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Updated: 4/20/2019


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


(click on a *proto-form for its set)

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i,    ia    ib    ic    id    ie    if    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in        io    ip    iq    ir    is    it    iu    iv    iw    ix    iy    iz        

iAklanon(WMP) classic noun prefix used to show locations PAN *i₂

i-Aklanon(WMP) prefix for future and command verb forms in the instrumental focus PMP *i-

iAmis(Formosan) grammatical particle indicating place PAN *i₂

iAndra(OC) 3sg., he, she PAN *ia₁

-iAnejom(OC) construct suffix: of (inja era-i pikad ‘blood of a pig’ [blood passive.possessive-construct suffix pig] PAN *ni

iAnsus(SHWNG) 3sg., he, she PAN *ia₁

i'Āre'āre(OC) locative preposition: in, to, at, on; always used before names of places, and with words denoting time and direction PAN *i₂

iArosi(OC) exclamation of disgust PAN *i₁

i-Arosi(OC) instrumental prefix PMP *i-

iAtayal(Formosan) prefix for persons PAN *i₃

-iAtayal(Formosan) suffix forming first passive negatable indicative and imperative from the reduced stem PAN *-i₁

iBalantak(WMP) personal article PAN *i₃

iBalinese(WMP) a particle which makes nouns refer to definite persons PAN *i₃

iBare'e(WMP) particle used before names of places and times PAN *i₂

iBare'e(WMP) genitive marker (before personal names) PMP *qi₂

iBanggai(WMP) generic prefix of location PAN *i₂

iBanggai(WMP) personal article PAN *i₃

-iBikol(WMP) alternant command suffix for verbs taking -an in the infinitive: taʔw-an mo siya or taʔw-i siya 'give him some' PAN *-i₁

i-Bikol(WMP) verbal affix, instrumental, infinitive-command form PMP *i-

ʔi-Bontok(WMP) a derivational prefix generally attached to locational words and meaning a person from that location PMP *hi-

iBugotu(OC) locative preposition; at, from PAN *i₂

iBugotu(OC) personal article, seen in prefix to personal pronouns PAN *i₃

iBugotu(OC) genitive marker indicating non-specific possession PMP *qi₂

i-Bugotu(OC) instrumental prefix to nouns PMP *i-

iBuli(SHWNG) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iCebuano(WMP) expression uttered upon making an error or inadvertently breaking something; exclamation expressing surprise; particle expressing disgust PAN *i₁

iCebuano(WMP) prefix added to roots referring to a place or direction to form nouns meaning "place of (so-and-so)" PAN *i₂

i-Cebuano(WMP) instrumental passive verb affix, future PMP *i-

-iFijian(OC) transitive suffix PMP *-i₂

iFijian(OC) marker of the genitive for inalienable possession PMP *qi₂

i-Fijian(OC) a noun preformative added to verbal roots, sometimes with reduplications. It indicates (1) the instrument of an action; (2) the scene of the action, (3) the result of an action, (4) the method of an action, (5) the actor, (6) the person or thing acted on PMP *i-

iFordata(CMP) prefix to numerals in counting (used with 1-9) PCEMP *i₄

iGedaged(OC) 3sg. and pl. PAN *ia₁

iGedaged(OC) exclamation: whew! ugh! PAN *i₁

iGilbertese(OC) exclamation of pleasure, pain, or disgust PAN *i₁

i-Gilbertese(OC) prefix to names of places or categories. It designates persons originating or living in those places, or members of these categories PMP *hi-

iHawaiian(OC) particle and clitic preceding substantives and marking direct and indirect objects, with additional meanings: to, at, in, on, by, because of, due to, by means of ... while, at the time that, when PAN *i₂

-iHiligaynon(WMP) imperative benefactive-locative focus suffix PAN *-i₁

i-Hiligaynon(WMP) general proposed action instrumental affix PMP *i-

i-Ifugaw(WMP) prefix of names of places. Indicates the person or the people who inhabit the village, the site, the region, the zone which bears a name known by all those who live there PMP *hi-

iIrarutu(SHWNG) 3sg., he, she PAN *ia₁

ʔiIsinay(WMP) oblique case marker for singular personal nouns PMP *ki₂ₐ

iIsneg(WMP) the nominative and accusative of the personal article PAN *i₃

iItawis(WMP) personal singular nominative and genitive particle PAN *i₃

iItawis(WMP) personal singular nominative and genitive particle PMP *qi₂

iJavanese(WMP) exclamation of pain or fear PAN *i₁

iKamarian(CMP) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iKambera(CMP) shriek of pain PAN *i₁

iKambera(CMP) personal article, used with proper names or words that function as proper names PAN *i₃

iKaniet(OC) 3sg., he, she PAN *ia₁

i-Kankanaey(WMP) prefix with a few adverbs of time, and with names of towns or countries to indicate the people whose town or country of origin they are PMP *hi-

Kapampangan(WMP) urine PMP *ihiq

iKaro Batak(WMP) generic prefix of location PAN *i₂

iKaro Batak(WMP) genitive particle (used before personal names) PMP *qi₂

iKavalan(Formosan) interrogative particle, as in q<m>am ti isu i (eat.av-pm-2s-ip) ‘Have you eaten yet?’ PAN *qa₂

iKei(CMP) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iKei(CMP) this, these PMP *ia₂

iKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iKwara'ae(OC) marker of the genitive for inalienable possession PMP *qi₂

iLau(OC) locative preposition, at (used before names of place, position, time) PAN *i₂

-iLau(OC) transitive suffix PMP *-i₂

i-Lau(OC) instrumental prefix PMP *i-

-iLauje(WMP) undergoer-oriented imperative: ugas-i 'do the dishes!' PAN *-i₁

-iLoniu(OC) transitive suffix PMP *-i₂

iMalagasy(WMP) prefix used to make a noun into a preposition (e.g. maso 'eye', i-maso 'before the eyes', voho 'the back', i-voho 'at the back of') PAN *i₂

iMalagasy(WMP) personal article, generally joined to words making a proper noun PAN *i₃

i-Malagasy(WMP) a prefix used before names of places, tribes PMP *hi-

-iMalay(WMP) verbal suffix used together with the prefix meŋ-. This affix has various functions, including iterative and allative (Macdonald and Soenjono 1967:90ff). Ex: petani itu me-nanam-kan padi di ladaŋ-ña 'the farmer planted rice in his field' vs. petani itu me-nanam-i ladaŋ-ña deŋan padi 'the farmer planted his field with rice' PMP *-i₂

iMaori(OC) used with local nouns to form complex prepositions PAN *i₂

iMarau₁(SHWNG) 3sg., he/she PAN *ia₁

iMerlav(OC) numeral prefix (used only with 2-4) PCEMP *i₄

iManggarai(CMP) exclamation of longing, surprise, dismay (much used by women) PAN *i₁

iMolima(OC) prefix to locatives PAN *i₂

iMota(OC) exclamation of excitement or refusal PAN *i₁

iMota(OC) personal article, making a noun into a proper name PAN *i₃

iMota(OC) exclamation; 1. of excitement, 2. of refusal PMP *qi₁

i-Mota(OC) instrumental prefix PMP *i-

-iMotu(OC) transitive suffix PMP *-i₂

i-Motu(OC) instrumental prefix (daro-a 'sweep', i-daro 'broom', budu-a 'bore a hole', i-budu 'boring instrument', etc.) PMP *i-

iMunggui(SHWNG) 3sg., he, she PAN *ia₁

iLakalai(OC) prefix to numbers in counting PCEMP *i₄

-iNali(OC) transitive suffix PMP *-i₂

iNamakir(OC) numeral prefix (used only with 2-5) PCEMP *i₄

iNgadha(CMP) interjection of fear, etc. PAN *i₁

iNggela(OC) a prefix or article with nouns of place and time PAN *i₂

-iNggela(OC) transitive suffix PMP *-i₂

iNiue(OC) preposition: in, at, from PAN *i₂

iNumfor(SHWNG) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iNumfor(SHWNG) 3sg., he, she PAN *ia₁

iOld Javanese(WMP) particle with a prepositional function before nouns: in, on, by, through, with PAN *i₂

i-Old Javanese(WMP) particle with a prepositional function before nouns, often combined with the definite particle ŋ to . Occurs before nouns which in the sentence function as grammatical object (esp. before place-names) PMP *hi-

iPaiwan(Formosan) interjection of wonder or amazement PAN *i₁

iPaiwan(Formosan) be at, be in PAN *i₂

iPaiwan(Formosan) appositional particle for personal names and pronouns PAN *i₃

ʔiPalawan Batak(WMP) of (preposition) PMP *qi₂

*iPMic(OC) prefix of time or place PAN *i₂

*-iPMic(OC) transitive suffix PMP *-i₂

iPonam(OC) he. she PAN *ia₁

iRennellese(OC) locative and temporal preposition: in, at, on, from, when, while PAN *i₂

i-Rennellese(OC) causative, instrumental, locative, ablative, and temporal preposition, and causative conjunction PMP *i-

īRotuman(OC) bewail, fret about PMP *iqi

-iSa'a(OC) transitive suffix PMP *-i₂

i-Sa'a(OC) instrumental prefix forming noun from verb PMP *i-

iSamoan(OC) particle denoting position in space or time PAN *i₂

ʔīSamoan(OC) squeal, yell PMP *kik

ʔi-Samoan(OC) particle denoting direction or movement in space or time; to, in the direction of; cause or reason why an action or process is carried out: because, on account of; means or instrument by which a process or action is carried out POC *ki₁

ʔiSamoan(OC) particle denoting direction or movement in space or time: to, in the direction of; also occurs before the object in second construction bases (used before common bases only; for proper bases (including pronouns) cf. ʔiā and ʔiate PMP *ki₂ₐ

iSangir(WMP) personal article, marking personal names and kinship terms PAN *i₃

iSio(OC) 3sg., he, she PAN *ia₁

iTaba(SHWNG) 3sg., he, she PAN *ia₁

i-Tagalog(WMP) marker of instrumental focus verbs (formed by prefixing i- to an instrumental adjective: Schachter and Otanes 1972: 319) PMP *i-

iTigak(OC) genitive marker (before proper nouns and kinship nouns) PMP *qi₂

iToba Batak(WMP) exclamation of wonder PAN *i₁

-iToba Batak(WMP) verbal suffix used together with the prefix maŋ-. "This is a variant of the preposition di ... but as a suffix, it has broader meaning: it stands for the prepositions from, along, about, over, before, with, on, and to, and in this way relates the object to the verb" (van der Tuuk 1971:98) PMP *-i₂

iToba Batak(WMP) marker of the genitive, especially common before personal names (van der Tuuk 1971:302) PMP *qi₂

iTolai(OC) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iTolai(OC) genitive particle and preposition; of; a part of (before human nouns) PMP *qi₂

īTongan(OC) fan POC *irir

ʔiTongan(OC) genitive marker PMP *qi₂

iTontemboan(WMP) genitive marker PMP *qi₂

iV'ënen Taut(OC) numeral prefix (used only with 2-9) PCEMP *i₄

iWandamen(SHWNG) 3sg., he/she PAN *ia₁

-iWolio(WMP) verbal suffix. "Stems with suffix -i are all transitive. The suffix denotes a relation to the object. This relation is best described as local" (Anceaux 1952:21) PMP *-i₂

i, ʔiTongan(OC) preposition: at, on, in, than, etc. PAN *i₂

-i, -iaRoviana(OC) forms of the objective suffix POC *-ia


TOP      i,    ia    ib    ic    id    ie    if    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in        io    ip    iq    ir    is    it    iu    iv    iw    ix    iy    iz        


Aklanon(WMP) here (near the speaker) PMP *ia₂

iʔa'Āre'āre(OC) fish (generic) PEMP *ikan

iaArosi(OC) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iʔaArosi(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

iaAs(SHWNG) 3sg., he, she PAN *ia₁

-iaAua(OC) imperative suffix: inu 'drink', inum-ia 'drink it!'; maʔa 'see, look', maʔa-ia 'look at it!'; uʔu 'submerge a container to fill it', uʔuf-ia 'fill it!' POC *-ia

iaBalinese(WMP) 3sg. and pl. PAN *ia₁

iaBare'e(WMP) place of residence PAN *ian₂

iaBare'e(WMP) an exclamation of impatience used to spur on someone who is dawdling PAN *qia

iaBimanese(CMP) exclamation expressing agreement PAN *qia

iaMongondow(WMP) exclamation PAN *qia

iaBunun(Formosan) exclamation PAN *qia

iaFordata(CMP) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iaGilbertese(OC) where? (interrog.) POC *pia

iaGilbertese(OC) grey or greying hair PMP *quban

iaGilbertese(OC) tide, flow, flux, ebb POC *Ruap

-iaGitua(OC) verb suffix, apparently related to definiteness of subject POC *-ia

iaHawaiian(OC) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iʔaHawaiian(OC) fish or any marine animal, as eel, oyster, crab, whale; meat or any flesh food PEMP *ikan

íaHiligaynon(WMP) 3sg. pre-position source pronoun PAN *ia₁

Hiligaynon(WMP) specifier distinguishing particle used before or after a deictic, noun, or pronoun chosen to be emphasized PAN *qia

iaIban(WMP) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iaIban(WMP) expressing surprise PAN *qia

iaItbayaten(WMP) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iaJavanese(WMP) yes; it is emphatically the case that; at end of predicate: enlivens predicate or invites agreement PAN *qia

iaKaro Batak(WMP) 3sg. and pl. PAN *ia₁

iaKaro Batak(WMP) exclamation of joyous surprise PAN *qia

iaʔKayan(WMP) exclamation, "Isn't that so!" PAN *qia

iaKenyah(WMP) 3sg. subject and object PAN *ia₁

iaPokau(OC) 3sg., he, she PAN *ia₁

iaLamaholot(CMP) here PMP *ia₂

iaLampung(WMP) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

īaLau(OC) belly PMP *tian

iaLonwolwol(OC) thus, in this or that way PMP *ia₂

iaMakasarese(WMP) 3sg. and pl. PAN *ia₁

iaMakasarese(WMP) demonstrative (postnominal), that PMP *ia₂

iaMalay(WMP) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

-iaMaori(OC) passive imperative (Biggs 1973:60ff) POC *-ia

iaMaori(OC) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iaMaori(OC) demonstrative pronoun: that, the said PMP *ia₂

iaManggarai(CMP) exclamation: come on!; yes, thank God (also said in irony) PAN *qia

iaMinyaifuin(SHWNG) 3sg., he/she PAN *ia₁

iaMalay (Sarawak)(WMP) that PMP *ia₂

iaMokilese(OC) where?, which? POC *pia

iaMorella(CMP) good PMP *pia₂

iaMota(OC) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iaMotu(OC) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iaMotu(OC) exclamation of dissent or disapproval PAN *qia

iaMussau(OC) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iaLakalai(OC) interrogative used at the end of phrase or sentence to indicate question similar to French "N'est-ce pas?" PMP *ias₁

iaLakalai(OC) mild affirmative indicating that one has understood something just said PAN *qia

iaNiue(OC) demonstrative: that, those (referring to something already mentioned) PMP *ia₂

iaOnin(CMP) 3sg., he, she PAN *ia₁

iaPohnpeian(OC) where? what? POC *pia

iaʔRembong(CMP) over there PMP *ieq

iaRembong(CMP) exclamation: yes! come on!; exclamation or interjection to drive off a wild pig PAN *qia

-iaRennellese(OC) passive or transitive suffix POC *-ia

iaRennellese(OC) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iaRennellese(OC) demonstrative: this, that, there, another, different PMP *ia₂

ʔiaRennellese(OC) exclamation: here! here it is! take it now! PAN *qia

iaRotinese(CMP) this PMP *ia₂

iaRotuman(OC) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iʔaRotuman(OC) fish: including also turtles, whales, alligators, etc., but not crabs, shellfish, etc. PEMP *ikan

iaSaliba(OC) he. she PAN *ia₁

iaʔSamal(WMP) feeling of shame PMP *heyaq

-iaSamoan(OC) transitive suffix POC *-ia

iaSamoan(OC) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iaSamoan(OC) demonstrative pronoun (post-basic): these, those PMP *ia₂

iaSamoan(OC) post-basic particle in the emphatic effect PAN *qia

iʔaSamoan(OC) fish (incl. turtles and whales) PEMP *ikan

iaSasak(WMP) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iaʔSasak(WMP) this PMP *ieq

iaSasak(WMP) exactly because; that's it precisely! PAN *qia

iaSelaru(CMP) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iaSika(CMP) exclamation inviting confirmation by the hearer PAN *qia

iaSimalur(WMP) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iaSuau(OC) 3sg., he/she PAN *ia₁

iaTabar(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

iaTae'(WMP) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iaʔTae'(WMP) count, calculate PMP *ihap

iaTae'(WMP) that then, exactly that PAN *qia

iaTolai(OC) there PMP *ia₂

iaTongan(OC) 3sg. and pl. PAN *ia₁

iaTongan(OC) demonstrative pronoun: that, those PMP *ia₂

iaTongan(OC) particle of emphasis or rhythm PAN *qia

iaTorau(OC) he. she PAN *ia₁

iaWahai(CMP) good PMP *pia₂

iaWaiyewa(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

iaWaropen(SHWNG) brown fish PSHWNG *iap

īaWetan(CMP) yes, amen PAN *qia

iaWolio(WMP) yes! PAN *qia

-iaWuvulu(OC) imperative suffix: inu 'drink', inum-ia 'drink it!'; maʔa 'see, look', maʔa-ia 'look at it!'; uʔu 'submerge a container to fill it', uʔuf-ia 'fill it!' POC *-ia

ʔiaWuvulu(OC) pregnant PMP *tian

ia, kē-iaHawaiian(OC) this PMP *ia₂

ia ani, ia eniBugotu(OC) demonstrative pronoun: this, here; follows a noun PMP *ia₂

i-abótBikol(WMP) to pass something (as to pass the salt) PPh *i-qabut

i-abotIbaloy(WMP) accessory, to arrive with something PPH *i-abut

i-abótTagalog(WMP) hand over (something) to PPh *i-qabut

i-abótTagalog(WMP) to hand something to another PPH *ábut

i-abótBikol(WMP) to pass something (as ‘pass the salt’) PPH *i-abut

i-abótTagalog(WMP) to hand something to another PPH *i-abut

ʔi-abúyuBontok(WMP) to boil for an extended period, of sugarcane juice in the preparation of sugarcane wine PPH *abuyu

ʔiadzoManam(OC) outrigger boom POC *kiajo

iafBuli(SHWNG) brown fish PSHWNG *iap

iafOnin(CMP) count PMP *ihap

iafSekar(CMP) count PMP *ihap

īagIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) to shout yəhə əy in a long drawn out fashion by many people at a dance PMP *iag

íagIfugaw(WMP) shout some words to call people; a loud cry to give vent to one's excitement or contentment PMP *iag

iahKayan(WMP) interrogative particle, sentence final PMP *ias₁

iahKayan(WMP) maggot PWMP *ias₂

i aiAnuta(OC) with whom? PMP *sai

i-aiDohoi(WMP) who? PMP *i-sai

iaiGilbertese(OC) there, here PMP *iaqi

i-aiLamboya(CMP) who? PMP *i-sai

i-aiOnin(CMP) 1sg., I PAN *i-aku

*iaʔiPMin(WMP) this PMP *iaqi

i-aiTigak(OC) tree POC *kayu

iaiWaropen(SHWNG) that (of things) PMP *iaqi

íakBikol(WMP) cry out or shout PMP *iak

íakCebuano(WMP) chirp, cheep PMP *iak

iakMalay(WMP) to whine PMP *iag

iakMalay(WMP) to whine PMP *iak

iakManggarai(CMP) cry of children playing hide-and-seek PMP *iag

iakManggarai(CMP) cry of children playing hide-and-seek PMP *iak

iʔa(k)Rotinese(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

iákTagalog(WMP) cry (with tears), sob PMP *iak

i-akaTarakan(WMP) elder sibling PWMP *aka

íak-íakCebuano(WMP) kind of bird, the barred graybird: Coracina striata PMP *iak

ʔiakoHawaiian(OC) outrigger boom POC *kiajo

i-akuBanggai(WMP) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

i-akuWolio(WMP) 1sg.: I, me PAN *i-aku

iaḷMarshallese(OC) road; path; street; way; itinerary; journey; lane; route; transportation POC *salan

ia-laTorau(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

i-alaWetan(CMP) belongings, clothing, what one uses PAN *alaq₁

ia-leBoano₂(CMP) 3sg., he, she, it PAN *ia₁

ʔiy-áliBontok(WMP) come, imperative of áli PAN *aRi

ial-ila {ila-ila ??}Rotuman(OC) marked with birth-marks or natural patches of color; blotched, mottled, piebald PMP *qila-qila

i-alisItbayaten(WMP) to transfer something PPH *alís

(i)amaʔBantik(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

iʔa maminAsilulu(CMP) kind of fish, including tripletail Maori wrasse (Cheilinus trilobatus Lacepede), and violet-lined Maori wrasse (Diagrammus Lacepede) PMP *mamin

i amaŋSangir(WMP) father PMP *amá-ŋ

*i-amiPAty(Formosan) 1pl. excl. nominative, we PAN *i-ami

i-amiOnin(CMP) 1pl. excl. PAN *i-ami

i-amiɁMandar(WMP) 1pl. excl., we PAN *i-ami

ianArta(WMP) fish PMP *hikan

iʔanAsilulu(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ianKelabit(WMP) dehortative: don't PWMP *ian₁

iánBikol(WMP) that, those (nearer than itó) PWMP *ian₃

ʔiyánBontok(WMP) to stay overnight PAN *ian₂

ianBuli(SHWNG) fish PEMP *ikan

iánCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) stay, live, reside PAN *ian₂

ianDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) reside, dwell PAN *ian₂

ianDuke of York(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

ia(n)Fordata(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ianGimán(SHWNG) fish PEMP *ikan

ianHitu(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

íanIfugaw(WMP) to stay overnight, or for a short time, at one of the houses of a given village, when traveling PAN *ian₂

iānIsneg(WMP) place, location PAN *ian₂

iānIsneg(WMP) that; there (near the person addressed) PWMP *ian₃

ianMaranao(WMP) source PAN *ian₂

ianMorella(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ʔiánPalawan Batak(WMP) there (2p.) PWMP *ian₃

ianSaparua(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

iánTagalog(WMP) that (near the person addressed) PWMP *ian₃

ianTaokas(Formosan) to sit PAN *ian₂

ìànTinputz(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

ianToba Batak(WMP) live, dwell, reside, stay PAN *ian₂

ianWahai(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

iana'Āre'āre(OC) pregnant PMP *tian-an

ianaDobuan(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

īanaLau(OC) pregnant, of a woman; enlarged stomach, of a man PMP *tian-an

ianaMono-Alu(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

ia-naSika(CMP) over there PMP *ia₂

ianaToqabaqita(OC) pregnant PMP *tian-an

ianaUruava(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

ʔiy-anákBontok(WMP) give birth, bear a child PPH *i-anak

i-anákTagalog(WMP) give birth to (an offspring) PPH *i-anak

i-anakTontemboan(WMP) piece that is placed in or on something else PPH *i-anak

i-anak-honToba Batak(WMP) child in general without regard to sex PMP *anak

ʔiyan-ánBontok(WMP) stay overnight PWMP *ian-an

iana thalaToqabaqita(OC) be pregnant out of wedlock (thala = of life, thoughts, situations: lack substance, solidity PMP *tian-an

ianeAlune(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

iʔan hutuAsilulu(CMP) school of fish PCEMP *butu₂

ianiAtayal(Formosan) this; here; now PAN *ia-ni

ianiBatu Merah(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ianiNggela(OC) here; like this PAN *ia-ni

i-ani-nUbir(OC) to eat POC *kani

ian matuIarkei(OC) dry coconut PCEMP *matu

i-ánodBikol(WMP) get carried away by the current; drift, be adrift PPh *i-qañud

i-àno-naMalagasy(WMP) what's-his-name PWMP *i-anu, si-anu

i anuBalinese(WMP) So-and-So, an unknown and unnamed person PWMP *i-anu, si-anu

i-ānudIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) that floated (downstream) PPh *i-qañud

i-ánudCebuano(WMP) be carried off (e.g. by floodwater) PPh *i-qañud

i anu-kuSangir(WMP) my friend (male or female) PMP *a-nu-ku

iaŋLaha(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

iaŋMakasarese(WMP) may not PWMP *ian₁

*iāŋPCha(WMP) deity PWMP *qiaŋ

iaŋSangir(WMP) to sit down PAN *ian₂

iaŋToba Batak(WMP) wonderful, majestic PWMP *qiaŋ

iaŋ, saŋ-iaŋSasak(WMP) God; divinity PWMP *qiaŋ

i-aŋinDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) winnow rice by exposing it to the wind so that the chaff is carried away PMP *haŋin

iápBalangaw(WMP) count; read PMP *ihap

iapMongondow(WMP) count, calculate PMP *ihap

ʔiyápBontok(WMP) count PMP *ihap

iapMaranao(WMP) account for; count; figure out PMP *ihap

iapMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) count PMP *ihap

*iāpPCha(WMP) calculate PMP *ihap

*iapPMin(WMP) count PMP *ihap

ia-pa-lakoSangir(WMP) let something go; be sent PWMP *pa-lakaw

i-apehLun Dayeh(WMP) where? PMP *apa₁

ʔiyap-ə́nBontok(WMP) be counted PPh *ihap-en

iap laluŋPenan (Long Labid)(WMP) cock, rooster PMP *laluŋ

iap-onMongondow(WMP) be counted PPh *ihap-en

i-ariBauro(OC) this POC *ari

iasIban(WMP) maggot PWMP *ias₂

íasKankanaey(WMP) true? yes? indeed? sure? An interjection used when doubting PMP *ias₁

iásPalauan(WMP) dolphinfish PMP *lajih

iásPalauan(WMP) milky mangrove tree; a river poison tree (Excoecaria agallocha L.) PMP *laji₁

iasSasak(WMP) eggs of flies PWMP *ias₂

ia talaGumawana(OC) short snouted unicornfish: Naso brevirostris POC *taRa

ʔiatoSamoan(OC) outrigger boom POC *kiajo

iʔa tufaRotinese(CMP) fish that are caught by tufa-fishing PAN *tuba

i-auDuke of York(OC) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *i-aku

i-auFijian(OC) 1sg. cardinal pronoun: I PAN *i-aku

i-auPokau(OC) 1sg., I PAN *i-aku

i-auMaleu(OC) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *i-aku

iauMalay(WMP) to mew (cats) PAN *qiaw

i-auMarau₁(SHWNG) 1sg., I PAN *i-aku

i-auMengen(OC) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *i-aku

i-auSie(OC) 1sg., I PAN *i-aku

ia-u-maniNuaulu(CMP) laugh PCEMP *malip

iawMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) sound PAN *qiaw

i-aya-ŋBisaya(WMP) elder sibling (vocative form used only by male speaker) PMP *aya₂

i-āyatIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) for someone to climb with someone or something carried PPH *i-kay(e)qat

i-āyiwIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) to take someone along in gathering firewood, e.g. when men take along women to get firewood during the post-transplanting holiday season PMP *kahiw


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ibaBalinese(WMP) body, self PWMP *iba₁

ibáBikol(WMP) different, distinct, dissimilar, otherwise; contrasting; strange, peculiar; to differ, be different; include, incorporate, enclose; join, belong to; associate with; accompany, go or come along with PMP *ibah

ibáBikol(WMP) bewitched PPh *iba₂

ibáBikol(WMP) different, distinct, dissimilar, otherwise; contrasting; strange, peculiar; to differ, be different, be distinct from PPH *iba

íbaCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) another, other, different, distinct, new PMP *ibah

íbaCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) another, other, different, distinct, new; to be different PPH *iba

ibáCebuano(WMP) (given as a dialect form of ubán) the other ones, additional ones; include in a group PMP *ibah

íbaHanunóo(WMP) companionship; accompanying, going along with someone PMP *ibah

ʔibáHanunóo(WMP) another, another one; other, different, but not in the sense of being distinct or separate PMP *ibah

ʔibáHanunóo(WMP) bad! terrible! disagreeable, partly by being something other than that which is considered standard or acceptable PPh *iba₂

ʔibáHanunóo(WMP) another, another one; other, different, but not in the sense of being distinct or separate PPH *iba

ibáIfugaw(WMP) brother, sister, cousin, companion, friend PMP *ibah

íbaKankanaey(WMP) ominous, portentous, forboding evil; bad, ill PPh *iba₂

ibaKaro Batak(WMP) remainder PMP *iba iba₁

íbaPangasinan(WMP) companion; accompany; help PMP *ibah

ibáTagalog(WMP) other, another; different, distinct PMP *ibah

ibaTboli(WMP) mistake, blunder PPh *iba₂

ibaToba Batak(WMP) general pronoun; person, one, self, in the sense of "I" PWMP *iba₁

iba, ifanManusela(CMP) patrilineal clan (van Wouden 1968 [1935]:21 ) PMP *ibah-an

i-babáʔBikol(WMP) downstairs, below PMP *babaq₁

i-babáʔTagalog(WMP) under part, lower part PMP *babaq₁

i-bábawAklanon(WMP) top, uppermost part; upstairs PAN *i babaw

i-bábawBikol(WMP) on top, on the surface PAN *i babaw

i-bábawCebuano(WMP) place high up; a place on top of something; high PAN *i babaw

i-bābawRomblomanon(WMP) a position above; the top of someone, something, of two or more things piled one on top of the other PAN *i babaw

ʔi babawSaisiyat(Formosan) high above PAN *i babaw

i-bábawTagalog(WMP) upper crust or surface PAN *i babaw

i-baboKaro Batak(WMP) up, above, on top of PAN *i babaw

ʔi-bagáBontok(WMP) ask, tell; ask for payment of a debt PMP *bajaq₂

i-bagáIlokano(WMP) say, tell, declare, utter; inform on PMP *bajaq₂

i-bagáKankanaey(WMP) ask, inquire after PMP *bajaq₂

i-bágayIlokano(WMP) to do properly; adjust, fit; make suitable PWMP *bagay

íba(h)Aklanon(WMP) go together, be companions PMP *ibah

ibá(h)Aklanon(WMP) accompany, go along with; different, other, another PMP *ibah

ibá(h)Aklanon(WMP) different, other, another PPH *iba

i-báhawTagalog(WMP) to set aside food so that it becomes “left-overs” PMP *bahaw

iba-ibaBalinese(WMP) alone PWMP *iba₁

iba-ibaKaro Batak(WMP) what is left over, surplus, remainder PMP *iba iba₁

iba-ibaTolai(OC) residue, excess, remainder, over and above POC *iba iba₂

ibakRembong(CMP) piece of a beehive; piece cut or split off PMP *ibak

iʔbakTae'(WMP) open forcefully, as the clenched teeth (< *i-r-bak) PMP *ibak

ibak, iwakManggarai(CMP) part, half of something split (as a coconut) PMP *ibak

ʔi-báludBontok(WMP) to bind; to tie up; to imprison PPH *i-balud

i-balodIbaloy(WMP) to put someone in prison PPH *i-balud

i-báludIlokano(WMP) to imprison, enclose, incarcerate PPH *i-balud

ibanKelabit(WMP) parent-in-law, child-in-law PMP *ibah-an

ibanCebuano(WMP) companion, someone together with someone else PMP *ibah-an

ibánHiligaynon(WMP) other, some other PMP *ibah-an

ibanIban(WMP) person PMP *ibah-an

ibanSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) son-in-law, daughter-in-law PMP *ibah-an

iba-niaMongondow(WMP) another, other; some PMP *ibah

i-batóIlokano(WMP) fling, hurl, throw, toss PAN *batu₃

i-batóIsneg(WMP) throw, cast, hurl, toss PAN *batu₃

ibbáwIsneg(WMP) very small, slender, white, edible mushrooms that grow in dense clusters PWMP *qibaw₂

ibeFijian(OC) mat POC *ibe

ibégPangasinan(WMP) covet, desire, fall in love with (loanword) PMP *ibeR

ʔibegTiruray(WMP) appetite; saliva (loanword) PMP *ibeR

i-benemDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) cook in hot ashes, of fish or other meat wrapped in leaves PWMP *benem₁

i-benu-benuFijian(OC) dunghill, refuse heap POC *benu

Ibe-vasukManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) spirit deity of farming PWMP *bacuk

ibəwPenan (Long Labid)(WMP) thousand PMP *Ribu

ibʰuʔKelabit(WMP) longitudinal incision on the ventral side of a fish or animal to remove the viscera PWMP *ebuq

ibiGilbertese(OC) tree like itai (Calophyllum inophyllum), but harder and heavier PMP *qipil

ibiRennellese(OC) bone; hard core, as of wood POC *suRi₁

ibígTagalog(WMP) wish, want, desire; objective; whim; darling, beloved; dream, ideal PMP *ibeR

ibíg-inTagalog(WMP) love or desire someone or something PWMP *ibeR-en

i-bilaŋ-iKaro Batak(WMP) count, reckon, calculate PAN *bilaŋ

ibilaŋ-iKaro Batak(WMP) count, reckon, calculate PWMP *i-bilaŋ

i-bílinIlokano(WMP) to order, to command; give an order to, give an order for PPh *hi-bilín

i-bítinKapampangan(WMP) hug, squeeze someone PPh *bítin

iboFijian(OC) large edible sea-worm POC *ibo

iboGilbertese(OC) an edible worm found in sand on beach (called sea asparagus) -- resembles long piece of thick macaroni: Sipunculus indicus Peters POC *ibo

iboRoviana(OC) small sea-worm, much used for bait in Koqa fishing POC *ibo

i-bōbodIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) that with which one binds something, as bark PPh *i-bejbej

