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Updated: 11/17/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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B

be    bi    bl    bo    br    bu    

babble

babble - *(loan)

baby

baby chick; peeping of chick - PMP *piak

baby chick; to peep, of chicks - PMP *piqek

chick, baby chicken - PMP *anak i manuk

to cheep; baby chick - PAN *siwsíw

to cuddle, cradle, as a baby - PPH *kelkel

to wean a baby from breast-feeding - PPH *pusiŋ

bachelor

bachelor, young unmarried man - PPh *ulitau

bachelor; young unmarried person - POC *tau paqoRu

bachelor’s house, men’s house - PMP *kamaliR

new, fresh; recent(ly); youth, bachelor; beautiful, in one's prime - PMP *baqeRu

new; bachelor - PAN *baqeRuh

back

back - PAN *likud

back (anat.) - POC *tuqa₁

back (anat.) - PAN-F *bukuN

back (anat.) - POC *takuRu

back (of humans or animals) - PWMP *edeg

back and forth movement - POC *puis

back area, place at the back? - PAN *likud-an

back of leg - PWMP *taked₁

back of the head - POC *keju

backrest, place to lean back against - PWMP *sandaR-an

breast beam of a back loom - PMP *qatip₁

carry on the back - PAN-F *apa₂

cloth used to carry a child on the back - PAN *SabaN

cloth used to carry a child on the back - PMP *haban

fatty hump on the back of a buffalo, etc. - PWMP *kulasa

hernia; to slip down, slip off, pull back the foreskin of the penis - PMP *luslus

hind part, rear, back - PMP *burit₁

hind part, rear, back - POC *buRit₂

hind part, rear, back - POC *burit₃

hind part, rear, back; base, bottom - PMP *buRit₁

nape, back of the neck - PPH *teŋel

net bag used by men for carrying things on back - PAN-F *kaway₃

prepuce, foreskin; pull back the prepuce - PPH *lusiq

pull back and forth - PMP *buis

rear, back, behind - *(noise)

resilient, springing back when pressed down - PWMP *endut

retreat, fall back - PWMP *undur

return, come back - PAN *wili

return, go back - PAN *Cikel

return, go back - PWMP *pulaŋ

return, send back - PMP *pa-uliq

return; go back - PPh *maR-uliq

rock or hover back and forth - PWMP *kindaŋ-kindaŋ

spring back suddenly; spring-set spear trap; the constellation Orion - PWMP *bala(n)tik

to back water with a paddle - POC *ruru

to flay, peel back or off, as bark or skin - PCEMP *sisi₃

to hold back, keep in reserve - PWMP *taqan₂

to pull back the foreskin - PPH *lusiq-en

to spring back, bounce off - PWMP *latiŋ

to sway back and forth, as plant stems in the wind - PWMP *liŋgaŋ

turn around, turn back - POC *bulos

turn around, turn back - POC *ta-bulos

turn one’s head to the side to look back - PPH *liŋiq

turn over, rock back and forth, swing - POC *pui₂

turn over, rock back and forth, swing - POC *pui pui

turn the back on - PMP *ta-likud

turn the back to someone - POC *ta-likur

turn the head to look back - PPH *liŋaw₂

wag, shake back and forth - PWMP *kilay

waist, back of the waist - PAN *Sawak

waist, back of the waist - PMP *hawak

wave back and forth - PWMP *ambay

wave back and forth - PWMP *kipay

wave back and forth - *(noise)

wave back and forth (hand, flag) - PPh *wasíwas

what is carried on the back - PAN *S<in>ebaN

what is carried on the back - PMP *h<in>eban

background

fighting cock with greenish feathers on light background - PWMP *hizaw

backpaddle

to backpaddle a canoe; walk backwards - PEMP *suak

backrest

backrest, place to lean back against - PWMP *sandaR-an

backward

retreat, move backward - *(near)

retreat, move backwards - PPh *isul

to backpaddle a canoe; walk backwards - PEMP *suak

to bend backward, protruding the abdomen - PWMP *liad

bad

bad - POC *saqat

bad luck - PWMP *palis₂

bad, defective - PAN-F *kuya₁

bad, evil - PPh *iba₂

bad, evil - PMP *ma-zaqat

bad, evil; ugly - PMP *zaqat

bad, evil; ugly - PWMP *zaqet

harbor bad feelings toward - *(noise)

hurt, frightened, or discouraged by previous bad experience - PWMP *zera

kind of large red tree ant with bad bite - PWMP *alagaq

owl sp., bird of bad omen - PWMP *bukaw

rotten meat; addled eggs; bad character - PAN *buRuk

rotten, as meat; addled, as eggs; bad, of character - PMP *ma-buRuk

stench, bad odor - PPh *buŋtút

too bad! it’s a pity! what a shame! - PWMP *sayaŋ

various plants, etc. with a bad smell - PWMP *qetut qetut

badge

badge, medal - *(loan)

bag

bag of plaited palm leaves - PWMP *bayuquŋ

improvised purse or bag, folded cloth used to carry things - PWMP *puyuŋ

knapsack, bag used when on journeys - PWMP *buntil

net bag used by men for carrying things on back - PAN-F *kaway₃

plaited palm leaf bag or pouch - PWMP *kampil

small bag, pouch - PWMP *pu(n)tir

bail

bail out a canoe - PMP *limas

bail out water - POC *qasu

bail out water - PWMP *maŋa-limas

bailer; to bail water from a canoe - POC *nimas

to bail out completely - PWMP *limas-an

bailed

to be bailed out, of water - PWMP *limas-en

bailer

bailer in a canoe - PAN *nimas

bailer, instrument used for bailing - PMP *la-limas

bailer; to bail water from a canoe - POC *nimas

bailing

bailer, instrument used for bailing - PMP *la-limas

bait

bait - PMP *baŋi₁

bait - PCEMP *bayan

bait - POC *bayan

bait - PCEMP *payan

bait - POC *bayan₃

bait - PAN *paen

bait - PWMP *umpan

bait - POC *baniŋ

bait - *(noise)

bait, grasshopper - *(noise)

bait; fodder - PMP *qumpan

bait; fodder; to feed animals - PCEMP *paniŋ

to bait a trap, set the bait for - PPH *paen-an

to feed, catch with bait - PWMP *maŋ-umpan

to use as bait - PPH *i-paen

bake

bake or roast in an earth oven - POC *qumun-a

balance

balance scales - PWMP *timbaŋ-an

scale for weighing, balance - *(loan)

to balance, be in good balance - PWMP *ma-nimbaŋ

weigh, balance, compare - PMP *imbaŋ

balanced

balanced, as a person in walking, or two weights opposite one another - PWMP *timbaŋ

bald

bald - *(loan)

bald; a bald person - POC *palala

bare, bald - PWMP *lasaŋ₁

close-cropped, of hair; bald - PPH *kupkup₄

Balistes

trigger fish: Balistes sp. - POC *bubu₇

Balistidae

triggerfish, Balistidae - POC *sumu

ball

ball - *(loan)

ball of thread; spool - PAN *puduN

compressed in the fist; what is compressed in the fist, as a ball of rice - PWMP *kepel

pithy ball inside sprouted coconut, coconut endosperm - POC *piri

roll into balls - *(noise)

roll together into a ball - *(noise)

squeeze into a ball - PPh *qemel

to catch, snatch, as a ball in the air - POC *sikop

wind thread, etc. into a ball; spool - PMP *pudun

balsamina

a plant: Impatiens balsamina - PPH *kamantigi

bamboo

a bird: the Formosan bamboo partridge - PAN *tikuRas

bamboo - *(loan)

bamboo cross-lath used to hold down roof thatch - PWMP *belit₁

bamboo flute - PWMP *suliŋ

bamboo matting or platform - PWMP *lantay

bamboo nose flute - PAN *tulani

bamboo nose flute - PWMP *turali

bamboo nose flute - PMP *tulali

bamboo of very large diameter, probably Dendrocalamus sp. - PAN *betuŋ₁

bamboo platform, shelf - PPH *papag

bamboo punting pole; to pole a boat in shallow water - POC *tokon

bamboo shoot - PPH *dabuŋ

bamboo sp. - PMP *belaŋ₁

bamboo sp. - PMP *bituŋ₁

bamboo sp. - PMP *periŋ

bamboo sp. - PMP *pituŋ

bamboo sp. - PAN *qauR

bamboo sp. - PWMP *qeliŋ

bamboo sp. - PWMP *telaŋ

bamboo sp. - PWMP *tariŋ

bamboo sp. - PMP *teriŋ

bamboo sp. - POC *kauru

bamboo sp. - PAN-F *tanayan

bamboo sp. - POC *bituŋ₂

bamboo sp. - *(noise)

bamboo tube used as a storage container - PWMP *buŋbuŋ₁

bamboo used as a storage container - PMP *putuŋ₁

bamboo vessel - PWMP *tukil

bamboo walling - PWMP *sawaliq

bamboo which has been split and flattened - PAN *saqsaq

bamboo, Bambusa spp., probably Bambusa spinosa - PAN *kawayan

closed bamboo internode used as a container for salt, valuables, etc. - PWMP *tubuŋ

conical bamboo basket trap for fish - PAN *bubu₂

conical bamboo basket trap for fish - PWMP *buʔu

conical bamboo basket trap for fish - POC *pupu₂

cook in a tube of green bamboo - PWMP *lemeŋ₂

downward pressure; bamboo punting pole - PMP *teken

flattened bamboo - *(noise)

flattened bamboo - *(noise)

insect that infests wood and bamboo; dust produced by the boring of this insect - POC *pupuk₂

internode of bamboo; section of something - PAN *lawas₃

kind of bamboo - PMP *tamiaŋ

kind of bamboo - PWMP *tambelaŋ

kind of basket made of woven bamboo strips - PWMP *bakul

kind of very slender bamboo - PAN-F *CekeS

large, thick, bamboo sp. - PWMP *patuŋ

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

log or bamboo ridgepole cover - PWMP *kulub₁

peel rattan, bamboo - PAN *rauC

pitfall or trail spikes made of sharpened bamboo - PMP *suja

pitfall or trail spikes made of sharpened bamboo - POC *suca

rafter, diagonal bamboo poles to which thatch panels are lashed - PMP *kasaw₁

shelf; bed frame of wooden or bamboo laths - PMP *pa(n)tar₂

type of large bamboo - PMP *qauR

type of slender bamboo; Schizostachyum spp. - PAN *buluq₂

type of slender bamboo; Schizostachyum spp. - POC *buluq₃

type of very large bamboo - POC *potuŋ

wattle, bamboo plaitwork construction for walls - PWMP *sasag

weevil that infests wood, bamboo, and rice; dust produced by the boring of this insect; tooth decay, dental caries - PMP *bukbuk₃

woven bamboo walling material - *(loan)

bamboo sp.

bamboo sp. - *(loan)

