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Updated: 11/23/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Words

(click on a *proto-form for its set)

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*r   

ra    rb    re    rf    rh    ri    rk    rm    rn    ro    rp    rr    rs    rt    ru    rv    rw    ry    

raAnakalangu(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raAnsus(SHWNG) to walk PMP *lakaj

ra-Atchin(OC) blood POC *draRaq

raʔBintulu(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raDusner(SHWNG) to walk PMP *lakaw

raGilbertese(OC) suffix of interrogation: what?, which? PMP *sapa

raKomodo(CMP) blood; menstruation; bloody nose PAN *daRaq

raPokau(OC) sail PAN *layaR

raLamboya(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raʔBisaya (Limbang)(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raLi'o(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raMalagasy(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

Maori(OC) sail PAN *layaR

Numfor(SHWNG) go PMP *lakaj

raNumfor(SHWNG) walk PMP *lakaw

raPapuma(SHWNG) walk PMP *lakaw

raPom(SHWNG) walk PMP *lakaw

ra-Rano(OC) blood POC *draRaq

Rarotongan(OC) the name of the ancient mat-sail that was used on ocean-going canoes PAN *layaR

Rotuman(OC) bough, branch POC *raqan

raHawu(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raSelaru(CMP) land, as against sea; land side PAN *daya

raSori(OC) to go POC *lako

raMurut (Timugon)(WMP) oblique case marker for common nouns PMP *daₐ

raWampar(OC) to cut, hack PAN *taRaq₁

raWandamen(SHWNG) to walk PMP *lakaw

raWaropen(SHWNG) go on foot, go into the bush, walk PMP *lakaj

Wayan(OC) forehead POC *raqe

raWoi(SHWNG) to walk PMP *lakaj

ra- < *ntaManipa(CMP) our PAN *n-ita

raaAnuta(OC) sail PAN *layaR

raʔaBimanese(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raaLabuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raʔaLamaholot(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raaNgadha(CMP) blood; menstrual blood, menstruation; blood relationship; to bleed; blood-red colors; bloody, as dysentery PAN *daRaq

raaUlithian(OC) branch POC *raqan

raaWaima'a(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raaWolio(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raa-kauAnuta(OC) tree, plant, wood, stick, club, plank, timber, log POC *raqan kayu

raa-kau ~ ra-kauAnuta(OC) tree, plant, wood, stick, club, plank, timber, log POC *kayu

raʔamiTontemboan(WMP) rice straw, a rice-straw flute PMP *zaRami

raanMurut (Tagol)(WMP) branch PMP *daqan₁

raanDumpas(WMP) branch PMP *daqan₁

raʔanKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) branch PMP *daqan₁

raanLun Dayeh(WMP) lightness PMP *Raqan

raanPuluwat(OC) , liquid of any kind, pond POC *ranum

raanTombonuwo(WMP) branch PMP *daqan₁

*raaniPMic(OC) day POC *raqani

raa-paʔi-paʔícaKanakanabu(Formosan) acid fluid which comes up from the stomach PAN *paqiC

raʔatDusun Witu(WMP) bad PMP *zaqat

raatTetun(CMP) seashore, beach at the edge of the sea PMP *daRat

raaviGapapaiwa(OC) evening POC *Rapi

raaʔDumpas(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

rabakMalay(WMP) large tear; rip; in tatters PWMP *Rabak

rabaŋ puheSika(CMP) highest part of a casting net PMP *pusej

rabbáIsneg(WMP) collapsed, tumbled down, fallen in PWMP *rebaq

rabbásIsneg(WMP) break down, collapse, fall in PWMP *rebas

rabəkNumfor(SHWNG) pull up by the roots PMP *Rabut

rabekSasak(WMP) hit, strike PMP *ra(m)bek

RabiKavalan(Formosan) evening (about 4:00 or 5:00 to 6:00 PM); night PAN *Rabiqi

rabiaGabadi(OC) sago palm and flour POC *Rabia

rabiíIlokano(WMP) night, evening PMP *Rabiqi

RabiqiKalinga (Guinaang)(WMP) night PMP *Rabiqi

Rabi-RabiKavalan(Formosan) every night PAN *Rabi-Rabi

RabisKavalan(Formosan) a pocket knife PAN *RabiS

rabítIsneg(WMP) caught, hooked with a fishhook PWMP *ra(m)bit

rabnótIlokano(WMP) to snatch, remove forcibly and suddenly PWMP *Ranebut

rabokMalay(WMP) tinder; touchwood (usually soft dusty material found in bamboo, and inflammable) PMP *baruk

rabokMalay(WMP) tinder; touchwood (usually soft dusty material found in bamboo and inflammable); ash that does not crumble easily; litter or rubbish PMP *Rabuk

rabotMaranao(WMP) anger, rage PWMP *rabut

rabuArosi(OC) strike, knock, hit, knock in a nail PMP *lambuk

rabuArosi(OC) strike, knock, hit, knock in a nail PMP *ra(m)buk

rabuLau(OC) beat, hit, flog PMP *ra(m)buk

rabuLau(OC) beat, hit, flog POC *rabuk

rabuʔMakassarese(WMP) broken to bits; in rags, tatters PMP *Rabuk

r-abu-abuKaro Batak(WMP) play in the dust PMP *qabu

rabukGayō(WMP) tinder PMP *Rabuk

rabukMadurese(WMP) powder PMP *Rabuk

rabukToba Batak(WMP) powder PMP *Rabuk

rabukTae'(WMP) phosphorescent fungus on a decaying log PMP *Rabuk

rabuk-iMakassarese(WMP) torn to tatters PMP *Rabuk

rabunIban(WMP) weak-sighted, almost blind; hence hazy, fogged, obscure PMP *Rabun

rabunLun Dayeh(WMP) mist; haze PMP *Rabun

rabunMalay(WMP) pile branches and leaves on a muddy spot to allow people to cross it dry-shod PWMP *Rab(e)qun

rabunMalay(WMP) fumigation, whether with incense to perfume a house or with heavy smoke to blind evil spirits; dimness of vision PMP *Rabun

raburDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) mixing up (foods); to mix PWMP *labuR

rabutIban(WMP) pulled out or off, as the head of a spear in the flesh of an animal (Scott 1956) PMP *Rabut

rabutLun Dayeh(WMP) pulling, uprooting PMP *Rabut

rabutMalay(WMP) tearing at, grabbing, and pulling (as someone's hair) PWMP *rabut

rabutMalay(WMP) tearing at; grabbing and pulling (as at a beard) PMP *Rabut

rabutManggarai(CMP) pull up grass, weed a garden PMP *Rabut

rabutSundanese(WMP) uproot, pull out by the roots PMP *Rabut

rabutuRoviana(OC) pull out by the roots POC *Raput

race-Watut(OC) younger parallel sibling POC *taci

rachiItbayaten(WMP) rust PMP *daki

rádamIsneg(WMP) myopia or nearsightedness; hypermetropia or farsightedness; presbyopia PWMP *radam

raʔdapTontemboan(WMP) a tree, Erythrina indica PMP *dapdap₁

raʔdaʔTae'(WMP) low-growing Indian coral tree, perhaps Erythrina microcarpa PMP *dapdap₁

radeArosi(OC) coral POC *laje

radupMalay (Kedah)(WMP) plain hemstitch PWMP *rajup

radutManggarai(CMP) pluck, pull out PMP *Radut

raeAnuta(OC) forehead POC *raqe

raʔeArosi(OC) sore on the hands or lips POC *lake

raeMaori(OC) forehead, temple; promontory, headland POC *raqe

raeMussau(OC) blood POC *draRaq

raeNggela(OC) forehead POC *raqe

raeRarotongan(OC) forehead POC *raqe

rae hitari-a'Āre'āre(OC) understand PMP *qatay

rae-ku'Āre'āre(OC) I want, like PMP *qatay

ráʔəlPalauan(WMP) branch, bough; branch of government PMP *daqan₁

raenYapese(OC) water, juice POC *ranum

rae-na'Āre'āre(OC) stomach, heart, liver, lungs, womb, mind, seat of affections, intention, will PMP *qatay

rae-na e taʔa'Āre'āre(OC) be angry ( = 'his liver is wrong/bad/evil') PMP *qatay

rae nisu-na, rae ʔohuʔohu-na'Āre'āre(OC) lung PMP *qatay

rae-nusu-Marau₂(OC) liver PMP *qatay

rae-rae-naMussau(OC) red POC *draRaq

raetItbayaten(WMP) defect, deficiency, flaw PWMP *zaqet

rafiCheke Holo(OC) get dark, become evening POC *Rapi

rafuSanta Ana(OC) ashes POC *rapuR

rafuʔTiruray(WMP) branches laid across a trail to block its use; to place rafuɁ PPH *Rapuq₂

ragaArosi(OC) strong, strengthened, invigorated PMP *la(ŋ)kas

ragaArosi(OC) open with unfolding motion PMP *rakaq

ragaAtayal(Formosan) the Formosan maple, fam. Aceraceae PAN *daRa₁

ragaMaranao(WMP) lady, maid, girl who is unmarried; female slave PMP *daRa₂

raǥaManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) a single woman; virgin PMP *daRa₂

ragamiMaranao(WMP) rice stalk, straw PMP *zaRami

ragaŋBisaya (Limbang)(WMP) red PWMP *deRaŋ

ragatMaranao(WMP) sea, ocean PMP *daRat

ragemLun Dayeh(WMP) clenching of the palm PWMP *Ragem

ragemSasak(WMP) held tightly in the fist PWMP *Ragem

raghaMuna(WMP) branch, bough PMP *daqan₁

raghiBali (Uneapa)(OC) dry season PCEMP *raki

ragi-Watut(OC) feces PMP *taqi

ragomMaranao(WMP) needle PAN *zaRum

ragonMaranao(WMP) year, harvest time PPH *dag(e)qún

raɣumManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) sewing needle PAN *zaRum

ra-gumu-gumulPuyuma(Formosan) hairy, fluffy, furry PAN *gumuN

ra-gumulPuyuma(Formosan) fur PAN *gumuN

ragu-s-iaArosi(OC) tied PMP *Rakut

rahArosi(OC) species of fish POC *lapa₁

rahJavanese(WMP) blood (Krama) PAN *daRaq

rahSa'ban(WMP) big PAN *Raya

rāh, rahOld Javanese(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

rahaArosi(OC) a skin disease POC *lapa₂

rahaArosi(OC) big, great, large POC *lapa

rahaArosi(OC) big, great, large POC *lapat

rahaBonerate(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

rahaMaori(OC) open, extended POC *lapa

rahaMaori(OC) open, extended POC *lapat

rahaPopalia(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raha-nBuruese(CMP) blood; bloody PAN *daRaq

rahao'Āre'āre(OC) big white worm living in dead trees POC *qapator

raha-rahaMaori(OC) spread out POC *lapat

rahaʔKujau(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

rahaʔBisaya (Lotud)(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

rahaʔBisaya (Lotud)(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

rahdahItbayaten(WMP) chest, breast PWMP *dahdah

raheBuruese(CMP) ground PAN *daReq

rah(e) isinBuruese(CMP) soil PAN *daReq

rahemYami(WMP) deep PMP *dalem

rah-enOld Javanese(WMP) blood-stained, covered with blood PAN *daRaq

rahetYami(WMP) bad PWMP *zaqet

rahiOld Javanese(WMP) forehead; face PMP *daqih

rahiVitu(OC) windy dry season (southeastern winds, sea is rough) PCEMP *raki

rahnPohnpeian(OC) day POC *raqani

rahoMaori(OC) testicle; labia majora POC *lasoR

rahonBantuqanon(WMP) leaf PMP *dahun

rahonItbayaten(WMP) wide leaf, big leaf, broad leaf PMP *dahun

rah-rahaBuruese(CMP) bloody PMP *daRa-daRaq

rahu'Āre'āre(OC) uprooted; pull out PMP *abut

rahu'Āre'āre(OC) uprooted; pull out POC *Raput

rahuArosi(OC) old, worn out, as an old bag POC *Rapuk

rahuArosi(OC) old, worn out, as an old bag PWMP *lapuk

rahuKahua(OC) ashes POC *rapuR

rahuOld Javanese(WMP) kind of breadfruit tree PMP *daqu₁

rahu-ʔa'Āre'āre(OC) to be old, worn-out and dirty, of things POC *rapuR

rahuʔ-a'Āre'āre(OC) to be old, worn out and dirty, of things POC *Rapuk

rahu-aaArosi(OC) white with dust and dirty; pale with skin disease POC *rapuR

rahudPazeh (Kahabu)(Formosan) downstream; toward the sea PAN *lahud

rahukTiruray(WMP) enter an area covered by dense grasses where there is no path; to possess, to dominate someone, as a malignant spirit PWMP *ra(ŋ)suk

ra-hulaManipa(CMP) to spit PMP *buRah

rahunManobo (Ilianen)(WMP) year PPH *dag(e)qún

rahu-(na)Arosi(OC) ashes POC *rapuR

rahup, raupMalay(WMP) putting the hands together cup-wise; turning in the paws (as a cat, to prevent its prey escaping) PMP *Raqup

rahu-rahuMotu(OC) ashes; fireplace POC *rapuR

rahu-rahu-ʔaArosi(OC) grey POC *rapuR

rahutPazeh(Formosan) west; downstream, lower part of a river PAN *lahud

rahutToba Batak(WMP) bound together tightly PMP *Rakut

rahuyPenchal(OC) conch shell trumpet POC *tapuRi

raiDhao/Ndao(CMP) earth PAN *daReq

raiDusun Deyah(WMP) forehead PMP *daqih

raiGaloli(CMP) dirty PMP *daki

raiJavanese(WMP) face; front, façade, surface PMP *daqih

raiKomodo(CMP) forehead PCEMP *daqi

raiLeti(CMP) north PCEMP *raki

raʔiMa'anyan(WMP) forehead PMP *daqih

raiMambai(CMP) dirty PMP *daki

raiNokuku(OC) leaf PEMP *raun

raiPaku(WMP) forehead PMP *daqih

raiHawu(CMP) run, run away, flee PAN *laRiw

raiSelaru(CMP) dirty PMP *daki

raiTetun(CMP) earth, soil, ground PAN *daReq

raiTetun(CMP) earth, soil, ground PAN *daReq

raiWetan(CMP) hundred; several; many PMP *Ratus

raia'Āre'āre(OC) the puttynut tree; the nut is used for caulking purposes and inlay work POC *qatita

raʔiaKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) ginger PMP *laqia

rai-aMotu(OC) prepare a canoe for the sea; tie the outrigger on; tie two canoes to make an irai (double-hulled canoe) POC *rakit

rai ahuTetun(CMP) fog PMP *hapun₁

raʔica niaperuanTontemboan(WMP) silly, stupid; someone who cannot grasp anything (lit. 'without gall') PAN *qapejux

ræʔiʃSaisiyat(Formosan) forehead PAN *daqiS

rai idaWetan(CMP) one hundred PMP *Ratus

rai-nAdzera(OC) brother POC *taci

rai-rafiCheke Holo(OC) get dark, become evening PAN *Rabi-Rabi

rai-raiManam(OC) afternoon (from noon til sunset) PAN *Rabi-Rabi

rai sikunTetun(CMP) a cape or promontory (rai = ‘land’) PAN *sikux

raʔitKelabit(WMP) raft PMP *Rakit

rai utu-nTetun(CMP) earthworm (‘earth louse’) PMP *kutu₁

rajMarshallese(OC) whale POC *rato

raja ateMadurese(WMP) (lit. 'big liver') presumption PMP *X₁ + qatay

raja ma-buyaBare'e(WMP) sympathetically inclined PMP *budaq₃

raja mer-empatKaro Batak(WMP) the four chief princes of the Karo PWMP *maR-epat

raja per-empatKaro Batak(WMP) the four chief princes of the Karo PWMP *paR-epat

rakGitua(OC) easterly wind, blows daily and forcefully from July into November PCEMP *raki

rakJavanese(WMP) dry, of the throat; creaky, hoarse, of the voice PWMP *dahak

rākKei(CMP) raft, wooden raft PMP *Rakit

rakLikum(OC) whale POC *rato

rakMalay(WMP) (onom.) cracking sound PWMP *erak

rakaAnuta(OC) to step over something POC *lakas

rakaAnuta(OC) to step over something PMP *laŋkaq₁

rakaGabadi(OC) milk PMP *Ratas₂

rakaʔMakassarese(WMP) unit of measure: as much as a man can encircle with both arms (as a tree) PAN *dakep

rakaMotu(OC) step, walk, go PAN *rakat

rakaiGilbertese(OC) block of coral rocks; rock; reef PMP *sakaRu

rakanPendau(WMP) to boil (food) PMP *zakan

raka pe-turoTae'(WMP) index finger PAN *tuzuq₁

raka-rakaAnuta(OC) to walk taking large brisk steps; to walk quickly POC *lakar-lakar

raka-rakaAnuta(OC) to walk taking large brisk steps; to walk quickly PMP *laŋkaq₁

rakatAmis(Formosan) movement; walk PAN *rakat

rā-kauMaori(OC) tree; wood, timber; stick, spar, mast; weapon; wooden POC *raqan kayu

rā-kauMaori(OC) tree; wood, timber; stick, spar, mast; weapon; wooden POC *kayu

ra-kauRarotongan(OC) general name for trees or shrubs or plants; general name for wood of any kind; a pole, a rod, a stick; a weapon POC *kayu

ra-kauMakatea(OC) tree POC *kayu

ra-kau kavaRarotongan(OC) a poisonous tree, a bitter herb; also used to denote a gun POC *kayu

raka wa wura naBimanese(CMP) its month has arrived = she is almost ready to give birth PMP *bulan₃

rakédIlokano(WMP) hitching post PPH *Rakéd

r-akenMaranao(WMP) 1sg oblique PAN *aken

rakepDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) wrestle with someone PWMP *Rakep

rakepItbayaten(WMP) wrestling PAN *dakep

rakesAmis(Formosan) camphor tree PAN *dakeS

raketAcehnese(WMP) raft PMP *Rakit

raketJavanese(WMP) close, intimate; to attach firmly PMP *raket

raketManggarai(CMP) stick, adhere PMP *raket

raketOld Javanese(WMP) adhering, sticking, clinging, being attached (to) PMP *raket

raketSundanese(WMP) adhere, stick to; attach oneself to, be attached to PMP *raket

rakiAnuta(OC) northwest; wind coming from northwest; season during which winds from this direction predominate (i.e. monsoon season) PCEMP *raki

rakiʔBuginese(WMP) raft PMP *Rakit

rakiLi'o(CMP) dirty (of the body) PMP *daki

rakiʔMakassarese(WMP) raft of wood or bamboo PMP *Rakit

*rakiPBUN(WMP) fine dirt PMP *daki

rakiWolio(WMP) raft PMP *Rakit

rakiʔTae'(WMP) kind of raft made of four or five planks and used to transport soil to the rice paddies PMP *Rakit

rakik-aŋMakassarese(WMP) a raftful (in counting the quantity of bamboos or houseposts) PWMP *Rakit-an

rakitBobot(CMP) weep, cry PMP *taŋis

rakitGayō(WMP) raft PMP *Rakit

rakitIban(WMP) bring together (as in bringing one boat alongside another, of bringing a married couple back together after they have separated) PMP *Rakit

rákitIlokano(WMP) bamboo raft; bamboo or wood that covers the rafters; scaffolding, the part of a scaffold workmen stand on PMP *Rakit

rakitKaro Batak(WMP) a raft, used to cross a river PMP *Rakit

rakitMalay(WMP) laying long objects side by side; anything so arranged, especially of a raft of long bamboos laid side by side, but it is applied also to crossbeams or floor planking in a house, to a man’s ribs sticking out in parallel lines, to things in layers such as a mat in two thicknesses, or two sireh leaves sandwiched one on the other, and even to a yoke of oxen; rafts (generally; special types have special names); loosely, it may mean ‘arrangement, planning’ PMP *Rakit

rakitSasak(WMP) raft PMP *Rakit

rakitSundanese(WMP) what is tied in tandem (a pair of water buffalo, a raft of wood or bamboo, etc.); pair, yoke, raft PMP *Rakit

