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Updated: 11/23/2019


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


(click on a *proto-form for its set)

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ja    je    jh    ji    jo    jr    ju    

jaPonam(OC) 1sg, I, me PAN *i-aku

jaYabem(OC) fire POC *api

jaatiPetapa Taje(WMP) bad PMP *zaqat

j-abiLindrou(OC) sago palm POC *Rabia

jabjab-menewaMarshallese(OC) short of breath; out of breath POC *mañawa

jabwiMarshallese(OC) taboo (archaic) POC *tabu

jaʔətKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) bad PWMP *zaqet

jafPonam(OC) fire POC *api

jahatBalinese(WMP) bad, immoral, nasty (conduct) PMP *zaqat

jahatBanjarese(WMP) noose trap PWMP *zeRet

jahatJavanese(WMP) flaw, imperfection PMP *zaqat

jahatKaro Batak(WMP) bad, dangerous, not to be trusted (of animals and people) PMP *zaqat

jahatMalay(WMP) evil-hearted PMP *zaqat

jahat-kanMalay(WMP) to represent as wicked, to defame PMP *zaqat

jahətMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) noose trap PWMP *zeRet

jah iβuSebop(WMP) one thousand PMP *Ribu

ja-hinoyItbayaten(WMP) not ripe, unripe PPH *hinuR

jahitBalinese(WMP) sew, do needlework, stitch PMP *zaqit

jahitMalay(WMP) sewing, stitching PMP *zaqit

jahumBalinese(WMP) sewing needle PAN *zaRum

jahum panabokanBalinese(WMP) an awl PAN *zaRum

jaiʔMakassarese(WMP) sewing PMP *zaqit

jaʔikManggarai(CMP) to sew PMP *zaqit

jaʔitBintulu(WMP) sewing; sew (imper.) PMP *zaqit

jaitIban(WMP) sewing, sew, work with a needle PMP *zaqit

jaitJavanese(WMP) pertaining to sewing PMP *zaqit

jaʔitMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) to sew PMP *zaqit

jaitSasak(WMP) to sew PMP *zaqit

jaitToba Batak(WMP) to sew PMP *zaqit

ja ivəwKenyah (Long Wat)(WMP) one thousand PMP *Ribu

jajoKodi(CMP) 1sg., I PAN *i-aku

jakan-aBalinese(WMP) was cooked, was prepared as food PMP *zakan

jakaʔ p-ataːyKiput(WMP) time of death, time when someone dies PMP *p-atay

jalaManam(OC) path, way, road POC *jalan

jalaPetapa Taje(WMP) path, road PMP *zalan

jalaWogeo(OC) path, way, road POC *jalan

jalaiIban(WMP) way, path, road; go, walk, travel; way of doing something, method, solution (way out) of difficulty PMP *zalan

jalai asuʔIban(WMP) hunting trail PMP *zalan

jalai bumaiIban(WMP) method of farming, way to farm PMP *zalan

jalanBalinese(WMP) go, walk, travel, proceed; path, road, street, way PMP *zalan

jalanCham(WMP) path, road PMP *zalan

jalanDelang(WMP) path, road PMP *zalan

jalanKenyah (Long Ikang)(WMP) path, road PMP *zalan

jalanMalay(WMP) movement in a definite direction; course; road; way; way to do something PMP *zalan

jalanMoken(WMP) path, road PMP *zalan

jalanMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) path PMP *zalan

jalanMurik(WMP) path, road PMP *zalan

jalanPenan (Long Lamai)(WMP) path, road PMP *zalan

jalanTialo(WMP) trail, track PMP *zalan

jalan bahasaMalay(WMP) way of speech, idiom PMP *zalan

jalaŋDampelas(WMP) road PMP *zalan

jalaʔBukat(WMP) tongue PWMP *zelaq

jaliənNarum(WMP) path, road PMP *zalan

jalma manukSundanese(WMP) person with no fixed abode, wanderer (lit. ‘bird person’) PMP *manuk

jama-jama mataMapun(WMP) one’s reflection in another person’s eye (‘person of the eye’) PMP *mata

