Introduction      Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Subgroups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References+      Roots      Loans      Near      Noise      Formosan      
Updated: 11/23/2019


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


(click on a *proto-form for its set)

 a    b    c    d    e    f    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    s    t    u    v    w    x    y    z    ʔ   


qa    qc    qe    qi    ql    qm    qn    qo    qp    qr    qt    qu    qv    qz    

qa-Kavalan(Formosan) immediate future: qa-patay ‘will die’ (cp m-patay ‘to die, be dead’) PAN *ka-₂

qaThao(Formosan) interrogative particle, as in ma-cuaw ihu ma-ania qa (very-2s-intelligent-ip) ‘Are you really so smart?’ PAN *qa₂

qaayYapese(OC) his leg/foot POC *qaqe

qabarKavalan(Formosan) clothes, bag or coverlet made from hemp fibre PAN *kabal₁

qabarKavalan(Formosan) clothes, bag or coverlet made from hemp fibre PAN *kabaR

qabuBunun (Takituduh)(Formosan) ash (Li 1988) PAN *qabu

*qabu-lidPAty(Formosan) ashes PAN *qabu

qabusKavalan(Formosan) shrimp (generic), lobster PAN *kabus₂

qaCaySakizaya(Formosan) liver PAN *qaCay

qađamBunun(Formosan) bird PAN *qayam₁

qadawPaiwan(Formosan) sun; day; clock, watch PAN *qajaw

qaḍisPaiwan(Formosan) large white hawk, Eastern marsh harrier: Circus aeruginosus spilonotus PAN *qadiS

qaedYapese(OC) flower of a type of plant PMP *qatay qatay₁

qagiraŋAtayal (Mayrinax)(Formosan) bean, pea PAN *qaRidaŋ

qagluAtayal (Mayrinax)(Formosan) a plant: Phragmites longivalis PAN *qaReNu

qalʸaPaiwan(Formosan) enemy, stranger PAN *qaNa

qalaŋIlokano(WMP) to block, obstruct, blockade; seize by surprise, ambush, waylay PPH *araŋ

qalʸa-qalʸaPaiwan(Formosan) outsiders, guests from other villages PAN *qaNa

qalhiwThao(Formosan) dryness PAN *qaRiw

qalhumThao(Formosan) pangolin, scaly anteater: Manis pentadactyla PAN *qaRem

qalʸi-anPaiwan(Formosan) spindle and whorl (for weaving) PAN *qaNi

qalidaŋBunun(Formosan) pigeon peas PAN *qaRidaŋ

qalipuguʔAtayal (Cʔuliʔ)(Formosan) hair whorl (Li 1980) PAN *qali-puju

qalʸitsPaiwan(Formosan) skin, pod, shell PAN *qaNiC

qalʸudjPaiwan(Formosan) to lose, throw away PAN *qañud

qalumBunun(Formosan) pangolin, anteater PAN *qaRem

qalupAtayal(Formosan) to hunt; chase away PAN *qanup

qalʸupPaiwan(Formosan) to hunt PAN *qanup

qamPaiwan(Formosan) pangolin, anteater PAN *qaRem

qamisPaiwan (Northeastern)(Formosan) north PAN *qamiS

qamis-anBunun(Formosan) age PAN *qamiS-an

qanKavalan(Formosan) eat PAN *kaen

q<an>a-RayaKavalan(Formosan) size PAN *Raya

qaniAtayal(Formosan) this, these; here PAN *qa-ni

qaniAtayal(Formosan) this, these, here PAN *qani₁

qa-niAtayal(Formosan) this, these; here PAN *qa₁

qaniŋuBunun(Formosan) picture; shadow PAN *qaNiŋu

qanituBunun(Formosan) ghost PAN *qaNiCu

qanivalvalBunun(Formosan) rainbow PAN *qaNi-

qani-valvalBunun(Formosan) rainbow PAN *-waRwaR

qanivuŋPaiwan(Formosan) Phoenix hanceana var. formosana (bush and fruit) PAN *qanibuŋ

