkerchief, etc.); rid oneself of, shake off, throw off, free oneself from, reject, discard, doff
Tagalog waksíget rid of something by jerking away the hand, foot, or body; renounce

Note:   Also Casiguran Dumagat wagseh ‘push or shake something off you; flick or throw something off to the side’.


*wakwak bird sp.; to caw, crow


PAN     *wakwak bird sp.; to caw, crow

Amis wakwakwhite-breasted water hen
Kankanaey wakwákcroak, caw
Casiguran Dumagat wakwákcrow, raven: Forrus macrorhychus
Bikol wakwákbird sp., said to walk for one month on one foot, and for the next month on the other
Aklanon wakwáklarge bat-like creature (believed to be a witch's messenger)
Cebuano wakwáka bird which comes out at night, so called from its call. Its call signals the presence of a vampire (uŋlu) or in some beliefs, it is a form the vampire takes himself
Tagbanwa wakwakwitch, spirit which flies around at night and causes the death of people

Note:   Also Puyuma (Tamalakaw) waHwaH ‘crow’. This form appears to be onomatopoetic, and may ultimately be a reduplication of *uak ‘crow’.


*wali to paint; smear or rub on


POC     *wali to paint; smear or rub on     [disjunct: *mpani]

Lakalai valiapply paint, feathers, or other surface adornment to the head or body
Fijian walianoint; rub a sore with i wali, which is a kind of oil made of leaves cut up and oil added
Tongan valipaint or smear (house with paint, sore with iodine)
Niue valito paint, whitewash
Samoan valipaint; apply a coat of plaster, concrete, whitewash, etc.; paint, dye; make-up, cosmetics; house paint
Tuvaluan valipaint


*walu eight (of non-humans)


PAN     *walu eight (of non-humans)

Tsou vorueight
Kanakanabu a-álueight
Bunun vaueight
Proto-Rukai *vaLoeight
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) warueight (cardinal number)
Paiwan alu, valueight
Amis faloeight
Itbayaten waxueight
Isneg walóeight
Ilokano walóeight
Itawis walúeight
Bontok walúeight; to be eight
Kankanaey waóeight
Ifugaw walúeight
Casiguran Dumagat walúeight
Pangasinan walóeight
Kapampangan walúeight
Tagalog walóeight
Bikol walóeight
Hanunóo walúeight
Aklanon waeóeight
Cebuano walúeight
Maranao waloeight
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) walueight
Tiruray waleweight
Kelabit waluheight
Simalur olueight
Toba Batak walueight
Nias w̃alueight
Mentawai balueight
Sangir walueight
Proto-Minahasan *ualueight
Gorontalo walueight
Mongondow walueight
Banggai alueight
Uma walueight
Bare'e wayu, walueight
Wolio walueight
Palauan aieight
Chamorro gwalueight
Bimanese warueight
Manggarai walueight
Sika walu-weluŋeight
Kambera walueight
Rotinese falueight
Tetun walueight
Selaru waleight
Yamdena walueight
Fordata walueight
Proto-Ambon *walueight
Alune kwalueight
Soboyo walueight
Numfor wareight
Mussau ualueight
Label waleight
Nggela walueight
Lau kwalueight
'Āre'āre warueight
Arosi warueight
Proto-Micronesian *walueight
Cape Cumberland alueight
Rotuman valueight
Fijian walueight
Tongan valueight
Samoan valueight
Rennellese bagueight
Anuta varueight
Rarotongan varueight
Maori warueight
Hawaiian walueight


PWMP     *in-walu eight times

Kadazan in-vahueight times
Malagasy im-bálo (in-valo)eight times


PWMP     *ka-walu do eight times

Bontok ka-walúto do eight times
Cebuano ka-walúeight times
Javanese ka-wolueight times; times eight
Mongondow ko-waludo eight times


PMP     *ika-walu eighth (ordinal)

Bontok ka-walúan eighth
Ifugaw ka-walúthe eighth
Casiguran Dumagat i-ka-walúeighth
Pangasinan k-om-a-walóeighth
Tagalog i-ka-walóthe eighth
Bikol i-ka-walóeighth
Aklanon i-ka-waeóeighth
Kadazan ka-vahueighth
Ma'anyan ka-waluʔeighth
Javanese ka-wolufor the eighth time; eighth in a series
Sangir ka-walu-nethe eighth
Mongondow ko-walueighth
Rotinese ka-falu-keighth
Gilbertese ka-waneighth
Mokilese ka-waluweighth
Fijian i kā-waluthe eighth
Rarotongan ka-varueighth (ordinal)


PAN     *maka-walu eight times (frequentative, multiplicative)

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) maka-waru-n80
Paiwan maka-walu-lʸeight (times, days)
Tagalog maka-walóeight times
Bikol maka-walóto have eight
Cebuano maka-walúeight times


PMP     *paka-walu eight times

Malagasy faha-valoeighth
Chamorro faha-ulueight times
Fijian vaka-walueight times
Samoan faʔa-valueight times
Rennellese haka-bagueighth, eight times; to do eight times; a month name, about August; to be such


