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Updated: 11/23/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Words

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

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*q   

qa    qc    qe    qi    ql    qm    qn    qo    qp    qr    qt    qu    qv    qz    

qa-Kavalan(Formosan) immediate future: qa-patay ‘will die’ (cp m-patay ‘to die, be dead’) PAN *ka-₂

qaThao(Formosan) interrogative particle, as in ma-cuaw ihu ma-ania qa (very-2s-intelligent-ip) ‘Are you really so smart?’ PAN *qa₂

qaayYapese(OC) his leg/foot POC *qaqe

qabarKavalan(Formosan) clothes, bag or coverlet made from hemp fibre PAN *kabal₁

qabarKavalan(Formosan) clothes, bag or coverlet made from hemp fibre PAN *kabaR

qabuBunun (Takituduh)(Formosan) ash (Li 1988) PAN *qabu

*qabu-lidPAty(Formosan) ashes PAN *qabu

qabusKavalan(Formosan) shrimp (generic), lobster PAN *kabus₂

qaCaySakizaya(Formosan) liver PAN *qaCay

qađamBunun(Formosan) bird PAN *qayam₁

qadawPaiwan(Formosan) sun; day; clock, watch PAN *qajaw

qaḍisPaiwan(Formosan) large white hawk, Eastern marsh harrier: Circus aeruginosus spilonotus PAN *qadiS

qaedYapese(OC) flower of a type of plant PMP *qatay qatay₁

qagiraŋAtayal (Mayrinax)(Formosan) bean, pea PAN *qaRidaŋ

qagluAtayal (Mayrinax)(Formosan) a plant: Phragmites longivalis PAN *qaReNu

qalʸaPaiwan(Formosan) enemy, stranger PAN *qaNa

qalaŋIlokano(WMP) to block, obstruct, blockade; seize by surprise, ambush, waylay PPH *araŋ

qalʸa-qalʸaPaiwan(Formosan) outsiders, guests from other villages PAN *qaNa

qalhiwThao(Formosan) dryness PAN *qaRiw

qalhumThao(Formosan) pangolin, scaly anteater: Manis pentadactyla PAN *qaRem

qalʸi-anPaiwan(Formosan) spindle and whorl (for weaving) PAN *qaNi

qalidaŋBunun(Formosan) pigeon peas PAN *qaRidaŋ

qalipuguʔAtayal (Cʔuliʔ)(Formosan) hair whorl (Li 1980) PAN *qali-puju

qalʸitsPaiwan(Formosan) skin, pod, shell PAN *qaNiC

qalʸudjPaiwan(Formosan) to lose, throw away PAN *qañud

qalumBunun(Formosan) pangolin, anteater PAN *qaRem

qalupAtayal(Formosan) to hunt; chase away PAN *qanup

qalʸupPaiwan(Formosan) to hunt PAN *qanup

qamPaiwan(Formosan) pangolin, anteater PAN *qaRem

qamisPaiwan (Northeastern)(Formosan) north PAN *qamiS

qamis-anBunun(Formosan) age PAN *qamiS-an

qanKavalan(Formosan) eat PAN *kaen

q<an>a-RayaKavalan(Formosan) size PAN *Raya

qaniAtayal(Formosan) this, these; here PAN *qa-ni

qaniAtayal(Formosan) this, these, here PAN *qani₁

qa-niAtayal(Formosan) this, these; here PAN *qa₁

qaniŋuBunun(Formosan) picture; shadow PAN *qaNiŋu

qanituBunun(Formosan) ghost PAN *qaNiCu

qanivalvalBunun(Formosan) rainbow PAN *qaNi-

qani-valvalBunun(Formosan) rainbow PAN *-waRwaR

qanivuŋPaiwan(Formosan) Phoenix hanceana var. formosana (bush and fruit) PAN *qanibuŋ