rakitTontemboan(WMP) raft PMP *Rakit

rakit-anSasak(WMP) raft PWMP *Rakit-an

rakoMotu(OC) twig PMP *daŋkeq

rakoMuna(WMP) to catch, capture PAN *dakep

rakoWolio(WMP) catch, arrest, take prisoner PAN *dakep

rákoYami(WMP) very big, large PPH *dakél

rako-aWolio(WMP) prisoner of war PAN *dakep

rakof-iMuna(WMP) catch many times (as fish) PAN *dakep

rakopIda'an Begak(WMP) catch PAN *dakep

*rakoQPBUN(WMP) to catch (as fish) PAN *dakep

rakov-aFijian(OC) to embrace POC *rakop

rakoxItbayaten(WMP) large, big, huge, vast PPH *dakél

rakp-enItbayaten(WMP) to wrestle with PAN *dakep-en

rak-rakoYami(WMP) older (as an elder brother) PPH *dakél

rak-rok, rok-rakMalay(WMP) repeated cracking; the crash of an animal through dry brushwood; the crackle of wood in a fire PWMP *erak

raktPalauan(WMP) sickness, disease PMP *sakit

rakuArosi(OC) tie, fasten PMP *Rakut

rakupMongondow(WMP) as much as one can hold with the two hands together PMP *ra(ŋ)kup

rakupJavanese(WMP) with the hands together PMP *ra(ŋ)kup

rakusAtayal (Mayrinax)(Formosan) camphor laurel: Cinnamomum camphora PAN *dakeS

rakutKaro Batak(WMP) bind firmly together PMP *Rakut

rakutMalay(WMP) spin a web, of spiders PMP *Rakut

rakutManggarai(CMP) sew something torn PMP *Rakut

rakutTetun(CMP) pull, grab, snatch away PAN *dakuC

rakwunDobel(CMP) leaf PCEMP *daun

ralaKeapara(OC) blood POC *draRaq

ralaSelaru(CMP) inside; inner feelings; heart PMP *dalem

ralaUma(WMP) inside, inside part PMP *dalem

ralaYami(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

ralaYami(WMP) next to the mountain, on the inside, in the north PAN *daya

ralam-Wetan(CMP) (with various qualifying words) to like, love, be in love, long for, pity; worry, be worried, depressed; angry, embittered; sick PMP *dalem

ralanErai(CMP) in, within, inside; heart; contents, usually postposed PMP *dalem

raLanKujau(WMP) path PMP *zalan

raLanMinokok(WMP) path PMP *zalan

ralanMurut (Paluan)(WMP) path, road PMP *zalan

ralanRungus Dusun(WMP) path, road PMP *zalan

raLanSaisiyat(Formosan) road PAN *zalan

raLaɁSaisiyat (Taai)(Formosan) Formosan maple: Liquidambar formosana PAN *daRa₁

raleUlithian(OC) day POC *raqani

raliʔUma(WMP) root PMP *dalij

r-alipPenchal(OC) kind of large canarium nut POC *(q)alipa

ralisPenchal(OC) a shore tree: Terminalia catappa L. POC *talise₁

raLiʔSaisiyat (Taai)(Formosan) earth, soil PAN *daRiq

ralmPalauan(WMP) fresh water PMP *danum

ralmaWetan(CMP) inside (a house, etc.) interior; heart, feelings PMP *dalem

ralma-East Damar(CMP) liver PMP *dalem

ralomSaisiyat(Formosan) water PAN *daNum

raḷummaTalaud(WMP) deep PMP *dalem

ra-maAnsus(SHWNG) come PAN *um-ai

ramaGilbertese(OC) side on which outrigger is placed; port side, opposite katea POC *saman

rămăJavanese(WMP) father; older and/or higher-ranking male PAN *da-amax

ramaMaori(OC) torch or other artificial light; catch eels, etc. by torchlight POC *ramaR

rā-maNumfor(SHWNG) come hither PAN *um-ai

rā maNumfor(SHWNG) come PMP *lakaj

r-āmaOld Javanese(WMP) father, also used for uncle, guru, etc.; eldest, senior (in religious community, village, army) PAN *da-amax

*ramaPMic(OC) light, luminous POC *ramaR

ramaRarotongan(OC) a torch of any kind; to catch fish by torchlight POC *ramaR

rama-Wampar(OC) father PMP *t-amax

rama-Watut(OC) father PAN *amax

ra-maWoi(SHWNG) come PAN *um-aRi

ra-maMunggui(SHWNG) to come POC *mai

ramagMaranao(WMP) shine, lustre PAN *damaR₁

ra-maiUruava(OC) to come POC *maRi

ra-maiMarau₂(OC) come POC *maRi

rama-nWampar(OC) father PAN *amax

rama-nAdzera(OC) father PMP *t-amax

rama-ramaArosi(OC) deep water beyond the edge of the reef POC *laman

rama-ramaMaori(OC) gleam POC *ramaR

ramasIlokano(WMP) knead (in washing clothes, cleaning rice before cooking, crumbling clods, massaging some part of the body, etc.) PAN *Rames

ramasMalay(WMP) taking in the hand and pressing; kneading; massaging (of kneading dough, pressing juice out of fruit, modelling clay, massaging very tired feet) PAN *Rames

ramatLou(OC) person, human being PMP *tau-mata

rämäxSiraya (Gravius)(Formosan) light PAN *damaR₁

rambayoŋMaranao(WMP) a creeper: Ipomoea pes-caprae PWMP *rambayuŋ

rambaŋIlokano(WMP) kind of very thin casting net PWMP *Rambaŋ

rambaŋMalay(WMP) broad, widespread, expansive, of a wide-flung net (jala rambaŋ) intended to catch any fish and not particular fish PWMP *Rambaŋ

rambatMalay (Brunei)(WMP) casting net PWMP *Rambat

rambitMaranao(WMP) carry with the hand; handgrip, as of a bag PWMP *ra(m)bit

ramboNggela(OC) break, smash PMP *ra(m)bek

rambut kəloŋ dahiMalay(WMP) hair curling round the forehead PWMP *keluŋ₁

ramenDusner(SHWNG) sea PCEMP *laman

ramenNumfor(SHWNG) very deep PCEMP *laman

raməsMalay (Jakarta)(WMP) kneading; massaging PAN *Rames

ramesNumfor(SHWNG) press out with both hands PAN *Rames

ramesKaro Batak(WMP) rub or press out with the fingers PAN *Rames

ramiMalagasy(WMP) a tree from which oozes gamboge [a gum resin], also called rami; it is burned sometimes by the Betsileo during the ceremony of Salamanga, and it is also used by them to anoint their idols PAN *damaR₁

ramiPuyuma(Formosan) subterranean root PAN *RamiS

ramoʔAtayal (Squliq)(Formosan) blood PAN *damuq

ramo-Kove(OC) forehead POC *damwa

ramoʔMadurese(WMP) root PMP *Ramut₁

ramoSaisiyat(Formosan) blood PAN *damuq

r-amoʔMurut (Kalabakan)(WMP) 1pl ex oblique PWMP *ameq

ramótIlokano(WMP) root PMP *Ramut₁

rampaŋKaro Batak(WMP) passionate, hot-tempered, envious of others PWMP *Rampaŋ

rampasIban(WMP) snatch, loot, take violently PWMP *Rampas

rampasKaro Batak(WMP) seize, appropriate, rob PWMP *Rampas

rampasMalay(WMP) looting; taking by force; confiscating PMP *raŋ(e)pas

rampasMaranao(WMP) remove, deprive PMP *raŋ(e)pas

rampasManggarai(CMP) war PMP *raŋ(e)pas

rampasOld Javanese(WMP) rob something, rob someone of, plunder, sack PMP *raŋ(e)pas

*RampasPSan(WMP) rob, plunder PMP *raŋ(e)pas

rampasSundanese(WMP) take for oneself, confiscate; rob PMP *raŋ(e)pas

rampasaʔMakassarese(WMP) rob, plunder PMP *raŋ(e)pas

rampas-anMalay(WMP) booty PMP *raŋ(e)pas

rampisJavanese(WMP) prettily slender, esp. of a slender waist PWMP *Rampis

rampisKaro Batak(WMP) thin, smeared out PWMP *Rampis

rampunTae'(WMP) collect, gather, bring together PMP *rempun

ram-ramítIlokano(WMP) tools; items; facts; circumstances; components; ingredients; elements PPH *Rámit

ramuSonsorol-Tobi(OC) mosquito PMP *ñamuk

ramuMotu(OC) root PMP *Ramut₁

ramu-nMambai(CMP) root PMP *Ramut₁

ramu-rKédang(CMP) root PMP *Ramut₁

ramu-ramuArosi(OC) small fibrous aerial roots, loose ends of bag, hanging strings, etc. PMP *Ramut₁

ramu-ramu-ʔaArosi(OC) hairy, as a ghost or a man’s legs (ghosts are hairy) PMP *Ramut₁

ramu-ramu-aArosi(OC) hairy, as a ghost or a man’s legs (ghosts are hairy) POC *lamu₂

ramutAdonara(CMP) root PMP *Ramut₁

ramutKelabit(WMP) fibrous roots, as of grass, rice or coconut trees PMP *Ramut₁

ramutDali'(WMP) root PMP *Ramut₁

ramutLun Dayeh(WMP) a thick and untidy beard PMP *Ramut₁

ramutManggarai(CMP) moss, mossy; tangled and thick, of hair PMP *Ramut₁

ramutSika(CMP) roots of a tree PMP *Ramut₁

ramutTiruray(WMP) an object with an occult power which can be used by its owner to cause sickness and death in another person, or to protect the owner against another ramut; to use a ramut PPH *Ramut₂

ramutArta(WMP) root PMP *Ramut₁

ramutMolbog(WMP) root PMP *Ramut₁

ramut-enIlokano(WMP) to uproot PMP *Ramut₁

ramutu-naVarisi(OC) root PMP *Ramut₁

ranAvava(OC) dawn POC *raqani

ranBiliau(OC) water POC *ranum

ranGilbertese(OC) fresh water, liquid, juice, sap, milk POC *ranum

ranKola(CMP) branch PMP *daqan₁

ranKurudu(SHWNG) way, path PMP *zalan

ranMentawai(WMP) branch, bough PMP *daqan₁

ranNehan(OC) branch of tree POC *raqan

ranNumfor(SHWNG) kind of small fly PMP *laŋaw

ranNumfor(SHWNG) housefly PMP *laŋaw

ranPenchal(OC) down POC *tanoq

ranUjir(CMP) branch PMP *daqan₁

ranWaropen(SHWNG) path, road PMP *zalan

ra-n ~ raTetun(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

RanaKaidipang(WMP) oil (esp. coconut oil) PMP *laña

ranaRembong(CMP) lake PAN *danaw

ranawItbayaten(WMP) sea lagoon PAN *danaw

ranawMaranao(WMP) lake PAN *danaw

ranawThao(Formosan) housefly, black fly common in houses PAN *laŋaw

ranawTiruray(WMP) lake PAN *danaw

ranaw-inThao(Formosan) be covered with flies PAN *laŋaw-en

randan laŋiʔTae'(WMP) horizon PMP *laŋit

randau empelasIban(WMP) creeper with rough leaves used as sandpaper: Tetracera assa PMP *qa(m)pelas

randutTiruray(WMP) uproot, pull out PMP *Radut

raneHoava(OC) day POC *raqani

ranekRon(SHWNG) sky PMP *laŋit

ranetDusner(SHWNG) sky PMP *laŋit

ranewManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) lake; of a supernatural, to flood an area turning it into a lake as a punishment for misbehavior PAN *danaw

raniAore(OC) day POC *raqani

raniLametin(OC) day POC *raqani

raniManggarai(CMP) cruel, brave, powerful; to fight, attack PMP *baRani

raniNgadha(CMP) brave, fearless; noble, exalted PMP *baRani

raniPeterara(OC) day POC *raqani

raniRembong(CMP) brave, angry; to attack, be angry with PMP *baRani

raniSobei(OC) water POC *ranum

raniTugun(CMP) near PMP *adani

raniUruava(OC) day POC *raqani

raniVarisi(OC) sky PMP *laŋit

ranihKelabit(WMP) harvest PWMP *aRani

ranihKelabit(WMP) harvest PWMP *q<aR>anih

ranisiUruava(OC) sky PMP *laŋit

ran keLou(OC) branch of a tree POC *raqan

ranoBalaesang(WMP) lake PAN *danaw

ranoBare'e(WMP) lake, for example the large lake from which the Poso (river) arises PAN *danaw

ranoBungku(WMP) lake PAN *danaw

ranoKoroni(WMP) lake PAN *danaw

*ranoPBUN(WMP) lake PAN *danaw

ranoRotuman(OC) swamp, marsh, low-lying ground that is often swampy POC *rano

ranoUma(WMP) lake PAN *danaw

ranoWolio(WMP) lake, large swamp PAN *danaw

ranoMori Atas(WMP) lake PAN *danaw

ranomItbayaten(WMP) water PMP *danum

ranomYami(WMP) water PMP *danum

ranom-anItbayaten(WMP) to apply, add water PAN *danum-an

ra(n)samMinangkabau(WMP) forest fern: Gleichenia linearis, of which some parts are like whalebone and make Malay pens PMP *aResam

ra(n)samMinangkabau(WMP) a fern: Gleichenia linearis PMP *qaRsam

rantaŋJavanese(WMP) vertical nest of food containers with a top handle, for transporting a variety of foods simultaneously PMP *Rantaŋ

rantaŋMalay(WMP) hamper, stout basket made of coconut midrib or other similar material PMP *Rantaŋ

rantaŋManggarai(CMP) large carrying basket PMP *Rantaŋ

rantasMaranao(WMP) cut PMP *ra(n)tas

rantasMalay (Kedah)(WMP) trace-cutting; cutting a track through the forest PMP *ra(n)tas

rantasSundanese(WMP) snap, break off a piece (as of a chain), break (as a snare) PMP *ra(n)tas

rantasTiruray(WMP) cut away wrapped lashings PMP *ra(n)tas

ranuAua(OC) fresh water POC *ranum

ranuMalagasy(WMP) water PAN *danaw

ranuMaori(OC) gravy, juice of anything cooked POC *ranum

ranuMoor(SHWNG) leaf PEMP *raun

ranuMotu(OC) water; juice; liquid POC *ranum

ranumBasai(Formosan) water PAN *daNum

ranu seiaMotu(OC) to bail out water, to pour water POC *ranum

raŋAmbai(SHWNG) path, road PMP *zalan

raŋMaranao(WMP) sound PWMP *qeraŋ

raŋMaranao(WMP) sound PWMP *raŋ

raŋNgaju Dayak(WMP) clashing, clacking (as when a cup breaks or two cups strike together) PWMP *raŋ

rāŋTolai(OC) to dry, scorch, burn PCEMP *Raŋaw₂

-raŋWatut(OC) to weep, cry PMP *taŋis

raŋ (< *raraŋ)Woi(SHWNG) path, road PMP *zalan

raŋaArosi(OC) spider shell, with long spines PMP *Raŋa

raŋaArosi(OC) spider shell, with long spines PMP *Raŋak

raŋaArosi(OC) spider shell, with long spines PMP *RaŋaR

raŋaGilbertese(OC) leg, thigh POC *saŋa₁

raŋáIlokano(WMP) venerable, august, worthy of respect PWMP *raŋaq

raŋahMalay(WMP) haughty PWMP *raŋaq

raŋakMalay(WMP) a spiky shell: Pteroceros. Varieties are: P.lambis (true rangak) and P. chiragra PMP *Raŋak

raŋanIvatan(WMP) span (8 inches) PMP *zaŋan₁

raŋanYami(WMP) distance between an outstretched middle finger (or pinky) and thumb, used to measure length PMP *zaŋan₁

raŋarMalay(WMP) a spiky shell: Pteroceros. Varieties are: P. lambis (true rangak) and P. chiragra PMP *RaŋaR

raŋáwIlokano(WMP) edible branches or vines PPH *Raŋaw₁

raŋawKavalan(Formosan) fly (insect) PAN *laŋaw

raŋawMaranao(WMP) measure by using stretched thumb and finger as measuring tool; measuring worm, caterpillar PPH *daŋaw

raŋawPazeh(Formosan) a fly (big or small) PAN *laŋaw

raŋaw nuaŋPazeh(Formosan) horsefly PAN *laŋaw

raŋdaŋ-enItbayaten(WMP) expose to fire or live embers to dry, to expose to heat PWMP *daŋdaŋ-en

raŋgaŋBisaya(WMP) far apart, widely spaced; seldom PWMP *zaRaŋ

raŋgətIrarutu(SHWNG) sky PMP *laŋit

raŋgitKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) sky PMP *laŋit

raŋgoNggela(OC) stick, adhere POC *rago

raŋ-gugurBalantak(WMP) to tremble PWMP *gurgur₂

raŋgutDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) seize or grasp someone roughly; snatch something with a jerk PWMP *raŋgut

raŋiArosi(OC) to rain; rain PMP *laŋit

raŋiMakatea(OC) sky PMP *laŋit

raŋiMaori(OC) sky; heaven, upper regions, abode of supernatural beings; weather; day, period of time; chief, generally in the form of respectful address: e raŋi ‘sir’ PMP *laŋit

raŋiRarotongan(OC) myth: the ethereal space, the not-earth region; sky, firmament (this definition was a meaning quite unknown to the ancient people); the sky sphere; supreme in authority, a crown, supremacy, the paramount high chief, highest authority or power, etc.; an emblem of arikiship worn on the head of chiefs PMP *laŋit

raŋi-nBuruese(CMP) near PCEMP *daŋi

r-aŋin-aŋinKaro Batak(WMP) kind of water beetle PMP *haŋin

raŋ-(is)Axamb(OC) to weep, cry PMP *taŋis

raŋitiTabar(OC) sky PMP *laŋit

raŋkaBare'e(WMP) branch broken from a tree, withered branch PWMP *raŋkaŋ

raŋkaiIban(WMP) dry, harsh PWMP *Raŋkay

raŋkaŋJavanese(WMP) (of people) moving on all fours; creep, crawl PWMP *raŋkaŋ

raŋkaŋMalay(WMP) forking PWMP *raŋkaŋ

raŋkaŋMalay(WMP) crawl PWMP *Ra(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ

raŋkaŋMinangkabau(WMP) a forked branch PWMP *raŋkaŋ

raŋkaŋIlokano(WMP) (obs.) disjointing PWMP *raŋkaŋ

raŋkapIban(WMP) (of creeping plants) to spread and cover PWMP *raŋkep₁

raŋkapMalay(WMP) double, dual PWMP *raŋkeb

r-aŋkatKaro Batak(WMP) go out on an expedition or raid PWMP *aŋkat

raŋkeTae'(WMP) dry (of ground, etc.) PWMP *Raŋkay

raŋkefTiruray(WMP) crawl PWMP *raŋkep₁

raŋkepJavanese(WMP) doubled PMP *raŋkep₂

raŋkepMaranao(WMP) do many things simultaneously PMP *raŋkep₂

raŋkepManggarai(CMP) combine, unite PMP *raŋkep₂

raŋkepOld Javanese(WMP) complete, equipped with, accompanied or assisted by; complement, match, companion PMP *raŋkep₂

raŋkepSundanese(WMP) combine with someone or something so as to form a unity PMP *raŋkep₂

raŋkitRembong(CMP) raft PMP *Rakit

raŋkitToba Batak(WMP) raft; rattan bridge over the water PMP *Rakit

raŋkupMalay(WMP) laying two things one against the other at an angle (as two playing cards when building card-houses, or the two hands to form a conduit when drinking at a spout PMP *ra(ŋ)kup

raŋoAnuta(OC) fly (insect) POC *laŋo

raŋoArosi(OC) a fly POC *laŋo

raŋoArosi(OC) withered, dead, of grass, green boughs, etc. PCEMP *Raŋaw₂

raŋoBugotu(OC) to wither, of leaves, yam vines PCEMP *Raŋaw₂

raŋoHaununu(OC) housefly POC *laŋo

RaŋoKaidipang(WMP) housefly PMP *laŋaw

raŋoMaori(OC) blowfly POC *laŋo

raŋoRarotongan(OC) general name for flies POC *laŋo

raŋoWolio(WMP) to hear PMP *deŋeR

raŋo buruArosi(OC) the bluebottle fly POC *laŋo

raŋo-niWolio(WMP) obey PMP *deŋeR

raŋo-raŋoBauro(OC) firewood of dead boughs PCEMP *Raŋaw₂

raŋsukBalinese(WMP) enter, put on (clothes) PWMP *ra(ŋ)suk

raŋsukOld Javanese(WMP) enter PWMP *ra(ŋ)suk

raŋuAnakalangu(CMP) hear PMP *deŋeR

*RaŋuPSan(WMP) dry PMP *Raŋu

raoAnuta(OC) testicle POC *lasoR

rāo'Āre'āre(OC) the sago palm; its leaves are used for thatch POC *qatop

raʔoRarotongan(OC) testicle; the scrotum and its contents POC *lasoR

raʔonMaranao(WMP) leaf PMP *dahun

raóŋIlokano(WMP) the cry of the hungry hog PWMP *rauŋ

raoŋSichule(WMP) howl (said of young dogs) PWMP *rauŋ

rapaAnuta(OC) a kind of skin fungus marked by severe itching, and very difficult to cure POC *lapa₂