Bambusa

bamboo, Bambusa spp., probably Bambusa spinosa - PAN *kawayan

banana

(entire) stalk of bananas; ear of grain - PMP *buliR

a plant in the banana family, probably Musa textilis - PPH *qaRutay

astringent taste, as of unripe bananas - PWMP *peled

banana - PAN *punti₁

banana - POC *pudi

banana - *(near)

banana or plantain sp. - PMP *susu

banana sp. - PPh *baláyaŋ

banana sp. - PWMP *baraŋan₁

banana sp. - PWMP *baraŋen₁

banana sp. - PPH *lakatan

banana sp. - PPH *guyud₁

banana sp. - *(loan)

banana sp. - *(noise)

banana: Musa sapientum L. - PAN-F *beNbeN

break off a component piece of something, as twigs or branches from a tree, a banana from a bunch, a section from a fruit, etc. - PPH *sipíq

bunch of bananas - PMP *qitiŋ

cook fish or meat wrapped in banana leaves - PWMP *paqis

cooking banana: Musa sapientum Linn. var compressa. Blanco - PWMP *sabeqa

fish wrapped in banana leaf and cooked over hot coals - PWMP *p<in>aqis

hand of bananas - PPH *sápad

heart of a person or animal; purple heart-shaped inflorescence of banana plant - PMP *pusuq₁

heart; heart of banana - PMP *pusuŋ₂

kind of banana - POC *saku₃

large cooking banana or plantain variety - PPH *tinduk

stone; testicle; kind of banana; numeral classifier for teeth (?) - PMP *batu

taste of unripe banana; slightly bitter or astringent taste - PMP *apeled

tasting 'woody' or coarse; astringent taste, as of unripe bananas - PWMP *sapela

to cut down a stalk of bananas - PPH *tebáq

to detach a hand, or bunch of bananas from the stalk - PPH *sapád-en

topmost hand of banana stalk - PMP *qabaRa₂

topmost hand of banana stalk - POC *qapaRa₂

twins; double banana - PMP *apij

banana species

banana species - *(loan)

band

band - *(loan)

bind the waist; band around the waist - PWMP *embej

encircle tigthly; band or ring around something - PWMP *selut

ribbon, band - *(loan)

striped, in bands of different color - PWMP *patelaŋ

wrap around; band around something - PWMP *hambej

bandage

bandage, wrapping - PWMP *barut

banded

a fish, the banded sweetlips, Plectorhinchus spp. - POC *lau

bandicoot

bandicoot - POC *mwajar

bandicoot - POC *mwajor

bandicoot, marsupial ‘rat’ - PCEMP *mansar

bandicoot, marsupial 'rat' - PCEMP *mansər

bandit

bandit, robber, thief - *(loan)

bang

bang! - PMP *tak

bang! loud popping sound - PMP *paŋ

bump or bang into, collide unceremoniously - PWMP *sempuk

fall with a bang - PWMP *bundak

sound of a clang or bang - PMP *taŋ

banging

banging noise - *-beŋ₁ (root)

banish

discard, throw away; banish - PMP *buqaŋ

banished

one who is banished or cast out - PWMP *buaŋ-an

banishment

disposal of objects, banishment of people - PWMP *paŋ-buaŋ-an

bank

edge, bank, shore - PWMP *taŋepi

banner

banner, ensign - *(loan)

banner, pennant - *(loan)

banshee

witch, banshee - *(loan)

banyan

a tree: the banyan or strangler fig - PPh *balítiq

a tree: the banyan or strangler fig - PMP *nunuk

banyan, strangler fig - PEMP *qayawan

baptism

baptism - PPh *buniag

barb

barb - PWMP *sawit

barb of a hook - PPH *simaq

barb, point; canine tooth? - PAN-F *waqit

barbed, having a barb - PPH *simaq-an

thorn, spur, barb - PMP *beRtek

thorn, spur, barb, stinger of stingray - POC *potok

barbed

barbed, having a barb - PPH *simaq-an

barbed; sharp - PWMP *ruit

barbless

barbless spear - PWMP *baŋkaw

bare

bare (of trees) - *(loan)

bare the teeth - PMP *biŋis

bare the teeth - PMP *waŋis

bare the teeth - PMP *wiŋis

bare the teeth - *-ŋis (root)

bare the teeth in smiling or laughing - PMP *riŋis₁

bare, bald - PWMP *lasaŋ₁

bare, of trees - *(noise)

bare, uncovered - *(noise)

to lift, raise, uncover, bare something - PCMP *silu₁

trimmed short, as grass; bare (of a field) - PWMP *palpal₁

bargain

to bargain, haggle over the price - PWMP *tawaD

bark

Hibiscus tiliaceus, a tree the bark of which provides a fiber much used in making cordage; to lash, tie, bind - POC *paRu

bark cloth - PWMP *zaluaŋ

bark cloth? - PWMP *buyaŋ

bark of a tree; peel off bark - PWMP *pakpak₂

bark, croak - *-kaŋ₂ (root)

bark, rind, sheath; to peel off bark - PWMP *upak₁

husk, bark - PWMP *upis

kind of mangrove, Ceriops spp., with bark used for dyeing - PMP *teŋeR

kind of tree with bark that yields a vine-like fiber - PPH *lánut

paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material - PCEMP *malaw

peel off bark - POC *babak₂

peel off, of skin; remove the bark of a tree - PMP *bakbak₁

peel off, remove bark - PWMP *bakbak-an

skin, bark - POC *pinut

skin, bark, peel, shell - POC *kulit

skin; hide; rind; bark - PMP *kulit

to bark, as a hunting dog; shouting - PWMP *giak

to bark, of a deer - PAN *dekiŋ

to bark, of a dog - PAN *qawqaw

to bark, of a dog - PAN *hulhul₁

to bark, of a dog - PAN *q<um>aŋqaŋ

to flay, peel back or off, as bark or skin - PCEMP *sisi₃

to peel off skin, bark or leaves; excoriated, decorticated, defoliated - PWMP *laklak

tree bark - PWMP *ubak

barking

barking of a dog - PAN *qaŋqaŋ

muntjac, barking deer - PAN-F *sakeC

sound of cooing or barking - PMP *kuŋ

barn

rice barn, granary - PMP *lumbuŋ₂

barracuda

a fish, the barracuda - POC *qono₁

a fish: barracuda sp. - PMP *qalu

barracuda sp. - *(noise)

barren

sterile, barren, childless - PWMP *tamanaŋ

barrier

barrier, obstacle - PWMP *sabeD

dam, water barrier - PWMP *umpeŋ

fence, barrier; enclosure - PWMP *tendek₂

obstruction, barrier - PAN *qeCeŋ

obstruction, barrier - PMP *qeteŋ

Barringtonia

a shore tree: Barringtonia spp. - PMP *butun

a shore tree: Barringtonia spp. - PWMP *butuŋ

a shore tree: Barringtonia spp. - POC *putun₁

tree sp.: Barringtonia - *(noise)

trees in the genus Barringtonia - PMP *putat

barter

barter, trade - POC *poli poli

exchange barter - *(loan)

to barter, purchase by exchange - POC *poli-a

base

base of a tree; beginning; origin - POC *puna₁

base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother - PMP *puqun

coiled base on which cooking pots are set or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *riken

coiled base on which cooking pots are set, or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *Riken

coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set - PAN *Reken

coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set - PAN *reken

fibrous integument at the base of coconut fronds - POC *kaka₃

fibrous material at base of coconut frond - PPH *aqepis

hind part, rear, back; base, bottom - PMP *buRit₁

basin

basin - *(loan)

metal basin - *(loan)

basis

foundation, basis - *(loan)

foundation, basis - *(noise)

basket

basket - POC *laka₂

basket - *(loan)

basket - *(noise)

basket pouch - *(noise)

carrying pouch or small basket - PWMP *uyut₁

coconut leaf basket - POC *kaso₂

conical bamboo basket trap for fish - PAN *bubu₂

conical bamboo basket trap for fish - PWMP *buʔu

conical bamboo basket trap for fish - POC *pupu₂

herb used in making baskets: Donax cannaeformis - PWMP *benban

herb used in making baskets: Donax cannaeformis - PWMP *benben₂

kind of basket - *(noise)

kind of basket made of woven bamboo strips - PWMP *bakul

kind of basket with cover - PPH *suk(e)luban

kind of large basket or fish weir held in the hand - PPH *alát

kind of large carrying basket - PMP *Rantaŋ

kind of large openwork basket - PPH *kaqiŋ

large openwork basket - PPH *kaiŋ

large open-work basket - PPh *balúlaŋ

open the mouth wide, gape; gaping; opening of a bubu fish trap, basket, etc. - PMP *ŋaŋa₂

plant sp.: Donax canniformis, used as material for making baskets - PMP *niniq₁

rattan basket used to carry garden produce, etc. - PWMP *karanzaŋ

small basket; a unit of measure for dry goods - PPH *salúp

telescoping basket, double basket - PPH *tampipiq

to fish with a wickerwork basket trap - PWMP *maŋ-bubu

to plait, as mats or baskets - PWMP *man-laja

to plait, weave by hand, of baskets or mats - PWMP *laja

to plait, weave by hand, of baskets or mats - PPH *l<um>aja

tubular basket used to carry and store rice or sago - PWMP *basuŋ

type of basket - PWMP *ba(ŋ)kat

winnowing basket - PPh *bijaw

winnowing basket - PAN *Rinu

winnowing basket - PMP *niRu

winnowing basket - PMP *tahep-an

basketlike

basketlike container used to steam rice - PWMP *kuskus-an₂

basketry

kind of weaving pattern for basketry - PPH *p<in>usej

bast

a plant, the bast fibers of which are used in binding and plaiting: Maranta dichotoma - PWMP *banban

bat

bat sp. - PWMP *kula-la(m)baR

fruit bat, flying fox - POC *bweka

fruit bat, flying fox: Pteropus spp. - PMP *paniki

large fruit bat - PPH *kabég

batfish

batfish: Platax spp. - PMP *bunaR

batfish: Platax spp. - PMP *buna

bathe

bathe - POC *iu₁

bathe - PMP *ziuq

bathe - PAN *diRus

bathe - POC *siuq₂

bathe - *(noise)

bathe, swim - POC *loso-loso

to bathe - POC *riRus

wash, bathe, rinse - *-ñaw (root)

bat sp.