qann-anKavalan(Formosan) be eaten; food PAN *kaen-an

qann-iKavalan(Formosan) eat (imper.) PAN *kaen-i

qanup-anBunun(Formosan) hunting ground PAN *qaNup-an

qanusBunun (Takituduh)(Formosan) a plant: Begonia aptera PAN *qanus₁

qanváŋBunun (Takituduh)(Formosan) deer PAN *qaNuaŋ

qanvaŋBunun(Formosan) cow; deer PAN *qaNuaŋ

qanváŋ bonólBunun (Takituduh)(Formosan) buffalo PAN *qaNuaŋ

qaŋelitsPaiwan(Formosan) be scorched (rice or millet) PAN *qaŋeliC

qaŋeruPaiwan(Formosan) odor of rotted crab PAN *qaŋeRu

qapeduPaiwan(Formosan) gall bladder; bile PAN *qapejux

qapizPaiwan(Formosan) something braided in six strands (as jewelry) PAN *qapid

qaqKavalan(Formosan) crow PAN *kak

qaqaKavalan(Formosan) elder sibling (reference) PAN *kaka₂

qaqaiSeediq (Truku)(Formosan) foot (especially of humans) PAN *qaqay

qa-qalʸup-anPaiwan(Formosan) hunting territory PAN *qaNup-an

qa-qalʸup-enPaiwan(Formosan) wild game (object of hunting) PAN *qaNup-en

qa-qaqaKavalan(Formosan) the eldest sibling PAN *kaka₂

qa-qelʸev-anPaiwan(Formosan) prison PAN *qeNeb₁

qa-qnusAtayal (Mayrinax)(Formosan) a plant: Begonia aptera PAN *qanus₁

qa-qpitThao(Formosan) tongs for picking up hot coals; scissors; clamping or gripping trap that seizes the leg of an animal (used especially for the Formosan serow, the leopard cat, and wild boars) PAN *qepit

qaq-sikazKavalan(Formosan) easily ashamed, shy or bashful PAN *Sikad

qaRatKavalan(Formosan) to bite PAN *kaRaC

qaRat-iKavalan(Formosan) bite (imper.) PAN *kaRaC-i

qaRawKavalan(Formosan) to scratch (with fingernails) PAN *kaRaw₁

qa-RayaKavalan(Formosan) to grow PAN *Raya

qariwazwazThao(Formosan) rainbow PAN *qali-

qarizaŋPaiwan(Formosan) string beans PAN *qaRidaŋ

qaruToqabaqita(OC) [gloss] POC *karut₂

qarufThao(Formosan) knee PAN *qaleb

qaseluPaiwan(Formosan) pestle PAN *qaSelu

qasilaBunun(Formosan) salt PAN *qasiRa

qasoEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) the rafters of the roof and alcove or apse of a house, which rest on the beams, and project beyond the ridge PMP *kasaw₁

qasuuAtayal (Mayrinax)(Formosan) pestle PAN *qaSelu

qatKairiru(OC) outrigger canoe POC *katiR

qatađBunun(Formosan) liver PAN *qaCay

qatađ babuBunun(Formosan) pork liver PAN *qaCay

qa-tanm-anKavalan(Formosan) graveyard, cemetery PAN *ka-tanem-an

qataqAtayal(Formosan) to eat raw (as taro) PAN *qataq

qatiaPaiwan(Formosan) salt PAN *qasiRa

qatip-anBunun(Formosan) part of the loom PAN *qatip-an

qatiu-Mota(OC) head POC *batuk

qatsayPaiwan(Formosan) liver PAN *qaCay

qauPaiwan(Formosan) bamboo (generic) PAN *qauR

qaulBunun (Takituduh)(Formosan) type of bamboo PAN *qauR

qauŋPaiwan(Formosan) to weep; grief, sorrow PAN *qauŋ

qava-nPaiwan(Formosan) shoulder PAN *qabaRa-an

qavasPaiwan(Formosan) a blaze (mark cut on tree to show ownership) PAN *qabaS

qavuPaiwan(Formosan) ashes; betel lime PAN *qabu

qavu-qavu-anPaiwan(Formosan) stove, three-stone fireplace for cooking PAN *qabu-an

