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Updated: 4/22/2017

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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A

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abate

to abate, of strong feelings - PMP *puqas

abdomen

abdomen, belly - PCEMP *kampuŋ

abdomen, belly - PMP *tian

abdomen, belly - PAN *tiaN

be afflicted with a swollen abdomen as a result of violating customary law. - PWMP *busuŋ

belly, abdomen - PWMP *beteŋ₂

distended abdomen - PWMP *buntit

have an inflated abdomen - PPh *butítiq

hypogastrium, abdomen below the navel - PPH *pusequŋ

suffer from an inflated abdomen as punishment for wrongdoing - PWMP *busuŋ-en

swollen, of the abdomen as a result of the violation of customary law - PWMP *ma-busuŋ

abducted

be kidnapped or abducted - PWMP *taban-en

ability

ability, skill, knowledge how to do something - PWMP *ka-taqu₁

ablaze

kindle, light a fire, set ablaze - POC *bula₁

able

able to arrive - PWMP *maka-dateŋ

able to be seen, visible - PWMP *ma-kita

able to cope, able to handle things - PPH *sapal

able to fetch, get, take, reach - PPh *maka-alap

able to obtain - PWMP *maka-uliq₁

able to pass through - PWMP *taR-selat

able to plant or bury - PWMP *ma-tanem

able to resist or persist, as rice grains that are difficult to husk - PWMP *betaq₁

able to return - PPh *maka-uliq₂

able to satiate, able to satisfy one's appetite - PWMP *maka-besuR

able to see - PPH *maka-kita

able to sleep - PPH *maka-tuduR

able, capable, strong, wealthy - PWMP *kaya

bearable, able to be carried - PWMP *ka-taŋguŋ

edible, able to be eaten; able to eat - PPh *maka-kaen

hesitate, not able to act - PPH *taka

to be able to hear - PPH *maka-deŋeR

to be capable, able, knowledgeable - PMP *ma-taqu₁

to be capable, able, knowledgeable - PAN *ma-Caqu

to know how, be able to, be skilled at - PMP *taqu₂

to know how, be able to, be skilled at - PAN *Caqu

abode

abode, place of residence - PAN-F *tahan

abort

abort, discard - PWMP *maŋ-buqaŋ

abortion

abortion - POC *sape₂

about

ask, inquire about - PWMP *maR-kutaña

ask, inquire about - PMP *kutaña

cry about something - PPH *luheq-an

do, bring about, change something - PWMP *ka-buhat

feel sad about, deplore - PWMP *iruq

make a mistake, commit an error, be wrong about something - PWMP *maR-salaq

move about in restless anger - POC *ŋali-ŋali

moving about rapidly or restlessly - PPH *kidas

remember, think about - PWMP *maŋ-iŋat

roam about - PWMP *ansaw

round about, around, in one’s surroundings; go around - PMP *kuliliŋ

scatter, strew about - PPh *wákat

scatter, strew about - PWMP *buras

scattered, strewn about - PWMP *sirak₂

talk, talk about, discuss - PAN-F *kawaS₂

think about, consider - PWMP *qituŋ

think about, think over - PWMP *iŋat-iŋat

to grope, fumble about - PPH *kapaq-kapaq

to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight - PMP *deŋeR

to paddle repeatedly, paddle about - POC *pose pose

to sow, scatter; scattered about; splash water on something - PMP *sabuR

toss about - PWMP *lindag

uncomfortable feeling; feel bored, or uneasy about something - PPH *saw(e)qa

wander about - PMP *lakaw lakaw

above

above - PCMP *letay₁

above, in the interior - PWMP *di-daya

above, on top - PPH *ŋatu

above, on top - PMP *i-atas

above, on top - PAN *i aCas

above, on top of - PAN *i babaw

above; outside - POC *papo₁

storage shelf above the hearth - POC *paRa, baRa

strike from above, pound - POC *qatu

to put above - PPH *sapat₁

upper surface, top, above - PCEMP *bobo₂

upper surface, top, above - PMP *bawbaw

upper surface, top; highlands; on, upon, over, above - PAN *babaw₃

abrasion

be sandpapered, smoothed by abrasion - PWMP *qa(m)pelas-en

to sandpaper, smooth by abrasion - PWMP *maŋ-qa(m)pelas

Abroma

shrub or small tree: Abroma augusta L. - PWMP *anabu

Abrus

a vine and the seeds of its fruit: Abrus precatorius - PWMP *saga

abscess

abscess, boil, swelling on the body - PAN *baReq

boil, abscess - POC *loto₁

boil, abscess - PWMP *bitul

boil, abscess - PMP *bisul

abscesses

a plant with flowers the shape of a dog's tail, used to treat abscesses - PMP *ikuR ikuR ni asu

absence

dark in color or from the absence of light - PWMP *lidem

absolute

1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.) - PMP *aten₁

1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.) - PAN *iten₁

absorbing

sucking, soaking up, absorbing - PMP *qisep

abstract

formative for abstract nouns (often deverbal) - PAN *ka- -an₃

formative for abstract nouns of quality - PAN *ka-₅

abundance

abundance of rain - PWMP *ka-quzan

abundance, surplus - PWMP *labeŋ

satiatiated, full (of the stomach after eating); fertile, bring forth plentifully, abundance of food - POC *masuR

abundant

abundant - *(noise)

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ac

Acacia

an evergreen tree, probably Acacia confusa - PAN-F *tuquN

Acalypha

a shrub: Acalypha sp. - POC *kalaqabusi

a tree: Acalypha amentacea Roxb. - PPH *beRus₂

Acanthurus

unicorn fish: Acanthurus unicornis - PMP *taRaq₂

accept

accept, receive - *(loan)

acknowledge; receive, accept - PWMP *aku-en

allow, agree, accept, permit - POC *taRamʷi

receive, accept - PWMP *taŋgap

accompaniment

fish; accompaniment to rice - PPH *sedaq

accompany

accompany, escort - PMP *h<um>ateD

accompany, escort - PAN *S<um>ateD

accompany, escort - *(noise)

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PMP *hateD

accompany, escort; send, return - PAN *SateD

accompany, go together with - PWMP *duluR

escort, accompany - PAN *ma-SateD

escort, accompany (imperative) - PMP *hateD-an

escort, accompany (imperative) - PAN *SateD-an

follow; accompany - PMP *iriŋ₁

go with, accompany someone - PWMP *man-deŋan

join, participate in; accompany - PPh *báli

push something to start it moving; accompany someone to help them start a journey - PPH *tulúd

send, accompany - PWMP *maŋ-hateD

stay with, accompany - PPh *antábay

to lead in walking; to accompany - PPH *kuyug

account

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

accusation

accusation, blame - *(loan)

to parry, turn an attack or accusation aside - PWMP *taŋkis

accuse

accuse someone, find fault with someone (?) - PWMP *ma-ñalaq

to blame, accuse of error or fault; to punish - PMP *pa(ka)-salaq

accustomed

accustomed - *(loan)

accustomed to - *(noise)

accustomed to, familiar with; tame - PAN *ma-najam

accustomed to, familiar with; tame - PAN *najam

accustomed to, tame - PAN *ma-dajam

accustomed to, tame - PAN *dajam

familiar with, accustomed to - PAN *lajam

tame, accustomed, used to - POC *lasa

achieve

to force, achieve by force - PPH *duldúl

achieved

past participle/achieved state - PMP *ka-₇

acid

acid - *(loan)

sour, acid - PWMP *ma-qaRsem

tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits - PWMP *sapelet

tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits - PWMP *sapeled

acidity

sourness, acidity - PAN *qaRsem

sourness, acidity - PWMP *qalesem

acknowledge

acknowledge; receive, accept - PWMP *aku-en

deny, refuse to acknowledge - PWMP *uŋkir

acknowledgement

exclamation of acknowledgement, surprise, etc. - PMP *qu₁

acquaintance

acquaintance - PWMP *basa

acquainted

to know (a person), recognize, be acquainted with; to feel, perceive - PAN *kilala

acquired

cloth acquired in trade from Chinese (?) - *(loan)

acrid

acrid, pungent, of odor - PMP *seŋ(e)hit

acrid, pungent, of odor - PMP *seŋ(e)hij

acrid, pungent, of odor - PMP *seŋet₁

across

cut across - POC *polos₁

jump over or across - PPH *lik(e)taw

jump over or across - PPH *lak(e)táw

meet, come across by chance - *(noise)

obstruct, lie across or athwart - PWMP *qalaŋ

obstruct, stretch across - *(noise)

reach across - *(noise)

to bridge or span, build a bridge across something - PPH *tulay-an

to cut across, cut off - PWMP *pi(n)tas

to wade, wade across - POC *tuRu₁

transport someone across a river (?) - PWMP *dapit

wear across the shoulder - PWMP *sandaŋ

width, extent across - PMP *beraŋ

action

action, manner - *(noise)