jamayRejang(WMP) stubble, rice stubble; last season’s ricefield PMP *zaRami

jamiɁBisaya (Limbang)(WMP) 1pl. excl. nominative, we PAN *k-ami

janKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) no, not PMP *dian

jangaŋ bulu auMakassarese(WMP) ash-colored, gray (of chickens) PMP *bulu₁

jaŋMarshallese(OC) to cry; to play music on radio or phonograph; to lament, mourn, weep; wail PMP *taŋis

jaŋaBare'e(WMP) span PMP *zaŋan₁

jaŋanMalay(WMP) don't PWMP *zaŋan₂

jaŋaŋ buriʔMakassarese(WMP) a cock with multicolored feathers PWMP *burik

jaŋawKayan(WMP) crop destroyed by insects PWMP *zaŋaw

jaŋi-dMokilese(OC) to cry for PMP *taŋis-i

jaŋi-tMarshallese(OC) to cry for someone PMP *taŋis-i

jaŋkalMaloh(WMP) a measurement (from thumb to second finger) PWMP *zaŋkal

jaŋkaŋMalay(WMP) wide astretch, of the limbs PWMP *zaŋkaŋ

jaŋkitIban(WMP) infectious, contagious; catch, spread (as fire or disease) PWMP *za(ŋ)kit

jaŋkitMalay(WMP) spread without visible contact, as an epidemic or fire PWMP *za(ŋ)kit

jaŋkutBalinese(WMP) embrace, take in one's arms PAN *za(ŋ)kuC

jaoʔNarum(WMP) far PMP *zauq

jaoRotuman(OC) javelin, spear POC *jaot

jaoʔSasak(WMP) far PMP *zauq

jaoSonsorol-Tobi(OC) fishing line (cited only in the English index sub line) POC *apon

japSori(OC) fire POC *api

japa tawaOld Javanese(WMP) a formula to make poison, etc. harmless PWMP *tabaR

japiMokilese(OC) wooden bowl POC *tabiRa

japitBalinese(WMP) pinch PWMP *zapit

japitJavanese(WMP) clip, fastener, tongs PWMP *zapit

jaraDhao/Ndao(CMP) road PMP *zalan

ʄaraHawu(CMP) path, way PMP *zalan

jara-iSonsorol-Tobi(OC) way, track, road POC *jalan

jaraŋIban(WMP) at wide intervals, far apart, seldom PWMP *zaRaŋ

jaraŋMalay(WMP) having intervals or interspaces; sparse PWMP *zaRaŋ

jaraŋSasak(WMP) far apart, scarce, seldom PWMP *zaRaŋ

jaraŋJavanese(WMP) scarce, rare, seldom PWMP *zaRaŋ

jaraŋ bulu dareʔMakassarese(WMP) mouse-colored horse PMP *bulu₁

jaraŋ mateMakassarese(WMP) horse that doesn't want to run any more PMP *m-atay

jariaŋauMinangkabau(WMP) the sweet flag, Acorus calamus. A medicinal plant much used as a family remedy for children's complaints PWMP *zariaŋaw

jarinIban(WMP) length of stout canes twisted together from which are hung overlapping cane nooses to catch driven deer PMP *zariŋ

jariŋBalinese(WMP) net; fishing net; net for birds PMP *zariŋ

jariŋJavanese(WMP) net for trapping fish, birds; fig., trick for snaring an unwary person; spider web PMP *zariŋ

jariŋMalay(WMP) barrier net – of stake nets drawn across a stream, drift nets in a tideway, and fowlers’ nets (not of seines or dragnets) PMP *zariŋ

jariŋNgaju Dayak(WMP) a 100-300 foot long cord from which a quantity of nooses are hung down to the near ground level, and into which wild animals are driven with the help of hunting dogs PMP *zariŋ

jariŋOld Javanese(WMP) net (to catch fish, birds, kidangs [barking deer]) PMP *zariŋ

