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Updated: 4/20/2019


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary


(click on a *proto-form for its set)

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xa    xe    xi    xo    xu    

XaabBunun (Isbukun)(Formosan) knee PAN *qaleb

xabíIsneg(WMP) evening, night PMP *Rabiqi

XabuBunun (Isbukun)(Formosan) ashes PAN *qabu

xagoItbayaten(WMP) a tree: Myristica cagayanensis Merrill PPH *lagu₂

xaiRaga(OC) tree POC *kayu

xaiAxamb(OC) stick POC *kayu

xaidaŋPazeh(Formosan) beans PAN *qaRidaŋ

xai-fihaRaga(OC) how many? POC *pica

xakayItbayaten(WMP) male, man, mister PWMP *lakay

xakayItbayaten(WMP) male, man, mister PWMP *laŋkay

xákitIsneg(WMP) raft, float PMP *Rakit

xalawalawaSonsorol-Tobi(OC) blue POC *kara-karawa

xamSeimat(OC) outrigger float POC *saman

xamaliRaga(OC) men’s house PMP *kamaliR

xamátIsneg(WMP) a black dye obtained by mixing ŋilá (deposits of water) with the crushed thick bark (which becomes black after pounding) of the kadíg tree. It is used for dyeing the teeth. The same name is given to a creeping herb (xamát) that is leafless, but whose fresh stems when crushed against the teeth, dyes them black PWMP *gamat

xambe-nRerep(OC) wing POC *kabe₂

xame̲mSonsorol-Tobi(OC) 1pl. excl., we, us POC *kamami

xamesPazeh(Formosan) small roots PAN *RameC

xamiSoutheast Ambrym(OC) 2pl., you all PMP *kamu₂

xamonItbayaten(WMP) idea of swallowing PPH *lamun₂

xamon-enItbayaten(WMP) to swallow in big quantity, to gulp, to swallow in one gulp PPH *lamun-en

xamútIsneg(WMP) root PMP *Ramut₁

xa-muta-yBipi(OC) vomitus PCEMP *mutaq

xanBipi(OC) fresh water POC *ranum

xanesItbayaten(WMP) sugarcane waste pulp, bagasse (dried and used as kindling or torch) PPH *lanés

xaniLampung(WMP) day PMP *daqani

XanituʔBunun (Isbukun)(Formosan) ghost PAN *qaNiCu

xanotItbayaten(WMP) a plant with useful fiber: Hibiscus tiliaceus L. PPH *lánot

xanuWuvulu(OC) fresh water POC *ranum

xan-xanNorth Malo(OC) to eat POC *kani kani

xañitItbayaten(WMP) heaven, sky PMP *laŋit

xaŋawItbayaten(WMP) big housefly, bluebottle PMP *laŋaw

xaŋoItbayaten(WMP) idea of seasickness or ride sickness PAN *laŋu

xaŋxaŋItbayaten(WMP) idea of eating in a group (at least two persons) PPH *laŋlaŋ

xaʔoWuvulu(OC) whale POC *rato

xáritIsneg(WMP) multicolor dogs and cats PWMP *garit

-xasLingarak(OC) to bite POC *kaRati

XasiɬaBunun (Isbukun)(Formosan) salt PAN *qasiRa

xátatIsneg(WMP) breast, udder PMP *Ratas₂

xatawItbayaten(WMP) idea of floating or being afloat PWMP *la(n)taw

xataw-anItbayaten(WMP) a float or buoy PWMP *la(n)taw

xataw-enItbayaten(WMP) to float (something), to cause to float, to launch ship or boat PWMP *la(n)taw

XatubBunun (Isbukun)(Formosan) trap PAN *qaCeb

xatusLampung(WMP) hundred PMP *Ratus

xatus-anLampung(WMP) by the hundreds PWMP *Ratus-an

xau-Wuvulu(OC) leaf PEMP *raun

x<a>usuxusPazeh(Formosan) to scrape bamboo knots PAN *RuSRuS

xau-xau-anSeimat(OC) far POC *sauq sauq

xavasItbayaten(WMP) idea of excess in duration, quality, quantity PPH *labas

xavas-anItbayaten(WMP) to pass by PPH *labas-an

xavas-anItbayaten(WMP) to pass by PPH *labas

xavitItbayaten(WMP) idea of hand-carry PPH *labit

xavit-enItbayaten(WMP) to hold or carry by the hand PPH *labit

xawaItbayaten(WMP) yard of a house PAN *lawa₁

xawaWuvulu(OC) forehead POC *damwa

xawádIsneg(WMP) the betel or betel pepper, Piper betle L. PPH *gawed

xawiItbayaten(WMP) upper caudal fin, which is quite a lot longer than the lower one; tail feather of rooster PMP *lawi₁