bat sp. - *(near)

batten

batten of a loom - PWMP *li(ŋ)ji

battle

to retreat, run from battle - PWMP *takaw₂

battlefield

battlefield - *(noise)

bay

bay - PWMP *luquk

bay, inlet - POC *tobwa

curved; bay - PAN *kiluŋ

TOP      be    bi    bl    bo    br    bu    

be

be

be, exist, have; not be, not have - PWMP *wada-i

be, exist, have; not exist, not have - PWMP *wada-q

be, exist, have; wealthy; not exist, not have - PMP *wada

beach

be lifted up or deposited on the beach by tide or current - POC *puRe₁

beach - POC *laŋi₁

beach creepers, including Ipomoea grandiflora and Ipomoea pes-caprae - POC *puRe₂

beach, shore - PPh *baybáy

creeping vine that grows on sandy beaches, the beach morning glory: Ipomoea pes-caprae - PPH *balinu

sandbank, sandbar; shore, beach - PWMP *pantad

beaches

creeping vine that grows on sandy beaches, the beach morning glory: Ipomoea pes-caprae - PPH *balinu

beaching

rollers for beaching a canoe - PMP *laŋen₁

rollers for beaching a canoe - POC *laŋon

rollers for beaching a canoe - POC *luŋan

bead

a cereal grass with edible seeds that are also used as beads, Job’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L. - PMP *zelay

beads - PAN *SiNuq

beads - PAN *uNuq

beads - PMP *hinuq

beads - PMP *unuq

beads - *(loan)

beads, necklace of beads - PAN *quNuq

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; to foam, to bubble; foam at the mouth; fond of talking; type of white bead - PMP *bujeq₂

string together, as beads - PAN *CuSuR

stringing of beads, skewering of fish, etc. - PMP *tuhuR

to string beads, etc. - PAN *C<um>uSuR

to string, as fish or beads - PPH *tuhuk

beak

beak of a bird; to peck - PAN *tuktuk₁

beak, bill; to peck, of birds, to bite, of a snake - PPH *tukaq

beak; to peck - PWMP *tu(ŋ)kuk

seize in the mouth or beak - PMP *ceŋap

seize in the mouth or beak - PMP *sa(m)bar

seize in the mouth or beak - PCEMP *seŋap

snout, beak - PWMP *uŋus

snout, beak - PWMP *suŋit₁

beam

beam - *(noise)

beam of light - PMP *silak₁

beam, house end - *(noise)

board, lumber, beam in house construction - PPH *tapiq₁

breast beam of a back loom - PMP *qatip₁

crosswise beam or shelf - POC *baRat, paRat

crosswise beam or shelf - POC *barat, parat

floor beam - PWMP *kalasaR

house beam - POC *oka₂

join together; beams used in house construction - PWMP *lipit

piece of wood used for a purpose; lie athwart, as a beam - PWMP *bali(n)taŋ

prop, supporting beam in house - PPH *tukal

support beams in a house - PMP *bara₂

support beams in a house - PMP *barabara₁

transverse beam or tree trunk - PWMP *bataŋ-an

transverse beam, thwart - POC *sokaŋ

transverse beams that support the roof of a house - POC *sokar

transverse beams that support the roof of a house; thwart or ribs of a boat - PMP *seŋkar

bean

bean, pea (generic) - PAN-F *qaRidaŋ

beans - *(loan)

castor bean: Ricinus communis L. - PAN *katawa

legumes, beans - PMP *buay₁

lima bean: Phaseolus lunatus - PPH *pataniq

the castor bean plant: Ricinus communis L. - PPH *katana

the mung bean: Phaseolus spp. - PWMP *balatuŋ

bear

bear children, give birth - PMP *ma-anak

bear down, press out, as in defecation or childbirth - PMP *maŋ-qezen

bear fruit - PWMP *maR-beRas

bear fruit - PWMP *maŋ-buaq

bear fruit - PWMP *maR-búŋa

bear fruit - PAN *maR-buaq

bear fruit; fruitful, filled with fruit - PMP *ma-buaq

bear, endure - *(loan)

bear, endure - *(noise)

flower, blossom; to flower, bear flowers; yield a benefit (as interest on a loan); first-born child; cotton; vulva (refined or evasive), skin rash, prickly heat; speckled (of fish); kidneys - PMP *buŋa

Formosan black bear - PAN-F *Cumay

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

give birth, bear a child - PWMP *um-anak

suffer, bear hardships - PWMP *hidap

the Malayan honey bear: Ursus malayanus - PWMP *biRuaŋ

the Malayan sun bear: Ursus malayanus - PWMP *baRuaŋ

bearable

bearable, able to be carried - PWMP *ka-taŋguŋ

beard

beard - PAN-F *ŋiSŋiS

beard - POC *kumʷi

beard, moustache - PWMP *sumpiŋ₁

moustache, beard - PMP *gumi

moustache, beard - PWMP *gumis

moustache, beard - PMP *kumis

bearing

bearing down, pressing out, as in defecation or childbirth - PMP *qezen

bearing fruit - PWMP *ma-búŋa

bearing fruit, fruitful - POC *puaq puaq

beat

beat out, thresh - PAN *paspas₁

beat the wings, flap the wings; sound of flapping - PMP *kapak

beat time on a drum or slitgong - POC *tutu

beat up, bruise someone - PPh *bunal

beat, crunch, break - PMP *kepuk

beat, flap the wings - POC *kabak

beat, hit - PAN *pekpek₁

beat, pound - PAN *CelCel

beat, pound - PWMP *seqseq

beat, pound - *(noise)

beat, pound, bump, thump - PAN *tutuh

beat, pound, hit - PAN *CegCeg

beat, pound; sound of rhythmic pounding - PMP *tugtug₂

beat, thrash - PMP *betbet

beat, thrash - PWMP *qantem

beat, thrash - PWMP *lasaq

beat, thrash - PWMP *maŋ-betbet

beat, throb, pulse - PWMP *petuk

beating stick; to hit, beat (esp. clothes in washing them) - PAN *balbal₁

clap, beat, hack - PAN *CabCab

hit, beat - POC *rotuk

hit, beat - *-peg (root)

hit, beat - *-teg (root)

hit, beat on - *-kug₂ (root)

hit, beat with hand or club in order to kill - PPH *palpál₁

hit, beat, thrash - PWMP *banat

hit, pound, beat - PMP *bukbuk₂

knock against, collide with, beat up - PWMP *bugbug

knock, pound, beat - PMP *butuk

knock, pound, beat - PMP *lambuk

knock, pound, beat - PMP *ra(m)buk

knock, pound, beat - PWMP *tugtug

knock, pound, beat - PMP *rambuk

knock, pound, beat - POC *putuk

knock, pound, beat - PMP *tegteg

knock, pound, beat - POC *rabuk

knock, pound, beat - *-Cuk (or *-Cuquk?) (root)

knock, pound, beat - *-tuk₂ (or *-tuquk?) (root)

pound on, hit, beat, or crush - PWMP *pilpil

pound, beat - PMP *dabuk₁

slap, beat on - PMP *bebak₂

slap, hit, beat - PWMP *upak₂

strike, beat - *-pag (root)

strike, beat; kill - POC *punuq-a

strike, beat; kill - POC *punuq-i

strike, beat; pierce; kill; extinguish (a fire) - POC *punuq₃

strike, whip, beat - PWMP *benal

tap or beat lightly on - PMP *gi(n)tik

tap or beat lightly on - POC *kidik

tap, beat - PPH *lab(e)tik

throb, beat - PMP *pi(n)tik

to beat metals - PPH *taŋtaŋ-én

to beat on something loudly - PAN *titik

to beat or pound - PWMP *ma-mekpek

to beat, pound - PWMP *ma-nutu

to beat, pound on - PWMP *tegteg

to beat, thrash - PWMP *puspus₂

to beat, whip - PAN *pitpit₃

to hammer, pound, beat - PAN *pukpuk

to knock, pound, beat - POC *tutuk₂

to knock, pound, beat - PWMP *ma-nuktuk

to knock, pound, beat; crush - PAN *tuktuk₃

to strike, beat, hit - PWMP *ma-mukpuk

beaten

be hit or beaten - PWMP *pukpuk-en

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

beating

beating of the heart; pulse - PWMP *keteg

beating stick; to hit, beat (esp. clothes in washing them) - PAN *balbal₁

clanging sound; to clang, as in beating metals - PPH *taŋtáŋ

beautiful

beautiful - *(loan)

new, fresh; recent(ly); youth, bachelor; beautiful, in one's prime - PMP *baqeRu

beautyberry

beautyberry: Callicarpa spp. - PPH *anayup

because

because - PPH *taq₁

conjunction: or, if; perhaps; because - PMP *ba₁

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

or, because, but, perhaps - POC *ba₁

beckon

beckon with the hand - PMP *away₁

beckon, wave - PAN *qalep

beckoning

to wave the hand, as in beckoning someone or in fanning oneself - PPH *paypáy

become

be or become wound around something - PAN *ma-litlit

be small, become small - PMP *itek

become a co-parent-in-law (?) - PWMP *baisan-an

become afraid - PMP *t<um>akut

become blind - PPh *maka-buta

become complete - PWMP *g<um>enep

become distracted or confused, as by noise - PPH *liŋáw

become four, divide into four (intr.) - PWMP *maR-epat

become hard or stonelike, harden - PWMP *b<um>atu

become itchy - PWMP *maka-gatel

become night, turn into night - PPH *R<um>abiqi

become painful (?) - PWMP *s<um>akit

become quiet or still - PWMP *q<um>eneŋ

become soft or weak (of things or people) - PMP *males

become, happen - PWMP *bali₁

darken, become black - PWMP *maŋ-qitem

dry out, become dry - PMP *asat

fall ill, become sick - POC *masakit-ia

harden one's feelings, become inured - PWMP *kalis

to become soft or overripe, as fruits that are kept too long - PPH *lúnus

to become tame or gentle - PPH *h<um>aq(e)muq

to fall ill, become very sick - PMP *ma-saki-sakit

to fill, cause to become full - PMP *pa-penuq

to fill, cause to become full - POC *pa-ponuq

to have become rotten - PAN *b<in>uRuk

to whiten; to become white - PWMP *ma-mutiq

becoming

becoming, fitting, appropriate - *(loan)

bed

bed - *(loan)

bed - *(noise)

bed, bier - *(noise)

cot, bed - *(loan)

dry stream bed - PWMP *laqaD

place where salt is found; salt beds - PPh *paŋ-qasin-an

shelf; bed frame of wooden or bamboo laths - PMP *pa(n)tar₂

sleeping place; bed - PWMP *pa-tuduR-an

sleeping place; bed - PWMP *tuduR-an

wake up, get out of bed - PAN *baŋuN

bedbug

bedbug - PWMP *atimel

bedbug - *(near)

kind of beetle or bedbug - PWMP *kutiŋ

bee

a small bee: Apis indica - PMP *qani-Ruan

a small bee: Apis indica - PMP *qari-ñuan

kind of honey bee - PWMP *patiukan

kind of mason bee or wasp - PWMP *hakut hakut

smoke out bees - PWMP *puhaR

been

anything which has been salted - PAN *qasiRa-en

bamboo which has been split and flattened - PAN *saqsaq

cooled off, as cooked food that has been left to sit too long - PAN *ma-baSaw

material that has been colored yellow with turmeric - PWMP *k<in>uñij-an

murkiness, turbidity, of water that has been stirred up - PPH *liqebeR

murky, turbid, of water that has been stirred up - PPH *ma-liqebeR

notch, as in a tree that has been cut prior to felling - PWMP *baŋbaŋ₇

place that has been dug up - PAN *k<in>alih-an

place that has been dug up - PMP *k<in>ali-an

place where ridgepole covering has been attached - PWMP *b<in>ubuŋ-an

that which has been taken; was taken by - PAN *in-alap

things that have been made, created objects - PWMP *paR-buhat-en

to have been split, cloven in two - PAN *b<in>elaq

what has been plaited or woven - PWMP *añam-en

what has been planted (?) - PWMP *t<in>anem

what has been said/done (to cause someone to react)? - PAN *k<in>uja

what has been salted; food preserved in salt - PWMP *q<in>asin

beeswax

beeswax - PMP *lilin

beeswax - PWMP *tadu

beetle

beetle - PMP *abuqaŋ

beetle - *(noise)