jariŋSasak(WMP) net PMP *zariŋ

jariŋSundanese(WMP) long net used to catch birds, dragnet PMP *zariŋ

jariŋToba Batak(WMP) net used to catch fish, bats, game and birds PMP *zariŋ

jariŋ-anJavanese(WMP) intestines; internal organs PMP *zariŋ

jariŋ buronBalinese(WMP) a net for wild animals PMP *zariŋ

jariŋ-jariŋBalinese(WMP) spider web PMP *zariŋ

jariŋ-jariŋOld Javanese(WMP) spider web PMP *zariŋ

jarʉdiSonsorol-Tobi(OC) ghost, spirit (Capell 1969) PMP *qanitu

jarumIban(WMP) (sewing) needle; hand of clock or needle of dial PAN *zaRum

jarumKaro Batak(WMP) sewing needle; hand of a clock; compass needle PAN *zaRum

jarumMalay(WMP) needle PAN *zaRum

jarumSasak(WMP) needle PAN *zaRum

jarumToba Batak(WMP) needle PAN *zaRum

jaruŋMakassarese(WMP) needle PAN *zaRum

jaruŋManggarai(CMP) needle PAN *zaRum

jaryth(y)Sonsorol-Tobi(OC) ghost, god (Quackenbush 1968) PMP *qanitu

j-ati-Marshallese(OC) younger sibling; younger parallel cousin POC *taci

jauBare'e(WMP) needle PAN *zaRum

jauBelait(WMP) far PMP *zauq

jauʔBintulu(WMP) far PMP *zauq

jauʔMelanau Dalat(WMP) far PMP *zauq

jauMadurese(WMP) far, distant PMP *zauq

jauʔMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) far PMP *zauq

ʄauHawu(CMP) to sew PAN *zaRum

jauhIban(WMP) far, far off, distant, remote PMP *zauq

jauhMalay(WMP) remoteness PMP *zauq

jauhSundanese(WMP) far, far away PMP *zauq

jauhSalako(WMP) far PMP *zauq

jauʔMelanau Dalat (Kampung Teh)(WMP) far PMP *zauq

jawaBalinese(WMP) millet PAN *zawa₂

jawaʔIban(WMP) millet, especially Bulrush millet, Pennisetum typhoideum; jawaʔ is planted with the padi, but not as a main crop PAN *zawa₂

jawæNgaju Dayak(WMP) a plant resembling sugarcane but smaller, only about one finger thick, with many stalks that support grain in a black hull; the curved grains are somewhat smaller than rice grains, and are eaten cooked, having a taste somewhat like rice, but greasier; in central Borneo jawæ is often planted as a substitute for rice PAN *zawa₂

jawaOld Javanese(WMP) a grain (in particular barley or millet?). Perhaps a Prakrit form of Sanskrit yawa (barley). Was barley known in Java? Or should we assume jawa = jawawut (millet)? PAN *zawa₂

jawahSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) day (opposed to night) PMP *zawa₁

jawaʔ jambaiIban(WMP) superior kind of millet with long ear PAN *zawa₂

jayaBare'e(WMP) path, way, road; means to achieve something; means of transport PMP *zalan

jaya ŋkadaBare'e(WMP) groove between nose and upper lip PMP *zalan

jaʔanTialo(WMP) to boil, cook (in pot, water) PMP *zakan

jaʔaŋDampelas(WMP) to boil, cook (in pot, water) PMP *zakan

jaʔatBasap(WMP) bad PMP *zaqat


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jeMarshallese(OC) belly, stomach, innards PMP *tian

jedMokilese(OC) sea water; salt PMP *tasik

jeətNarum(WMP) bad PMP *zaqat

jehLikum(OC) fire POC *api

jehet ~ jahetBalinese(WMP) snare, trap for birds PWMP *zeRet

jəh ibəwPenan (Long Labid)(WMP) one thousand PMP *Ribu

jəjakMalay(WMP) to trample on PAN *zekzek

jejalMalay(WMP) close an orifice with stuffing of any sort PWMP *zelzel

je-jariŋSasak(WMP) kind of spider PMP *zariŋ

jejelNgaju Dayak(WMP) material used for stopping something up PWMP *zelzel

jəlaʔBintulu(WMP) tongue PWMP *zelaq

jəlaʔMelanau Dalat(WMP) tongue PWMP *zelaq

jəlaʔKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) tongue PWMP *zelaq

jəlaʔMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) tongue PWMP *zelaq

jəlaMurik(WMP) tongue PWMP *zelaq

jəlaKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) tongue PWMP *zelaq

jəlanJarai(WMP) path, road PMP *zalan

jelataŋIban(WMP) small tree, Laportea stimulans Miq., having stinging hairs on the leaves, which can be littered about where an enemy may rest PMP *zalateŋ