íbogAklanon(WMP) attracted to, desire, like PMP *ibeR

ibogMongondow(WMP) wish, desire; saliva PMP *ibeR

ibog-onMongondow(WMP) uncontrollably watering at the mouth PWMP *ibeR-en

iboihAcehnese(WMP) the gebang palm: Corypha gebanga Bl. PWMP *ibus₁

íbonIlokano(WMP) (Obs.) large bird PPh *ibun

íbonTagalog(WMP) bird; íbun-an aviary PPh *ibun

i-bōnoŋIbatan(WMP) to distribute something to someone PPH *bunuŋ

i-boŋboŋIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) that with which a dam is made, as stones, dirt PWMP *beŋbeŋ

ibosAgutaynen(WMP) a snack made of steamed sticky rice and wrapped in coconut plam leaves or banana leaves (often served at wakes, birthdays, weddings, or just as a snack) PPH *ibus₂

ibosMaranao(WMP) rice delicacy PPH *ibus₂

íbosBikol(WMP) rice sweet made from glutinous rice with coconut milk placed into tube-like containers of burí leaves and boiled for about two hours; served with sugar or chocolate PPH *ibus₂

i-botoToba Batak(WMP) sibling of opposite sex PMP *betaw

ʔi-butu-wánBontok(WMP) castrate PMP *butuq

i-botowSimalungun Batak(WMP) sibling of opposite sex PMP *betaw

ibuKavalan(Formosan) ashes PAN *qabu

ibuNgadha(CMP) strike, beat, hit, knock; sound of a blow PMP *ibuk

ibuNgadha(CMP) evil spirit that preys especially on pregnant women PMP *imbuk

ibuNgadha(CMP) stink terribly PMP *imbu

ibuHawu(CMP) come together, assemble PMP *qi(m)pun

iβuSebop(WMP) thousand PMP *Ribu

i-búbudManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) be planted PWMP *bubud

i-budbúdCebuano(WMP) wind around (instrumental focus) PPh *i-bejbej

íbugCebuano(WMP) attracted PMP *ibeR

íbugHanunóo(WMP) liking, desire, wish, love PMP *ibeR

íbugHiligaynon(WMP) have a passion for, crave for PMP *ibeR

íbug-íbugCebuano(WMP) tempt PWMP *ibeR ibeR

ʔi-búhusHanunóo(WMP) be poured out PWMP *buhus

ʔi bui-niaMolima(OC) fall over, of a tree, turn underfoot, of a stone POC *pui₂

ibukKaro Batak(WMP) small owl sp. (onom.) PMP *ibuk

i bukkuʔMakasarese(WMP) the humped one, a nickname for someone with an arched back or chest PMP *buŋkuk

i bukuFijian(OC) a knot POC *buku

i buku coriFijian(OC) slip knot POC *buku

i buku dinaFijian(OC) reef knot POC *buku

ʔi-buládHanunóo(WMP) be placed in the sun to dry PWMP *belaj

i-bulód-anIlokano(WMP) to borrow for someone PPh *bulud₁

ibún-anTagalog(WMP) aviary PPh *ibun

i-búnoŋIlokano(WMP) to distribute, apportion; deal out cards PPH *bunuŋ

ibu panahMalay(WMP) bow (lit. ‘mother of shooting’) PAN *panaq

ibu pasirMalay(WMP) gravel, shingle PWMP *pasiR

i-buruToba Batak(WMP) envy, jealousy PMP *buRehuʔ

ibusMalay(WMP) a palm, Corypha gebanga, used in mat-making PWMP *ibus₁

ibusSasak(WMP) a tree from which the wood for making drums is obtained. The tree dies as soon as it bears fruit: Corypha gebanga PWMP *ibus₁

ibusTagalog(WMP) the gebang or cabbage palm: Corypha utan Lam. Arecaceae (Madulid 2001) PWMP *ibus₁

ibus, ibus-anBalinese(WMP) leaf of the palm tree PWMP *ibus₁

ibútCebuano(WMP) pull out something rooted, stuck into something; for copulating things to get apart; draw a weapon on one PMP *ibut₁

ibutKadazan Dusun(WMP) draught, breeze, air PWMP *ibut₂

ibutRejang(WMP) wind, breeze, air PWMP *ibut₂

ibut topuodKadazan Dusun(WMP) storm, gale PWMP *ibut₂

i-buybóyBikol(WMP) to confess sins; to recant PPH *buybúy

i-buybúyIlokano(WMP) to recriminate; expose; divulge PPH *buybúy


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icaManggarai(CMP) one PAN *isa₁

i cagaFijian(OC) span (about 9 inches) PMP *zaŋan₁

i ca i vukidPaiwan(Formosan) on higher (rainy) slopes PAN *bukij

icakJavanese(WMP) get stepped on; step on PWMP *icak

i-cava-iFijian(OC) a thing for what purpose? PMP *sapa

iccuʔBuginese(WMP) little PWMP *isut₁

icha-Itbayaten(WMP) prefix for ordinal numbers PMP *ika-

icha-dohaItbayaten(WMP) second PMP *ika-duha

icha-limaItbayaten(WMP) fifth (ordinal numeral) PMP *ika-lima

ichápatItbayaten(WMP) fourth PPh *ika-epat

icha-pirahItbayaten(WMP) number what? (in a series in time, e.g. first, second time)’ PPH *ika-pija

icha-pitoItbayaten(WMP) seventh PMP *ika-pitu

icha-posiñItbayaten(WMP) cause of weaning PPH *pusiŋ

icha-tloItbayaten(WMP) third PMP *ika-telu

i-chayatItbayaten(WMP) to bring upstaris, to transport (by climbing), to carry along by climbing PPH *i-kay(e)qat

iciManggarai(CMP) flesh PAN *isi₅

icia-ma-vakesYami(WMP) female PPH *bakes₂

i-ciciFijian(OC) instrument for performing this action PCEMP *sisi₃

ici-ŋManggarai(CMP) to fill PAN *isi₅

icirOld Javanese(WMP) crawl about? (of catfish and crayfish in the mud) PWMP *icir

iciwBerawan (Long Terawan)(WMP) day PMP *qalejaw

i cukiFijian(OC) a digging stick PMP *suŋkit

i culaFijian(OC) a needle, a thing for piercing with PMP *sulam

ʔicúuruKanakanabu(Formosan) egg PAN *qiCeluR


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idaBalinese(WMP) he, she, they; this is the pronoun for ksatriyas and brahmanas PMP *ida

idaBimanese(CMP) exclamation of pain PMP *inda₁

idáIlokano(WMP) they, them PMP *ida

idaKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) they, them PMP *ida

idaManggarai(CMP) exclamation PMP *inda₁

idáNias(WMP) exclamation of wonder, etc. PMP *inda₁

idaSasak(WMP) he PMP *ida

idaHawu(CMP) cry of fright or shock PMP *inda₁

ʔidaSika(CMP) cry of fright or shock PMP *inda₁

idaSudest(OC) name POC *isa₂

ida (< *insa)Leti(CMP) 'one; each, every' PAN *isa₁

ida (< *insa)Tetun(CMP) one; a PAN *isa₁

i-dabiIbaloy(WMP) to do (something) at night PMP *Rabiqi

i-dadáŋIlokano(WMP) to heat, warm at a fire PPH *i-da(ŋ)dáŋ

i-daemIbaloy(WMP) to put something inside, into the interior (as inside a house or car) PMP *i dalem

i-dáeomAklanon(WMP) below, bottom, underneath PMP *i dalem

i-dágosBikol(WMP) to continue doing something, to keep on, carry on with PPH *dágus₁

i-dagtaAgutaynen(WMP) to be carried away, drift away with the current; to wash up on shore PPH *dág(e)saq

ida idaTetun(CMP) one by one, each one PAN *isa isa

i-dáitKankanaey(WMP) to add; to put, to join something to PMP *zaqit

idakBuruese(CMP) to blaze, as a trail PMP *inzak

idak, ijakJavanese(WMP) get stepped on PMP *inzak

idak, indakBanggai(WMP) trample down PMP *inzak

i-dako-anIbaloy(WMP) to sell to someone PPH *lákuq

i-dálanIlokano(WMP) to advise; guide; influence PMP *zalan

i-daldalAgutaynen(WMP) to talk nonstop about something; to gab about something PPH *daldál

i-dalómMasbatenyo(WMP) interior; beneath (the skin, etc.); deep inside PMP *i dalem

iḍamBalinese(WMP) have odd wishes in the way of food (pregnant women) PWMP *qidam

idamDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) crave certain foods (pregnant women) PWMP *qidam

iḍamJavanese(WMP) food yearned for during pregnancy; wish, dream, desire PWMP *qidam

iḍamOld Javanese(WMP) experience the cravings of pregnancy; be pregnant PWMP *qidam

idam, iramSasak(WMP) food cravings of pregnant women PWMP *qidam

ida-nBalinese(WMP) of him, of her PMP *ida

idanKelabit(WMP) when? PAN *ijan

idanIban(WMP) to receive with special ceremony (Scott 1956) PWMP *i(n)dan

i-dandánIsneg(WMP) to bring near; to distribute PPH *denden

ʔi-daŋdáŋBontok(WMP) to place close to a fire (as clothes to dry) PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

i-daŋdáŋCebuano(WMP) leave something in the sun to heat it PPH *i-da(ŋ)dáŋ

i-daŋdáŋKankanaey(WMP) to heat; to warm, putting it close to the fire PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

idapMongondow(WMP) spy on, peep at PAN *qijap

idapMongondow(WMP) to eye, spy on PWMP *idap

idapIban(WMP) (of illness) be subject or liable to; have a relapse or recurrence of PWMP *hidap

idapIban(WMP) hold something against a person (as a grudge) PAN *qijap

idapIban(WMP) hold something against someone, bear a grudge PWMP *idap

idapIbatan(WMP) a slice PPH *hilap₃

idapPuyuma(Formosan) broom (Ting 1978) PAN *Sijap

idap-enIbatan(WMP) to slice meat, cut into slices PPH *hilap-en

i-daráŋTagalog(WMP) expose something to live coals or open fire in order to heat or dry PPH *i-da(ŋ)dáŋ

idásBikol(WMP) term for spouses when two brother have married two sisters PAN *idas₁

idásCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) spouse of sibling-in-law; spouse's sibling-in-law PAN *idas₁

idasFavorlang/Babuza(Formosan) moon, month PAN *qiNaS

idasKaro Batak(WMP) a "single strand" of yarn; dua idas-na two strands PWMP *idas₂

idasMaranao(WMP) brother-in-law, sister-in-law PAN *idas₁

i-dasárIlokano(WMP) to set out for use, set the table PPH *das(e)qaR

i-dave-daveFijian(OC) the channel of a stream, or its source POC *tape-tape

ídawIsneg(WMP) snake, serpent PPH *idau

i-dawaŋIbaloy(WMP) to make a wide space or passage PPH *rawaŋ

i-dawaŋIbaloy(WMP) to make a wide space or passage PWMP *lawaŋ₁

i-dawátKankanaey(WMP) to give; to bestow; to present with PPH *dáwat

ʔida-yTiruray(WMP) mother (in address only) PWMP *inda₂

iddáIlokano(WMP) lie down, stretch, be prostrate, stretched out PPh *hideRáq

iddāIsneg(WMP) lie down PPh *hideRáq

íddaItawis(WMP) place to lie down PPh *hideRáq

iddíIsneg(WMP) this, here PMP *i-di

iddí-nIsneg(WMP) now, today PMP *i-di

idehKelabit(WMP) they, them PMP *ida

i-dekebIbaloy(WMP) to close the door PWMP *lekeb

iḍemBalinese(WMP) close the eyes PWMP *qidem

iḍemBalinese(WMP) close the eyes PWMP *qi(n)dem

idemSundanese(WMP) keep secret, give no sign of PWMP *hidem

i-dendénIlokano(WMP) to put close to, slide to PPH *denden

i-dennétIlokano(WMP) to steep; dip; dunk; put in contact with PPH *denet

ideŋBuginese(WMP) crave foods, of a pregnant woman PWMP *qidam

idepKaro Batak(WMP) not clearly visible, as a small star that now is seen and now is not PWMP *izep

idep, ijepJavanese(WMP) eyelashes PWMP *qizep

i-deppáIlokano(WMP) to extend the arms; hang on a cross PPH *i-depa

i-desdésKankanaey(WMP) to trample on; to tread upon; to trample underfoot, as rice straw when harvesting, or the body of a fallen enemy PPH *desdés

i-desoŋIbaloy(WMP) to pound rice in a mortar PMP *lesuŋ

idhaNgadha(CMP) step, tread, walk PMP *inzak

idiDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) that one, there, over there PMP *i-di

idíIlokano(WMP) an adverb: formerly, in time past, at that time, then; a conjunction: when, at the time that, while PMP *idi

idiKenyah(WMP) then, not till then PMP *idi

i-dibedIbaloy(WMP) to wind a rope or similar binding material around something (as post, tree trunk) PWMP *libej

(i)dihKelabit(WMP) this; it; thing just mentioned PMP *i-di

i-dikepIbaloy(WMP) to close something (as window) PPH *liqekep

i-dikítTagalog(WMP) to attach, stick or affix something specific; to seal, to close by sticking; to mount, to fix in proper setting, backing, or support PPH *i-deket

i-dimedIbaloy(WMP) to keep something a secret PPH *liméd

idinăMalagasy(WMP) poured out, let down, taken out PMP *iliŋ₁

i-dipáTagalog(WMP) to open the arms wide; to stretch out the arms PPH *i-depa

i-ditáŋAgta (Dupaningan)(WMP) bring something PMP *dateŋ

*ʔi-diʔiPRuk(Formosan) to stand PAN *diRi

i-dkét ~ i-dekkétIlokano(WMP) to paste; glue PPH *i-deket

idoBisaya (Lotud)(WMP) 3pl., they PMP *ida

idoliApma(OC) egg PMP *qiteluR

i-dondónIfugaw(WMP) to put or lay something aside PPH *denden

idoŋAcehnese(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

idoŋIban(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

i-doŋonIbaloy(WMP) to put the deceased into a coffin PWMP *luŋun

ʔídusBontok(WMP) spoon; eat with a spoon PAN *qidus

ídosIlokano(WMP) spoon; to spoon, take up in a spoon PAN *qidus

idosManobo (Kalamansig Cotabato)(WMP) spouse's sibling-in-law PAN *idas₁

ʔidosTiruray(WMP) husband of one's sister-in-law, wife of one's brother-in-law PAN *idas₁

idoʔMamanwa(WMP) dog PPH *qiduq

idoʔMansaka(WMP) dog PPH *qiduq

i-doʔkipIbaloy(WMP) to put something between two things (as slip of paper in a closed book, playing card into a deck of cards, money under a pillow, etc.) PPH *luq(e)kip

iduJavanese(WMP) saliva, salivate PWMP *qizuR

iduPokau(OC) nose; cape of land PMP *ijuŋ

iduRotinese(CMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

idu ganaArosi(OC) compose a song (usually in dreams) POC *kanam

íduhIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) to spoon something, as in eating PAN *qidus

ídu(h)Ifugaw(WMP) wooden spoon PAN *qidus

iðukBunun(Formosan) orange PAN *iuk

i-dukótBikol(WMP) to glue, paste or stick something; to put up (as posters) PPH *i-deket

iðuk sulainBunun(Formosan) pomelo PAN *iuk

i-dum-dumaIlokano(WMP) to prefer, to excel PAN *duma

iduŋSasak(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

i-dupáMasbatenyo(WMP) extend the arms PPH *i-depa

ídusKankanaey(WMP) wooden spoon PAN *qidus

idusSasak(WMP) snot PMP *idus

i-dúyanBikol(WMP) to rock a cradle or hammock PPH *dúyan

i-dúyanMasbatenyo(WMP) to swing in a hammock PPH *dúyan

*ɨ(dz)ɨnPSS(WMP) press out (with reference to straining at stool, or childbirth) PMP *qezen


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iəʔBintulu(WMP) this PMP *ieq

ieMota(OC) exclamation of self-satisfaction: I know that! PAN *qia

ieSa'a(OC) demonstrative pronoun: this, these (follows a noun) PMP *ia₂

iʔeSa'a(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

ieSa'a(OC) belly, stomach, bowels, womb PMP *tian

ieYamdena(CMP) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

ieYamdena(CMP) this PMP *ia₂

iəhKiput(WMP) that PMP *ia₂

ʔie-ʔieHawaiian(OC) an endemic woody branching climber (Freycinetia arborea) POC *kiRe-kiRe

ʔie-ʔieSamoan(OC) liana (Freycinetia sp.) used for making fish-traps POC *kiRe-kiRe

iéləbPalauan(WMP) flood (of major proportions) PWMP *leñeb

iə mataAcehnese(WMP) tears PMP *mata

ienTigak(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

ie-niAnuta(OC) here, in this place PAN *ia-ni

iəŋ-elPalauan(WMP) its cave, his/her cave PMP *liaŋ


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ifTanga(OC) fire POC *api

ifa-Kwaio(OC) ZH (w.s), ZH (m.s.), WB, HB POC *ipaR-

ifa-Mono-Alu(OC) BIL, SIL, etc. POC *ipaR-

ifaRotinese(CMP) hold in the lap PMP *iwaq

ifaRotinese(CMP) hold in the lap PMP *iwa

i-fafoLau(OC) above POC *i papo

i fafo-naLau(OC) on the top POC *i papo

i faiKwaio(OC) where? PMP *pai₁

i-faiLau(OC) (= 'at where?') 'where?' PMP *pai₁

ifaː-kalikTanga(OC) WB, ZH (m.s.), MBS (m.s.), FZS (m.s) POC *ipaR-

ifa-ŋTanga(OC) HZ, BW (w.s.), FZD (w.s.) POC *ipaR-

ifarFordata(CMP) ZH (m.s.), BW (w.s.) PMP *hipaR₁

ʔifarTiruray(WMP) cross over to the other side (as of a river or street) PMP *hipaR₂

ifarYamdena(CMP) ZH (m.s.), BW (w.s.), FBDH (m.s.), FZDH (m.s.), MBS (m.s.), MZDH (m.s.), FBSW (w.s.), FZD (w.s.), MBSW (w.s.), MBD (w.s.), MZSW (w.s.) PMP *hipaR₁

ʔi feaSamoan(OC) where to? POC *pea

ʔifesTiruray(WMP) small tan cockroach PMP *ipes

ifetChamorro(WMP) a tree, Intsia bijuga. A very hard and heavy wood resembling black walnut in color PMP *qipil

ifiNias(WMP) dream PMP *hipi

ifiNiue(OC) the Tahitian chestnut, Inocarpus fagiferus (introduced) POC *ipi₂

ifiRotuman(OC) (of bananas) hand, row or group forming part of bunch PMP *qitiŋ

ifiSamoan(OC) a tree (Inocarpus sp.), the Tahitian chestnut; the nut of that tree POC *ipi₂

ifiTongan(OC) blow with the mouth; blow or blow into or play (a whistle, or wind instrument) POC *ipi₁

ifiTongan(OC) kind of tree bearing edible nuts about 3 inches long: the Tahitian chestnut, Inocarpus edulis POC *ipi₂

ifiTongan(OC) blow with the mouth, blow into, blow up, inflate; to play a tune (on a bugle, etc.) PCEMP *upi

ifiTuvaluan(OC) nut which drifts ashore POC *ipi₂

ifi-ʔiTolai(OC) to blow (trans.) POC *ipi₁

ifi-leleSamoan(OC) large timber tree (Intsia sp.), used for making kava bowls, etc. PMP *qipil

ʔifil-ʔifilTiruray(WMP) the ipil ipil tree: Leucaena glauca L. Benth. PPh *ipil ipil

ifiŋBuli(SHWNG) very small fish that sometimes swims upriver in huge schools PEMP *ipun₁

ifi pulaTongan(OC) blow bubbles POC *buraq

i-firaFordata(CMP) how much?, how many? PAN *pijax

i-fituFordata(CMP) seven PAN *pitu₁

ifoFutunan(OC) descend POC *sipo

ifõNias(WMP) incisor teeth PMP *ipen

ifoNiue(OC) foam at the mouth; spittle POC *ipoR

ifoRotinese(CMP) shellfish sp. PMP *qibaw₁

ifoTongan(OC) tasty, lit. or fig. (interesting, etc.) POC *ipoR

ifoTuvaluan(OC) downwards; bow down in prayer POC *sipo

ifoSamoan(OC) bow (down); give in, surrender; worship; make a formal apology; down POC *sipo

ifo-ifoFutunan(OC) descend gently POC *sipo

ifuKwaio(OC) fall down by itself, of a tree PMP *ibut₁

ifuLau(OC) to uproot or be uprooted by wind PMP *ibut₁

ifu, ifu-naLau(OC) hair POC *ipu-

ifu-ʔaiKwaio(OC) let hair grow long in mourning POC *ipu-

ifu-laLau(OC) hairy, covered with cast hairs POC *ipu-

ífunItawis(WMP) small shrimp PPh *hípun₂

ʔifunTiruray(WMP) a nonglutenous rice, a variety of farey PPh *ípun₃

ifu-naKwaio(OC) hair POC *ipu-

i-fun-adGedaged(OC) he hit us PAN *ata

ífutItawis(WMP) tail PPh *ipus


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igMaranao(WMP) water, liquid PMP *wahiR

igaGitua(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

igaʔMaranao(WMP) lie down PPh *hideRáq

igaMota(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

igaNggela(OC) a creature of the sea: fish, mollusc, crayfish, whale, squid, sea anemone, etc. PEMP *ikan

ʔigaRennellese(OC) birthmark PMP *qila

ig(a), igal(a)Woleaian(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

iga asa-nGitua(OC) fish gills PEMP *asaŋ₂

i-gálaŋTagalog(WMP) to defer; to show respect to PPH *i-gálaŋ

i-gálaŋIlokano(WMP) to honor, respect PPH *i-gálaŋ

i-galáwTagalog(WMP) to move; to change the position of PPH *garáw

i-gamótTagalog(WMP) to administer a specific medicine; to give something as medicine or treatment PMP *Ramut₁

iγanaHoava(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

iganaRoviana(OC) fish (generic) PEMP *ikan

igáŋTagalog(WMP) dried up, dehydrated PWMP *egaŋ

igatAgta (Central Cagayan)(WMP) eel PPh *ígat

ígatAklanon(WMP) eel PPh *ígat

ígatIlokano(WMP) eel PPh *ígat

ígatItawis(WMP) tightness PPh *hiRét

ígatItawis(WMP) eel PPh *ígat

igátPangasinan(WMP) eel PPh *ígat

ígatTagalog(WMP) black eel PPh *ígat

i-gátoŋBikol(WMP) to add fuel PPH *gatuŋ

iga tuaGitua(OC) fish bone POC *tuqa₂

iga vilaNggela(OC) sailfin tang: Zebrasoma veliferum POC *piRa₂

ig-dúyanWaray-Waray(WMP) to swing couch or bed PPH *dúyan

i-gergerPaiwan(Formosan) tremble PAN *gerger₁

igétCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) freshwater eel PPh *ígat

ighaKodi(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ighaŋaBali (Uneapa)(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

ígiCebuano(WMP) for a person to feel bad because someone else is shown more affection than he is, esp. by being given something which he did not receive; be jealously possessive of someone PWMP *qiRih

igiRennellese(OC) fan, as of coconut leaves; to fan POC *irir

i-gidóKankanaey(WMP) to wake up; to awaken; to be roused PPH *Riduq

i- gígirIlokano(WMP) to shelter, shield; protect, guard, take care of; defend PWMP *gigir

igih-anCebuano(WMP) possessively jealous PWMP *qiRih-an

igi-koroGapapaiwa(OC) pubic hair (male) POC *koRo

i-ɣilLingarak(OC) to dig POC *kali ~ keli

i-gílidBikol(WMP) to place at the edge PPH *gilij

igitJavanese(WMP) exasperated with; exasperation, resentment PWMP *i(ŋ)git

i-gi-tnáʔTagalog(WMP) to place in the center or middle PMP *teŋaq

igoBauro(OC) 2sg., you POC *iko

(i)-goeNggela(OC) thou, 2nd person singular POC *koe

igo-igoRennellese(OC) look, esp. at a reflection POC *ilo₂

igókKankanaey(WMP) to swallow PPh *iŋguk

ʔi-gunáyBontok(WMP) to move, of body action; to work; movement; action; work PPH *gunay

ʔígupBontok(WMP) viand; that which is eaten with rice (of vegetables, meat or snails). It is usually served in a bowl containing the broth in which the viand was cooked; to drink the broth from the viand bowl; to drink wine PMP *hiRup

igopMaranao(WMP) drink PMP *hiRup

ʔigorTiruray(WMP) keeping one's eyes on someone, even though one's head is turning away PAN *ikuD

ʔigorTiruray(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

i-gosoMota(OC) coconut husking stick POC *kojom

igotMansaka(WMP) to tighten; to pull tight (as rope); to stretch tight PPH *higút

igotMaranao(WMP) to pull on belt; tighten PPH *higút

ígpitAklanon(WMP) to clip, catch, hold between two things PPh *hig(e)pít

ígpitAklanon(WMP) to clip, catch, hold between two things PPH *qiR(e)pit

ʔigpitBontok(WMP) hold something between one's arm and the trunk of one's body, or between one's fingers PPh *hig(e)pít

igpítPangasinan(WMP) tighten something PPh *hig(e)pít

ʔigpít-ənBontok(WMP) be held between one's arm and the trunk of one's body PPh *hig(e)pít-en

igt-ánIsneg(WMP) tighten PPh *hiRet-an

igtíŋTagalog(WMP) tightness (of tie or knot); tautness PWMP *iReteŋ

iguGitua(OC) tail PAN *ikuR

iguNggela(OC) tail PAN *ikuR

iguNggela(OC) tail POC *siku

igu-iguNggela(OC) the last in a dance PMP *ikuR ikuR

igu-iguNggela(OC) the last in a dance POC *siku

igúŋIbanag(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

iguŋKaro Batak(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

iguŋToba Batak(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

iguŋYogad(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

igúpCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) sip a hot drink PMP *hiRup

igúpIfugaw(WMP) Lagawe word for drinking which is used in hudhud chant in the sense of "sip" rice wine; it is usually reduplicated PMP *hiRup

ígupIlokano(WMP) one draught, one swallow (of water, etc.) PMP *hiRup

ígupKankanaey(WMP) suck in, drink, absorb PMP *hiRup

igúp-enIlokano(WMP) be sipped by PWMP *hiRup-en

igútCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) rope, line (anything used for tying) PPH *higút

igut-anCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) to tie (as a rope around a dog’s neck) PPH *higut-an


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ihDrehet(OC) a tree: Intsia bijuga PMP *qipil

ihDrehet(OC) the ironwood tree: Intsia bijuga PMP *qipil

ʔihLevei(OC) a tree: Intsia bijuga PMP *qipil

ihLikum(OC) a tree: Intsia bijuga PMP *qipil

ih-Lonwolwol(OC) name POC *isa₂

ihNauna(OC) cockroach POC *ipos

ihPohnpeian(OC) 3sg. PAN *ia₁

iha-Arosi(OC) BW (m.s.), ZH (m.s.), WB, HZ POC *ipaR-

ihaKambera(CMP) alone, separate PAN *isa₁

ihaʔKayan(WMP) 3sg. PAN *si ia₁

ihaKodi(CMP) one PAN *isa₁

ihaKove(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

ihaLusi(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

ihaManipa(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

iha-Motu(OC) BIL, SIL or cousin's wife POC *ipaR-

iha-Raga(OC) name POC *isa₂

i-hahoSa'a(OC) over, above POC *i papo

i-hálasCebuano(WMP) of the jungle; ignorant; become wild, ignorant PMP *halas

i-haluNggela(OC) small bone needle for sewing a sail POC *saRum

ih-a-maniLabel(OC) feather of a bird POC *ipu-

i-hamiGhari(OC) 1pl. excl., we, us PAN *k-ami

i-hamuGhari(OC) 2pl., you all PMP *kamu₂

ihanToba Batak(WMP) a large fish PMP *hikan

ihan buntalToba Batak(WMP) the puffer fish, Tetrodon, dangerous because of its venomous spines PMP *buntal

ihaŋKomodo(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ihápCebuano(WMP) count PMP *ihap

i harep-ñaOld Javanese(WMP) in front of, in the presence of PMP *qadep

i-hauBugotu(OC) far; of old POC *sauq₁

ihawNarum(WMP) elbow PAN *sikux

ihbúIfugaw(WMP) urine PAN *sibu

ihbúw-anIfugaw(WMP) urinating place PAN *sibu

ihe-Sa'a(OC) WZ, WB, HB, HZ POC *ipaR-

íhiʔAklanon(WMP) urine, urinate PMP *ihiq

íhiʔBikol(WMP) urine PMP *ihiq

ihíCebuano(WMP) expression of surprise or warning PMP *ihi

íhiʔCebuano(WMP) urinate PMP *ihiq

íhiʔHanunóo(WMP) urine PMP *ihiq

ihiHawaiian(OC) to strip, peel PCEMP *isi₂

ihiHawaiian(OC) to strip, peel, as bark or fruit; tear off, remove PMP *Risi

ihiHawaiian(OC) to strip, peel, as bark or fruit; tear off, remove PMP *Risiq

ihiJavanese(WMP) exclamation of disgust, anger PMP *iqi

ihiKambera(CMP) contents PAN *isi₅

ihiKapingamarangi(OC) to peel off in long strips; to separate the inner and outer bark of a tree by peeling apart PCEMP *sisi₃

ih(i)-Label(OC) hair POC *ipu-

ihiMaori(OC) strip bark off tree PCEMP *isi₂

ihiMaori(OC) make hissing or hushing noise POC *isi₃

ihiMaori(OC) split, divide; separate; strip bark off a tree PMP *Risi

ihiMaori(OC) split, divide; separate; strip bark off a tree PMP *Risiq

ihiMori Atas(WMP) meat, flesh PAN *isi₅

ihiMoronene(WMP) meat, flesh PAN *isi₅

ihiHawu(CMP) contents PAN *isi₅

íhiʔTagalog(WMP) urine PMP *ihiq

ihíʔTagalog(WMP) suffer from frequent urination PMP *ihiq

ihiUma(WMP) flesh PAN *isi₅

ihiʔManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) urine, urinate PMP *ihiq

ihiWawonii(WMP) flesh PAN *isi₅

īhi, ihi-ihiNiue(OC) split, divide, rip open PCEMP *isi₂

íhiʔ-anBikol(WMP) urinal PMP *ihiq

ihikNgaju Dayak(WMP) what is trodden upon (rice, in threshing) PAN *iRik

ihi kambuKambera(CMP) what is found in the belly: intestines, food PMP *kambu

īhi (length unexplained)Niue(OC) split, divide, rip open PMP *Risi

īhi (length unexplained)Niue(OC) split, divide, rip open PMP *Risiq

ihi(n)Erai(CMP) contents; body; rice out of the ear PAN *isi₅

ihi-nFordata(CMP) flesh, contents; flesh of tubers, pit of a nut, yield of the crops PAN *isi₅

ihi-nKei(CMP) flesh of people, animals and fruits, and in general the edible, useful or most prominent part of something PAN *isi₅

i-hinaTeluti(CMP) woman PCEMP *b<in>ai

i-hisLabel(OC) seven PAN *pitu₁

i-hituGaloli(CMP) seven PAN *pitu₁

ihmwPohnpeian(OC) building, house, home, dwelling PAN *Rumaq

ihnPohnpeian(OC) mother; any person one's mother or father would call sister PCEMP *ina

i-hñitItbayaten(WMP) to laugh at somebody PPH *heŋit

íhoBikol(WMP) shark PAN *qiSu

ihoHawaiian(OC) to go down, descend; to go south or before the wind; down, below POC *sipo

ihoMaori(OC) from above, downwards, down; denoting immediate sequence of events or ideas POC *sipo

ihoNukuoro(OC) get down, climb down; down POC *sipo

ihoRennellese(OC) directional particle and verb: downward, seaward; northward or westward; to go or come fishing (since this is always downward); to have an incline (as the sun dropping in the west) POC *sipo

iho-ñKaniet(OC) tooth POC *ipon

ihopNgaju Dayak(WMP) what is drunk; be drunk by someone PMP *hiRup

ihotToba Batak(WMP) rope, band, fetter PMP *hiket

íhuIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) wash one or all of the following: the face, the hands and arms, the feet and legs PMP *hisuq