deed, action, performance - PWMP *paR-buhat-an

do something with someone else, perform an action together - PAN *mi-da-duSa

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

incite, spur to action - PMP *asuŋ

manner in which an action is carried out - PWMP *ka-₆

prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action - PAN *taR-

prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action - PMP *ta-₂

prefix of reciprocal or collective action - PEMP *paRi-

prefix of repeated action - PWMP *para-

active

energetic, active - PWMP *sikaD

activity

companion in some activity - PPh *ka-sabáy

complete an activity, see through to completion - PPH *perper₁

soothing sound of humming activity, twittering, etc. - PWMP *kicaw

stop an activity, take a break, rest - PAN *Seked

summon others to join an activity - PWMP *azak

actor

marker of actor focus - PAN *<um>₁

marker of actor focus for intransitive verbs, and of inchoatives - PMP *<um>₂

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ad

Adam's

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

add

add a piece - PWMP *timbaw₁

add to, increase - PWMP *unzan

add to, increase; addition, supplement - PWMP *tambaq

added

join two things to give added length (rope, bamboo, etc.) - PAN-F *Nutud

place where something grows or is added - PWMP *tubuq-an

addicted

addicted to - PWMP *gian

addition

add to, increase; addition, supplement - PWMP *tambaq

addition, annex to a building - PWMP *taŋkir

extra, surplus, in addition to - PWMP *kapin

increase, addition - PWMP *imbuq

addled

rotten meat; addled eggs; bad character - PAN *buRuk

rotten, as meat; addled, as eggs; bad, of character - PMP *ma-buRuk

address

father's sister, possibly address term - PMP *ema-ʔ

father's sister, possibly address term - PMP *ema₁

parent’s younger sibling, junior uncle; a young child’s term of address for his father, vocative of *ama - PMP *mama

term of address for females - *(noise)

term of address for girls - *(loan)

term of address for girls - *(noise)

term of address to girls - PWMP *enzi-q

term of address to girls - PWMP *enzi

term of address to males - PWMP *azuq

adhere

adhere, stick to - PWMP *ta(ŋ)ket

burnt food which adheres to the pot - PMP *epit₁

burnt food which adheres to the pot - PMP *epiq

burnt rice which adheres to the pot - PWMP *etip

hard crust of rice that adheres to the bottom of the cooking pot - PPh *itíp

stick to, adhere firmly - PMP *kukuq

stick, adhere - PWMP *eket

stick, adhere - PWMP *dulit

stick, adhere to - PMP *si(ŋ)ket

stick, adhere to - PMP *da(ŋ)ket

stick, adhere to; sticky, viscous - PMP *la(ŋ)ket

to adhere, stick to - POC *kabit₂

to adhere, stick to - PMP *kampit

to stick to something, adhere - PPH *d<um>eket

to stick, adhere - PPH *i-deket

adhesive

adhesive, sticky - *-keC (root)

caulk; adhesive material - *-lit₁ (root)

paste, adhesive (probably made of overcooked rice) - PMP *deket₁

paste, adhesive (probably made of overcooked rice) - PAN *dekeC

sticky, adhesive - PMP *peket

sticky, adhesive - PWMP *piket₂

sticky, adhesive - PMP *ña(ŋ)ket

sticky, adhesive - PMP *raket

sticky, adhesive - PWMP *piReket

sticky, adhesive - PMP *niket

sticky, adhesive - PMP *liket

sticky, adhesive - PAN *dikeC

sticky, adhesive; stuck in one’s memory - PWMP *leket

adjacent

boundary between adjacent rice fields - PAN-F *Naqeji

in layers, adjacent to one another - PMP *taq(e)pil

touching, adjacent, as fighters presenting a united front - PWMP *sundul

adjectival

adjectival prefix - POC *a-

adjectival prefix - PWMP *ha-

adjective

interrogative of quantity: how much?, how many?; adjective of indefinite quantity: some, several, a few - PAN *pija

no, not; negator of verbs and adjectives (cf *buken, *dian, *wada) - PAN *qazi

admit

admit, confess - PWMP *maŋ-aku

admonish

to warn, admonish - PWMP *pa-iŋat

adornment

encircling article of clothing or adornment - PWMP *giret

long feathers used for personal adornment - PAN-F *RiNaS

adrift

adrift - PPh *qañud-en

adrift - PAN *ma-qañud

adrift - PPh *i-qañud

be cast adrift, cast ashore after going adrift - PPH *padpád

float, be adrift - POC *mañur mañur

floating, adrift - POC *maqañur

set adrift - PAN *pa-añud

adulthood

adulthood, maturity; old age - PWMP *ka-tuqah-an

advance

earlier, in advance - PAN *zulu

to pay for in advance - PPH *taŋpaq

advantage

take advantage of a situation or opportunity, exploit an advantage - PPH *sambut₁

adverb

demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there - PAN *si ia₂

demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there - PMP *ia₂

adversative

marker of the adversative passive - PAN *ka- -an₁

advice

to point at, point out, lecture or instruct, give advice - PAN *t<um>uzuq

adze

adze - PWMP *palu₂

Adze

Adze it!, Hew it! - PAN *taRaq-i

adze

adze or similar tool - PWMP *sa(ŋ)kal

adze, axe - PWMP *baliuŋ

axe or adze - PMP *kiRam

chop, split, adze something - *(noise)

handle of an axe or adze - POC *paRara

handle of an axe or adze - PMP *paRada

hewing with an adze - PAN *taRaq₁

implement with curved blade: adze; hammerhead shark - PMP *biŋkuŋ

kind of axe or adze - PWMP *liŋ(e)bas

to adze wood, hew wood with an adze - PAN *t<um>aRaq

to adze, shape wood with an adze - PWMP *bala₁

to hew with an adze - PWMP *ma-naRaq

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ae

aerial

aerial root - *(loan)

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af

affected

affected by sores, wounded - PMP *nuka-en

affected by the moon, mentally or emotionally unstable - PWMP *bulan bulan-en

affected by the moon, mentally or emotionally unstable - PWMP *bulan-en

be affected by a death - PWMP *ka-m-atay-an

be affected by itching, be infected with scabies or other itchy skin disorders - PWMP *gatel-en

be affected by tinea - PWMP *panaw-en

affection

belly; mind; seat of affections - POC *topwa

expression of pity or affection - PMP *ka-qasiq-an

feel affection or compassion for - PWMP *maR-qasiq

mercy, pity, affection - PMP *ka-qasiq

pity, compassion, affection, love, sympathy, forgiveness - PMP *qasiq

affinal

affinal relative - *(noise)

affinal relative, probably son-in-law and daughter-in-law - PPH *ma-nuRaŋ

affine

affine of Ego's generation - PAN *idas₁

affines of the first ascending or zero generation - POC *puŋao

affirmation

yes; expression of affirmation - PMP *qio

affirmative

affirmative particle - *(noise)

affix

passive affix - *(noise)

afflicted

a state of pain or difficulty; be afflicted by illness - PWMP *ka-sakit-an

be afflicted with a swollen abdomen as a result of violating customary law. - PWMP *busuŋ

be afflicted with intestinal worms - PWMP *bituk-en

to husk rice; be afflicted with pimples on the skin resembling rice grains - PWMP *beRas-en

affliction

affliction of the eyes - POC *buta₃

aflame

ignite, set aflame - PWMP *deket₂

afraid

(lit. 'small liver') afraid - PMP *X₅ + qatay

be afraid of something - POC *rere₁

become afraid - PMP *t<um>akut

fear; fearful, afraid - POC *matakut

fearful, afraid - PAN *ma-takut

to frighten, make afraid - PWMP *pa-takut

after

follow, come after - POC *uri

after, behind, stern of canoe - POC *muri

allotment of meat after butchering an animal - PPH *sapuq

be cast adrift, cast ashore after going adrift - PPH *padpád

behind, after - PWMP *pa-udehi

bundle of rice stalks tied together after the harvest - PPh *betek₁

follow, come after - PCEMP *udi

follow, come after (in sequence) - PWMP *ku(n)tit

follow, go after - *(noise)

follow, walk after - PWMP *ayak₁

in succession, one after the other - PWMP *suqud suqud

last, come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child; west; young; outside - PCEMP *m-udi

last; come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child - PMP *udehi

one after the other, successive - PPH *sunúd-sunúd

satiated, full after eating - PPh *biaR₂

to follow after someone, walk behind - PAN-F *biliN

to lead the way; to follow after - POC *suRi₂

wet; wash the anus after defecating - PMP *biseq

wipe after defecating - PAN *qiluS

afterbirth

placenta, afterbirth - POC *tapuni

placenta, afterbirth - PMP *tabuni

afternoon

afternoon prayer - *(loan)

afternoon, evening - POC *paka-Rapi

afternoon, evening; yesterday - POC *Rapi

late afternoon, evening; evening meal - PAN *Rabiqi

late afternoon, evening; evening meal; yesterday - PMP *Rabiqiₐ

time of lengthening shadows; afternoon - PWMP *liŋay

Afzelia

a hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga, Afzelia bijuga - PMP *qipil