PAN     *paR-walu-en do eight times

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) paR-waru-ndo eight times
Bikol pag-waló-ondivide into eight; send eight at a time


PPh     *walu(h)-an group of eight

Ifugaw (Batad) walu-an(with gemination of the second consonant to indicate reciprocal action), that which eight people do together
Tagalog wáluh-aneight for each; in groups of eight


PMP     *walu ŋa puluq eighty

Kelabit aluh ŋeh puluʔeighty
Nias walu ŋa fulueighty
Bimanese waru-m-purueighty


PMP     *walu walu eight by eight, eight at a time

Sambal (Botolan) walo-waloeight by eight (eight at a time)
Maranao oalo-aloeight only, eights
[Malay dua-duatwo by two]
[Nias dua-duatwo each, two at a time]
Javanese wolu-woluby eights
[Rotinese dua-duatwo by two, two at a time]
[Tetun rua-ruatwo by two, two at a time]
Fijian walu-waluall eight


PAN     *wa-walu eight (of humans)

Puyuma (Tamalakaw) wa-warueight (in counting persons, not things)
Ivatan (Iraralay) wa-wawoeight (of humans)
[Nias da-ruatwo, of humans]
Chamorro gwa-gwalueight (of living creatures)
[Kambera da-duatwo, as in counting children]

Note:   I interpret the agreement of the following morphologically complex reflexes of *walu as products of convergence: 1. Paiwan kaR-waru waru ‘eight each’, Bikol kag-waló ‘eighteen’, 2. Bikol ka-waló-an ‘eighths’, Madurese ka-ballu-an ‘group of eight’.


*walwál work (object, instrument) from side to side


PPh     *walwál work (object, instrument) from side to side     [disjunct: *walwáR]

Bontok walwálto move from side to side, as when removing a loose rock from a wall or a post from a hole; to twist or rotate a limb as a form of massage
Ifugaw (Batad) walwálmake a space between an object planted firmly in a base (as the ground) and that around it which holds it in place (as soil) by moving the object back and forth and then removing it
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) walwalshake or pull on a long horizontally hanging vine or line to make it move up and down; shake or pull on the network of rattan built over a field to frighten away rice birds


*walwáR work (object, instrument) from side to side


PPh     *walwáR work (object, instrument) from side to side     [disjunct: *walwál]

Bontok walwálto move from side to side, as when removing a loose rock from a wall or a post from a hole; to twist or rotate a limb as a form of massage
Ifugaw (Batad) walwálmake a space between an object planted firmly in a base (as the ground) and that around it which holds it in place (as soil) by moving the object back and forth and then removing it
Cebuano walwáginsert something long in an opening and work it around (as in working something around in a pipe to remove an obstruction)


*wanaN right (side, hand, direction)


PAN     *wanaN right (side, hand, direction)     [doublet: *waNan]

Rukai (Tanan) vanaləright (side)
Paiwan -navalʸ <Mright (-hand), on the right
  i-navalʸtoward the upper reaches of river (thus "south" if the river runs from south to north)


PMP     *wanan right (side, hand, direction)

Itbayaten wananright (side)
Yogad wananright side
Kapampangan wánanright side
Kadazan vananright hand
Simalur a-nawan <Mright side
Gorontalo olo-walaright side
Mongondow kolo-ananright side
Bimanese wanaright side
Manggarai wananright side
Rembong wananright side
Ngadha vanaright side
Sika wanaright hand
Erai wanaright side
Lamaholot wananright (side)
Kédang wanaright (side)
Leti mal-w~annaright side
Selaru wanright side
Hitu pahu-wanaright side
Nuaulu wananeright side
Soboyo wanañright side
  kala-wanañright side
Waropen ghananoright (side)
Manam wanaright (side)
Wogeo wanaright (side)
Gedaged waŋright hand, right side, dextral


PAN     *ka-wanaN right (side, hand, direction)

Kavalan kawaːnanright side
Paiwan ka-navalʸ <Mright (hand, side, direction)
Malagasy havananaright side
Iban kananright, on the right side
Malay kananright-side
Balinese ka-nawan <Mright (hand)
Bare'e kanaright side
Tae' kananright side
Makasarese kananright side
Lamboya ka-wanaright side
Kambera ka-wanaright side
Rotinese konasouth; right side
Tetun kwanaright; right side


*wane wane straight, direct; flat, level


POC     *wane wane straight, direct; flat, level

Wuvulu wane-wanestraight
Aua wane-wanesmooth, level; straight
Proto-Micronesian *wanestraight, steady, direct
Chuukese wen(a)straight, well-aligned
Mortlockese wane-wanstraight, steady, direct
Puluwat wene-wendirectly above; straight, direct, honest, exactly, greatly
Woleaian wele-wel(e)straight, steady, still
Sonsorol-Tobi werestraight, flat

Note:   PEAdm *mʷanen (Pak mʷanen, Loniu mʷenen, Nali monen, Penchal mʷanen(-en), Ahus monen-en ‘straight’) may be related if the following assumptions are justified: (1) POc *wane wane sometimes took the attributive suffix *-na; (2) In PEADM the syncopation of a vowel in the environment VC__CV, which is attested in some other forms, produced *wanwane-na; (3) The derivative cluster *nw assimilated to *mw, yielding *wamwane-na; (4) The initial syllable was then lost. POc final vowels were regularly lost in all languages of the Eastern Admiralties.