íhuCebuano(WMP) shark PAN *qiSu

íhuHanunóo(WMP) large sharklike fish with very thick, smooth skin, about one meter long PAN *qiSu

ihuHawaiian(OC) nose, snout, beak, bill, trunk of an elephant, toe of a shoe; a kiss, prow or bow of a canoe or ship; thick end of pearl-shell shank PMP *ijuŋ

íhuIfugaw(WMP) washing of one's face (and hands) PMP *hisuq

ihuKambera(CMP) bathe PMP *hisuq

ihu-Maori(OC) nose; bow of a canoe, etc. PMP *ijuŋ

ihuMono-Alu(OC) to blow PCEMP *upi

ihu-Nggela(OC) nose; beak; cape of land PMP *ijuŋ

ihuSa'a(OC) hair, feather; used with genitive i POC *ipu-

ihu-Teop(OC) nose PMP *ijuŋ

ihu-Tongan(OC) nose, (of an elephant) trunk PMP *ijuŋ

ihu-i menuSa'a(OC) a bird's feather POC *ipu-

ihu i pweuSa'a(OC) a hair of the head POC *ipu-

i-húlogBikol(WMP) to drop (something) PPh *i-huluR

i-húlugCebuano(WMP) throw something down PPh *i-huluR

ihunTetun(CMP) a little fish which is crushed to make a type of pickle PMP *hipun₁

ìhù-nTinputz(OC) nose PMP *ijuŋ

ihu-na'Āre'āre(OC) hair, feather POC *ipu-

ihu-ŋāNiue(OC) one who speaks through the nose PMP *ŋaŋ

ihurToba Batak(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ihutToba Batak(WMP) to follow PMP *ikut₁

ihu-tiloLarike(CMP) thick PCEMP *təlu


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Cebuano(WMP) particle showing disbelief PMP *iqi

íiIfugaw(WMP) utter sharp cries because of anger, or to express astonishment and surprise because something disagreeable suddenly happened PMP *iqi

Ilokano(WMP) interjection: expressing wonder PMP *iqi

Kankanaey(WMP) no! nonsense! interjection of disbelief PMP *iqi

iiKapampangan(WMP) oh! sound indicating surprise or curiosity PMP *ihi

iiKapingamarangi(OC) oh! sound indicating surprise or curiosity PMP *iqi

iiNgadha(CMP) cry, whine PMP *ihi

iiNgadha(CMP) cry, whine PMP *iqi

íiPalauan(WMP) cave PMP *liaŋ

iiRarotongan(OC) an interjection made as when setting a dog at a cat PMP *ihi

iiRarotongan(OC) an interjection made as when setting a dog at a cat PMP *iqi

iʔiRarotongan(OC) the chestnut tree and its fruit: Inocarpus edulis POC *ipi₂

iiSa'a(OC) a buzzing or whistling noise in the ear POC *titiŋ

iiTuvaluan(OC) exclamation of assent PMP *iqi

iiUma(WMP) exclamation, ouch! PMP *ihi

iiUma(WMP) exclamation, ouch! PMP *iqi

i-iaBugotu(OC) she PAN *ia₁

ʔi-ʔiyán-anBontok(WMP) a place where one can stay overnight PAN *ian₂

iidekPalauan(WMP) accumulated dirt (in clothes, on body, etc.) PMP *litek

i-iiBuruese(CMP) whimpering PMP *iqi

ii-kasuKanakanabu(Formosan) 2sg., you/thou (Ferrell 1969) PAN *i-kaSu

ii-kasuKanakanabu(Formosan) 2sg., you PAN *kaSu

i-ikiTongan(OC) dual or plural of siɁi (small, little; young, younger) when it means small, and sometimes when it means younger, etc. POC *rikit

i-iloSa'a(OC) a mangrove oyster POC *tiRom

i-imAvava(OC) house PAN *Rumaq

iimwChuukese(OC) house, building, hut, shelter, shed PAN *Rumaq

iinChuukese(OC) mother, aunt, grandmother, kinswoman of any senior generation, kinswoman of one's father's lineage or clan, any such kinswoman of one's spouse PCEMP *ina

ʔin-apúBontok(WMP) daughter-in-law; son-in-law PPh *in-apu

iioAnuta(OC) yes PMP *qio

i-iraBugotu(OC) they, used of women only PEMP *ira

i-íriKanakanabu(Formosan) left (side) PAN *wiRi

iitKankanaey(WMP) to file PPh *iit

ʔi-ʔiteSamoan(OC) foretell, tell beforehand; have a hunch, have a premonition PAN *kita₂

iitoGorontalo(WMP) scraped down PPh *iit

íivuKanakanabu(Formosan) urine PAN *sibu


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ijaBare'e(WMP) step, tread, trample on PMP *inzak

ijapIban(WMP) wink the eye, blink PWMP *izap

ijapIban(WMP) wink the eye, blink PWMP *izep

ijauIban(WMP) dark colors on yellow or white (of fighting cocks) PWMP *hizaw

ij(i)-Mokilese(OC) seven PAN *pitu₁

ijokIban(WMP) a palm: Arenga saccharifera (Wurmb.) Merr. (formerly A. saccharifera Lab.). It yields a toddy, soft brown sugar, and good black cordage PWMP *izuk

ijokMalay(WMP) sugar-palm fibre. A dark substance resembling horse-hair, obtained from Arenga saccharifera and used for making string and thatch PWMP *izuk

ijuLi'o(CMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

ijuMarshallese(OC) star, comet, planet POC *pituqun

ijuʔRejang(WMP) sugar palm fibres, used to make roofing and twine PWMP *izuk

ijukKaro Batak(WMP) black fibres of the sugar palm used as roofing material PWMP *izuk

ijukSasak(WMP) fibrous substance from the sugar palm PWMP *izuk

ijukToba Batak(WMP) fibres of the sugar palm which resemble horse hair, and which are used in making cordage and roofing PWMP *izuk

ijurToba Batak(WMP) saliva PWMP *qizuR


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ikApma(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

ika-Cebuano(WMP) prefix for ordinal numerals PMP *ika-

ikaFijian(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

ikaGilbertese(OC) fish (generic) PEMP *ikan

ʔika-Hanunóo(WMP) prefix for ordinal numerals PMP *ika-

ikaHawaiian(OC) strong PMP *qitaq

ikaKamarian(CMP) raw pounded fish with vegetables PMP *hikan

ika-Kankanaey(WMP) a prefix added to cardinal numbers to form ordinal ones PMP *ika-

ikaKeo(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ikaKisar(CMP) we (plural incl.) PAN *k-ita

ikaKola(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ikaPokau(OC) to see PAN *kita₂

ikaManam(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

ikaMaori(OC) fish PEMP *ikan

ika-Maranao(WMP) prefix for ordinal numerals PMP *ika-

ikaNgadha(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

*ikaPMic(OC) fish (generic) PEMP *ikan

ikaRarotongan(OC) fish (generic) PEMP *ikan

ikaRennellese(OC) fish, turtle PEMP *ikan

ika-Tagalog(WMP) prefix for ordinal numerals PMP *ika-

ikaTongan(OC) fish, incl. also turtles (fonu) and whales (tofuaʔa), but not eels, cuttle-fish or jelly-fish PEMP *ikan

ikaTugun(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ikaUjir(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ikaVaikenu(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ikaWawonii(WMP) fish PMP *hikan

ika, ikeaRejang(WMP) curled, curly PWMP *ikel

ika ~ icaMoronene(WMP) fish PMP *hikan

ika-ánimTagalog(WMP) sixth PMP *ika-enem

ika-anómBikol(WMP) sixth PMP *ika-enem

ika-ápatHiligaynon(WMP) fourth PPh *ika-epat

ika-ápatTagalog(WMP) fourth PPh *ika-epat

ikabKelabit(WMP) opening in the longhouse roof for the entrance of light and air, and for the exit of smoke from the cooking fire PWMP *iŋkab

ikabKelabit(WMP) opening in the roof for light and exit of smoke from the hearth PMP *siŋkab

i ka-ciwaFijian(OC) ninth PMP *ika-siwa

ika-doaYami(WMP) second PMP *ika-duha

i ka-duaSangir(WMP) we two (inclusive) PWMP *ka-duha

ika-duháCebuano(WMP) second PMP *ika-duha

ika-duháMasbatenyo(WMP) second PMP *ika-duha

ika-duwáBikol(WMP) second PMP *ika-duha

ika-duwaBinukid(WMP) second PMP *ika-duha

ika-enémCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) sixth PMP *ika-enem

ika-epatCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) fourth PPh *ika-epat

íkāgIsneg(WMP) cough; the root of a tree that relieves cough, when chewed for five consecutive days PWMP *ikej

íkagItawis(WMP) cough PWMP *ikej

i kaiHawaiian(OC) towards the sea PMP *tasik

ika-ikaHawaiian(OC) strong, powerful; strength, force, energy PMP *qitaq

i-káiŋIlokano(WMP) to place in the káiŋ basket PPH *kaqiŋ

i-káiŋIlokano(WMP) to place in a káiŋ basket PPH *kaiŋ

i-ka-isáHiligaynon(WMP) first PWMP *ika-isa

ikalKapampangan(WMP) curly, crisp, of the hair (like a Negro) PWMP *ikel

ikalMalay(WMP) curly (of hair) PWMP *ikel

ika-labi-m-pitóTagalog(WMP) seventeenth PAN *pitu₁

ika-lawáTagalog(WMP) second PMP *ika-duha

i-kalbítIlokano(WMP) to catch one’s attention by touching PPH *kal(e)bit

i-káliIlokano(WMP) to bury something, inhume PMP *kali₂

ikal-ikalNgaju Dayak(WMP) curly (of the hair) PWMP *ikel

ika-limáCebuano(WMP) fifth (ordinal numeral) PMP *ika-lima

i ka-limaFijian(OC) fifth (ordinal numeral) PMP *ika-lima

ika-limáHiligaynon(WMP) fifth (ordinal numeral) PMP *ika-lima

ika-limaMansaka(WMP) fifth (ordinal numeral) PMP *ika-lima

ika-limáMasbatenyo(WMP) fifth (ordinal numeral) PMP *ika-lima

(i)ka-limáTagalog(WMP) fifth (ordinal numeral) PMP *ika-lima

i-kalúbanIlokano(WMP) to sheathe PPH *kaluban

i-kamáligIlokano(WMP) to store in the granary PMP *kamaliR

(i)kamenIbaloy(WMP) woven bamboo sleeping mat PPh *ikamen

ikaménIlokano(WMP) mat. A coarse fabric made by weaving strips of the leaves of the screw pine, strips of the petioles of the silag or buri palm, or similar material, and universally used to sleep on PPh *ikamen

ikaménPangasinan(WMP) mat PPh *ikamen

i-kamiBanggai(WMP) 1pl. excl. independent pronoun, we, us PAN *k-ami

i-kamiMori Atas(WMP) 1pl. excl., we PAN *k-ami

ikamɨnAborlan Tagbanwa(WMP) woven mat, used for sleeping PPh *ikamen

ʔikamɨnPalawan Batak(WMP) mat PPh *ikamen

i-kamuKanakanabu(Formosan) 2pl. nominative, you all PAN *k-amu

ikanBuruese(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ikánCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) fish; go on a fishing trip PMP *hikan

ikanGah(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ikanIban(WMP) fish PMP *hikan

ikánIfugaw(WMP) any kind of fish that is greater than mudfishes; may be applied to fishes in general PMP *hikan

ikánIlokano(WMP) fish PMP *hikan

ikánIsneg(WMP) fish (generic) PMP *hikan

ikánKankanaey(WMP) fish PMP *hikan

ikanKaro Batak(WMP) dried or salted fish PMP *hikan

ikanLamaholot(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ikanMalay(WMP) fish (generic) PMP *hikan

ikanMaranao(WMP) legendary fish-like animal PMP *hikan

*ikanPAmb(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ikanRiung(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ikanTetun(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

ikanWatubela(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

i-kan-áPangasinan(WMP) ingredients PMP *hi-kaen

ikan abu-abuMalay (Jakarta)(WMP) fish sp. PWMP *abu abu

ikan abu-abuMalay (Jakarta)(WMP) fish sp. PWMP *qabu qabu

ikan alu aluMalay(WMP) barracuda: Sphyraena obtusata PMP *qalu

ikan bujokMalay(WMP) a murrel, Ophiocephalus sp. PWMP *buzuk

ikan bulan-bulanMalay(WMP) giant herring: Megalops cyprinoides PMP *bulan-bulan₁

ikan bunaMalay(WMP) a fish, sp. unid. It is believed to be unwholesome for pregnant women PMP *buna

ikan buntalMalay(WMP) box-fish, globe-fish or sea-porcupine; generic for Ostraciontidae, Tetrodontidae and Diodontidae. These fish have the power of distending their bodies with air, and are symbols of empty pretensions. Malays classify them correctly as box-fishes (buntal batu, buntal kotak), sea-porcupines (buntal landak, buntal duri) and globe-fishes (buntal pisaŋ) PMP *buntal

ikan buntal borékMalay(WMP) speckled parrot fish PWMP *burik

ikan buntuʔIban(WMP) rotten or dead and drifting fish PMP *buntuʔ

ikan daunMalay(WMP) batfish: Platax sp. PMP *dahun

ikan daun baruMalay(WMP) spotted moonfish: Drepane punctata PMP *dahun

ikan fulanTetun(CMP) a bright white fish PMP *bulan-bulan₁

ikan gemiMalay(WMP) sucking fish: Echineis (sic!) naucrates PMP *gemi

ikan guritaMalay(WMP) small octopus, Onychoteuthis angulata (a large octopus is loyak, doyak) PMP *kuRita

ikan kakapMalay(WMP) a large fish (‘cockup’ of India; Palmer of Queensland; Dutch kaalkop, Lates spp.) PWMP *kakap₁

ikan kayuSundanese(WMP) plank fish PMP *kahiw

ikan kebasiMalay(WMP) bony bream or hairback, Dorosoma spp. (name on east coast of Malay peninsula) PWMP *kabasi

ikan kékékMalay(WMP) generic for many fishes variously identified as silver-bream (Equula edentula, Cazza minuta) and horse mackerel (Mene maculata) PWMP *ki(k)kik

ikan kemiMalay(WMP) sucking fish: Echineis naucrates PMP *kemi

ikan kerapohMalay(WMP) sea perch: Serranus spp.; a very large fish of the Scorpaenidae about which many legends exist PWMP *kuRapuq

ikan kerapuMalay(WMP) sea perch: Serranus spp.; a very large fish of the Scorpaenidae about which many legends exist PMP *kuRapu

ikan kərapuMalay(WMP) sea perch, Serranus spp.; a very large fish of the Scorpaenidae, about which many legends exist PWMP *kurapu

ikan kertaŋMalay(WMP) a perch: Epinephelus pantherinus PMP *keRteŋ

ikan ketambakMalay(WMP) pomfret: Stromateus niger PWMP *katambak

ikan kitaŋMalay(WMP) spotted butter-fish, Scatophagus spp. These fish have venomous dorsal fins. PWMP *kiteŋ

ikan kurauMalay(WMP) medium-sized threadfin, Polynemus spp. PMP *kuRaw

ikan lawi ayamMalay(WMP) small anchovy PMP *lawi₁

ikan lepuMalay(WMP) generic for a number of fishes with venomous fins, angler fish and goblin fish (Antennaridae and Scorpaenidae) PMP *lepu

ikan otékMalay(WMP) a catfish: Arius utik PMP *utik

ikan pelataMalay(WMP) a mackerel: Scomber microlepidotus PMP *palata

ikan punti-puntiMalay(WMP) marine fish, sp. unident. PWMP *punti₂

ikan puyu-puyuMalay(WMP) the climbing perch: Anabas scandens PWMP *puyu-puyu

ikan rui-nTetun(CMP) fish bones PMP *duRi

ikan sepatMalay(WMP) generic for fishes of the genus Trichopodus PWMP *sepet₃

ikan sepetMalay (Jakarta)(WMP) kind of fish (Chaer 1976) PWMP *sepet₃

ikan sumpitMalay(WMP) blowpipe fish, Toxotes spp. PMP *sumpit

ikan talaŋMalay(WMP) horse mackerel: generic for large species of Chorinemus, the small or young being seliap PWMP *talaŋ-talaŋ

ikan tambanMalay(WMP) sardine; generic for various Clupeidae PWMP *tamban

ikan tamparMalay(WMP) a flatfish: Pseudorhombus arsuis PWMP *tampar₁

ikan teliŋa buayaMalay(WMP) a fish: Gastroceus biaculeatus PMP *buqaya

ikan teriMalay(WMP) the small anchovy: Stolephorus tri, known in Singapore as the ‘Macassar red fish’ PMP *teRi

ikáŋIfugaw(WMP) great step PWMP *iŋkaŋ

ikaŋLun Dayeh(WMP) was stepped over by someone PWMP *sikaŋ

ikaŋManggarai(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

íkaŋTagalog(WMP) slight gap formed between joints or junctures PWMP *iŋkaŋ

i-ka-onoFijian(OC) sixth POC *ika-onom

ika-piláCebuano(WMP) which [number] is it? PPH *ika-pija

i-kápitTagalog(WMP) to stick, paste or glue something onto something else (stress on the object) PMP *kampit

ika-pitóAklanon(WMP) seventh PMP *ika-pitu

ika-pitóBikol(WMP) seventh PMP *ika-pitu

ika-pitoSambal (Botolan)(WMP) seventh PMP *ika-pitu

ika-pitóMasbatenyo(WMP) seventh PMP *ika-pitu

ika-pitóTagalog(WMP) seventh PMP *ika-pitu

ika-pituBinukid(WMP) seventh PMP *ika-pitu

ika-pituCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) seventh PMP *ika-pitu

ika-pitúCebuano(WMP) seventh PMP *ika-pitu

ika-pitúHiligaynon(WMP) seventh PMP *ika-pitu

ʔika-pituRomblomanon(WMP) seventh PMP *ika-pitu

ika-pitu-n-puʔTagalog(WMP) seventieth PAN *pitu₁

ika-ra-roaYami(WMP) the other (person) PMP *duha

i kariFijian(OC) a scraper, a plane POC *karis₂

i ka-ruaFijian(OC) second POC *ka-rua

i-kárusIlokano(WMP) to scrape; (fig.) to insist PWMP *karus

ika-sa-m-púʔTagalog(WMP) tenth PMP *ika-puluq

ika-sá-puluCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) tenth PMP *ika-puluq

ika-siamYami(WMP) ninth PPH *ika-siám

ika-siyámAklanon(WMP) ninth PPH *siám

ika-siyámAklanon(WMP) ninth PPH *ika-siám

i kasoFijian(OC) crossbeam fastening together the outrigger and the hull of a canoe; the children of an inferior wife, the attendants and slaves of a marama wife PMP *kasaw₁

ikatIban(WMP) tie, tie together PMP *hiket

ikátIsneg(WMP) net PMP *hiket

íkatKapampangan(WMP) braid PMP *hiket

ikatMalay(WMP) tying up, fastening; (in Java) head-band, head-cloth PMP *hiket

ikat-anMalay(WMP) what is already tied; way of tying; bundle PWMP *hiket-en

ika-tloYami(WMP) third PMP *ika-telu

ika-tlóTagalog(WMP) third PMP *ika-telu

iká-tluHiligaynon(WMP) third PMP *ika-telu

íka-tluRomblomanon(WMP) third (action, person, situation, thing, time, unit of measurement) PMP *ika-telu

i katoluFijian(OC) the third POC *ika-tolu

ikā-toluWayan(OC) third POC *ika-tolu

ika-tulóBikol(WMP) third PMP *ika-telu

ika-tulóMasbatenyo(WMP) third PMP *ika-telu

ika-tulúBinukid(WMP) third PMP *ika-telu

ika-tulúCebuano(WMP) third PMP *ika-telu

ika-tuwáʔTagalog(WMP) to cause or make one pleased, happy, etc.; to make one rejoice PWMP *tuaq

ika-unúmCebuano(WMP) sixth PMP *ika-enem

ika-upátCebuano(WMP) fourth PPh *ika-epat

i ka-vituFijian(OC) seventh PMP *ika-pitu

ika-vituWayan(OC) seventh PMP *ika-pitu

i-káwAklanon(WMP) you (singular) PMP *i-kahu

i-kawBintulu(WMP) 2sg., you/thou PMP *i-kahu

ikawBisaya (Lotud)(WMP) 2sg., you PMP *i-kahu

i-káwCebuano(WMP) you (singular) PMP *i-kahu

ikawDali'(WMP) elbow PAN *sikux

ikawKapuas(WMP) 2sg., you PMP *i-kahu

i-kawBisaya (Limbang)(WMP) 2sg., you/thou PMP *i-kahu

i-káwMasbatenyo(WMP) you sg. This form functions as a pre-predicate personal substitute for a subject AN class noun phrase. A different form occurs following predicates PMP *i-kahu

i-kawNgaju Dayak(WMP) 2sg., you/thou PMP *i-kahu

ʔi-kawPalawan Batak(WMP) 2sg., you/thou PMP *i-kahu

í-kawRomblomanon(WMP) you sg. predicate pronoun PMP *i-kahu

i-káwTagalog(WMP) you (sing.) PMP *i-kahu

i-kawTausug(WMP) 2sg. topic pronoun, you (sg.); the emphatic second person sg. pronoun PMP *i-kahu

i-kawTombonuwo(WMP) 2sg., you/thou PMP *i-kahu

i-káwWaray-Waray(WMP) you PMP *i-kahu

i-káwHiligaynon(WMP) you (singular second person nominal pronoun) PMP *i-kahu

i-kawKejaman(WMP) 2sg., you/thou PMP *i-kahu

i-káw ~ kawIsneg(WMP) you (2sg.) PMP *i-kahu

i-kaw ~ kawMansaka(WMP) 2sg. topic PMP *i-kahu

i-ka-waeóAklanon(WMP) eighth PMP *ika-walu

i-ka-walóBikol(WMP) eighth PMP *ika-walu

i-ka-walóTagalog(WMP) the eighth PMP *ika-walu

i-ka-walúCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) eighth PMP *ika-walu

i kā-waluFijian(OC) the eighth PMP *ika-walu

i-kawítanKankanaey(WMP) to fight unto death; to combat desperately PPH *kawitan

i-kayatIbatan(WMP) climb up a tree, ladder, steep incline, etc. with something PPH *i-kay(e)qat

ʔi-kayátBontok(WMP) to climb, as up a ladder, tree or steep trail PPH *i-kay(e)qat

i-kayatItbayaten(WMP) to climb, to go up PPH *i-kay(e)qat

ʔikeHawaiian(OC) to see, know, feel, greet, recognize, understand; to know sexually; to receive revelations from the gods; knowledge, understanding, recognition, comprehension and hence learning; sense, as of hearing or sight; vision PAN *kita₂

ikéNgadha(CMP) tie, bind, fetter PMP *hiket

ikePaulohi(CMP) wind a thread on a spool PMP *i(ŋ)kes

ikədBintulu(WMP) a cough PWMP *ikej

i-kedkedItbayaten(WMP) to bind, fasten, to tie PPH *kedked

ʔíkəgBontok(WMP) tuberculosis PWMP *ikej

ikegIbanag(WMP) cough PWMP *ikej

ikehCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) cough PWMP *ikej

ikelOld Javanese(WMP) curled, wavy (as hair) PWMP *ikel

ikelSasak(WMP) curly (of the hair) PWMP *ikel

ikémKankanaey(WMP) to close; to shut up; to close up PWMP *iŋkem

ikenKayan(WMP) a cough PWMP *ikej

i-kenaArop(OC) to sleep POC *qenop

i keno mateTubetube(OC) he is sound asleep POC *mate

ikerKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) a cough PWMP *ikej

ikesManggarai(CMP) tethered, tied to PMP *i(ŋ)kes

iketBalinese(WMP) tie, bind; kind of expensive cloth in which the threads of the warp or the weft are tied off at various places, so that they can be dyed in different colors PMP *hiket

ikətBintulu(WMP) tying PMP *hiket

ʔíkətBontok(WMP) dog collar PMP *hiket

ikétIlokano(WMP) general name for all kinds of nets PMP *hiket

iketJavanese(WMP) plaited batik head cloth which the wearer dons by winding it around his head PMP *hiket

iketKankanaey(WMP) fasten a rope to, attach a cord to, fasten a line to; to strap, to leash PMP *hiket

iketKaro Batak(WMP) tied up, of prisoners PMP *hiket

iketMaranao(WMP) tie PMP *hiket

iketOld Javanese(WMP) band, tie PMP *hiket

ikétPangasinan(WMP) net PMP *hiket

iketSasak(WMP) bind with a rope PMP *hiket

ʔiketTiruray(WMP) a tie; to tie (loan) PMP *hiket

i-keuSa'a(OC) to pull a thing out of the eye POC *kau₂

ike-zuwaManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) second PMP *ika-duha

ikiHawaiian(OC) small, little; slightly, a little PAN *qitik₁

ikiMoronene(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ikiNias(WMP) laugh at, ridicule PWMP *hikhik

ikiPohnpeian(OC) tail, end, extreme PAN *ikuR

ikiʔSangir(WMP) tie, bind PMP *hiket

ikiWawonii(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ikiWetan(CMP) elbow; to hook on, to hitch on PAN *sikux

iki (< *titik-i)Sa'a(OC) knock with the knuckles; beat a wooden gong; teeth chattering with cold PAN *tiktik₁

ikɨdAborlan Tagbanwa(WMP) cough PWMP *ikej

iki-fituFordata(CMP) only seven PAN *pitu₁

iki-ikiNiue(OC) small POC *rikit

íkʔikAklanon(WMP) to cheep, chatter (sound of animal -- like monkey) PWMP *qikqik

ikikBalinese(WMP) laugh loudly (not so loudly as akak) PWMP *hikhik

ikikBalinese(WMP) laugh loudly (not so loudly as akak) PWMP *qi(ŋ)kik

ikʔíkBikol(WMP) eek! the squeak of a mouse; a shriek or shrill cry of pain or fright PWMP *qikqik

íkíkBikol(WMP) the squeak of a mouse PWMP *qi(ŋ)kik

ikʔíkCebuano(WMP) squeak like a mouse PWMP *qikqik

ikikJavanese(WMP) titter, giggle, snigger PWMP *hikhik

i-kíliŋTagalog(WMP) to incline; to cause to incline or to lean sideways PWMP *keleŋ₂

ʔi-kímitBontok(WMP) to close one’s eyes PPH *kimit

ikiŋKenyah(WMP) little finger PWMP *iŋkiŋ

ikíŋ, ik-ikíŋIfugaw(WMP) small finger (sometimes applied to the small toe) PWMP *iŋkiŋ

iki-ruaFordata(CMP) only two PMP *duha

ʔi-kiskísBontok(WMP) to scrape the outer sheath from reeds PAN *kiskis

i-kitaBanggai(WMP) we (plural incl.) PAN *k-ita

i kiteʔSangir(WMP) we (plural incl.) PAN *k-ita

i-kitoMori Atas(WMP) 1pl. incl., we PAN *k-ita

ʔi-kiwkiwBontok(WMP) to stir around, as to stir the ashes of a fire with a stick; any instrument used for this action PPH *kiwkiw₂

i-kiwkiwIbaloy(WMP) to use something to stir (as a spoon) PPH *kiwkiw₂

ikkámIsneg(WMP) seize, take hold of; examine a patient PWMP *iŋkem

ikki-urípIsneg(WMP) a netting needle PPH *urip

ikkoʔTae'(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ikkoʔ-ikkoʔTae'(WMP) a plant with white flowers the shape of a dog's tail, and leaves used in treating skin diseases PMP *ikuR ikuR ni asu

iklug (< D)Agta (Central Cagayan)(WMP) egg PMP *qiteluR

iklug (< D)Tausug(WMP) egg PMP *qiteluR

i-knaIbaloy(WMP) to use, place, set something as a trap or snare PMP *kena₁

ʔiknátBontok(WMP) stretch oneself, as when tired PPh *hikñat

i-koAgta (Central Cagayan)(WMP) 2sg., you/thou PMP *i-kahu

i-koKelabit(WMP) 2sg., you/thou PMP *i-kahu

i-koBuginese(WMP) 2sg., you/thou PMP *i-kahu

i-koFijian(OC) cardinal pronoun, 2nd person singular. This form is always used after transitive verbs and preposition, never as subject of a verb, except in sai iko, ‘it is you’ POC *iko

ikoʔIban(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ikoʔLampung(WMP) tie something PMP *hiket

i-koʔKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) 2sg., you/thou PMP *i-kahu

i-koLun Dayeh(WMP) 2sg., you/thou PMP *i-kahu

i-koMamanwa(WMP) 2sg., you/thou PMP *i-kahu

ikoMori Atas(WMP) you (familiar) PMP *i-kahu

ikoʔRembong(CMP) tail, rear; extremity PAN *ikuR

ikoRotinese(CMP) tail (of mammal, fish, etc.) PAN *ikuR

i-koTaboyan(WMP) 2sg., you/thou PMP *i-kahu

i-koTae'(WMP) 2sg., used with equals and inferiors PMP *i-kahu

ikoTambotalo(OC) 2sg., you POC *iko

i-koUma(WMP) 2sg. independent pronoun PMP *i-kahu

i-koWayan(OC) second person singular marker: you, occurring as the head-word or nucleus of a noun phrase which typically is the topic of a clause POC *iko

ikoaRejang(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ikoacKosraean(OC) meat, flesh POC *pijiko

ikod-onKadazan Dusun(WMP) to cough PWMP *ikej

íkogAklanon(WMP) tail (of any creature) PAN *ikuR

íkogBikol(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ikogMaranao(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ʔikógPalawan Batak(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ikohKayan(WMP) tail of an animal PAN *ikuR

ikohNgaju Dayak(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ʔíkulBontok(WMP) tail of an animal PAN *ikuR

ikólPangasinan(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

i-komiuBonerate(WMP) 2pl.; you all PMP *kamu-yu

i-komuyuBanggai(WMP) 2pl. independent pronoun, you all PMP *kamu-yu

ikoŋManggarai(CMP) extremity, tip PMP *ikuŋ

ikoŋTboli(WMP) tail PMP *ikuŋ

ikoŋ tanaManggarai(CMP) cape, promontory PMP *ikuŋ

ikorAmis(Formosan) after, behind PAN *ikuD

íkotAklanon(WMP) to go around; revolve PPH *íkut₃

ikotMaranao(WMP) greed, selfish, thrift --- in a selfish way PPH *ikut₂

ikotIbaloy(WMP) stinginess, extreme thrift PPH *ikut₂

íkotTagalog(WMP) revolving; turning around; to turn; motion like that of a wheel PPH *íkut₃

i-kotibIbaloy(WMP) to whisper something to someone as a secret, esp. in public PPH *kútib

i-kotkotIbaloy(WMP) to bury something in this manner PWMP *kutkut₁

i-kowMongondow(WMP) 2sg., you/thou PMP *i-kahu

i-kowIda'an Begak(WMP) 2sg., you/thou PMP *i-kahu

i-kowanIbaloy(WMP) to say, tell something PWMP *kua-n

i-kowanIbaloy(WMP) to say, tell something PWMP *kuan₂

i-KoyodIbaloy(WMP) to pull on something (as to dislodge rope caught in tree, plow by carabao) PWMP *Rúyud

i-koʔoMoronene(WMP) 2sg., you PMP *i-kahu

ikraWetan(CMP) tail PAN *ikuR

i-k-ramasSelaru(CMP) to knead, massage with a kneading motion PAN *Rames

ikruLeti(CMP) tail (in combination forms: in-ikru 'fish tail', etc.) PAN *ikuR

ikt-énKankanaey(WMP) be fastened or attached to PWMP *hiket-en

ikuBare'e(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ikuErai(CMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ikuFutunan(OC) be finished; transmitted (of information) POC *siku