qann-anKavalan(Formosan) be eaten; food PAN *kaen-an

qann-iKavalan(Formosan) eat (imper.) PAN *kaen-i

qanup-anBunun(Formosan) hunting ground PAN *qaNup-an

qanusBunun (Takituduh)(Formosan) a plant: Begonia aptera PAN *qanus₁

qanváŋBunun (Takituduh)(Formosan) deer PAN *qaNuaŋ

qanvaŋBunun(Formosan) cow; deer PAN *qaNuaŋ

qanváŋ bonólBunun (Takituduh)(Formosan) buffalo PAN *qaNuaŋ

qaŋelitsPaiwan(Formosan) be scorched (rice or millet) PAN *qaŋeliC

qaŋeruPaiwan(Formosan) odor of rotted crab PAN *qaŋeRu

qapeduPaiwan(Formosan) gall bladder; bile PAN *qapejux

qapizPaiwan(Formosan) something braided in six strands (as jewelry) PAN *qapid

qaqKavalan(Formosan) crow PAN *kak

qaqaKavalan(Formosan) elder sibling (reference) PAN *kaka₂

qaqaiSeediq (Truku)(Formosan) foot (especially of humans) PAN *qaqay

qa-qalʸup-anPaiwan(Formosan) hunting territory PAN *qaNup-an

qa-qalʸup-enPaiwan(Formosan) wild game (object of hunting) PAN *qaNup-en

qa-qaqaKavalan(Formosan) the eldest sibling PAN *kaka₂

qa-qelʸev-anPaiwan(Formosan) prison PAN *qeNeb₁

qa-qnusAtayal (Mayrinax)(Formosan) a plant: Begonia aptera PAN *qanus₁

qa-qpitThao(Formosan) tongs for picking up hot coals; scissors; clamping or gripping trap that seizes the leg of an animal (used especially for the Formosan serow, the leopard cat, and wild boars) PAN *qepit

qaq-sikazKavalan(Formosan) easily ashamed, shy or bashful PAN *Sikad

qaRatKavalan(Formosan) to bite PAN *kaRaC

qaRat-iKavalan(Formosan) bite (imper.) PAN *kaRaC-i

qaRawKavalan(Formosan) to scratch (with fingernails) PAN *kaRaw₁

qa-RayaKavalan(Formosan) to grow PAN *Raya

qariwazwazThao(Formosan) rainbow PAN *qali-

qarizaŋPaiwan(Formosan) string beans PAN *qaRidaŋ

qaruToqabaqita(OC) [gloss] POC *karut₂

qarufThao(Formosan) knee PAN *qaleb

qaseluPaiwan(Formosan) pestle PAN *qaSelu

qasilaBunun(Formosan) salt PAN *qasiRa

qasoEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) the rafters of the roof and alcove or apse of a house, which rest on the beams, and project beyond the ridge PMP *kasaw₁

qasuuAtayal (Mayrinax)(Formosan) pestle PAN *qaSelu

qatKairiru(OC) outrigger canoe POC *katiR

qatađBunun(Formosan) liver PAN *qaCay

qatađ babuBunun(Formosan) pork liver PAN *qaCay

qa-tanm-anKavalan(Formosan) graveyard, cemetery PAN *ka-tanem-an

qataqAtayal(Formosan) to eat raw (as taro) PAN *qataq

qatiaPaiwan(Formosan) salt PAN *qasiRa

qatip-anBunun(Formosan) part of the loom PAN *qatip-an

qatiu-Mota(OC) head POC *batuk

qatsayPaiwan(Formosan) liver PAN *qaCay

qauPaiwan(Formosan) bamboo (generic) PAN *qauR

qaulBunun (Takituduh)(Formosan) type of bamboo PAN *qauR

qauŋPaiwan(Formosan) to weep; grief, sorrow PAN *qauŋ

qava-nPaiwan(Formosan) shoulder PAN *qabaRa-an

qavasPaiwan(Formosan) a blaze (mark cut on tree to show ownership) PAN *qabaS

qavuPaiwan(Formosan) ashes; betel lime PAN *qabu

qavu-qavu-anPaiwan(Formosan) stove, three-stone fireplace for cooking PAN *qabu-an