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ag

again

again - PAN *uman

again - *(noise)

change, exchange; repeat, return; again - PPh *baliw-an

change, exchange; repeat, return; again - PMP *baliw₅

do again, repeat - PWMP *q<um>uman

repeat, do again - PAN *ulaŋ

against

backrest, place to lean back against - PWMP *sandaR-an

fling down, dash against - PMP *bantiŋ

go against the current, oppose, go in the opposite direction - PPH *sudsud₃

go against wind or current - PWMP *suŋsuŋ₁

graze, strike lightly against - PMP *tiŋkuq

high-pitched sound of striking against something hard but not resonant - PMP *katik

hit something against something else - PAN *CugCug₁

knock against, collide with, beat up - PWMP *bugbug

knock against, of body parts - PMP *ga(n)tuk

lean against, lean or incline on - PMP *sandiR

lean against, lean or incline on - PWMP *sandeR

lean on or against - PWMP *sandaR

nudge, bump against another person - PWMP *da(m)pil

pass close by, brush against in passing - PPH *sag(e)qid

pit two opponents against each other - PWMP *sabuŋ

press feet against - PPH *sikád-an

push with the feet; press feet against, set feet firmly to prevent being moved - PPH *sikad

rub against, scrape, scratch - PMP *garut

rub, scrape against - PAN *gisgis₁

scrape, rub against - PWMP *saRud

smack against - PMP *debek

smack against - PAN *Cebak

sound of tapping or flicking (of finger, small implement, etc.) against something - PAN *tik₁

stamp or smack against - PMP *ambak

strike against - PWMP *paŋkaq

strike against - PWMP *bida

strike against - POC *bak

struggle against, resist - PWMP *sukul₁

tap or flick (finger, small implement, etc.) against something - PAN *t<um>iktik

tasteless, insipid; powerless; antidote, as against snakebite - PWMP *tabaR

thud, strike against - PMP *rumpak

to brush past, rub or scrape against; draw a line - PMP *garis

to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something - PAN *taktak₁

to knock, strike against - PAN *pa(n)tuk₂

to lean on or against - PWMP *sindiR

to lean on or against - PMP *sendiR

to lean on or against - PWMP *sendeR

to lean on or against - PWMP *s<um>andiR

to oppose, go against - PPH *sudsud-en

to press against, crowd in on - PWMP *sulsul₂

to rest the head against something; pillow - PPH *puŋan

to rub against, scrape, scratch - PMP *g<um>arut

touch or brush against - PPH *saq(e)gid

Agathis

the almasiga tree: Agathis celebica (Koord.) - PPH *gala

age

adulthood, maturity; old age - PWMP *ka-tuqah-an

age - *(loan)

bowed, hunched, as from age - PWMP *ru(ŋ)kuq

maiden, virgin, girl of marriageable age - PWMP *anak daRa

surpassing in age (?) - PWMP *ka-tuqah

wrinkled, of the skin, as from age - PPH *kubet-kubet

agency

genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb - PAN *ni

agent

1sg. agent - PMP *ni aku

2sg possessor and non-subject agent - PWMP *-nu

2sg. agent/possessor - PAN *Suʔu

3sg. agent/possessor - PAN *ni-á

aggressiveness

aggressiveness, anger - PMP *qitaq

agile

agile, quick, swift, energetic - PMP *ta(ŋ)kas

dextrous, agile, skillful - PWMP *sikap₂

nimble, agile, quick - POC *sokas

swift, agile, strong, energetic - *-kas₃ (root)

agitated

agitated, of water - POC *kopuR

agitated, of water - PMP *kebuR

disturbed, of water agitated by fish - PPH *kambuR₂

to be agitated, of water, as when fish swarm - PPH *kabuR

to move or touch in an agitated or compulsive fashion - PPH *garaw-en

ago

a moment ago, in a moment - *(noise)

agree

agree - *(loan)

allow, agree, accept, permit - POC *taRamʷi

follow, obey, agree with - PPH *surut

yes; agree, give assent - POC *qo

agreeable

pleasant, agreeable - *(loan)

agreement

agreement - *(loan)

agreement, harmony - PWMP *sapiq

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

yes; expression of agreement - PMP *heqe

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ah

ah

exclamation: ah!, oh!, alas! - PWMP *abá

ahead

spy, scout, one who looks for possible danger ahead - PMP *mata-mata

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ai

aid

sticks or other markers used as aids in calculation - PWMP *bilaŋ-bilaŋ

temporary aid - *(noise)

to aid, assist, help - PWMP *t<um>uluŋ

ailing

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - POC *puRa

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - PMP *buRah

ailment

eye ailment - *(loan)

aim

point at, aim for; intend to do something; do something intentionally - PPH *tuyuq

visual assessment of something, as in taking aim, making a straight line, or forming an opinion - PWMP *sipat

air

dust in the air, stir up dust - PPH *tapuk₂

exude or escape, of air, gases or similar substances (?) - PMP *heŋaw

filled with air, bloated - PWMP *haŋin-an

gasp for air - PMP *ekap

go out for some fresh air - PMP *pa(ka)-haŋin-haŋin

gust, draft, current of air - POC *aŋin-aŋin

gust, draft, current of air; rumor - PMP *haŋin-haŋin

leak out, of air - PWMP *hius

puff, blow, expel air rapidly, as in using a blowgun - PWMP *putput₂

refresh oneself, go out for some fresh air - POC *paka-aŋin-aŋin

snort, sniff; blow air through the nostrils - PWMP *eŋkus

sound of escaping air - *-pus₂ (root)

sound of escaping air, etc. - PMP *pes

sound of rushing water or air - PPh *híŋak

toss up, throw into the air - PWMP *talaŋ₂

airborne

fine dust, airborne dust - PMP *sapuk

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al

alas

exclamation: ah!, oh!, alas! - PWMP *abá

alata

a tree: Cassia alata - PWMP *galiŋgaŋ

yam: Dioscorea alata Linn. - PMP *qubi

albacares

yellowfin tuna: Thunnus albacares - POC *takua

albino

pale, albino - POC *balaR₂

unnaturally white, albino - POC *pulaR₁

unnaturally white, albino - PMP *bulaR₂

unnaturally white, albino - POC *pulan₂

unnaturally white, albino - PMP *bulan₂

unnaturally white; albino - POC *puraq₁

unnaturally white; albino - PMP *budaq₃

Alcippe

omen bird: Alcippe spp. - PAN-F *SiSiN

alcohol

alcohol, distilled liquor - *(loan)

Aleurites

the candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana - PEMP *tuRi₂

the candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana - PMP *kamiri

algae

moss, algae - PMP *limut

moss, algae, seaweed - PMP *lumut

alien

outsiders, alien people - PMP *qulun₁

outsiders, alien people - PMP *qaRta

alight

set alight, apply fire to - PWMP *culcul

aligned

aligned, lined up - PPH *batuR₂

mate, companion, fellow; together with; alike, the same as; aligned or in good order - PWMP *sama

alignment

crooked, out of alignment - PWMP *biqaŋ

alike

mate, companion, fellow; together with; alike, the same as; aligned or in good order - PWMP *sama

alive

captive, one taken alive in war; to spare, allow to live - PWMP *bihaR

life, alive - PAN *qudip₁

live, be alive; be captive - PPh *ma-bihaR

living, alive - PPh *quyag

living, alive; grow, flourish; fresh; heal, cure, revive, recover; vital principle, soul, spirit; flame - PMP *ma-qudip

make alive, give life to - PPh *maŋ-bihaR

all

2pl. nominative and genitive; you all, your - PMP *kamu-yu

2pl. nominative, you all - PAN *kamu-yu

2pl. nominative, you all - PMP *kamu₂

2pl. nominative, you all - PAN *k-amu

all - PPH *tanan

all - PAN *qemin

all around, surrounding - PMP *temu₁

all kinds of medicinal herbs - PWMP *buluŋ buluŋ

all three, three together, three in total - PMP *ka-telu

all; finished - PAN *am(e)ʔin

finished, completed; all gone - PWMP *puspus₁

finished, used up; all, every one - PWMP *qabis

finished, used up; all, every one - PWMP *qabiq

spatter, fly out in all directions - PMP *becik

spread all over - PMP *qeneb₂

spread all over - PAN *qeNeb₂

take all that remains - PPH *simut

to gulp, swallow all at once - PMP *teguk

allative

allative marker: to, toward - POC *ki₁

allot

share, portion, inheritance; to allot, divide property - PMP *baqagi

allotment

allotment of meat after butchering an animal - PPH *sapuq

allow

allow, agree, accept, permit - POC *taRamʷi

captive, one taken alive in war; to spare, allow to live - PWMP *bihaR

to allow, permit - PWMP *tuRut-i

to follow instructions, follow an example; carry along, give in, allow something to happen - PWMP *tuRut

allowed

allowed to live, given life; made captive - PPh *bihaR-en

alloy

copper-gold alloy - *(loan)

almasiga

the almasiga tree: Agathis celebica (Koord.) - PPH *gala

almond

tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune - POC *kaŋaRi

tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune - PMP *kanari

Alocasia

wild taro, elephant-ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - POC *piRaq₂