ikuKavalan(Formosan) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *aku

ikuʔMurik(WMP) elbow PAN *sikux

ikuPaiwan(Formosan) tail (of animal, bird) PAN *ikuR

*iku-PAmb(CMP) tail PAN *ikuR

*ikuPMic(OC) tail PAN *ikuR

ikuPopalia(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ikuRarotongan(OC) the tail of any animal, fish or bird; the end of any object (the tail end) POC *siku

ikuSoboyo(CMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ikuTetun(CMP) the last, the latest PAN *ikuR

ikuTongan(OC) tail (esp. of a quadruped); to end, terminate, culminate; issue, result; finish up PAN *ikuR

ikuTuvaluan(OC) end POC *siku

ikuUma(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ikuWogeo(OC) tail PAN *ikuR

ikuSobei(OC) tail PAN *ikuR

ikū, ikuhOld Javanese(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

iku asuBare'e(WMP) ('dog's tail') an herb the scrapings of which are applied to abscesses to draw out the pus PMP *ikuR ikuR ni asu

ikúdCebuano(WMP) follow immediately behind someone PAN *ikuD

íkugCebuano(WMP) tail, or analogous structure PAN *ikuR

íkugHanunóo(WMP) tail, as of an animal PAN *ikuR

ikugManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

ʔikug-ʔíkugHanunóo(WMP) always going together, as of close friends PMP *ikuR ikuR

ikug mataTausug(WMP) the outer eyelid (‘tail of the eye’) PMP *mata

ikuhBalinese(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

iku-hBuruese(CMP) take, as a path, etc. PMP *ikut₁

iku-ikuLonggu(OC) tail PAN *ikuR

iku-ikuLonggu(OC) tail POC *siku

iku-kBuruese(CMP) follow, take PMP *ikut₁

iku-kikauRarotongan(OC) the end portion of a coconut leaf; this portion of the leaf was, in ancient times, placed on the stomach of a deceased person, being symbolic POC *siku

ikulBunun(Formosan) tail (of a mammal) PAN *ikuR

ikulIlongot (Kakiduge:n)(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

i-kulóŋTagalog(WMP) to cage; to shut up in a cage; to impound; to shut up in a pen or pound; to shut or keep in PWMP *kuruŋ

iku-nBuruese(CMP) tail PAN *ikuR

iku-nLamaholot(CMP) tail PAN *ikuR

iku-nTetun(CMP) tail, buttocks; final PAN *ikuR

iku-ŋaTuvaluan(OC) conclusion; end; decision POC *siku

i-kuŋkúŋCebuano(WMP) curled up, bent PMP *kuŋkuŋ₂

ikurIban(WMP) follow PAN *ikuD

ikurKaro Batak(WMP) tail, esp. of mammals PAN *ikuR

ikuRPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) tail PAN *ikuR

ikurYamdena(CMP) tail PAN *ikuR

i-kurápTagalog(WMP) to wink or blink the eyes PWMP *kezap

ikur-ikurKaro Batak(WMP) a creeping plant with clover-like flowers, used as medicine for cattle PMP *ikuR ikuR ni asu

iku-sTetun(CMP) last, final, behind PAN *ikuR

íkutCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) to twirl around; to go in circles PPH *íkut₃

ikutIban(WMP) follow, go after, accompany; agree, join in opinion with PMP *ikut₁

ikutKaro Batak(WMP) included, counted among PMP *ikut₁

ikutMalay(WMP) coming after (in space, not time); according to PMP *ikut₁

ikutNgaju Dayak(WMP) be subjugated PMP *ikut₁

ikutOld Javanese(WMP) to follow; be attached to PMP *ikut₁

ikutRembong(CMP) to follow PMP *ikut₁

ikutTausug(WMP) selfishness, stinginess PPH *ikut₂

ikútIlokano(WMP) possession, ownership PPH *ikut₂

ikut-anIlokano(WMP) to possess, own PPH *ikut₂

ikut jalanMalay(WMP) taking a certain route PMP *ikut₁

(i)-kutu-anIlokano(WMP) to delouse someone PWMP *kutu-an

i-kuvu-kuvuWayan(OC) any escape valve for steam or smoke; chimney, funnel of ship POC *kupuk

ikuyBintulu(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

i-kuyógAgta (Dupaningan)(WMP) to accompany, go with PPH *kúyug

ikuʔDelang(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR


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ilAvava(OC) to dig a hole; dig up POC *kali ~ keli

ilGedaged(OC) look at, behold, discern, perceive; sight, view POC *ilo₂

-il-Palauan(WMP) marker of past tense PAN *<in>

ilaAlune(CMP) how much? how many? PAN *pijax

ilaAmpana(WMP) birthmark, mark on skin PMP *qila

ilaAraki(OC) wild, from the bush (of animals) POC *ila₁

ilaBare'e(WMP) wild; shy PMP *ilah

ilaBare'e(WMP) birthmark (sometimes viewed as ominous) PMP *qila

ilaBimanese(CMP) open the eyes PMP *hilat

ʔílaBontok(WMP) to see; to divine the cause of a sickness PWMP *ila₂

ílaCebuano(WMP) their, by them; thing that's theirs PMP *ida

ílaCebuano(WMP) identify, distinguish which is which; recognize who a person is; know a person; acknowledge, consider someone as something; experience, taste PWMP *ila₂

iláCebuano(WMP) shy, afraid to approach someone unfamiliar PMP *ilah

ʔiláHanunóo(WMP) state of being wild, untamed, undomesticated, with reference to animals PMP *ilah

ilaHawaiian(OC) a dark birthmark PMP *qila

ílaHiligaynon(WMP) their, theirs PMP *ida

iláHiligaynon(WMP) elusive, untamed, undomesticated PMP *ilah

ílaIfugaw(WMP) knowing, seeking, finding. Exceptionally, ila may convey the meaning of "seeing, looking" PWMP *ila₂

ílaKankanaey(WMP) look at, look on, behold, see, observe, view, inspect; know well, foresee (applied to any knowledge of hidden things or facts); curious, inquisitive PWMP *ila₂

ilaKapampangan(WMP) they, them PMP *ida

ilaLaha(CMP) how much/how many? PAN *pijax

ilaLi'o(CMP) lamp PMP *qilaw

ilaMaranao(WMP) wildness PMP *ilah

ilaMaranao(WMP) birthmark PMP *qila

ilaMussau(OC) they, them PEMP *ira

ilaNgadha(CMP) flame up, illuminate brightly PMP *qilaw

ilaNias(WMP) see, know, be able; foresee PWMP *ila₂

*ilaPMin(WMP) mole (on body) PMP *qila

ilaRotinese(CMP) freckle, birthmark PMP *qila

ilaRotuman(OC) blotch, patch of color, birthmark PMP *qila

ilaSamoan(OC) spot, mark (on human skin) PMP *qila

ilaʔSasak(WMP) bashful, shy PMP *ilah

ilaHawu(CMP) disappear, be lost PMP *qilaŋ

ʔilaSika(CMP) small black birthmark PMP *qila

ilaSimalur(WMP) know, be acquainted with, understand; cunning, craft PWMP *ila₂

ilaTae'(WMP) afraid and regretful on hearing a rebuke, fed up with admonitions PMP *ilah

ʔilaTongan(OC) (having a) freckle, mole, speck, stain or spot, or patch of dirt or discoloration PMP *qila

ilaWatubela(CMP) they, them PMP *ida

ilaManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) of people, but esp. of animals that are skilful in escaping from and avoiding humans, to be wary PMP *ilah

ilaManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) mole on the skin PMP *qila

ilaWolio(WMP) disappear; decease (sultan or saint) PMP *qilaŋ

ilaWuvulu(OC) mole on the skin PMP *qila

ilaʔ-anSasak(WMP) feel ashamed PWMP *ilah-an

i-lábanPangasinan(WMP) to liberate PMP *laban₂

i-lábasIlokano(WMP) to cause (a parade) to pass; pass by with something PPH *labas

i-lábayIlokano(WMP) to reel cotton yarn PWMP *labay₁

ʔ-il-ablPalauan(WMP) carried under the arm PMP *qabin

iladKelabit(WMP) kind of palm, the leaves of which are used for making hats PWMP *silad

iladLun Dayeh(WMP) a variety of palm tree with leaves used for making fans PWMP *silad

i-ladládKapampangan(WMP) to spread something out PPH *ladlád

ʔilaʃSaisiyat(Formosan) moon, month PAN *qiNaS

ílagHanunóo(WMP) care, caution; avoidance PWMP *qilag

ilagJavanese(WMP) charm, prayer, etc. to wark off evil PWMP *qilag

ilagOld Javanese(WMP) go away, retire, escape; go away from, evade, pass by, escape from PWMP *qilag

ílagTagalog(WMP) dodging; avoidance, evasion PWMP *qilag

ilág, ílagCebuano(WMP) dodge PWMP *qilag

i-lágaIlokano(WMP) to put inside a woven basket PWMP *laja

ilá(h)Aklanon(WMP) wild, untamed, undomesticated (fowl) PMP *ilah

ilahKayan(WMP) squint (of eyes); eyes turned up in severe illness PWMP *ileR

i-lahaʔYakan(WMP) to menstruate PAN *daRaq

ilah-ánCebuano(WMP) shy PWMP *ilah-an

i-lahókTagalog(WMP) to add, to mix PPH *i-lahúk

ila-ilaSundanese(WMP) a sign, premonition (as of the fall of a prominent person) PWMP *ila₂

ila-ilaWolio(WMP) dark mole, freckle PMP *qila-qila

ila-ilafaMono-Alu(OC) lightning PMP *ilap₁

ilaʔ-ilaʔ-anSasak(WMP) shy by nature PMP *ilah

i-lákadAgta (Dupaningan)(WMP) run away with, kidnap PPH *i-lákaj

i-lakádTagalog(WMP) to use something in walking PPH *i-lákaj

i-lakáwBikol(WMP) to take for a walk (as a dog) PMP *lakaw

ʔi-lakuBontok(WMP) to buy; to sell PPH *lákuq

i-lákoIlokano(WMP) to sell something PPH *lákuq

i lako-lakoFijian(OC) away, going, path; also fig. manner, method, the “run” of a thing POC *lako lako

ilh-akuSaaroa(Formosan) 1sg.; I PAN *i-aku

ilalaSa'a(OC) to divine; the charms used are apai dili, dracaena leaf, la’o shell forehead ornament, bows, spears, ähui, dancing club, paddles PAN *kilala

ilalaa daniUlawa(OC) to divine the weather PAN *kilala

i-lalaŋMakasarese(WMP) in, inside; at, upon, by PMP *i dalem

ilala tariUlawa(OC) to appeal to a ghost in divination PAN *kilala

i-lálimTagalog(WMP) bottom; space just below a surface (not necessarily the bottom space) PMP *i dalem

i laloHawaiian(OC) below, underneath POC *i rarom

i laloLau(OC) within POC *i rarom

i-laloMinyaifuin(SHWNG) in, inside PMP *dalem

i laloSa'a(OC) in the middle of POC *i rarom

ilamaMolima(OC) stone axe PMP *kiRam

ilamaNumbami(OC) adze of iron PMP *kiRam

i-lambedAgutaynen(WMP) to tie or wrap a rope around something, scuh as a tree trunk PPH *la(m)béj

i-lanétIlokano(WMP) to wilt over the fire PPH *lanét

ilaŋIban(WMP) lose; (fig.) dead PMP *qilaŋ

ilaŋMakasarese(WMP) lose in the toŋkó (dice) game; deceased (of princes or prominent persons) PMP *qilaŋ

ilaŋMaranao(WMP) lose PMP *qilaŋ

ʔilaŋSika(CMP) to lose, be bereft of PMP *qilaŋ

ilaŋTae'(WMP) term used in game of dice: disappear, lose (opposed to ontoŋ 'win') PMP *qilaŋ

iláŋTagalog(WMP) open, unhabited space beyond a town or forest PMP *qelaŋ

ʔilaŋTiruray(WMP) give up the only one one has of something PMP *qilaŋ

ilaŋYamdena(CMP) lose, waste, squander PMP *qilaŋ

ilaŋ-iluIban(WMP) tree with poisonous fruits PWMP *hilu

i-láŋitIlokano(WMP) to raise to the sky, lift up toward heaven PMP *laŋit

i-láŋitIsneg(WMP) spirits of the sky (usually favorable to reapers; when they want to possess a shaman they use a bridge or ladder to come down) PMP *laŋit

i-laŋitsHaku(OC) sky PMP *laŋit

i-laŋóyIlokano(WMP) to swim something over, carry by swimming PWMP *laŋuy

ilaŋuKambera(CMP) disappeared, gone, destroyed (as belongings when one's house has burned down) PMP *qilaŋ

i-laókIlokano(WMP) to mix with something PPH *i-lahúk

ílapIlokano(WMP) a slice PPH *hilap₃

ilapKaro Batak(WMP) apparition, shadow, silhouette (of something one perceives only momentarily) PMP *ilap₂

ilapManggarai(CMP) vague outline, silhouette, shadow PMP *ilap₂

ilapYami(WMP) cut pieces, cut chunks PPH *hilap₃

iláp, ílapCebuano(WMP) for flames to lick at something; touch lightly PMP *ilap₁

iláp-anIlokano(WMP) to cut a slice from something PPH *hilap-an

ilap-anYami(WMP) reason for cutting into pieces PPH *hilap-an

iláp-enIlokano(WMP) to slice PPH *hilap-en

ilap-enYami(WMP) to cut PPH *hilap-en

ilap-enAgutaynen(WMP) to fillet fish or meat PPH *hilap₃

ilapoGorontalo(WMP) wink PWMP *izap

ilasMamanwa(WMP) spouse's sibling-in-law PAN *idas₁

ilasPazeh(Formosan) moon, month PAN *qiNaS

ilasMurut (Timugon)(WMP) husband's brother's wife (but not wife's sister's husband) PAN *idas₁

ʔi-laslasBontok(WMP) to rub or scrape clean, using sand or earth as an abrasive PWMP *laslas

il-ateGorontalo(WMP) dead PMP *in-atay

i-lauAs(SHWNG) far PMP *zauq

i-lauʔMakasarese(WMP) in the west, of the west PMP *i-lahud

i-lauk-annaMakasarese(WMP) westward, the west side of something PMP *i-lahud

i-laul-oManam(OC) seaward POC *i-laur

ílawBikol(WMP) light, lamp; headlight; flare PMP *qilaw

iláwCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) eat raw food (e.g. fish, vegetables); eat green fruit PPh *hiláw

ilawDali'(WMP) claw PWMP *silu₂

ílawTagalog(WMP) light; lamp, torch, i.e. anything that is used to give light PMP *qilaw

i-lawódAklanon(WMP) the seaward part of any town PMP *i-lahud

i-lawódMasbatenyo(WMP) downstream area, seaward place; towards town place PMP *i-lahud

i-láwudCebuano(WMP) place toward town and away from rural areas PMP *i-lahud

i-layáAklanon(WMP) inland (section of town) PAN *daya

i-láyaCebuano(WMP) area away from the coast or town PAN *daya

i-layáHiligaynon(WMP) hinterland, remote area PAN *daya

i-láyaTagalog(WMP) interior part of a territory; upper part of a town; the northern part of a place PAN *daya

i-laya-nhunCebuano(WMP) hillbilly, one from the remote interior regions PAN *daya

i-layláyTagalog(WMP) cause to droop or sag PPH *layláy

i-layónIlokano(WMP) to continue carrying up to a place PPH *layun

ileAlune(CMP) 3pl., they, them PMP *ida

ileBonfia(CMP) they, them PMP *ida

iléLamaholot(CMP) mountain PCEMP *qili

*ilĕPAmb(CMP) dark PMP *qilem

ileSa'a(OC) a pandanus with slender leaves, used to make pwaso armlets POC *kiRe

ileSa'a(OC) a stone axe PMP *kiRam

ilegMaranao(WMP) cross-eyed, wall-eyed PWMP *ileR

ilehKelabit(WMP) cleverness, intelligence, wisdom PWMP *ila₂

ilehLun Dayeh(WMP) knowledge PWMP *ila₂

iləkKelabit(WMP) armpit PWMP *ilek

ílekIlokano(WMP) kind of large spotted marine fish with tasty meat, rudder fish, Kyphosus sp. PPH *hilek

ilekLun Dayeh(WMP) armpit PWMP *ilek

ilekYami(WMP) type of fish: snubnose rudderfish (considered the best type of fish) PPH *hilek

ilemMaranao(WMP) swarthiness, brown PMP *qilem

i-lemmésIlokano(WMP) to drown (someone) PMP *lemes

i-lenlénIlokano(WMP) to wrinkle, ruffle, push to one side PPH *lenlen

ileŋKayan(WMP) shaking the head in refusal PMP *ileŋ

ileŋKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) turn the head PMP *ileŋ

ʔileŋTiruray(WMP) to twirl, rotate PMP *ileŋ

i-leŋiSa'a(OC) sky, heaven PMP *laŋit

ilepMaranao(WMP) to drink, suck PPH *ilep

ʔi-ləpasBontok(WMP) to complete; to finish PWMP *lepas

ilep-emAgutaynen(WMP) to sip something, such as soup PPH *ilep

i-leppásIlokano(WMP) to finish, complete, do until the end PWMP *lepas

ʔilə́tBontok(WMP) bind, tighten, make taut PPh *hiRét

ilétIlokano(WMP) narrow, strait, constricted, tight, giving little room (openings, garments, etc.); difficult, labored (breath) PWMP *ilet

iletKayan(WMP) tight-fitting -- of a small hole or clothing; crowded; tightly packed, of goods PWMP *ilet

ilh-ánanCebuano(WMP) identifying mark or sign PWMP *ila₂

iliBare'e(WMP) to stream, flow; go downstream PWMP *qiliR

iliʔMongondow(WMP) flow, current PWMP *iliʔ

ʔíliBontok(WMP) village; town PMP *híli

ʔilíHanunóo(WMP) mountain peak or rocky promontory PMP *qilih

ʔiliHawaiian(OC) skin; complexion; hide; scalp; bark; rind, peel POC *kulit

iliIbaloy(WMP) town; sometimes esp. the municipio town center as opposed to the barrios/barangays; (also any geopolitical unit, as province or country, e.g. ili ni hapon ‘the country of the Japanese’) PMP *híli

iliʔIban(WMP) downstream PWMP *iliʔ

iliʔIban(WMP) downstream; (place or position) downriver PWMP *qiliR

íliIfugaw(WMP) village not one's own; foreign village PMP *híli

íliIlokano(WMP) town PMP *híli

iliIlokano(WMP) menstrual flow PWMP *iliʔ

íliIsneg(WMP) village, town, country; birthplace, residence PMP *híli

ilíItawis(WMP) town PMP *híli

iliJavanese(WMP) flow, current PWMP *iliʔ

iliJavanese(WMP) flow, current PWMP *qiliR

íliKankanaey(WMP) town, city, village, hamlet, borough; country, fatherland, any person living outside of one's village PMP *híli

iliKédang(CMP) mountain PCEMP *qili

iliLeti(CMP) dwelling of the monarch PCEMP *qili

iliMolima(OC) plain uncarved thwart; rod connecting to boom POC *ili

iliLakalai(OC) thwarts of a canoe POC *ili

iliNiue(OC) to fan; to swing, as a weapon POC *irir

iliRoma(CMP) hill PCEMP *qili

iliSa'a(OC) the second plank of a canoe POC *ili

iliSamoan(OC) to blow; fan POC *irir

iliTalur(CMP) village PMP *híli

iliTugun(CMP) village PMP *híli

iliUma(WMP) to stream, flow PWMP *qiliR

iliWetan(CMP) stone, rock, hill, mountain; used in compounds only, e.g. ili-era anchoring-place, harbor; also in many village names, e.g. Il-miawoora, Gold Stone Mountain PCEMP *qili

iliYami(WMP) village PMP *híli

íli, ilíh-anCebuano(WMP) remote area, thinly populated, usually forested and inaccessible to vehicles PMP *qilih

ili-anMaranao(WMP) fortress, kingdom PMP *qilih

ilibPuyuma(Formosan) cave (Ting 1978); a cliff notch where human beings can rest (Cauquelin 2011) PAN *Nihib

i-libákIlokano(WMP) to hide; conceal; suppress PPH *libák

ʔilhicuSaaroa(Formosan) evil spirit PAN *qaNiCu

i-liémKankanaey(WMP) to hide; to conceal; to mask PWMP *lihem

ilígAklanon(WMP) to flow (downstream); to flow, drop PWMP *qiliR

iligMongondow(WMP) flow; carried off on the current PWMP *qiliR

íligSambal (Botolan)(WMP) lean on PPh *hírig

íligHiligaynon(WMP) flow, current PWMP *qiliR

ílig-anHiligaynon(WMP) ditch, drainage PWMP *qiliR-an

i-ligtásBikol(WMP) to save or rescue; to recover, retrieve PPH *lig(e)tas

ilih-ánAklanon(WMP) place, location PMP *qilih

ilih-ánTagalog(WMP) shelter against wind or rain; mountain retreat PMP *qilih

il-ihiʔ-ánAklanon(WMP) urinal, place to urinate PMP *ihiq

ili-hunErai(CMP) skirt of the village PMP *híli

ilíkKankanaey(WMP) to shell (rice) with the feet PAN *iRik

ilíkPangasinan(WMP) unhusked rice PAN *iRik

ʔi-likəpBontok(WMP) to shut up, as a house; to close off, as a flow of water PPH *liŋkep

i-liklíkIlokano(WMP) to keep someone from danger PPH *liklík

i-likuzPaiwan(Formosan) behind (when stationary) PAN *likud

i-limAvava(OC) five PAN *lima

i-limLeviamp(OC) five PAN *lima

i-limLingarak(OC) five PAN *lima

i-limSowa(OC) five POC *i-lima

i-limVinmavis(OC) five POC *i-lima

i-limaMongondow(WMP) the fifth PWMP *iŋ-lima

i-limaFordata(CMP) five PAN *lima

i-limaTalur(CMP) five PAN *lima

i-limaTolai(OC) five POC *i-lima

i-limaVowa(OC) five POC *i-lima

i-límedIlokano(WMP) to hide, conceal PPH *liméd

ilimoMailu(OC) big, softwood tree from which some small canoes are made POC *iRimo

ili-(n)Erai(CMP) village PMP *híli

iliŋBalinese(WMP) see, look PWMP *hiliŋ

iliŋBalinese(WMP) see, look PWMP *iliŋ₂

iliŋJavanese(WMP) to pour something PMP *iliŋ₁

iliŋKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) turn the body PWMP *iliŋ₃

iliŋMakasarese(WMP) turn the head sideways, bend the head to left or right PWMP *iliŋ₃

iliŋMandar(WMP) shake the head in negation PWMP *iliŋ₃

iliŋOld Javanese(WMP) look at (regard, observe) with attention (affection, love) PWMP *hiliŋ

iliŋOld Javanese(WMP) look at (regard, observe) with attention (affection, love) PWMP *iliŋ₂

iliŋTae'(WMP) shake the head as a sign of refusal PWMP *iliŋ₃

ilíŋTagalog(WMP) shaking of the head in denial or disapproval PWMP *iliŋ₃

iliŋToba Batak(WMP) bend to the side PWMP *iliŋ₃

ʔiliŋ-ʔiliŋTiruray(WMP) look around, scan PWMP *hiliŋ

ʔiliŋ-ʔiliŋTiruray(WMP) look around, scan PWMP *iliŋ₂

iliŋ-ʔiliŋManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) examine or investigate an object carefully PWMP *iliŋ₂

i-liŋi-liŋiWayan(OC) manner of pouring, way something is poured POC *liŋi-liŋi

ilirJavanese(WMP) large woven-bamboo fan (to fan the fire, etc.) PMP *irid₁

ilirMalay (Jakarta)(WMP) north PWMP *qiliR

ili-ralanErai(CMP) village population PMP *híli

i-lislísTagalog(WMP) to lift up the skirt or dress PPH *lesles₁

i-lislísTagalog(WMP) to lift up the skirt or dress PPH *lislís

ʔilítBontok(WMP) outskirts of the village, uninhabited areas outside the village PPh *hilít

ilítKankanaey(WMP) outside of the town; fields; out of the group of houses, but still on the grounds of the town PPh *hilít

ilitoGorontalo(WMP) sliced PMP *qiris

ʔíliwBontok(WMP) homesick; lonely for someone PPh *íliw

íliwCebuano(WMP) long for something, miss something that one loves PPh *íliw

íliwIlokano(WMP) remember (an absent friend, relative, etc.) with affection; long to see; be homesick, nostalgic PPh *íliw

íliwIlokano(WMP) homesickness, nostalgia PPh *íliw

íliwPangasinan(WMP) homesickness; be homesick PPh *íliw

iliw-enIlokano(WMP) to enjoy being with a long absent person PPh *íliw

ilixSimalur(WMP) choose, pick out PAN *piliq

illaʔMakasarese(WMP) be wide open, of the eyes PMP *hilat

illiʔTae'(WMP) flow PWMP *qiliR

ilmu (ha)-limun-anMalay(WMP) the magic art of making oneself invisible PMP *limun

iloMurut (Tagol)(WMP) 3pl. short form nominative pronoun PMP *ida

íloBikol(WMP) be orphaned PWMP *ilu

iloBimanese(CMP) torch PMP *qilaw

ilóCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) sorcerer, witch; bewitch, make someone sick through witchcraft; to poison, be poison PWMP *hilu

iloFijian(OC) look at, as a reflection in water or in a mirror POC *ilo₂

iloHawaiian(OC) maggot, grub; to creep, as worms PMP *qulej

íloIlokano(WMP) anything used for cleaning after defecating: toilet paper, a small stick, etc. PAN *qiluS

iloJavanese(WMP) look at oneself in the mirror; devote one's attention to PMP *ilaw

íloKankanaey(WMP) clean oneself with toilet paper PAN *qiluS

iloKwaio(OC) look at POC *qiro

iloKwaio(OC) look at POC *tiro

iloKwaio(OC) oyster (generic; mostly West Kwaio usage) POC *tiRom

ʔiloLau(OC) oyster POC *tiRom

iloMalagasy(WMP) torch PMP *qilaw

iloManam(OC) the interior, inner life; remember, think of somebody POC *ilo₁

iloMaranao(WMP) orphan PWMP *ilu

iloManggarai(CMP) clear, bright PMP *qilaw

iloMota(OC) see; know POC *ilo₂

iloLakalai(OC) the inside, the interior; interior of the body, interpreted as the seat of emotions POC *ilo₁

iloNias(WMP) spittle, slaver PMP *iluR₁

iloNukuoro(OC) worm, maggot, intestinal parasites PMP *qulej

iloOld Javanese(WMP) look at oneself (in the mirror, etc.); see, watch PMP *ilaw

iloSamoan(OC) maggot; carrion-eating worm PMP *qulej

iloTae'(WMP) shine, gleam, sparkle PMP *qilaw

ʔiloTongan(OC) to see, espy, catch sight of, notice, perceive; find out, discover; be conscious or aware of; recognize, know POC *qiro

iloʔ, iluTae'(WMP) desire something PMP *iluR₁

ilo-aSamoan(OC) be maggoty PMP *qulej-an

ilo-ánIlokano(WMP) to clean after defecating (a child, etc.) PPh *qiluh-án

i-loboŋ-anMongondow(WMP) grave, tomb PAN *lebeŋ₁

ʔíludBontok(WMP) rub one's body with the palm of the hand when bathing, in order to remove ingrained dirt PPh *hírud

ilógAklanon(WMP) to flow PAN *iluR₂

ílogIlokano(WMP) creek (of salt water); river PAN *iluR₂

ʔilógPalawan Batak(WMP) river PAN *iluR₂

ílogPangasinan(WMP) river PAN *iluR₂

ílogTagalog(WMP) river PAN *iluR₂

ílo(h)Aklanon(WMP) orphan; to be left an orphan PWMP *ilu

ilolIbaloy(WMP) saliva PWMP *qizuR

i-loloSa'a(OC) bowstring POC *rolos

i-lomotMongondow(WMP) stifled, smothered PMP *lemes

ilo-nGedaged(OC) interior, midst, inside, core, inlet, pith; the seat of thought, will and emotions; heart, mind, self, soul, contents of memory POC *ilo₁

ilo-nunuKwaio(OC) a reflecting pool or mirror POC *qiro

ilo-nunuKwaio(OC) a reflecting pool or mirror POC *tiro

ilóŋTagalog(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

ilóŋ-anAklanon(WMP) fish sp. PWMP *ijuŋ-an

ílo-ŋ lubósBikol(WMP) an orphan PWMP *ilu

ilópPangasinan(WMP) to sip PMP *hiRup

iloroʔMakasarese(WMP) moisture in the mouth PMP *iluR₁

ílosAklanon(WMP) to ladle out PAN *qidus

ʔilosAmis(Formosan) toilet paper; anything used for wiping PAN *qiluS

ʔílutBontok(WMP) to massage, as a sprained ankle PPh *hílut

ílotIsneg(WMP) massagist PPh *hílut

ilótPangasinan(WMP) massage or rub gently PPh *hílut

ilov-inaMalagasy(WMP) searched for by candle light PMP *qilaw

ilowMongondow(WMP) young, green, unripe (plants and fruits), raw (flesh) PPh *hiláw

iluBare'e(WMP) orphaned PWMP *ilu

iluBare'e(WMP) desire, arouse a desire for something PMP *iluR₁

íluCebuano(WMP) one who has lost a parent PWMP *ilu

íluCebuano(WMP) wipe someone after a bowel movement; something used to wipe oneself after a bowel movement PAN *qiluS

íluHanunóo(WMP) orphan PWMP *ilu

iluHelong(CMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

íluHiligaynon(WMP) orphan PWMP *ilu

iluKomodo(CMP) to spit (at) PMP *iluR₁

iluLamaholot(CMP) saliva PMP *iluR₁

iluLau(OC) drink with a spoon, sup, drink soup POC *iRup

iluNggela(OC) to drink cabbage soup POC *iRup

ilūOld Javanese(WMP) saliva PMP *iluR₁

*iluPAmb(CMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

iluSangir(WMP) become poisonous PWMP *hilu

iluHawu(CMP) saliva, spittle PMP *iluR₁

iluTboli(WMP) orphan PWMP *ilu

iluUlawa(OC) to sup (as yam soup) POC *iRup

iluUma(WMP) orphaned PWMP *ilu

iluManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) orphan PWMP *ilu

ilu-Hitu(CMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

i-luaLenakel(OC) outside PMP *luqaR

ilu-adiʔMongondow(WMP) shrub, the leaves of which are used to clean the bottoms of infants in the first few days of life PAN *qiluS

i lua-naKwaio(OC) the day before yesterday POC *rua

i- luásIlokano(WMP) to take on a trip; bring merchandise to the market PPH *luás

ilŭbSiraya (Gravius)(Formosan) closing PAN *qiNeb

ilúdIsneg(WMP) to pare, peel (cooked yams, taro rhizomes, etc.) PPh *hírud

iluf-iLau(OC) (trans.) POC *iRup

iluf-iaLau(OC) (passive) POC *iRup

ílugKapampangan(WMP) river PAN *iluR₂

ilugYogad(WMP) egg PMP *qiteluR

i-luges-lugésIlokano(WMP) to press down, oppress; to squash the feet (over an insect, etc.) PPH *luges

ilug-ilug-anTagalog(WMP) rivulet PAN *iluR₂

iluhLun Dayeh(WMP) a poisoning PWMP *hilu

iluhMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) channel between the roots of trees in a mangrove swamp PAN *iluR₂

iluh-ánCebuano(WMP) anus PPh *qiluh-án

iluh-iUlawa(OC) (trans.) POC *iRup

i-luhódTagalog(WMP) to genuflect, to bend the right knee in reverence PPH *luhúd

ilu-iluNggela(OC) to drink medicine POC *iRup

ilukTausug(WMP) armpit PWMP *ilek

i-lúkotIlokano(WMP) to roll up PMP *lukut

ilulSimalur(WMP) spittle, slaver PMP *iluR₁

i-lulónTagalog(WMP) to roll up PMP *lulun

i-lu-luArop(OC) to vomit PMP *luaq

ilúm-əlPalauan(WMP) drink, beverage PWMP *inum-an

i-lumutYakan(WMP) to be infested with algae (of fresh water) PMP *lumut

ilúŋCebuano(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

iluŋTboli(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

i-luŋónIlokano(WMP) to put in a coffin PWMP *luŋun

i-lupíIlokano(WMP) to fold, hem PWMP *lupiq

ilurManggarai(CMP) saliva PMP *iluR₁

ʔilurSika(CMP) saliva PMP *iluR₁

i-luslósIlokano(WMP) to slide down PMP *luslus

i-lusótIlokano(WMP) to put through, thrust in PPH *lusút

ílutIlokano(WMP) massage PPh *hílut

ílutItawis(WMP) midwife, masseur, native chiropractor PPh *hílut

ílutKankanaey(WMP) to rub, apply massage to any injured part of the body PPh *hílut