beetle sp. - PPh *abal abal

beetle sp. - PWMP *ampal

beetle sp. - *(noise)

coconut beetle, coconut blight - *(loan)

kind of beetle or bedbug - PWMP *kutiŋ

rhinoceros beetle - *(near)

before

day before yesterday - POC *waRisa

drive game before one - PPH *tabug

eat something before it is ready to eat - PWMP *maŋ-qataq

first, before, anterior in time - PMP *huna

first, before, anterior in time - PAN *(q)uNah

follow; drive animals before one - PWMP *maŋ-iriŋ

kind of brush made from coconut husk, used to scrub or polish a surface or to treat threads before weaving - PWMP *sikat

precede, go before - PPh *unah-unah

upstream; before - PMP *di qulu

beg

beg - *(loan)

beg, ask for - PMP *ŋeni

beg, ask for - POC *ŋoni

begin

begin - PWMP *belekas

begin - *-kas₁ (root)

begin anew - *(noise)

lift, carry, bring; emerge, appear, begin; take a spouse - POC *puat₂

to begin, start at the beginning - PPH *sapul

to itch, begin to itch - PWMP *g<um>atel

to lift, stand up, arise, emerge, begin, depart, carry; cargo; take something; take a wife - PMP *buhat₃

to sprout, begin to grow - PAN *tukul

beginning

base of a tree; beginning; origin - POC *puna₁

base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother - PMP *puqun

beginning to spoil, tainted (of food left uneaten too long) - PMP *baRiw

beginning to spoil, tainted (of food left uneaten too long) - PCEMP *baRi

over-ripe, beginning to rot - PPH *tupúk

to begin, start at the beginning - PPH *sapul

Begonia

a plant: Begonia aptera (Hay) - PAN-F *qanus₁

behavior

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

irregular behavior - *(loan)

behead

to behead, decapitate - PPH *pugut-an

behind

after, behind, stern of canoe - POC *muri

behind, after - PWMP *pa-udehi

behind, last - PMP *ma-udehi

disappear behind something that envelops or blocks the view - PAN *lipuC

embrace from behind, copulate by mounting from behind (of animals, or coarsely of humans) - PPH *takbá

hidden behind something else - PPH *limeŋ

last, come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child; west; young; outside - PCEMP *m-udi

last; come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child - PMP *udehi

line up one behind the other - PWMP *maR-aRak

rear, back, behind - *(noise)

separated, left behind - PPh *ma-bílin

take cover, hide behind - PPH *kub(e)li

the one who is behind (?) - PWMP *udehi-an

to follow after someone, walk behind - PAN-F *biliN

trailing behind - PMP *ikuR ikuR

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PMP *aRak

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PWMP *maŋ-aRak

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PWMP *aRak-aRak

behold

see, look at, behold - POC *qiro

being

body; spirit; spirit being - POC *tupuqa

person, human being - PAN *Cau

person, human being - PMP *tau₁

person, human being - PMP *tau-mata

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled in shallow water - PWMP *maR-tulak

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water - PMP *tulak

push with the feet; press feet against, set feet firmly to prevent being moved - PPH *sikad

soul of a living being; soul of the rice plant - PMP *sumaŋed

belch

a belch - PAN *CeRab

a belch - PMP *teRab

belch - POC *toRap

believable

true, believable, correct - POC *tuna

bell

ringing of a bell - PPH *kilíŋ

ringing of a bell - PPH *kililíŋ

to ring, of a small bell - PPH *kuliliŋ₂

bellow

harsh cry, bellow, loud cry - PMP *uak₁

belly

abdomen, belly - PAN *tiaN

abdomen, belly - PCEMP *kampuŋ

abdomen, belly - PMP *tian

be satiated, given a full belly - PWMP *besuR-en

belly - POC *kapwa

belly of an animal - PWMP *babat

belly strap - PWMP *amben

belly, abdomen - PWMP *beteŋ₂

belly; mind; seat of affections - POC *topwa

bulge, as the belly of a pregnant woman, a hunchback - PPh *buktút

front side; belly (of an animal?) - POC *qarop

swollen belly - PWMP *bentis

swollen, distended, of the belly - PWMP *buntuD

belongings

goods, belongings, things, possessions - *(loan)

below

below, beneath, under - POC *papaq₃

below, beneath; inside - PMP *i dalem

below, beneath; inside - POC *i rarom

come to the surface, appear from below - PWMP *timbul

hypogastrium, abdomen below the navel - PPH *pusequŋ

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - POC *ralom

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings, liver (fig.) - PMP *dalem

lower surface, bottom; short, low; below, beneath, under - PMP *babaq₁

support from below - *(noise)

under, below - PMP *ba₄

belt

belt - PWMP *beRet

belt, anything that encircles tightly - PMP *bakes₁

belt; tie around the waist - PAN *bakes₁

purse, money belt - *(loan)

tie around; belt - PPh *balíkis

tighten; belt - *-ReC (root)

to bind tightly; belt - PAN *SeReC

to bind tightly; belt - PMP *heRet

to come loose, as a belt - PPH *hulhul₂

belt or belt clasp

belt or belt clasp - *(loan)

bench

bench - *(loan)

bend

bend - PMP *beluk

bend - PWMP *lukuq

bend - PAN *tikel

bend curve - *-kuŋ (or *-kuquŋ?) (root)

bend curve - *-tuk₁ (root)

bend or pull down (as a branch) - PMP *tekuk

bend over - POC *rokuk

bend over, stoop - PMP *zuŋkuk

bend over, stoop - PMP *dukuq

bend over, stoop - POC *rukuq

bend the limbs, curl up the body - PWMP *kulkul

bend, bent - *(noise)

bend, bent, bowed - PMP *bu(ŋ)kuq

bend, bent, curved - PWMP *tikug

bend, bow - PAN *sekel

bend, curl - *-kel (root)

bend, curl - *(noise)

bend, curl up - PPh *balikutkút

bend, curve - PWMP *beluŋ

bend, curve - PMP *beŋkuq

bend, curve - PMP *bikuq

bend, curve - PMP *bilikuŋ

bend, curve - PWMP *buqekuŋ

bend, curve - PAN *du(ŋ)kuŋ

bend, curve - PMP *eluŋ

bend, curve - PWMP *siluk

bend, curve - PMP *leŋkuk

bend, curve - PWMP *lu(ŋ)kuq

bend, curve - POC *belu

bend, curve - PMP *pekuq₁

bend, curve - PMP *pikel

bend, curve - PMP *pi(ŋ)kuk

bend, curve - PWMP *qeluk

bend, curve - PWMP *tikur

bend, curve - PWMP *keluk

bend, curve - PWMP *tikuq₁

bend, curve - PMP *pikul

bend, curve - PMP *peluk

bend, curve - PAN *piku

bend, curve - POC *rokuŋ

bend, curve - *-ku(q) (root)

bend, curve - *-luk (or *-luquk?) (root)

bend, curve - *-luŋ₁ (root)

bend, flex - PWMP *hutuk

bend, fold, folding part of the body; curl up on the ground, of an animal - PMP *leku

bend, hook - PMP *tekuq

bend, stoop over - POC *oŋkol

bend, turn - PMP *pi(ŋ)keR

bend; bending part, joint - PWMP *lekuq₁

bend; crooked - POC *loki

bow, bend downward - PMP *dekuk

coil, curve, bend, fold; to coil, to curve, to bend, to fold - PMP *biŋku

curl, bend - *-kul₁ (root)

curve, bend around - PWMP *biŋkeluŋ

curve, bend, meander - POC *liko₂

curve, bend, winding - PAN *likaw

lower the head, bow or bend down - PWMP *tukuk

sag, bend under weight - PWMP *luyut

stoop, bow, bend over - POC *roko

to bend - POC *loguŋ

to bend backward, protruding the abdomen - PWMP *liad

to bend over - PMP *dekuŋ

to bend over, as a person - PMP *pikut₁

to bend, as an arm or leg - POC *lukun

to bend, bow - PWMP *liug

to bend, bow, submit - PWMP *tunduk

to bend, coil or wind up - POC *tali₂

to bend, curve - PPH *lituk₁

to bend, curve; bent, curved - PAN *pikuq₁

to bend, curve; bent, curved, crooked - PMP *kiluq

to coil, bend - POC *keke₂

bending

bend; bending part, joint - PWMP *lekuq₁

bend the head back

bend the head back - *(loan)

beneath

below, beneath, under - POC *papaq₃

below, beneath; inside - PMP *i dalem

below, beneath; inside - POC *i rarom

lower surface, bottom; short, low; below, beneath, under - PMP *babaq₁

benefit

flower, blossom; to flower, bear flowers; yield a benefit (as interest on a loan); first-born child; cotton; vulva (refined or evasive), skin rash, prickly heat; speckled (of fish); kidneys - PMP *buŋa

benighted

be overcome by darkness, be benighted - PPH *ma-Rabi-an

be overcome by night, benighted - POC *boŋi-a

overcome by darkness, benighted - PWMP *ka-beRŋi-an

Benincasa

the wax gourd: Benincasa hispida - PWMP *kundul

the wax gourd: Benincasa hispida - PWMP *kunduR

bent

bend, bent - *(noise)

bend, bent, bowed - PMP *bu(ŋ)kuq

bend, bent, curved - PWMP *tikug

bent - *(noise)

bent into a curve - PWMP *iŋkul

bent over, hunched - PWMP *ukuq

bent, crooked - PMP *buŋkuk

bent, crooked - *-kuk₁ (root)

bent, crooked, twisted - PMP *ma-kiluq

bent, curve, arch - PMP *beŋkuŋ

bent, curved - PMP *ci(ŋ)kuk

bent, curved - PWMP *piŋkuŋ

bent, curved - POC *sokuŋ

bent, curved - PCEMP *si(ŋ)kuk₂

bent, of the arm - PMP *siŋkul

bent, of the arm - PMP *sikut₁

bent, stooped - PMP *eŋkel

bent, twisted - PWMP *baliŋ₂

bent, twisted - POC *biko

bottom up, as a person bent far forward toward the ground - PWMP *tuad

crippled; bent or twisted, of the leg or foot - PAN *piluk₁

crooked, bent - PWMP *bilut

curved, bent - PMP *ba(ŋ)kuq

curved, bent - PMP *bekug

curved, bent - PMP *bekuk

curved, bent - PMP *bekul₁

curved, bent - PWMP *bikug

curved, bent - PMP *biŋkuk

curved, bent - POC *piŋkuk

curved, crooked, bent - PAN *biqut

curved, crooked, bent - PWMP *biquŋ

curved, crooked, bent - PWMP *tikuŋ

have a stiff or bent arm - PMP *si(ŋ)kuk₁

hunched over, bent - *-kut (root)