ràpaKambera(CMP) fathom PAN *depah

rapaʔMakassarese(WMP) tightly spaced (as plaiting); joined closely or tightly; bound closely to something; close to the ground PMP *dapet

rapaMaori(OC) anything broad and flat; sternpost of a canoe; blade of a paddle, etc.; wide, flat; spread out, extended POC *lapar

rapaMaori(OC) anything broad and flat POC *lababa

rapalAtayal (Squliq)(Formosan) sole of the foot; footprint PAN *dapaN

rapalSaisiyat (Tungho)(Formosan) foot PAN *dapaN

rapanYami(WMP) bottom of the foot; keel of a boat PMP *dapan

rapan no limaItbayaten(WMP) palm of the hand PMP *dapan

raparToba Batak(WMP) suffer from hunger PMP *lapaR₁

rapa-tBuruese(CMP) flat PMP *da(m)paD

rapatIban(WMP) (in sword dance) attack PMP *rapat

rapataRoviana(OC) to attack PMP *rapat

rapaʔAtayal(Formosan) palm of the hand PAN *dapa

rapdap ~ raprapItbayaten(WMP) a tree: Erythrina indica PMP *dapdap₁

rapéNgadha(CMP) cover a roof PMP *dapet

rapeʔBuginese(WMP) tightly bound PMP *dapet

rapéhMalay(WMP) crumbling PWMP *Rapiq

rapetJavanese(WMP) tightly closed up (as a corked bottle); placed closely together (bricks, boards, woven strips, etc.); closed tightly; keep a secret well PMP *dapet

rapetManggarai(CMP) close together, closely spaced PMP *dapet

rapətOld Javanese(WMP) (pressed) close together, tight, closed tight PMP *dapet

rapetRembong(CMP) pinched between two objects PMP *dapet

rapetTontemboan(WMP) attached together, like the toes of birds with paddle-feet PMP *dapet

rapi'Āre'āre(OC) a twin; two stones in one fruit POC *apic

rapiKairiru(OC) sago palm POC *Rabia

rapiaGapapaiwa(OC) sago palm POC *Rabia

rā piaTolai(OC) down; down on the ground POC *bia

rapisKavalan(Formosan) flying squirrel PAN *lapis

rapitMaranao(WMP) fetch a person; transport PWMP *dapit

rapit-inMurut (Timugon)(WMP) someone who accompanies one to his destination PWMP *dapit

rapogMaranao(WMP) bonfire; build a bonfire PAN *dapuR₂

rapogMaranao(WMP) bonfire; build a fire PMP *dapuR₁

rapohMalay(WMP) brittle, fragile, easily broken up PWMP *Rapuq₁

rapoyYami(WMP) to start a fire PMP *dapuR₁

rapoy-anIbatan(WMP) a stove, a tripod of three stones used for cooking PWMP *dapuR-an

rapoy-anItbayaten(WMP) stove (in general) PWMP *dapuR-an

rappaMakassarese(WMP) fathom, distance between the tips of the middle fingers of the outstretched arms PAN *depah

rappágIsneg(WMP) slap, buffet PWMP *repag

rappuŋMakassarese(WMP) come together, assemble PMP *rempun

rapu'Āre'āre(OC) hit, strike, whip, beat PMP *dabuk₁

rapuBare'e(WMP) hearth, cooking place PMP *dapuR₁

rapuBimanese(CMP) closely spaced; nearby; jammed fast between two objects PMP *dapet

rapuWolio(WMP) ashes; kitchen; oven; wife, housewife; become ashes PMP *dapuR₁

rapugManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) to pile logs and branches to that they may be burned PMP *dapuR₁

rapuh-anToratán(WMP) spouse PWMP *dapuR-an

rapunPenchal(OC) don’t! POC *tabuna

*rapuRPBun(WMP) spouse PMP *dapuR₁

rapusGayō(WMP) tie, bond PMP *Rapus

*RapusPSan(WMP) to bind, tie up PMP *Rapus

RaqatKavalan(Formosan) a step; to take a step, to step forward PAN *lakat₂

*raqiPBUN(WMP) forehead, face PMP *daqih

raquSakizaya(Formosan) soapberry PAN *daqu₂

rarAvava(OC) hot PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

rarChuukese(OC) be warm PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

ra-rGaloli(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

rarMarshallese(OC) to bleach pandanus leaves over a fire, to dry leaves by fire PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

*raRPAru(CMP) young unmarried woman (Richard Nivens, p.c.) PMP *daRa₂

rarEast Damar(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raraAdonara(CMP) path, road PMP *zalan

raraAnakalangu(CMP) red PMP *rara

raraAnuta(OC) roast something on a spit over an open fire (only birds are prepared this way on Anuta) PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

rara'Āre'āre(OC) to be warm, hot, of sun; fade, wither, dry up PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

raraArosi(OC) to shrivel up, as leaves; to be hot PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

raraArosi(OC) a species of tree with red flowers, Erythrina indica POC *rarap

raraDobuan(OC) blood POC *draRaq

raraFijian(OC) to warm oneself at a fire; of a pain, to smart slightly PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

raraFijian(OC) a flowering tree, Erythrina variegata, var. orientalis, Leguminosae POC *rarap

raraGilbertese(OC) blood; stick sap POC *draRaq

raráHanunóo(WMP) red, redness, quality of being red PMP *rara

raraGabadi(OC) blood POC *draRaq

raraKambera(CMP) red, brown PMP *rara

raraKaro Batak(WMP) glowing, of a fire PMP *rara

raraKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) blood PAN *daRaq

raraPokau(OC) blood POC *draRaq

rarãLamaholot(CMP) path, road PMP *zalan

raraLau(OC) to shine; to be hot, warm PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

raraLau(OC) species of tree with scarlet leaves, Erythrina fasca POC *rarap

raraLeti(CMP) blood; menses PAN *daRaq

raraLeti(CMP) female, of animals that haven’t yet borne young PMP *daRa₂

raraLuang(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raraMakassarese(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raraMaranao(WMP) weave a mat or a basket PWMP *laja

raraMoor(SHWNG) blood PAN *daRaq

raraMota(OC) to dry before a fire PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

raraMotu(OC) blood; descendants POC *draRaq

raraNggela(OC) species of tree, Erythrina, red flowers POC *rarap

raraRotuman(OC) to warm by the fire (oneself, a child); to fumigate; to toast or roast before an open fire; of leaves, etc., to place on the fire for a few seconds PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

raraSa'a(OC) the coral tree, Erythrina indica POC *rarap

raraSekar(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raraSobei(OC) path, road POC *jalan

raraTae'(WMP) blood; smear with the blood of a sacrificial animal PAN *daRaq

raráToba Batak(WMP) red PMP *rara

raraWaropen(SHWNG) blood PAN *daRaq

raraWayan(OC) be heated, warmed; be baked hot, glowing hot (of pots being fired); be smoke, as fish PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

raraWayan(OC) the coral tree, Erythrina spp. (Leguminosae); deciduous tree found mostly near coast; twigs and branchlets are prickly, flowers red; the juice of the bark is used to dilute bitter-tasting wiriwiri bark juice in medicine to treat infection (thrush) of the tongue POC *rarap

raraManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) to weave a mat, basket, etc.; figuratively, of anything tangled or entwined PWMP *laja

raraWetan(CMP) woman PMP *daRa₂

raraWetan(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

rara ~ raa-raraSa'a(OC) be in the sunlight, be hot, pungent; be zealous over, be jealous over PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

rara ~ rarāOld Javanese(WMP) girl, maiden PMP *daRa₂

ra-rahanYami(WMP) road PAN *za-zalan

rara-iKaro Batak(WMP) cause something to glow red-hot PMP *rara

raralAtayal(Formosan) old times, the old days, formerly, a long time ago, of yore, ancient PAN *dadaN

rā-ramaFijian(OC) light, as opposed to darkness POC *ramaR

rara meaSa'a(OC) administer a public rebuke (lit. ‘burn the tongue’) PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

ra-rampor-anTonsea(WMP) hearth PWMP *dapuR-an

raram-riarmaLeti(CMP) will, desire PMP *dalem

rara-nErai(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raranKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) path, road PMP *zalan

rara-nTugun(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raránaMalagasy(WMP) to be forbidden, to be prohibited PAN *laRaŋ

rara-naGhari(OC) branch POC *raqan

rara-ni ~ rara-viWayan(OC) to warm or heat something; what is warmed; wither something, dry something up, as vegetation PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

raráŋIlokano(WMP) kind of large, elongated mollusk with a pointed shell; mother-of-pearl PPH *RaRaŋ

raraŋMakassarese(WMP) radiation (of sunlight) PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

raráŋManam(OC) to warm many things PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

raraŋTae'(WMP) bake, roast over a fire, esp. meat; do something quickly, in the blink of an eye (as in retrieving something that is roasting over a fire so that it doesn’t burn) PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

raraŋTontemboan(WMP) to dry; to roast fish PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

raraŋaBali (Uneapa)(OC) burned skin PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

raraŋaMussau(OC) kind of sea urchin POC *salaŋ

raraŋ-eBugotu(OC) to warm oneself at a fire PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

raraŋ-ənTontemboan(WMP) dry something by a fire (imper.); grill for roasting flesh PWMP *daŋdaŋ-en

ráraŋ-iManam(OC) to warm something (food) PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

raraŋ (reduplication of **raŋ < *deRaŋ)Bekatan(WMP) red PWMP *deRaŋ

rará-onBikol(WMP) to weave mats, baskets, etc. from palm leaves PWMP *lalah-en

ra-rapoy-anYami(WMP) stove PWMP *dapuR-an

*raRaQPBUN(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

rararoWaropen(SHWNG) sail PAN *layaR

rarasFavorlang/Babuza(Formosan) old, contracted PAN *dadaN

rarata-naRoviana(OC) sea coast POC *raRat

ra-raxanItbayaten(WMP) road, street, avenue PAN *za-zalan

rarayKavalan(Formosan) cicada PAN *lalay

Ra-RayaKavalan(Formosan) high officer; coarse (sand); large (mesh); to grow (person) PAN *Raya

raraʔTingalan (West)(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

rareKisar(CMP) female, of animals PMP *daRa₂

rarəsNumfor(SHWNG) tree root PMP *dalij

rariArosi(OC) root; shin POC *ralic

rariArosi(OC) shin, front bone of leg from knee to foot PMP *lali

rariArosi(OC) shin, front bone of leg from knee to foot PMP *laliŋ

rariBauro(OC) buttress root POC *ralic

rariDampelas(WMP) root PMP *dalij

rariIban(WMP) run away, escape PAN *laRiw

ráriMalagasy(WMP) a plait; plaiting of mats, hats, etc. PWMP *laja

rariMaori(OC) some instrument used as an alarum or gong POC *drali

rarihe'Āre'āre(OC) centipede PCEMP *qalipan

ra-rimaThao(Formosan) five (people) PAN *la-lima

rarinKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) root PMP *dalij

rar-ínaMalagasy(WMP) to be plaited PWMP *lalah-en

rariʔ (with secondary final glottal stop)Sasak(WMP) take something and flee PAN *laRiw

rarmaLeti(CMP) the interior, what is inside; fig. heart, feelings; in, inside PMP *dalem

raroAnuta(OC) down (direction); below (place); west POC *ralom

raroArosi(OC) the inside, inner part; the feelings, heart, mind, disposition; in, within POC *ralom

raroMaori(OC) the bottom, the under side; down, downwards, down below; beneath, under, the underworld; the north, north wind POC *ralom

raroMotu(OC) clay (used in making cooking pots) PAN *daReq

raroRarotongan(OC) beneath, under, below; down; the under or lower part or portion; west, westward, towards sunset, to leeward POC *ralom

raroRoviana(OC) cooking pot PAN *daReq

ra-roaYami(WMP) two people PMP *da-duha

raru'Āre'āre(OC) ironwood, a littoral tree POC *aRu

raru'Āre'āre(OC) pike fish PMP *qalu

ra-ruaMotu(OC) two, of persons only POC *ra-rua

ra-rua-nFordata(CMP) two by two, two at a time; two each PMP *duha

raruŋMandar(WMP) needle PAN *zaRum

ra-ru ra-ruSelaru(CMP) two by two; two each PCEMP *dua-dua

rásəʔPalauan(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

rasiAraki(OC) sea; salt PMP *tasik

rasiAraki(OC) sea, saltwater PMP *tasik

rasiArosi(OC) fish sp. POC *laji₂

ras itaKaro Batak(WMP) the two of us together PAN *ita₁

rasmPalauan(WMP) needle PAN *zaRum

rasö-Axamb(OC) testicles POC *lasoR

rasókBikol(WMP) peg PWMP *ra(ŋ)suk

rasu'Āre'āre(OC) to smoke, of fire PMP *qasu₃

rasuLeti(CMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

rasuTorau(OC) hundred PMP *Ratus

rasuUruava(OC) one hundred PMP *Ratus

rasu-a'Āre'āre(OC) to smoke, blacken with smoke PMP *qasu₃

rasukOld Javanese(WMP) dress, attire; mail PWMP *ra(ŋ)suk

ra-ʃuʃu-anPuyuma(Formosan) having big breasts PAN *susu₁

ratBintulu(WMP) sea, ocean PMP *daRat

ratIban(WMP) tight, firm; tighten; confirm PMP *heRet

ratJavanese(WMP) world PMP *daRat

rātKei(CMP) king, ruler PMP *datu

ratLeipon(OC) whale POC *rato

rātOld Javanese(WMP) the world; the visible, inhabited world; mankind, created beings PMP *daRat

rata'Āre'āre(OC) a very strong liana, used especially to sew canoe planks POC *qasam

rataKelabit(WMP) milk (human and animal) PMP *Ratas₂

rataBuruese(CMP) plain PAN *dataR

rataJavanese(WMP) evenly distributed or spread (as soil), smooth (as pavement); roughly, approximately PAN *dataR

rataLun Dayeh(WMP) milk PMP *Ratas₂

rat-aManam(OC) bad; great POC *saqat

rataMaori(OC) tame, quiet; familiar, friendly POC *lasa₁

rataʔMaranao(WMP) sad, sadness, unhappy; bad PMP *zaqat

rataʔMiri(WMP) milk from the breast PMP *Rataq

rataMota(OC) level ground, plain POC *rataR

rataMotu(OC) milk, breasts PMP *Rataq

rataMotu(OC) milk; breasts, udder PMP *Ratas₂

rataPaku(WMP) smooth PAN *dataR

rataUma(WMP) come, reach, arrive at PMP *dateŋ

ratā ~ ra-ratāOld Javanese(WMP) a level place, plain PAN *dataR

ratahTiruray(WMP) human breast milk PMP *Ratas₂

rata-i'Āre'āre(OC) name POC *acan

rata-iBauro(OC) scrape, rub, sharpen with rubbing POC *asaq-i

ratanErai(CMP) to arrive; as far as, until; enough PMP *dateŋ

rata-na'Āre'āre(OC) name POC *acan

rátanaMalagasy(WMP) a plain, level country PAN *dataR

rataŋ-anMurut (Timugon)(WMP) time, place, or reason for arrival PWMP *dateŋ-an

ratasManggarai(CMP) sever, tear PMP *Ratas₁

ratasManggarai(CMP) torn, tattered; to tear PMP *ra(n)tas

ratasMinangkabau(WMP) severing with a slit PMP *Ratas₁

ratayItbayaten(WMP) lowlands; plain region of Mayan (a place name) PAN *dataR

ratayYami(WMP) flatlands, prairie PAN *dataR

rateBauro(OC) coral POC *laje

rateŋItbayaten(WMP) idea of arrival PMP *dateŋ

ratəŋSundanese(WMP) the swarming of insects, the clustering of many flying kites or lamps PMP *dateŋ

rateŋYami(WMP) arrive back home from the fields or another village PMP *dateŋ

rat fitKei(CMP) 700 PMP *pitu ŋa Ratus

ratiYamdena(CMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

rat-loloMondropolon(OC) whale POC *rato

ratŋ-anItbayaten(WMP) to arrive PWMP *dateŋ-an

rato'Āre'āre(OC) sun, sunshine, no rain, good weather POC *qaco

ratoMadurese(WMP) king PMP *datu

ratoMuna(WMP) arrive, come; reach, arrive at something PMP *dateŋ

rato-haMuna(WMP) arrival time PMP *dateŋ

rato-miMuna(WMP) bring food and drink to someone; take care of someone’s life PMP *dateŋ

rato-ratoMuna(WMP) long-horned grasshopper whose call signals the arrival of a guest PMP *dateŋ

rato-ratoWolio(WMP) kind of bird whose call announces people coming PMP *dateŋ

rat rapu-nPenchal(OC) taboo POC *tabu-na

r-at r-atSelaru(CMP) four by four, four at a time PMP *epat epat

ratuKelabit(WMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

ratuDobel(CMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

ratuFijian(OC) honorific particle and title of rank before names of males who are chiefs PMP *datu

ratuFordata(CMP) king PMP *datu

ratuJavanese(WMP) king, queen, monarch PMP *datu

ratuKambera(CMP) leader in religious ritual; priest PMP *datu

ratūLamaholot(CMP) hundreds, a multitude PMP *Ratus

ratuLun Dayeh(WMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

ratuMakassarese(WMP) old word for karaeng, prince PMP *datu

ratuNgadha(CMP) lord, king; noble, aristocrat PMP *datu

ratuOld Javanese(WMP) king (rarely, queen) PMP *datu

ratuHawu(CMP) prince PMP *datu

ratuSika(CMP) king PMP *datu

ratuSundanese(WMP) prince, king, princess; in south Bantam the highest title for noblewomen PMP *datu

ratuʔTae'(WMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

ratuTae'(WMP) come, arrive PMP *dateŋ

ratuYamdena(CMP) great man, king; guardian of the truth; God PMP *datu

ratu ehaTugun(CMP) one hundred PMP *Ratus

ratuhKomodo(CMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

ratuhRoglai (Northern)(WMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

ratuhTiruray(WMP) unit of one hundred PMP *Ratus

ratusGayō(WMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

ratusIban(WMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

ratusKaro Batak(WMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

ratusMalay(WMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

ratusManggarai(CMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

ratusRembong(CMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

ratusSundanese(WMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

ratusToba Batak(WMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

ratus-anBahasa Indonesia(WMP) hundreds and hundreds PWMP *Ratus-an

ratus-anSundanese(WMP) hundreds (multiples between 100 and 1,000) PWMP *Ratus-an

ratus-ratus-enKaro Batak(WMP) hundreds (of people), hundreds upon hundreds PMP *Ratus

ratutFordata(CMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

ratut isaaFordata(CMP) one hundred PMP *Ratus

ratu toʔuLamaholot(CMP) one hundred PMP *Ratus

raty-ar saYamdena(CMP) one hundred PMP *Ratus

rauAnakalangu(CMP) leaf PCEMP *daun

rauAnuta(OC) leaf; frond; head hair; sheet of paper PEMP *raun

rau-Aore(OC) leaf PEMP *raun

rau'Āre'āre(OC) tuna fish POC *qatun

rau-Arop(OC) leaf PEMP *raun

raʔuArosi(OC) take a handful PMP *ra(ŋ)kup

rauArosi(OC) leaf; prefix to names of trees; plank PEMP *raun

rauArosi(OC) side, bank of stream; shore POC *laur

raʔuBare'e(WMP) a tall tree with little durable wood and edible fruits: Dracontomelon mangiferum PMP *daqu₁

