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Updated: 4/20/2019


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


(click on a *proto-form for its set)

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-ñaBintulu(WMP) 3sg. agent and possessor PAN *ni-á

-ñaBugotu(OC) 3sg. possessor POC *-ña

-ñaChamorro(WMP) 3sg. agent and possessor (Topping 1973:225) PAN *ni-á

-ñaKenyah(WMP) 3sg. agent PAN *ni-á

-ñaMalay(WMP) 3sg. agent and possessor PAN *ni-á

ñaʔSori(OC) tall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit PMP *ñatuq

ñaaTialo(WMP) soul, spirit (of a living being) PMP *nihawa

ñaapKenyah (Long Anap)(WMP) yesterday PMP *ñeRab

ñabotBalinese(WMP) to pull up plants, pluck out (hair, feathers) PMP *cabut

ñaboyTidung Mensalong(WMP) to arrive PWMP *sabay₂

ña-cunLoniu(OC) a fish, fusilier POC *sulik

ñahSori(OC) widower POC *ñaRo

ñahæNgaju Dayak(WMP) brother (a woman calls her brother thus) PMP *ñaRa

ñahaiKatingan(WMP) brother (woman speaking), father’s brother’s son, mother’s sister’s son PMP *ñaRa

ñakBipi(OC) tall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit PMP *ñatuq

ñakLampung(WMP) I (coarse form) PMP *ni aku

ñakanBalinese(WMP) to cook rice, cook food, be busy in the kitchen PMP *zakan

ñakapʷe-lawTitan(OC) spider PMP *lawaq₂

ñakayKenyah(WMP) to visit PWMP *sakay₃

ñakayKenyah (Long Wat)(WMP) to visit PWMP *sakay₃

ñakepBalinese(WMP) to enclose, shut in tightly PWMP *cakep

ñakitBalinese(WMP) to hurt, damage, torture PWMP *ma-ñakit

ñalahBalinese(WMP) do wrong, commit a fault, be guilty; sin PWMP *ma-ñalaq

ñaléSundanese(WMP) to dry fruits PWMP *salay

ñalinJavanese(WMP) to change or replace something; to change someone’s clothing PWMP *salin

ñalin-anNgaju Dayak(WMP) to transfer from one vessel to another; to translate or interpret PWMP *salin

ñamMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) taste PAN *ñamñam

ñamTitan(OC) mosquito PMP *ñamuk

ñamWogeo(OC) mosquito PMP *ñamuk

ñamakIban(WMP) to steep or dye cordage, as a casting net PWMP *samak

ñamanMalay(WMP) healthy feeling; sense of well-being'; (Sarawak) 'tasty, delicious PWMP *ñaman

ñambutJavanese(WMP) to take hold of, grasp; to receive PWMP *sambut₂

ñamiBugotu(OC) nibble, bite, taste PMP *ñamit

ñamiCheke Holo(OC) taste by licking with the tongue PMP *ñamit

ñam-iBugotu(OC) nibble, bite, taste PCEMP *ñañam

ñamñamChamorro(WMP) chew, sound of chewing, eat PAN *ñamñam

ñamñamIban(WMP) insipid, tasteless PAN *ñamñam

ñamñamMalay(WMP) to eat (baby talk) PAN *ñamñam

ñamokBukat(WMP) mosquito PMP *ñamuk

ñamokIban(WMP) mosquito PMP *ñamuk

ñamokMalay(WMP) mosquito PMP *ñamuk

ñam-onBipi(OC) mosquito (sandfly?) PMP *ñamuk

ñam-onLoniu(OC) mosquito (sandfly?) PMP *ñamuk

ñamuBonkovia(OC) mosquito PMP *ñamuk

ñamuBugotu(OC) mosquito PMP *ñamuk

ñamuChamorro(WMP) mosquito PMP *ñamuk

ñamuKaniet(OC) mosquito PMP *ñamuk

ñamukDusun Malang(WMP) mosquito PMP *ñamuk

ñamukNgaju Dayak(WMP) mosquito PMP *ñamuk

ñamurMinangkabau(WMP) dewdrop PAN *ñamuR

*ñamʷuPMic(OC) mosquito PMP *ñamuk

ña-ñapiBugotu(OC) to lick POC *ñabi

ña-ñawLikum(OC) widow(er) POC *ñaRo

ñañiIban(WMP) singing, especially in style other than Iban, or particular kind of song (probably < Malay) PWMP *ñañuy