jelataŋMalay(WMP) stinging nettle, generic for certain plants with stinging leaves, including tree nettle (Laportea stimulans), causing intense pain and a rash like erysipelas, and used by Malays as an ingredient in poison or hung over doors to keep away evil spirits, common small nettle (Fleurya interrupta), causing itch, when the expression kena jelataŋ (or simply jelataŋ) ‘itchy, lascivious’, and stinging climber (Cnesmone javanica); a minute marine insect that gives a slight sting, sea-flea PMP *zalateŋ

jəlayBintulu(WMP) kind of cultivated plant PMP *zelay

jelayMalay(WMP) millet, Aphania pancijuga PMP *zelay

jəleʔMiri(WMP) tongue PWMP *zelaq

jeleyNgaju Dayak(WMP) a plant similar to millet, but with larger grains that are round and yellowish PMP *zelay

jəliBerawan (Long Terawan)(WMP) tongue PWMP *zelaq

jeliŋIban(WMP) look from the corners of the eyes PWMP *zeliŋ

jeliŋKaro Batak(WMP) cross-eyed PWMP *zeliŋ

jeliŋMalay(WMP) give a side-glance full of meaning PWMP *zeliŋ

jelma buŋar-enKaro Batak(WMP) someone in the prime of life PWMP *buŋaR

jelma buŋar-enKaro Batak(WMP) someone in the prime of life PWMP *buŋaR-en

jeluaŋMalay(WMP) vegetable parchment; native paper ... Old Malayo-Javanese romances are met with that have been written on this parchment (the bark used being that of Morus macroura or of Brousonnetia papyrifera) PWMP *zaluaŋ

jemaMarshallese(OC) father, FB PMP *t-amax

jemakBalinese(WMP) pick up, take, seize, stretch out a hand for something, grasp PMP *zemak

jemakDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) grasp in the hand PMP *zemak

jemakKaro Batak(WMP) hold something tightly in the hand PMP *zemak

jəmeʔKayan(WMP) stubble or straw of rice left in the field after reaping PMP *zaRami

jəmiʔKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) rice stubble, rice straw PMP *zaRami

jempitIban(WMP) crushed PWMP *zepit

jenaW.Tarangan (Ngaibor)(CMP) mother PMP *t-ina

jenefWatut(OC) centipede PCEMP *qalipan

jeñoWest Damar(CMP) fish PMP *hikan

jéŋkétSundanese(WMP) stuck together, as the hair PWMP *ziŋkit

jeŋkoŋIban(WMP) curved handle (as on a pail, teapot) PMP *zeŋkuŋ

jepèt, jepitJavanese(WMP) pinched tightly (in a clip, etc.) PWMP *zepit

jepitMalay (Jakarta)(WMP) nip, catch between pincers PWMP *zepit

jeraʔIban(WMP) learn by experience (‘the hard way’), have one’s fill, get one’s fingers burned, be fed up with; (poetic) fearful, crazed PWMP *zeRa

jeraMalay(WMP) deterred; warned by experience PWMP *zeRa

jeraMarshallese(OC) squirrelfish: Holocentrus spp. PMP *taRaqan

jeramiMalay(WMP) stubble; rice-aftergrowth; the waste or inedible parts of fruits like the jack and durian PMP *zaRami

jəramiʔIban(WMP) sacred plants (induʔ padi – lit. ‘rice mother’) in the paddy field after harvest PMP *zaRami

jeraŋauMalay(WMP) the sweet flag, Acorus calamus. A medicinal plant much used as a family remedy for children's complaints PWMP *zariaŋaw

jəratMalay(WMP) running noose, of noose snares for birds and small mammals PWMP *zeRet

jerat biŋkasMalay(WMP) a noose-snare that has been sprung PMP *biŋkas

jərətSasak(WMP) snare; knot PWMP *zeRet

jerok ipisMalay(WMP) a thin-skinned lime PAN *iŋ(e)pis

jeruk nipisJavanese(WMP) sweet lime (from its thin skin) PMP *nipis

jeuDali'(WMP) far PMP *zauq

jəuʔKiput(WMP) far PMP *zauq

jɛʔKelai(WMP) ginger PMP *laqia

jəʔWahau(WMP) ginger PMP *laqia


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jhikCham(WMP) to sew PMP *zaqit