rauDhao/Ndao(CMP) leaf; feather PMP *dahun

rauGitua(OC) leaf; head hair PEMP *raun

rauKambera(CMP) leaf; hair PCEMP *daun

rauMaori(OC) leaf; blade of a weapon; plume, spray, feather PEMP *raun

rauMotu(OC) leaf PEMP *raun

rauNggela(OC) leaf; prefix to names of trees PEMP *raun

rauPiamatsina(OC) leaf PEMP *raun

rauPom(SHWNG) leaf PEMP *raun

rauRaga(OC) leaf PEMP *raun

rauRarotongan(OC) leaf (in composition) PEMP *raun

rauRotuman(OC) leaf, (of grass) blade; tobacco; sheet or leaf of paper PEMP *raun

raʔuSa'a(OC) gather up with the hand PMP *ra(ŋ)kup

räuSa'a(OC) leaf; leaf used as a wrapper in cooking PEMP *raun

rauSobei(OC) leaf PEMP *raun

rauToqabaqita(OC) leaf, leaflet PEMP *raun

rauUma(WMP) leaf PMP *dahun

rauWandamen(SHWNG) leaf PEMP *raun

rauWandamen(SHWNG) leaf PEMP *raun

rauWayan(OC) leaf; ; hair of the head; page, leaf of paper PEMP *raun

rauWolio(WMP) a tree: Dracontomelum mangiferum. PMP *daqu₁

rau-Malmariv(OC) leaf PEMP *raun

rauWandamen(SHWNG) seaward PCEMP *laur

rau ~ ndauWaropen(SHWNG) sea; outside PCEMP *laur

rau-aAua(OC) far POC *sauq₁

rau-aMotu(OC) scrape or gather together with two hands PMP *Raqup

rau bitaiGitua(OC) kind of green snake PEMP *raun

ráudPalauan(WMP) closing PMP *dapet

raulaTigak(OC) bird sp. POC *(dr,d)aula

raumMussau(OC) needle POC *saRum

raum ~ raʔumTontemboan(WMP) sew or plait thatch for roofing PAN *zaRum

raunMurut (Tagol)(WMP) leaf PMP *dahun

raunAxamb(OC) leaf PEMP *raun

raʔunBintulu(WMP) leaf PMP *dahun

raunLeviamp(OC) leaf PEMP *raun

raunPaku(WMP) leaf PMP *dahun

raunWoi(SHWNG) leaf PEMP *raun

rau-na i asiArosi(OC) beach POC *laur

rau-na i waiArosi(OC) river bank POC *laur

rauŋIban(WMP) toad; tree toad (unident.); howl of dogs PWMP *rauŋ

rauŋMakassarese(WMP) leaf PMP *dahun

rauŋMalay(WMP) deep cry, e.g. of pain PWMP *rauŋ

RauŋPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) lie in wait for an enemy or animal PAN *RaSuŋ

rauŋuBali (Uneapa)(OC) leaf PEMP *raun

rauraMussau(OC) frigate bird POC *(dr,d)aula

rau-rauMaori(OC) foliage; thatch PEMP *raun

rau-rauMaori(OC) foliage; thatch; a divination rite in which leaves were used POC *raun-raun

rau-rauNehan(OC) a plant species; two types: a yellow leaf and green leaf variety, fam. Leguminoseae, coral bean species; coral trees (leaves can be eaten as a spinach substitute: Erythrina variegata, Erythrina indica PEMP *raun

rau-rauNggela(OC) leaves, leavage, foliage PEMP *raun

rau-rauWayan(OC) leaves POC *raun-raun

rau-rauNggela(OC) leaves, foliage POC *raun-raun

rausThao(Formosan) downhill, downstream; in a downward direction from the mountains PAN *lahud

rautIban(WMP) pare, peel, scrape; whittle down, sharpen PMP *raut

ráutIsneg(WMP) strips of rattan or black rachises of líto (schizaeaceous ferns) with which the three strips of rattan are bound to the border of a basket PMP *raut

rautMalay(WMP) whittling off asperities PMP *raut

rau tariŋaAnuta(OC) earlobe POC *raun ni taliŋa

ravMota(OC) dusk POC *Rapi

ravMota(OC) dusk POC *Rapun

raviGabadi(OC) yesterday POC *Rapi

rávinaMalagasy(WMP) a leaf; fig., thin, slender PMP *dahun

ravi-nenaWandamen(SHWNG) afternoon PMP *Rabiqi

ravi-niWandamen(SHWNG) tomorrow PMP *Rabiqi

ravi-raviGabadi(OC) afternoon POC *Rapi

rávitraMalagasy(WMP) made to hold together, as the leaves of a book, a chaplet, etc. PWMP *ra(m)bit

rávokaMalagasy(WMP) pound rice PMP *ra(m)buk

rávokaMalagasy(WMP) to pound rice PMP *rambuk

rav-ravMota(OC) evening, the dusk of evening PAN *Rabi-Rabi

rav-ruaFordata(CMP) the day after tomorrow PMP *duha

ravuLonggu(OC) ashes POC *rapuR

ravuNggela(OC) ashes; burnt out, of a fire; side of a house where the fire is made POC *rapuR

ravuNginia(OC) ashes POC *rapuR

ravuluKove(OC) kind of razor shell POC *sapulu

ravutManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) of an angry person, to struggle to fight or hit someone PWMP *rabut

ŕawPuluwat(OC) whale; porpoise POC *rato

rawa'Āre'āre(OC) a spider; cobweb PMP *lawaq₂

rawaArosi(OC) small net PMP *lawaq₁

rawaArosi(OC) small net PMP *lawan₁

rawaBauro(OC) spider PMP *lawaq₂

rawaGilbertese(OC) a canal, passage through reef, strait POC *sawaŋ₂

rawaHaununu(OC) spider PMP *lawaq₂

rawaSiraya(Formosan) spider PAN *lawaq₂

rawaYami(WMP) ear of grain PAN *zawa₂

rawaArosi(OC) a small net; a cobweb (used in fishing with a kite); a spider PMP *lawaq₂

rawa(h)Malay(WMP) morass PWMP *rawaq

rawakMurut (Timugon)(WMP) major ritual for exorcising of persons or houses (involves communion with a spirit familiar during a self-induced trance) PWMP *dawak

rawanBahasa Indonesia(WMP) anxious; emotion, tenderness PMP *rawan

rawánHanunóo(WMP) grudge PMP *rawan

rawanIban(WMP) experience emotion, be agitated PMP *rawan

rawanMalay(WMP) emotion, tender feeling; be stirred PMP *rawan

rawanSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) exceed PWMP *lawan₂

rawaŋIban(WMP) hollow, cavity PWMP *Rawaŋ

rawáŋIlokano(WMP) hollow between rocks PPH *rawaŋ

rawaŋKaro Batak(WMP) à jour wickerwork PWMP *Rawaŋ

rawaŋMalay(WMP) openwork, fretted PWMP *Rawaŋ

rawaŋManggarai(CMP) sad; anxious PMP *rawan

rawaŋItbayaten(WMP) deep subterranean cave where there are sometimes animals like snakes, etc.; terrrestrial cavity, crack which reaches the sea below PPH *rawaŋ

rawarKavalan(Formosan) flying squirrel PAN *lawaR

RawaRPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) flying squirrel PAN *lawaR

rawa-rawaArosi(OC) catch fish or turtles with a net PMP *lawaq₁

rawa-rawaArosi(OC) catch fish or turtles with a net PMP *lawan₁

rawasPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) wide, broad PAN *lawas₁

rawatItbayaten(WMP) server, waiter, waitress PPH *dáwat

rawat-enItbayaten(WMP) to receive PPH *dawat-en

raweYamdena(CMP) daybreak, dawn PMP *zawa₁

rawenMa'anyan(WMP) leaf PMP *dahun

rawenTiruray(WMP) a cloud PMP *Rabun

rawinUjir(CMP) leaf PCEMP *daun

rawukManggarai(CMP) ashes from the hearth; gray PMP *Rabuk

rawukRembong(CMP) ashes, dust PMP *Rabuk

rawutKei(CMP) pull PMP *Rabut

raxanItbayaten(WMP) path, wake, footpath, trace of boat-passing on the water; wheel track; furrow PMP *zalan

raxan-anItbayaten(WMP) pass, narrow passage PAN *zalan-an

raxa-raxanItbayaten(WMP) road PMP *zalan

rayBerawan (Long Jegan)(WMP) there PMP *-di

rayaAcehnese(WMP) big, wide, extensive; considerable, very; vehement; full-grown PAN *Raya

rayaBare'e(WMP) internal part, interior PMP *dalem

rayaDali'(WMP) big PAN *Raya

rayaGayō(WMP) big, great PAN *Raya

rayaIban(WMP) large, major PAN *Raya

rayaItbayaten(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

rayaKaro Batak(WMP) following some nouns this indicates large for its kind PAN *Raya

RayaKavalan(Formosan) big, large, great; fat (trunk of the body); strong (as wind); large in amount PAN *Raya

rayaMalay(WMP) great; mighty PAN *Raya

rayaMaranao(WMP) upriver PAN *daya

*rayaPCha(WMP) big PAN *Raya

rayaTabun(WMP) big PAN *Raya

raya banuaBare'e(WMP) the interior of a house PMP *dalem

rayanPom(SHWNG) way, path PMP *zalan

raya ntauBare'e(WMP) a person’s inner self; mind, heart, thinking, opinion, emotions PMP *dalem

RayaRKavalan(Formosan) sail of a raft or boat; cloth around a threshing machine PAN *layaR

rayaʔSaisiyat(Formosan) inland PAN *daya

rayehKelabit(WMP) big, great, physically large (people or things); old (people) PAN *Raya

rayəhLun Dayeh(WMP) big, grand, spacious, wide, large; loud (of sound) PAN *Raya

rayemItbayaten(WMP) needle PAN *zaRum

rayemItbayaten(WMP) needle PAN *zaRem

rayitItbayaten(WMP) sewing PMP *zaqit

raylPalauan(WMP) road; path; way; connection (between families, etc.) PMP *zalan

rayohGayō(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

rayomYami(WMP) needle PAN *zaRum

rayóʔBikol(WMP) distance, stretch; range (as of a gun) PPH *adayúq

ráysPalauan(WMP) root PMP *dalij

rayt-enItbayaten(WMP) to sew PPH *daqit-en

RayuguKaidipang(WMP) tall (esp. of coconut trees) PPH *láyug

rayuʔTiruray(WMP) far, distant, far apart PPH *adayúq

razaBintulu(WMP) toward the interior, away from the sea PAN *daya

razanKavalan(Formosan) road; path, trail PAN *zalan

raʔaWaiyewa(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

raʔanBisaya (Lotud)(WMP) branch PMP *daqan₁

raʔiDhao/Ndao(CMP) dirty PMP *daki

raʔiDusun Witu(WMP) forehead, face PMP *daqih

raʔtayItbayaten(WMP) flooring, floor, storey PPH *daq(e)taR


 

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rb

r-bayarSelaru(CMP) to pay PMP *bayaD


 

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re

reDobel(CMP) span, fathom PAN *depah

reMbula(OC) southeast monsoon season, wind that blows very strongly from a southeasterly direction during June-September, a rainy time in which sea travel is difficult due to the roughness of the sea, a time for harvesting yams, collecting sago, galip nuts, and talis nuts PCEMP *raki

reSelaru(CMP) fathom PAN *depah

reaBimanese(CMP) ginger, Zingiber officinale PMP *laqia

reaBungku(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

reaGaloli(CMP) earth, soil PAN *daReq

reaKamarian(CMP) fathom PAN *depah

reaKoroni(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

reaLeti(CMP) fathom PAN *depah

reaMori Atas(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

reaMoronene(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

reaMuna(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

reaPadoe(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

reaRembong(CMP) ginger, Zingiber officinale PMP *laqia

reaTalur(CMP) earth PAN *daReq

reaToba Batak(WMP) big, main PAN *Raya

reaWawonii(WMP) blood PAN *daRaq

réanYamdena(CMP) woven palm leaf base on which hot cooking pots are placed PAN *reken

rearToba Batak(WMP) sail PAN *layaR

rəbab ~ rababMiri(WMP) high tide PMP *Ruab

rebahMalay(WMP) fallen to the ground; laid low (as trees, or other heavy objects) PWMP *rebaq

rebasMalay(WMP) fallen into unsightly ruin, of a house PWMP *rebas

rebbáIlokano(WMP) ruins PWMP *rebaq

reberepPazeh(Formosan) foggy, misty weather PAN *lebleb₁

rebutDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) bustle, confusion, as during a squabble PWMP *re(m)but

rəbutMalay(WMP) snatching, tearing at, of people struggling for the possession of anything PWMP *Ranebut

rəbutMalay(WMP) snatching, tearing at, of people struggling for the possession of anything PWMP *ranebut

recékMalay(WMP) fine speckles, very small spots -- of being sprinkled with rosewater, cloth speckled with gold, garments slightly bespattered by water thrown up by a car passing, etc. PMP *recik

rəcekMalay(WMP) fine speckles, very small spots, of being sprinkled with rosewater, cloth speckled with gold, garments slightly bespattered by water thrown up by a car passing, etc. PWMP *ragecik

recŋiTsou(Formosan) pigeon peas PAN *qaRidaŋ

redanKaro Batak(WMP) steps, ladder (usually a notched log or pole) PMP *haRezan

redaŋManggarai(CMP) ladder PMP *haRezan

redoŋManggarai(CMP) a tree: Trema orientalis PMP *deRuŋ₂

rééPuluwat(OC) leaf PEMP *raun

rə'əʔəKanakanabu(Formosan) sword grass: Imperata cylindrica PAN *Riaq

réʔérTiruray(WMP) the neck PAN *liqeR

reereMbula(OC) to flow, run, stream POC *rere₂

refKei(CMP) a fathom PAN *depah

refKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) armspan, fathom PAN *depah

refaFordata(CMP) fathom PAN *depah

refarTiruray(WMP) to fly PPH *lepad

refiMalagasy(WMP) a fathom, two yards, the measure from tip to tip of the fingers across the chest when the arms are spread out PAN *depah

rəgaʔTunjung(WMP) two PMP *duha

regameyTiruray(WMP) a rice stalk PWMP *gaRami

regasMaranao(WMP) to pound, as rice PPH *deR(e)qas

reǥasManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) to finish pounding rice or corn in a mortar PPH *deR(e)qas

regau-regauIban(WMP) wandering, at a loss PWMP *regaw

regesMaranao(WMP) water current PMP *deRes

regesTiruray(WMP) (of water) flowing swiftly with a strong current PMP *deRes

reɣesManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) of rain, heavy PMP *deRes

regiŋMaranao(WMP) to parrot, make a noise or to parrot PWMP *deRiŋ

regoMaranao(WMP) groan PWMP *deRu

regukBahasa Indonesia(WMP) gulping down PMP *re(ŋ)guk

regukManggarai(CMP) gulp, swallow PMP *re(ŋ)guk

rehét-anaMalagasy(WMP) to be lighted, as a fire by something already burning, i.e. a match, etc. PWMP *deket₂

rehoAmblau(CMP) egg PMP *qateluR

rei tadaBugotu(OC) to lift up the eyes POC *tadal

RejangRejang(WMP) sisiʔ PMP *siksik₂

rəjehBelait(WMP) big PAN *Raya

rekaŋIban(WMP) wide apart, wide open PWMP *rekaŋ

rekaŋYami (Iranomilek)(WMP) wide apart, wide open (as legs) PWMP *rekaŋ

rekenKelabit(WMP) coiled rattan base on which cooking pots are placed when hot PAN *reken

rekenMamben(WMP) coiled base on which cooking pots are placed PAN *reken

RekenPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) round pad for putting hot cooking pots on, usually made of a plaited hoop of rattan PAN *Reken

RekenPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) round pad for putting hot cooking pots on, usually made of a plaited hoop of rattan PAN *reken

rekenSasak(WMP) what women place on the head in order to carry a load PAN *reken

réken ~ rikenSasak(WMP) what women place on the head in order to carry a load PWMP *riken

réken ~ rikenSasak(WMP) what women place on the head in order to carry a load PWMP *Riken

rékétBalinese(WMP) adhere, stick PWMP *ri(ŋ)kit

reketMaranao(WMP) paste; attach; bear fruit PMP *deket₁

rəkiʔJarai(WMP) raft PMP *Rakit

rekikIban(WMP) lose the voice PWMP *re(ŋ)kik

rekot (*u > o unexplained)Manggarai(CMP) frizzled (of hair), crumpled, creased PMP *rekut

rəkt-əl a rədilPalauan(WMP) menstruation PMP *sakit

rekukManggarai(CMP) bowing, bending over (as rice stalks) PMP *dekuk

reliŋa-Penchal(OC) ear POC *taliŋa

reluAmblau(CMP) three PAN *telu

remLou(OC) lime spatula POC *d(r)amut

rəmaJarai(WMP) five PAN *lima

remaiMalay(WMP) minute, as particles of dust or sand PWMP *remay

rembayoŋMalay(WMP) the water hyacinth: Eichornea crassipes PWMP *rambayuŋ

rémbét, rimbitMalay(WMP) hampered; obstructed; having encumbrances PWMP *rimbit

remburManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) mix different kinds of seeds together PMP *rembur

rembutMaranao(WMP) confuse, mix up, confusion PWMP *re(m)but

remdemItbayaten(WMP) cloud PAN *demdem₂

remeNgadha(CMP) press, squeeze, massage PMP *remek

remekBalinese(WMP) crush, break, perish PMP *remek

remekJavanese(WMP) broken into pieces, smashed PMP *remek

remekManggarai(CMP) soft (of earth around a termite mound) PMP *Remek

remekManggarai(CMP) soft (of earth around a termite mound) PMP *remek

remekSundanese(WMP) fall to pieces, be smashed; disintegrate PMP *remek

remmáyIlokano(WMP) to crumble, break into small pieces, as clods, etc. PWMP *remay

remoŋJarai(WMP) tiger PWMP *qari-maquŋ

rémpakMalay(WMP) split at the side PWMP *Ripak

rémpakMalay(WMP) split at the side PWMP *ripak

rémpokSasak(WMP) strike together (of objects) PMP *rimpuk

rempukManggarai(CMP) friable, crumbly (of wood) PMP *Re(m)puk

rempunIban(WMP) clump of tubers or rhizomes PMP *rempun

rémpuŋ, rimpuŋManggarai(CMP) tie the feet together PMP *rimpuŋ

renApma(OC) day POC *raqani

renApma(OC) day POC *raqani

renUjir(CMP) near PMP *adani

renKola(CMP) near PMP *adani

renaKola(CMP) to hear PMP *deŋeR

renaOld Javanese(WMP) mother PMP *ra-ina

renaHawu(CMP) female, of animals; large woman; broad, heavy PMP *ra-ina

renaSika(CMP) to hear something (as a rumor); to feel, have a feeling, as in feeling feverish; feeling, sentiment PMP *deŋeR

rena-nWampar(OC) mother PMP *t-ina

ren-daaPendau(WMP) virgin, young girl PWMP *da-daRa

rendakManggarai(CMP) step on PMP *re(n)zak

rendeŋJavanese(WMP) west monsoon (rainy season) PWMP *rendeŋ

rendeŋMaranao(WMP) rainy season; winter; wet season PWMP *rendeŋ

rendeŋMalay (Jakarta)(WMP) rainy season PWMP *rendeŋ

rendeŋSundanese(WMP) constant rain PWMP *rendeŋ

rendeŋManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) constant sprinkling of rain; a rainy day PWMP *rendeŋ

renebMaranao(WMP) impregnated with water PPH *reneb

renebManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) of a pool of water, to soak into the ground and disappear PPH *reneb

renegTiruray(WMP) push, press down PMP *Reneg

renekManggarai(CMP) press down PMP *Reneg

reniMalagasy(WMP) heard; perceived, as a scent PMP *deŋeR

r<en>ikLun Dayeh(WMP) trampling, threshing, walking on (such as rice to separate it from stalk) PAN *Riqek

rennébIlokano(WMP) to sink PPH *reneb

rentaŋMalay(WMP) horizontal extension (of clouds stretching in lines across the sky, stretching a cord to its full length, using a surveyor's chain) PWMP *iReteŋ

rentaŋ-an taliMalay(WMP) stretching a cord to its full length PWMP *iReteŋ-en

renyMalagasy(WMP) mother PMP *ra-ina

rəñanJarai(WMP) steps, ladder PMP *haRezan

(re)ñuanIban(WMP) kind of small bee, often kept under eaves in hives (tikoŋ of hollowed logs; honey is good, but inferior to that of the large wild mañiʔ PMP *qari-ñuan