ñañiMalay(WMP) singing PWMP *ñañuy

ñaŋketSasak(WMP) sticky, adhesive PMP *ña(ŋ)ket

ñaŋkudu-anSundanese(WMP) to dye with caŋkudu PWMP *baŋkudu

ñaŋkutJavanese(WMP) to catch or hook onto; to involve, drag in PWMP *saŋkut

ñapiBugotu(OC) to bite, taste POC *ñabi

ñapitJavanese(WMP) to pick up with tongs, as a glowing coal PWMP *sapit

ñapuJavanese(WMP) to sweep PMP *sapu

ñarinIban(WMP) to hunt deer in this way PMP *zariŋ

ñariŋBalinese(WMP) to catch with a net PMP *zariŋ

ñaruŋJavanese(WMP) to wrap or sheathe (a weapon); to dress someone in a saruŋ; to wrap a weapon in protective cloth PWMP *saruŋ

ñaruŋSasak(WMP) to sheath (of a kris) PWMP *saruŋ

ñatLeipon(OC) tall tree with small leaves and large sweet fruit with seeds that are white when unripe and black when ripe PMP *ñatuq

ñatLoniu(OC) tall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit PMP *ñatuq

ñatSasak(WMP) stretch, spring up PWMP *eñat

ñatSasak(WMP) stretch, spring up PWMP *heñat

ñatTitan(OC) latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit PMP *ñatuq

ñatoNgaju Dayak(WMP) tree from which latex is extracted PMP *ñatuq

ñatoʔKenyah(WMP) wild rubber PMP *ñatuq

ñatohIban(WMP) generic for trees yielding gutta (including gutta percha), Palaquium, Ganua and other species PMP *ñatuq

ñatohMalay(WMP) general name for certain trees of the genera Payena and Palaquium that produce a good class of timber PMP *ñatuq

ñatuKayan(WMP) forest rubber, hard rubber varieties, gutta percha PMP *ñatuq

ñatuKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) kind of tree with leaf similar to the breadfruit PMP *ñatuq

ña-vahaw-anItbayaten(WMP) cold (of sick person with fever before, flat iron, something once heated by the sun) PMP *bahaw

ñawLindrou(OC) widow(er) POC *ñaRo

ñawNauna(OC) widow(er) POC *ñaRo

ñawSori(OC) widow POC *ñaRo

ñaw ~ ña-ñawBipi(OC) widow(er) POC *ñaRo

ñawaBalinese(WMP) soul PMP *nihawa

ñawaBare'e(WMP) soul, invisible personality; sometimes also breath as the life-force PMP *nihawa

ñawaGayō(WMP) soul PMP *nihawa

ñawaIban(WMP) voice, sound; mouth; life, existence, breath; hence rest, ‘breather’ PMP *nihawa

ñawaJavanese(WMP) life force (in living things); soul (immaterial part) PMP *nihawa

ñawaMakasarese(WMP) breath, breath of life, life-force; temperament, character; lively, spirited, temperamental (of racing horses) PMP *nihawa

ñawaMalay(WMP) life; soul (in the Moslem sense); life or soul as a term of endearment; life in its association with the breath, and in the narrow sense of not being dead; soul in the sense that it can exist apart from the body PMP *nihawa

ñawaMandar(WMP) soul, spirit, heart PMP *nihawa

ñawaMapun(WMP) spirit of man or animal; the life principle which comes from God PMP *nihawa

ñawaSasak(WMP) soul that departs from the body in the afterlife and journeys to Heaven or Hell PMP *nihawa

ñawaSundanese(WMP) soul; life; also a darling, someone who is adored PMP *nihawa

ñawaDampelas(WMP) soul, spirit (of a living being) PMP *nihawa

ñawaʔ-anSundanese(WMP) to have a soul, be possessed of a soul PMP *nihawa

ñawahJavanese(WMP) to work rice paddies PWMP *sabaq

ñawa-lihanMapun(WMP) something like one’s subconscious that is believed to leave and come back to one’s body while one is sleeping PMP *nihawa

ñawurJavanese(WMP) to bestrew something with small particles, e.g. sand PMP *saq(e)buR

ñawurJavanese(WMP) to strew small objects in this manner; to plant rice seeds by scattering them PMP *sabuR

ñekLindrou(OC) tall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit PMP *ñatuq

ñekaŋIban(WMP) prop something open, as a door PMP *sekaŋ

ñekoMadurese(WMP) knock with the elbow PAN *sikux

ñeksekBalinese(WMP) to pack something in tightly, leaving no room; shut something in PWMP *ma-ñeksek