ílut, hílutKapampangan(WMP) a curer (specialist in massage, sprains, bone setting) PPh *hílut

i-lútābIsneg(WMP) to spit on PPH *lútab

ílut-anKapampangan(WMP) cure, massage PPh *hílut-en

ilút-enIlokano(WMP) to massage; rub; knead PPh *hílut

ílut-enKankanaey(WMP) apply massage PPh *hílut-en

ilhuʔuSaaroa(Formosan) necklace PAN *SiNuq

iluv-iNggela(OC) (trans. form) POC *iRup

i-luwásBikol(WMP) to take out, to put out PMP *luas₁

i-luwásTagalog(WMP) to export; to send out of the country for sale in another PPH *luás

iluyLampung(WMP) saliva, spittle PMP *iluR₁


TOP      i,    ia    ib    ic    id    ie    if    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in        io    ip    iq    ir    is    it    iu    iv    iw    ix    iy    iz        


imBuli(SHWNG) tree with leaves used to make mats PCEMP *ima₂

imGedaged(OC) kind of screw pine (pandanus); has aerial roots, and its leaves are used to make rain capes PCEMP *ima₂

imGilbertese(OC) thy, thee, thou PCEMP *imi

imKei(CMP) you (pl.) PCEMP *imi

imLonwolwol(OC) house PAN *Rumaq

ʔimPalauan(WMP) hand; arm; front paws (of animal) PAN *qa-lima

imSoutheast Ambrym(OC) house PAN *Rumaq

imTanga(OC) tall shrub with many stalks, the leaves of which provide wrapping material for a corpse prior to burial PCEMP *ima₂

imaAmblong(OC) house PAN *Rumaq

imaAraki(OC) house, home PAN *Rumaq

ima'Āre'āre(OC) a big clam shell; a big clam shell armlet, worn by the elder men and by the rāmo (mythical ancestral warriors) to break the ribs of their victims PMP *kima

imaAtayal(Formosan) who; anyone PAN *ima

imaFordata(CMP) tree sp. PCEMP *ima₂

ímaIlokano(WMP) hand sleeve (cp. limá 'five') PMP *ima₁

ímaIsneg(WMP) hand; arm; foreleg of quadrupeds (cp. limmá 'five') PMP *ima₁

ímaItawis(WMP) arm, hand (cp. limá 'five') PMP *ima₁

ɨma-ʔManobo (Kalamansig Cotabato)(WMP) father PMP *ema-q

ímaKankanaey(WMP) hand, arm (cp. limá 'five') PMP *ima₁

imaMafea(OC) house PAN *Rumaq

imaMalmariv(OC) house PAN *Rumaq

imaMekeo (East)(OC) five PAN *lima

imaMotu(OC) five PAN *lima

imaPaiwan(Formosan) who? (restricted use) PAN *ima

imaPaulohi(CMP) pandanus sp. PCEMP *ima₂

imaPazeh(Formosan) who? PAN *ima

imaPiamatsina(OC) house PAN *Rumaq

imaSasak(WMP) hand (cp. lima 'five') PMP *ima₁

imaSeediq (Truku)(Formosan) who? (for persons, the most common interrogative) PAN *ima

ʔimaSika(CMP) shell PMP *kima

imá-ʔTagalog(WMP) mother PMP *ema-q

ʔimaToqabaqita(OC) general name for giant clams, Tridacna spp. PMP *kima

ima-Ubir(OC) hand PAN *qalima

ima, limaNgadha(CMP) hand, arm; five PMP *ima₁

i-maaSa'a(OC) outside, at the door; a stick, a match; a round thing; article, one PMP *mata

i-maca-macaFijian(OC) a scar PMP *maja

ima-hLele(OC) five PAN *lima

imah lancahSundanese(WMP) spiderweb (lit. ‘house of the spider’) PMP *lawaq₂

ʔimá-lPalauan(WMP) his/her hand or arm, its paws PAN *qa-lima

i-malif-a-lifVinmavis(OC) thin POC *manipi-nipis

i-malu-maluFijian(OC) the shade of a roof or tree PEMP *maluRu

i-man-dáyaIsneg(WMP) people who live upstream PAN *daya

i-mapKatbol(OC) heavy POC *mapat

imaRPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) grease, fat PAN *SimaR

ʔimarəSaaroa(Formosan) grease, fat PAN *SimaR

i-masLingarak(OC) cooked POC *maosak

i-mataArop(OC) to die POC *mate

i-mata-anIbaloy(WMP) to see something for oneself, precisely, personally; to recognize something PMP *mata

i mate-nSeimat(OC) he is dying POC *mate-na

im aten bua meduŋ men sepuiKayan(WMP) please take some papaya fruit to our grandfather PMP *hateD

imátonIfugaw(WMP) sign at which someone is recognized PPh *himatún

imatónIlokano(WMP) care for, look after, attend to, heed, mark, observe, notice PPh *himatún

imatónIsneg(WMP) sign; something by which the seasons are announced (for planting, weeding, etc.); a mark, a reminder for remembering a certain place PPh *himatún

imátonKankanaey(WMP) find out about; notice; discern; know; recognize; distinguish PPh *himatún

imatónPangasinan(WMP) observe, see, witness, test with the senses PPh *himatún

i-mavLingarak(OC) heavy POC *mapat

imaʔBunun (Isbukun)(Formosan) five PAN *lima

imbaManggarai(CMP) balance; compare PMP *imbaŋ

im-bábawTagalog(WMP) superficially PAN *i babaw

im-bálo (in-valo)Malagasy(WMP) eight times PWMP *in-walu

imbaŋBahasa Indonesia(WMP) weigh, balance; compare PMP *imbaŋ

imbaŋBalinese(WMP) compare PMP *imbaŋ

imbaŋBanjarese(WMP) weigh, balance; compare PMP *imbaŋ

imbaŋDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) friend; compared with PMP *imbaŋ

imbaŋJavanese(WMP) weight PMP *imbaŋ

imbaŋKaro Batak(WMP) alter-ego, competitor, foe PMP *imbaŋ

imbaŋManggarai(CMP) to weigh, balance PMP *imbaŋ

imbaŋToba Batak(WMP) co-wife (only the first wife uses this expression) PMP *imbaŋ

imbaŋ-anJavanese(WMP) equal; in balance with each other PMP *imbaŋ

ímbawAklanon(WMP) clam shell PMP *qibaw₁

ímbawCebuano(WMP) kind of grey lucene clam with concentric ridges running along the width but with no vertical lines, 2 to 3 inches in width PMP *qibaw₁

imbeNggela(OC) mat POC *ibe

imboMalagasy(WMP) a strong and offensive odor, but less strong than hantsina PMP *imbu

imbokIban(WMP) Red cuckoo-dove, Little cuckoo-dove, Spotted-necked dove PMP *ibuk

imbuBare'e(WMP) water spirit which appears in many forms PMP *imbuk

imbuʔSasak(WMP) increase PWMP *imbuq

imbuaʔRejang(WMP) increment, increase, addition PWMP *imbuq

im-buaʔ-anMongondow(WMP) remove the endosperm of a germinating coconut to eat (children love to do this) PMP *buaq

imbuhBalinese(WMP) add, increase, be heaped up PWMP *imbuq

imbuhJavanese(WMP) something in addition; supplement; a second helping PWMP *imbuq

imbuhOld Javanese(WMP) increase, addition PWMP *imbuq

im-buluToba Batak(WMP) body hair, feathers PMP *bulu₁

imbulu buntalToba Batak(WMP) spines of the puffer fish, used to concoct poisons PMP *buntal

imburIban(WMP) scatter or splash with the hands PWMP *imbuR

ʔimeSa'a(OC) the bear’s paw clam PMP *kima

ʔimeUlawa(OC) a large clamshell armlet, grooved, worn by elder men PMP *kima

i melu-neSa'a(OC) under the shadow, the rule of; used in names of chiefs PEMP *maluRu

i Melutei raraSa'a(OC) ‘In the shade of the coral tree’, name of a village on Uki POC *rarap

i metLeipon(OC) he is dead POC *mate

i-metLele(OC) he is dying PMP *atay

i-metaktakNasarian(OC) fear POC *matakut

ʔimfasTiruray(WMP) settle accounts PMP *qimpas

imiGilbertese(OC) you (pl.) PCEMP *imi

imiKamarian(CMP) you (pl.) PCEMP *imi

imiPaulohi(CMP) you (pl.) PCEMP *imi

imiTetun(CMP) you (pl.) PCEMP *imi

imiWetan(CMP) you (pl.) PCEMP *imi

i-mimiIbaloy(WMP) to urinate something (as blood) PMP *mimi

ɨminGaddang(WMP) all PAN *qemin

iminGimán(SHWNG) to drink PMP *inum

im-iniPazeh(Formosan) this PAN *i-ni

imi-niaTetun(CMP) your PCEMP *imi

ɨmisBinukid(WMP) sweet PMP *emis₁

i-m̋itLeviamp(OC) black PCEMP *ma-qitem, ma-qétem

ɨmɨyManobo (Ilianen)(WMP) cooked rice PMP *hemay

ɨmmaʔSamal(WMP) father PMP *ama-q

ɨmma-ʔSamal(WMP) father PMP *ema-q

im-mihLevei(OC) dream PCEMP *mipi

immitKankanaey(WMP) eat, take, etc. by little bits PWMP *imit

imn-aAklanon(WMP) drink (imper.) PWMP *inum-a

imn-ún-unCebuano(WMP) alcoholic liquor or beverage; any liquid for drinking; folk medicine consisting of boiled herbs and roots taken orally PWMP *inum-en

ímoAklanon(WMP) your (sg.), you PMP *imu

imoItbayaten(WMP) you PMP *imu

imoKédang(CMP) mother PCEMP *ina

ímonAklanon(WMP) be possessive (of), hold on to PPh *imún

imónBikol(WMP) envious, covetous, jealous PPh *imún

imónBikol(WMP) envious, covetous, jealous PPh *qimún

ʔímunBontok(WMP) jealous over a person of the opposite sex PPh *imún

imónCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) suspicious, jealous (of one's spouse, that he or she has been unfaithful PPh *imún

imónCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) be suspicious, be jealous (of one's spouse, that he or she has been unfaithful) PPh *qimún

imónIlokano(WMP) jealousy, envy (about matters of the heart, as opposed to apal, which concerns material goods) PPh *qimún

imonAyta Abellan(WMP) jealous PPh *qimún

imótAklanon(WMP) miserly, thrifty, penny-pinching PPh *ímut

imotAyta Abellan(WMP) stingy, selfish PPh *ímut

ímotBikol(WMP) selfish, stingy, miserly, niggardly; a tightwad PPh *ímut

ʔímutBontok(WMP) selfish PPh *ímut

impaBanjarese(WMP) watch out for, beware PMP *hipaʔ

impaNgaju Dayak(WMP) lie in wait for, ambush PMP *hipaʔ

ímpasAklanon(WMP) pay in full, pay one's account PMP *qimpas

impásCebuano(WMP) paid off, up; be done for, finished off, dead PMP *qimpas

impasCebuano(WMP) paid off, up; be done for, finished off, dead PPH *impas

impasMaranao(WMP) pay debt fully; wipe out, consume PMP *qimpas

impasMaranao(WMP) pay debt fully, wipe out, consume PPH *impas

impasToba Batak(WMP) complete PMP *qimpas

impasAgutaynen(WMP) consumed; all used up; all gone; completely finished PPH *impas

impenYakan(WMP) tooth, teeth PMP *ipen

impesJavanese(WMP) reduce a swelling PMP *i(m)pes

impetSasak(WMP) lock, shut, close PWMP *hiqepet

impiBare'e(WMP) walk along the edge (so as to make room for someone passing) PMP *ipit

impiSundanese(WMP) dream PMP *hipi

impiTae'(WMP) a dream PMP *hipi

impi, ipiBalinese(WMP) a dream PMP *hipi

impi, ipiJavanese(WMP) a dream PMP *hipi

impi, ipiSasak(WMP) a dream PMP *hipi

impísKapampangan(WMP) thin PAN *iŋ(e)pis

impisKavalan(Formosan) thin PAN *iŋ(e)pis

ímpisPangasinan(WMP) thin (inanimate objects only) PAN *iŋ(e)pis

impísTagalog(WMP) shrunken, deflated PWMP *impes

impísTagalog(WMP) shrunken, deflated PMP *i(m)pes

impísTagalog(WMP) shrunken, deflated PPh *qepés

impítItawis(WMP) thinness PAN *iŋ(e)pis

impítTagalog(WMP) pressed, compressed PMP *qipit

impitTontemboan(WMP) narrow (as a river) PMP *qipit

im-pitoMalagasy(WMP) seven times PWMP *im-pitu

im-pituMongondow(WMP) seventh PWMP *im-pitu

impoBare'e(WMP) a tree: Antiaris toxicaria (Malay ipoh); poison from this tree, smeared on blowgun darts PWMP *qipuq

impóTagalog(WMP) grandmother PMP *empu

impóTagalog(WMP) grandmother PMP *impu₂

im-poloMalagasy(WMP) ten times PWMP *im-puluʔ

ímponAklanon(WMP) mingle, mix with; consist of PMP *qi(m)pun

imponMapun(WMP) tooth PMP *ipen

imponNgaju Dayak(WMP) what is gathered PMP *qi(m)pun

imponAbaknon(WMP) tooth PMP *ipen

impuBare'e(WMP) collect, gather PMP *qi(m)pun

impuManggarai(CMP) heap; to heap up PMP *impu₁

*ɨmpuPSS(WMP) grandparent/grandchild PMP *empu

impuToba Batak(WMP) collect, gather PMP *impu₁

im-puluʔMongondow(WMP) the tenth PWMP *im-puluʔ

impunBalinese(WMP) sp. of small sea fish PMP *hipun₁

impunIban(WMP) gather into a flock; keep safe, take care of (as a mother hen gathering her chicks) PMP *qi(m)pun

impunKaro Batak(WMP) gathered together PMP *qi(m)pun

impunManggarai(CMP) heap up, gather together PMP *qi(m)pun

impunOld Javanese(WMP) gathered, brought together; bound up, combined; concise PMP *qi(m)pun

impunSundanese(WMP) collect, gather PMP *qi(m)pun

impuŋManggarai(CMP) fingerling of the ikan mua that begins swimming upriver from the sea in February-March PMP *hipun₁

imputKaro Batak(WMP) tail end, esp. of a chicken PWMP *imput

imput-imputSasak(WMP) tail-bone (of animals) PWMP *imput

ímuCebuano(WMP) you (sg.) PMP *imu

ímuHiligaynon(WMP) your, yours (second person sg. pre-position source pronoun) PMP *imu

-imuKavalan(Formosan) 1pl. excl. nominative PAN *amu

i-mudmúdIlokano(WMP) to press down on a surface with the hands; keep down PPH *mudmúd

i-múlaIlokano(WMP) to plant, to sow; to insert, to implant (a new, fresh strip of bamboo, etc. while weaving baskets, etc.); to insert (a tenon into a mortise); to incrust with, to incrustate with, to inlay PAN *mula

ímutIlokano(WMP) avaricious, stingy, tight-fisted, niggardly, miserly PPh *ímut

imútKapampangan(WMP) stingy PPh *ímut

imut-imútCebuano(WMP) be financially hard-up on a long-term basis PPh *ímut

imwWoleaian(OC) house, dwelling, room, shelter PAN *Rumaq

imwaMota(OC) a house PAN *Rumaq

imwa-Woleaian(OC) possessive classifier for dwellings or sleeping places PAN *Rumaq

imwe-Pohnpeian(OC) possessive classifier used for buildings PAN *Rumaq


TOP      i,    ia    ib    ic    id    ie    if    ig    ih    ii    ij    ik    il    im    in        io    ip    iq    ir    is    it    iu    iv    iw    ix    iy    iz        


-in-Agutaynen(WMP) marker of past tense, undergoer or instrument focus PAN *<in>

-in-Aklanon(WMP) object focus and intensive infix PAN *<in>

-inAmara(OC) to drink PMP *inum

(-)in-Atayal(Formosan) infix or prefix forming the passive perfect; infix forming nouns PAN *<in>

-in-Kelabit(WMP) marker of perfective aspect PAN *<in>

inBebeli(OC) to drink PMP *inum

-in-Bikol(WMP) infix marking past and progressive tenses of verbs that take -on, i-, and -an in the regular series PAN *<in>

-in-Mongondow(WMP) infix which forms passives from underived verbs, thereby indicates that something or someone has entirely undergone the action described by the verb; past tense PAN *<in>

ʔin-Bontok(WMP) completive aspect infix PAN *<in>

-in-Bunun(Formosan) past tense infix PAN *<in>

-in-Cebuano(WMP) marker of deverbal nouns representing the products of an action PAN *<in>

-in-Chamorro(WMP) nominalizing and goal focus infix PAN *<in>

inDusner(SHWNG) fish PEMP *ikan

-in-Hoava(OC) nominalizing infix PAN *<in>

-in-Ifugaw(WMP) infix denoting the frequency or intensity of an action PMP *hin-

-in-Ilokano(WMP) perfective infix of -en and -an verbs and many complex verbs with these endings PAN *<in>

-inIrarutu(SHWNG) to drink PMP *inum

in-Kankanaey(WMP) a prefix; the past form of the suffix -en and of the prefix -i- PAN *<in>

inKei(CMP) drinking, consumption of liquids PMP *inum

InLou(OC) lie down POC *qenop

-in-Lun Dayeh(WMP) marker of perfective aspect PAN *<in>

inMarshallese(OC) this PAN *i-ni

-in-Mentawai(WMP) passive marker PAN *<in>

inMinyaifuin(SHWNG) fish PEMP *ikan

inMotlav(OC) to drink PMP *inum

inNumfor(SHWNG) fish PEMP *ikan

(-)in-Paiwan(Formosan) past tense; action has already begun or been done PAN *<in>

inPenchal(OC) to drink PMP *inum

inRon(SHWNG) fish PEMP *ikan

(-)in-Roviana(OC) a prefix or infix used to form nouns from verbs and adjectives PAN *<in>

inSawai(SHWNG) fish PEMP *ikan

-inTagalog(WMP) direct passive; also used in imperatives; e.g. Bibilh-in mo ba iyon para sa akin? Will you buy that for me? (Schachter and Otanes 1972:454); Kudkur-in mo aŋ niyog Grate the coconut (Schachter and Otanes 1972:297) PAN *-en

-in-Tagalog(WMP) marker of perfective aspect PAN *<in>

-in-Thao(Formosan) marker of perfective or completive aspect; formaive for deverbal nouns PAN *<in>

-in-Murut (Timugon)(WMP) past temporal aspect PAN *<in>

-in-Toba Batak(WMP) marker of the passive and deverbal nouns PAN *<in>

-in-Tolai(OC) infix, inserted after the first letter of a verb to form a noun PAN *<in>

-in-Wetan(CMP) infix, used mainly to form nouns from verb-stems PAN *<in>

-in-Wolio(WMP) marker of deverbal nouns PAN *<in>

in-East Damar(CMP) mother PCEMP *ina

inaAdonara(CMP) mother PCEMP *ina

ináAklanon(WMP) M PMP *ina

inaAmis(Formosan) mother PAN *ina

inaAnakalangu(CMP) mother PCEMP *ina

ina-Ansus(SHWNG) mother PCEMP *ina

inaAsilulu(CMP) mother, mother’s sister PCEMP *ina

inaBalinese(WMP) mother (animals) PMP *ina

inaBare'e(WMP) sleep, lie down PAN *qinep

ina-ʔKelabit(WMP) my daughter (addr.) PAN *iná-q

inaBekatan(WMP) mother PMP *ina

ináBikol(WMP) M PMP *ina

iná-ʔBikol(WMP) M PAN *iná-q

inaBimanese(CMP) M PCEMP *ina

inaBoano₂(CMP) how much/how many? PAN *pijax

ina-ʔMongondow(WMP) mother (in general) PAN *iná-q

ʔínaBontok(WMP) term of address for one's female relatives at the first ascending generation level; mother; aunt; mother-in-law PMP *ina

inaBuginese(WMP) M PMP *ina

inaBuol(WMP) mother PMP *ina

inaBuruese(CMP) M PCEMP *ina

ínaCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) M (ref) PMP *ina

inaCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) that, there (2p) PMP *i-na

ináCebuano(WMP) old word for 'mother' that is confined to set phrases PMP *ina

inaChamorro(WMP) exclamation, oh!, wow! PMP *qina

inaChuukese(OC) there it is (by you) PMP *i-na

ina-ʔManobo (Dibabawon)(WMP) M (addr.) PAN *iná-q

inaIban(WMP) M PMP *ina

ínaIfugaw(WMP) my mother PMP *ina

ináIfugaw(WMP) M PMP *ina

ināIsneg(WMP) mother (sometimes: aunt or any relative whose relationship is similar to that of a mother) PMP *ina

inaItbayaten(WMP) M (referential or vocative) PMP *ina

ináItawis(WMP) M PMP *ina

inaKadazan Dusun(WMP) M (addr) PMP *ina

inaKambera(CMP) M PCEMP *ina

ínaKankanaey(WMP) my mother PMP *ina

ináKankanaey(WMP) mother, parent PMP *ina

ina-ʔKenyah (Long Wat)(WMP) M (addr., voc.) PAN *iná-q

inaKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) this PMP *i-na

ina-Kola(CMP) mother PCEMP *ina

inaKomodo(CMP) M PCEMP *ina

inaKurudu(SHWNG) mother PCEMP *ina

inaLamaholot (dialectal)(CMP) M PCEMP *ina

inaLarike(CMP) mother PCEMP *ina

inaLeti(CMP) M PCEMP *ina

inaKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) that PMP *i-na

inaLi'o(CMP) this PMP *i-na

inaMakasarese(WMP) M (poetic) PMP *ina

inaMaori(OC) used to emphasize statements as to quality PMP *qina

ina-ʔMaranao(WMP) M PAN *iná-q

inaMbula(OC) that (anaphoric) PMP *i-na

inaMentawai(WMP) M PMP *ina

ina-ʔGana(WMP) M PAN *iná-q

inaMoor(SHWNG) M PCEMP *ina

inaMotu(OC) address of a child to its mother; ina used also when speaking to a child of its mother PCEMP *ina

inaMotu(OC) this PMP *i-na

inaMotu(OC) interjection: oh! PMP *qina

inaNauna(OC) M (addr. and ref.) PCEMP *ina

inaNgadha(CMP) M PCEMP *ina

inaNggela(OC) exclamation: is that so! Indeed! PMP *qina

inaNias(WMP) mother, aunt PMP *ina

inaNumfor(SHWNG) M (obsolescent term) PCEMP *ina

inaPaiwan(Formosan) mother! (vocative) PAN *ina

ʔina-ʔPalawan Batak(WMP) M PAN *iná-q

*inaPAmb(CMP) M PCEMP *ina

ináPangasinan(WMP) M PMP *ina

inaPaulohi(CMP) M PCEMP *ina

inaPazeh(Formosan) mother PAN *ina

*ina-ʔPMin(WMP) M PAN *iná-q

inaPopalia(WMP) mother PMP *ina

inaPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) mother, MZ, FZ (ref) PAN *ina

inaRarotongan(OC) interjection: there! behold! I told you so!; let me see!; move to one side!; show it to me! PMP *qina

inaRembong(CMP) that (2p); then PMP *i-na

ina-Roma(CMP) mother PCEMP *ina

inaSaisiyat(Formosan) mother PAN *ina

ina-ʔSangir(WMP) M PAN *iná-q

inaSaparua(CMP) mother PCEMP *ina

inaSasak(WMP) mother animal; brooding hen PMP *ina

ina-ʔSasak(WMP) mother (of commoners) PAN *iná-q

inaHawu(CMP) M PCEMP *ina

ina-Serui-Laut(SHWNG) M PCEMP *ina

ina-Seru(WMP) mother PMP *ina

inaSika(CMP) M PCEMP *ina

inaSimalur(WMP) M PMP *ina

inaSoboyo(CMP) mother; most prominent or largest member of a set PCEMP *ina

ináTagalog(WMP) M PMP *ina

ʔina-ʔTiruray(WMP) aunt, female of next ascending generation other than one's mother PAN *iná-q

inaTitan(OC) M (addr. and ref.) PCEMP *ina

inaToba Batak(WMP) M, MZ, FBW PMP *ina

inăTolai(OC) M (rare) PCEMP *ina

inaTongan(OC) show the teeth, grin or laugh (esp. in derision or ridicule) POC *inap

inaTugun(CMP) mother PCEMP *ina

ina-ʔUma(WMP) mother, aunt PAN *iná-q

inaVaikenu(CMP) mother PCEMP *ina

inaWahai(CMP) mother PCEMP *ina

ina-ʔManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) M (addr.) PAN *iná-q

inaWetan(CMP) M, MZ, FZ, MBW, FBW PCEMP *ina

īnaWetan(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

inaWolio(WMP) M PMP *ina

inaSuau(OC) this PMP *i-na

iná-aRukai (Budai)(Formosan) mother (address) PAN *ina

inaʔ-aSaaroa(Formosan) M (ref.) PAN *iná-q

inaaTae'(WMP) ghost; soul; heart; mind PMP *nihawa

ina-amaKambera(CMP) title of authority; also: title of wife-givers PMP *ina ama

ina-ama-nLamaholot(CMP) parents PMP *ina ama

ina-ama-nTetun(CMP) name by which some important kingdoms are known, mostly those with special privileges PMP *ina ama

ínaʔ-ámaʔ guraŋunHanunóo(WMP) parents PMP *ina ama

ina atiLeti(CMP) fish heart; also in a figurative sense PMP *qatay

ina beli-tákRotinese(CMP) a woman for whom the brideprice has not been paid at the time of marriage; an illegally married woman PMP *beli

ina-cilaAmis (Kiwit)(Formosan) yesterday PAN *siRa₁

inaeMekeo (East)(OC) belly PMP *t<in>aqi

ina-enItbayaten(WMP) female animal with offspring; foster mother; mother-in-law; one considered as mother PWMP *ina-en

in-afuhLun Dayeh(WMP) swept with a broom by someone PWMP *s<in>apu

i-nagan-anIlokano(WMP) to nominate, to name, call by name PWMP *i-ŋajan(-an)

inagk-ónaIsneg(WMP) ancestors, elder brothers PMP *unah

inahKenyah (Long Wat)(WMP) that PMP *i-na

ina-hMokilese(OC) his mother PCEMP *ina

inahĕʔSangir(WMP) red glow of evening, with reference both to the color and to the optical effect observed at the setting of the sun PPH *inaR

inah-ínTagalog(WMP) hen or mother animal PWMP *ina-en

ina-iDusun Malang(WMP) M PMP *iná-i

ína-ínaAklanon(WMP) foster mother; stepmother PWMP *ina ina

ina-ínaCebuano(WMP) stepmother; foster mother PWMP *ina ina

ina-inaDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) mother animal PMP *ina

ʔinaʔ-ináHanunóo(WMP) thumb or great toe of man or of animals in general PWMP *ina ina

ina-inaTialo(WMP) aunt (addr.) PWMP *ina ina

ina-inaToba Batak(WMP) married women PWMP *ina ina

ina(k)Rotinese(CMP) woman; mother; mother's sister; wife; female (animal); large PCEMP *ina

ina-kTetun(CMP) female (of animals) PCEMP *ina

inalTboli(WMP) thin ray of light; dim light, tiny spark PPH *inaR

in-alapMongondow(WMP) captured, seized, taken PAN *in-alap

in-alapOld Javanese(WMP) was taken, fetched, carried off, stolen, seized, won PAN *in-alap

in-alapPaiwan(Formosan) something which has been taken; one's catch (hunting) PAN *in-alap

ina limaBalinese(WMP) thumb PMP *ina ni lima

ina limaKomodo(CMP) thumb PMP *ina ni lima

ínamKankanaey(WMP) palatable; tasteful; savory PPh *hínam

inamMaranao(WMP) expectation, prospect, hope for something PPh *hínam

inámPangasinan(WMP) crave for food, drink, clothing, etc. PPh *hínam

ʔinamTiruray(WMP) a hopeful expectation; to hopefully expect something PPh *hínam

in-amák-anCebuano(WMP) something woven like amákan PWMP *amak

ina-mamaMotu(OC) address of child to its mother and father PMP *ina ama

ina(n)Erai(CMP) mother, mother's sister, and the other female members of mother's lineage and generation PCEMP *ina

ina-nErai(CMP) female (of animals) PCEMP *ina

ina-nLamaholot (dialectal)(CMP) female (of animals) PCEMP *ina

inanMurik(WMP) that one PWMP *-nan

ina-nTetun(CMP) M, MZ; female (of animals) PCEMP *ina

inanaMussau(OC) food POC *k<in>an

in-anáaw-anIlokano(WMP) kind of hat made with anáaw leaves PMP *qanahaw

in-anak-anMongondow(WMP) family, lineage PPh *hin-anak-an

in-anak-ánKankanaey(WMP) having young ones, having a child. Applied to animals and to unmarried women who have a natural child PPh *hin-anak-an

in-an-anakGaddang(WMP) bilateral personal kindred (formerly the effective units in revenge and wergild (Lebar 1975:101) PPh *hin-anak-an

ina-náwaSambal (Tina)(WMP) breath (Jason Lobel p.c.) PMP *nihawa

in-ániCebuano(WMP) harvested rice or millet PMP *qanih

inan idunMelanau (Sarikei)(WMP) there PWMP *-nan

ina ni taŋanToba Batak(WMP) thumb PMP *ina ni lima

in-anuOld Javanese(WMP) do something or other, do you-know-what PWMP *in-anu

ina-ŋBuginese(WMP) M PMP *iná-ŋ

ina-ŋDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) M PMP *iná-ŋ

ʔiná-ŋHanunóo(WMP) M (voc.) PMP *iná-ŋ

ina-ŋIban(WMP) nursing; nurse, rear (animals) PMP *iná-ŋ

ina-ŋMalay(WMP) duenna; governess of an unmarried girl of high rank. Etymologically the word suggests "mother" but in a way implying low rank PMP *iná-ŋ

ina-ŋManggarai(CMP) FZ, SpM, MBW PMP *iná-ŋ

ina-ŋOld Javanese(WMP) mother, elderly woman PMP *iná-ŋ

*ina-ŋPMin(WMP) M PMP *iná-ŋ

ina-ŋSangir(WMP) M PMP *iná-ŋ

ina-ŋSiang(WMP) MZ, FZ PMP *iná-ŋ

ina-ŋSika(CMP) M; female of animals PMP *iná-ŋ

iná-ŋTagalog(WMP) appellation for iná, mother PMP *iná-ŋ

iná-ŋToba Batak(WMP) M (voc.) PMP *iná-ŋ

ina-ŋTotoli(WMP) M PMP *iná-ŋ

iná-ŋ, inó-ŋToba Batak(WMP) vocative of ina (mother); at the same time an interjection of pain, astonishment, etc. PMP *qina

in-aŋin-aŋinOld Javanese(WMP) fluttering in the wind PMP *haŋin

ina-ŋ u limaSangir(WMP) thumb PMP *ina ni lima

ina-oBatu Merah(CMP) mother PCEMP *ina

i naʔo-i'Āre'āre(OC) before, in front of; in former times POC *nago

i naʔo-ku'Āre'āre(OC) before my time POC *nago

ina-onIfugaw (Amganad)(WMP) MZ, FZ PWMP *ina-en

ina-onKadazan Dusun(WMP) to be addressed as “mother” PWMP *ina-en

ʔinapAmis(Formosan) jealousy, be jealous PAN *qijap

inapPatep(OC) laugh (Hooley 1971) POC *inap

in-api, in-apuyOld Javanese(WMP) be on fire PWMP *h<in>apuy

in-ápoAklanon(WMP) grandchildren PPh *in-apu

in-apóKankanaey(WMP) son-in-law; daughter-in-law PPh *in-apu

in-apt-anKapampangan(WMP) place of thatching PWMP *q<in>atep-an

in-apusOld Javanese(WMP) to bind, ensnare; to bind together PWMP *R<in>apus

in-apúx-ānItbayaten(WMP) chew, consisting of three parts: a section of betel nut, a piece of a betel leaf and a sprinkling of lime. When it is offered to the spirits, the lime may be wanting, but it is still called by the same name PAN *qapuR

in-apúyIlokano(WMP) cooked rice PWMP *h<in>apuy

in-apúyIsneg(WMP) cooked rice PWMP *h<in>apuy

ina-rGaloli(CMP) mother PCEMP *ina

ínarIlokano(WMP) scorching heat of the sun PPH *inaR

in-arakOld Javanese(WMP) to conduct in procession PWMP *in-aRak

ina rimaBimanese(CMP) thumb PMP *ina ni lima

inar-inarLun Dayeh(WMP) a bright red color (as of a fire) PMP *sinaR

ʔin-ʔasáwaBontok(WMP) marry one another (reciprocal) PWMP *q<in>asawa

ʔ<in>asínBontok(WMP) salted pig meat PWMP *q<in>asin

in-asínCebuano(WMP) food preserved in salt PWMP *q<in>asin

in-asn-ánTagalog(WMP) salted PAN *qasiN

in-asugMurut (Timugon)(WMP) ritual name for the babalian (shaman) PWMP *asug

inatKelabit(WMP) a pull, tug PWMP *iñat

inatBinukid(WMP) to stretch, pull (something) taut PWMP *iñat

ʔínatBontok(WMP) to stretch, as an elastic band or a sweater; to pull tight, as a loose thread PWMP *iñat