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jiIvatan (Isamorong)(WMP) oblique case marker for singular personal nouns PMP *ki₂ₐ

Rotuman(OC) plant with ornamental leaves and a sweet root: Cordyline terminalis PMP *siRi

jiYami(WMP) not PPh *diq

jianKayan (Busang)(WMP) no, not PMP *dian

ji atuhKayan(WMP) one hundred PMP *Ratus

jiheʔKayan(WMP) post or support of house PMP *hadiRi

jihiAraki(OC) croton: Codiaeum variegatum PMP *siRi

jihiʔKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) house post PMP *hadiRi

ʄi-ʄauHawu(CMP) needle PAN *zaRum

jijiIaai(OC) a bird: Halcyon sanctus canacorum POC *kiki₁

jijiMalay(WMP) disgust PWMP *zizi

jijirMinangkabau(WMP) grinning, showing the teeth PMP *zizir

jilaBare'e(WMP) tongue and anything resembling it PMP *dilaq₁

jilaRotuman(OC) squint, be crossed (eyes) POC *silak₂

jilaSeru(WMP) tongue PMP *dilaq₁

jilaʔUma(WMP) tongue PMP *dilaq₁

jilakOld Javanese(WMP) partial eye defect (cross-eyed?) PMP *zilak

jila letiBare'e(WMP) clitoris (lit. ‘tongue of the vagina’) PMP *dilaq₁

jilatMalay(WMP) to lick or lick up, of touching with the tongue, of a dog licking up food; of a dancing girl picking up coins with her lips PWMP *zilat

jilatMalay(WMP) to lick or lick up; of touching with the tongue; of a dog licking up food; of a dancing girl picking up coins with her lips; and of tongues of flame “licking up” anything inflammable PWMP *dilat

jilataŋMinangkabau(WMP) stinging nettle: Laportea spp. PMP *zilateŋ

jilatoŋLampung(WMP) stinging nettle: Laportea spp. PMP *zilateŋ

jilatoŋoRoviana(OC) kind of nettle POC *silatoŋ

jileŋBalinese(WMP) squint, be cross-eyed PWMP *zeliŋ

jileutRejang(WMP) to lick PWMP *dilat

jili-Mokilese(OC) three PEMP *tolu

jiliʔNarum(WMP) tongue PMP *dilaq₁

jiluMarshallese(OC) three PEMP *tolu

jine-Marshallese(OC) mother; aunt; older sister; female cousin PMP *t-ina

jiŋanUripiv(OC) whitebait POC *jiŋana

jioBare'e(WMP) noose trap to catch mice or wild chickens PWMP *ziRet

jiratIban(WMP) to hobble or tie by the legs (of animals, usually for killing) PWMP *ziRet

jirətMalay (Jakarta)(WMP) noose trap PWMP *ziRet

jiriEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) a plant, general term for Dracaena sp. PMP *siRi


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joaŋMokilese(OC) to cry PMP *taŋis

johoNgaju Dayak(WMP) broth of meat or fish; sap, juice, fluid, liquid PMP *zuRuq

jojoŋTami(OC) a cork; to cork POC *joŋjoŋ

jokMarshallese(OC) to land, alight; perched POC *toko

jokMokilese(OC) to swoop POC *toko

jok-diMokilese(OC) to land (of bird, plane) POC *toko

jokokaMalagasy(WMP) cattle whose horns turn down (Provincial) PMP *zuŋkuk

joleBare'e(WMP) native maize: Coix agrestis PMP *zelay

jole goaBare'e(WMP) Makasar maize: Zea mays PMP *zelay

joliŋToba Batak(WMP) slanting, inclined PWMP *zeliŋ

jolma pan-dua-iToba Batak(WMP) co-wife (lit. ‘person who is a second part’) PWMP *duha-i