qawasKavalan(Formosan) discuss PAN *kawaS₂

qawqawPaiwan(Formosan) shout loudly PAN *qawqaw

qayamPaiwan(Formosan) omen bird PAN *qayam₁

qayamSiraya (Gravius)(Formosan) animal (generic); bird PAN *qayam₁

qayuuyYapese(OC) coconut crab PMP *qayuyu

qa-zaya-nKavalan(Formosan) western side PAN *daya

qa-zusaKavalan(Formosan) two PAN *duSa

qa-zu-zusaKavalan(Formosan) two at a time PAN *duSa


TOP      qa    qc    qe    qi    ql    qm    qn    qo    qp    qr    qt    qu    qv    qz    


qcipaThao(Formosan) soft-shelled turtle: Amyda sinensis PAN *qaCipa


TOP      qa    qc    qe    qi    ql    qm    qn    qo    qp    qr    qt    qu    qv    qz    


qeletsPaiwan(Formosan) a joint in bamboo PAN *qeleC

qelʸevPaiwan(Formosan) diaphragm (anat.) PAN *qeNeb₁

qelʸuPaiwan(Formosan) animal trail, small path made by animals PAN *qeNuR

qəlul-iʔSeediq(Formosan) be adrift (Tsuchida 1976:168) PAN *qañud

qeluzPaiwan(Formosan) main house pillar (which supports ridge pole) PAN *qelud

qemqemPaiwan(Formosan) have mouth full; to muzzle PAN *qemqem

qemuPaiwan(Formosan) something that has been beaten in a mortar, as millet into flour PAN *qemu

qesipaAtayal(Formosan) soft-shelled turtle: Trionix sinensis sinensis (Tsuchida 1976:266) PAN *qaCipa

qesirPaiwan(Formosan) (onom.) have a deadened sound (as bells falling to the ground) PAN *qesir

qetepPaiwan(Formosan) to swallow liquid while masticating something solid (as sugarcane) PAN *qesep

qetjutjPaiwan(Formosan) fart, flatulence PAN *qetut

qetseŋPaiwan(Formosan) barrier, fence, enclosure; a "no entry" sign to humans or evil spirits (e.g. a stick left in certain position in front of house) PAN *qeCeŋ

qetseŋelPaiwan(Formosan) black PAN *qeCeŋeN

qetsiluPaiwan(Formosan) egg (of bird, snake) PAN *qiCeluR

qezetjPaiwan(Formosan) a weight, pressure from above PAN *qedet


TOP      qa    qc    qe    qi    ql    qm    qn    qo    qp    qr    qt    qu    qv    qz    


qi-Kavalan(Formosan) to pluck, pick up, harvest (panay ‘rice’, qi-panay ‘to reap rice’, paRin ‘tree; firewood’, qi-paRin ‘to gather firewood’, tamun ‘vegetables’, qi-tamun ‘to pick vegetables’, wanu ‘honey’, qi-wanu ‘to gather honey’) PAN *ki-

qiawPaiwan(Formosan) frog PAN *qiaw

qilʸasPaiwan(Formosan) moon, month PAN *qiNaS

qilʸas-anPaiwan(Formosan) moonlight PAN *qiNaS

qilatKavalan(Formosan) glitter PAN *likaC

qilusPaiwan(Formosan) bits of faeces left around anus PAN *qiluS

q<in>alʸá-nPaiwan(Formosan) village PAN *qaNa

q-in-am-anPaiwan(Formosan) pangolin's hole or den PAN *qaRem

q-in-apiBunun(Formosan) braided (of hair) PAN *qapid

q-in-atia-nPaiwan(Formosan) something which has been salted PAN *qasiRa-en

q<in>emuPaiwan(Formosan) flour PAN *qemu

q-in-uma-nPaiwan(Formosan) crops PAN *q<in>umah

qipitKavalan(Formosan) to hold with clippers , under one’s armpit or between one’s thighs PAN *kipit

qi-pusanKavalan(Formosan) the second; twice PAN *puSaN

qirqirThao(Formosan) bite; grind the teeth PAN *qelqel

qisuPaiwan(Formosan) shark PAN *qiSu

qitaKavalan(Formosan) to see, to be able to see PAN *kita₂

qiuŋPaiwan(Formosan) sound of a pig squealing PAN *qiuŋ₁

qiur-anThao(Formosan) be wiped, of the anus PAN *qiluS

qiwqiwKavalan(Formosan) to wave (as a person waving clothes to dry them) PAN *kiwkiw