xawodItbayaten(WMP) idea of being in the offing by the current PAN *lahud

xa-xaWuvulu(OC) blood POC *draRaq

xa-xanBipi(OC) branch of a tree POC *raqan

xa-xa-naWuvulu(OC) branch of a tree POC *raqan

xa-xaruPeterara(OC) to swim POC *kaRu₁

xayBipi(OC) blood POC *draRaq

xayoItbayaten(WMP) idea of withering PAN *layu


TOP      xa    xe    xi    xo    xu    


xenDehu(OC) to eat POC *kani

xenxen-enItbayaten(WMP) to roll up (the sleeves) PPH *lenlen

xeŋkemSimalur(WMP) a closed handful PWMP *kemkem₁

xesxes-enItbayaten(WMP) to make a cigar PPH *lesles₁


TOP      xa    xe    xi    xo    xu    


xikánIsneg(WMP) pad; mostly a circlet made of grass or some other material, and placed on the head under the load a woman is carrying PWMP *riken

xinawaSiraya (Gravius)(Formosan) breath, inspiration PAN *NiSawa

xinawaSiraya (Utrecht ms.)(Formosan) breath, inspiration PAN *NiSawa

xinuPazeh(Formosan) a large winnowing basket used for ladling rice PAN *Rinu

xitaRaga(OC) to see PAN *kita₂

xi-talamPazeh(Formosan) to taste PAN *tañam

xiteTangoa(OC) to see PAN *kita₂

xixi(o)-Seimat(OC) muscle, flesh POC *pisiko


TOP      xa    xe    xi    xo    xu    


xohoItbayaten(WMP) tears PMP *luheq

xoho-anItbayaten(WMP) to shed tears over (something) PPH *luheq-an

xoksohItbayaten(WMP) idea of jumping, leaping PPH *luk(e)súh

xomotItbayaten(WMP) moss (in general): Bulbostylis barbata Kunth. It grows on the outer part of the bottom of a boat which is sea-borne PMP *lumut

xomo-xomot-anItbayaten(WMP) to have moss-like growths, to be covered with moss PMP *lumut-an

xopesItbayaten(WMP) insubstantial grain PPH *lupes

xoranItbayaten(WMP) load, cargo (bulky, to be carried by a ship or truck, or a sled) PMP *lujan

xoran-enItbayaten(WMP) to load (an object, cargo) PMP *lujan

xosoŋItbayaten(WMP) mortar (pounding tool) PMP *lusuŋ

xosoŋItbayaten(WMP) mortar (pounding tool) PMP *lusuŋ

xotaItbayaten(WMP) ground, earth (as material), soil PPH *lutáq

xotabItbayaten(WMP) suds, foam PPH *lútab

xotekItbayaten(WMP) mud, mire PPH *lutek

xotoItbayaten(WMP) idea of cooking PWMP *lutuq

xovaŋItbayaten(WMP) newly-planted sugarcane cuttings PPH *rubaŋ

xovaŋItbayaten(WMP) newly planted sugarcane cuttings PPH *lubaŋ₂

xovayItbayaten(WMP) ear-ring in general; beads, necklace PPH *lubay

xovidItbayaten(WMP) string, cord (in general) PPH *lúbid

xovid-enItbayaten(WMP) to make into twine PPH *lubid-en

xovid-enItbayaten(WMP) to make into twine PPH *lúbid

xoxoWuvulu(OC) dark POC *rodrom₁

xoxon-enItbayaten(WMP) to roll up (mat, paper, cloth, etc.) PWMP *lulun-en

xoxon-enItbayaten(WMP) to roll up, as a mat, paper, or cloth PMP *lulun


TOP      xa    xe    xi    xo    xu    


xuBipi(OC) dugong POC *ruyuŋ₂

xuSeimat(OC) dugong POC *ruyuŋ₂

xuaLampung(WMP) two PMP *duha

xuariAraki(OC) root PEMP *wakaR-i

xubátIsneg(WMP) war PPH *gubát

xubuPazeh(Formosan) nest (of bird); sheath (of sword) PAN *Rubu

xui-Wuvulu(OC) bone POC *ruRi

xumaPazeh(Formosan) house PAN *Rumaq

xumʷiRaga(OC) beard POC *kumʷi

xunihLampung(WMP) rainbow PWMP *duniq

xuo-hBipi(OC) two POC *rua

xutuRaga(OC) louse PMP *kutu₁

xuyBipi(OC) bone POC *ruRi

xuyágIsneg(WMP) to shake PWMP *Ruyag

xúyudIsneg(WMP) another name for the laxúyud variety of banana PPH *guyud₁

xuyúd-anIsneg(WMP) to pull, to drag, to tug PPH *Rúyud-en

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
2010: revision 4/20/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
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