joloBabatana(OC) subside POC *solo₃

jomakToba Batak(WMP) grasp something with the whole hand PMP *zemak

jonjot (secondary prenasalization)Malay(WMP) picking fibrous stuff, e.g. oakum PWMP *zutzut

joŋkokMalay(WMP) to squat PMP *zuŋkuk

joohDelang(WMP) far PMP *zauq

jopiʔUma(WMP) narrow PWMP *zepit

jop-jopuRotuman(OC) to keep on bending forward or half falling as one walks, lit. to go divingly POC *sobu

jopuRotuman(OC) to dive, to swim under water POC *sobu

jowiMokilese(OC) conch shell POC *tapuRi


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jrumCham(WMP) needle PAN *zaRum

jrumJarai(WMP) needle PAN *zaRum


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juʔPenan (Long Labid)(WMP) far PMP *zauq

jubi n-isi-nSoboyo(CMP) arrow of a bow PAN *isi₅

jujuŋBuginese(WMP) carrying on the head PWMP *zuŋzuŋ

jujuŋ-aŋMakassarese(WMP) load to be carried on the head PWMP *zuŋzuŋ-an

jujuŋ-enKaro Batak(WMP) wages for something, above all for someone who will join in a fight PWMP *zuŋzuŋ

jujutMinangkabau(WMP) picking fibrous stuff, e.g. oakum PWMP *zutzut

jukatMiri(WMP) to burn (rubbish, the fields) PMP *zeket

jukutSundanese(WMP) grass, vegetables PMP *zukut

julaʔKenyah(WMP) spittle PWMP *zulaq

julaʔSasak(WMP) saliva, spittle PWMP *zulaq

julaʔ-inSasak(WMP) to be spat upon PWMP *zulaq

julaʔ ladaʔSasak(WMP) the first betel spittle, first expectoration after chewing areca nut PWMP *zulaq

juliŋIban(WMP) squint; uneven, slanting PWMP *zuliŋ

juliŋMalay(WMP) squint; cast in eye PWMP *zuliŋ

juliŋ bər-taŋkapMalay(WMP) cross-eyed PWMP *zuliŋ

j-uluKaro Batak(WMP) upstream PMP *di qulu

j-uluʔSasak(WMP) passed by; do something before another PMP *di qulu

juluʔSasak(WMP) do something before another PAN *zulu

j-uluToba Batak(WMP) upstream, toward the mountains PMP *di qulu

julu-anSasak(WMP) earlier, former PAN *zulu

j-ulu-anToba Batak(WMP) the most honored place in the house at gatherings or feasts PMP *di qulu

juluŋ-juluŋMalay(WMP) kind of freshwater fish PWMP *zuluŋ

juma acemKaro Batak(WMP) a temporary, not well prepared ricefield PWMP *qalesem

jumah sabahKaro Batak(WMP) irrigated ricefield (jumah ‘swidden’) PWMP *sabaq

junjoŋMalay(WMP) supporting on the head (of a hawker carrying a basket on his head, a warrior raising his club over his head before striking, and of fixing gun shields on guns); indirectly, of props on which a thing rests; fig. obeying PWMP *zuŋzuŋ

junjuŋBalinese(WMP) carry on the head PWMP *zuŋzuŋ

junjuŋ-anJavanese(WMP) a burden PWMP *zuŋzuŋ-an

junjuŋ-junjuŋ-anJavanese(WMP) lifting, raising PWMP *zuŋzuŋ-an

juŋjuŋBalinese(WMP) to praise highly, flatter PWMP *zuŋzuŋ

jurohMalay(WMP) syrup made of native sugar PMP *zuRuq

juruSundanese(WMP) external corner, as of a mat, a house, a fence, etc. PWMP *zuRu

juru kuruŋOld Javanese(WMP) servant who looks after the cocks PWMP *kuruŋ

juru səlamMalay(WMP) diver; fisherman who immerses himself to listen for the presence of a shoal of fish PAN *selem₁

juuʔMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) juice (of fruit), sap (of tree); gravy PMP *zuRuq

juʔuHawu(CMP) grass PMP *zukut

juuʔ bəñuhMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) coconut cream PMP *zuRuq

juyuLampung(WMP) back side PWMP *zuRu

juyu waniBare'e(WMP) honey PMP *wani

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 11/23/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
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