rəŋaJarai(WMP) sesame PMP *leŋa

reŋatBalinese(WMP) crack, split, burst PWMP *reŋat

reŋatJavanese(WMP) burst; broken open (of fruit) PWMP *reŋat

reŋatMalay(WMP) griping pain, colic, shooting pains in toothache or earache PMP *reŋet

reŋatOld Javanese(WMP) cleft, crack, crevice, fissure; split, cleft, cracked PWMP *reŋat

reŋatSasak(WMP) cracked, burst PWMP *reŋat

reŋatSundanese(WMP) burst, crack, rend (as earthworks); crack, tear, crevice PWMP *reŋat

reŋat hatiMalay(WMP) torn with anger PMP *reŋet

rəŋə-rəŋəOld Javanese(WMP) remaining in the ear, continuously audible PMP *deŋeR

réŋés, riŋisManggarai(CMP) laugh or smile while baring the teeth PMP *riŋis₁

reŋetBalinese(WMP) angry PMP *reŋet

reŋetSasak(WMP) angry, fanatical PMP *reŋet

reŋeyYami(WMP) hear PMP *deŋeR

reŋgeŋManggarai(CMP) hum, buzz PMP *re(ŋ)geŋ

reŋɣukManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) to snore PMP *de(ŋ)guk

reŋɣukManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) to snore PMP *re(ŋ)guk

rəŋiHawu(CMP) hear; understand (trans.) PMP *diŋeR

rəŋi ~ rəŋeHawu(CMP) to hear, understand PMP *deŋeR

reŋitManggarai(CMP) pucker up the face, grimace (example sentence: "what pain are you feeling that causes you to grimace so?") PAN *reŋiC

rəŋitMalay(WMP) moth; minute fly PWMP *reŋit₁

rəŋitMalay (Brunei)(WMP) mosquito PWMP *reŋit₁

reŋkahMalay(WMP) wresting open PMP *re(ŋ)kaq

reŋkegBalinese(WMP) keep quiet because of sickness PWMP *reŋkeg

reŋkegMaranao(WMP) pensive PWMP *reŋkeg

reŋkemManggarai(CMP) embrace, wrestle with PMP *Re(ŋ)kem

reŋŋatIlokano(WMP) to crack, fissure, cleave, part, open, split, be creviced; said of ground PWMP *reŋat

reŋŋeŋBuginese(WMP) friend, associate PWMP *deŋen

reŋreŋItbayaten(WMP) to sound like the roar of an airplane, the buzzing of bees, etc. PAN *deŋdeŋ₂

reŋutMalay(WMP) frown, look dissatisfied PMP *reŋut

reŋutManggarai(CMP) sour PMP *reŋut

reŋutSika(CMP) rude or insolent voice PMP *reŋut

reŋʷMarshallese(OC) hear, listen POC *roŋoR

reoRarotongan(OC) voice; tone; speech; utterance; language; dialect; form of words POC *leqo

rəpaBintulu(WMP) fathom PAN *depah

repaBuruese(CMP) fathom PAN *depah

repaMaranao(WMP) fathom --- a measure PAN *depah

rəpaSimalur(WMP) fathom PAN *depah

rəpaTontemboan(WMP) fathom PAN *depah

repaManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) one fathom; the length of one’s outstretched arms; to measure by fathom or by outstretched arms PAN *depah

repakMalay(WMP) slap; whack; fillip PWMP *repag

repakMalay(WMP) crumbling under pressure PMP *Repak

repakMalay(WMP) crumbling under pressure, dry and brittle PMP *repek

rəpakMalay(WMP) slap, whack; flap PWMP *ragepak

rəpanJarai(WMP) centipede PMP *qalu-hipan

repaŋMalay(WMP) cut straight, of a hedge trimmed to an even height throughout; teeth filed level; eaves cut so as to give a neat, straight edge; the trimming of a bride’s hair to give her forehead a square look, etc. PWMP *repeŋ

repawKavalan(Formosan) house PAN *lepaw₁

repekManggarai(CMP) various sounds: crackle, pop, rattle PMP *repek

repenDusner(SHWNG) tooth PAN *lipen

repeŋMaranao(WMP) equal, even dimensions, height PWMP *repeŋ

repeyJarai(WMP) dream PWMP *lupi

repikIban(WMP) split in (thin) pieces PWMP *Repik

re-pisaMelanau Dalat(WMP) a boil PWMP *pi(R)sa

rəppaBuginese(WMP) fathom PAN *depah

reppákIlokano(WMP) to snap, break in two, of boughs or branches PMP *Repak

reppékIlokano(WMP) broken in pieces, crushed, smashed, shattered, crumbled PMP *repek

reppoʔMandar(WMP) break, destroy (as a wooden floor) PMP *Re(m)puk

reppuŋBuginese(WMP) gather PMP *rempun

repu-hBuruese(CMP) collect, gather PMP *rempun

repukManggarai(CMP) sound of wood, bone, etc. breaking PMP *Re(m)puk

reputMalay(WMP) rotten to brittleness, crumbling to decay (of a house about to fall to pieces) PMP *reput

reputManggarai(CMP) brittle, fragile, easily broken up PMP *reput

reraAdonara(CMP) sun PMP *qalejaw

reraSolorese(CMP) sun PMP *qalejaw

re-rauSerui-Laut(SHWNG) leaf PEMP *raun

rereAnuta(OC) to travel quickly – to run; to fly; a ship or canoe racing over the water is also said to rere POC *rere₂

rereArosi(OC) a current, tide; to spread, of fire POC *rere₂

rereFijian(OC) be afraid, fear, have a delicacy of feeling towards POC *rere₁

rereGitua(OC) drain off (as water from a puddle) POC *rere₂

rereMaori(OC) to flow; to fly; be carried on the wind POC *rere₂

rereMota(OC) set of sea, current POC *rere₂

rereRarotongan(OC) to fly, to move swiftly, as a bird; to leap, to move with bounds, to spring upward or forward; to hop, to leap on one leg; to swing, as to swing in the ancient Maori swing POC *rere₂

re-reraSekar(CMP) day PMP *qalejaw

rere-uriŋMakassarese(WMP) foam that rises to the surface when cooking rice PMP *diqdiq

rere wuwin-niWetan(CMP) top of mast PMP *bubuŋ₁

resamIban(WMP) a fern: Gleichenia sp. PMP *aResam

resamIban(WMP) a fern: Gleichenia sp. PMP *qaRsam

resamKaro Batak(WMP) tough fern which grows on the high plateau PMP *qaRsam

resamMalay(WMP) forest fern: Gleichenia linearis, of which some parts are like whalebone and make Malay pens PMP *aResam

resamMalay(WMP) forest fern, of which some parts are like whalebone, and make Malay pens: Gleichenia linearis PMP *qaRsam

*RəsamPSan(WMP) fern sp PMP *aResam

*RəsamPSan(WMP) fern sp. PMP *qaRsam

resdesItbayaten(WMP) idea of rubbing PPH *desdes

resdes-enItbayaten(WMP) roll a bundle together (as when making a cigar) PPH *desdes

resePazeh(Formosan) tears PAN *luSeq

rəsəTsou(Formosan) upper garment PAN *qules₁

resikMaranao(WMP) dirty; filthy PMP *recik

resikTiruray(WMP) tobacco blight that renders the leaves bitter and ill-tasting PMP *recik

resikManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) spill over or splash out PMP *recik

rətSasak(WMP) bind firmly PMP *heRet

rətahJarai(WMP) leech PWMP *qali-metaq

retakIban(WMP) lines on the palm of the hand PWMP *Retak

retan watiWetan(CMP) stairs of stone PMP *haRezan na batu

retas, rentasMalay (Kedah)(WMP) gentle severance PWMP *re(n)tes

retéhMalay(WMP) spring up in little jerks, like shrimps jumping about in a landing-basket PWMP *retiq

retéhMalay(WMP) spring up in little jerks, like shrimps jumping about in a landing-basket PWMP *Retiq

rete-rewukManggarai(CMP) crushed, smashed up PMP *rebuk

retiʔMaranao(WMP) germinate PWMP *retiq

retnaLeti(CMP) steps, ladder PMP *haRezan

retnaWetan(CMP) climbing-pole, ladder, stairs PMP *haRezan

retokIban(WMP) sound of chopping PMP *retuk

retuihJarai(WMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

reunoŋ meu-kawétAcehnese(WMP) fruiting pole, pole with a hook at the end for bringing down fruit PWMP *maR-kawit

reuñeunAcehnese(WMP) steps, ladder PMP *haRezan

reu-vtívtiTsou(Formosan) move tail or ears (carabao, dog, etc.) PAN *witiwit

rewaWetan(CMP) a unit of measure (fathom, about six feet) PAN *depah

rəyaJarai(WMP) ginger PMP *laqia


 

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rf

r-filSelaru(CMP) to choose PAN *piliq


 

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rh

r-hasSelaru(CMP) washing of implements PMP *baseq

r-hesSelaru(CMP) to paddle a canoe PMP *beRsay

r-hesSelaru(CMP) to break wind, to fart PCMP *pesu₂


 

TOP      ra    rb    re    rf    rh    ri    rk    rm    rn    ro    rp    rr    rs    rt    ru    rv    rw    ry    

ri

riBare'e(WMP) locative preposition: at, in, on, to; can be used with pronouns, as in ku-keni ri siko (1sg-bring ri 2sg) ‘I bring it to you’ PAN *di

riBuginese(WMP) in, at, on; toward; from PAN *di

riLamboya(CMP) bone PMP *duRi

riLou(OC) dugong POC *ruyuŋ₂

riMakassarese(WMP) in, at, on; toward; from PAN *di

riOld Javanese(WMP) particle with prepositional function (also expressed as i, ); occurs before nouns, and as a preposition with the meaning ‘in, on, by, through, with’ (Zoetmulder 1982) which function as grammatical subject (esp. before place-names), as grammatical object PAN *di

*riPBun(WMP) locative preposition of very broad scope (Mead 1998) PAN *di

riRiung(CMP) sword grass: Imperata cylindrica L. PAN *eRiq

riWaropen(SHWNG) pile, post under a house PCEMP *adiRi

ri ~ eriJavanese(WMP) thorn; backbone of a fish; counting unit for fish PMP *duRi

riaAnuta(OC) nit (egg of head louse) POC *lisa

ria'Āre'āre(OC) a ginger with perfumed roots, used as a medicine by witch doctors; there are several varieties for different diseases PMP *laqia

riaArosi(OC) ginger, much used in charms PMP *laqia

riaKédang(CMP) big, large PAN *Raya

ria-Mokilese(OC) two POC *rua

ria-Pohnpeian(OC) two POC *rua

riaRarotongan(OC) nit, the egg or eggs of a louse or lice or other small insects POC *lisa

riaTae'(WMP) sword grass: Imperata cylindrica PAN *Riaq

riaWoi(SHWNG) blood PAN *daRaq

riákIlokano(WMP) clamor, noisy talking PPH *riak

riákIlokano(WMP) clamor, noisy talking PWMP *Riak

riakItbayaten(WMP) sound PPH *riak

rianDusner(SHWNG) path, road PMP *zalan

ria-nPenchal(OC) belly, abdomen PMP *tian

ria ni marutana'Āre'āre(OC) a ginger used to enlist the affections of women PMP *laqia

ria-riaArosi(OC) to change, as the sound of a trumpet, call of a bird; to change one’s tune, try another tack, give different advice PMP *lian

ria-riaRarotongan(OC) nitty, to be infested with nits POC *lisa

riasIban(WMP) split into strips, split and splay at end (e.g. to make torch), strip pieces off (e.g. sugarcane, to chew the sweet core) PMP *riqas

riʔasManggarai(CMP) split rope, etc.; crack, split PMP *riqas

riauMalay(WMP) noise, clamor PAN *quriaw

riauMalay(WMP) noise, clamor PWMP *Riaw

riáwIlokano(WMP) cry out, clamor (scolding) PWMP *Riaw

ribaMalay(WMP) lap, taking on the lap PMP *riba

*RibaPSan(WMP) lap; to hold in the lap PMP *riba

riba-n taitaiGilbertese(OC) wood shavings POC *siba

ribuLamaholot(CMP) one thousand PMP *Ribu

ribuhKelabit(WMP) thousand PMP *Ribu

ribu-nSelaru(CMP) thousand; multitude PMP *Ribu

ributMalay(WMP) strong wind; storm PMP *ribut

ributTatana(WMP) wind PMP *ribut

ributToba Batak(WMP) very busy; commotion, disturbance; confusion; uproar, insurrection PMP *ribut

ribut ~ riwutJavanese(WMP) busy, rushed; creating fuss or confusion PMP *ribut

riciTsou(Formosan) peelings of tubers PAN *kuliC

ricikBalinese(WMP) (falling water) make a sound (less water than with rocok) PWMP *ricik

ridaBimanese(CMP) kind of large shade tree: Alstonia scholaris PMP *ditaq

ridiŋKomodo(CMP) wall PCMP *dindiŋ₁

*RiəkPSan(WMP) to thresh (grain) PAN *Riqek

riʔerKelabit(WMP) neck PAN *liqeR

riesFavorlang/Babuza(Formosan) mosquito PAN *likeS

rigMota(OC) small; in rare use POC *rikiq

rigiBisaya (Limbang)(WMP) house post PMP *hadiRi

rihKaro Batak(WMP) long sharp-edged grass, Imperata cylindrica L. PAN *eRiq

rihaMaori(OC) nit POC *lisa

rihaSelaru(CMP) lap PMP *riba

rihukErai(CMP) storm PMP *ribut

rihu-nTetun (Dili)(CMP) thousand PMP *Ribu

rihu-n ehaTugun(CMP) one thousand PMP *Ribu

rihu-niKamarian(CMP) thousand PMP *Ribu

rihut-ePaulohi(CMP) storm PMP *ribut

riʔiBimanese(CMP) post PCEMP *adiRi

riiSolorese(CMP) housepost PCEMP *adiRi

riiTetun(CMP) column, pillar, post, pier, or stake PCEMP *adiRi

riʔi umaBimanese(CMP) house post PCEMP *adiRi

rikKavalan(Formosan) remove grains by treading or kneading with feet PAN *Riqek

rikNumfor(SHWNG) sap of trees PMP *liteq

rikRon(SHWNG) blood PMP *liteq

rikásBikol(WMP) fast, rapid, quick PMP *rikas

rikasSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) quick PMP *rikas

rikasSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) quick PWMP *li(ŋ)kas

rikatSiraya(Formosan) lightning PAN *likaC

rike-nBuruese(CMP) fast, speedy, swift PMP *rikas

rik-enLun Dayeh(WMP) will thresh, walk on, trample PAN *Riqek

riképIlokano(WMP) shutter, window sash, door PWMP *ri(ŋ)kep

riketDusner(SHWNG) blood PMP *liket

rikiAnuta(OC) small POC *rikit

rikiMaori(OC) small; few; be broken in pieces POC *rikit

rikiMarino(OC) small POC *rikit

rikiMarino(OC) small POC *rikiq

rikiRarotongan(OC) little, small; little or small in quantity, degree or size, not great; unimportant, petty, of little worth; a little, partially POC *rikit

rikigSiraya(Formosan) mosquito PAN *likeS

rikishThao(Formosan) mosquito PAN *likeS

rikitTiruray(WMP) tie two things together PWMP *ri(ŋ)kit

rikoArosi(OC) cross the hands on the breast POC *liko₂

rikosSiraya(Formosan) back PAN *likud

rik-rikBaetora(OC) small POC *rikit

riku-rikusThao(Formosan) to follow after (someone) PAN *liku-likud

riku-rikus-anThao(Formosan) to catch up with someone who has gone ahead PAN *liku-likud-an

rikusThao(Formosan) back (anatomical) PAN *likud

rikutMongondow(WMP) thickly grown with grass PWMP *rikut

ríkutHanunóo(WMP) grass, weeds PWMP *rikut

rikutMa'anyan(WMP) grass PWMP *rikut

rikutPaku(WMP) grass PWMP *rikut

rīlPenchal(OC) string, rope POC *tali₁

rilaItbayaten(WMP) tongue PMP *dilaq₁

riLæSaisiyat(Formosan) to lick PAN *dilaq₁

rilaŋSaisiyat(Formosan) rust PAN *diNaŋ

rilaʔBantuqanon(WMP) tongue PMP *dilaq₁

rimArguni(SHWNG) five PAN *lima

rimNumfor(SHWNG) five PAN *lima

rimNumfor(SHWNG) five PAN *lima

rimRon(SHWNG) five PAN *lima

rimTarpia(OC) five PAN *lima

rimWaropen(SHWNG) five PAN *lima

rimaArosi(OC) five PAN *lima

rimaHaununu(OC) five PAN *lima

rimaKamarian(CMP) five PAN *lima

rimaKanakanabu(Formosan) five PAN *lima

rimaKavalan(Formosan) five PAN *lima

rimaMaori(OC) five PAN *lima

rimaRarotongan(OC) five PAN *lima

rimaSaparua(CMP) five PAN *lima

rimaSiraya(Formosan) five PAN *lima

rimaThao(Formosan) five PAN *lima

riʔm-aTsou(Formosan) seek PAN *kiRim

rimahSaparua(CMP) hand PAN *qalima

rima ina-iPaulohi(CMP) thumb PMP *ina ni lima

rima-naArosi(OC) the fifth PAN *lima

ri-mataLeti(CMP) corpse PCEMP *matay₁

rimaʔuŋSamihim(WMP) leopard PWMP *qari-maquŋ

rim-biDusner(SHWNG) five PAN *lima

rimbitBalinese(WMP) difficult, slow PWMP *rimbit

rimbitMaranao(WMP) pregnancy; encumber PWMP *rimbit

rimbunSasak(WMP) to assemble, gather PWMP *Ri(m)bun

rímóMoor(SHWNG) five PAN *lima

rimoWaropen(SHWNG) five PAN *lima

rimotahSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) leech PAN *qali-

rimotahSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) leech PWMP *qali-metaq

rimotukSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) leech PWMP *qali-matek

rimpakIban(WMP) chip, notch; broken (break) piece of PWMP *Ripak

rimpakIban(WMP) chip, notch; broken (break) piece of PWMP *ripak

rimpit-impitKaro Batak(WMP) stacked on top of one another PMP *qipit

rimpiʔTae'(WMP) to clip, pinch, squeeze PMP *Ri(m)pit

rimpóŋIlokano(WMP) binding together the four limbs (animals); tying elbow to elbow (men) PMP *rimpuŋ

rimpukManggarai(CMP) to break (tubers, etc.) PMP *rimpuk

rimpuŋBahasa Indonesia(WMP) tied together of the feet PMP *rimpuŋ

rimpuŋJavanese(WMP) walk haltingly PMP *rimpuŋ

rimpuŋMakassarese(WMP) have an arthritic pain in the loin, thigh, knee (as pregnant women sometimes have); unable to stand up, as a bound pig PMP *rimpuŋ

rimpuŋOld Javanese(WMP) lame, crippled, injured (on the leg or foot), especially of horses PMP *rimpuŋ

rimpuŋSundanese(WMP) knocked-kneed PMP *rimpuŋ

rimuAnuta(OC) seaweed; algae growing on the reef PMP *limut

rimuMaori(OC) seaweed; moss PMP *limut

rimuRotuman(OC) greyish lichen growing on tree trunks, esp. of coconut; used for making medicine for high fever and convulsions PMP *limut

rimuRarotongan(OC) moss, sponge, seaweed; orchid PMP *limut

rimu-āRarotongan(OC) to cover or be covered with moss; used figuratively to denote: for all time, eternity, forever PMP *limut