ínatCebuano(WMP) stretch, cause to extend farther in length or time PWMP *iñat

ínatIfugaw(WMP) to draw out, stretch out, lengthen, extend something by pulling PWMP *iñat

ínatIlokano(WMP) stretch, stretch oneself (as persons or animals after awakening) PWMP *iñat

ínatKankanaey(WMP) to stretch, lengthen, extend PWMP *iñat

inatKallahan (Kayapa)(WMP) pull a rope PWMP *iñat

inátTagalog(WMP) stretching one’s arms and legs, esp. after waking up PWMP *iñat

i-nataŋAgta (Dupaningan)(WMP) cook vegetables PMP *nateŋ

in-atáyAklanon(WMP) liver disease PMP *qatay

in-ateLun Dayeh(WMP) was killed PMP *in-atay

inát-enKankanaey(WMP) be stretched by PPh *iñát-en

ʔ<in>atə́pBontok(WMP) a house style in which the roof is thatched PWMP *q<in>atep

in-aterOld Javanese(WMP) was escorted, was brought PWMP *h<in>ateD

in-atodMongondow(WMP) what has been brought; was brought, was escorted PWMP *h<in>ateD

inát-unCebuano(WMP) be stretched by PPh *iñát-en

i-nauBugotu(OC) I POC *naku

i-nauMota(OC) 1sg., I, me POC *naku

i-nauPaamese(OC) I, me, 1sg. POC *naku

i-nauRaga(OC) 1sg. POC *naku

in-auTorau(OC) 1sg, I, me PAN *aku

i-nauUlawa(OC) 1sg., used as subject and also as a possessive POC *naku

ina-únCebuano(WMP) godmother; act as godmother PWMP *ina-en

inaʔ-unTausug(WMP) aunt PWMP *ina-en

i-navalʸPaiwan(Formosan) toward the upper reaches of river (thus "south" if the river runs from south to north) PAN *wanaN

in-avoyoItbayaten(WMP) molasses, juice of sugarcane; sugarcane juice gotten after milling PPH *abuyu

ináwaSambal (Bolinaw)(WMP) breath (Jason Lobel p.c.) PMP *nihawa

inawaMuna(WMP) life-sustaining force, spirit, soul (of people, animals, also maize and rice; when people die this soul leaves the body) PMP *nihawa

-ináwaKapampangan(WMP) rest PMP *nihawa

inawa-(n)Yami(WMP) breath PMP *nihawa

inawá-wənSambal (Botolan)(WMP) breath (Jason Lobel p.c.) PMP *nihawa

inawoTombonuwo(WMP) soul PMP *nihawa

in-axapItbayaten(WMP) was taken; took, got PAN *in-alap

iná-yBikol(WMP) mom (informal) PMP *iná-i

ina-yBinukid(WMP) M PMP *iná-i

ɨnayManobo (Kalamansig Cotabato)(WMP) sand PAN *qenay

ina-yKayan (Long Atip)(WMP) M, MZ, FZ (addr., voc.) PMP *iná-i

ina-yKenyah (Long Dunin)(WMP) M, MZ, FZ (addr., voc.) PMP *iná-i

iná-yTagalog(WMP) M (addr.) PMP *iná-i

i-nayThao(Formosan) here, this, these PAN *nay

iná-y, inó-yIfugaw(WMP) exclamation denoting astonishment or surprise PMP *qina

in-áyamAklanon(WMP) act like a dog (implying overt sexual behavior) PWMP *qayam₂

incepKaro Batak(WMP) to drink (of animals); suck, slurp PAN *hisep

incepKaro Batak(WMP) drink (of animals), slurp PMP *qisep

incutMalay(WMP) awry; out of position, as a strained limb; sidelong movement PMP *icud

indaBare'e(WMP) debt PWMP *hinzam

indá-ʔKapampangan(WMP) mother PWMP *inda₂

indaʔMandar(WMP) step, tread on PMP *inzak

inda(a)Wolio(WMP) no, not PWMP *inda₃

in-dadáŋIlokano(WMP) re-warmed (food) PWMP *d<in>aŋdaŋ

in-dahanToba Batak(WMP) cooked rice PMP *zakan

in-d̲ahan-anKadazan Dusun(WMP) place to walk PMP *zalan

inda-iIban(WMP) mother, call mother, term of reference or address for woman of mother's generation PWMP *inda₂

indákTagalog(WMP) jig, dance; gambol; skip and dance; tap dancing PWMP *enzak

indákTagalog(WMP) jig dance; gambol; skip and dance; tap dancing PMP *inzak

in-dálaIfugaw(WMP) menstruation PAN *daRaq

in-dalaSangir(WMP) people from the interior PAN *daya

in-dālaIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) to menstruate PAN *daRaq

indámKapampangan(WMP) borrow, lend PWMP *hinzam

indanTae'(WMP) lend, borrow PWMP *hinzam

indanMaranao(WMP) eulogy; to eulogize, praise PWMP *i(n)dan

indaŋAcehnese(WMP) wooden vessel in which gold is panned PWMP *indaŋ

indáŋIlokano(WMP) overseer, supervisor, superintendent, foreman, inspector; to mind, regard with attention PWMP *indaŋ

indaŋMandar(WMP) borrow, lend PWMP *hinzam

inda-ŋNgaju Dayak(WMP) mother PWMP *inda₂

inda-ŋOld Javanese(WMP) mother PWMP *inda₂

iṇḍaŋOld Javanese(WMP) go round in or among (in order to search, inspect, etc.) PWMP *indaŋ

indaŋToba Batak(WMP) test, examine, observe PWMP *indaŋ

inda(ŋ), nda(ŋ)Toba Batak(WMP) no, not (used in tag questions to elicit an affirmative reply) PWMP *inda₃

indaŋ-iBare'e(WMP) debt; money that is lent PWMP *hinzam

ində_-ʔSimalur(WMP) mother animal PWMP *indu-q

ində_-xSimalur(WMP) mother (as address) PWMP *indu-q

indiToba Batak(WMP) that, there PMP *i-di

indigeʔSangir(WMP) stride forward slowly and solemnly, with the legs moving and the upper torso motionless PWMP *izig

in-dimyMalagasy(WMP) five times PWMP *iŋ-lima

i-n-dirSelaru(CMP) to stand PAN *diRi

indoBare'e(WMP) mother (animal); big PWMP *indu-q

indóʔSambal (Botolan)(WMP) mother PWMP *indu-q

indo-ʔBuginese(WMP) mother, mother animal PWMP *indu-q

indoʔRejang(WMP) mother, matrix, dam PWMP *indu-q

indo-ʔTae'(WMP) mother; as a term of address generally shortened to ndoʔ; indoʔ is often an element in teknonyms, e.g. indoʔ Sampe 'mother of Sampe'; in a number of expressions indoʔ occurs in the sense of 'leader, head, predecessor' PWMP *indu-q

indo-kMalay(WMP) mother, dam (of animals), base or home in certain games PWMP *indu-q

indo-k ayamMalay(WMP) laying hen PWMP *indu-q

indo-ŋMalay(WMP) mother PWMP *indu-ŋ

indràm-anaMalagasy(WMP) used of the person from whom something is borrowed PWMP *hinzam-an

indràm-inaMalagasy(WMP) used of the thing which is to be borrowed PWMP *hinzam-en

índranaMalagasy(WMP) borrowed PWMP *hinzam

in-droaMalagasy(WMP) twice PWMP *in-duha

indu-ʔIban(WMP) woman, mother, female, feminine; female of a pair; sacred plants set with the stones as the "centre" of a padi field; principal, chief, main or bigger member of a class PWMP *indu-q

indúKapampangan(WMP) mother PWMP *indu

indu-ʔMaloh(WMP) mother PWMP *indu-q

induMinangkabau(WMP) mother PWMP *indu

induNgaju Dayak(WMP) mother; a ghostly woman who plagues small children so that they cry often; she is then given a fowl in offering PWMP *indu

in-duaMongondow(WMP) second PWMP *in-duha

indukTae'(WMP) the sugar palm: Arenga saccharifera PWMP *izuk

indu-kToba Batak(WMP) leader, head (Malay loan) PWMP *indu-q

indu-ŋBanjarese(WMP) mother PWMP *indu-ŋ

indu-ŋDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) mother animal PWMP *indu-ŋ

indu-ŋJavanese(WMP) mother PWMP *indu-ŋ

indu-ŋKaro Batak(WMP) mother animal; in general, larger one of the same class PWMP *indu-ŋ

indu-ŋOld Javanese(WMP) mother; familiar or affectionate address to a woman (beloved, daughter): my good woman, my dear girl PWMP *indu-ŋ

indu-ŋSundanese(WMP) mother PWMP *indu-ŋ

induŋ-induŋSundanese(WMP) sing a child to sleep PWMP *indu-ŋ

indusIda'an Begak(WMP) rice scoop PAN *qidus

in-duvoKadazan Dusun(WMP) twice, two times PWMP *in-duha

in-duwoTombonuwo(WMP) two times, twice PWMP *in-duha

induɁ səŋatIban(WMP) wasp, stinging insect (‘mother of stings’) PAN *seŋet₂

ineArosi(OC) to wonder, be astonished PMP *qina

ineBare'e(WMP) M, MZ, FZ PMP *ina

ineBekatan(WMP) mother’s sister PMP *ina

inəBukat(WMP) mother PMP *ina

ineBuruese(CMP) lie down, sleep PAN *qinep

ineEnde(CMP) M PMP *iná-i

ineKomodo(CMP) M (voc.) PMP *iná-i

ineKomodo(CMP) mother! (exclamation); oh, what a pity! PMP *qina

inéLeti(CMP) Oh! wow! PMP *qina

ineManggarai(CMP) M PMP *iná-i

ineNgadha(CMP) interjection of astonishment or fright PMP *qina

*inĕPAmb(CMP) lie down, sleep PAN *qinep

ʔineRarotongan(OC) general term applied to females; sometimes denotes respect or kind regard, but is (or was) mostly used towards young women and those of adult age; in some cases used as a term of endearment by a lover towards his sweetheart; it is extensively used in love songs POC *pine

ineRembong(CMP) M PMP *iná-i

ineWatubela(CMP) that PMP *i-na

ineWetan(CMP) exclamation expressing astonishment or dismay PMP *qina

iné-améManggarai(CMP) wife's parents PMP *ina ama

inebBalinese(WMP) lock, shut up, keep closed PAN *qiNeb

inebJavanese(WMP) window shutters; shut in or out; closed (as a door) PAN *qiNeb

inebKavalan(Formosan) close; door PAN *qiNeb

iné-emaNgadha(CMP) parents, ancestors PMP *ina ama

in-èfatraMalagasy(WMP) four times PWMP *iŋg-epat

inehKelabit(WMP) that PMP *i-na

inəhBintulu(WMP) that (3p) PMP *i-na

ine ibanMurik(WMP) mother-in-law PMP *ibah-an

inemBalinese(WMP) to drink (High Balinese; = inum in Low Balinese) PWMP *inem

inemDusner(SHWNG) to drink PMP *inum

inemKaro Batak(WMP) to drink PWMP *inem

inĕmNumfor(SHWNG) to drink PMP *inum

inemRon(SHWNG) to drink PMP *inum

inemSasak(WMP) to drink PWMP *inem

inəmSimalur(WMP) to drink PWMP *inem

ʔinemTiruray(WMP) to drink PWMP *inem

ʔin-ənatBontok(WMP) to pull back; to withdraw PPH *enat

in-eṇḍem-eṇḍemOld Javanese(WMP) to foster, feel deeply PWMP *qendem

in-éninaMalagasy(WMP) six times PWMP *iŋg-enem

i-neŋKayan(WMP) see, look; face PAN *Neŋ

inepBalinese(WMP) stay overnight PAN *qinep

inepJavanese(WMP) stay somewhere overnight; have a house guest PAN *qinep

inepMalay (Jakarta)(WMP) stay the night, sleep over PAN *qinep

inepTolai(OC) lie down, sleep PAN *qinep

i-neuSa'a(OC) 1sg., used as subject only and followed by nou POC *naku

inewMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) what? PAN *inu

ine-yKalamian Tagbanwa(WMP) MZ, FZ; stepmother PMP *iná-i

ine-yManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) M (ref.) PMP *iná-i

in-haʔatTalur(CMP) four PMP *epat

iniAmis(Formosan) here, near at hand PAN *i-ni

iniArosi(OC) this; here PAN *i-ni

iniAtayal (Squliq)(Formosan) preverbal negator, usually negating past tense (less commonly present tense); negated possibility or a prohibition PAN *ini

iniBare'e(WMP) sweat PWMP *qinit

iníBikol(WMP) this, these PAN *i-ni

íniCebuano(WMP) be here PAN *i-ni

iniFordata(CMP) this; here PAN *i-ni

iníHiligaynon(WMP) this PAN *i-ni

iniKalagan(WMP) this, here PAN *i-ni

iníKapampangan(WMP) this PAN *i-ni

iniKenyah(WMP) this PAN *i-ni

iniMalay(WMP) demonstrative suggesting precision or nearness PAN *i-ni

iniMaranao(WMP) this, these PAN *i-ni

iniMuna(WMP) this PAN *i-ni

iniNggela(OC) these PAN *i-ni

iniPaiwan(Formosan) not do something; no! PAN *ini

ʔiniPalawan Batak(WMP) here PAN *i-ni

iniPazeh(Formosan) no, not (negator of verbs and adjectives) PAN *ini

*iniPPuy(Formosan) this PAN *i-ni

iniSa'a(OC) that PAN *i-ni

iniSaisiyat(Formosan) no, not PAN *ini

ʔiniSamoan(OC) pinch, nip PMP *kinit

iniSangir(WMP) this, these PAN *i-ni

iniSasak(WMP) this PAN *i-ni

iniSeediq(Formosan) negator of dynamic and stative verbs PAN *ini

iniSundanese(WMP) this PAN *i-ni

iniWolio(WMP) sweat PWMP *qinit

ini-chayohItbayaten(WMP) transferred piled big trees from the field PMP *kahiw

inihKelabit(WMP) this PAN *i-ni

i-niimKosraean(OC) dip out, scoop out, bail POC *nimas

in-ikoMota(OC) 2sg., you POC *iko

in-iluhLun Dayeh(WMP) sickened due to food poisoning PWMP *hilu

inimBiga(SHWNG) to drink PMP *inum

inɨmKalagan(WMP) to drink PWMP *inem

inɨmMamanwa(WMP) to drink PWMP *inem

inɨmMansaka(WMP) to drink PWMP *inem

*ɨnɨmPSS(WMP) six PAN *enem

i-nimaFijian(OC) a baler (instrument) POC *nimas

i-nimaWayan(OC) baler, bailer, anything used to bail POC *nimas

ini-m-puruBimanese(CMP) sixty PMP *enem ŋa puluq

in-ínatKankanaey(WMP) elastic; rubber, gutta percha PWMP *iñat

in-inumMongondow(WMP) what is drunk PPh *in-inum

in-ipiOld Javanese(WMP) dream PMP *h<in>ipi

inipiBisaya (Lotud)(WMP) dream PMP *h<in>ipi

i-nipit-aiMongondow(WMP) make it thinner! PMP *nipis

in-isuh-anOld Javanese(WMP) to wash PMP *hisuq

ínitAklanon(WMP) to heat, make hot PWMP *qinit

ínitBikol(WMP) heat; warmth; argumentative, impatient PWMP *qinit

initMongondow(WMP) warm water PWMP *qinit

ʔínitBontok(WMP) to heat a liquid, as soup or water; sun PWMP *qinit

inítCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) hot (water); feverish PWMP *qinit

ínitCebuano(WMP) hot, warm to the touch; enthusiastic, heated, with vigorous concern; sunny and clear; heat; sun, as opposed to shade PWMP *qinit

ínitHanunóo(WMP) sun PWMP *qinit

ínitHiligaynon(WMP) heat, temperature, heat of the sun; anger PWMP *qinit

ínitIfugaw(WMP) artificial warmth or heat (not potaŋ heat produced by the sun); applied to whatever is warmed or rewarmed by the fire PWMP *qinit

ínitIlokano(WMP) Sun PWMP *qinit

ínitIsneg(WMP) to warm up, reheat cooked vegetables PWMP *qinit

ínitKankanaey(WMP) to heat, to warm (water, cooked vegetables) PWMP *qinit

initMansaka(WMP) sweat PWMP *qinit

ínitTagalog(WMP) heat, warmth; temperature; excitement, enthusiasm; anger, wrath PWMP *qinit

initTotoli(WMP) hot PWMP *qinit

initManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) heat PWMP *qinit

inít-anHiligaynon(WMP) sunshine PWMP *qinit

ʔinít-ənBontok(WMP) be heated by PPh *qinit-en

init-onBikol(WMP) be heated by PPh *qinit-en

init-unCebuano(WMP) easily angered; become short-tempered PPh *qinit-en

i-niwaWakasihu(CMP) thin (people) PMP *niwaŋ

in-íwit-anKankanaey(WMP) hind part of a G-string PPh *íwit

ʔin-ʔiyút, iyut-ə́nBontok(WMP) have sexual intercourse PAN *qiut

injakMinangkabau(WMP) step, tread PMP *inzak

injakToba Batak(WMP) step on PMP *inzak

injak-injakMinangkabau(WMP) pedals, stirrups PMP *inzak

injamBanjarese(WMP) borrow PWMP *hinzam

injamKaro Batak(WMP) borrow, lend PWMP *hinzam

injamNgaju Dayak(WMP) borrow, lend PWMP *hinzam

injamToba Batak(WMP) borrow, lend PWMP *hinzam

injauIban(WMP) borrowing, borrow PWMP *hinzam

injukSundanese(WMP) the black and hairy tissue of the sugar palm which grows where the leaves come out PWMP *izuk

in-ka-limaIbaloy(WMP) one fifth PWMP *iŋ-lima

in maminNumfor(SHWNG) kind of fish (can reach large size) PMP *mamin

ʔin-matáBontok(WMP) to have sore eyes PMP *mata

innáwIlokano(WMP) do the dishes; wash, rinse, cleanse plates, glasses, jars, etc. PMP *hiñaw

innaweUmiray Dumaget(WMP) breathe PMP *nihawa

ɨnniŋBuginese(WMP) eyebrow PWMP *keniŋ

in-nohNali(OC) ‘he is afraid’ POC *nopo-nopo

i-noArop(OC) to fly POC *Ropok

inoBisaya(WMP) that PMP *i-na

inoGilbertese(OC) worm, larva PMP *qulej

inoLampung(WMP) that PMP *i-na

inoʔLampung(WMP) spend the night PAN *qinep

inoMalagasy (Provincial)(WMP) what? how? PAN *inu

*inoPRuk(Formosan) where? PAN *inu

i-noSeediq(Formosan) where? (especially interrogative) PAN *i-nu

inoSeediq (Truku)(Formosan) where? in what place? PAN *inu

inóTsou(Formosan) mother PAN *ina

ino atovoTeop(OC) roof, thatch POC *qatop

inog-turóʔAklanon(WMP) index finger PAN *tuzuq₁

ino-inoGilbertese(OC) full of worms, worm-eaten PMP *qulej qulej

in-oitMaranao(WMP) brought or carried by PWMP *in-uit

inómAklanon(WMP) to drink (up) PMP *inum

inómBikol(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

ʔinúmBontok(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inómCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) take a drink (of water or liquor) PMP *inum

inomItbayaten(WMP) idea of drinking; drink PMP *inum

inomMaranao(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inómPangasinan(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inómTagalog(WMP) act of drinking PMP *inum

inom-aItbayaten(WMP) drink (imper.) PWMP *inum-a

in-oma-anAyta Abellan(WMP) was kissed by PPH *umah-an

inom-anItbayaten(WMP) drink from PWMP *inum-an

inóm-anaMalagasy(WMP) to drink (relative form) PWMP *inum-an

ʔinum-ə́nBontok(WMP) to drink (object focus) PWMP *inum-en

inom-enItbayaten(WMP) drink; to drink PWMP *inum-en

inòm-inaMalagasy(WMP) to be drunk by PWMP *inum-en

inom-ónBikol(WMP) a drink, beverage PWMP *inum-en

inóm-yMalagasy(WMP) drink (imper.) PWMP *inum-a

i-nónChuukese(OC) underwater POC *i rarom

ino-naMalagasy(WMP) what? how? PAN *inu

inoniArosi(OC) a man (human) PEMP *tinoni

inoniSa'a(OC) a man, a human being, as opposed to a ghost PEMP *tinoni

inoni huŋaArosi(OC) crowd of men POC *puŋa₂

inópIfugaw(WMP) dream in general PAN *qinep

ínotAklanon(WMP) save up, be thrifty with PWMP *qínut

inotIbaloy(WMP) to do something slowly, little by little, esp. of spending money PWMP *inut

inotMaranao(WMP) frugal, thrifty PWMP *qínut

inotMaranao(WMP) frugal, thrifty PWMP *inut

inótPangasinan(WMP) do slowly or by degrees; consume something slowly PWMP *qínut

inoyYami (Imorod)(WMP) ripe PPH *hinuR

in-oyatItbayaten(WMP) vein, blood vessel PMP *uRat

inoy-ʔinoyManobo (Dibabawon)(WMP) stepmother PWMP *ina ina

in-pi-duáKankanaey(WMP) child begotten after a second marriage, fruit of a second marriage PMP *duha

inraŋMakasarese(WMP) debt, money that has been lent to someone PWMP *hinzam

inruʔMakasarese(WMP) the sugar palm: Arenga saccharifera; the flower spadix is tapped to make palm wine PWMP *izuk

insaMokilese(OC) blood POC *draRaq

ʔin-sabsábBontok(WMP) to eat, of dogs or pigs eating slops PAN *sabsab

insah-n pahraŋMokilese(OC) rust POC *draRaq

ʔinsánHanunóo(WMP) cousin, friend (esp. in the vocative) PWMP *insan

insanKadazan Dusun(WMP) once PWMP *insan

insanMaranao(WMP) join forces and effort, gather together PWMP *insan

insan, isanIban(WMP) relationship between the parents of those who have married PWMP *insan

insan-iKadazan Dusun(WMP) at once, forthwith PWMP *insan

in-sapIban(WMP) smoked (of meat or fish) PWMP *asep

insapIban(WMP) sucking, suck, sip, absorb; to smoke (esp. tobacco) PMP *qisep

insapSalako(WMP) to suck PMP *qisep

in-sárabIlokano(WMP) slightly roasted meat or fish PWMP *sadab

*ɨ(n)siPSS(WMP) contents PMP *hesi

*insɨmPSS(WMP) sour PWMP *isem₂

in-siowMongondow(WMP) ninth PMP *siwa

in-siowMongondow(WMP) ninth PWMP *in-siwa

insirToba Batak(WMP) creep, crawl, slide, slip PWMP *icir

insirToba Batak(WMP) creep, crawl, slide, slip PWMP *iŋsiD

insitIban(WMP) move, move slightly, budge, shift PWMP *iŋsiD

insud-onKadazan Dusun(WMP) the place to which one moves PMP *icud

insud-onKadazan Dusun(WMP) the place to which one moves PMP *isud

insurIban(WMP) move, adjust PMP *isuR

intaBare'e(WMP) forward! come on! let's go! PWMP *itaq

intaBare'e(WMP) forward! come on! let's go! PWMP *ita₂

intaʔMongondow(WMP) one PWMP *isa-q

intaMongondow(WMP) come on! let's go! PWMP *ita₂

intaiIban(WMP) wait or watch for (opportunity) PWMP *hintay

inta-idiMuna(WMP) we (dual incl.) PAN *ita₁

inta-idi-imuMuna(WMP) we (plural incl.) PAN *ita₁

in-taluMurut (Timugon)(WMP) three times PWMP *in-telu

in-taŋaʔKadazan Dusun(WMP) to be at the middle, among PWMP *taŋaq₄

intarorMaloh(WMP) egg PMP *qiteluR

in-tarosIbaloy(WMP) to take someone directly to a place PWMP *tarus

in-taʔuWakasihu(CMP) fear PAN *ma-takut

inteBalinese(WMP) watch over, chaperone, spy on PWMP *hintay

inteSasak(WMP) spy on, stalk PWMP *hintay

inteToba Batak(WMP) wait, await, expect PWMP *hintay

inte, intayOld Javanese(WMP) keep constantly in view, keep a watch on, watch narrowly, peer at PWMP *hintay

in-teluMalagasy(WMP) three times PWMP *in-telu

intemMaranao(WMP) dark in color PMP *qitem

intílCebuano(WMP) clitoris PWMP *itil

ɨntɨlloSamal(WMP) egg PMP *qateluR

ɨntɨŋSundanese(WMP) mirror; glass PMP *e(n)teŋ

in-tohuKadazan Dusun(WMP) three times PWMP *in-telu

íntokAklanon(WMP) become smaller, shrink PMP *itek

intokMongondow(WMP) small, young; be or become small PMP *itek

in-toluMongondow(WMP) the third PWMP *in-telu

in-toluTombonuwo(WMP) three times PWMP *in-telu

intop-aloGorontalo(WMP) to be sucked up PWMP *qisep-an

intopoGorontalo(WMP) suck PMP *qisep

into tobok-onMongondow(WMP) the one who will undergo the ceremony of ear-piercing PWMP *tebek-en

in-to-toldóIsneg(WMP) the index, or forefinger PPh *tulduq

in-tsiviMalagasy(WMP) nine times PWMP *in-siwa

in-tuaWakasihu(CMP) old PMP *ma-tuqah

in-tupoGorontalo(WMP) blowgun PWMP *seput

in tu-tunuYamdena(CMP) fish baked in the fire PMP *tunu

in-tutuz-inThao(Formosan) were piled up by someone PAN *susuN

inuAnakalangu(CMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuAnuta(OC) to drink PMP *inum

inuAraki(OC) to drink PMP *inum

inuAtayal(Formosan) where? anywhere PAN *inu

i-nuAtayal(Formosan) where, anywhere? PAN *i-nu

inuAua(OC) to drink PMP *inum

inuBare'e(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuBinukid(WMP) what, which PAN *i-nu

inuBoano₂(CMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuGeser(CMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuHawaiian(OC) to drink; a drink, drinking PMP *inum

inuHitu(CMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuKayan(WMP) beads PMP *hinuq

inuKenyah (Lepu Tau)(WMP) where? PAN *inu

inuKenyah(WMP) what? PAN *inu

inuKodi(CMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuPokau(OC) to drink PMP *inum

i-nuKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) what? PAN *i-nu

inuMaori(OC) drink PMP *inum

inuMekeo (East)(OC) to drink PMP *inum

inuMentawai(WMP) beads PMP *hinuq

inuMurik(WMP) beads PMP *hinuq

inuNgadha(CMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuNggela(OC) to drink; drinker PMP *inum

inuNias(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuPaiwan(Formosan) where? PAN *inu

inuPaiwan(Formosan) where? PAN *i-nu

*inuPAmb(CMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuRotinese(CMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuSa'a(OC) to drink PMP *inum

inuSamoan(OC) drink PMP *inum

inuHawu(CMP) put around the neck (beads, chain, string, etc.) PMP *hinuq

inu-ʔSalako(WMP) mother PWMP *indu-q

inuTangoa(OC) to drink PMP *inum

inuTongan(OC) to drink; to take (liquid medicine); drinking; drinking water or other beverage PMP *inum

inuUma(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuVaikenu(CMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuWuvulu(OC) to drink PMP *inum

inu, inu-hBuruese(CMP) to drink PMP *inum

inu-aMotu(OC) to drink PMP *inum

ʔinúaŋəKanakanabu(Formosan) female deer PAN *qiNuaŋ

inu-gambuNggela(OC) ceremony, drinking blood of slain enemies PMP *inum

inu-inuKenyah(WMP) whatever, anything PAN *inu

inu-inuMaori(OC) drink frequently POC *inum-inum

inu inuRotinese(CMP) hang together in great quantities, in clusters (as fruits that are tied together) PMP *hinuq

inu-inuSa'a(OC) to drink POC *inum-inum

inu-inuTongan(OC) to drink (repetitive, continuative) POC *inum-inum

inu-inum-anMongondow(WMP) various drinks PMP *inum-inum-an

inuʔ-inuŋ-anMakasarese(WMP) drinks, ususally applied specifically to liquor PMP *inum-inum-an

inu lekoAtoni(CMP) fine coral beads PMP *hinuq

inumAdzera(OC) to drink PMP *inum

inumBalantak(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inumBanggai(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inúmCebuano(WMP) drink, drink liquor PMP *inum

ʔinúmHanunóo(WMP) to drink, drinking PMP *inum

inúmHiligaynon(WMP) drink, beverage, liquor PMP *inum

inúmIfugaw(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inúmIlokano(WMP) to drink (water) PMP *inum

inúmIsneg(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inúmItawis(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inumJavanese(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inumKadazan Dusun(WMP) to drink non-strong drinks PMP *inum

inúmKankanaey(WMP) to drink, to tipple PMP *inum

inúmKapampangan(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inumLampung(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inumMolbog(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inumOld Javanese(WMP) drinking (subst.) PMP *inum

inumPatep(OC) to drink PMP *inum

*inumPSan(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

*inumPSS(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inumSundanese(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inumTigak(OC) drink PMP *inum

inumManobo (Tigwa)(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inumToba Batak(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inumManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

in-umaIsneg(WMP) a field where all grasses, reeds, saplings, etc. have been cut down PMP *q<in>uma

in-umaRoviana(OC) a garden PMP *q<in>uma

in-umah-anOld Javanese(WMP) inhabited PAN *Rumaq

inum-anMongondow(WMP) drink from, drink some from (not all) PWMP *inum-an

inúm-anCebuano(WMP) drinking container; place where one habitually drinks PWMP *inum-an

inum-anKapampangan(WMP) place to drink; thing to drink PWMP *inum-an

inum-anOld Javanese(WMP) drink(s) PWMP *inum-an

inum-anSundanese(WMP) what is drunk: drink, beverage PWMP *inum-an

in-umasPazeh(Formosan) pickled; pickles PAN *umaS

inum-énIlokano(WMP) to drink; beverage, drink (wine, beer, gin, tea, coffee, etc.; more especially: water) PWMP *inum-en

inu-miaAua(OC) drink it! (imper.) POC *inum-ia

inu-miaHawaiian(OC) drink (passive and imperative) POC *inum-ia

inu-miaKapingamarangi(OC) drink it! (imper.) POC *inum-ia

inu-miaSamoan(OC) drunk (passive verb and adjective) POC *inum-ia

inu-miaTongan(OC) consume by evaporation or by absorption POC *inum-ia

inu-miaWuvulu(OC) drink it! (imper.) POC *inum-ia

inum-ɨnSundanese(WMP) something to drink; drinkable PWMP *inum-en

inum-ínTagalog(WMP) drinking water; to drink (something) PWMP *inum-en

ínum-inTagalog(WMP) beverage PWMP *inum-en

inum-inum-anOld Javanese(WMP) drinks PMP *inum-inum-an

inum-inum-anSundanese(WMP) all kinds of drinks; drink on and on, debauch PMP *inum-inum-an

inumoKaidipang(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inum-onMongondow(WMP) what is drunk, drink, beverage PWMP *inum-en

inum-onKadazan Dusun(WMP) to drink (passive) PWMP *inum-en

inum-onToba Batak(WMP) drink, beverage PWMP *inum-en

ʔinum-únHanunóo(WMP) drinking water PWMP *inum-en

inuŋBuginese(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuŋKomodo(CMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuŋMakasarese(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuŋManggarai(CMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuŋRiung(CMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuŋSangir(WMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuŋSoboyo(CMP) to drink PMP *inum

inuŋ-aŋMakasarese(WMP) drink something with something else PWMP *inum-an

inurTetun(CMP) nose, trunk, snout PMP *ijuŋ

inútCebuano(WMP) close-fisted to the point of not spending for the barest necessities PWMP *qínut

inútCebuano(WMP) close-fisted to the point of not spending for the barest necessities PWMP *inut