qawasKavalan(Formosan) discuss PAN *kawaS₂

qawqawPaiwan(Formosan) shout loudly PAN *qawqaw

qayamPaiwan(Formosan) omen bird PAN *qayam₁

qayamSiraya (Gravius)(Formosan) animal (generic); bird PAN *qayam₁

qayuuyYapese(OC) coconut crab PMP *qayuyu

qa-zaya-nKavalan(Formosan) western side PAN *daya

qa-zusaKavalan(Formosan) two PAN *duSa

qa-zu-zusaKavalan(Formosan) two at a time PAN *duSa


 

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qc

qcipaThao(Formosan) soft-shelled turtle: Amyda sinensis PAN *qaCipa


 

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qe

qeletsPaiwan(Formosan) a joint in bamboo PAN *qeleC

qelʸevPaiwan(Formosan) diaphragm (anat.) PAN *qeNeb₁

qelʸuPaiwan(Formosan) animal trail, small path made by animals PAN *qeNuR

qəlul-iʔSeediq(Formosan) be adrift (Tsuchida 1976:168) PAN *qañud

qeluzPaiwan(Formosan) main house pillar (which supports ridge pole) PAN *qelud

qemqemPaiwan(Formosan) have mouth full; to muzzle PAN *qemqem

qemuPaiwan(Formosan) something that has been beaten in a mortar, as millet into flour PAN *qemu

qesipaAtayal(Formosan) soft-shelled turtle: Trionix sinensis sinensis (Tsuchida 1976:266) PAN *qaCipa

qesirPaiwan(Formosan) (onom.) have a deadened sound (as bells falling to the ground) PAN *qesir

qetepPaiwan(Formosan) to swallow liquid while masticating something solid (as sugarcane) PAN *qesep

qetjutjPaiwan(Formosan) fart, flatulence PAN *qetut

qetseŋPaiwan(Formosan) barrier, fence, enclosure; a "no entry" sign to humans or evil spirits (e.g. a stick left in certain position in front of house) PAN *qeCeŋ

qetseŋelPaiwan(Formosan) black PAN *qeCeŋeN

qetsiluPaiwan(Formosan) egg (of bird, snake) PAN *qiCeluR

qezetjPaiwan(Formosan) a weight, pressure from above PAN *qedet


 

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qi

qi-Kavalan(Formosan) to pluck, pick up, harvest (panay ‘rice’, qi-panay ‘to reap rice’, paRin ‘tree; firewood’, qi-paRin ‘to gather firewood’, tamun ‘vegetables’, qi-tamun ‘to pick vegetables’, wanu ‘honey’, qi-wanu ‘to gather honey’) PAN *ki-

qiawPaiwan(Formosan) frog PAN *qiaw

qilʸasPaiwan(Formosan) moon, month PAN *qiNaS

qilʸas-anPaiwan(Formosan) moonlight PAN *qiNaS

qilatKavalan(Formosan) glitter PAN *likaC

qilusPaiwan(Formosan) bits of faeces left around anus PAN *qiluS

q<in>alʸá-nPaiwan(Formosan) village PAN *qaNa

q-in-am-anPaiwan(Formosan) pangolin's hole or den PAN *qaRem

q-in-apiBunun(Formosan) braided (of hair) PAN *qapid

q-in-atia-nPaiwan(Formosan) something which has been salted PAN *qasiRa-en

q<in>emuPaiwan(Formosan) flour PAN *qemu

q-in-uma-nPaiwan(Formosan) crops PAN *q<in>umah

qipitKavalan(Formosan) to hold with clippers , under one’s armpit or between one’s thighs PAN *kipit