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - PWMP *biRaʔ

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - PAN *biRaq₁

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp.; sexual itch - PMP *biRaq₃

aloft

hold up, keep aloft - PWMP *aŋkat aŋkat

alone

alone, in isolation, independent - PWMP *taniq

alone, lonely - PWMP *buleŋ

alone, single - PPh *bugtúŋ

keep to oneself; be different; alone - PCEMP *kese

only, alone - PMP *ma-isa

along

bring, take along - PAN-F *adaS

bring, take along - PWMP *embaq

caught up in, carried along - PWMP *tuluy₃

join along the length - *-kit₂ (root)

join along the length; raft - PMP *dakit

joined along the length - PPh *biŋkit

move along - PMP *qunus qunus

move along - PMP *qunus

pull or drag a heavy object along, as on a sled - PWMP *guyud

sail along the coast (?) - PWMP *susuR

sail along the coast, follow the coast in voyaging - PMP *siDsiD

slip or slide down or along - PWMP *hurus

to bring, to carry along - PAN *k<um>aCu

to follow instructions, follow an example; carry along, give in, allow something to happen - PWMP *tuRut

touching or joined along the length - PWMP *ziŋkit

touching or joined along the length - PWMP *ri(ŋ)kit

touching or joined along the length - PWMP *diŋkit

touching or joined along the length - PMP *de(ŋ)kit

Alpinia

a plant: Alpinia galanga - PWMP *laŋkuas

already

already - PAN *na₄

also

a cereal grass with edible seeds that are also used as beads, Job’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L. - PMP *zelay

and, also - PMP *agu

Alstonia

a large shade tree: Alstonia scholaris - PMP *zitaq

a tree: Alstonia scholaris - POC *sabakap

a tree: Alstonia scholaris - PMP *ditaq

alternate

alternate, interspersed - PPH *salét-salét

shift, alternate - PWMP *seli₁

altissima

mango tree and its fruit, probably Mangifera altissima - PMP *pahuq₁

alum

alum - *(loan)

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am

ama

parent’s younger sibling, junior uncle; a young child’s term of address for his father, vocative of *ama - PMP *mama

amara

a plant: Lunasia amara - PPh *paqit-an

Amaranthus

an edible plant: Amaranthus spinosus - PWMP *bayaŋ₁

amaze

amaze, astonish - PWMP *kelaw

amazed

amazed; gaping - *-ŋaŋ (root)

be amazed - POC *poŋaŋ

be amazed - POC *poŋap

gape, open the mouth wide; be dazzled, amazed - PMP *beŋaŋ₂

surprised, amazed - PMP *beŋap

ambergris

ambergris - *(loan)

ambush

ambush, attack from concealment - PMP *Rahuŋ

ambush, attack from concealment - PAN *RaSuŋ

ambush, block the way; obstacle, hindrance - PMP *qambat

ambush, block the way; obstacle, hindrance - PMP *abaŋ₁

ambush, surprise attack - PPH *tambáŋ

lie in wait for, ambush - PMP *hipaʔ

to block the way, ambush someone - PWMP *maŋ-abaŋ

amends

make amends - *(noise)

amentacea

a tree: Acalypha amentacea Roxb. - PPH *beRus₂

among

unhusked rice grain left among the husked grains - PWMP *ataq

amount

little, few, small in amount - PAN *dikit

little, few; small amount - PWMP *etik

pilfering, filching, stealing small amounts - PPH *kúpit

small in amount - PWMP *kitiŋ

small in amount - PMP *ituk

small in quantity, few; trifling amount - PMP *emit

small in size or amount - PAN *kedi

small in size or amount - PWMP *kedit

small in size or amount - PWMP *kedik

total amount (?) - PWMP *ka-bilaŋ-an

amputated

maimed, amputated, of a limb - POC *kubut₁

maimed, amputated, of a limb - PMP *kumput

maimed, amputated, of a limb - POC *kubuŋ₁

maimed, amputated, of a limb - PMP *kumpuŋ

amuck

attack, run amuck - PMP *hamuk

run amuck - POC *lilim

amulet

amulet, talisman - *(loan)

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an

Anabas

a fish, the climbing perch: Anabas testudineus - PWMP *puyu-puyu

a fish, the climbing perch: Anabas testudineus - PWMP *puyu₁

anaphoric

anaphoric or relative particle: there, previously mentioned place - POC *ai₁

Anas

duck, Anas spp. - PWMP *itik₂

ancestor

ancestor, deity, divinity - PWMP *qiaŋ

ancestor, grandparent - POC *tibu₂

ancestors - PPh *maŋa-ampu

ancestors - PMP *anduŋ

forefathers, ancestors - PPh *ampu ampu

grandfather, ancestor - PAN-F *aki

grandfather, grandmother, ancestor (vocative) - PMP *empu-q

grandfather, grandmother; ancestor (vocative) - PWMP *empú-ŋ

grandparent, ancestor, lord, master, owner (voc.) - PPh *apu-ʔ

grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor - PMP *umpu

grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor; lord, master, owner - PMP *empu

grandparent/grandchild; ancestor - POC *tubu₂

ancestral

ghost, ancestral spirit; nature spirit; corpse; owl; various plants - PMP *qanitu

anchor

anchor - PMP *sauq₂

anchovy

anchovy: Stolephorus spp. - PPh *bulínaw

kind of small fish, probably sardine or anchovy - PMP *paya

sardine, anchovy - POC *tanipa

small marine fish: sardine or anchovy - PWMP *bilis

ancient

old (of things), ancient times - POC *tuaRi

old, ancient - PAN *daqaN

old, of things; ancient times - PMP *dadan

old, of things; ancient times - PAN *dadaN

and

and - PMP *mai

and - PAN *maS

and, also - PMP *agu

conjunction: and - PMP *na₅

conjunction: and - PAN *Na

conjunction: and - PMP *a₂

conjunctive particle, and - PAN *ka₁

anew

begin anew - *(noise)

anger

aggressiveness, anger - PMP *qitaq

anger - PWMP *uŋet

anger - PMP *qaŋet

anger - POC *aŋit

anger - PMP *haŋit

anger - *(noise)

anger, angry - POC *basu

anger, angry - PAN *quSeŋeC

anger, angry - PAN *biraŋ

anger, cruelty - PWMP *ka-beŋis-an

anger, irritation - *-ŋaC (root)

anger, irritation - *-ŋiC (root)

anger, resentment - PWMP *i(ŋ)git

anger, resentment - *-git (root)

anger; angry - PWMP *saŋit

anger; angry, irritated, annoyed - PWMP *buŋet

anger; make a face - *-ŋuC (root)

gnash the teeth in anger or impatience - PWMP *li(ŋ)get

jealousy; anger; a quarrel - PWMP *dalu₂

move about in restless anger - POC *ŋali-ŋali

shout in anger - PMP *palak

speak sharply or in anger - POC *boŋa

angle

angle, corner - PWMP *seruk

angle, corner - PWMP *suy(e)quk

approach or strike from the side or at an oblique angle - PPH *sarijsij

curved area, angle - PWMP *seluk

curved area; corner, angle - PWMP *celuk

steep angle - PWMP *tazek

angrily

mumble angrily, grumble - PWMP *uŋut

angry

(lit. 'burning liver') angry, furious - PMP *X₂ + qatay

anger, angry - POC *basu

anger, angry - PAN *quSeŋeC

anger, angry - PAN *biraŋ

anger; angry - PWMP *saŋit

anger; angry, irritated, annoyed - PWMP *buŋet

angry - *-get (root)

angry, annoyed - PMP *Reŋet

angry, annoyed - PAN *ReŋeC

angry, annoyed - PAN *reŋeC

angry, irritated - PWMP *gemes₁

angry, quarrelsome - PMP *beŋis₁

angry, upset - PMP *qiŋet

angry; gnash the teeth - *-ŋeC (or *-ŋeqeC?) (root)

be angry, growl at - PPh *íŋel₂

have an angry facial expression - *(noise)

irritated, angry - PPH *suŋet

Anhinga

kind of water bird, the Oriental darter: Anhinga melanogaster - PPH *kasíli

animal

allotment of meat after butchering an animal - PPH *sapuq

animal - PPh *hayep

animal - *(loan)

animal cry - PAN *qiaw

animal haunt, place frequented by animals - PMP *qenuR-an₂

animal haunt, place frequented by animals - PAN *qenuR-an₁

animal path, trail - PMP *qenuR

animal sacrifice - PPh *palis₃

animal skin, hide, leather - PMP *qanit

animal skin, hide, leather - PAN *qaNiC

animal sound - PWMP *qiem₁

animal sound - PMP *kaŋ

animal sound - PMP *gekgek

animal trail - PAN *qeNuR

animal trap - *(noise)

bait; fodder; to feed animals - PCEMP *paniŋ

belly of an animal - PWMP *babat

bend, fold, folding part of the body; curl up on the ground, of an animal - PMP *leku

cage, as for an animal; to enclose in a cage or pen - PWMP *kuruŋ

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

domesticated animal - PWMP *qayam₂

drive animals away - PMP *busay

edible sea animal or plant - PWMP *gamet

enclosure, pen for animals - PWMP *kandaŋ

female, of animals - PMP *tina

female, of animals - PAN *taina

female, woman, wife; female of animals - PMP *bahi

fence; animal pen; fortification - POC *bara₄

fence; animal pen; fortification - POC *baRa

fence; animal pen; fortification - POC *bala₄

follow; drive animals before one - PWMP *maŋ-iriŋ

forelegs of an animal - POC *luma

frighten off birds or animals from the fields; place used to frighten off birds or animals from the fields - PWMP *buRaw-an