*wani honeybee


PMP     *wani honeybee

Melanau (Mukah) añihoneybee
Singhi Land Dayak boñichbee that nests in trees
Maloh wañihoneybee
Jarai hənihoneybee
Simalur oniwild bee
Karo Batak wanilarge bee that nests in the tualaŋ (the honey tree: Koompassia parviflora)
Dairi-Pakpak Batak wanilarge bee that nests in a wooden or bark box, or nests near the village
Nias wanibee
Uma wanibee
Bare'e wanihoneybee
  juyu wanihoney
Tae' uani, wanikind of bee which nests in trees or rock grottoes
Proto-South Sulawesi *wanibee
Manggarai wanibee sp.
Rembong wania bee: Apis dorsata
Hawu onibee
Rotinese fanibee, honeybee; honey
Tetun wani, wani-nhoney bee
Erai anibee, bee's nest, bee's wax; honey
Leti wanibee, honeybee
Moa ganibee, honeybee
Soboyo wanihoneybee
  wani wayohoney

Note:   Also Iban mañi ‘bees’, Jarai heni ‘honeybee’, Makasarese bani ‘bee’, Sika wane ‘honeybee’. PMP *ñ, which is suggested by the Melanau (Mukah), Iban, Singhi Land Dayak and Maloh reflexes, is contradicted by Jarai, Bare'e, Proto-South Sulawesi, and Hawu. I assume that the Bornean witnesses show secondary palatalization of *n. Mills (1975:883) posits "Proto-Indonesian" ? *wani ‘bee’. The prototype of this comparison may have been *qawani.

This form evidently referred to the ordinary honeybee as opposed to the smaller Apis indica (*qari-ñuan, *qani-Ruan), or the stingless Trigona spp., and in this function it replaced PAn *waNu ‘honeybee’.


*waNan right (side, hand, direction)


PAN     *waNan right (side, hand, direction)     [doublet: *wanaN]

Tsou vhonaright (not left)
Saaroa alhanəright (not left)
Kanakanabu anánəright (not left)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) taRa-walanright (side)


PMP     *wanan right (side, hand, direction)

Itbayaten wananright (side)
Kadazan vananright hand
Manggarai wananright side
Lamaholot wananright (side)
Nuaulu wananeright side
Waropen ghananoright (side)
Manam wanaright (side)
Wogeo wanaright (side)
Gedaged waŋright hand, right side, dextral

Note:   Also Saisiyat kaʔnal, Ma'anyan kawan, Uma kaʔana ‘right side’. PAn *ka- may have distinguished right/left hand from right/left side/direction, but the function of this minimally productive affix remains unclear. I take the similarity of the longer affixes in Gorontalo olo-wala, Mongondow kolo-anan, and Soboyo kala-wanañ ‘right side’ to be a product of convergence.

Unlike PAn *wiRi ‘left side’, there is little evidence that PAn *wanaN, waNan was prefixed with *ma- in POc. Ali mawaŋ ‘right side’ may indicate that the prefixed form occurred, but the reflexes in Manam, Wogeo, and some other languages show clearly that *wanan was found in POc, whereas *wiRi was not. Finally, at least three widely separated languages reflect *nawaN rather than *wanaN. I take this to be the result of independent metatheses rather than as evidence for a doublet.


*waŋáwaŋ wide open space


PPh     *waŋáwaŋ wide open space

Bontok waŋáwaŋwiden a cut in the dike of a terrace wall to allow free flow of water to the terrace below
Bikol waŋáwaŋwide open (as a door); be wide open

Note:   With root *-waŋ ‘wide open space’.


*waŋis bare the teeth


PMP     *waŋis bare the teeth

Isneg wáŋitmolar teeth of hogs and horses
Cebuano wáŋisfor a pig's canines to grow long because of age
Manggarai waŋésopen the mouth wide in disappointment or submission

Note:   Also Kanakanabu anísi, Tsou hisi, Proto-Rukai *valisi, Puyuma (Tamalakaw) wali, Amis wadis ‘tooth, teeth’, Bunun vani ‘boar’; Cebuano waŋsiʔ ‘having one or both of the lips turned up so that it is impossible to close the mouth’. With root *-ŋis ‘bare the teeth’.


*waŋwáŋ gaping expanse


PPh     *waŋwáŋ gaping expanse

Ilokano waŋwáŋabyss, abysm, gulf, chasm
Hanunóo waŋwáŋexpansiveness, broadness, wideness, bigness, as of pools
Cebuano waŋwáŋenlarge an opening by cutting or pushing two things apart; be dilated, widely opened
Tagbanwa waŋwaŋof a hole, to enlarge by continual use

Note:   Also Bikol waŋíwaŋ ‘gaping (a hole)’. With root *-waŋ ‘wide open space’. Bontok waŋwáŋ ‘river’ and similar forms in other languages of northern Luzon may also be related (cf. the semantic range of reflexes of *bawaŋ ‘open expanse of land or water’).