qi-zapanKavalan(Formosan) trail; follow the footprints of an animal PAN *dapaN


TOP      qa    qc    qe    qi    ql    qm    qn    qo    qp    qr    qt    qu    qv    qz    


qlitaKavalan(Formosan) octopus PAN *guRiCa

qlup-anAtayal(Formosan) to hunt PAN *qaNup-an

qlup-unAtayal(Formosan) be hunted PAN *qaNup-en


TOP      qa    qc    qe    qi    ql    qm    qn    qo    qp    qr    qt    qu    qv    qz    


q-m-adawPaiwan(Formosan) the sun shines PAN *q<um>ajaw

q<m>alʸa-qalʸaPaiwan (Western)(Formosan) to entertain guests PAN *qaNa

q-m-alitsPaiwan(Formosan) to skin (animal) PAN *q<um>aNiC

q-m-alupAtayal(Formosan) to hunt; chase away PAN *q<um>aNup

q-m-alʸupPaiwan(Formosan) to hunt (wild game) PAN *q<um>aNup

q<m>an ~ q<m>annKavalan(Formosan) to eat PAN *k<um>aen

q<m>a-qutilhThao(Formosan) pursue, chase something or someone PAN *qusiR

q<m>aRatKavalan(Formosan) to bite; to hold between the teeth; acrid, itchy taste of taro PAN *k<um>aRaC

q<m>aRawKavalan(Formosan) to scratch (with fingernails) PAN *k<um>aRaw

q<m>awitKavalan(Formosan) to knit PAN *kawit

q-m-elʸevPaiwan(Formosan) to shut something PAN *qeNeb₁

q-m-etepPaiwan(Formosan) to "eat" the liquid portion of something (as sugarcane) PAN *q<um>esep

q-m-etjutjPaiwan(Formosan) to break wind PAN *q<um>etut

q-m-ezetjPaiwan(Formosan) press down (as a lid); to oppress (people) PAN *qedet

q-m-ilusPaiwan(Formosan) clean a child after bowel movement PAN *qiluS

q-m-ipiŋPaiwan(Formosan) incline one's head to one side PAN *qipiŋ

qmisanAtayal(Formosan) winter PAN *qamiS-an

q<m>iurThao(Formosan) wipe the anus PAN *qiluS

q<m>iwqiwKavalan(Formosan) to stir up PAN *kiwkiw

qmuThao(Formosan) sticky rice; sticky rice cake PAN *qemu

q-m-udjalʸPaiwan(Formosan) to rain PAN *q<um>uzaN

q<m>usazThao(Formosan) to rain PAN *q<um>uzaN

q-m-uzi-quzipPaiwan(Formosan) animal PAN *qudip₁


TOP      qa    qc    qe    qi    ql    qm    qn    qo    qp    qr    qt    qu    qv    qz    


q<n>ann-anKavalan(Formosan) something eaten PAN *k<in>aen-an

q<n>aRat-anKavalan(Formosan) the bite (of a dog, etc.) PAN *k<in>aRaC-an

qna-zpan-anKavalan(Formosan) footprints, tracks PAN *dapaN

qnuqusKavalan(Formosan) fingernail, toenail PAN *k<aN>uSkuS

qnúːwanThao(Formosan) deer, carabao PAN *qaNuaŋ


TOP      qa    qc    qe    qi    ql    qm    qn    qo    qp    qr    qt    qu    qv    qz    


qomAtayal(Formosan) pangolin, anteater PAN *qaRem

qoŋMota(OC) night; darkness; dark POC *boŋi


TOP      qa    qc    qe    qi    ql    qm    qn    qo    qp    qr    qt    qu    qv    qz    


qpitThao(Formosan) pinch, press, as in holding a book between arm and side PAN *qepit

qpit-inThao(Formosan) be pinched by someone or something(as to get one’s hand caught in the door) PAN *qepit