ínutHiligaynon(WMP) frugal, stingy, thrifty PWMP *qínut

ínutIlokano(WMP) do, etc., intermittently, at intervals, at times, now and then, a little at a time PWMP *qínut

ínutIlokano(WMP) thrifty, economic PWMP *inut

ínutIsneg(WMP) (to do) intermittently, now and then, a little at a time PWMP *qínut

inutKadazan Dusun(WMP) do something slowly PWMP *qínut

ínutKankanaey(WMP) (to take, to do, etc.) little by little, by degrees, at intervals, one by one PWMP *qínut

inutKosraean(OC) god, spirit, ghost PMP *qanitu

inutTboli(WMP) to economize; to use little by little; gradually, bit by bit, little by little PWMP *inut

inutManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) be sparing in the use of something, as money or food PWMP *qínut

inutKadazan Dusun(WMP) to do slowly, bit by bit, gradually PWMP *inut

inút-inótTagalog(WMP) by dints of little work or effort PWMP *qínut

inút-inótTagalog(WMP) little by little PWMP *inut

inut-ínutCebuano(WMP) spend money or use something sparingly PWMP *qínut

inút-ínutCebuano(WMP) spend money or use something sparingly PWMP *inut

inut-inutTausug(WMP) slowly, one by one, step by step, little by little PWMP *inut

inut-onKadazan Dusun(WMP) to be done slowly, bit by bit, gradually PWMP *inut

in-vahuKadazan Dusun(WMP) eight times PWMP *in-walu

inyMalagasy(WMP) that, this. It is always used of something thoroughly known to both speaker and spoken to PAN *i-ni

in-y-āli-nIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) was brought to (recipient) PAN *aRi

ʔinyugBontok(WMP) coconut, Cocos nucifera L. PMP *niuR

iñaLamboya(CMP) mother PCEMP *ina

iñawa ~ inawaWolio(WMP) soul PMP *nihawa

i-ñothaBugotu(OC) yesterday POC *ñoRap


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Marshallese(OC) angry PMP *qiŋet

iŋaBare'e(WMP) think about, take care of , watch out for PMP *iŋat

íŋaKalinga (Guinaang)(WMP) ear PMP *taliŋa

iŋaʔMakasarese(WMP) mindful of; remember; return to consciousness PMP *iŋat

iŋaʔSangir(WMP) watch out, be careful PMP *iŋat

iŋaʔTae'(WMP) remember, think about PMP *iŋat

iŋaTolai(OC) voice; to shout PCEMP *iŋaR

i-ŋadn-anIbaloy(WMP) to call, mention someone’s name PWMP *i-ŋajan(-an)

iŋa-iŋaBare'e(WMP) think about PWMP *iŋat-iŋat

íŋakIfugaw(WMP) noise made by running water PPh *híŋak

íŋalIfugaw(WMP) shouting noise made by children who are playing PMP *iŋaR

iŋálPangasinan(WMP) noise, shouting, altercation; make noise, shout PMP *iŋaR

i-ŋálanTagalog(WMP) to use a term as name for something PWMP *i-ŋajan(-an)

iŋa-nBuruese(CMP) voice; words PCEMP *iŋaR

i-ŋaŋaTontemboan(WMP) open (your mouth) PMP *ŋaŋa₂

i-ŋáŋaBikol(WMP) to open the mouth in order to show something inside PMP *ŋaŋa₂

i-ŋaŋáMasbatenyo(WMP) be opened (as the mouth) PMP *ŋaŋa₂

i-ŋaŋáTagalog(WMP) to open one’s mouth PMP *ŋaŋa₂

ɨŋapSundanese(WMP) stifled, oppressed in the chest PMP *eŋap

iŋarManggarai(CMP) clear, of the voice PCEMP *iŋaR

i-ŋáranBikol(WMP) to name someone after PWMP *i-ŋajan(-an)

i-ŋaran(-an)Old Javanese(WMP) give a name to, call, give or mention the name of someone; to regard, consider, believe to be PWMP *i-ŋajan(-an)

iŋar-iŋar-anMalay(WMP) continuous noise; noises of all sorts PWMP *qiŋeR

iŋásBikol(WMP) tree with leaves that cause itching when they come into contact with the body PWMP *iŋas

iŋasJavanese(WMP) a certain tree with poisonous sap PWMP *iŋas

iŋasTagalog(WMP) a tree: Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) PWMP *iŋas

iŋatBanggai(WMP) think about; remember PMP *iŋat

íŋatBikol(WMP) careful; be careful; to look out or be on the lookout; take care in doing something PMP *iŋat

iŋatMongondow(WMP) think about; remember PMP *iŋat

íŋatCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) be careful, take care PMP *iŋat

iŋatFordata(CMP) remember PMP *iŋat

iŋatIban(WMP) remember, recollect, remind, be mindful of PMP *iŋat

iŋatKadazan Dusun(WMP) take care, look out, heed, bear in mind, pay attention, be careful, beware PMP *iŋat

íŋatKapampangan(WMP) beware, watch out for PMP *iŋat

iŋatKei(CMP) remember, think about; be absorbed in doing something (so as to give it one's full attention) PMP *iŋat

iŋatMalay(WMP) giving attention to; recalling; remembering PMP *iŋat

iŋatMaranao(WMP) careful; to treat with respect PMP *iŋat

iŋatNgaju Dayak(WMP) thinking, recollection, caution, awareness PMP *iŋat

iŋatRembong(CMP) remember! don't forget! PMP *iŋat

íŋatTagalog(WMP) carefulness; something taken care of for safekeeping PMP *iŋat

ʔiŋatTiruray(WMP) watch out, be careful, be ready PMP *iŋat

iŋatYamdena(CMP) fight, make a commotion PMP *qiŋet

iŋat-anBikol(WMP) be careful with; take care of PWMP *iŋat-an

iŋat-anKapampangan(WMP) that which one looks after with care (Bergaño 1860) PWMP *iŋat-an

iŋat-anMalay(WMP) what is remembered or recalled; what is reflected in one's thoughts PWMP *iŋat-an

iŋat-iŋatMalay(WMP) be careful (said in warning) PWMP *iŋat-iŋat

i-ŋátoIlokano(WMP) to raise, lift, promote; advance PPH *i-ŋatu

i-ŋátoIsneg(WMP) a spirit PPH *i-ŋatu

i-ŋatoYami(WMP) on top PPH *i-ŋatu

íŋayHanunóo(WMP) noise, commotion, disturbance, clamor (loanword) PMP *iŋaR

íŋeKapampangan(WMP) noise PMP *iŋaR

iŋehBalinese(WMP) make a monotonous sound, sound always the same PWMP *qiŋeR

iŋélCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) anger, be angry PPh *íŋel₂

iŋelMaranao(WMP) hard of hearing, deaf PWMP *iŋel₁

iŋetBalinese(WMP) remember, think about, come to one's self, awaken PWMP *iŋet

iŋétIlokano(WMP) strict, rigorous, severe, constant, firm, resolute, steady, resolved, determined PMP *qiŋet

iŋetJavanese(WMP) watch or stare at each other PWMP *iŋet

íŋetKankanaey(WMP) terrible, fearful, dreadful, terrific, horrible, awful, shocking PMP *qiŋet

iŋetKaro Batak(WMP) remember, bear in mind PWMP *iŋet

iŋetMalay (Jakarta)(WMP) remember; aware PWMP *iŋet

iŋetOld Javanese(WMP) awareness, memory PWMP *iŋet

iŋetSasak(WMP) remember PWMP *iŋet

iŋetSundanese(WMP) think about, be mindful of; remember PWMP *iŋet

iŋet-anBalinese(WMP) memory, remembrance; memorial PWMP *iŋat-an

iŋet-iŋetBalinese(WMP) unawares PWMP *iŋat-iŋat

iŋet-iŋetMansaka(WMP) anger PMP *qiŋet

iŋet-iŋetOld Javanese(WMP) thinking over, revolving in one's mind; souvenir, keepsake PWMP *iŋat-iŋat

iŋet-iŋetSasak(WMP) think of it! PWMP *iŋat-iŋat

iŋeutRejang(WMP) remember PWMP *iŋet

ɨŋgaAborlan Tagbanwa(WMP) not PWMP *eŋga

iŋgáIlokano(WMP) end, conclusion, close, termination, ending; till, until, to (place and time) PMP *qiŋga

iŋgaJavanese(WMP) up to, until PMP *qiŋga

iŋgaNggela(OC) until PMP *qiŋga

iŋg-apatKadazan Dusun(WMP) four times PWMP *iŋg-epat

iŋ-gimoTombonuwo(WMP) five PAN *lima

iŋg-imoTombonuwo(WMP) five times PWMP *iŋ-lima

iŋgítTagalog(WMP) envy, spite, grudge PWMP *i(ŋ)git

iŋgitAyta Abellan(WMP) to be envious PPH *iŋgit

iŋgítTagalog(WMP) envy; discontent or ill will at another’s good fortune PPH *iŋgit

iŋg-onomMongondow(WMP) the sixth PWMP *iŋg-enem

iŋg-onomKadazan Dusun(WMP) six times PWMP *iŋg-enem

iŋg-opatMongondow(WMP) the fourth PWMP *iŋg-epat

íŋgukHanunóo(WMP) grunting of pigs PPh *iŋguk

iŋ-himoKadazan Dusun(WMP) five times PWMP *iŋ-lima

iŋʔiíŋCebuano(WMP) onomatopoetic for the sound of the music to suspenseful portions of movies, used by children to indicate the part that is suspenseful PPh *iŋqiiŋ

iŋíiŋIfugaw(WMP) a bamboo flute PPh *iŋqiiŋ

iŋíiŋKankanaey(WMP) roar, rumble, bellow, bawl, hum noisily PPh *iŋqiiŋ

íŋilTagalog(WMP) growl, snarl PPh *íŋel₂

íŋʔiŋTagalog(WMP) sound of the violin PPh *iŋqiiŋ

iŋʔíŋTagalog(WMP) sound of the violin PPh *qeŋqeŋ

ɨŋitManobo (Ilianen)(WMP) to laugh PPH *eŋit

ɨŋitManobo (Ilianen)(WMP) to laugh PPH *heŋit

ɨŋitIlongot (Kakiduge:n)(WMP) to laugh PPH *eŋit

ɨŋitIlongot (Kakiduge:n)(WMP) to laugh PPH *heŋit

*iŋɨtPSS(WMP) remember PWMP *iŋet

iŋKaIbaloy(WMP) until; in a very general way indicating the extent of something, both space and time PMP *qiŋga

iŋkabOld Javanese(WMP) be blown up, blown open PWMP *iŋkab

(iŋ)-kamiWolio(WMP) 1pl. excl., we, us PAN *k-ami

iŋkaŋKaro Batak(WMP) stand up from sitting PWMP *iŋkaŋ

iŋkaŋNgaju Dayak(WMP) step, pace, stride PWMP *iŋkaŋ

iŋkáŋTagalog(WMP) unbalanced (in walking) PWMP *eŋkaŋ

iŋkáŋTagalog(WMP) unbalanced (in walking) PWMP *iŋkaŋ

iŋkemJavanese(WMP) close one's mouth PWMP *iŋkem

iŋkesSasak(WMP) firm, well-bound, well-packed (of things) PMP *i(ŋ)kes

íŋkiŋAklanon(WMP) trifling, trivial, insignificant PWMP *iŋkiŋ

iŋkitCebuano(WMP) bite off a small piece with the front teeth PWMP *i(ŋ)kit

iŋ-kitaWolio(WMP) we (plural incl.) PAN *k-ita

iŋkoAbaknon(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

iŋkoMalmariv(OC) 2sg., you POC *iko

iŋkodMansaka(WMP) to sit PMP *iŋkud

iŋkoŋMakasarese(WMP) tail PMP *ikuŋ

iŋkudManobo (Dibabawon)(WMP) to sit PMP *iŋkud

iŋkudKalagan(WMP) to sit PMP *iŋkud

iŋoKwaio(OC) incite, stir up (trouble) PMP *qiŋet

i-ŋoNehan(OC) 1sg.: I, my POC *ŋau₂

ʔiŋo, ʔiŋo-ʔiŋoTongan(OC) irritated, upset or disagreeable -- esp. as seen in one's face; harbor a grudge or ill-will PMP *qiŋet

íŋolIfugaw(WMP) anger; use abusive talking, scold somebody PPh *íŋel₂

iŋolToba Batak(WMP) hard of hearing PWMP *iŋel₁

iŋorToba Batak(WMP) deafened by noise, have the ears "full" PWMP *qiŋeR

íŋosAklanon(WMP) moan in sadness; purr PMP *iŋus

iŋosMansaka(WMP) to sniffle; to snuff up PWMP *hiŋus₁

iŋós-iŋósBikol(WMP) to whimper PMP *iŋus

iŋotMongondow(WMP) become angry PMP *qiŋet

iŋotToba Batak(WMP) remember, recollect PWMP *iŋet

iŋpí, inpiIfugaw(WMP) thinness of things, e.g. a piece of wood PAN *iŋ(e)pis

iŋpísIlokano(WMP) thin, tenuous (paper, plates, boards, hair, strings, etc.) PAN *iŋ(e)pis

iŋpisKavalan(Formosan) thin (of materials) PAN *iŋ(e)pis

iŋpítIsneg(WMP) thin, tenuous (paper, plates, strings etc.) PAN *iŋ(e)pis

iŋsedJavanese(WMP) shift, budge PMP *ised

iŋsep, isepJavanese(WMP) sucked up (as honey, etc.) PMP *qisep

iŋserJavanese(WMP) to have been moved or shifted; (of joints) sprained PMP *ised

iŋserJavanese(WMP) to have been moved or shifted; (of joints) sprained PMP *iseR

iŋserOld Javanese(WMP) shift, change place, move aside, move away PMP *ised

iŋserOld Javanese(WMP) shift, change place, move aside, move away PMP *iseR

iŋsuŋKavalan(Formosan) mortar PAN *iŋsuŋ

iŋuKambera(CMP) sound of sighing or moaning; to pant or groan from burdens of pain PMP *iŋus

íŋugCebuano(WMP) piercing and persistent in sound; find something unpleasant to hear PWMP *qiŋeR

íŋusCebuano(WMP) whimper (as a puppy) PMP *iŋus

iŋusMalay(WMP) snot; mucus from the nose PWMP *hiŋus₁

iŋusSundanese(WMP) have the sniffles PMP *hiŋus₂


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īo'Āre'āre(OC) yes PMP *qio

ioArosi(OC) yes PMP *qio

ioBanggai(WMP) yes PMP *qio

ioBikol(WMP) yes (verbal sentences); an emphatic marker PMP *qio

ioBisaya (Lotud)(WMP) 3sg., he/she PAN *ia₁

Casiguran Dumagat(WMP) shark PAN *qiSu

īoFijian(OC) yes PMP *qio

íoIvatan(WMP) shark PAN *qiSu

ioJavanese(WMP) hurray! oh my! come on! PMP *qio

ioMakasarese(WMP) yes, affirmative PMP *qio

ioManam(OC) spear POC *io

ioMaranao(WMP) you (plural) PMP *iu₃

ioManggarai(CMP) polite expression of docility or submissiveness PMP *qio

ioMota(OC) here it is! (expression of satisfaction) PMP *qio

ioMotu(OC) spear POC *io

ioMussau(OC) 2sg. independent subject pronoun POC *iko

ioLakalai(OC) exclamation: well, all right PMP *qio

ioNgadha(CMP) scream, cry, shriek (as an eagle) PMP *qiuk

iʔoNias(WMP) tail PAN *ikuR

Nias(WMP) urine PAN *iSeq

ioRarotongan(OC) down, downwards, from above; to cause to come down upon POC *sipo

ioSangir(WMP) quickly and willingly do something PMP *qio

ioTae'(WMP) particle of confirmation: yes, good! PMP *qio

Tagalog(WMP) your, yours PMP *iu₃

ioTolai(OC) interjection: yes! let's! PMP *qio

ʔioTongan(OC) yes PMP *qio

iohLampung(WMP) urine PAN *iSeq

iokManggarai(CMP) cheep, chirp, peep PMP *qiuk

iokSaisiyat(Formosan) orange PAN *iuk

iókTagalog(WMP) shriek of poultry PMP *qiuk

iokTotoli(WMP) thresh with the feet PAN *Riqek

i-oliItbayaten(WMP) bring to town/home PPh *i-uliq

iomIfugaw(WMP) growls of dogs; grumblings of a person PWMP *qiem₁

ioŋSasak(WMP) cradle; to rock PWMP *iuŋ

i-ooMarshallese(OC) on, upon; top, surface, over POC *i papo

iopMaranao(WMP) blow, esp. with the mouth PMP *heyup

iop-anMaranao(WMP) mouthpiece PMP *heyup-an

iótAklanon(WMP) fuck; very strong term of anger or disgust PAN *qiut

i-ouSouthwest Tanna(OC) 1sg. nominative pronoun: I PAN *i-aku

i-ovaŋYami(WMP) to plant dry taro PPH *lubaŋ₂

i ovi-oviFijian(OC) a nest POC *opi

iowMongondow(WMP) exclamation of shock, fear, or astonishment used particularly by women PAN *qiaw

ʔioʔioHawaiian(OC) cheeping, peeping PAN *kiaw


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ipa-Aklanon(WMP) causative verb prefix used in giving commands about direct objects PPh *ipa-

ipaBare'e(WMP) companion, comrade PMP *hipaR₁

ipaBimanese(CMP) across, on the opposite side PMP *hipaR₂

ipaDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) pay close heed to someone PMP *hipaʔ

ipaEnde(CMP) FZD, MBD (w.s.) PMP *hipaR₁

ipaʔIban(WMP) lie in wait for, ambush PMP *hipaʔ

ipa-Ifugaw(WMP) prefix meaning: 1. let something be done, achieved, etc. by the intermediary of somebody, 2. cause that something be used for another purpose than that for which it is made, 3. that something be put above, under, in, or on that which is implied by the particular word-base PPh *ipa-

ipa-Ilokano(WMP) verbal prefix PPh *ipa-

ipa-Kankanaey(WMP) prefix equivalent to pa-: 1. used with verbs to express an order, 2. with adjectives to form the absolute superlative, 3. with numbers to express the worth of something, 4. with the suffix -an to form a kind of substantive indicating location or place PPh *ipa-

ipaLi'o(CMP) sister-in-law PMP *hipaR₁

ipaNgadha(CMP) WZ (and all her female consanguines of the same generation), BW PMP *hipaR₁

ipa-Tagalog(WMP) verbal prefix meaning to cause (something) to be done by someone else PPh *ipa-

ipáTagalog(WMP) chaff of rice, grains obtained by pounding (ground chaff coming out of a rice mill is darak) PWMP *qepah

ipaToba Batak(WMP) keep a lookout, watch sharply PMP *hipaʔ

i-pa-áliIfugaw(WMP) to make something arrive PAN *aRi

ipa-ayIlokano(WMP) to present, use as, offer PAN *ai₃

ipa-búlodIlokano(WMP) lend PPh *ipa-bulud

i-pa-citaYami(WMP) display, show, cause to see PPH *i-pa-kita

i-pádaIlokano(WMP) to compare; make something thesame or similar to something else PPH *i-pada

ipa-damdámIsneg(WMP) to remind PAN *demdem₁

ipa-datoŋ-naIfugaw (Batad)(WMP) focus is on an unnamed agent which causes an epidemic sickness to arrive, such as influenza PMP *dateŋ

ipa-dáyaIlokano(WMP) to point to the east PAN *daya

ipa-dkétKankanaey(WMP) to attach; to fix; to stick; to paste PMP *deket₁

i-padpádBikol(WMP) to be driven by the wind (a boat); to be blown away by the wind PPH *padpád

i-padpádTagalog(WMP) to be driven by current or wind PPH *padpád

i-pad-pa-dúmaIsneg(WMP) to prefer PAN *duma

ipa-eramTontemboan(WMP) will be rented PPh *ipa-hedám

ípagIlokano(WMP) sister-in-law PMP *hipaR₁

ípagIsneg(WMP) BW (m.s.), ZH (w.s.), WZ, HB PMP *hipaR₁

ípagItawis(WMP) sister-in-law PMP *hipaR₁

ipagMaranao(WMP) sister-in-law, brother-in-law PMP *hipaR₁

ípagPangasinan(WMP) sister-in-law PMP *hipaR₁

*ipagPMin(WMP) brother-in-law, sister-in-law PMP *hipaR₁

i-pagay-anIlokano(WMP) hire a worker for rice wages PAN *pajay

i-pag-dúyanTagalog(WMP) to swing somebody in a cradle, hammock or swing PPH *dúyan

ʔi-pag-ligtásHanunóo(WMP) to be set free PPH *lig(e)tas

i-pag- líhimTagalog(WMP) keep something a secret PWMP *lihim

i-pag-línisTagalog(WMP) to clean something for, or on behalf of someone PPH *línis

i-pagpágBikol(WMP) shake out, as rug PPH *i-pagpág

i-pagpagIbaloy(WMP) to brush something off with hard blows (as dust from a coat) PPH *i-pagpág

i-pagpagIbaloy(WMP) to hit, slap, strike something hard against something else (as one’s hand against a wall) PWMP *pagpag

i-pag-pa-síkatTagalog(WMP) to sport; to display, etc., in order to attract attention PPH *sikát

ipahBalinese(WMP) WB, HB, WZ, HBW PMP *hipaR₁

i-páhidTagalog(WMP) to spread; to put on in a thin layer PWMP *pahid

i-pa-hidámBikol(WMP) to lend PAN *pa-hinzam

ipa-hirámTagalog(WMP) to lend (something) PPh *ipa-hedám

ipahuKambera(CMP) paid off (debt) PMP *qimpas

i-paídIlokano(WMP) to fan with PAN *paid

i-pa-ílutIlokano(WMP) to have someone give a massage PPh *hílut

i-pai-paluUlawa(OC) make war on, fight POC *i-palu

ipakBintulu(WMP) branch of a river PWMP *ipak₂

ipákCebuano(WMP) split, break a piece off of something hard; divide into pieces PWMP *ipak₂

ipakOld Javanese(WMP) to lap, splash, wash (waves) PWMP *ipak₁

ipakToba Batak(WMP) the impact of the shuttle as it is brought down hard on the weft threads in weaving PWMP *ipak₁

i-pa-kanItbayaten(WMP) bait (for catching), refreshment, meal to be served PAN *pa-kaen

ipa-kilalaTagalog(WMP) to introduce; to make known; to present; to reflect; to reproduce; to show; to betray; to reveal; to signify; to make known by signs, words or actions PAN *kilala

i-pa-kítaIlokano(WMP) to show, display PPH *i-pa-kita

ipa-kítaTagalog(WMP) to show; to bring forward; to produce; to indicate; to make known; to demonstrate; to show openly PPH *i-pa-kita

ipa-koskosItbayaten(WMP) to let somebody scrub PWMP *kuskus₂

i-pakpákMasbatenyo(WMP) to clap, applaud; be beaten, be thrashed PAN *pakpak₁

i-palaKove(OC) to split wood POC *pwalaq

ipa-laŋanAgutaynen(WMP) to intentionally skip or miss something, be absent; to habitually do something every other time or every other day PPH *laŋan

i-pa-layláyIlokano(WMP) to expose to the heat in order to wild PPH *layláy

ʔi-palpálBontok(WMP) to beat in order to cause injury or death, as in sacrificing a chicken or beating someone with a heavy stick PPH *palpál₁

ipa-malémIlokano(WMP) to put off until the afternoon PWMP *malem

ipa-mánaBikol(WMP) to bequeath PWMP *mana₁

ipa-mánaBikol(WMP) to bequeath PWMP *maña

ipa-matáTagalog(WMP) to open a person’s eyes; to make one see what is really happening PMP *mata

i-pa-minsánIlokano(WMP) to do all at once PPH *minsan

i-p<am>itoItbayaten(WMP) seventh time, seventh object of a series PAN *pitu₁

i-pānIsneg(WMP) to ensnare PAN *paen

i-pānIsneg(WMP) to ensnare PAN *paen

ípanKapampangan(WMP) tooth PMP *ipen

ipanKédang(CMP) centipede PCEMP *qalipan

ɨ-panSundanese(WMP) bait (both literal and figurative) PAN *paen

ipa-naganIlokano(WMP) to name; give a name to PMP *i-pa-ŋajan

i-pa-nexsexItbayaten(WMP) to regret PWMP *selsel₂

i-pan-tolakItbayaten(WMP) pole for pushing boats PMP *tulak

i-pañ-chidchidItbayaten(WMP) a kind of scraper PMP *kiDkiD

ipa-ŋálanTagalog(WMP) to call, to name, to give a name PMP *i-pa-ŋajan

i-paŋátIlokano(WMP) to cook fish with sour tamarind seasoning PWMP *paŋat

i-paŋ-ililiYami(WMP) used to visiting other villages PMP *híli

i-pa-ŋínaIlokano(WMP) to increase the price of PPH *ŋina

i-paŋ-ŋoytaItbayaten(WMP) anything used for catching octopuses PMP *kuRita

i-paʔónMasbatenyo(WMP) use something for bait; to sacrifice (oneself) PPH *i-paen

ipa-púsoIlokano(WMP) to take sincerely PMP *pusuq₁

iparIban(WMP) brother-in-law, sister-in-law, relation by marriage of the same generation PMP *hipaR₁

iparMalay(WMP) brotherhood or sisterhood by marriage. Loosely, of a brother-in-law or even cousin-in-law, but usually defined more closely by the use of other words with meanings that vary locally PMP *hipaR₁

iparManggarai(CMP) BW, HZ, HZH, MBD (ref.) PMP *hipaR₁

iparRembong(CMP) HZ PMP *hipaR₁

iparSasak(WMP) brother-in-law, sister-in-law PMP *hipaR₁

ʔiparSika(CMP) nephew or niece PMP *hipaR₁

iparToba Batak(WMP) the opposite shore PMP *hipaR₂

iparaʔMakasarese(WMP) HB, HZ, WB, WZ PMP *hipaR₁

i-paráTagalog(WMP) to compare; to liken to PPH *i-pada

ipa-rnébIlokano(WMP) to sink something; plunge something into the water PPH *reneb

ípasKapampangan(WMP) cockroach PMP *ipes

i-pásaŋIlokano(WMP) to substitute, give in exchange; transfer; endorse PMP *pasaŋ₁

ipa-sensénIlokano(WMP) to close, unite PPH *sensén

i-pask-enItbayaten(WMP) dowel, made of tañod (mulberry) tree PAN *pacek

i-pask-enItbayaten(WMP) dowel, made of tañod (mulberry) tree PAN *pasek

ipa-takoAgutaynen(WMP) to make known PMP *taqu₂

i-pa-tandigAgutaynen(WMP) to lean one thing against another (as a ladder against a house) PMP *sandiR

ipa-táwagTagalog(WMP) to page; to try to find a person at a hotel, etc., by getting someone to call his name PWMP *tawaR₂

ipa-tepeŋAgutaynen(WMP) to elevate oneself to the same position or status as another; to make, consider oneself equal to another PPH *tepeŋ₂

i-patpatIbaloy(WMP) to use something for this purpose (as a bolo) PWMP *patpat

i-pa-túroʔTagalog(WMP) to order the teaching of a particular subject PMP *tuzuq₂

ipa-útaŋBikol(WMP) give a loan of a particular amount of money PPh *ipa-qútaŋ

ipa-útaŋIlokano(WMP) to lend (money) PPh *ipa-qútaŋ

ipa-útaŋKankanaey(WMP) to lend, to loan PPh *ipa-qútaŋ

i-pa-voxodItbayaten(WMP) lend PPh *ipa-bulud

ipa-xoo-xoyaItbayaten(WMP) to accuse (someone) in court PPH *luya₃

i-payápayKankanaey(WMP) to beckon, to call beckoning with the hand PPH *payapay

i-páyoŋIlokano(WMP) to put an umbrella over someone PWMP *payuŋ

ipe'Āre'āre(OC) mat, bed POC *ibe

ipeʔKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) tooth (back-formation from misanalyzed ipe-n 'tooth of') PMP *ipen

i-ped-pedAgta (Dupaningan)(WMP) to fan PAN *paid

i-pedpedIbaloy(WMP) to pack down, tamp down something (as earth around house post, carrots in a sack so it will hold more) PAN *pedped₁

i-pelpelIbaloy(WMP) to pound, drive something down (as a nail) PWMP *pelpel

i-pelpélIlokano(WMP) to press down (through an opening); put on a wheel; thrust into hole or mouth PWMP *pelpel

i-pelpélKankanaey(WMP) to stuff, to cram the mouth with food PWMP *pelpel

i-peluSa'a(OC) make war on, fight POC *i-palu

i-pelu ~ i-pai-paluSa'a(OC) to make war, to fight POC *palu₄

i-pelu-ŋaSa'a(OC) fighting POC *palu₄

ipənDali'(WMP) tooth PMP *ipen

ipenKaro Batak(WMP) tooth PMP *ipen

ipenLamaholot(CMP) tooth PMP *ipen

*ipenPMin(WMP) tooth PMP *ipen

i-penpenIbaloy(WMP) to pack, stuff, put a large amount of something into a container (as cargo on a bus, harvested rice into a basket) PWMP *penpen₁

i-penpénIlokano(WMP) to store, keep in reserve; accumulate, pile up; keep; conceal, hide PWMP *penpen₁

ípesCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) cockroach; be swarming with cockroaches PMP *ipes

ípesIlokano(WMP) cockroach PMP *ipes

ipesItbayaten(WMP) cockroach PMP *ipes

ipesKaro Batak(WMP) the brown cockroach PMP *ipes

ipesMaranao(WMP) silence, keep still PPH *hipes

ipesManggarai(CMP) empty rice husk; rice chaff PMP *i(m)pes

*ipesPMin(WMP) cockroach PMP *ipes

ipesManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) cockroach PMP *ipes

ipétKankanaey(WMP) tight, taut PWMP *hiqepet

ipétPangasinan(WMP) tightness; become tight PWMP *hiqepet

ipewMelanau (Matu)(WMP) grandparent PMP *impu₂

ipiAnuta(OC) a tree: Inocarpus fagiferus POC *ipi₂

ipiBare'e(WMP) a dream PMP *hipi

ipiGitua(OC) kind of nut tree: Inocarpus fagiferus POC *ipi₂

ipiKadazan Dusun(WMP) dream PMP *hipi

ipiʔMakasarese(WMP) press hard on something; pinch, squeeze PMP *qipit

ipiNgadha(CMP) edge, border, shore; approach, come near PMP *ipit

ipiOld Javanese(WMP) dream PMP *hipi

*ipiPMin(WMP) dream PMP *hipi

ipiSangir(WMP) dream PMP *hipi

ʔipiSika(CMP) press, push in; hide PMP *qipit

ipiToba Batak(WMP) dream PMP *hipi

ipiTolai(OC) (to) blow, of the wind POC *ipi₁

ipi-ato-atoŋYami(WMP) tools for starting fires, such as paper or dried reeds PPH *hátuŋ

ipi-doaYami(WMP) two times, second time PPH *ipi-duhá

i-pigáBikol(WMP) to lay eggs, of a fish PMP *piRah

ipi-hBuruese(CMP) press, clamp, pinch PMP *qipit

ípilAklanon(WMP) a tree: Intsia bijuga PMP *qipil

ípilBikol(WMP) tall tree producing high quality timber used for posts and beams: Intsia bijuga PMP *qipil

ípilCebuano(WMP) large hardwood tree of the primary or secondary forest, furnishing yellowish lumber and a dye from the bark: Intsia bijuga PMP *qipil

ʔipílHanunóo(WMP) tree sp. PMP *qipil

ipilIban(WMP) trees, Adinandra spp.; also Gordonia havilandii Burkill; trees of Intsia spp., esp. I. bijuga (Colebr.) PMP *qipil

ípilIfugaw(WMP) a leguminous tree that yields red, hard timber, very valuable for building purposes. Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) PMP *qipil

ípilIlokano(WMP) Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) O. Kuntze. A leguminous tree which yields a very valuable building timber PMP *qipil