qi-pusanKavalan(Formosan) the second; twice PAN *puSaN

qirqirThao(Formosan) bite; grind the teeth PAN *qelqel

qisuPaiwan(Formosan) shark PAN *qiSu

qitaKavalan(Formosan) to see, to be able to see PAN *kita₂

qiuŋPaiwan(Formosan) sound of a pig squealing PAN *qiuŋ₁

qiur-anThao(Formosan) be wiped, of the anus PAN *qiluS

qiwqiwKavalan(Formosan) to wave (as a person waving clothes to dry them) PAN *kiwkiw

qi-zapanKavalan(Formosan) trail; follow the footprints of an animal PAN *dapaN


 

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ql

qlitaKavalan(Formosan) octopus PAN *guRiCa

qlup-anAtayal(Formosan) to hunt PAN *qaNup-an

qlup-unAtayal(Formosan) be hunted PAN *qaNup-en


 

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qm

q-m-adawPaiwan(Formosan) the sun shines PAN *q<um>ajaw

q<m>alʸa-qalʸaPaiwan (Western)(Formosan) to entertain guests PAN *qaNa

q-m-alitsPaiwan(Formosan) to skin (animal) PAN *q<um>aNiC

q-m-alupAtayal(Formosan) to hunt; chase away PAN *q<um>aNup

q-m-alʸupPaiwan(Formosan) to hunt (wild game) PAN *q<um>aNup

q<m>an ~ q<m>annKavalan(Formosan) to eat PAN *k<um>aen

q<m>a-qutilhThao(Formosan) pursue, chase something or someone PAN *qusiR

q<m>aRatKavalan(Formosan) to bite; to hold between the teeth; acrid, itchy taste of taro PAN *k<um>aRaC

q<m>aRawKavalan(Formosan) to scratch (with fingernails) PAN *k<um>aRaw

q<m>awitKavalan(Formosan) to knit PAN *kawit

q-m-elʸevPaiwan(Formosan) to shut something PAN *qeNeb₁

q-m-etepPaiwan(Formosan) to "eat" the liquid portion of something (as sugarcane) PAN *q<um>esep

q-m-etjutjPaiwan(Formosan) to break wind PAN *q<um>etut

q-m-ezetjPaiwan(Formosan) press down (as a lid); to oppress (people) PAN *qedet

q-m-ilusPaiwan(Formosan) clean a child after bowel movement PAN *qiluS

q-m-ipiŋPaiwan(Formosan) incline one's head to one side PAN *qipiŋ

qmisanAtayal(Formosan) winter PAN *qamiS-an

q<m>iurThao(Formosan) wipe the anus PAN *qiluS

q<m>iwqiwKavalan(Formosan) to stir up PAN *kiwkiw

qmuThao(Formosan) sticky rice; sticky rice cake PAN *qemu

q-m-udjalʸPaiwan(Formosan) to rain PAN *q<um>uzaN

q<m>usazThao(Formosan) to rain PAN *q<um>uzaN

q-m-uzi-quzipPaiwan(Formosan) animal PAN *qudip₁


 

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qn

q<n>ann-anKavalan(Formosan) something eaten PAN *k<in>aen-an

q<n>aRat-anKavalan(Formosan) the bite (of a dog, etc.) PAN *k<in>aRaC-an

qna-zpan-anKavalan(Formosan) footprints, tracks PAN *dapaN

qnuqusKavalan(Formosan) fingernail, toenail PAN *k<aN>uSkuS

qnúːwanThao(Formosan) deer, carabao PAN *qaNuaŋ


 

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qo

qomAtayal(Formosan) pangolin, anteater PAN *qaRem

qoŋMota(OC) night; darkness; dark POC *boŋi


 

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qp

qpitThao(Formosan) pinch, press, as in holding a book between arm and side PAN *qepit

qpit-inThao(Formosan) be pinched by someone or something(as to get one’s hand caught in the door) PAN *qepit


 