hunched, bent over - PWMP *hukuq

sloping, bent downward - PWMP *duyuŋ₁

stooped, bent (as the back) - PWMP *su(ŋ)kuŋ

to bend, curve; bent, curved - PAN *pikuq₁

to bend, curve; bent, curved, crooked - PMP *kiluq

beri

beri beri - *(loan)

berry

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

beseech

weep, cry; mourn; to beseech - PAN *Caŋis

beside

beside, next to - *(noise)

besides, except - PWMP *laban₁

besiege

surround, besiege - PWMP *kepuŋ

to surround, hedge in, besiege - PPH *k<um>ubkub

besieged

be surrounded, hedged in, besieged - PPH *kubkub-en

best part

essence, best part - *(loan)

bet

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

stake a bet in gambling - PWMP *pasaŋ₃

stakes in gambling, wager, bet - PPH *tayáq

to place a bet - PPH *i-tayáɁ

to store, put away for safekeeping, hide valuables; to place a bet in gambling; lay an egg - PMP *taRuq

betel

betel case - *(loan)

betel chew - PAN *apuR

betel nut case - PWMP *calapaʔ

betel nut case - PWMP *salapa

betel nut: nut of Areca catechu - PAN-F *Sawiki

betel pepper - PWMP *Rawed

betel pepper - PPH *gawed

betel pepper - *(loan)

betel pepper: Piper betle - PMP *bu-bulu

betel pepper: Piper betle - POC *pu-pulu

blackened, as the teeth with betel stains - PPH *deket₃

chew without intending to swallow, as betel nut; premasticate food to give to an infant; premasticated food - PMP *mamaq

chewed betel quid - PWMP *sapaq₃

chewed mass of food or betel nut in the mouth - PWMP *sepaq

fruit of the betel pepper - PAN *pudu

inferior type of betel nut - PMP *burun

leaf of a vine chewed with betel nut, betel pepper: Piper betle - PWMP *buyuq

plant chewed with betel that invigorates - *(loan)

prepare betel chew with lime - PPh *maR-qapuR

split, divide, break off; section of a betel nut - PMP *tebiq

to chew a betel quid - PWMP *mamaq-en

to spit out chewed betel quid - PPH *sapaq-en

betel nut

betel nut - *(loan)

betle

betel pepper: Piper betle - PMP *bu-bulu

betel pepper: Piper betle - POC *pu-pulu

leaf of a vine chewed with betel nut, betel pepper: Piper betle - PWMP *buyuq

betrayal

treachery, betrayal - PPH *liput₂

between

a cleft, space between two rocks - PEMP *mawa

atmosphere, space between earth and sky - PMP *awaŋ

atmosphere, space between earth and sky - PWMP *hawan

atmosphere, space between earth and sky - PWMP *hawan hawan

boundary between adjacent rice fields - PAN-F *Naqeji

carry a load between two people - PPH *tuaŋ₂

carry between two or more persons - PMP *bintiŋ

carry between two persons - PMP *qusuŋ

carry on a pole between two persons; help someone carry a load - PWMP *bulig

carry on a pole between two persons; help someone carry a load - PPh *bulig-an

carry on a shoulder pole between two people - PWMP *ataŋ₂

channel between islands or islets - POC *mata ni cawa

channel between two islands - POC *sawaŋ₂

co-parent-in-law, the kinship tie between the parents of a married couple - PWMP *baisan

co-parent-in-law, the relationship between parents of spouses - PPh *balaqih

crotch, space between thighs - PWMP *lakaŋ

crush between weights; press out - PPH *gimpis

crush lice between the thumbnails - PWMP *tedes

food particles caught between the teeth - PAN *CiŋaS

food particles caught between the teeth - PMP *tiŋah

insert between - PMP *selet

insert between, slip in - PPH *luq(e)kip

insert, slip between - PWMP *sisip

insert, slip between - PPH *saluksuk₂

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - POC *ralom

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings, liver (fig.) - PMP *dalem

interval, space between - PMP *qelet

narrow opening or passage between two things - PWMP *selat

narrow; pinch between tongs, etc. - PAN *kipit

peace, empathy, harmony between parties - PWMP *damay

pinch or squeeze between two surfaces - PPh *higpít

pinch, press between; fasten thatch together with slats in roofing a house - PMP *kapit

pinch, squeeze between - PMP *gepit

pinch, squeeze, press between two surfaces; pluck, pick off - PAN *pitpit₂

press between two flat surfaces - PMP *liq(e)pit

press between two flat surfaces; to press down, crush - PMP *luqepit

press together, press between two surfaces - PAN *Sapit

press together, press between two surfaces; part of the loom - PMP *hapit

press together; pressed together; carry under the arm, press between the legs - PMP *kepit

relationship between spouses of siblings - PPH *bilas

relationship between the sexes - *(noise)

rice between harvesting and cooking; husked rice - PAN *beRas

rice between harvesting and cooking; husked rice - PMP *beRas

space between earth and sky - *(noise)

space between two things - PWMP *qelet-an

split, torn; opening or water passage between two capes of land - PMP *beŋat₁

squeeze between thumb and finger - PWMP *pizet

squeeze between thumb and finger - PWMP *pi(n)zit

squeeze between; pinch, take between fingers - PMP *Ri(m)pit

squeeze, press between - PAN *qepit

to crush or mash between two hard surfaces - PMP *pipis₂

to insert between, intersperse - PPH *salét

to insert between, intersperse - PPH *i-salét

to insert between, intersperse - PPH *saletán

to pinch, hold between the fingers - PPH *pidut

to pinch, squeeze between - PWMP *ma-ñipit

valley, watercourse between hills - PWMP *le(m)baq

valley, watercourse between hills - PWMP *le(m)baŋ

beverage

be drunk by; what is drunk: drink, beverage - PWMP *inum-en

drink, beverage - PWMP *inum-an

bewail

bewail, lament - *(loan)

to cry for, cry over, mourn, bewail, weep for the dead - PMP *taŋis-i

bewitch

curse, hex; to bewitch; to criticize, find fault with - PPH *pintas

beyond

deep, of the sea; deep sea beyond the reef - POC *laman

exceed, surpass, go beyond - PWMP *lalaw

go beyond, go over, go past - PWMP *la(m)baŋ

go over and beyond - PPH *lápus

go over and beyond - PPH *l<um>ápus

go past, go beyond - PCEMP *sepat

to go past, go beyond, be excessive - PPH *lampás

TOP      be    bi    bl    bo    br    bu    

bi

bier

bed, bier - *(noise)

biflora

a climbing plant: Wedelia biflora - PMP *qatay qatay₁

bifurcation

bifurcation, fork of a branch - PMP *saŋa₁

fork of a branch; any forked structure; bifurcation - PAN *paŋa₁

forking, bifurcation - PPH *síŋit

big

big, great, large - POC *lapat

big, gross, coarse - PWMP *selaR

big, gross, coarse - PWMP *ma-selaR

big, huge; superlative - PCEMP *tinana

big, large - PAN *Raya

big, large - PMP *laba

big, large - POC *lapa

big, large - *(loan)

big, large (in size or quantity) - PPH *dakél

big-bellied

paunchy, big-bellied - PWMP *buyequŋ

paunchy, big-bellied - PPh *buyequŋ-an

big-eyed

a fish: the big-eyed scad Trachurops crumenophthalmus - PMP *qatulay

big-eyed - PPH *mata-an

bijuga

a hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga, Afzelia bijuga - PMP *qipil

bile

gall, gall bladder, bile - PWMP *qapejuq

gall, gall bladder, bile - PAN *qapejux

bilimbi

a tree and its edible fruit, the starfruit: Averrhoa bilimbi, Averrhoa carambola - PWMP *baliŋbiŋ

bill

beak, bill; to peck, of birds, to bite, of a snake - PPH *tukaq

billow

long rolling wave, swell, billow - PMP *qalun

to billow, swell (of waves at sea) - PWMP *maŋ-qalun

wave, billow, swell at sea - PWMP *humbak

bind

Hibiscus tiliaceus, a tree the bark of which provides a fiber much used in making cordage; to lash, tie, bind - POC *paRu

artificial cockspur; bind on an artificial cockspur - PWMP *bulaŋ

bind firmly - PWMP *tekes

bind the middle - PWMP *embet

bind the waist; band around the waist - PWMP *embej

bind tightly - PMP *qeRut

bind tightly - *(loan)

bind up; bundle - PWMP *beRkis

bind, bundle - PAN *baluN

bind, bundle, wrap in cloth; death shroud; cloth(ing) - PMP *balun₅

bind, bundle; wrap in cloth; death shroud; cloth(ing) - PCEMP *balun₃

bind, tie together - PWMP *biŋkis

bind, tie together by winding around - PWMP *maŋ-bejbej

that with which one binds something - PPh *i-bejbej

tie up, bind tightly - PWMP *tambej

tie, bind, attach to by tying - PAN *Siket

tie, bind, attach to by tying - PMP *hiket

tie, bind, wrap around - *-kis₂ (root)

to bind tightly; belt - PAN *SeReC

to bind tightly; belt - PMP *heRet

to bind together in a sheaf - PCMP *peu

to bind, tie the hands or feet - PWMP *Rapus-en

to bind, tie the hands or feet, as a person in detention, or an animal to be slaughtered; restraining rope - PMP *Rapus

to bind, tie tightly, probably of tying one thing which is moveable to another which is fixed - PPH *kedked

to bind, tie up (as a person) - PPH *balud

to bind, tie up (as a person) - PPH *i-balud

to bind, tie up (as a person) - PPH *balud-en

to bind, to fasten tightly by tying - PPH *i-takéd

to tie, bind - PCEMP *paqus₂

to tie, bind together - PWMP *maŋ-hiket

wind around, bind by winding around - PAN *litlit

wrap around repeatedly, bind by wrapping; bundle of wrapped material - PAN *bejbej₁

binding

a plant, the bast fibers of which are used in binding and plaiting: Maranta dichotoma - PWMP *banban

binding material, cordage; bundle - PPh *betek₁

cane cord used for heavy binding - *(loan)

fern used for tying and binding - POC *qasam

thing around which binding is wound - PWMP *bejbej-an

tie by binding - POC *kobot

tie by binding around - PMP *kebet₁

tie down, fasten by binding - PPH *takéd

tighten, make firm, of a binding - PWMP *maŋ-heRet

bipinnulata

a fish, the rainbow runner: Elagatis bipinnulata - POC *kamaRi

bird

a bird and its call, probably the tailor bird: Orthotomus atrogularis - PPH *tiwtiw