ñeletKayan(WMP) insert between PMP *selet

ñəndeKenyah (Long Dunin)(WMP) to lean on PMP *sendiR

ñénḍokJavanese(WMP) to eat, stir, dish up, etc. with a spoon PMP *si(n)duk

ñeñikLampung(WMP) mosquito PMP *ñikñik

ñe-ñisikSasak(WMP) delouse oneself PWMP *siksik₁

ñəŋatIban(WMP) to sting PAN *seŋet₂

ñəŋətSasak(WMP) to sting, of insects PAN *seŋet₂

ñepahJavanese(WMP) to chew the juice from; to spit out (something one has chewed the good out of) PWMP *ma-ñepaq

ñepaʔKenyah(WMP) to chew a betel quid PWMP *ma-ñepaq

ñepitBalinese(WMP) pick up with tongs or pincers PWMP *sempit

ñepitKayan(WMP) to pick up with forceps or tweezers PWMP *sempit

ñəputKayan(WMP) shoot with a blowpipe PWMP *ma-ñeput

ñeri hateSundanese(WMP) (lit. 'painful liver') grief, sorrow, heartache PMP *X₄ + qatay

ñerutMurik(WMP) drink, sip, suck PWMP *sedut

ñibuŋKenyah (Long Jeeh)(WMP) palms of the genus Oncosperma PMP *qanibuŋ

ñikatBalinese(WMP) to brush PWMP *sikat

ñikatJavanese(WMP) to brush (as the teeth) PWMP *sikat

ñikatSasak(WMP) to brush PWMP *sikat

ñikatSundanese(WMP) to brush PWMP *sikat

ñikepJavanese(WMP) to embrace PWMP *sikep₂

ñikuJavanese(WMP) forming a right angle, perpendicular PAN *sikux

ñikuKenyah(WMP) to elbow PAN *sikux

ñikuSundanese(WMP) knock with the elbow; form a sharp bend or curve PAN *sikux

ñiku-ñaBugotu(OC) bird’s nest POC *ñikut

ñiloNgaju Dayak(WMP) pain in the joints, arthritis PMP *ñilu

ñ-impaŋJavanese(WMP) to move aside and make way for PMP *simpaŋ

ñineŋKayan(WMP) to see PWMP *sineŋ

ñineŋKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) to see PWMP *sineŋ

ñiñikBalinese(WMP) tiny mosquitoes that fly in swarms PMP *ñikñik

ñiñikSasak(WMP) tobacco louse PMP *ñikñik

ñioyIvatan (Isamorong)(WMP) coconut PMP *niuR

ñipaBintulu(WMP) snake PMP *anipa

ñipaʔMelanau (Mukah)(WMP) a swamp palm: Nipa fruticans PMP *nipaq

ñipaʔMurik(WMP) snake PMP *anipa

ñipatSundanese(WMP) to aim at; look in a straight line along something; to make a line on wood PWMP *sipat

ñipənBintulu(WMP) tooth PAN *nipen

ñipenItbayaten(WMP) tooth PAN *ŋipen

ñipənLahanan(WMP) tooth PAN *nipen

ñipiKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) thin, of things PMP *nipis

ñipihKayan(WMP) thin (of an object), not of man or animals PMP *nipis

ñipoʔSiang(WMP) snake PMP *anipa

ñiruMalay(WMP) a basket-tray, pointed and almost heart-shaped, on which grain is tossed up and shaken to rid it of dust and chaff after pounding PMP *niRu

ñiruanSundanese(WMP) small to middle-sized honeybee that nests inside tree hollows and rock clefts PMP *qani-Ruan

ñisihJavanese(WMP) to move something aside; to avoid by moving aside PWMP *sisiq₁

ñɨtPenchal(OC) tall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit PMP *ñatuq

ñiurMalay(WMP) coconut, Cocos nucifera, but especially the fresh coconut in contrast to copra (kelapa); at least eleven varieties are named PMP *niuR

ñiur bawaŋMalay(WMP) coconut with edible husk PMP *niuR

ñiur daraMalay(WMP) coconut palm not yet in bearing PMP *daRa₂

ñiur iŋus-anMalay(WMP) coconut at the stage when the interior is beginning to soften PWMP *hiŋus₁

ñiur manisMalay(WMP) coconut with edible husk PMP *niuR

ñiur nipahMalay(WMP) a species of coconut palm with a very short trunk (nipah = the nipa palm, Nipa fruticans) PMP *niuR

ñivuŋKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) any palm of the genus Oncosperma PMP *qanibuŋ