*wao forest, uninhabited land


POC     *wao forest, uninhabited land

Nggela aoforest, land never brought under cultivation; be overgrown, become forest
Rotuman vaogrove, forest, large number of trees or big plants growing together
Tongan vaoforest, bush-land, scrub, land or tract of land in its natural uncultivated state
Niue vaoforest, waste place, desolate area; area where gardens are made
Samoan vaobush, forest; weeds; tall grass
Rennellese baoforest, forest area; deeply forested
Anuta vaograss
Nukuoro vaowilderness, uninhabited place
Maori waoforest
Hawaiian waogeneral term for inland region, usually not precipitous and often uninhabited

Note:   Also Proto-Micronesian *walu ‘forest, woods, bushy area’.


*waqay foot, leg


PAN     *waqay foot, leg     [doublet: *qaqay]

Amis waʔaylegs including the feet
Palauan oáʔfoot; leg; back paws (of animal)
  oʔi-lfoot or leg of
Paulohi waeleg, foot
Numfor wefoot, leg
  we-foot, leg
Dusner wefoot, leg
Ambai wefoot, leg
Wogeo waefoot, leg
Tongan vaʔefoot, leg (including foot); wheel (of cart or car); weights along the bottom edge of a fishing net
Samoan vaelower limb (including foot), leg; basis, ground; fundamentals
Rennellese baʔeleg, foot; lower edge of a seine where stone weights are fastened; tire or wheel, as of a car or bicycle
Kapingamarangi waeleg, foot; wheel (of a vehicle)
Maori waeleg, foot
Hawaiian waeleg (obsolete)
  wa-waeleg, foot; foot of a rainbow; trousers (obsolete); afoot

Note:   Also Manggarai waʔi ‘leg, lower part of something’, Rembong waʔi ‘leg’, Ngadha vai ‘foot, leg; footprint; rung of a ladder; fencepost; lath’, Sika waʔi(-ŋ) ‘foot’, Mambai oi-n ‘foot, leg’, Gedaged wae-n ‘the arms of an octopus’. Palauan oach and CMP forms such as Manggarai waʔi may reflect a doublet *waqi.


*warák scatter, strew


PPh     *warák scatter, strew

Gaddang warákscattering; spreading
Itawis warákthat which is scattered; spread, scatter
Kankanaey walákscattered; spread; strewed about; thrown here and there
Bikol warákdissipate; scatter or strew; smudge or smear; get strewn around or scattered; get smudged or smeared


*wáras distribute, deal out


PPh     *wáras distribute, deal out

Ilokano wárasdistribute, deal out, apportion, allot, divide amongst several or many
Bontok wálasdistribute
Kankanaey wálasdistribute to; deal out to; portion out to; serve out to (used only in songs)
Bikol wárasallot or give as a share; share with or among


*waray to separate, as two people


PAN     *waray to separate, as two people

Amis warayseparate two parties that are quarreling
Kapampangan walayto separate, as children from their mother
Tagalog wálayseparate from; wean (a baby) from mother's breast


*wari sing; song


PCEMP     *wari sing; song

Kei wārsong; sing
Nali wali-ysing
Loniu weʔi-ysing
Dobuan warising
Molima walising; song

Note:   The Nali and Loniu forms probably reflect *wari-a.


*waRej vine, creeper


PMP     *waRej vine, creeper

Maranao wagedsnake; vine
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) gawed <Mvine
Simalur olorroot; vein, tendon
Rejang baletroot
Sundanese arɨy <Mjungle rope, liana
Old Javanese od-wad, od-odhanging plant, hanging parasite, climber, creeper, liana
Javanese wodroot
Banggai alostough creepers or tendrils; rope
Erai asar <Mliana
Selaru warasliana
Yamdena warasliana (generic)
Fordata waratliana sp.
Kei waratliana, creeper; rope
Proto-Ambon *waretliana
Bonfia wasatroot
Paulohi walet-eliana; rope
Kamarian waretrope
Buruese wahetvine; snake
Soboyo wahorattan


POC     *waRoc vine, creeper

Wuvulu waorope; vein; tendon
Nauna wayvine; rope
Wogeo warorope, string
Gedaged wazvine, liana
Gitua warorope; vine
Molima waloveins and tendons
Roviana arosogeneral name for vines and creepers
Eddystone/Mandegusu arosostring, rope; creeper or any similar plant used as string; rattan palm, Calamus sp., the fibre from which is used for binding
Lau kwalovine of yam, sweet potato, etc.
Kwaio kwalovine; string, rope
'Āre'āre waroliana; string, rope; fishline; string of money
Sa'a walocreeper, vine; rope, string, line; fishing-line; ten shell-moneys, a unit
Arosi waropiece of string; prefix to names of creepers
Fijian vine, creeper of any kind; string, bandage


POC     *waRoc waRoc vines; veins, tendons

Motu varo-varovines of all kinds; veins, arteries, tendons
Molima walo-waloveins and tendons
Arosi waro-warovines
Rotuman vao-vaostrongly growing creeper

Note:   Also Karo Batak waren ‘vine, liana (generic); also a substitute term for "snake"’, Mussau oasa ‘vine; rope’. As noted in Blust (1985) the PMP generic term for ‘vine’ contradicts certain proposed universal evolutionary sequences in Brown (1984). In private correspondence Brown has maintained that *waRej probably meant ‘tying material’. There is, however, no empirical basis for Brown's conclusion. PMP *waRej clearly contrasts with PMP *talih ‘rope, string, cordage’, and the semantic contrast is maintained in some attested languages, as Nauna (Admiralties), where way means either ‘vine’ or ‘rope’, but tɨl (< *talih) means only ‘rope’ (never ‘vine’).