heart of a person or animal; purple heart-shaped inflorescence of banana plant - PMP *pusuq₁

horn of an animal - PAN *uReŋ

horn of an animal - PAN-F *sequŋ

horn of an animal; to butt or gore - PPH *suŋay

interjection used to chase off animal - PMP *isu₂

lair, den of an animal - PAN-F *Nibu

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu-q

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu-ŋ

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu

mother, mother's sister; female animal - PMP *ina

mother, mother's sister; female animal; largest member of a set - PCEMP *ina

neck shackle to prevent an animal from passing through fences - PMP *pagal

ovary of an an oviparous animal - PMP *natuq

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something - PAN *zalan

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something; wake of a boat; the Milky Way - PMP *zalan

pen, enclosure for domesticated animals - PMP *bara₁

pen, enclosure for domesticated animals - PMP *baRa₂

pen, enclosure for domesticated animals - PMP *bala₂

puppy; young animal in general? - PAN *titu

raw energy, animal appetite - PMP *ganas

rear end of an animal - POC *buntut₂

restraining device on animals - PAN *sakal

slit an animal's throat - PWMP *geret₂

sniff at close quarters, of animals - PPH *suŋsuŋ₃

sound produced by an animal; unintelligible muttering of a person - PAN *ŋawŋaw

sound used to shoo away domestic animals - PWMP *cik

spotted, speckled, as the skin of an animal - PAN *paCak

stench, musky odor of an animal - PAN *qaŋeSit

stomach of an animal - POC *kabuŋ

stomach of an animal - *(loan)

striped, of animals - PWMP *buriŋ

tail-bone of animals - PWMP *imput

testicles of animals; castrate animals - PMP *butuq

the bite of an animal - PAN *k<in>aRaC-an

thin, of people and animals - PMP *ma-niwaŋ

thin, of persons and animals - PAN *ma-Niwaŋ

thinness, of people and animals - PMP *niwaŋ

to chase away or shoo off small animals - PMP *sika

to scream, of an animal - PWMP *ŋiqik

to shy away, of animals - PWMP *dura

to skin an animal - PPh *qanit-an

to skin an animal - PMP *q<um>anit

to skin an animal - PAN *q<um>aNiC

tumor in the mouth of an animal - PPh *hábas

venomous animal - *(noise)

young of animals - PMP *nati

anise

anise, aniseed, fennel: Foeniculum vulgare - PWMP *hadas

aniseed

anise, aniseed, fennel: Foeniculum vulgare - PWMP *hadas

ankle

ankle - PWMP *paŋil

ankle - PMP *buku lali

ankle bone - POC *buku ni waqay

ankle bone - PCEMP *buku ni qaqay

part of the lower leg, possibly the ankle - PWMP *beŋil

sprained, twisted, as the ankle - PWMP *ta-piluk

annex

addition, annex to a building - PWMP *taŋkir

draw toward oneself; annex, make subject - PWMP *kabiR

annoy

disturb, annoy - PMP *usik

tease, vex, annoy - PWMP *uŋit

to provoke, annoy or irritate - PPH *sugsúg

annoyance

annoyance, irritation - PMP *ŋitŋit₂

exclamation of annoyance, surprise, etc. - PAN *aya₁

show annoyance or irritation - PAN *ŋiCŋiC

annoyed

anger; angry, irritated, annoyed - PWMP *buŋet

angry, annoyed - PMP *Reŋet

angry, annoyed - PAN *ReŋeC

angry, annoyed - PAN *reŋeC

irritated, annoyed - PWMP *suŋut₁

irritated, annoyed - PWMP *seŋit

restless, impatient, annoyed - PWMP *deŋut

Anodontostoma

kind of marine fish, probably gizzard shad: Anodontostoma spp. - PWMP *kabasi

Anona

sugar apple: Anona squamosa - *(loan)

another

another, other; different, distinct - PPH *iba

balanced, as a person in walking, or two weights opposite one another - PWMP *timbaŋ

block, obstruct; something which separates one area from another - PWMP *ataŋ₁

except, other than; another, different - PPH *sabáliq

in layers, adjacent to one another - PMP *taq(e)pil

nudge, bump against another person - PWMP *da(m)pil

one who lies next to another - PWMP *ka-hulij

order, request, command; message; something left for another - PWMP *bilin

overlapping, one on top of another - PPH *sak(e)níb

person who leads or escorts another; means of leading or escorting - PWMP *paŋ-hateD

pour from one vessel into another; translate, interpret - PWMP *salin

raise the eyebrows as a signal to another person; to furrow the brows (?) - PWMP *kindat

something given to another for safekeeping (?) - PMP *pa-taRuq

strike one another (as fighting cocks) - PWMP *bazaw

sucking noise made as a signal to another person - PMP *misik

to bind, tie tightly, probably of tying one thing which is moveable to another which is fixed - PPH *kedked

to confront one another, as in a dispute - PPH *saŋsáŋ

to have one thing on top of another - PWMP *tumpaŋ₁

to pass one another in coming from opposite directions - PWMP *sulaŋ

to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely - PPH *dápat

to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely - PMP *dapet

to seize, take by force, snatch from another’s hands; pillage - PPH *samsám

answer

answer - *(loan)

answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - POC *bali₇

answer, reply - PMP *saRut

dual division, moiety == cluster (a) answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - PMP *baliw₁

interjection or exclamation to call attention or answer a call - POC *oe

to answer - PPH *tebáR

to answer (a call, a question); to assume responsibility for, be answerable for - PPH *sagút

to answer, as in answering a question - PPH *ma-nebaR

to answer, retaliate; reciprocate good or evil - PAN *bales₁

answerable

to answer (a call, a question); to assume responsibility for, be answerable for - PPH *sagút

answering

to answer, as in answering a question - PPH *ma-nebaR

ant

a flying white ant or termite - PMP *dalu₁

ant - *(noise)

ant sp. - PWMP *sanam

ant sp. - PAN-F *alujah

ant sp. - PWMP *sijem

ant sp. with venomous bite - PMP *me(n)tik

black ant, probably sugar ant - PWMP *sejem

insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant - POC *ane

insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant - PAN *aNay

kind of ant - PWMP *lalatu₁

large black ant with painful sting, probably bulldog ant - POC *kadik

large red tree ant - POC *loRo

anteater

pangolin, scaly anteater - PAN *qaRem

antenna

antenna (?) - PWMP *suŋut₃

body hair; fur; feather; down; antenna of insect or crustacean; spikes of sea urchin; floss on plant skins, color; type, kind - PCEMP *bulu₃

antennae

antennae of shrimp (?) - PWMP *suŋu₁

anterior

first, before, anterior in time - PAN *(q)uNah

first, before, anterior in time - PMP *huna

anthill

anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’) - POC *tanoq tubuq

anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’) - PMP *taneq tumbuq

anthracite

coal, anthracite - PMP *qajeŋ i batu

Antiaris

a tree: Antiaris toxicaria; poison for blowpipe darts made from the sap of this tree - PWMP *qipuq

Antidesma

a tree with edible fruit: Antidesma bunius - PWMP *buRnay

antidote

antidote (as for snakebite) - PMP *tambar

tasteless, insipid; powerless; antidote, as against snakebite - PWMP *tabaR

tasteless; neutralize something efficacious, as an antidote for poison - PWMP *tawaR₁

anus

anus - PWMP *tumbuŋ₁

anus (?) - PPh *qiluh-án

rectum, anus, buttocks - PMP *buliq₂

wet; wash the anus after defecating - PMP *biseq

anxious

anxious, nervous - PPH *kabá

any

any natural mark on human skin: birthmark, freckle, mole - PMP *qila

any plant with hairs that sting or cause itchiness - PWMP *amiaŋ

bird; any flying creature - POC *manuk

fork of a branch; any forked structure; bifurcation - PAN *paŋa₁

marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any - POC *baraŋ₂

marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any - PMP *baraŋ₁

spread wide apart, as the legs or any two things joined at a point - PMP *pikaŋ

to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight - PMP *deŋeR

to hear; what is heard, news; to perceive by any sense other than sight - POC *roŋoR