*RimukudPSan(WMP) soul, spirit PPH *Rimukud

rimu ŋa utaAnuta(OC) moss (lit. ‘inland algae’) PMP *limut

rimu pineRarotongan(OC) species of fern which hangs from trees: Lycopodium phlegmaria PMP *limut

rimu-rimuMaori(OC) moss; mildew PMP *limut

rim-zusaKavalan(Formosan) divide into two PAN *duSa

rinPom(SHWNG) five PAN *lima

rina-Watut(OC) mother PMP *t-ina

r<in>abiíIlokano(WMP) every night PPH *R<in>abiqi

rinakDrehet(OC) one hundred PMP *Ratus

rina-nAdzera(OC) mother PMP *t-ina

r<in>apataRoviana(OC) an attack PMP *rapat

rinasKavalan(Formosan) feather (long and beautiful) PAN *RiNaS

rindənIrarutu(SHWNG) cold PMP *diŋdiŋ₂

rindiBare'e(WMP) wall PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

rindiWolio(WMP) wall; be like a wall: protect the country against infiltration by foreigners PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

rindiMuna(WMP) cold (as air or water) PMP *diŋdiŋ₂

*rindiNPBUN(WMP) wall PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

rindiŋIda'an Begak(WMP) wall PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

rindiŋMandar(WMP) wall PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

rindiŋManggarai(CMP) curtain, partition, wall; mosquito net; partition off PCMP *dindiŋ₁

rindiŋTae'(WMP) wall in, surround with walls; wall, partition; side of the ribcage PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

rindiŋTombonuwo(WMP) wall PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

rindiŋMurut (Paluan)(WMP) wall PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

rindiŋSupan(WMP) wall of a house PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

rindiŋ-iTae'(WMP) to wall in PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

rindiŋ-iWolio(WMP) to wall in PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

rindi wuluMuna(WMP) sick, ill (palace language) PMP *diŋdiŋ₂

rindrinaMalagasy(WMP) wall of a house, side of a house PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

ri-n-ekLindrou(OC) one hundred PMP *sa-ŋa-Ratus

r<in>ikLun Dayeh(WMP) was trampled on (such as by a water buffalo), threshed, walked on PAN *Riqek

rininKei(CMP) cold PMP *diŋin

rinisSasak(WMP) drizzle, drizzling rain PWMP *rinis

r<in>ishrishThao(Formosan) was weeded PAN *riSriS

rinniWetan(CMP) cold PMP *ma-diŋin

rinnisMandar(WMP) drizzle, drizzling rain PWMP *rinis

rinoBimanese(CMP) species of forest tree PMP *qanilaw

r<in>opa-anTombonuwo(WMP) measured with armspans PAN *depah

rinriŋMakassarese(WMP) wall (of planks, thatch, woven bamboo PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

rinriŋ-iMakassarese(WMP) wall in, surround with walls PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

rintasIban(WMP) torn open, broken through PWMP *ri(n)tas

rintasMalay(WMP) take the shortest way, cut across PWMP *ri(n)tas

r<in>ubaŋ a sawPazeh(Formosan) grave, tomb, graveyard PAN *lubaŋ₁

rinuhKelabit(WMP) winnowing basket PMP *niRu

rinuhLun Dayeh(WMP) a shallow open-weave square basket used to separate pounded rice from chaff PMP *niRu

riñdiñItbayaten(WMP) wall (esp. of cogon grass); partition PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

riŋAmbai(SHWNG) five PAN *lima

riŋMarau₁(SHWNG) five PAN *lima

riŋSerui-Laut(SHWNG) five PAN *lima

riŋaBimanese(CMP) hear PMP *diŋa

riŋaBimanese(CMP) to hear PMP *deŋeR

riŋaWatut(OC) ear POC *taliŋa

riŋa-nAdzera(OC) ear POC *taliŋa

riŋauIban(WMP) a river fish PWMP *Riŋaw

riŋgiPeterara(OC) small POC *rikit

riŋiArosi(OC) to pour, incline a vessel PCEMP *liŋi

riŋiMaori(OC) to pour out; to throw in great numbers, shower PCEMP *liŋi

riŋiRarotongan(OC) to pour out or into, to cause to flow or fall in streams or drops, as water or other fluids; to flow, to issue forth, to rush out or down PCEMP *liŋi

riŋi-riŋiMaori(OC) to pour out POC *liŋi-liŋi

riŋisBikol(WMP) cruel PWMP *riŋis₂

riŋkapIban(WMP) have or move under a cover PWMP *ri(ŋ)kep

riŋkasMalay(WMP) brief, succinct, concise PWMP *Ri(ŋ)kas

riŋkitMaranao(WMP) stick together PWMP *diŋkit

riŋkitMaranao(WMP) stick together PWMP *ri(ŋ)kit

riŋkitMaranao(WMP) stick together PWMP *ziŋkit

riŋuKambera(CMP) dugong: Halicore dugong PCEMP *ruyuŋ₂

rioBauro(OC) neck POC *liqoR

-rioGilbertese(OC) lower or west side (opposite of rake), used only in compound words POC *sipo

rio-Haununu(OC) neck POC *liqoR

riobDusner(SHWNG) to fly PMP *Rebek

riohMalay(WMP) a tree: Timonius peduncularis PWMP *Rihuq

ri-oloMakassarese(WMP) in front, go before; earlier, the first to come; do something before something else PMP *di qulu

rio maiGilbertese(OC) to come, to advance from the west, from lower down POC *sipo

riosItbayaten(WMP) idea of bathing, baptism-making PAN *diRus

rios-enItbayaten(WMP) take a bath PAN *diRus

ri oyoBare'e(WMP) in between PMP *qelet

ripákIlokano(WMP) sound of a door slamming, a plate breaking, etc. PWMP *ripak

rí pakuKambera(CMP) fern PWMP *paku

ripənBintulu(WMP) slave PWMP *qudipen

ripituKambera(CMP) take between the fingers; pinch, pluck PMP *Ri(m)pit

ripurToba Batak(WMP) be annihilated or destroyed PWMP *ripur

rirDobel(CMP) earthquake PMP *linduR

rirMerlav(OC) earthquake POC *lidruR

rirMota(OC) earthquake POC *lidruR

rirNumfor(SHWNG) post, pile, pillar PCEMP *adiRi

ri rayaBare'e(WMP) in, within PMP *dalem

ririArosi(OC) go off in a slanting direction, go aside PMP *liliŋ₁

ririArosi(OC) go in a circle PMP *liliŋ₂

ririFijian(OC) to be cooked by boiling; a shed, cooking place, kitchen, temporary house POC *ririq

ririLeti(CMP) house post PCEMP *adiRi

ririMaori(OC) be angry; quarrel, fight; urge with vehemence; chide, scold; anger; strife, quarrel, hostility; combat, fight, battle; hostility, angry feelings POC *lilim

ririPaulohi(CMP) house post PCEMP *adiRi

ririRarotongan(OC) anger; a strong emotion excited by a real or fancied injury or wrong and involving a desire for retaliation or revenge POC *lilim

ririSaparua(CMP) post PCEMP *adiRi

ririWayan(OC) be cooked (of food) POC *ririq

ririWetan(CMP) post, mast PCEMP *adiRi

ririfan-ePaulohi(CMP) centipede PCEMP *qalipan

ririkMaranao(WMP) cut down (small trees); mow (grass) PWMP *lidik

ri-riŋiRarotongan(OC) to pour out, to tip out, to empty out, to cause to flow or fall in a stream or in streams or drops PCEMP *liŋi

ririsBalinese(WMP) rain gently, drizzle PWMP *risris

ririsOld Javanese(WMP) soft rain PWMP *risris

riroArosi(OC) to flash; to lighten, of lightning POC *rilop

ri ruaKambera(CMP) second wife, co-wife PMP *duha

risaAgta (Dupaningan)(WMP) louse egg PMP *lisehaq, liseqah

rɨsamAcehnese(WMP) kind of fern PMP *aResam

rɨsamAcehnese(WMP) fern sp. PMP *qaRsam

ris-elPalauan(WMP) it’s root PMP *dalij

risiArosi(OC) cut off, cut up (tobacco), shave PMP *Risi

risiArosi(OC) cut off, cut up (tobacco), shave PMP *Risiq

RisisKavalan(Formosan) nit, louse egg PAN *liseqeS

risrisAmis(Formosan) to hoe out grass, roots and all PAN *riSriS

risrísIlokano(WMP) the sound of fluttering June bugs when taking hold of their outer wings PWMP *risris

rissíkIlokano(WMP) to sparkle, emit sparks; also: the cracking sound of a glass, etc. when breaking PWMP *ricik

risuŋSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) mortar PWMP *li(ŋ)suŋ

ritaHaununu(OC) louse egg POC *lisa

ritaʔRembong(CMP) a tree: Alstonia scholaris PMP *ditaq

ritasMaranao(WMP) separate, cut off PWMP *ri(n)tas

rite'Āre'āre(OC) eggs of louse and flea POC *lisa

riteʔBisaya (Limbang)(WMP) blowpipe poison PWMP *ziteq

rítuKanakanabu(Formosan) loquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa PAN *Ritu

rituSaaroa(Formosan) loquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa PAN *Ritu

riuArosi(OC) go on, go past PAN *liuS

riuArosi(OC) go on, go past; beyond; forms a superlative: goro riu ‘very good’ PMP *liu₁

riu-a'Āre'āre(OC) used to form the comparative and superlative; surpass, win, excel, go beyond, pass over, of time PMP *liu₁

ri-ʔuluUma(WMP) the first PMP *di qulu

riuwaWoleaian(OC) two POC *rua

-rivaLakalai(OC) how many?, how much? POC *pica

RivasPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) demolish PAN *RibaS

rívotraMalagasy(WMP) wind PMP *ribut

riwaBuginese(WMP) take on the lap PMP *riba

riwo-Haununu(OC) tooth POC *lipon

riwutOld Javanese(WMP) gust of wind, squall, storm; stormy, dark PMP *ribut

riwutNgaju Dayak(WMP) wind; breath PMP *ribut

rixi-rixiTangoa(OC) small POC *rikiq

riyasTiruray(WMP) split rattan, tear cloth lengthwise PMP *riqas

riʔKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) elephant grass PAN *eRiq

riʔiArosi(OC) small POC *rikiq

riʔiSa'a(OC) small (paired with raha ‘big’; not in common use) POC *rikiq


 

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rk

r-kaitSelaru(CMP) to drag PAN *kawit

r-ket’d fjaseYamdena(CMP) rice harvest PMP *ketuq


 

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rm

r-maSelaru(CMP) to come PAN *um-ai

r<m>a-kudá-nPaiwan(Formosan) when? at what time (to go somewhere)? PAN *kuja

r-m-autsPaiwan (Western)(Formosan) to split wood PAN *rauC

r-m-awrawPaiwan(Formosan) to rinse (clothing) PAN *rawraw

rmisiTsou(Formosan) root PAN *RamiS


 

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rn

r-naŋuFordata(CMP) to swim PMP *naŋuy

r-nauSelaru(CMP) to swim PMP *naŋuy


 

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ro

roDobel(CMP) two PMP *duha

roLamboya(CMP) leaf PCEMP *daun

Maori(OC) Argosarchus horridus and other stick-insects; praying mantis POC *loRo

roMambai(CMP) far PMP *zauq

roPenchal(OC) punting pole for propelling a canoe POC *tokon

roSa'a(OC) numeral, two; used only in composition POC *rua

roSudest(OC) sugarcane PMP *tebuh₂

roaAnuta(OC) long (in time) POC *loan

roaDobuan(OC) fathom POC *ropa

roaFavorlang/Babuza(Formosan) two PAN *duSa

roaMalagasy(WMP) two PMP *duha

roaMaori(OC) long (of time), delayed POC *loan

roaRarotongan(OC) long, as of time; delayed; length, as of time; delay; length, as of measurement; duration, extent, etc. POC *loan

roaWetan(CMP) two (in compounds) PMP *duha

roa-hanaMalagasy(WMP) hesitation, doubt PMP *duha

roahsPohnpeian(OC) whale POC *rato

roajMokilese(OC) whale, porpoise, dolphin; any sea mammal POC *rato

RoaroaAnuta(OC) long (in either time or distance) POC *loan

roa sásakaMalagasy(WMP) divided into halves, cut into two equal parts PAN *saksak₁

robNumfor(SHWNG) to fly PMP *Rebek

robNumfor(SHWNG) night PMP *Rabiqi

robRon(SHWNG) night PMP *Rabiqi

robaŋMaranao(WMP) seedling PPH *rubaŋ

robaŋ-aʔMaranao(WMP) greenhouse, seedling bed of rice PPH *rubaŋ

robiMunggui(SHWNG) night POC *Rapi

ro-ɓineMuna(WMP) woman, girl; wife; female PAN *b<in>ahi

robokoBali (Uneapa)(OC) to fly POC *Ropok

rocikManggarai(CMP) to spatter PMP *recik

*rocoPMic(OC) be dark POC *rodrom₁

rodoArosi(OC) dark, black; night POC *rodrom₁

rodoLau(OC) night POC *rodrom₁

rodoSa'a(OC) night POC *rodrom₁

rodoToqabaqita(OC) night, night-time, evening (when it is dark) POC *rodrom₁

rodoUma(WMP) to keep still PAN *demdem₁

rodoVitu(OC) dark POC *rodrom₁

rodo-aLau(OC) dark; blind POC *rodrom₁

rodo-buruArosi(OC) pitch black POC *rodrom₁

rodomoEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) darkness; to be dark POC *rodrom₁

rodo ponoBugotu(OC) pitch dark POC *rodrom₁

rodo puniBugotu(OC) darkness POC *rodrom₁

rodo-siSa'a(OC) be benighted POC *rodrom₁

roəʔKiput(WMP) chest (anat.) PAN *Rusuk

roətSa'ban(WMP) wound PWMP *suRat

roətSa'ban(WMP) vein, tendon PMP *uRat

rofNumfor(SHWNG) fathom PAN *depah

rofaMuna(WMP) fathom, double arms length; measure in arms’s lengths (with outstretched arms) PAN *depah

rogoʔMaranao(WMP) blood PMP *zuRuq

rogoMaranao(WMP) corner PWMP *zuRu

rogoNggela(OC) bend; bend over, move, press, of the wind POC *roko

rogoŋMaranao(WMP) thunder PMP *ru(ŋ)guŋ

rogo-rogoNggela(OC) to go with bent head; slanting POC *roko-roko

rogo-viNggela(OC) to bend over, move, press, of the wind POC *roko

rogoʔBantuqanon(WMP) blood PMP *zuRuq

rohBekatan(WMP) 3pl., they, them PMP *ida

rohaArosi(OC) break something brittle PMP *lepak₁

rohaArosi(OC) to break something brittle POC *Ropak

rohaMotu(OC) fathom; length POC *ropa

rohaTetun(CMP) fathom, the length of the extended arms PAN *depah

roha burukToba Batak(WMP) lazy, good-for-nothing character PAN *buRuk

roha-iaMotu(OC) to measure; to fathom POC *ropa

roha-rohaItbayaten(WMP) next act(s), next time(s) PMP *duha duha₁

rohaʔ-iaArosi(OC) broken POC *Ropak

roho'Āre'āre(OC) to fly POC *Ropok

rohoArosi(OC) to fly, as a bird POC *Ropok

rohoMotu(OC) fly, leap, skip POC *Ropok

rohokTiruray(WMP) a rib PAN *Rusuk

roho-siArosi(OC) to fly to POC *Ropok

rohtPohnpeian(OC) darkness POC *rodrom₁

rohuArosi(OC) sugarcane POC *na topu

roiTsou(Formosan) insect, worm PAN *kulay₁

roiʔiSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) ginger PMP *laqia

ro-isaMono-Alu(OC) when? POC *ican

rojitIvatan(WMP) dirt, grime on person PPH *dulit₂

rojoKodi(CMP) leaf PMP *dahun

roka'Āre'āre(OC) open, unfolded PMP *le(ŋ)kaq

rokaArosi(OC) open, set open wide POC *rokaq

rokdokItbayaten(WMP) idea of bumping PPH *dukduk₂

rokdok-anItbayaten(WMP) to strike against PPH *dukduk₂

rokoArosi(OC) contract, contracted POC *Rokoŋ

rokoFijian(OC) be in a bowing or stooping position, a sign of reverence POC *roko

rokoʔMaranao(WMP) obeisance, prostrate in Islamic prayer PWMP *ru(ŋ)kuq

rokoWayan(OC) be bent, bowed, have a stoop or bend; bow to someone, go past in a stooping posture; be respectful (in words or action) POC *roko

roko-roko vā-kanaceWayan(OC) (idiom) be respectful to one’s face but disrespectful behind one’s back (lit. ‘show respect like a mullet’) POC *roko-roko

rokotMaranao(WMP) loneliness PWMP *dukut₁

roko taiAsilulu(CMP) cigarette ashes PMP *taqi

roko-ti ~ roko-viWayan(OC) bend something; what is bent POC *roko

rokuArosi(OC) to fold up POC *loguŋ

rokuMaori(OC) bend, be weighed down POC *rokuk

rokutuKambera(CMP) to stick, adhere to something; to paste or glue to something PMP *deket₁

ro laa-nTetun(CMP) sail a boat PAN *layaR

rolawPenchal(OC) east wind POC *tokalaur

r-oli-kSelaru(CMP) go back, return PCEMP *oliq, uliq

rolitItbayaten(WMP) rubbish, dirt, stain, skin dirt PPH *dulit₂

roluAraki(OC) three PEMP *tolu

romaAmis(Formosan) other, another; different; some, some other, sometimes PAN *duma

romaWetan(CMP) house; also clan, lineage, e.g. Roma Lona, the house (clan lineage) of Lona PAN *Rumaq

romaMaori(OC) current, stream, flood POC *loma

*RomaPSan(WMP) sheath PAN *Rumaq

roma-satoAmis(Formosan) moreover PAN *duma

roma wuwin-niWetan(CMP) ridge purlin PMP *bubuŋ₁

romdomTombonuwo(WMP) moonless night; pitch dark PAN *demdem₂

*romdom-aNPBun(WMP) darkness PAN *demdem₂

roməLuang(CMP) house PAN *Rumaq

romiRarotongan(OC) to squeeze, to massage, to knead POC *lomiq

rɔmuRotuman(OC) mosquito PMP *lamuk₂

ro-mutAndra(OC) vomit PCEMP *mutaq

ronErai(CMP) leaf PCEMP *daun

ronJavanese(WMP) leaf PMP *dahun

ron ~ rwanOld Javanese(WMP) leaf PMP *dahun

ronaManggarai(CMP) male PMP *Ruqanay

ronaTetun(CMP) to hear, to listen, to pay attention to PMP *deŋeR

rondoMuna(WMP) dark, be night PAN *demdem₂

rondoNggela(OC) blind POC *rodrom₁

ron-ḍonOld Javanese(WMP) leaves PMP *dahun-dahun

rongo-sngusnguTsou(Formosan) to snore PAN *ŋusŋus

rono-aNokuku(OC) to hear POC *roŋoR

ronotMaranao(WMP) old, as of fabric PPH *rúnut

ron seréJavanese(WMP) citronella leaf, used to flavor curry dishes PWMP *seray

roñPenchal(OC) to swallow POC *toñom

roŋAvava(OC) to feel; to hear POC *roŋoR

roŋCarolinian(OC) hear, listen POC *roŋoR

roŋChuukese(OC) hear, obey, listen POC *roŋoR

-roŋLingarak(OC) to hear POC *roŋoR

roŋMokilese(OC) hear, listen POC *roŋoR

roŋOld Javanese(WMP) hole, cave, cavern PWMP *Rawaŋ

roŋPohnpeian(OC) hear POC *roŋoR

roŋPuluwat(OC) hear, listen, obey POC *roŋoR

roŋSatawal(OC) hear, listen POC *roŋoR

roŋaMoronene(WMP) do together PMP *deŋan

*roŋaNPBUN(WMP) together, with; companion; spouse PMP *deŋan

roŋkohMalay (Borneo)(WMP) decrepit PWMP *ru(ŋ)kuq

roŋŋaTalaud(WMP) leaf PMP *dahun

roŋŋoKodi(CMP) to hear PMP *deŋeR

roŋoAnuta(OC) to hear POC *roŋoR

roŋoApma(OC) to smell POC *roŋoR

roŋoFijian(OC) to hear; to make a noise (of an engine), to spread, to be heard (of a report), to be famous (of a person or place) POC *roŋoR

roŋoMekeo (East)(OC) to hear POC *roŋoR

roŋoMota(OC) to feel, hear, smell, taste, apprehend by senses; be patient of, be in a passive state POC *roŋoR

roŋoNggela(OC) to hear or be heard POC *roŋoR

roŋoNias(WMP) to hear PMP *deŋeR

roŋoRarotongan(OC) to apprehend by the senses, except sight; to hear, to feel, to smell, to taste; news, tidings, a report or a rumor, fame, a flying report, a current story, notoriety POC *roŋoR

roŋoRotuman(OC) to be reported, heard of, generally known; to be notorious or famous; report, news, repute, reputation, fame POC *roŋoR

roŋoSelau(OC) dry PCEMP *Raŋaw₂

roŋoToqabaqita(OC) hear, listen POC *roŋoR

roŋoWayan(OC) be heard, perceived with the ears; be understood; (of news, rumors, etc.) be heard abroad, i.e. reported, talked about; (of a person) be known, famous, have a reputation; (of an engine, machine, etc.) resound, be audible, make a noise, work POC *roŋoR