a bird sp. and its cry - PWMP *tuqaw

a bird, probably the swamphen - PPH *tiuk

a bird, tern sp. - POC *kiRa

a bird, the fantail: Rhipidura sp. - POC *takere

a bird, the Golden Whistler, Pachycephala spp. - POC *sau

a bird, the hornbill - POC *binam

a bird, the kingfisher - PWMP *bakaka

a bird, the quail - PAN *puRuq

a bird, the quail - PWMP *puyuq

a bird, the swallow - PWMP *pini

a bird, the swallow - PWMP *pinis

a bird, the swallow - PWMP *kala-pini

a bird: the Formosan bamboo partridge - PAN *tikuRas

a bird: the hornbill - PMP *kalaw

a bird: the kingfisher - PPh *balisúsu

a bird: the sandpiper (?) - PAN *suiq

a bird: the woodpecker - PAN *balalaCuk

beak of a bird; to peck - PAN *tuktuk₁

beak, bill; to peck, of birds, to bite, of a snake - PPH *tukaq

bird - PAN *qayam₁

bird - PMP *manu(k)-manuk

bird - *(loan)

bird clapper (to frighten them from fields) - *(loan)

bird sp. - PWMP *babuy₁

bird sp. - PAN *kalaw

bird sp. - PPh *ibun

bird sp. - PAN *tuiq

bird sp. - PPH *tikuq₂

bird sp. - PWMP *sui

bird sp. - *(loan)

bird sp. - *(noise)

bird sp.; to caw, crow - PAN *wakwak

bird; any flying creature - POC *manuk

chatter of birds - PWMP *seksek₂

chirping of birds; noise, sound - PAN *Suni

come to rest in a definite place, settle down, as birds on a tree - PMP *tekas

cut short, as a bird’s tail - PWMP *puŋgu

deep cry; bird with deep cry - PMP *kuak

deep resonant sound; name of a bird with deep resonant cry - PAN *ku(ŋ)kuŋ

fold the arms over the chest; fold the wings, of a bird - PWMP *kumkum

frigate bird - POC *katapa

frighten off birds or animals from the fields; place used to frighten off birds or animals from the fields - PWMP *buRaw-an

kind of bird and the sound of its call - PAN *kuaw

kind of bird that buries its eggs deep in the sand - PPH *tabun₁

kind of bird: pheasant-dove? - POC *kua kua

kind of raptorial bird, eagle or hawk - PWMP *kaŋkaŋ₄

kind of shore bird, possibly snipe - POC *pwipipi

kind of small bird and its cry - PWMP *pitpit₁

kind of small bird, probably finch or sparrow - PWMP *pipiqit

kind of water bird, the Oriental darter: Anhinga melanogaster - PPH *kasíli

kind of white bird: probably gull sp. - PMP *kanaway

kind of white sea bird, probably gull sp. - POC *kanawe

long tail feathers of bird or rooster - PMP *lawi₁

nest, as of a bird - PPH *pugad

omen bird: Alcippe spp. - PAN-F *SiSiN

owl sp., bird of bad omen - PWMP *bukaw

puffy area around the throat of some birds - PWMP *tambuluk

puling sound of a bird - PAN *kiaw

rice bird, small bird found in rice fields - PPH *máya

shore bird: sandpiper, Pacific Golden Plover - POC *kiwiwi

sit, squat; come to rest; stay in a place; settle down, as birds on a tree - POC *toka₃

small bird and its call - PWMP *kuŋkuŋ₅

small bird that produces a deep resounding call - PAN *kukuŋ₁

small bird with shiny black plumage: drongo - PWMP *cawi

snare birds with bird lime - PWMP *mamikat

snare birds with bird lime - PWMP *mamiket

sparrow or similar bird - PAN *tutut

tailless, of birds - PWMP *puŋguk

to soar, glide, hover, as birds of prey - POC *tapa₃

type of finch, rice bird - PWMP *ampeRij

type of finch, rice bird - PWMP *apiRit

white bird - *(noise)

birdlime

birdlime - POC *bulut

birdlime, sticky sap of breadfruit, etc. - PMP *pulut

sap used as birdlime - PWMP *pikat

Birgus

coconut crab: Birgus latro - PMP *qayuyu

coconut crab: Birgus latro - PPH *tatus

birth

act of giving birth (?) - PWMP *paR-anak

be born, give birth - *(noise)

bear children, give birth - PMP *ma-anak

give birth - PMP *pañaRu

give birth - PPH *i-anak

give birth - PWMP *maŋ-anak

give birth - PWMP *anak-an

give birth to - PWMP *mampaR-anak aken

give birth to, have a child - POC *pasu₃

give birth, bear a child - PWMP *um-anak

give birth; have a child - PMP *maR-anak

time of birth (?) - PWMP *ka-anak-an

womb, uterus; birth canal - PWMP *paR-anak-an

birthmark

any natural mark on human skin: birthmark, freckle, mole - PMP *qila

Bismarck

Bismarck scrub fowl: Megapodius eremita - POC *kikau

Bismarck scrub fowl: Megapodius eremita - POC *kipau

bit

a little bit - PWMP *sa-etik

broken bit of pottery, potsherd - PWMP *biqbiq₁

broken to bits - PMP *mekmek

budge, move a bit - *-suD (root)

chip off, cut off bit by bit - PWMP *sapsap₁

cut chips or bits from something, scrape off - PPH *dapdáp

fly off, of solid bits or water droplets - PAN *lecik

last burning bit; to snuff out a spark - PMP *latu

little bit - PWMP *ka-isut

morsel, bit, as of food - PPH *mikmik

to cut off small pieces; to chip off bit by bit - PWMP *ma-ñapsap

bite

ant sp. with venomous bite - PMP *me(n)tik

beak, bill; to peck, of birds, to bite, of a snake - PPH *tukaq

bite - PMP *a(ŋ)kit

bite - PWMP *i(ŋ)kit

bite - *-ket (root)

bite (imperative) - PAN *kaRaC-i

bite down hard - PAN *kemkem₂

bite down on - *(noise)

bite off the surface of something - PAN *ŋabŋab

bite, bitten off, of food - PPH *suŋit₂

front teeth, incisors; gnaw, to bite or tear off with the incisors - PMP *gutgut₁

kind of large red tree ant with bad bite - PWMP *alagaq

the bite of an animal - PAN *k<in>aRaC-an

to bite - PWMP *baŋiq

to bite - PMP *keteb

to bite - PAN *kaRaC

to bite - PWMP *gigut

to bite - PMP *ketep₁

to bite - POC *kati₂

to bite - PMP *um-a(ŋ)kit

to bite - PMP *kaRat

to bite - PWMP *ma-ŋaRat

to bite - POC *kaRati

to bite - PAN *k<um>aRaC

to bite - PMP *k<um>aRat

to bite - *-kit₁ (root)

to bite, gnaw - PWMP *ketket

to bite, gnaw - PWMP *kitkit

to sting or bite, of an insect - PAN *seŋet₂

biting

hold by biting carry in the mouth - *(near)

horsefly, large biting fly - PWMP *piket₁

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting - PMP *kemi

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting - POC *komi

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting’ - PMP *gemi

tiny biting insect - PCEMP *ñiñik

tiny biting insect: gnat, sandfly - PMP *ñikñik

to seize with the teeth, hold by biting - PMP *taŋáR

bitten

bite, bitten off, of food - PPH *suŋit₂

to be bitten - PPH *kaRat-en

to be bitten - PAN *ma-kaRaC

to be bitten - PMP *ma-kaRat

bitter

acrid or bitter taste - PWMP *pelet

bitter - PAN *ma-paqiC

bitter - PWMP *ma-paqit

bitter melon: Momordica charantia L. - PWMP *paria

Bitter orange Seville orange: Citrus aurantium - *(loan)

bitter(ness) - PMP *paqit₂

bitter, poisonous - POC *ŋaŋa₁

taste of unripe banana; slightly bitter or astringent taste - PMP *apeled

the bitter melon: Momordica charantia - PWMP *pariaq

bitterness

hotness of taste, spiciness; bitterness - PAN *paqiC

bivalve

bivalve mollusc, possibly Pinna sp. - POC *sapulu

bivalve mollusk sp., lucine clam - PMP *bibi₁

bivalve mollusk sp., lucine clam - POC *bibi₂

bivalve species used as a scraper - POC *kaRi₂

to scrape; scraper or grater made from circular bivalve shell: Asaphis spp. - POC *kasi

Bixa

a plant: Bixa orellana - PWMP *galugaʔ

TOP      be    bi    bl    bo    br    bu    

bl

black

black - PMP *qitem

black - PAN-F *qeCeŋeN

black - *(near)

black ant, probably sugar ant - PWMP *sejem

black magic - *(noise)

black, deep blue - PMP *ma-qitem

black; dirty - PCEMP *ma-qitem, ma-qétem

dark color: black - PWMP *beleŋ

dark, black - PWMP *qi(n)dem

dark, obscure; black - PMP *tidem

darken, become black - PWMP *maŋ-qitem

deep black, shiny black - PWMP *li(n)tem

Formosan black bear - PAN-F *Cumay

large black ant with painful sting, probably bulldog ant - POC *kadik

pig bristles; type of sea urchin with thin black spines - PMP *bulu ni babuy

sea urchin with long black spines - PPH *tayeŋ

small bird with shiny black plumage: drongo - PWMP *cawi

striped with red and black - PWMP *kuriŋ

blackened

blackened - PPh *bilu₁

blackened, as the teeth with betel stains - PPH *deket₃

blacksmith

blacksmith - *(loan)

blacksmithing

blacksmithing - *(near)

bladder

bladder - PAN *sebu

bladder - POC *pupu₃

bladder (?) - PAN *sibu

gall, gall bladder - PAN-F *paqeju

gall, gall bladder, bile - PWMP *qapejuq

gall, gall bladder, bile - PAN *qapejux

gall, gall bladder, octopus sepia - POC *qasu₂

lower stomach, bladder - PWMP *kempuŋ

lower stomach, bladder - PMP *kambu

urinary bladder - PPH *pantug

blade

blade of a knife - PWMP *mata nu pisaw

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

flesh (of humans, animals, fruits, tubers); contents; blade of a knife; inhabitants, residents - PAN *isi₅

implement with curved blade: adze; hammerhead shark - PMP *biŋkuŋ

leaf; blade of paddle or oar; ‘table’ for eating - PMP *dahun

nick or dent on the cutting edge of a blade - PPH *lupiŋ

scapula, shoulder blade - PWMP *balikat

sharpened blade or point - PMP *tazem

tang of a knife, etc. which fits into the haft to attach blade and handle - PMP *utiŋ

bladed

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born - PMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - PCEMP *qulu

blame

accusation, blame - *(loan)

blame someone for something - PPh *besqel

blame someone for something - PPH *básul

resent, blame; resentment, jealousy - PAN *qijap

to blame, accuse - PPH *luya₃

to blame, accuse of error or fault; to punish - PMP *pa(ka)-salaq

to blame, assign fault to (?) - PWMP *salaq-an

blamed

missed (as a target); blamed - PWMP *s<in>alaq

Blanco

cooking banana: Musa sapientum Linn. var compressa. Blanco - PWMP *sabeqa

blanket

blanket - *(loan)