anything

anything used for salting, salting instrument - PWMP *paŋ-qasin

anything used to make charcoal - PPh *qujiŋ-en

anything which has been salted - PAN *qasiRa-en

first of anything; first fruits; prime, new, untainted, virgin - PMP *buŋas

first of anything; first fruits; prime, new, untainted, virgin - PWMP *buŋaR

first of anything; new, untainted, virgin - PWMP *buŋaR-an

knock anything hollow so as to extract what is inside - PWMP *tuŋtuŋ₁

mountain peak, cape of land; tip of anything - PMP *quzuŋ

something; anything; everything - PMP *apa apa

to cook anything but rice - PMP *t<um>anek

to cook anything but rice - PAN *t<um>aNek

to cook anything but rice - PAN *taNek

tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching - PMP *qapit

tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching - PAN *qapiC

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ap

apart

apart, separated - PWMP *kawaŋ

be spread apart, as the legs - PWMP *tikaŋ

crack apart at the joints - PWMP *sipak

crossbar, strut, something to hold things apart - PMP *sekaŋ

far apart, rare - PWMP *ma-laka

far apart; rare - PWMP *la(ŋ)ka

open forcibly, force apart (as the eyelids with the fingers) - PMP *bikaq₁

split apart; piece split off - PWMP *buŋkaq

spread apart, as the legs - PWMP *bi(ŋ)kaŋ

spread apart, as the legs - *-kaŋ₁ (root)

spread apart, as the legs or an unbent fishhook - PWMP *bukaŋkaŋ

spread apart, as the legs or an unbent fishhook - POC *pokaŋ

spread apart, as the legs, or an unbent fishhook - PWMP *bikaŋkaŋ

spread apart, as the legs, or an unbent fishhook - PMP *be(ŋ)kaŋ

spread apart, split - PMP *bakaq

spread the legs apart - PMP *waŋkaŋ

spread wide apart, as the legs or any two things joined at a point - PMP *pikaŋ

stand apart - *(noise)

stretch open or apart - PMP *pekaŋ

take apart, dismantle; break open - PMP *buŋkaR

tear apart something that one has made; undo - PPh *waswás₂

to force apart, at with a wedge; force something into someone’s mouth - PPH *tiŋal

to split apart (of wood) - PPh *busqák

walk or stand with legs wide apart - PPH *sakáqaŋ

walk with legs wide apart - PWMP *iŋkaŋ

wide apart (as the legs) - PWMP *rekaŋ

wide apart, as the legs - PWMP *zaŋkaŋ

wide apart, of the legs - PWMP *sikaŋ

aperture

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

apex

apex, peak - PWMP *pa(n)tuk₁

top, tip, apex - PWMP *puntuk

Apis

a small bee: Apis indica - PMP *qari-ñuan

a small bee: Apis indica - PMP *qani-Ruan

Aporosa

a tree: Aporosa spp. - PWMP *agas

apparatus

pinching apparatus - PWMP *hapit hapit

pinching apparatus - PWMP *hapit-an

apparel

cluster (c) == don mourning apparel; mourn for a deceased spouse - PMP *baliw₃

appear

appear, come into view - POC *potu

appear, come into view - PMP *betu

come to the surface, appear from below - PWMP *timbul

lift, carry, bring; emerge, appear, begin; take a spouse - POC *puat₂

suddenly appear, come into view suddenly or partially - PPH *tuq(e)maw

to appear - POC *pura

appearance

face, looks, appearance - *(loan)

to change appearance - PMP *lian

appendage

sword or sword-like appendage - PPH *tabák

appetite

able to satiate, able to satisfy one's appetite - PWMP *maka-besuR

fierce, intense, as of appetite or temper - PAN *garaŋ₁

gluttony, uncontrolled appetite - PPH *sibáq

raw energy, animal appetite - PMP *ganas

apple

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

small species of Malay apple - POC *sakau

sugar apple: Anona squamosa - *(loan)

the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense - POC *kapiku

the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense - POC *kapika

apply

apply fire to - PWMP *maŋ-hapuy-i

set alight, apply fire to - PWMP *culcul

apprehensive

apprehensive, fearful - PWMP *gigir

approach

approach or strike from the side or at an oblique angle - PPH *sarijsij

appropriate

appropriate, suitable, right; fit together; hit the mark - PAN *tama₁

appropriate, suitable; fit together - PMP *tamaq₁

to appropriate to oneself illegally - PPH *kamkam-en

approximate

guess, approximate - *(loan)

approximately

approximately - *(loan)

Aprion

green jobfish: Aprion virescens - PMP *qutun

apron

apron, skirt - PWMP *tapiq₂

aptera

a plant: Begonia aptera (Hay) - PAN-F *qanus₁

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ar

Aralia

a plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance) - PAN-F *tanaq

arborescens

a tree with edible fruit, and medicinal uses, probably Buchanania arborescens - PMP *balunuR

arch

bent, curve, arch - PMP *beŋkuŋ

ardor

zeal, ardor; industrious, keen - PWMP *giqed

area

area of forested mountains - PPh *ka-bukij-an

area that is planted(?) - PAN *tanem-an

area that is planted(?) - PAN *ka-tanem-an

back area, place at the back? - PAN *likud-an

block, obstruct; something which separates one area from another - PWMP *ataŋ₁

cleared area around house, cleared ground in village - PMP *natad

curved area, angle - PWMP *seluk

curved area; corner, angle - PWMP *celuk

forest, wooded area - POC *kayu-kayu

forested area, wilderness - PWMP *halas-an

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - PMP *dalem

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - POC *ralom

mountain; forested inland mountain areas - PAN *bukij

mountainous area - PPh *ka-bulud-an

mountainous area - PPh *bulud-an

nasal area; snout - PAN *ŋusuq

notch, as in a tree trunk; notch-shaped area under the glans penis - PWMP *etak

outside; outside area; spacious, roomy - PWMP *luas

puffy area around the throat of some birds - PWMP *tambuluk

wooded area, forest - PWMP *kahiw-an

areca

areca nut and palm; heart - POC *buaq

areca nut cutter - *(loan)

Areca

betel nut: nut of Areca catechu - PAN-F *Sawiki

areca

flower spathe of areca palm - PMP *hupiq

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

immature stage of coconut or areca nut (?) - POC *pira

plant fiber; coconut husk, fibers of areca nuts, fibers covering mango seeds, etc. - PWMP *sabut

wild palm tree with fruit similar to areca nut: Heterospathe elata - PPH *sagisí

Arenga

the sugar palm Arenga saccharifera, Arenga pinnata - PWMP *izuk

argenteus

a plant: Pipturus argenteus - PMP *adamay

argue

argue with, oppose someone - PWMP *bantaq

argue, quarrel, dissention - *(noise)

to shout, to argue with - POC *ŋeŋe

Argus

Argus pheasant - *(loan)

arise

arise from sleep - PPh *b<um>aŋun

to lift, stand up, arise, emerge, begin, depart, carry; cargo; take something; take a wife - PMP *buhat₃

Arius

large catfish that lives in river estuaries: genus Arius - PWMP *tambaŋuŋu

arm

(of a person) to hang by the arms, dangle - POC *tuku₃

arm - *(noise)

be carried under the arm - PWMP *kilik-en

bent, of the arm - PMP *siŋkul

bent, of the arm - PMP *sikut₁

carried under the arm or on the hip - PWMP *kilik₂

clasp in the arms - *(noise)

extend both arms sideways - PPH *maR-depa

extend the arms sideways - PPH *i-depa

forearm, lower arm - PMP *leŋen

hand, arm - PMP *baRa₁

have a stiff or bent arm - PMP *si(ŋ)kuk

hold or carry under the arm - PWMP *meŋ-qabin

hold or carry under the arm - PMP *qabin

press together; pressed together; carry under the arm, press between the legs - PMP *kepit

swing the arms - PWMP *kayaŋ

to carry at the side or on the hip, pressed under the arm - PPH *kilít

to hold tightly in the arms - PPH *k<um>epkep

to span with outstretched arms, measure in fathoms - PWMP *d<um>epa

to wrap, encircle, as with the arms or wings - PPH *kupkup₂

upper arm - PWMP *beteken

wave the hand or arms; call by waving - PMP *kaway₁

armpit

armpit - PWMP *ilek

armpit - PPH *kili-kíli

armpit - *(noise)

armpit, crotch - PWMP *apaqpaq

stench of sweaty armpits - PWMP *aŋ(e)ceŋ

stench of sweaty armpits - PWMP *aŋ(e)cej

sweaty armpits, stench of sweaty armpits - PWMP *qaŋesej

aromatic

aromatic odor - PWMP *aŋi

kind of aromatic herb: Pogostemon cablin - PPH *kab(e)liŋ

around

all around, surrounding - PMP *temu₁

belt; tie around the waist - PAN *bakes

bind the waist; band around the waist - PWMP *embej

bind, tie together by winding around - PWMP *maŋ-bejbej

circumambulate, go around the edge - *(loan)

clatter of a stick poking around in something - PWMP *degaq

cleared area around house, cleared ground in village - PMP *natad

coil around, wrap with rope - PWMP *libej

constriction around neck - PWMP *cekig

curve, bend around - PWMP *biŋkeluŋ

disseminate, strew around - *(noise)

encircle tigthly; band or ring around something - PWMP *selut

encircle, wrap around - PPh *balíkes

encircle, wrap firmly around - *-kes (root)

enclosure; palisade around a village; fence around a planted tree or cultivated field - PMP *pager