The semantic extensions to ‘rope’, ‘snake’ (PMP *nipay) and ‘vein, tendon’ (PMP *uRat) are all easily understood as modifications of an original meaning ‘vine’. Examples of the transfer of a term for a raw material to some useful product made from it are cited in Blust (1985). The English word ‘rope’ is not only applied to vines, but is extended to veins and tendons in New Guinea Pidgin, and in Borneo and Sumatra the word for ‘vine’ is often used as a benign substitute for ‘snake’ when one is exposed to the danger of snakes in the jungle. Significantly, reflexes of *talih rarely mean ‘vine’, and never mean ‘snake’.


*waRi₁ day; sun; dry in the sun


PAN     *waRi₁ day; sun; dry in the sun

Atayal wagisun
  ska waginoon
  htgan wagiEast
  kiopan wagiWest
Kanakanabu pa-áridry in the sun
Tsou m-voredry in the sun
Proto-Rukai *vaʔisun
Kavalan waRiEast
Siraya wagiday
Bunun valisun
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) waRiday; time to spare
Paiwan v<n>ay-vaydry something in the sun (by hanging it up)
Amis waliEast
  pa-walito dry outside
Iban ariday
  mata harisun
Jarai hrəyday
  yaŋ hrəysun
Rhade hruêday
  yaŋ hruêsun
Malay hariday
  mata harisun
Karo Batak wariday, time from about 6 AM to 6 PM
Toba Batak ariday; weather; daytime
  mata ni arisun, solar disk
Dairi-Pakpak Batak wariday
  mata warisun
Rejang bileyday, daytime
  mata i bileysun
Old Javanese wai, way, wesun; day
Javanese udan we-werain while the sun is shining
Madurese bariʔyesterday; twilight, sundown
Balinese ahi, wahiday
  mata n-ahisun
Rembong waridry in the sun
  wari puanday before yesterday
Ngadha variwarm oneself in the sun; dry in the sun
Rotinese faiday, in the sense of time in general
  fai-narecently, the other day
Tetun bai, bai-nday
  bai lorosummer, the dry season
Selaru waiput or hang something in the sun
Yamdena warilay, put, or hang something in the sun
Fordata wari-kdry in the sun; put, hang, etc. in the sun
Kei wari-kdry in the sun

Note:   The initial *h which appears in this form in Malay and the Chamic languages is clarified by the alternation in Iban (and Malay (Sarawak)) ari ‘day’, mata hari (< earlier *mata ni waRi) ‘sun’, where consonant epenthesis prevents the coalescence of what otherwise would be adjacent like vowels in the compound expression. Other languages in which *w- has disappeared, as Toba Batak and Balinese, maintain a reflex of the genitive marker *ni, and hence are not confronted with the problem.

The semantic distinction between PAn *waRi and *qalejaw is not entirely clear, although judging from the agreement of Formosan and CMP languages the former term included the meaning ‘dry in the sun’, while the latter did not. Finally, Jarai yaŋ hrəy, Rhade yaŋ hruê ‘sun’ (< yaŋ ‘deity, god’ + ‘day’), and Old Javanese textual references to saŋ hyaŋ we (Zoetmulder 1982, Subanen/Subanun we) suggest that in pre-Indic western Indonesia the sun was conceived as a deity.


*waRi₂ past, of time


POC     *waRi₂ past, of time

Bilibil varia few days back
Lau kwaliold, worn out (house, net, etc.)
Sa'a wälia space of time, long past
Arosi wariold, chiefly of living things; old man

Note:   Possibly related to *waRi(n)sa ‘day before yesterday’ (q.v.).


*waRi(n)sa day before yesterday


POC     *waRi(n)sa day before yesterday

Gitua warizaday before yesterday
Panayati varirabefore (in time)
Nggela valihaday before yesterday; day after tomorrow; some time ago; by and by, some day
Kwaio kwalitathree days ago
  na kwalitafour or more days ago
'Āre'āre waritaformer, previous, past
  i waritaformerly, in the old days
Ulawa wälitaday after tomorrow
  i welitatwo days hence
Arosi waritaan old man
  na waritaof old time
Mota arisaday after tomorrow

Note:   Also Mailu arie ‘day before yesterday’, Gedaged wozi ‘day before yesterday; a few days ago, recently’, Vitu varira ‘day before yesterday’, Sa'a waite ‘of old, a long time ago, some days ago’, wäite ‘the day before yesterday’, i weite ‘two days ago’. Dempwolff (1934-38) attempted to relate Ulawa wälita to *waRi ‘day’, but the etymology is dubious.