blanket, coverlet - *(noise)

cover, as with a blanket - PCMP *atek

to wrap in a blanket to keep warm - PPH *kumut

blaze

hack a passage through vegetation, blaze a trail - PMP *bentas

bleat

bleat - *(loan)

bleed

blood; to bleed; menstruate - PAN *daRaq

to bleed - PWMP *maR-daRaq

bleeding

bloody, bleeding; to menstruate - PAN *ma-daRaq

blend

choral singing; to blend voices in song - POC *jaRu

to mix, blend - PCMP *balik₁

blenny

goby, blenny - POC *kakawa₂

blessing

blessing - *(loan)

blight

coconut beetle, coconut blight - *(loan)

blind

become blind - PPh *maka-buta

blind - PWMP *pesit

blind - POC *piloR

blind - PAN *ma-buCa

blind - PMP *ma-buta

blind - *-cek (root)

blind - *(near)

blind in one eye - PPh *buldíŋ

blind in one eye - PWMP *picek

blind; blindness - PCEMP *buta₂

Formosan blind mole: Talpa micrura insularis (Swinhoe) - PAN-F *mumu

mote in the eye; blind; blindness - PAN *buCa

mote in the eye; blind; blindness - PMP *buta₁

somewhat blind; feign blindness - PWMP *buta buta₁

to blind - PWMP *maŋ-buta

blinded

dazzled, blinded by glaring light - PWMP *siraŋ

blindness

blind; blindness - PCEMP *buta₂

blindness - PWMP *ka-buta

mote in the eye; blind; blindness - PAN *buCa

mote in the eye; blind; blindness - PMP *buta₁

somewhat blind; feign blindness - PWMP *buta buta₁

blink

blink, wink - PWMP *ki(n)zep

blink, wink - PWMP *pidek₁

blink, wink - PWMP *kesap

blink, wink, close the eye briefly - PPH *kimit

blink, wink, flicker, flash - PWMP *ki(n)sap

blink; flash - PMP *kimet

to blink - PAN *kedip

to blink - PAN *kelip

to blink, wink, momentarily close the eye - PWMP *kezep

wink, blink - PWMP *izap

wink, blink - PWMP *izep

wink, blink - PAN *pedek

blister

blister - PWMP *lem(e)tub

blister - PWMP *letub

blister - PWMP *letup

blister; blistered - PWMP *lagetub₂

callus, blister - PAN *beCuʔ

callus, blister - PMP *betuʔ₂

callus, corn; blister - PAN *buCu

callus, corn; blister - PMP *butu₁

blistered

blister; blistered - PWMP *lagetub₂

hot; blistered by heat - PAN *lasuq₁

bloated

bloated - PWMP *bu(n)tu

bloated, swollen - PWMP *buntuR

bloated, swollen (of the belly) - PMP *buntuʔ

filled with air, bloated - PWMP *haŋin-an

block

ambush, block the way; obstacle, hindrance - PMP *abaŋ₁

ambush, block the way; obstacle, hindrance - PMP *qambat

block, hinder, obstruct - PWMP *ayum

block, obstruct - PWMP *benben₁

block, obstruct - PWMP *ta(m)beŋ

block, obstruct - POC *opoŋ

block, obstruct, dam a stream - PMP *empeŋ

block, obstruct; something which separates one area from another - PWMP *ataŋ₁

block, stop, dam - *-beŋ₂ (root)

chopping block used to prepare food - PWMP *saŋkalan

chopping block, cutting board - PPH *tadtad-án

disappear behind something that envelops or blocks the view - PAN *lipuC

obstacle; block, obstruct the flow - PWMP *tubeŋ

obstruct, block the way - PWMP *hambeŋ

obstruct, block the way - PWMP *qambeŋ

to block passage, oppose movement; come to a temporary stop - PPH *saR(e)ked

to block the way, ambush someone - PWMP *maŋ-abaŋ

to block, to dam up - PMP *ubeŋ

blocked

blocked, as by a wall or curtain - PAN *beŋbeŋ₁

blocked, plugged, dammed; mute, unable to speak - PWMP *beŋbeŋ

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

dull, blunt; blocked, plugged; stupid - PMP *belbel₁

dull, blunt; blocked, plugged; stupid - PCEMP *bebel

plugged, stopped, blocked - PMP *ka(m)pet

stuffed, crowded; blocked, clogged - PWMP *petpet₂

blood

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon - PAN *huRaC

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root - PMP *uRat

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; sinew; tendon; ligament; fiber; tough, sinewy - POC *uRat

artery, major blood vessel - PWMP *uRat i daRaq

blood - POC *toto

blood - POC *draRaq

blood - *(noise)

blood; to bleed; menstruate - PAN *daRaq

menstrual blood? - PAN-F *damuq

stanch the flow, as of blood - PWMP *ampet

stench of fish or blood - *(noise)

to make an incision to draw blood - PPH *kaldít

bloodline

inherited characteristic; bloodline - PPH *pulí

bloody

bloody - PMP *daRa-daRaq

bloody, bleeding; to menstruate - PAN *ma-daRaq

blossom

blossom - *(loan)

blossom of a fruit tree - PMP *buŋa na kahiw

blossom of the areca or coconut palm - PWMP *mayaŋ

flower, blossom - PMP *buŋaŋ

flower, blossom - PAN *buŋa

flower, blossom - POC *puŋa₁

flower, blossom of fruit tree - PPH *sabuŋ₂

flower, blossom; to flower, bear flowers; yield a benefit (as interest on a loan); first-born child; cotton; vulva (refined or evasive), skin rash, prickly heat; speckled (of fish); kidneys - PMP *buŋa

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; break up, dismantle, demolish - PWMP *bekaj

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; split open, break up, dismantle, demolish - PMP *be(ŋ)kaR

unfold, open up, blossom - PPh *buklad

blotches

have dark blotches on the skin - PMP *qila-qila

blow

blow hard; snort, pant - PMP *qembus

blow on or into - POC *upi-a

blow out, force out - PMP *leput

blow the nose - POC *paŋusi

blow the nose - *(noise)

blow the nose by pinching off one nostril - PMP *eseŋ

blow, blow on (a fire, etc.) - PWMP *maŋ-heyup

cause the wind to blow - POC *paka-aŋin

coup-de-grace, fatal blow - PPH *lunsan

defend oneself, parry a blow - PWMP *taŋgul

gentle breeze; blow gently, of the wind - PWMP *sap(e)quy

glancing blow; chop - PWMP *tigtig

hit, strike a heavy blow - PMP *sambak

nasal mucus; blow the nose - PWMP *seŋa₁

puff, blow suddenly - PWMP *eput

puff, blow, expel air rapidly, as in using a blowgun - PMP *putput₂

snort, sniff; blow air through the nostrils - PWMP *eŋkus

to blow - PCEMP *buu₁

to blow - PWMP *hayup

to blow - POC *ipi₁

to blow - POC *buRu₁

to blow - PCEMP *upi

to blow - POC *puu

to blow - PAN *S<um>eyup

to blow - PMP *h<um>eyup

to blow - *(noise)

to blow on, fan - PWMP *maŋ-tiup

to blow, as the wind - POC *pusi

to blow, as the wind - PWMP *maR-heyup

to box, give a blow - PWMP *pegpeg

to box, give a blow - PWMP *peRpeR

wind that blows from the north - POC *tokalaur

blowfly

bluebottle, blowfly, horsefly - PMP *laŋaw

blowgun

blowgun - PWMP *seput-an

blowpipe, blowgun - PWMP *seput

blowpipe, blowgun - PMP *sumpit

puff, blow, expel air rapidly, as in using a blowgun - PMP *putput₂

blowing

blowing on (a fire, etc.) - PAN *Seyup

blowing on (a fire, etc.) - PMP *heyup

blowing on, fanning - PMP *tiup

hollow cane for blowing on the fire - PWMP *heyup heyup

place of blowing - PAN *Seyup-an

place of blowing - PMP *heyup-an

blown

be blown - PWMP *heyup-en

blown away by the wind - PWMP *palij

blown away by the wind - PWMP *palis₁

blown off course - PWMP *babas

blowpipe

a tree: Antiaris toxicaria; poison for blowpipe darts made from the sap of this tree - PWMP *qipuq

blowpipe - *(noise)

blowpipe (?) - PWMP *puput-an

blowpipe dart - PMP *anak i sumpit

blowpipe, blowgun - PWMP *seput

blowpipe, blowgun - PMP *sumpit

shoot with a blowpipe - PWMP *ma-ñeput

shoot with a blowpipe - PWMP *ma-numpit

blue

black, deep blue - PMP *ma-qitem

blue - *(loan)

dark blue, bluish-black - PMP *buluŋ₁

dark green, dark blue - POC *buluŋ₃

the male of Swinhoe’s blue pheasant - PAN-F *RiNaS-an

blue-black

blue-black - *(near)

bluebottle

bluebottle, blowfly, horsefly - PMP *laŋaw

bluebottle, large fly - PAN *beRŋaw

blue-green

blue-green - POC *kara-karawa

blue-green - POC *karawina

intense green or blue-green - POC *keja

bluish-black

dark blue, bluish-black - PMP *buluŋ₁

blunt

blunt - *(noise)

blunt dull - *(loan)

blunt, dull - PMP *pudul

blunt, dull - PMP *tultul

blunt, dull - POC *burul₁

blunt, dull - *-pul (root)

dull, blunt - PWMP *budul

dull, blunt - PMP *de(m)pul

dull, blunt - PMP *dumpul

dull, blunt - PWMP *ku(n)dul

dull, blunt - PMP *tumpel

dull, blunt - PMP *tumpul

dull, blunt - PWMP *ŋazel

dull, blunt - PWMP *ma-ŋazel

dull, blunt; blocked, plugged; stupid - PMP *belbel₁

dull, blunt; blocked, plugged; stupid - PCEMP *bebel

worn out by overuse; broken; blunt - PPH *pudpud

blurred

blurred, of vision - PMP *balabuR

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - PAN *bulaR₁

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - PWMP *buleheR

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - PPh *bulág

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - POC *pulaR₂

blurry

fog, haze, mist; indistinct, blurry - PMP *kabut

TOP      be    bi    bl    bo    br    bu    

bo

boar

canine tooth; tusk, as of wild boar - PPH *sauŋ

male pig, boar - PPh *butakál

tusk of wild boar - PAN-F *waNiS

tusks of a boar - PMP *quntu

wild boar - PAN-F *waNiS-an

board

board, lumber, beam in house construction - PPH *tapiq₁

board, plank - *(noise)

board, plank, side of canoe - POC *baban

chopping block, cutting board - PPH *tadtad-án

curved, warped, as a board - PWMP *tikul

plank, board; floor boards of house - PMP *papan

sled or board used for dragging materials (?) - PPH *guyúd-an

boast

proud, boast - *-gak₁ (root)

boastful

proud, boastful - PPh *hambúg

boat

bamboo punting pole; to pole a boat in shallow water - POC *tokon

be poled forward, of a boat in shallow water - PWMP *teken-en

boat - PMP *paraqu

boat - PMP *baŋkaq

boat - *(loan)

boat, canoe - PAN *qabaŋ₁

canoe, small boat - PPH *lunday

capsize, of a boat; sink - PWMP *kaRem

Chinese boat - *(loan)

communal boat - PPh *baraŋgay

descend; go down; land from a boat - POC *sipo

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born - PMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - PCEMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - POC *qulu

heavily laden, as a boat that is low in the water - PWMP *saRad

keel of a boat - PWMP *lunas

kind of large boat - PWMP *baraŋay

kind of sailing boat - PMP *baluk₁

last, come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child; west; young; outside - PCEMP *m-udi

last; come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child - PMP *udehi

lower or let down, as on a rope; pay out fishline; launch a boat - PMP *huluR

mooring place, place where a boat is tied - PWMP *talih-an

pair of boats joined by a connecting platform - PWMP *banduŋ

palm leaf awning, usually on boats - PMP *kazaŋ₂

passage for a boat? - PCEMP *solat

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something; wake of a boat; the Milky Way - PMP *zalan