ípilIsneg(WMP) Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) O. Kuntze. A leguminous tree which yields a very valuable building timber PMP *qipil

ipilItbayaten(WMP) tree sp. PMP *qipil

ipilMalay(WMP) a tree Intsia spp. It yields a good timber and a round fruit used as a marble (buah gundu) PMP *qipil

ipilMaranao(WMP) a tree: Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) O. Ktze. PMP *qipil

ipílPangasinan(WMP) shrubby variety of acacia PMP *qipil

ipilSasak(WMP) a tree, Intsia spp. The black wood is used for furniture PMP *qipil

ípilTagalog(WMP) hardwood tree used in house construction PMP *qipil

ʔi-píliBontok(WMP) to select, to choose, to pick out PPH *i-piliq

i-píliʔTagalog(WMP) to choose what is good for someone else PPH *i-piliq

ipíl-ípilBikol(WMP) small tree used as a border for plots of land, its seeds woven into bags and necklaces: Leucaena glauca PPh *ipil ipil

ipil-ípilCebuano(WMP) small rapidly growing tree of waste places or cultivated, extensively used for firewood. The leaves are used as animal feed and medicinally. It bears beans also used medicinally: Leucaena glauca PPh *ipil ipil

ipil-ípilIfugaw(WMP) leguminous tree bearing small leaves (often planted in coffee plantations, because they shade the coffee plants better than other trees) PPh *ipil ipil

ipil-ipilMaranao(WMP) a leguminous shrub: Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. PPh *ipil ipil

i-pilítMasbatenyo(WMP) to paste or stick, as a picture on the wall PMP *pilit₁

i-pílitTagalog(WMP) to impose; to force or thrust on another; to insist; to keep firmly to some demand, statement or position PPH *pílit

i-pintáʔIsneg(WMP) to store tobacco leaves in kolapí boxes PWMP *pitak₂

ʔipíŋBontok(WMP) rest one's head against someone's back or chest, as a child in a carrying blanket PAN *qipiŋ

ipíŋKankanaey(WMP) rest, lay, lean (one's head). For instance, upon the shoulder of the person who carries one on the back PAN *qipiŋ

ipisSundanese(WMP) thin, fine (hair) PAN *iŋ(e)pis

ípisTagalog(WMP) cockroach PMP *ipes

ipítBikol(WMP) squash, pinch, fasten with a pin; to pin, to clip PMP *qipit

ʔípitBontok(WMP) squeeze; squash PMP *qipit

ipítCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) clip, clasp, hairpin, pincers, tongs; to pinch, to clip PMP *qipit

ípitHiligaynon(WMP) compress, squeeze, press between PMP *qipit

ípitIfugaw(WMP) pincers; act of squeezing; a deadfall with bait to kill rats PMP *qipit

ípitIlokano(WMP) Chela. Claw or pincer of crustaceans. PMP *qipit

ípitKankanaey(WMP) pinch; hold fast; press, squeeze, clasp; tighten, confine PMP *qipit

ipitKavalan(Formosan) pincer of crustaceans, tongs for picking up hot embers, chopsticks PAN *qipit

ipitMaranao(WMP) crush, run over, clip with hand PMP *qipit

ipitMentawai(WMP) stick tight in something (also used of difficult childbirth) PMP *qipit

ipitManggarai(CMP) jam, wedge in; hide; take shelter PMP *qipit

ipitRejang(WMP) get close to something; touch; near PMP *ipit

ípitTagalog(WMP) clip, clasp; hairpin PMP *qipit

ipít, ípitCebuano(WMP) jammed, wedged in between two things PMP *qipit

ipit-ipitRejang(WMP) tight together, close together PMP *ipit

ipi-tloYami(WMP) third time, three times PAN *telu

ipitoGorontalo(WMP) clinging (of a small child that does not want to be left alone) PMP *ipit

ʔi-pitpítBontok(WMP) to mash, as cooked sweet potato or cassava PAN *pitpit₂

i-pkétKankanaey(WMP) with adherent vein, applied to the gall bladder (it is considered ill-boding) PMP *peket

ipoAnuta(OC) to descend; downwards POC *sipo

ipoʔKenyah(WMP) poison PWMP *qipuq

ipo-ʔRembong(CMP) grandparent PMP *impu₂

ipoSamoan(OC) edible sea-worm: Sipunculus spp. POC *ibo

ipoSangir(WMP) feel, taste, have sexual desire PPh *hipuq

ipoTuvaluan(OC) sp. of worm found on the beach POC *ibo

ipōhAcehnese(WMP) vegetable poison PWMP *qipuq

ipohIban(WMP) the upas tree: Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch. The latex is used in making poison for blowpipe darts. PWMP *qipuq

ipohMalay(WMP) tree sap used for dart poison, and obtained usually from the upas tree (Antiaris toxicaria), or from a creeper, Strychnos tiente PWMP *qipuq

iponIbatan(WMP) lobster, shrimp PPh *hípun₂

íponIlokano(WMP) a fish which, after having been hatched in sea water, ascends rivers, where it grows and spawns. From August or September to January, about nine days after the new moon, it appears in exceedingly numerous shoals... Its meat is very much esteemed... It rarely exceeds an inch in length, and when it has grown larger, it is known by some other name PMP *hipun₁

íponIsneg(WMP) a fish which, after having been hatched in sea water, ascends rivers, where it grows and spawns PMP *hipun₁

íponKankanaey(WMP) a variety of dark-colored palay (rice) with awns PPh *ípun₃

iponBisaya (Limbang)(WMP) tooth PMP *ipen

iponMaranao(WMP) goby PMP *hipun₁

iponMaranao(WMP) gather, collect, assemble PMP *qi(m)pun

ipónPangasinan(WMP) very small fish often made into inasin (a relish made from salting fish or shrimp and leaving to age) PMP *hipun₁

ipónTagalog(WMP) accumulation, heap, collection, deposit PMP *qi(m)pun

iponToba Batak(WMP) incisor teeth PMP *ipen

iponYami(WMP) river shrimp PPh *hípun₂

i-ponasIbaloy(WMP) to use something to wipe (as cloth); proper cloth to wipe with PMP *punas

i-ponponIbaloy(WMP) to pile something up in a big heap PWMP *punpun

i-poŋSeimat(OC) night POC *boŋi

i-poŋanIbaloy(WMP) to use something as a pillow (as coat, forearm) PPH *puŋan

ʔípusBontok(WMP) tail of an animal PPh *ipus

íposCasiguran Dumagat(WMP) tail (of animals, fish, birds, snakes) PPh *ipus

iposItbayaten(WMP) tail; one who tags along PPh *ipus

iposToba Batak(WMP) cockroach PMP *ipes

ipótIfugaw(WMP) what is too tight (of clothes) PWMP *hiqepet

ipot-kipotSika(CMP) narrow; close together PMP *iput

ipuBare'e(WMP) narrow, hemmed in PMP *iput

ipuʔKayan (Busang)(WMP) vegetable poison with which the darts for blowpipes are smeared PWMP *qipuq

ipuHawaiian(OC) the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria, also called L. vulgaris); general name for vessel or container, as dish, mug, calabash, pot, cup, pipe POC *ibu

ipuKayan(WMP) poison for arrows PWMP *qipuq

ipuNgadha(CMP) fish spawn PMP *hipun₁

ipuNgadha(CMP) always together PMP *qi(m)pun

ipuNiue(OC) cup POC *ibu

ipuRarotongan(OC) generic for articles that serve as a basin, cup, etc., made in ancient days from coconut shells or a calabash POC *ibu

ipuSamoan(OC) (coconut shell) cup; bowl; dish POC *ibu

ipuToba Batak(WMP) poison used on tips of blowpipe darts PWMP *qipuq

ipuTongan(OC) cup POC *ibu

ipuUlawa(OC) a hollow in a tree holding water POC *ibu

ipuaʔRejang(WMP) a forest tree used to make barkcloth; a potent poison made from the root or sap of this tree, mixed with bait in squirrel and bird traps PWMP *qipuq

ipuhKaro Batak(WMP) poison smeared on points of blowpipe darts, and the tree from which it is obtained (Antiaris toxicaria) PWMP *qipuq

ipukBerawan (Long Teru)(WMP) head hair PMP *buhek

i-pulínIsneg(WMP) to roll down (a slope) PPH *pulin

ipúnCebuano(WMP) do something together with someone as he does it; live or stay with someone; mingle with PMP *qi(m)pun

ípunIfugaw(WMP) very small fishes living in rivers PMP *hipun₁

ipunRejang(WMP) collect, gather PMP *qi(m)pun

ipunRembong(CMP) fingerling of the ikan mua (eel sp.) PMP *hipun₁

ipunTausug(WMP) tooth PMP *ipen

i-púnasTagalog(WMP) to use something to wipe with PMP *punas

i-púnitIlokano(WMP) to shut, close PPH *punit

i-puntílCebuano(WMP) to put into a bag; make a bag PWMP *pu(n)tir

ʔipuŋSika(CMP) fishes the size of a match-stick PMP *hipun₁

i puriSa'a(OC) in the stern POC *burit₃

i puri-kuSa'a(OC) in my absence POC *burit₃

ípusCebuano(WMP) small cockroach PMP *ipes

ípusHanunóo(WMP) cockroach PMP *ipes

ípusIlokano(WMP) tail; back part of a G string PPh *ipus

ipusMolbog(WMP) tail PPh *ipus

*ipusPMin(WMP) tail PPh *ipus

*ipusPMin(WMP) tail PPh *ipus

ipusTontemboan(WMP) tail PPh *ipus

ipusYami(WMP) tail PPh *ipus

i-pusíŋIlokano(WMP) to separate, detach; disconnect PPH *pusiŋ

iputMongondow(WMP) tail; conclusion PPh *ipus

íputIsneg(WMP) tail; stern (of a canoe); hind part (of a G string) PPh *ipus

iputSasak(WMP) the thick part of the tail (by the back) PWMP *imput

i-puyóŋIlokano(WMP) to put into an improvised purse PWMP *puyuŋ


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i qat me vu-vunMota(OC) said of fish killed by the heat in shallows POC *(bp)una


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irIrarutu(SHWNG) they PEMP *ira

irKei(CMP) wood file, made from a piece of wood over which a piece of ray or shark skin is stretched PAN *kiRkiR

irLonwolwol(OC) yonder, over there POC *iri

irSye(OC) they PEMP *ira

irTolai(OC) leaf of the croton PMP *siRi

ir ~ rirNumfor(SHWNG) cool oneself by fanning PMP *irid₁

iraAnuta(OC) mole (on a person's skin) PMP *qila

iraArosi(OC) they, them PEMP *ira

iraArosi(OC) to remain POC *tira

iraArosi(OC) to remain POC *tira

iraCentral Maewo(OC) they, them PEMP *ira

iraFijian(OC) cardinal pronoun, 3rd pl. objective: them. It is used after verbs and prepositions; as subject only in sa i ira 'it is they'. The normal subject is ko ira after the verb, and era before it PEMP *ira

iraFordata(CMP) they, them PMP *ida

iráItawis(WMP) they, them PMP *ida

iraLeti(CMP) they, them PMP *ida

iraMalagasy(WMP) a hank of cotton or silk prepared for weaving PWMP *idas₂

iraMaloh(WMP) they, them PMP *ida

iraManam(OC) how many?, how much? POC *pica

iraMaori(OC) freckle, mole, or other natural mark on the skin PMP *qila

iraMentawai(WMP) brother-in-law, sister-in-law (woman speaking) PAN *idas₁

iraMori(WMP) they, them PMP *ida

iraMota(OC) 3rd pl. suffixed to verb and preposition; never subject; the people, companions of PEMP *ira

iraMotu(OC) hatchet; adze PMP *kiRam

iraOld Javanese(WMP) form in which the pronoun sira appears, when qualifying a noun (his, her; your) or the in-form of the passive verb (by him, by her; by you) PMP *ida

*iraPMic(OC) they, them PEMP *ira

iraSika(CMP) cut, carve PMP *hiras

iraʔTae'(WMP) mince, cut, chop to pieces PMP *hiras

iraWetan(CMP) tear up, rend, tear off PMP *hiras

iraWetan(CMP) they, them PMP *ida

i-rábonIlokano(WMP) to start, begin (rain) PMP *Rabun

i-ragúpIlokano(WMP) join, untie, connect one thing to or with another PWMP *rajup

irahAtayal(Formosan) sister-in-law; wife's elder sister, husband's elder sister, elder brother's wife (man or woman speaking PAN *idas₁

irahKayan(WMP) a strand of any cord or rope; a hair of the head PWMP *idas₂

ira-iraŋNgaju Dayak(WMP) bright red PWMP *iraŋ₁

i-rakédIlokano(WMP) tie an animal to a tree or post PPH *Rakéd

i-ralaYami(WMP) Orchid Island, the name the Tao have given their own island PAN *daya

iramaWedau(OC) stone axe PMP *kiRam

ira maiurWoleaian(OC) green wood PMP *ma-qudip

i-ramut-anIlokano(WMP) to cut off the roots PMP *Ramut₁

ira-nMaranao(WMP) their PMP *ida

iran, h-iranKayan(WMP) when? at what time? PAN *ijan

iraŋKelabit(WMP) slope of a mountain PWMP *iraŋ₂

iraŋMongondow(WMP) very steep rocky slope, abyss PWMP *iraŋ₂

iraŋMakasarese(WMP) crave foods, of a pregnant woman PWMP *qidam

iraŋOld Javanese(WMP) shame, embarrassment PWMP *iraŋ₁

iraŋSangir(WMP) lend, borrow PWMP *hinzam

iraŋTombulu(WMP) shame PWMP *iraŋ₁

i-raŋoArosi(OC) roller for a canoe; place rollers for a canoe (with instrumental prefix i-) POC *laŋon

irapKapampangan(WMP) eyelash, PWMP *qizep

irapMaranao(WMP) blame, suspect PAN *qijap

irapMaranao(WMP) blame, suspect PWMP *idap

írapPangasinan(WMP) hardships, torment; be difficult; suffer PWMP *hidap

írapTagalog(WMP) glare, sullen glance PAN *qijap

írapTagalog(WMP) glare, sullen glance PWMP *idap

irap, iapMongondow(WMP) wink, blink PWMP *izap

irap-anKapampangan(WMP) wink at PWMP *qizep

irarKavalan(Formosan) fence PAN *qalad

ʔirara'Āre'āre(OC) invoke a spirit in order to know what to do to cure a sick person PAN *kilala

ʔiraraArosi(OC) to know, understand, perceive; divination, seance, ordeal; answers to questions were given by the ghosts by movements of natural objects without human intervention PAN *kilala

i raraFijian(OC) a fire at which one warms oneself; fireplace, hearth PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

i-ráromBikol(WMP) underneath, under, below, beneath; on the bottom, underlying PMP *i dalem

*irasPSS(WMP) cut, slice PMP *hiras

irasTausug(WMP) a kinship term referring to the relationship between Ego and the brother-in-law or sister-in-law of his/her spouse PAN *idas₁

irawAgutaynen(WMP) a type of medium-sized black snake which is not poisonous (they are very common, and often live in houses) PPH *idau

iRaw-anKavalan(Formosan) be seized by, taken by force PAN *qaRaw

ʔiráwuHanunóo(WMP) python PPH *idau

i-ráyaBikol(WMP) upstream, inland PAN *daya

i-rayaItbayaten(WMP) land (in contrast with the sea) PAN *daya

i-rayáMasbatenyo(WMP) upstream, hinerland, inlands, back country PAN *daya

i-rayáWaray-Waray(WMP) farm; a tract of land devoted to agriculture; the upper or interior part of a town PAN *daya

iraʔPaku(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

*i-r-bakPSS(WMP) cut, make an incision PMP *ibak

irdopToba Batak(WMP) to blink PWMP *izep

ire'Āre'āre(OC) a pandanus, its leaves used to make armlets POC *kiRe

ire'Āre'āre(OC) a stone axe PMP *kiRam

ireʔBuginese(WMP) slice, cut, carve PMP *qiris

ireInati(WMP) 3pl., they/them PMP *ida

ireIrarutu(SHWNG) they, them PEMP *ira

irehAcehnese(WMP) slice PMP *qiris

iremKavalan(Formosan) pangolin, anteater PAN *qaRem

iremMaranao(WMP) dark, brunette PWMP *qirem

iremMaranao(WMP) dark, brunette PWMP *qi(n)dem

iréŋAcehnese(WMP) walk single-file, follow, accompany, form a procession PMP *iriŋ₁

ireŋJavanese(WMP) black, dark in color; indigo dye PWMP *qiReŋ

ireŋSasak(WMP) black PWMP *qiReŋ

irəyBintulu(WMP) that (2p) PMP *i-di

iriBare'e(WMP) to hunt, chase off or away PMP *iriŋ₁

iriBuginese(WMP) jealousy PWMP *qiRih

iriFijian(OC) to fan; a fan POC *irir

iriGilbertese(OC) follow, accompany PMP *iriŋ₁

iriKambera(CMP) kind of thornless pandanus; the leaves are used for finely plaited mats PMP *kiRay

iriLarevat(OC) that POC *iri

iriʔMakasarese(WMP) to fan, to blow (of the wind) PMP *irid₁

iriʔMandar(WMP) wind PMP *irid₁

iriMotu(OC) a saw POC *kikir

iriNgadha(CMP) tear, split, cut PMP *qiris

iriNggela(OC) demonstrative: those POC *iri

iriRarotongan(OC) to select, to choose, to pick out, to name; used figuratively to denote: to recite, to disclose PAN *piliq

iriRotuman(OC) to fan; to blow (wind) POC *irir

iriʔTae'(WMP) to fan, blow against PMP *irid₁

iríTagalog(WMP) this PMP *i-di

iriWaropen(SHWNG) then, next; however, but PEMP *iri

iriYamdena(CMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

iriKola(CMP) 3pl., they PMP *ida

iriSaparua(CMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

iri, iriŋ-iArosi(OC) to pour PMP *iliŋ₁

iri-aMotu(OC) to saw POC *kikir

iridOld Javanese(WMP) pull, draw, drag along; carry away, lead off, to lead PWMP *irid₂

írigIlokano(WMP) incline, lean, bend (of trees, houses, etc.) PPh *hírig

ɨrihSundanese(WMP) sword grass: Imperata cylindrica L. PAN *eRiq

irihKayan (Uma Bawang)(WMP) that (2p) PMP *i-di

ir-ihrPohnpeian(OC) to fan (intr.) POC *irir

irihuKambera(CMP) cut into strips PMP *qiris

iríkIlokano(WMP) the grains or kernels of rice when separated from the stalk PAN *iRik

irik-irik-énIlokano(WMP) to trample (a person) PAN *iRik

irikoGilbertese(OC) flesh, muscle, meat POC *pijiko

irimoMotu(OC) a tree from which canoes are generally made POC *iRimo

irimuLabel(OC) tree sp.: Octomeles sumatrana POC *iRimo

ɨrɨnSundanese(WMP) keep still, quiet, be at rest PWMP *eden

irin, iriŋIban(WMP) lead by the hand PMP *iriŋ₁

írinaMalagasy(WMP) the border of a piece of cloth PWMP *qiriŋ₁

iriŋBalinese(WMP) accompany, follow a superior PMP *iriŋ₁

iriŋBuginese(WMP) drive animals before one PMP *iriŋ₁

iriŋDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) to lead, guide PMP *iriŋ₁

íriŋIlokano(WMP) be similar, differ slightly PPh *iriŋ₂

iriŋJavanese(WMP) escort, accompany PMP *iriŋ₁

iriŋJavanese(WMP) side, flank PWMP *qiriŋ₂

iriŋKaro Batak(WMP) sloping, inclined, slanted PWMP *qiriŋ₂

iriŋMalay(WMP) Indian file. Of ants following in line one behind the other, etc. PMP *iriŋ₁

iriŋMandar(WMP) drive animals before one (as in driving a flock of ducks to some location) PMP *iriŋ₁

iriŋMaranao(WMP) imitate, emulate, follow PPh *iriŋ₂

iriŋSasak(WMP) follow PMP *iriŋ₁

iriŋSundanese(WMP) follow someone PMP *iriŋ₁

ʔiriŋTiruray(WMP) copy, imitate PPh *iriŋ₂

iriŋToba Batak(WMP) lead someone PMP *iriŋ₁

iriŋManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) do or be the same; the same PPh *iriŋ₂

iri-pPohnpeian(OC) to fan (tr.) POC *irir

irirOld Javanese(WMP) fan PMP *irid₁

irisBalinese(WMP) cut, carve, make incisions; tap the sap of trees PMP *qiris

irisJavanese(WMP) slice, cut piece (of something) PMP *qiris

irisOld Javanese(WMP) to cut, cut through PMP *qiris

*irisPSS(WMP) cut, slice PMP *qiris

irisRejang(WMP) shred, chop finely PMP *qiris

irisSasak(WMP) cut into strips or slices PMP *qiris

irisToba Batak(WMP) cut into small pieces PMP *qiris

iritIban(WMP) draw, drag, haul PWMP *irid₂

iritSasak(WMP) pull, drag PWMP *irid₂

iritYamdena(CMP) fan for fanning the fire PMP *irid₁

irna mataWetan(CMP) face PCEMP *ijuŋ mata

irnuLeti(CMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

iro'Āre'āre(OC) look for, collect POC *qiro

iro'Āre'āre(OC) look for, collect POC *tiro

iro'Āre'āre(OC) an oyster living on the roots of mangrove trees POC *tiRom

iroArosi(OC) to look; to stare POC *tiro

iroArosi(OC) a small gastropod shell from which earrings are made; earrings POC *tiRom

iroFijian(OC) to peep, look slyly at POC *qiro

iroLau(OC) look at fixedly, look for POC *qiro

iroLau(OC) to look at fixedly, look for POC *tiro

iroMaori(OC) maggot, threadworm, vermin PMP *qulej

*iroPMic(OC) look at, look for POC *qiro

iroSa'a(OC) to look for, to collect POC *tiro

iroSangir(WMP) regret, deplore PWMP *iruq

iroToqabaqita(OC) look for someone or something, search for someone or something POC *tiro

iroToqabaqita(OC) to look for someone or something; to search for someone or something POC *tidros

iroʔ, éroʔSasak(WMP) sad, saddening PWMP *iruq

iro, iro-iroSa'a(OC) look for, collect POC *qiro

iro-aToqabaqita(OC) look for, search for POC *tiro

ʔirofTiruray(WMP) sip, suck in a liquid PMP *hiRup

iro-fi(a)Lau(OC) look for, spy out POC *tiro

irohMelanau (Balingian)(WMP) spoon PAN *qidus

iro-hiArosi(OC) look into, look for; stare at, gaze into POC *tiro

iro-hiSa'a(OC) to cause a person to be ill, of the action of a ghost POC *tiro

iro-hiSa'a(OC) to clear the head of lice POC *tidros

iro-irPohnpeian(OC) to look or peer in the distance; to see one’s own reflection; to inspect one’s own appearance; positioned to have a beautiful view POC *tiro

iro-iro'Āre'āre(OC) reflection, mirror POC *qiro

iro-iroArosi(OC) clear pool in the reef in which one can see one's reflection POC *iro iro

iro-iroAua(OC) shine, reflect (Hambruch 1908) POC *iro iro

iro-iroLau(OC) translucent pool, still and clear; looking glass, pearl shell of nautilus POC *iro iro

iro-iroLau(OC) search for; a translucent pool, still and clear; a looking glass; pearl shell of nautilus, mother-of-pearl POC *tiro-tiro

iro-iroLau(OC) a translucent pool, still and clear; looking glass POC *tiro

iro-iroSa'a(OC) a pool among rocks used as a mirror POC *qiro

iro-iroSa'a(OC) to look for, to collect; a pool among rocks used as a mirror; a glass (late use) POC *tiro-tiro

iro-iro-aLau(OC) reflected light, dazzling, silver light of the moon on white clouds, moonshine POC *iro iro

iro-iro-aLau(OC) iridescent; reflected light, dazzling; silver light of moon on white clouds, moonshine POC *tiro-tiro

irokTagalog(WMP) the sugar palm: Arenga saccharifera PWMP *izuk

iro-nunuToqabaqita(OC) mirror POC *tiro

iro-ŋMokilese(OC) to peer at POC *tiro

iro-ŋ-aʔiArosi(OC) gaze at POC *tiro

i-roŋoWayan(OC) noise, sound; news POC *roŋoR

i-roŋo-roŋoWayan(OC) news, report; hearing, sense of hearing; stethoscope, hearing aid POC *roŋoR

i-roro'Āre'āre(OC) bowstring POC *rolos

iro-waiMori Atas(WMP) female PMP *bahi

ʔiroʔTiruray(WMP) lie down PPh *hideRáq

*ɨrrɨrtPSS(WMP) tight PMP *heRet

*ɨrruŋPSS(WMP) drone, roar PWMP *heRuŋ

ʔirtPalauan(WMP) large spoon PAN *qidus

irtéŋIlokano(WMP) to stretch, to strain (a rope, wire, etc.) PWMP *iReteŋ

irteŋ-enIlokano(WMP) to stretch PWMP *iReteŋ-en

iruArosi(OC) yam soup; to sip yam soup POC *iRup

i-ruAvava(OC) two POC *rua

iruBuli(SHWNG) ladle of coconut shell PMP *qidu

iruKodi(CMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

iruʔKomodo(CMP) to suck up PMP *hiRup

i-ruLeviamp(OC) two POC *rua

i-ruLingarak(OC) two POC *rua

iruʔMakasarese(WMP) sip, slurp PMP *hiRup

i-ruNaman(OC) two POC *rua

iruSangir(WMP) scoop up with a ladle or spoon PMP *qidu

ʔiruSika(CMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

iruʔTae'(WMP) drink; also absorb, as a cloth that is immersed in water PMP *hiRup

i-ruaFordata(CMP) two PMP *duha

i-ruaGaloli(CMP) two PMP *duha

i-ruaTalur(CMP) two PMP *duha

írudIlokano(WMP) trim off rough edges (of a board) PPh *hírud

iruh-iArosi(OC) (trans.) POC *iRup

iruh-ia'Āre'āre(OC) drink slowly POC *iRup

iru-iSoboyo(CMP) scoop up, skim off PAN *qidus

irunKisar(CMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

irunLamaholot(CMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

irun-Roma(CMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

iruŋBalinese(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

ʔirúŋHanunóo(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

iruŋJavanese(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

iruŋSundanese(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

iruŋSupan(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

ʔiruŋTiruray(WMP) nose PMP *ijuŋ

irupKelabit(WMP) what is drunk; way of drinking PMP *hiRup

irupMongondow(WMP) to blow, blowing (person, wind); to fan; blow away PMP *heyup

irupIban(WMP) drink, fit for drinking PMP *hiRup

irupManggarai(CMP) drink slowly (as from a soup bowl) PMP *hiRup

irupSasak(WMP) drink noisily, slurp, sip PMP *hiRup

iRuRKavalan(Formosan) small stream, creek PAN *iluR₂

iRuRKavalan(Formosan) small stream, creek, small river PAN *qaluR₁

i-ruraMa'anyan(WMP) to spit PMP *ludaq

irusAmis (Kiwit)(Formosan) wooden spoon PAN *qidus

irusAsilulu(CMP) coconut shell ladle PAN *qidus

irusJavanese(WMP) vegetable or soup ladle of coconut shell or wood PAN *qidus

irusKei(CMP) wooden ladle PAN *qidus

irusKomodo(CMP) nasal mucus, snot PMP *idus

irusManggarai(CMP) nasal mucus, snot PMP *idus

irusOld Javanese(WMP) ladle of coconut shell PAN *qidus

irusYami(WMP) coconut shell ladle for millet PAN *qidus

irus-anTae'(WMP) partake of while drinking, as to partake of baked yam tubers while drinking palm wine PWMP *hiRup-an

iruʔTausug(WMP) a dog PPH *qiduq

íryMalagasy(WMP) ardent desire; covetous desire PWMP *qiRih

irýMalagasy(WMP) that, there, yonder, at some distance but seen PMP *i-di


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isAsilulu(CMP) exclamation uttered upon failure to catch, hit, hook (etc.) something PMP *qis

is-Bunun(Formosan) prefix - instrumental PAN *Si-₁

isEre(OC) exclamation of fear PMP *qisaq

isIban(WMP) exclamation of scorn or disapproval PMP *qis

isJavanese(WMP) jeering exclamation PMP *qis

isLikum(OC) sound made to frighten off dog or pig that tries to enter house PMP *qisaq

isLoniu(OC) expression of disbelief or mild contempt PMP *qisaq

isManggarai(CMP) interjection of disgust (as on seeing feces) PMP *qis

isNauna(OC) expression of irritation, as when someone is pestering you PMP *qisaq

isNgaju Dayak(WMP) interjection: phooey! PMP *qis

isNumfor(SHWNG) scour, scrub PEMP *isug

isNumfor(SHWNG) slide oneself over the ground, as someone who is lame PMP *isu₁

isaBare'e(WMP) one PAN *isa₁

isáBikol(WMP) one PAN *isa₁

isaBintulu(WMP) 3sg. PAN *si ia₁

isaBuli(SHWNG) one PAN *isa₁

isaʔChamorro(WMP) an exclamation of surprise PMP *qisaq

isaFijian(OC) interjection of regret or yearning PMP *qisaq

isáHiligaynon(WMP) one PAN *isa₁

isáIsneg(WMP) one PAN *isa₁

isáItawis(WMP) one PAN *isa₁

isaKamarian(CMP) one PAN *isa₁

isaLabel(OC) how many? POC *pica

isaʔMa'anyan(WMP) one PWMP *isa-q

isaMalagasy(WMP) one PAN *isa₁

isaMaranao(WMP) one; a, an PAN *isa₁

isaMekeo (East)(OC) 3sg., he, she PAN *ia₁

isa-Lakalai(OC) name, identity POC *isa₂

isáPangasinan(WMP) one PAN *isa₁

isaSaaroa(Formosan) 3sg. PAN *si ia₁

isaSamal(WMP) one (in counting) PAN *isa₁

ʔisaSamoan(OC) used to show annoyance, for example when scolding PMP *qisaq

isáTagalog(WMP) one; another PAN *isa₁

isa-Tigak(OC) name POC *isa₂

ʔisaTongan(OC) interjection indicating that what one has just said was wrong and is now to be corrected PMP *qisaq

isaTunjung(WMP) 3sg. PAN *si ia₁

isa-Tutuba(OC) name POC *isa₂

isaManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) the number one, used in counting PAN *isa₁

i-sabitAgutaynen(WMP) to hang something up on a nail; to attach something to something; to pin something on something, as a ribbon or leaf on a shirt; to be involved in something, be a part of PPH *i-saqebít

i-sabítTagalog(WMP) to hang something on a nail, hook, stand or rack PPH *i-saqebít

i-sábitTagalog(WMP) to hang something on a nail, hook, stand or rack PWMP *sabit

i-sábogBikol(WMP) to sow by scattering seeds PMP *saq(e)buR

i-sábogTagalog(WMP) to disseminate; to scatter like seed; to spread about; to plant seeds by scattering them PMP *saq(e)buR

i-sáboŋTagalog(WMP) to pit a gamecock against another; to use for betting in a cockfight (referring to a certain amount of money) PWMP *sabuŋ₁

i-sabuágIlokano(WMP) to cast something at one’s opponent; to cast earth out of a hole in the ground PPH *sabuag

i-sabwágBikol(WMP) to scatter or broadcast seeds PPH *sabuag

i-sabwagBinukid(WMP) scatter them! PPH *sabuag

i-sabʔitBinukid(WMP) to hang up (as pants on a nail in the wall) PPH *i-saqebít

ʔi-sabʔítBontok(WMP) to hang up, of articles without handles, or rings used for hanging PPH *i-saqebít

i-sabʔítIlokano(WMP) to hang from a hook, hook PPH *i-saqebít

i-sabʔítIsneg(WMP) to hang on a hook PPH *i-saqebít

ʔi-sabʔítKankanaey(WMP) to hang up, to hang upon, to hock; to catch, to catch in PPH *i-saqebít

i-sábʔitMasbatenyo(WMP) to hang on a hook or any protruding thing PPH *i-saqebít

i-sadsadIbaloy(WMP) to trample, stomp on something, step on something repeatedly (as dried bean pods to free seeds) PPH *sadsad

i-sadɁáŋKankanaey(WMP) to hang; to hang upon; to hook; to catch; to catch in PPH *sad(e)qaŋ

i- sagádTagalog(WMP) to sink something down to the hilt or the bottom PWMP *saRad

i-ságoBikol(WMP) to ooze (as blood from the nose or mouth of the dead, brine from a jar of salted preserves) PWMP *sagu₂