*wasay axe


PWMP     *wasay axe

Itbayaten wasayhatchet
Isneg wátayaxe
Itawis wátayax
Bontok wásayshort-bladed axe
Kankanaey wásayax
Ifugaw wáhay, wáheIfugaw axe, the blade of which is thick but narrow near and in its wooden handle
Ilokano wásayaxe
Casiguran Dumagat wasáyaxe; chop with an axe
Hanunóo wásayax
Hiligaynon wásayaxe, hatchet
Aklanon wásayaxe; chop with an axe
Cebuano wásaylarge axe; cut or chop with an axe wasay-wasay 'name of bivalves which are shaped like the head of an axe, e.g. some kinds of hammer oysters'
Maranao wasayaxe
Manobo (Western Bukidnon) waseyax
Tboli asayaxe
Kelabit uaytraditional Kelabit axe for cutting wood
Kenyah asaiaxe
Kayan aseinative axe
Maloh waseaxe
Sangir waseiron
Proto-Minahasan *uaseyiron
Mongondow watoiiron
Bare'e waseaxe
Tae' waseaxe, adze
  wase-iwork with an axe or adze
Mandar waseaxe
Proto-South Sulawesi *waseaxe


*wasay wasay insect sp.


PPh     *wasay wasay insect sp.

Ilokano wasay-wásaymantis
Ifugaw wahhe-wahhekind of big mosquito
Cebuano wasay-wasáygeneral name for small dragonflies


*wa(n)se divide


PEMP     *wa(n)se₁ divide

Numfor wāsdivide into two parts, as when a path runs through a garden


POC     *wa(n)se₂ distribute, as food at a feast

Roro watedistribute
Gedaged waegive (away), dispense, distribute, bestow, deal out, apportion
Nggela vahegive, give to
Lau kwategive, give up, hand over, present
Kwaio kwatecontribute to a person giving an omea (mortuary feast given several months after the burial)
'Āre'āre wateto herald the assigned food portions at a feast to the different villages; make an oration at a feast
Sa'a watemake an oration at a feast
Arosi wateto give
Fijian waseto divide, separate
  wase ruabisect, etc.
Tongan vaheto divide, divide out, allot, distribute; division, e.g. division of country, district
Samoan vaeto divide, separate; cut, sever
Anuta vaedivide a group of objects into subsets
Rarotongan vaeto divide, part, separate
Maori waeto divide, part, separate
Hawaiian waeto choose, select, pick out, sort, separate; to draft, as soldiers; to preen, as of a chicken; finicky


POC     *wa(n)se-a distribute, divide, give

Kwaio kwate-agive
'Āre'āre wate-agive (the thing given has not to be returned to the donor, as opposed to ta)
Tongan vahe-ato divide
Samoan vāe-abe removed, taken away


POC     *wa(n)se-ŋa a division, share

Kwaio kwate-ŋacontribution to omea (mortuary feast)
'Āre'āre wate-nagift
Sa'a wate-ŋaan oration
Tongan vāhe-ŋadivision, portion
Niue vahe-ŋaclass, sect, division, space of time
Samoan vāe-ŋasection, division, part; portion, share


POC     *wa(n)se wa(n)se divide into multiple parts

Ulawa wate-watemake an oration at a feast
Bauro wate-wategenerous, liberal
Tongan vahe-vaheto divide into more than two. Also, to share between two or more
Samoan vāe-vaedivide (into several pieces); (of speech) be careful, cautious

Note:   Milke (1968) includes forms from several other languages, but on closer inspection these appear to be non-cognate.


*wasíwas wave back and forth (hand, flag)


PPh     *wasíwas wave back and forth (hand, flag)

Ifugaw wahíwa(h)a sort of Ifugaw fan ... a man who sits near the corpse of somebody who is installed on a death chair sways it back and forth to chase the flying insects away
Ifugaw (Batad) wahíwayfrighten away flies from food, and esp. from the dead while tied in a death chair during preburial ritual by a continual waving back and forth of a stick
Tagalog wasíwasflourish or wave to and fro (as a flag or the like)
Bikol wasíwasbrandish, wield; wave (as a flag)


*waswás₁ shake something, rinse clothes by shaking in


PPh     *waswás₁ shake something, rinse clothes by shaking in clear water

Ifugaw wahwá(h)rinse clothes which have been washed
Ifugaw (Batad) wahwáhlift up and down in the water to wash off mud, as of the feet, a vegetable, in washing off soil from the root
Casiguran Dumagat waswáswave back and forth (as to wave a cloth, a tree branch, etc. back and forth, or to swish a cloth around in the water to wash away the soap, or to shoo flies away with a handkerchief, or to sweep the ground with a branch with leaves on it)
Kapampangan waswásshake a cloth to chase off mosquitoes
Tagalog waswásrinse (cloth) as finishing part of washing
Hiligaynon wáswasshake out clothes
Aklanon wáswasshake (off), rid something of dirt
Cebuano waswásrinse off soap and dirt with clear water in doing the laundry