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qr

qRanKavalan(Formosan) scar left after a boil heals; scab PAN *keRan₁

qRiwKavalan(Formosan) string, thread; hemp plant, ramie/fiber PAN *keRiw

qri-waRwaRKavalan(Formosan) rainbow PAN *-waRwaR

qrusThao(Formosan) housepost PAN *qelud


 

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qt

qtiLaThao(Formosan) salt PAN *qasiRa

q-turuKavalan(Formosan) three (of days, months) PAN *ka-telu


 

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qu

quAtayal(Formosan) particle designating nominal unit mostly with definite reference, preceding noun ("the"), or verb ("the one who", "the one which"); as member of a verb-noun or noun-noun construction PAN *qu₂

quađBunun(Formosan) rattan PAN *quay

quai-uxAtayal(Formosan) rattan PAN *quay

quaŋAtayal(Formosan) crack, crevice, fissure, gorse PAN *quaŋ₁

quasAtayal(Formosan) song PAN *quyaS

quayPaiwan(Formosan) rattan: Calamus margaritae PAN *quay

quayThao(Formosan) rattan (generic) PAN *quay

qubiPuyuma(Formosan) pubic hair PAN *qubiS

qudanBunun(Formosan) rain PAN *quzaN

qudasBunun(Formosan) grandparent PAN *qudaS

quḍasPaiwan(Formosan) white hair PAN *qudaS

*qudasPAty(Formosan) gray hair PAN *qudaS

qudjalʸPaiwan(Formosan) rain PAN *quzaN

quli-aEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) to skin, pare, skin off POC *kulit

(quLi)-mezawPaiwan(Formosan) dizziness, “seeing stars” PAN *-medaw

quli-quliEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) skin of a plant POC *kulit

qulitiEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) skin of a human body POC *kulit

quluPaiwan(Formosan) head PAN *quluh

qulu-quluPaiwan(Formosan) head end (as of bed) PAN *qulu qulu

qumaBunun(Formosan) farm PAN *qumah

qumaPaiwan(Formosan) cultivated field PAN *qumah

qumahAtayal(Formosan) cultivate, till, work the field PAN *qumah

q<um>pitThao(Formosan) pinch between arm and side (as a purse); cut with scissors PAN *qepit

qumuPaiwan(Formosan) water held in the mouth (not saliva) PAN *qumuR

qunThao(Formosan) edible mushroom with brownish cap and white interior PAN *quSuŋ

qunul-anBunun(Formosan) animal haunt PAN *qenuR-an₁

qupuŋPaiwan(Formosan) a swarm of honeybees PAN *qupuŋ

ququzKavalan(Formosan) animal calf, lower part of the limb between knee and ankle, including shin and calf PAN *kudkud

quriawPaiwan(Formosan) noise of many people shouting loudly PAN *quriaw

qusMota(OC) have the mouth full, cheeks distended with food POC *puso₂

qusav-anPaiwan(Formosan) thirst PAN *quSaw-an

qusawPaiwan(Formosan) thirst PAN *quSaw

qusazThao(Formosan) rain PAN *quzaN

qusaz-inThao(Formosan) to rain, be rained on PAN *quzan-en

qushzapThao(Formosan) scales of a fish PAN *quSeNap

qutsa-qutsalʸPaiwan(Formosan) fallow land, land formerly used for cultivation but now reverted to wilderness PAN *quCaN

qutuKavalan(Formosan) head louse PAN *kuCux

quvalʸPaiwan(Formosan) hair of head; animal's hair PAN *qubaN

quvisPaiwan(Formosan) pubic hair, axillary hair PAN *qubiS

quzaŋPaiwan(Formosan) shrimp, lobster PAN *qudaŋ

quze-quzemPaiwan(Formosan) dull PAN *qudem


 

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qv

qVnsKairiru(OC) spit out at PEMP *kanisu


 

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qz

q-zusaKavalan(Formosan) two days PAN *duSa

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/23/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-w_q.htm