roŋoArosi(OC) to hear, listen, obey; to feel, endure; correct, as the use of a word; disciple POC *roŋoR

roŋoMaori(OC) apprehended by the senses, except sight; hear; obey; tidings, report, fame; peace after war POC *roŋoR

roŋo-aToqabaqita(OC) to hear, listen to POC *roŋoR

roŋo-aLau(OC) to hear, listen to; to perceive, to smell POC *roŋoR

roŋo bonSa(OC) to smell POC *bou roŋoR

roŋo-ciWayan(OC) hear something, hear the sound of something POC *roŋoR

roŋo-hiNggela(OC) to hear or be heard POC *roŋoR

roŋo-laLau(OC) hearing, perceiving POC *roŋoR

roŋo-laaToqabaqita(OC) the way in which something or someone sounds to someone POC *roŋoR

roŋo maulMota(OC) to endure with patience, suffer long POC *roŋoR

roŋo namᵇonaNortheast Ambae(OC) to smell POC *bou roŋoR

roŋo-nuiRarotongan(OC) greatness, great fame, celebrated; renown, a great name or reputation; famed, renowned, illustrious POC *roŋoR

roŋo-ŋaSa'a(OC) hearing POC *roŋoR

roŋorBalantak(WMP) to hear PMP *deŋeR

*roŋoRPBun(WMP) to hear PMP *deŋeR

roŋo-ragaBugotu(OC) fame, glory; to be famous POC *roŋoR

roŋoroŋMortlockese(OC) hear, listen POC *roŋoR

roŋoroŋWoleaian(OC) hear, listen POC *roŋoR

roŋo-roŋoMota(OC) listen to, hear POC *roŋoR

roŋo-roŋoNggela(OC) news; fame; custom; rank or position POC *roŋoR

roŋo-roŋoRarotongan(OC) hearing POC *roŋoR

roŋo-roŋoSa'a(OC) to hear, to listen, to hear tidings of; to understand; to ask in marriage POC *roŋoR

roŋo-roŋoWayan(OC) listen, hear; sound, make a sound POC *roŋoR

roŋo-roŋoAnuta(OC) to hear about POC *roŋoR

roŋo-roŋo-āRarotongan(OC) notorious, of ill report, infamous POC *roŋoR

roŋo-roŋo-iWayan(OC) pay attention to something, listen attentively to something POC *roŋoR

roŋo-roŋo lavi-laviNggela(OC) idle rumor, gossip POC *roŋoR

roŋo-ruaMaori(OC) conflicting news; having two reputations POC *roŋoR

roŋo ruaMota(OC) to have two tastes (as half fresh, half salt) POC *roŋoR

roŋo-ruaWayan(OC) ignore or shun advice, take no heed of what one is told POC *roŋoR

roŋo saaiSa'a(OC) to understand POC *roŋoR

roŋo-taʔaArosi(OC) a discord, ugly sound; incorrectly used, of a word POC *roŋoR

roŋo-tagMota(OC) hear, taste, smell, feel something POC *roŋoR

roŋo-vagMota(OC) to feel, suffer POC *roŋoR

roŋo-viBugotu(OC) to hear POC *roŋoR

roŋo-viNggela(OC) to hear or be heard; to listen; to feel; to obey; to enquire about POC *roŋoR

roŋutMongondow(WMP) wrinkle (of the skin) PMP *reŋut

roʔoBimanese(CMP) leaf PCEMP *daun

rooMuna(WMP) leaf PMP *dahun

roonBalantak(WMP) leaf PMP *dahun

ṛoo-nuKaidipang(WMP) when? PAN *-nu

rooŋPohnpeian(OC) news POC *roŋoR

roo-roŋoBugotu(OC) to hear, receive a report; news, tidings POC *roŋoR

*ropaPBun(WMP) fathom PAN *depah

ropiArosi(OC) to fold arms tightly POC *lobi

ropiMussau(OC) to drink POC *sosop-i

rop-i (< rorop-i)Mussau(OC) to drink POC *sosop

ropoTombonuwo(WMP) armspan PAN *depah

ropokManggarai(CMP) sound of a fence, etc. that is being walked on PMP *rupuk

roppókIlokano(WMP) break short, snap, break in two (a stick, etc.) PMP *rupuk

roraArosi(OC) to hasten, be early, make haste POC *roRas

roranKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) ladder, stairs PMP *haRezan

roranMaranao(WMP) cargo, transport PMP *lujan

rɔriRotuman(OC) projecting portion of tree trunk, as of the ‘ifi (Tahitian Chestnut) tree POC *ralic

róroPalauan(WMP) Indian coral tree: Erythrina variegata L. PMP *dapdap₁

roroTolai(OC) to roar, of the sea on the reef or the surf; to boom POC *roRoŋ

roroTolai(OC) to cover, as a hen her chicks POC *rodrom₂

(ro)-roOld Javanese(WMP) two PMP *duha

roro-ʔiArosi(OC) to string a bow POC *rolos

roro-iMota(OC) the sound, report of something POC *roRoŋ

ro-rondoMuna(WMP) very dark PAN *demdem₂

ro-rondoNggela(OC) blind; blind man’s buff; to darken POC *rodrom₁

ro-rondo mataMuna(WMP) poor (of eyesight), nearsighted PAN *demdem₂

ro-rora'Āre'āre(OC) hastily, quickly, hurriedly POC *roRas

rorosMaranao(WMP) slide down PWMP *rusrus₂

ro-ruaPetapa Taje(WMP) two PMP *da-duha

rosMokilese(OC) darkness POC *rodrom₁

roʃaSaisiyat(Formosan) two PAN *duSa

roshWoleaian(OC) night, darkness; be dark, black, obscure POC *rodrom₁

rosiArosi(OC) to wring, twist, squeeze, as coconut fiber in straining coconut scrapings PMP *lecit

rosikMongondow(WMP) spot, speck, stain PMP *recik

rosoʔMadurese(WMP) ribs, rib bones PAN *Rusuk

rotPohnpeian(OC) dark POC *rodrom₁

rot-anJavanese(WMP) rattan PMP *raut

rotan segaMalay(WMP) the fine smooth-surfaced rattan of commerce, especially Calamus caesius PWMP *segaʔ

rotasManggarai(CMP) tear, make an incision PMP *rutas

roti se buʔiNgadha(CMP) a bit of bread PCMP *buqi₁

roto'Āre'āre(OC) cloudy; black cloud, squall; to be dark, night; blind POC *rodrom₁

rotoMakatea(OC) heart POC *loto₁

rotoMaori(OC) the inside (as of a house); the midst POC *loto₁

rotoRarotongan(OC) in, within, the inner part, inside; inwardness, internal state, inner meaning or significance, intimacy, familiarity, etc.; internally seated in the mind or soul; not perceptable to the sense of sight, as hidden or suppressed anger or any hidden or suppressed emotion POC *loto₁

rotoŋ-onMurut (Timugon)(WMP) the place where one arrives for some purpose PWMP *dateŋ-en

rotot, rontotMongondow(WMP) take away from, remove PWMP *re(n)tes

rotuFijian(OC) beat at with fists or stick POC *rotuk

rouAli(OC) two POC *rua

rouKis(OC) leaf PEMP *raun

rounTombonuwo(WMP) leaf PMP *dahun

rounTunjung(WMP) leaf PMP *dahun

roun nu posuwonTombonuwo(WMP) kind of insect PMP *dahun

rouŋAli(OC) leaf PEMP *raun

rouŋSika(CMP) leaves of a tree; paper, page of a book; head hair PCEMP *daun

rourouMotu(OC) to run about noisily; noise POC *rourou

rovaMota(OC) to stretch out the arm, stretch out at arms’s length; to measure with the stretch of the arms; a fathom POC *ropa

rovoGitua(OC) to fly POC *Ropok

rovoPokau(OC) to fly POC *Ropok

rovo-rovoGapapaiwa(OC) to fly POC *Ropo-Ropok

rowPenchal(OC) a hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga (black inside) POC *toRas

rowinNumfor(SHWNG) sea cow, dugong PCEMP *ruyuŋ₂

rowoMota(OC) spring, leap, move quickly up forward, rise, grow; of birds and flying fish, to fly POC *Ropok

rowoWest Damar(CMP) blood PAN *daRaq

royoŋItbayaten(WMP) whale PMP *duyuŋ₂

royoŋMalay(WMP) reeling, staggering PWMP *ruyuŋ₁

royoŋ, ruyoŋMalay(WMP) reeling, staggering PWMP *Ruyuŋ

royoyIbatan(WMP) a coconut shell cup PPH *duyuR

royoyItbayaten(WMP) coconut shell (as vessel) PPH *duyuR

royoyYami(WMP) coconut pitcher PPH *duyuR

roʔoPopalia(WMP) leaf PMP *dahun

roʔuArosi(OC) to bend, fold; curl up the legs POC *roku


 

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rp

r-penuEast Damar(CMP) full PMP *penuq


 

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rr

r-rakitSelaru(CMP) tie together with various ropes PMP *Rakit

rrenDobel(CMP) near PMP *adani

rryanKairiru(OC) water, drink POC *ranum


 

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rs

rsəəTsou(Formosan) tears (Tsuchida 1976) PAN *luSeq

r-si-bitiFordata(CMP) shin-kicking, a game PMP *bintiq

r-susSelaru(CMP) to suck PAN *susu₁


 

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rt

rtakMalay(WMP) crack-marking, e.g. on crackle porcelain, in contrast to a real rift, however narrow PWMP *Retak

r-tasiSelaru(CMP) to salt PMP *tasik

r-télSelaru(CMP) to swallow PMP *telen

r-tetakSelaru(CMP) chop into short pieces PAN *tektek₁

r-tutuSelaru(CMP) to knock, pound PAN *tutuh

rtuuTsou(Formosan) loquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa PAN *Ritu


 

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ru

ruArguni(SHWNG) two PMP *duha

ruArop(OC) two POC *rua

ruKei(CMP) two PMP *duha

-ruLeviamp(OC) to hear POC *roŋoR

ruMbula(OC) two POC *rua

ruSelaru(CMP) two PMP *duha

ruWaropen(SHWNG) flood, high water PMP *Ruab

ruaAdonara(CMP) two PMP *duha

ruaAnuta(OC) two POC *rua

ruaAnuta(OC) to vomit; to be seasick PMP *luaq

rua'Āre'āre(OC) two POC *rua

rua'Āre'āre(OC) flood tide, incoming tide POC *Ruap

ruaArosi(OC) two; a company of related persons POC *rua

ruaBalantak(WMP) two PMP *duha

ruaBare'e(WMP) two PMP *duha

rua-Biliau(OC) neck POC *Ruqa

ruaBugotu(OC) numeral two POC *rua

ruaBuruese(CMP) two PMP *duha

ruaCentral Maewo(OC) two POC *rua

ruaDobuan(OC) two POC *rua

ruaEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) two POC *rua

ruaErai(CMP) two, usually with the numeral prefix ha-: harua; sometimes with metathesis: rahua PMP *duha

ruaFijian(OC) two POC *rua

ruaGapapaiwa(OC) two POC *rua

ruaGitua(OC) two POC *rua

ruaHoava(OC) neck POC *Ruqa

ruaKambera(CMP) two; companion; half PMP *duha

ruaKola(CMP) two PMP *duha

ruaKomodo(CMP) two PMP *duha

ruaLaha(CMP) two PMP *duha

ruaPokau(OC) two POC *rua

ruaLamaholot(CMP) two PMP *duha

ruaLametin(OC) two POC *rua

ruaLau(OC) two POC *rua

ruaLeti(CMP) two PMP *duha

ruaLi'o(CMP) two PMP *duha

ruaMakassarese(WMP) two PMP *duha

ruaMalmariv(OC) two POC *rua

ruaManam(OC) two POC *rua

ruaMaori(OC) two; both POC *rua

ruaMaori(OC) pit, hole; store for provisions; grave PMP *luaŋ₁

ruaMarau₂(OC) two POC *rua

ruaMarau₂(OC) neck POC *Ruqa

ruaMentawai(WMP) two PMP *duha

ruaMota(OC) numeral, two POC *rua

ruaMotu(OC) two POC *rua

ruaNggela(OC) two; a partner POC *rua

ruaNokuku(OC) two POC *rua

ruaPalu'e(CMP) two PMP *duha

*ruaPBun(WMP) two (bound numeral) PMP *duha

*ruaPMic(OC) two POC *rua

ruaRaga(OC) two POC *rua

ruaRarotongan(OC) two POC *rua

ruaRarotongan(OC) hole, excavation, grave, abyss, cavity, pit, opening, chasm, etc. PMP *luaŋ₁

ruaRotuman(OC) two POC *rua

ruaSaparua(CMP) two PMP *duha

ruaSika(CMP) two PMP *duha

ruaSio(OC) two POC *rua

ruaSolorese(CMP) two PMP *duha

ruaTakuu(OC) two POC *rua

ruaTaokas(Formosan) two PAN *duSa

ruaTetun(CMP) two PMP *duha

ruaTetun (Dili)(CMP) two PMP *duha

ruaTontemboan(WMP) two PMP *duha

ruaToqabaqita(OC) two (in serial counting); not used to modify nouns POC *rua

ruaTugun(CMP) two PMP *duha

ruaUruava(OC) two POC *rua

ruaVitu(OC) two; friend, companion POC *rua

ruaWogeo(OC) two POC *rua

ruaWolio(WMP) two (dependent form) PMP *duha

ruaW.Tarangan (Ngaibor)(CMP) two PMP *duha

rua a-vuiGabadi(OC) twenty PMP *ŋa

rua-gaNggela(OC) twofold POC *rua

rua-gomBiliau(OC) two POC *rua

ruahMalay(WMP) to empty out, of emptying things out of sacks, etc., not of pouring out liquid PWMP *Ruaq

ruaiAraki(OC) before, beforehand; in olden time, a long time ago POC *tuaRi

ruakMalay(WMP) spread out, expand, gape open. Of the hood of a cobra, the contents of an egg when the shell is broken, etc. PWMP *ruqag

ruakToba Batak(WMP) wide, spacious PWMP *ruqag

rua-kiMaori(OC) to vomit; be vomited POC *lua-ki

rua-kiRarotongan(OC) vomit, matter ejected from the stomach; to vomit, to throw up the contents of the stomach by the mouth; to spew POC *lua-ki

rua-mUbir(OC) two POC *rua

ruā-na'Āre'āre(OC) second POC *rua

rua-na'Āre'āre(OC) throat, neck, back POC *Ruqa

rua-naArosi(OC) second POC *rua

rua-(na)Arosi(OC) companion, fellow, mate POC *rua

rua-naEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) neck, nape of the neck POC *Ruqa

rua-naLau(OC) second; alternative; again; a friend, closer in relationship than English friend; lover; to be friends with, be in love; wife’s sister’s husband POC *rua

rua-naNggela(OC) second POC *rua

rua-naRoviana(OC) the neck POC *Ruqa

rua-naToqabaqita(OC) second; traditionally: trading partner (with whom one was on friendly terms) POC *rua

rua-naVitu(OC) next POC *rua

rua-niaVitu(OC) do something to two items POC *rua

rua-ñaBugotu(OC) second POC *rua

ruaŋMalay(WMP) hollow space; a ship’s well; the hollow of the back; the depression between the breasts; the grave-trench; the hollow containing the seed in certain fruit; the center room in a house PWMP *Ruqaŋ

ruaŋManggarai(CMP) yellowish-red bee smaller than the ordinary honeybee: Apis indica PMP *qani-Ruan

ruaŋSika(CMP) bee sp. PMP *qani-Ruan

rua-ŋSika(CMP) we two (excl.) PMP *duha

rua ŋa-puluʔTondano(WMP) twenty PMP *ŋa

ruapTolai(OC) breakers, waves breaking on the rocks; to break heavily, of the sea POC *Ruap

ruapYamdena(CMP) flood PMP *Ruab

ruarIban(WMP) outside; broad and empty PMP *luqaR

ruarNgaju Dayak(WMP) outside PMP *luqar

ruarTiruray(WMP) loose, spacious PMP *luqaR

ruarToba Batak(WMP) come out PMP *luqar

rua-ruaArosi(OC) two at a time, two by two POC *rua rua₁

rua-ruaArosi(OC) a flood of water POC *Ruap

rua-ruaBauro(OC) high tide POC *Ruap

rua-ruaManam(OC) two at a time POC *rua rua₁

rua-ruaMaori(OC) of two minds, in doubt POC *rua rua₂

rua ruaMaori(OC) few POC *rua

rua-ruaMota(OC) two and two, by twos; double POC *rua rua₁

rua-ruaTetun(CMP) two by two, two at a time PMP *walu walu

rua-ruaTontemboan(WMP) two by two, two at a time PMP *duha duha₁

rua-ruaToqabaqita(OC) be undecided, be of two minds POC *rua rua₂

rua-ruaFijian(OC) both POC *rua rua₁

rua ruaLamaholot(CMP) two each PCEMP *dua-dua

rua-ruaUruava(OC) to vomit PMP *luaq

rua-rua-ʔa'Āre'āre(OC) to doubt POC *rua rua₂

rua-rua-ʔaArosi(OC) doubting, doubtful POC *rua rua₂

rua-rua-mbaliWolio(WMP) both sides PMP *duha

rua-sTetun(CMP) two (of something); both PMP *duha

rua susu'Āre'āre(OC) laryngitis POC *Ruqa

rua-tSika(CMP) we two (incl.) PMP *duha

rua-taEddystone/Mandegusu(OC) two (occasionally used for rua) POC *rua

ruat-iManam(OC) to comb PMP *suat₁

rubatSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) bottom (anat.) PWMP *lubet

rubuKavalan(Formosan) den, animal lair; beehive, ant nest PAN *Rubu

rubuPuyuma(Formosan) nest PAN *Rubu

rucunThao(Formosan) the Formosan rock monkey: Macaca cyclopis, a light gray, long-tailed monkey with triangular salmon-colored face PAN *luCuŋ

rudárodIlokano(WMP) to scrape, scour PWMP *rudrud

rudrudManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) scrape the skin PWMP *rudrud

ruduMotu(OC) side of chest PAN *Rusuk

ru-duaMuna(WMP) two, both (of people) PMP *duha

ruduŋRembong(CMP) cover or veil with a cloth PMP *ru(n)duŋ

rudu turia-naMotu(OC) rib bone PAN *Rusuk

rueIrarutu(SHWNG) two PMP *duha

rueMota(OC) flow of tide, flood-tide, high tide POC *Ruap

rueNortheast Ambae(OC) two POC *rua

rueSa'a(OC) two, used by itself or with ro, of phases of the moon POC *rua

ruehDusun Witu(WMP) two PMP *duha

rue-hKuruti(OC) two POC *rua

ruehMa'anyan(WMP) two PMP *duha

rue-pLou(OC) two POC *rua

ruəyBintulu(WMP) thorn PMP *duRi

rufíaMalagasy(WMP) a palm used for various purposes; the midrib of the leaf is employed for the poles in making palanquins; the fiber from the young leaves is used as string, for which purpose it is exported under the name of raphia grass; from the stem a sweet liquid called harafa is obtained, which is drunk by the natives; the shell of the fruit is employed as a receptable for small articles PMP *Rumbia

rugiʔMinokok(WMP) thorn PMP *duRi

ruguNggela(OC) to stoop POC *rukuq

ruǥuManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) a partitioned off sleeping room PWMP *zuRu

ruɣuŋManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) thunder, to thunder PMP *ru(ŋ)guŋ

ruhaArosi(OC) to lose, let go, untie POC *Rupas

ruhaArosi(OC) to lose, let go, untie POC *lupas₂

ruhaBantuqanon(WMP) two PMP *duha

ruha-iaMotu(OC) to untie, loosen POC *Rupas

ruha-ia negeMotu(OC) to cast off POC *Rupas

ruhakBanjarese(WMP) widen, enlarge PWMP *ruqag

ruhakKaro Batak(WMP) spacious, wide, of an opening PWMP *ruqag

ruha-siArosi(OC) to lose, let go, untie, set free from debt, forgive (modern) POC *Rupas

ruha-siArosi(OC) to lose, let go, untie, set free from debt, forgive (modern) POC *lupas₂