ñiwaŋKayan(WMP) thin, not fat PMP *niwaŋ

ñiwaŋKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) thin, of people and animals PMP *niwaŋ

ñiwaŋKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) thin (of people and animals) PMP *ma-niwaŋ

ñohKayan(WMP) coconut palm PMP *niuR

ñompaMadurese(WMP) administer an oath to someone PWMP *sumpaq

ñoñLeipon(OC) tree with inedible fruit; the roots yield a pink dye: Morinda citrifolia POC *ñoñu

ñoñWogeo(OC) tree with non-edible fruit and roots used as medicine: Morinda citrifolia POC *ñoñu

ñoñoWogeo(OC) female breast POC *ñoñop

ñoñopoLungga(OC) to suck POC *ñoñop

ñoñotMalay(WMP) pulling at the breast (of children); drawing at anything elastic PWMP *ñutñut

ñoʔñoʔMakasarese(WMP) slurp, sip, drink as animals do PMP *ñepñep

ñoroBugotu(OC) a wave, breaker, surf; to be rough, of sea POC *ñoro

ñot kɨyNauna(OC) tall latex-yielding tree with large edible sweet green fruit PMP *ñatuq

ñowanSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) house bee PMP *qari-ñuan

ñoyBipi(OC) short roundish tree with large leaves and small inedible fruit that turns yellow when ripe: Morinda citrifolia POC *ñoñu

ñuLahanan(WMP) coconut PMP *niuR

ñuatKenyah(WMP) to wound PWMP *suRat

ñuəmAli(OC) mosquito PMP *ñamuk

ñufoqChamorro(WMP) scorpionfish, stonefish PMP *ñepuq

ñuhBalinese(WMP) coconut (generic) PMP *niuR

ñuhuKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) to ask or order someone to do something PAN *suRuq₂

ñuiətKiput(WMP) to wound (someone, something) PWMP *suRat

ñukatKayan (Uma Juman)(WMP) to measure the length, width, height PWMP *sukat

ñuksukSasak(WMP) to pierce through something PWMP *ma-ñuksuk

ñulaʔKenyah (Long Dunin)(WMP) to spit, expectorate PWMP *zulaq

ñulamBalinese(WMP) to embroider, decorate; join together PMP *sulam

ñulamSasak(WMP) to embroider PMP *sulam

ñulam-iJavanese(WMP) to patch, to mend something by replacing materials PMP *sulam

ñuliŋBalinese(WMP) to play the flute PWMP *suliŋ

ñuliŋSasak(WMP) to play the flute PWMP *suliŋ

ñuliŋSundanese(WMP) to play the flute PWMP *suliŋ

ñulitJavanese(WMP) to cause difficulties, to complicate things PWMP *sulit₁

ñuluhSasak(WMP) light up, illuminate PWMP *me-ñuluq

ñuluh-anSundanese(WMP) to look for firewood; put wood on the fire PMP *suluq

ñumbaŋBalinese(WMP) commit incest, do something indecent or wrong PWMP *sumbaŋ

ñumpahJavanese(WMP) to administer an oath to PWMP *sumpaq

ñumpah-anSundanese(WMP) administer an oath to someone PWMP *sumpaq

ñumpah-inBalinese(WMP) to swear an oath PWMP *sumpaq

ñundulBalinese(WMP) be assembled close together, be arrayed (soldiers) PWMP *sundul

ñuŋRejang(WMP) nose PWMP *e(ŋ)juŋ

ñuraTaboyan(WMP) to spit, expectorate PWMP *zulaq

ñuruJavanese(WMP) to use a banana leaf spoon PMP *sudu

ñuruŋJavanese(WMP) to push something forward from behind (as in giving a bicycle a push and then letting it go) PWMP *suruŋ

ñuruŋSundanese(WMP) to push or press forward PWMP *suruŋ

ñusuSasak(WMP) to nurse, suckle, suck at the breast PWMP *ma-ñusu

ñusu-kənSundanese(WMP) to suck at the breast, of a child PAN *susu₁

ñusulJavanese(WMP) to follow someone later, to catch up with; to send a letter after someone, or after an earlier letter, with additional information PMP *sulsul₁

ñusulSundanese(WMP) to go after someone, follow, pursue PMP *sulsul₁

ñusunBalinese(WMP) to put in layers; to arrange PMP *susun

ñusunJavanese(WMP) to arrange and classify, sort out PMP *susun

ñusunSundanese(WMP) lie on top of one another, heap together, heap up, stack up PMP *susun

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 4/20/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-w_n2.htm