TOP      qa    qc    qe    qi    ql    qm    qn    qo    qp    qr    qt    qu    qv    qz    


qRanKavalan(Formosan) scar left after a boil heals; scab PAN *keRan₁

qRiwKavalan(Formosan) string, thread; hemp plant, ramie/fiber PAN *keRiw

qri-waRwaRKavalan(Formosan) rainbow PAN *-waRwaR

qrusThao(Formosan) housepost PAN *qelud


TOP      qa    qc    qe    qi    ql    qm    qn    qo    qp    qr    qt    qu    qv    qz    


qtiLaThao(Formosan) salt PAN *qasiRa

q-turuKavalan(Formosan) three (of days, months) PAN *ka-telu


TOP      qa    qc    qe    qi    ql    qm    qn    qo    qp    qr    qt    qu    qv    qz    


quAtayal(Formosan) particle designating nominal unit mostly with definite reference, preceding noun ("the"), or verb ("the one who", "the one which"); as member of a verb-noun or noun-noun construction PAN *qu₂

quađBunun(Formosan) rattan PAN *quay

quai-uxAtayal(Formosan) rattan PAN *quay

quaŋAtayal(Formosan) crack, crevice, fissure, gorse PAN *quaŋ₁

quasAtayal(Formosan) song PAN *quyaS

quayPaiwan(Formosan) rattan: Calamus margaritae PAN *quay

quayThao(Formosan) rattan (generic) PAN *quay

qubiPuyuma(Formosan) pubic hair PAN *qubiS

qudanBunun(Formosan) rain PAN *quzaN

qudasBunun(Formosan) grandparent PAN *qudaS

quḍasPaiwan(Formosan) white hair PAN *qudaS

*qudasPAty(Formosan) gray hair PAN *qudaS

qudjalʸPaiwan(Formosan) rain PAN *quzaN

quli-aEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) to skin, pare, skin off POC *kulit

(quLi)-mezawPaiwan(Formosan) dizziness, “seeing stars” PAN *-medaw

quli-quliEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) skin of a plant POC *kulit

qulitiEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) skin of a human body POC *kulit

quluPaiwan(Formosan) head PAN *quluh

qulu-quluPaiwan(Formosan) head end (as of bed) PAN *qulu qulu

qumaBunun(Formosan) farm PAN *qumah

qumaPaiwan(Formosan) cultivated field PAN *qumah

qumahAtayal(Formosan) cultivate, till, work the field PAN *qumah

q<um>pitThao(Formosan) pinch between arm and side (as a purse); cut with scissors PAN *qepit

qumuPaiwan(Formosan) water held in the mouth (not saliva) PAN *qumuR

qunThao(Formosan) edible mushroom with brownish cap and white interior PAN *quSuŋ

qunul-anBunun(Formosan) animal haunt PAN *qenuR-an₁

qupuŋPaiwan(Formosan) a swarm of honeybees PAN *qupuŋ

ququzKavalan(Formosan) animal calf, lower part of the limb between knee and ankle, including shin and calf PAN *kudkud

quriawPaiwan(Formosan) noise of many people shouting loudly PAN *quriaw

qusMota(OC) have the mouth full, cheeks distended with food POC *puso₂

qusav-anPaiwan(Formosan) thirst PAN *quSaw-an

qusawPaiwan(Formosan) thirst PAN *quSaw

qusazThao(Formosan) rain PAN *quzaN

qusaz-inThao(Formosan) to rain, be rained on PAN *quzan-en

qushzapThao(Formosan) scales of a fish PAN *quSeNap

qutsa-qutsalʸPaiwan(Formosan) fallow land, land formerly used for cultivation but now reverted to wilderness PAN *quCaN

qutuKavalan(Formosan) head louse PAN *kuCux

quvalʸPaiwan(Formosan) hair of head; animal's hair PAN *qubaN

quvisPaiwan(Formosan) pubic hair, axillary hair PAN *qubiS

quzaŋPaiwan(Formosan) shrimp, lobster PAN *qudaŋ

quze-quzemPaiwan(Formosan) dull PAN *qudem


TOP      qa    qc    qe    qi    ql    qm    qn    qo    qp    qr    qt    qu    qv    qz    


qVnsKairiru(OC) spit out at PEMP *kanisu


TOP      qa    qc    qe    qi    ql    qm    qn    qo    qp    qr    qt    qu    qv    qz    


q-zusaKavalan(Formosan) two days PAN *duSa

 a    b    c    d    e    f    g    h    i    j    k    l    m    n    ñ    ŋ    o    p    q    r    s    t    u    v    w    x    y    z    ʔ   

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 11/23/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-w_q.htm