fire saw; tie a tool around the hand or some other fixture - PPH *kulili

gather, collect; swarm around - PMP *quruŋ

go around, encircle - PWMP *liut₁

long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying - PMP *habit

long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying - PAN *Sabit

plait a cord, twist, wrap around - POC *piri₂

puffy area around the throat of some birds - PWMP *tambuluk

pulpy, fleshy, as a fruit; soft flesh around the seeds of a fruit - PWMP *lunek

put on clothing, wrap around body - PMP *suluŋ₂

reverse, turn around - PMP *bali₅

reverse, turn around - PMP *balik₂

reverse, turn around - PPh *baliketád

reverse, turn over or around - PPh *balikid

round about, around, in one’s surroundings; go around - PMP *kuliliŋ

seize, grasp, wrap around - PWMP *Rakep

spin around - *-siŋ (root)

strap; something wrapped around - PWMP *ambet

swarm around - PWMP *gurumut

thing around which binding is wound - PWMP *bejbej-an

tie around; belt - PPh *balíkis

tie by binding around - PMP *kebet

tie up, tie by wrapping around - PWMP *kabej

tie, bind, wrap around - *-kis₂ (root)

to be jolted or knocked around on a rough ride - PPH *tagtag

to reverse, turn around - PAN *suli₂

to reverse, turn around - PMP *suliq

to turn around, as a boat - PPH *kabíg-en

to turn around, as a boat - PPH *kábig

to wind, tie by winding around - PPh *bejbej-en

to wrap around - PAN *takes

turn around, change direction - POC *li-liu

turn around, turn back - POC *ta-bulos

turn around, turn back - POC *bulos

turn around, turn over - POC *liliu

turn aside, turn around - POC *liu₂

turn, go around - PAN *taliuk

turn, revolve, turn around - *-liŋ₃ (root)

turned around, inverted - *(loan)

twine around - PMP *pulit

twist around - POC *polit

twist around - PMP *belit₂

twist around - *-lut (root)

walking around - POC *lako lako

was tied by winding around - PWMP *b<in>ejbej

what is ground up, what is produced by twisting around or grinding - PPH *g<in>iliŋ

wind around - PWMP *Ra(m)bej

wind around - PWMP *qa(m)bej

wind around - PMP *bejbej₂

wind around - *(noise)

wind around repeatedly - *-bej (root)

wind around, encircle - PWMP *ti(ŋ)kes

wind around, roll up - PWMP *letlet

wind around; bundle - *-kus (root)

wrap around repeatedly, bind by wrapping; bundle of wrapped material - PAN *bejbej₁

wrap around tightly - PPH *tagkes

wrap around, encircle - PAN *ta(R)kes

wrap around; band around something - PWMP *hambej

wrap firmly around, encircle tightly - POC *likos

wrap firmly around, encircle tightly - PMP *likes

wrap tightly around - PWMP *keskes₂

arousal

sexual arousal, sexual excitement - PAN *qeCuR

arrange

arrange, put in order - *(loan)

pave with stones; pile or stack up, arrange, order, put in sequence - PMP *qatuR₁

pave with stones; pile up, arrange, put in an orderly fashion - PWMP *qatuR-an

pile up, arrange, put in an orderly fashion - PWMP *maŋ-qatuR

stack up; in a row, lined up; to order, arrange - PCEMP *qatuR₂

arrangement

trivet, arrangement of three stones on which the cooking pot is placed - PMP *dalikan

arrest

to arrest the progress of something by stopping or catching it; to support, keep from falling - PWMP *saŋgaq

arrive

able to arrive - PWMP *maka-dateŋ

to arrive - PWMP *sabay₂

to arrive - PWMP *d<um>ateŋ

to arrive, reach a place - PMP *dateŋ

to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete - PMP *teka₁

arriving

to meet or greet someone who is arriving, or who one encounters by surprise - PPH *sabat-en

to meet or greet someone, welcome someone who is arriving - PPH *sabat

arrogant

(lit. 'big liver') brave, courageous; proud, arrogant - PMP *X₁ + qatay

arrogant - *(loan)

arrow

arrow - PMP *anak i panaq

arrow - *(loan)

feather vane on an arrow - PPH *pulád

fit snugly, as bowstring in arrow notch - PMP *siŋ(e)qit

point of an arrow - POC *mata ni panaq

point of an arrow - PWMP *mata nu panaq

shoot an arrow - PWMP *ma-manaq

throw something at a target; shoot with bow and arrow - PAN *panaq

arsenic

rat-weed, arsenic - PWMP *baraŋen₂

rat-weed, arsenic - PWMP *baraŋan₃

art

a form of martial art or mock combat - PWMP *silat

artery

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon - PAN *huRaC

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root - PMP *uRat

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; sinew; tendon; ligament; fiber; tough, sinewy - POC *uRat

artery, major blood vessel - PWMP *uRat i daRaq

arthritic

arthritic or rheumatic pain - PMP *ŋulŋul₁

arthropod

poisonous arthropod - PPh *átaŋ átaŋ

article

article - PMP *a₁

common noun article - PMP *na₁

definite article - *(noise)

encircling article of clothing or adornment - PWMP *giret

personal article - PAN *i₃

artificial

artificial cockspur - *(loan)

artificial cockspur; bind on an artificial cockspur - PWMP *bulaŋ

tie an artificial spur to the leg of a fighting cock - PWMP *maŋ-bulaŋ

artificially

artificially enclosed catchment for water: well, ditch - PWMP *paRigi

Artocarpus

a tree: Artocarpus sp. - PMP *kulu₁

jackfruit, Artocarpus spp. - *(loan)

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as

Asaphis

to scrape; scraper or grater made from circular bivalve shell: Asaphis spp. - POC *kasi

ascaris

roundworm, ascaris, intestinal worm; also earthworm? - PMP *bulati

ascend

climb, ascend - PAN *d<um>akiS

climb, ascend - PAN *dakiS

tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn - PEMP *ipun₁

tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn - PMP *hipun₁

to ascend, rise up - POC *sake

to climb, ascend, rise up - PMP *sakay₄

to go upstream, ascend a river - PPH *súbaq

ascending

affines of the first ascending or zero generation - POC *puŋao

collateral consanguine of the first ascending generation - PAN *tata₁

relative of the third ascending or descending generation - PCMP *usi

relative of the third or fourth ascending or descending generation - PMP *piut

ascetic

ascetic - *(loan)

ash

ash - PMP *abus

ash, cinder, powder - PAN *qabu₁

ash, hearth, cinder, powder, dust; gray - PMP *qabu₂

ashamed

ashamed; shy - PAN-F *Sikad

ashamed; shy; modest - PAN-F *ma-Sikad

shy, ashamed - PWMP *ilah-an

shy, embarrassed, ashamed - PCEMP *ma-mayaq

shy, embarrassed; ashamed - PMP *ma-heyaq

shy, embarrassed; ashamed - PAN *ma-Seyaq

ashen

covered with ashes; ashen, gray - PWMP *ma-qabu

ashes

ashes, dust - POC *qapu

cover with ashes, put ashes on - PWMP *maŋ-qabu

covered with ashes; ashen, gray - PWMP *ma-qabu

place of ashes - PWMP *paR-qabu-an

place of ashes; hearth - PAN *qabu-an

roast in hot ashes - PWMP *benem₁

sparks, burning ashes in the wind - PWMP *lalatu₂

was covered with ashes - PWMP *q<in>abu

ashore

be cast adrift, cast ashore after going adrift - PPH *padpád

asiatica

a creeping plant: Hydrocotyle asiatica - PWMP *paŋgaga

asiaticum

a lily-like plant: Crinum asiaticum L. - PAN *bakuŋ₁

aside

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *isu₁

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *isuR

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *iseR

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *ised

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *icud

push aside - *(noise)

push aside, move aside, step aside - PWMP *siaq

seed rice, rice set aside for the next planting - PMP *binehiq

seed rice, rice set aside for the next planting - PAN *bineSiq

to parry, turn an attack or accusation aside - PWMP *taŋkis

turn aside, swerve to avoid a collision - PWMP *tipas

turn aside, turn around - POC *liu₂

turn the head aside - PWMP *liŋus

turn the head aside - PWMP *liŋeR

ask

ask, inquire - PMP *utaña

ask, inquire about - PWMP *maR-kutaña

ask, inquire about - PMP *kutaña

beg, ask for - PMP *ŋeni

know, understand; ask, inquire - PAN *bajaq₁

tell, inform; ask, inquire - PMP *bajaq₂

askance

look askance - PMP *sileŋ

askew

askew, in a slanting direction - PMP *liliŋ

aslant

aslant, steep, precipitous - *(noise)

asleep

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

drop off to sleep, fall asleep when one should stay awake - PWMP *ka-tuduR-en

numb; 'fall asleep', of a limb - PPh *banhéd

as of cloth

piece, as of cloth - *(loan)

aspire

wish, aspire - *(loan)

assay

test, assay, examine - PWMP *uzi

assemble

assemble, collect, gather - *-pun (root)

assemble, gather - PWMP *punpun

gather, assemble - PMP *ta(m)pun

heap, pile, cover with earth; collect, assemble - *-bun (or *-bequn?) (root)

heap, pile, swarm, flock; to swarm, assemble, gather - PMP *ebun

to assemble, come together (of people); bring together (of things) - PPH *típun

assembly

meeting, assembly, gathering - *(loan)