*waswás₂ tear apart something that one has made; undo


PPh     *waswás₂ tear apart something that one has made; undo

Ilokano waswásundo what was done badly (sewing, basketry, etc.)
Casiguran Dumagat waswásworn out cloth with large holes in it
Cebuano waswásrip off clothes, bedding, or anything covering the body
Tagbanwa waswasrip off (clothing, bedding, or anything covering the body); pull down something in order to straighten it


*watawat wave, flutter (as a flag)


PAN     *watawat wave, flutter (as a flag)

Amis watawatwave something back and forth (as a flag)
Tagalog wátawatflag, standard


*wati₁ (X + wati₁) earthworm


PMP     *wati₁ earthworm

Itbayaten alu-atiearthworm
Cebuano watíearthworm; be infested with earthworms
Manobo (Sarangani) eli-watiearthworm
Kelabit kel-atihearthworm
Sangil la-watiearthworm
Mongondow olu-asiearthworm
Uma watisago worm
Ende tai-atiearthworm

Note:   PMP *wati clearly was used with some variant of the *qali-, *kali- prefix. The agreement of Itbayaten alu-ati, Mongondow olu-asi may be taken to support PPh *qalu-wati, but the PMP variant of this prefix with *wati remains unclear.


*wati₂ spouse


POC     *wati₂ spouse

Lau kwaispouse; husband or wife
Kwaio kwai-nahusband
Arosi waihusband or wife; to marry
  wai-husband or wife; to marry
Bauro waihusband or wife
Fijian watispouse

Note:   The relationship of this term to POc *qasawa is unclear. It is possible that *wati₂ meant ‘marry’.


*watnág scatter, disperse


PPh     *watnág scatter, disperse

Ilokano watnágscatter, disperse, break apart (heaps of money, clothes, etc.)
Cebuano watág, wátagscatter something fairly good-sized causing a great disorder, not over a large area; for money to be dispersed without one realizing it

Note:   It is unclear whether the reduction of PPh *-tn- clusters is a recurrent sound change in Cebuano.


*wáwaq mouth of a river


PPh     *wáwaq mouth of a river

Kankanaey wáwabank, margin (of a river, etc.)
Tagalog wáwaʔmouth of a river, delta
Aklanon wawáʔmouth of a river


*waywáy dangle, hang down loosely


PPh     *waywáy dangle, hang down loosely

Isneg waywáyhanging, dangling
Cebuano waywáydangle loosely

Note:   Also Bontok wayáway ‘to swing; to sway, as something hanging, a child's legs from a carrying blanket or the tail of a waist belt’.

TOP      wi    



*wigwíg shake, shake something


PPh     *wigwíg shake, shake something

Ifugaw wigwígshake the head in a negative manner (implying a denial or refusal)
Ifugaw (Batad) wigwígto shake, of the body or parts of the body, as with palsy, when frightened, nervous, exhausted
Bikol wigwígshake excess water from; shake down a thermometer, shake a pen to see if it has ink in it; shake the penis after urinating; jiggle


*wikwik chirp, whistle


PWMP     *wikwik chirp, whistle

Kankanaey wikwíkto chirp
Kadazan vivikwhistle; to whistle

Note:   Also Bontok wíik ‘squeal of a piglet when it is hungry’. Possibly a convergent innovation.


*wili return, come back


PAN     *wili return, come back

Saaroa pu-a-ilicome back, return
Tsou ruo-vricome back, return
Rukai (Maga) si-vi-vríicome back, return
Itbayaten viliidea of returning or restoring
  kap-viliact of returning or coming back
Ilokano ka-wílireturn, come back the same day

Note:   Tsuchida (1976:145) reconstructs *w₁iliq₂ ‘return, come back’, but presents no clear evidence for the reconstruction of the final consonant.


*wiŋawiŋ wag, shake, move repeatedly from side to side


PAN     *wiŋawiŋ wag, shake, move repeatedly from side to side

Amis wiŋawiŋwag one's tail
Kankanaey wiŋáwiŋswing; sway; wag; shake. Caused by wind; for instance, trees, reed, etc.
Ilokano wiŋíwiŋ <Ashake one's head (as a sign of dissent, etc.)


*wiŋis bare the teeth


PMP     *wiŋis bare the teeth

Old Javanese wiŋisto bare, unsheathe
Manggarai wiŋisof the lips, to be open so that the teeth are visible
Rembong wiŋisgrin, show the teeth

Note:   With root *-ŋis ‘bare the teeth’.