ruha-siaArosi(OC) set free, let go, untied POC *Rupas

ruha-siaArosi(OC) set free, let go, untied POC *lupas₂

ruhiArosi(OC) press down, as the contents of a bag POC *lupit

ruhuHawu(CMP) rib PAN *Rusuk

rú huluKambera(CMP) leaf (lontar palm, coconut) used for a torch PMP *suluq

ru huruHawu(CMP) torch made of bundled leaves PMP *suluq

ruiBalaesang(WMP) thorn PMP *duRi

ruiBare'e(WMP) thorn, spike; kind of rattan (nanga) with sharp thorns, the leaves of which are used as roof thatch PMP *duRi

ruiDhao/Ndao(CMP) bone PMP *duRi

ruiGitua(OC) dugong POC *ruyuŋ₂

ruiMalagasy(WMP) a generic name for prickly shrubs PMP *duRi

ruiMentawai(WMP) thorn PMP *duRi

ruiMori Atas(WMP) thorn PMP *duRi

ruiMotu(OC) dugong POC *ruyuŋ₂

*ruiPBUN(WMP) thorn PMP *duRi

ruiPetapa Taje(WMP) thorn PMP *duRi

ruiHawu(CMP) bone, bony PMP *duRi

ruiSelaru(CMP) sea cow, dugong PCEMP *ruyuŋ₂

ruiWaima'a(CMP) bone PMP *duRi

ruiWaiyewa(CMP) bone PMP *duRi

ruiWaropen(SHWNG) sea cow, dugong PCEMP *ruyuŋ₂

ruiʔ ~ riuʔTae'(WMP) to pull, drag PWMP *Ruyud

ruinKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) sea cow, dugong PCEMP *ruyuŋ₂

rui-nTetun(CMP) bone, bones of the skeleton PMP *duRi

rui-nTetun (Dili)(CMP) bone PMP *duRi

ruiniWetan(CMP) sea cow, dugong PCEMP *ruyuŋ₂

ruitMongondow(WMP) sharp, pointed PWMP *ruit

ruitIban(WMP) a barb PWMP *ruit

ruitMalay(WMP) bent, hook-shaped PWMP *ruit

ruitMalay (Brunei)(WMP) hook or barb PWMP *ruit

rui waŋga sonsonGitua(OC) whale (‘canoe swallower’) POC *ruyuŋ₂

rujuŋManggarai(CMP) dugong?: Halicore dugong PCEMP *ruyuŋ₂

ru-kai-kaiPaiwan(Formosan) to chatter, be a chatterbox PAN *kaRi₁

rukcawThao(Formosan) the Formosan clouded leopard: Neofelis nebulosa brachyurus (Swinhoe) PAN *lukeNaw

rúkibIlokano(WMP) cave, grotto, cavern PPH *Rukib

*rukuPMic(OC) enter with the head bowed POC *rukuq

ruku-rukut-enTontemboan(WMP) be overgrown with grass and weeds PWMP *dukut-en

rukuTPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) Asplenium nidus PAN *lukuC

rukutTontemboan(WMP) grass, weeds PMP *dukut₂

(ru)laiHawu(CMP) tail PMP *lawi₁

*ruluŋPAty(Formosan) cloud PAN *luNuŋ

ruluŋPazeh(Formosan) cloud PAN *luNuŋ

rumNumfor(SHWNG) house PAN *Rumaq

rumNumfor(SHWNG) house PAN *Rumaq

rumSonsorol-Tobi(OC) moss, seaweed PMP *lumut

rumaArosi(OC) a house, oblong in shape; a family PAN *Rumaq

rumaʔAtayal(Formosan) some; sometime; some time ago; sometimes, from time to time PAN *duma

rumaʔKelabit(WMP) house (= longhouse) PAN *Rumaq

rumaErai(CMP) granary PAN *Rumaq

rumaGabadi(OC) house PAN *Rumaq

rumaLeti(CMP) house PAN *Rumaq

rumaMoor(SHWNG) house PAN *Rumaq

rumaMotu(OC) house PAN *Rumaq

rumaʔPuyuma(Formosan) house PAN *Rumaq

rumaSelau(OC) house PAN *Rumaq

rumaTabun(WMP) house PAN *Rumaq

rumaʔTiruray(WMP) a scabbard or sheath PAN *Rumaq

rumaToba Batak(WMP) house, especially the beautifully constructed houses of the wealthy PAN *Rumaq

rumaTolai(OC) house PAN *Rumaq

rumaTorau(OC) house PAN *Rumaq

rumaUruava(OC) house PAN *Rumaq

rumaWaropen(SHWNG) house; shop; branch of a family PAN *Rumaq

rumaWogeo(OC) house PAN *Rumaq

r<um>abiíIlokano(WMP) nightfall; to turn into night PPH *R<um>abiqi

rumahDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) house PAN *Rumaq

rumahIban(WMP) house, permanent dwelling; housing; longhouse as ritual center of menoa (area of land held and used by distinct community) PAN *Rumaq

rumahKaro Batak(WMP) house, dwelling; the true village, as opposed to what lies outside it (gardens, bathing place, etc.); lineage or family as a segment of the sub-merga PAN *Rumaq

rumahMalay(WMP) house; specifically, a dwelling house in contrast to a mosque, or to a balai or meeting house open to all PAN *Rumaq

rumahSaparua(CMP) house PAN *Rumaq

rumah belah bumboŋMinangkabau(WMP) house with a broken or tiered pattern of roof PMP *bubuŋ₁

rumah rayaIban(WMP) longhouse (as distinct from farm huts) PAN *Raya

rumah-rumah-anMalay(WMP) playhouse for children PAN *Rumaq

rumah taŋgaMalay(WMP) home; (fig.) wife, wife and family PMP *taŋga₁

rumakaBali (Uneapa)(OC) house PAN *Rumaq

r<um>akitTontemboan(WMP) travel by raft; make a raft of wood or bamboo PMP *Rakit

ruma-naArosi(OC) hand, arm; forefoot of animal POC *luma

r<um>araOld Javanese(WMP) in her maidenhood, young (of a woman) PWMP *d<um>aRa

r<um>a-ráapəKanakanabu(Formosan) to sow PAN *R<um>ahap

r<um>ato-noMuna(WMP) visitor, guest PWMP *d<um>ateŋ

r<um>atoŋMurut (Timugon)(WMP) to arrive PWMP *d<um>ateŋ

rumbiaKaro Batak(WMP) sago palm PMP *Rumbia

rumbiaMakassarese(WMP) sago palm PMP *Rumbia

rumbiaMalay(WMP) sago palm, Metroxylon sagus or M. rumphii. The pith of the palm (sagu rumbia) is the sago of commerce which is not much liked by Malays as a foodstuff ... but its leaves make an excellent roofing thatch, considered superior to the usual nipah thatch PMP *Rumbia

rumbiaMuna(WMP) sago tree (the leaves are used for roofing; and the pith of the stalk is eaten, but rarely) PMP *Rumbia

rumbiaTae'(WMP) a large Colocasia taro with tall stem; the leaves are cooked as pig fodder PMP *Rumbia

rumbiaToba Batak(WMP) sago palm PMP *Rumbia

rumbiaWolio(WMP) sago palm, Metroxylon sagu PMP *Rumbia

rumbioMinangkabau(WMP) sago palm PMP *Rumbia

rumbioSimalur(WMP) sago palm, Metroxylon Rumphii L. PMP *Rumbia

rumbu-Watut(OC) grandparent/grandchild (recipr.) POC *tubu₂

rumékIlokano(WMP) to smash, break, shatter; pulverize; pound PPH *Rumek

ruməkNumfor(SHWNG) moss PMP *lumut

r<um>əŋöOld Javanese(WMP) to hear PWMP *d<um>eŋeR

r<um>əŋö-rəŋöOld Javanese(WMP) to listen in an effort to hear everything that is said PWMP *d<um>eŋeR

r<um>əpaTontemboan(WMP) to measure in fathoms PWMP *d<um>epa

rumfakTiruray(WMP) collide with something PMP *rumpak

rumiArosi(OC) to fold PMP *lumiq

rumiArosi(OC) to fold PMP *luqemit

r<um>iákIlokano(WMP) to swagger, talk with noisy violence PPH *riak

r<um>iákIlokano(WMP) to swagger, talk with noisy violence PWMP *R<um>iak

r<um>ikLun Dayeh(WMP) trampling, threshing, waling on (such as rice to separate it from stalk) PWMP *R<um>iqek

rumoIda'an Begak(WMP) 3sg, he/she PAN *duma

rumòhAcehnese(WMP) house, dwelling PAN *Rumaq

rumpakManggarai(CMP) collide with something PMP *rumpak

rumpakSasak(WMP) hit, beat, pound PMP *rumpak

rumpuUma(WMP) gather, assemble PWMP *rumpun

rumpunMalay(WMP) cluster, clump. Of such things as clumps of bamboos, bananas or lemongrass PWMP *rumpun

rumput betoŋMalay(WMP) a grass (unidentified), used medicinally PAN *betuŋ₁

rumput sesat belukarMalay(WMP) a grass: Hypolytrum latifolium PWMP *sedsed₁

rumu'Āre'āre(OC) seaweed; a moss on trees, used in ceremonial purification; it is wrung out over the head of a newborn baby when taken into somebody’s house PMP *lumut

rumuArosi(OC) oil PMP *lumuk

rumuArosi(OC) oil POC *lumu₁

rumu-ʔaArosi(OC) oily POC *lumu₁

r<um>úbaŋIlokano(WMP) to sprout, germinate, shoot up PPH *rubaŋ

rumu-rumuArosi(OC) moss, lichen, seaweed PMP *lumut-lumut

rumutKowiai/Koiwai(SHWNG) moss PMP *lumut

rumwaGitua(OC) house PAN *Rumaq

runPenchal(OC) freshwater eel PMP *tuna

runaWaropen(SHWNG) wooden headrest PMP *qalunan

rúnawIlokano(WMP) melt, liquefy, dissolve (wax, sugar, etc.) PWMP *Runaw

runcuBare'e(WMP) push or crowd into PMP *dusuk

runduŋMandar(WMP) shelter PMP *ru(n)duŋ

runduŋuKambera(CMP) dark; night PAN *demdem₂

runoKelabit (Long Napir)(WMP) melt, liquefy PWMP *Runaw

rúnotBikol(WMP) crushed or smashed into smaller pieces; mashed (something soft, such as a potato, fruit) PPH *rúnut

runtasMalay(WMP) sever with a jerk PMP *rutas

rúnutHanunóo(WMP) pulverization, smashing, crushing PPH *rúnut

runutIban(WMP) long black fibres under leaf-butts of palms, esp. Arenga spp. PMP *Runut

runutManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) to overripen a fruit; of the fruit, to be overripe PPH *rúnut

runutYamdena(CMP) jutelike fibrous material of the coconut tree PMP *Runut

runut-enIlokano(WMP) to consume; wear out through constant use PPH *rúnut

ruŋkepManggarai(CMP) cover over, as with a dish cover PMP *Ruŋkeb

ruŋkohIban(WMP) drooping (as paddy) PWMP *ru(ŋ)kuq

ruŋkuʔMongondow(WMP) bent, bowed (of the back, through old age) PWMP *ru(ŋ)kuq

ruŋkukOld Javanese(WMP) hunched, huddled, crouching PMP *duŋkuk

ruŋkuŋJavanese(WMP) walk with a bent back PAN *du(ŋ)kuŋ

ruoMurut (Tagol)(WMP) two PMP *duha

ruoAmara(OC) two POC *rua

ruoAnuta(OC) hole PMP *luaŋ₁

ruoKaniet(OC) two POC *rua

ruoMarshallese(OC) two POC *rua

ruo-hEre(OC) two POC *rua

ruokTabun(WMP) chest PAN *Rusuk

ruo ŋo-oporMurut (Timugon)(WMP) twenty PMP *ŋa

ruo-vriTsou(Formosan) come back, return PAN *wili

rupPenchal(OC) sugarcane POC *na topu

rúpakIlokano(WMP) battle PMP *rumpak

rup-anKelabit(WMP) watering hole for animals in the jungle PWMP *hiRup-an

rupasKavalan(Formosan) peach PAN *lupas₁

rup-enKelabit(WMP) is sipped by, will be sipped by PWMP *hiRup-en

rupitBalinese(WMP) small PWMP *rupit

rupitMongondow(WMP) narrow (of an opening or doorway) PWMP *rupit

rupitJavanese(WMP) narrow (as a footpath) PWMP *rupit

ruqnawKavalan(Formosan) clouded leopard PAN *lukeNaw

rurNumfor(SHWNG) juice of fruits; decoction produced from boiling leaves; boiled water PMP *zuRuq

ruraNgadha(CMP) spittle, saliva PMP *ludaq

ruraŋMandar(WMP) cargo PMP *lujan

ruri-East Damar(CMP) thorn PMP *duRi

ruriLuang(CMP) bone PMP *duRi

ruriSaparua(CMP) bone PMP *duRi

ruriWetan(CMP) thorn, bone, leaf-rib PMP *duRi

ruri(n)Erai(CMP) bone PMP *duRi

ruri-nTugun(CMP) thorn; bone PMP *duRi

rur-niRoma(CMP) bone PMP *duRi

ru-roMoor(SHWNG) two PMP *duha

rur-rur-saWest Damar(CMP) thorn PMP *duRi

ruruAnuta(OC) hawk; owl POC *druru

ruruKove(OC) to suck POC *susup

ruruKelabit (Long Napir)(WMP) slide back, as when climbing a slippery tree PWMP *rusrus₂

ruruManam(OC) milk; breast (of a woman) PAN *susu₁

ruruMaori(OC) take shelter; sheltered POC *ruruŋ

ruruMotu(OC) to hold back, slacken the speed of a boat (of an oar, or anything dragging) POC *ruru₁

ruruNias(WMP) rustling sound (of someone pushing through vegetation, earth descending in a landslide, etc.) PWMP *rusrus₁

ruruRotuman(OC) owl POC *druru

ruruSinaugoro(OC) to suck POC *susup

ruru ~ ruru-ruruMaori(OC) owl: Ninox novaseelandiae POC *druru

ru-rua ~ rua-ruaLau(OC) undecided POC *rua rua₂

ruru-rao'Āre'āre(OC) kind of nettle POC *latoŋ

ru-ruruRoviana(OC) a species of owl POC *druru

ruru-ruruMotu(OC) disturbed, as the surface of the sea by a wind after a calm POC *ruru₂

rurusManobo (Western Bukidnon)(WMP) slide downward, slide something downward PWMP *durus

ru-rusuk-enIlokano(WMP) to eructate fetidly PAN *Rusuk

rurutIban(WMP) strip by drawing between fingers PWMP *rudrud

ru-rutaArosi(OC) throw a volley of spears POC *lusa

rusaAtayal (Squliq)(Formosan) two PAN *duSa

rusaʔIban(WMP) Sambhur: Cervus unicolor Kerr. PWMP *uRsa

rusaMalay(WMP) deer, specifically the sambhur, Cervus equinus PWMP *uRsa

rusa b-enuaŋMalay(WMP) a big-bodied Cervus equinus PAN *qiNuaŋ

rushaqThao(Formosan) tears PAN *luSeq

RusiKavalan(Formosan) tears PAN *luSeq

RusipanKavalan(Formosan) centipede PAN *qalu-Sipan

rusoʔAcehnese(WMP) ribs (of the body, of a leaf, a roof); side, border PAN *Rusuk

rusokIban(WMP) side, flank PAN *Rusuk

rúsokIlokano(WMP) epigastrium, pit of the stomach; abdomen; concavity PAN *Rusuk

rusokMalay(WMP) flank; side; region of the ribs PAN *Rusuk

rusrúsIlokano(WMP) to lower, to slip down (a garment, without unfastening or unbuttoning) PWMP *rusrus₂

rusrusToba Batak(WMP) slowly slip or slide down PWMP *rusrus₂

rusu'Āre'āre(OC) the ribs of a canoe, cut out of a slab of hardwood, used to strengthen the canoe and to support the seats PAN *Rusuk

rusuArosi(OC) supports for seats of canoe PAN *Rusuk

rusuBimanese(CMP) pierce, stab PMP *rusuk

rusuKamarian(CMP) rib PAN *Rusuk

*rusuPBun(WMP) thin, scrawny (person, animal) PAN *Rusuk

rusuʔSangil(WMP) rib PAN *Rusuk

rusukDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) string meat on a line PMP *rusuk

rusukDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) spars of house roof used to support the thatch PAN *Rusuk

rusukKaro Batak(WMP) rib beams of the roof PAN *Rusuk

*RusukPSan(WMP) rib; thin (of person) PAN *Rusuk

rusukSelaru(CMP) rib PAN *Rusuk

rusukToba Batak(WMP) ribs PAN *Rusuk

rusúkToba Batak(WMP) impaled PAN *Rusuk

rusukYamdena(CMP) rib PAN *Rusuk

*rusukPSS(WMP) ribs PAN *Rusuk

rusuk baraToba Batak(WMP) the transverse beams placed through the posts under a Batak house so that carabaos can’t enter the space PAN *Rusuk

rusuk keseYamdena(CMP) floating rib PAN *Rusuk

rusuk silaoDairi-Pakpak Batak(WMP) side, flank; armpit PAN *Rusuk

rusutSinghi Land Dayak(WMP) slip PWMP *lucut

ruta'Āre'āre(OC) to charge, load, carry a load POC *Rucan

ruta'Āre'āre(OC) to charge, load, carry a load PMP *lujan

rutā'Āre'āre(OC) a load, charge, cargo PMP *lujan

rutaArosi(OC) load a canoe, carry to canoe and stow PMP *lujan

rutaArosi(OC) to load a canoe, carry to canoe and stow; cargo, to carry cargo POC *Rucan

ruta-nia'Āre'āre(OC) to load, charge POC *Rucan

rutokSiraya(Formosan) rabbit, hare PAN *lutuk₁

rutoŋSiraya(Formosan) monkey PAN *luCuŋ

rutuAnakalangu(CMP) grass PMP *dukut₂

rutuHawu(CMP) knee PMP *qulu tuhud₁

RutuŋKavalan(Formosan) Formosan rock monkey PAN *luCuŋ

ruu-hŋuzuTsou(Formosan) to swim PAN *Naŋuy

ruukKelabit(WMP) chest PAN *Rusuk

ruukLun Dayeh(WMP) chest PAN *Rusuk

ruvaŋPuyuma (Tamalakaw)(Formosan) a hole PAN *lubaŋ₁

ruvuPaiwan (Tjuabu)(Formosan) a nest PAN *Rubu

ruvu-ruvuPaiwan (Western)(Formosan) nest; prison PAN *Rubu

ruwYapese(OC) two POC *rua

ruwa-Carolinian(OC) the number two as a combining form POC *rua

rúwaChuukese(OC) two POC *rua

ruwaŋTiruray(WMP) the inner surface of a canoe; the surface of the earth PWMP *Ruqaŋ

ruwėUlithian(OC) two POC *rua

ruwiTombonuwo(WMP) thorn PMP *duRi

ruwitJavanese(WMP) barb (of a hook), sharp (of blades) PWMP *ruit

ruwoTiruray(WMP) two PMP *duha

ŕuwoowPuluwat(OC) numeral, two (general) POC *rua

ruwo-ruwoTiruray(WMP) unable to decide between two alternatives PMP *duha duha₂

ruyanMa'anyan(WMP) durian PWMP *duRi-an

rúyoŋBikol(WMP) bent (referring to branches of trees) PWMP *duyuŋ₁

rúyuŋHanunóo(WMP) falling, as of bamboos when cut PWMP *ruyuŋ₁

ruyuŋTontemboan(WMP) dugong: Halicore dugong; according to folktales the dugong was originally a Bantik, so that the Bantiks do not eat it PMP *duyuŋ₂

ruzaThao(Formosan) boat, canoe PAN *aluja

ruzuŋRembong(CMP) dugong: Halicore dugong PCEMP *ruyuŋ₂


 

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rv

rvorəTsou(Formosan) flying squirrel PAN *lawaR


 

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rw

rwaOld Javanese(WMP) two PMP *duha

rwa-ŋ-puluhOld Javanese(WMP) twenty PMP *ŋa

rwa-rwaOld Javanese(WMP) by twos (?) PMP *duha duha₁

rwi ~ riOld Javanese(WMP) thorn, thorny plant PMP *duRi


 

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ry

ryobaMunggui(SHWNG) to fly PMP *Rebek

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/23/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-w_r.htm