assent

yes; agree, give assent - POC *qo

assessment

visual assessment of something, as in taking aim, making a straight line, or forming an opinion - PWMP *sipat

assign

to blame, assign fault to (?) - PWMP *salaq-an

assist

help, assist - PMP *tabaŋ

help, assistance; to help, assist - PWMP *uRup

to aid, assist, help - PWMP *t<um>uluŋ

to help, assist - PMP *tuluŋ

to help, assist with work - PWMP *saqup

assistance

help, assistance - PWMP *awat

help, assistance; to help, assist - PWMP *uRup

assume

to answer (a call, a question); to assume responsibility for, be answerable for - PPH *sagút

astonish

amaze, astonish - PWMP *kelaw

astonishment

exclamation of astonishment, fright, etc. - PMP *qina

astringent

astringent - PAN *qasepa

astringent taste, as of unripe bananas - PWMP *peled

taste of unripe banana; slightly bitter or astringent taste - PMP *apeled

tasting 'woody' or coarse; astringent taste, as of unripe bananas - PWMP *sapela

Astronia

a plant: Astronia spp., Melastomataceae - PPH *tuŋaw₂

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at

at

at, on, in, to - POC *pa₂

preposition: at, on, in, to - PMP *ba₃

athwart

crosswise, athwart - PPh *bala(R)baR

obstruct, lie across or athwart - PWMP *qalaŋ

piece of wood used for a purpose; lie athwart, as a beam - PWMP *bali(n)taŋ

Athyrium

bracken, edible fern that grows by rivers: Athyrium esculentum - PAN *paheku

atmosphere

atmosphere, space between earth and sky - PWMP *hawan hawan

atmosphere, space between earth and sky - PWMP *hawan

atmosphere, space between earth and sky - PMP *awaŋ

atrogularis

a bird and its call, probably the tailor bird: Orthotomus atrogularis - PPH *tiwtiw

attach

attach, connect, join - PWMP *tampir

attach, connect, join - PWMP *tampil

attach, fasten - PWMP *ta(m)bid

attach, join - *-pil (root)

tang of a knife, etc. which fits into the haft to attach blade and handle - PMP *utiŋ

tie, bind, attach to by tying - PMP *hiket

tie, bind, attach to by tying - PAN *Siket

attached

attached to - POC *bikit

penetrate, get attached to - PPH *sebet

place where ridgepole covering has been attached - PWMP *b<in>ubuŋ-an

sheaf to which rice grains are attached - PPh *quhut

sticking to, attached to, joined - PMP *pikit

attack

ambush, attack from concealment - PMP *Rahuŋ

ambush, attack from concealment - PAN *RaSuŋ

ambush, surprise attack - PPH *tambáŋ

attack suddenly, fall upon - *(loan)

attack, run amuck - PMP *hamuk

oppose, attack - PWMP *suleŋ

sea worm that attacks wood - PWMP *tambiluk

teredo, sea worm that attacks wood - PWMP *tamiluk

to parry, turn an attack or accusation aside - PWMP *taŋkis

attacked

attacked by wood worms - PMP *bukbuk-an

attention

exclamation to express surprise, call attention, etc. - PMP *uy

interjection or exclamation to call attention or answer a call - POC *oe

to divert the attention of someone - PPH *bakaŋ₂

to hiss, as to call attention to - POC *sisit

to note, remember; care, attention, caution - PMP *iŋat

touch or tap so as to draw someone's attention - PMP *kebit

touch someone lightly, as to get attention - PPH *kablit

attentive

be attentive, stand guard - *(loan)

mindful, careful, attentive - PWMP *ma-iŋat

attenuating

tapering, attenuating to a point - PWMP *tirus

attic

loft, attic - PWMP *pagu

storage shelf; attic, loft - PMP *paRa paRa

storage shelf; attic, loft - PAN *paRa₁

attire

shaman in ritual transvestite attire - PWMP *asug

attract

domestic chicken used as a decoy to attract a wild fowl into a trap - PPH *pa-ŋátiq

attribution

linker marking emphatic attribution - PAN *na₂

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au

audible

audible - PWMP *ma-deŋeR

augusta

shrub or small tree: Abroma augusta L. - PWMP *anabu

aunt

aunt - PWMP *paR-ina-an

aunt - PWMP *ina-en

aunt - *(loan)

auricle

the auricle or shell of the ear - POC *raun ni taliŋa

the auricle or shell of the ear - PMP *dahun nu taliŋa

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av

average

medium, average, intermediate - *(loan)

middle, middling, average - PPH *taliwájaq

Averrhoa

a tree and its edible fruit, the starfruit: Averrhoa bilimbi, Averrhoa carambola - PWMP *baliŋbiŋ

averse

averse, unwilling; reluctant - PWMP *butul

avoid

avoid someone out of fear - PWMP *ketiR

avoid, evade (as people one does not wish to be with) - PPh *iwas

dodge, evade, avoid - PWMP *qilag

to pick up with something to avoid getting dirty or burned - PAN *saput₂

turn aside, swerve to avoid a collision - PWMP *tipas

avoided

person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so - PMP *sanu

person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so - PPh *i-anu, si-anu

person whose name is unknown, avoided or cannot be remembered: who? - PPh *si-nu

thing whose name is unknown, avoided, or cannot be remembered: what? - PMP *a-nu

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aw

awake

be awake (?) - PWMP *paR-mata

drop off to sleep, fall asleep when one should stay awake - PWMP *ka-tuduR-en

to keep someone awake, not let them sleep - PPH *puyat-en

awaken

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

to awaken, wake someone up - POC *paŋun-ia

to awaken, wake someone up - PWMP *pa-baŋun

awakened

be awakened, be revived - PWMP *baŋun-en

was awakened by someone - PWMP *b<in>aŋun

awareness

understanding, awareness - *(loan)

away

away from speaker - PMP *atu

away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer - PMP *wa-tu

away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer - PMP *a-tu

be carried away by water - POC *tape-a

be snatched away, taken away by force - PPh *qaRaw-en

be thrown away or discarded - PWMP *b<in>uaŋ

blown away by the wind - PWMP *palis₁

blown away by the wind - PWMP *palij

carry, carry away - POC *kawe

chase, drive away - PPh *ábuR

cry to drive away fowls: shoo! - PWMP *siuq

cut down, clear away scrub - PWMP *tebas₂

discard, throw away; banish - PMP *buqaŋ

drift on a current, carried away by flowing water - PAN *qañud

drive animals away - PMP *busay

drive away (as animals) - PWMP *halaw

drive away, chase off - PWMP *ka-buRaw

drive off, chase away, expel - PPh *maR-buRaw

drive off, chase away, expel - PWMP *maŋ-buRaw

drive off, chase away, expel - PPh *buRaw-en

drive off, chase away, expel - PAN *buRaw

driven away, chased off - PAN *ma-buRaw

fall away, crumble (as a wall) - PWMP *empas

go away from - POC *tani₁

go, walk away, depart - PMP *panaw₂

go, walk away, depart - PAN *paNaw

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled in shallow water - PWMP *maR-tulak

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water - PMP *tulak

run away, flee; flight, escape; fugitive - PMP *pa-laRiw

run, run away, flee - PAN *ma-laRiw

run, run away, flee, escape - PAN *laRiw

running, running away, flight - PWMP *pa-laRiw-an

slash, chop away - PWMP *etas

slip off, slip away - PWMP *burus₁

slip out or away - PWMP *pulesit

snatch with the mouth, as a dog seizing something in its mouth and running away with it - PPH *sak(e)mál

snatch, take away by force - PWMP *maŋ-qaRaw

snatch, take away by force, rob - PAN *qaRaw

sound used to shoo away domestic animals - PWMP *cik

sweep away - *(noise)

swept away - PWMP *s<in>apu

take away from, dispossess - PWMP *pucut₂

throw away, toss away - PWMP *ka-buaŋ

to brush away dust or dirt - PWMP *paspas₂

to chase away or shoo off small animals - PMP *sika

to drive away, shoo off - PPH *tabuR₂

to fly away - PWMP *tilib

to lay down, put down, put away - PWMP *maR-taRuq

to scrape, with motion away from body - POC *ori

to see or look at something far away - PPH *tanɁaw-én

to see or look at something far away - PPH *taq(e)náw

to send away - PAN-F *pa-uSa

to shy away, of animals - PWMP *dura

to store, put away for safekeeping, hide valuables; to place a bet in gambling; lay an egg - PMP *taRuq

awning

leaf awning - PWMP *samir

palm leaf awning, usually on boats - PMP *kazaŋ₂

awry

slanting, awry - PMP *hiwid

slanting, awry - PAN *Siwid

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ax

axe

adze, axe - PWMP *baliuŋ

axe - PWMP *wasay

axe - *(loan)

axe - *(noise)

axe or adze - PMP *kiRam

handle of an axe or adze - POC *paRara

handle of an axe or adze - PMP *paRada

kind of axe - PPH *put(e)haw

kind of axe or adze - PWMP *liŋ(e)bas

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az

azedarach

a tree: Melia azedarach - PAN-F *baŋaS

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 4/22/2017
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_a.htm