*wíqwiq slit open


PPh     *wíqwiq slit open

Bontok wiwʔícut open, as intestines, in order to clean them prior to cooking
Kankanaey wiwʔíto open, widen
Aklanon wíʔwiʔsplit open further (e.g. a buttonhole), enlarge by splitting
Cebuano wíʔwiʔpush the sides apart to create an opening or to widen an opening


*wirit twist


PMP     *wirit twist

Gaddang wiritto twist
Fijian wiriturn, revolve
Tongan vilito drill, bore
Samoan vili(of thread, top, coin, etc.) spin; drill; revolve, rotate
Rarotongan virithe motion of turning or twisting or twirling; a drill, a bit, an auger or anything that is used to drill or bore a hole with; turn or twist something around
Maori wiribore, twist; gimlet, auger
  whaka-wiritwist, wring
Hawaiian wilito wind, twist, writhe, crank, turn, grind, drill, mix

Note:   Oceanic reflexes of *wirit are not to be confused with phonetically and semantically similar forms reflecting POc *piri ‘twist’.


*wiRi left side or direction


PAN     *wiRi left side or direction

Tsou vri-naleft (side)
Kanakanabu i-írileft (side)
Bunun vilileft (side)
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) taRa-wiRileft (side)
Paiwan virileft (direction)
Ilongot wilileft (hand)
Yogad wígileft side
Gorontalo olo-yihileft (side)
Mongondow kolo-igileft (side)
Sika wirileft (side)
Erai wirileft (side)
Leti mal-irileft (side)
Moor sa-wirileft (side)


PAN     *ka-wiRi left side or direction

Kavalan ka-wiri-anleft (side)
Paiwan ka-virileft (hand)
Amis ka-wilileft (as opposed to right); out of step; awkward
Ma'anyan kawileft (side)
Malagasy havi-athe left side (Richardson 1885)
  havileft (side) (Hudson 1967)
Malay kirileft-hand side; left; sinister
Sasak kirileft (side)
Sangir kaihileft (side)
Bare'e kaiileft, left side
Tae' kairileft, left side; awkward
Makasarese kairileft, left side, port side of ship
Bimanese kuʔileft (side)
Rotinese kinorth; left


POC     *kauRi left side

Motu kaurileft-handed
Rarotongan kauileft, on the left side


POC     *mawiRi left side or direction

Wuvulu mawileft (side)
Cheke Holo mairileft side or direction
Talise mailileft side
Nakanamanga mawirileft side
Fijian mawīleft as opposed to right


POC     *mauRi left side or direction

Seimat kala-mawleft (side)
Leipon ka-mawleft (side)
Bwaidoga/Bwaidoka ai-maulileft (side)
Vitu maurileft (side)
Nggela maulileft hand
Lau mauli, moulileft hand; left handed
Nauruan eda-mauwleft side
Nakanamanga maurileft hand
North Tanna mawulleft hand
Rarotongan mauileft, on the left side or hand
Maori mauīleft, on the left hand; left hand

Note:   Also Thao tana-a-ilhi ‘left side’, tau na ailhi ‘turn to the left’, Casiguran Dumagat kawihe ‘left-handed’, Kedayan weri ‘left side’, Soboyo kala-wohi ‘left side’, Motu lauri ‘left side’. Apart from isolated cases like Motu lauri all OC languages reflect *wiRi with a prefix *ma-, either in the form *mawiRi or in the apparently doublet form *mauRi. One or two non-OC languages are known to reflect a similarly affixed form (cp. Bonerate mohi ‘left’, moana ‘right’), but the weight of the evidence suggests that *mawiRi was innovated in POc, possibly in response to the increasingly frequent use of *ma-taqu (‘knowing’) in the sense of ‘right (side)’. CMP reflexes of *ka-wiRi show various irregularities (Bimanese kuʔi for expected **kuiʔi, Rotinese ki for expected **koi), but the etymological assignment appears to be correct.


*witiwit wag, swing from side to side


PAN     *witiwit wag, swing from side to side

Kanakanabu m-ari-itíitito wave (in general)
Saaroa m-ari-aitiitiwave in a big motion, as a flag
Tsou reu-vtívtimove tail or ears (carabao, dog, etc.)
Paiwan vitjivitjwave; wag back and forth; dart back and forth
Bontok witíwitwag, of a dog's tail
Kankanaey witíwitwag one's tail
Ifugaw witíwitcontinual moving of a dog (wagging its tail)
Ilokano witíwitploughtail; the handle of a plough
Casiguran Dumagat witiwetwag, flick, swish the tail (of an animal)
Bikol witíwitmechanical swing ride at a carnival


*witwít₁ chirp


PPh     *witwít₁ chirp

Casiguran Dumagat wëtwëtmake a lot of noise (by talking and yelling)
Cebuano witwítchirp; complain about something, criticizing; spread bad things about others; chirping of the birds; senseless talk


*witwít₂ shake, wave (hand, something in the hand)


PPh     *witwít₂ shake, wave (hand, something in the hand)

Ifugaw witwítcontinual moving of a light or a torch, i.e., the person who holds the light or the torch makes it move up and down, back and forth, higher or lower, farther or nearer, while he is walking in the darkness of the night
Casiguran Dumagat wetwétwave a torch (to make the embers flare up)
Tagalog witwítwarning sign by means of shaking the index finger


*wiwí shrill whistle or chirrup


PPh     *wiwí shrill whistle or chirrup

Itbayaten wiwicicada, sound of cicada
Bontok wiwímake a high-pitched whistling sound

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 11/21/2015
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)