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled in shallow water - PWMP *maR-tulak

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water - PMP *tulak

rear part, stern or rudder of a boat - PMP *kama-udehi

ridge of the roof; ridge of a mountain, peak; deck of a boat; cover the ridgepole with thatch - PMP *bubuŋ₁

steer a boat - POC *palo₁

stop by, to moor a boat - *(noise)

take passage, catch a ride in someone else’s boat - PWMP *tumpaŋ₂

to load, as cargo on a boat - POC *Rucan

to turn around, as a boat - PPH *kábig

to turn around, as a boat - PPH *kabíg-en

transverse beams that support the roof of a house; thwart or ribs of a boat - PMP *seŋkar

type of boat, possibly dugout with outrigger - PWMP *bilug

bob

bob on the surface of the water; float - PPH *kataŋ-kataŋ

bobbed

cut short, bobbed; short in stature - PWMP *putut₂

bodies

to shine, of heavenly bodies - PMP *cilak

to stop something in mid-course, of bodies in motion - PPH *saŋga₂

bodily

hydropoesia, bodily swelling caused by water retention - PMP *belbel₂

hydropoesia, bodily swelling caused by water retention - POC *popol

body

abscess, boil, swelling on the body - PAN *baReq

apply oil or paint to the body - POC *pani₂

bend the limbs, curl up the body - PWMP *kulkul

bend, fold, folding part of the body; curl up on the ground, of an animal - PMP *leku

body - PWMP *lawas₂

body - PWMP *lawa₄

body - *(loan)

body fluid from a corpse - PWMP *saRu₂

body hair - PAN-F *gumuN

body hair, feather - POC *lamu₂

body hair, feathers - PPh *bulbúl

body hair, fur, feathers, floss on plants - POC *pulu₃

body hair; fur; feather; down; antenna of insect or crustacean; spikes of sea urchin; floss on plant skins, color; type, kind - PCEMP *bulu₁

body hair; fur; feather; down; floss on plant stems; color; type, kind - PMP *bulu₁

body part - PAN *kiCiŋ

body shape - PWMP *paR-hawak-an

body; spirit; spirit being - POC *tupuqa

clothes louse; body louse - PAN *CumeS

clothes louse; body louse - PMP *tumah

clothes louse; body louse - PCEMP *tuma

disease that causes swelling of body parts - PWMP *baguq

enclosed body of water - *-naw₁ (root)

fish with a thin, elongated body: long tom - PMP *selu

follow the edge of a body of water, as in going upstream - PMP *sulsul₁

knock against, of body parts - PMP *ga(n)tuk

long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying - PAN *Sabit

long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying - PMP *habit

nudity, exposure of the body - PWMP *pukas₁

plant used for perfuming the body - POC *bubu₃

pull at body part; hold something dangling from the fingers - PMP *bitbit₂

pull at some part of the body - PAN *bitbit₁

put on clothing, wrap around body - PMP *suluŋ₂

sliver, splinter, foreign body embedded in the flesh - PAN *uNay

small shallow body of water - PWMP *baqeluŋ

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - PMP *buRah

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - POC *puRa

swelling of the body - PAN *bedul

swelling of the body - PMP *bendul

tiny parasite on the body, itch mite, chicken louse - PMP *kuman

to scrape, with motion away from body - POC *ori

to stand; stretch out, as the body - PMP *kedeŋ

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PAN *SuRas

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PMP *huRas

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PEMP *uRas

wash the body - PAN *bañaw

wash the body - PAN *ma-bañaw

boil

a boil - POC *baRoq

abscess, boil, swelling on the body - PAN *baReq

boil, abscess - PMP *bisul

boil, abscess - PWMP *bitul

boil, abscess - POC *lotos

boil, carbuncle - PWMP *pi(R)sa

boil, carbuncle - *(noise)

break out in boils - PPh *apúy

cook, boil - *(noise)

core of a boil - PMP *mata nu bisul

core of a boil - PWMP *mata nu piRsa

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

kind of tree the leaves of which are used as poultices for boils - PMP *buqaR

swell up, as boiling rice; boil over - PMP *luab

to boil food - POC *sakan

to boil sugarcane to make sugarcane wine - PPH *abuyu

to boil, effervesce - POC *ririq

to boil, of water - PPH *subu

to boil, to cook - PWMP *ma-nanek

to boil, to cook - PWMP *maR-tanek

to bubble, as liquid that is starting to boil; to boil, of water - PMP *diqdiq

to swell, boil - POC *paRaq₁

boiled

boiled foods other than rice - PMP *t<in>anek

boiled foods other than rice? - PAN *t<in>aNek

boiling

bubbling, boiling - PMP *bukbuk₁

cook by boiling - PAN *nasuk

cook by boiling - PAN *Nasu

cook by boiling - PMP *nasu

sound of boiling water - PAN *gurgur₁

swell up, as boiling rice; boil over - PMP *luab

boisterously

laugh boisterously - PWMP *bahak

bold

bold, rude; brave - PPH *tapaŋ₂

brave, bold - POC *paRane

brave, bold, daring - PWMP *ma-baRani

enter, penetrate; bold, of persons - PMP *tama₂

enter, penetrate; bold, of persons - PMP *tamaq₂

bolo

bolo, machete - *(loan)

hilt of knife or bolo; to support - PWMP *saŋga₁

machete, bolo; chop with a machete - PWMP *tabas

sheath for bolo or knife - PPH *kaluban

sword, kris, bolo - *(loan)

to hack, chop off, trim with a bolo; pound, beat, knock on - PWMP *tabtab₁

bolt

bolt lock - *(loan)

bomb

bomb - *(loan)

bone

ankle bone - PCEMP *buku ni qaqay

ankle bone - POC *buku ni waqay

ankle bone (?) - PMP *lali

ankle bone (?) - PMP *laliŋ

bone - POC *tuqa₂

bone marrow - PAN-F *NuqeS

cheek bone - PAN *pasu₁

cheek bone - PMP *pasuŋ

collar bone (?) - *(near)

condylous bone, bone of fauna exclusive of fish - PWMP *tuqelaŋ

condylous bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish - PAN *CuqelaN

condylous bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish - PMP *tuqelan

crooked, of limbs; bone fracture - PWMP *lepuq₁

cut meat from the bone - PPH *laplap₂

dislocated, of bones - PWMP *salaq₂

gnaw meat off bones - PWMP *kilkil

massaging, setting of bones - PPh *hílut

protruding, of the bones of a skinny (bony) person - PWMP *ka-tuqela-tuqelaŋ

remove the bones from meat or fish - PWMP *ma-nuqelaŋ

thorn, splinter, fish bone - POC *suRi₁

thorn, splinter, fish bone - PMP *duRi

thorn; splinter; fish bone - POC *ruRi

to massage, set bones - PPh *hílut-en

wrist bone - PCEMP *buku ni lima

wrist bone - POC *buku ni lima

bone-dry

parched, bone-dry - PWMP *baRetiq

bonito

a fish, the skipjack tuna or bonito - POC *qatun

bony

bony - PPH *ma-tuqelaŋ

boom

outrigger boom - POC *kiajo

outrigger boom - POC *kayajo

prop, support, as the boom of a sail - PWMP *sukuŋ

sticks that connect the float to the booms of an outrigger canoe - PEMP *patoto

to boom, resound - PAN *teguŋ

booming

booming sound - PMP *betuŋ₂

booming sound - PMP *tuŋ

booming sound - *(noise)

deep booming sound - PAN *deruŋ

deep booming sound - PWMP *daRehuŋ

loud, sonorous, booming - PWMP *tebaR

make a booming sound - PAN *CuŋCuŋ

to rap, knock, make a booming sound - PAN *tekuŋ₂

booming sound

booming sound - *(near)

boom of a sail

prop, support, boom of a sail - *(loan)

booty

booty, war captive; what is taken in war; elopement, captured bride - PMP *taban

border

border on, neighbor; peer, equal - PWMP *sidiŋ

border, boundary - PWMP *balej

border, boundary - PMP *bates

border, edge - PWMP *qiriŋ₁

border, side, edge - PWMP *p<al>idpid

boundary, border - PMP *supu

edge, border - PPh *beŋet₁

edge, border - *(noise)

near, come near; edge, border - PMP *ipit

rim, edge, border - PMP *birbir₁

rim, edge, border - PWMP *su(m)bir

side, edge, border - POC *taba₂

side, edge, border - PWMP *piRpiR₁

borderline

borderline, edge, as of roof or garment - PPH *sanipa

bore

bore a hole, drill - *(noise)

bore through - *(loan)

lower part of a river; tidal bore - PMP *bena

bored

eat too much, be cloyed, overfull, tired of something through excess; bored - PWMP *sáwaq

uncomfortable feeling; feel bored, or uneasy about something - PPH *saw(e)qa

boring

insect that infests wood and bamboo; dust produced by the boring of this insect - POC *pupuk₂

weevil that infests wood, bamboo, and rice; dust produced by the boring of this insect; tooth decay, dental caries - PMP *bukbuk₃

born

be born, give birth - *(noise)

Chinese born in Indonesia - *(loan)

originate; related by common origin; be born - POC *pusa₁

borrow

borrow - PPh *bulud-en

borrow - PWMP *maŋ-hinzam

borrow - PPh *maŋ-hedam

borrow - *(near)

borrow from (someone) - PWMP *hinzam-i

borrow, be in debt - PMP *elet₁

borrow, incur a debt - PWMP *maŋ-qutaŋ

borrow, lend - PPh *bulud₁

borrow, lend - PAN *Sezam

borrow, lend - PMP *hezam

lend, borrow (?) - PWMP *maR-hinzam

to borrow - PWMP *h<um>uzam

borrowed

be borrowed - PPh *hedam-en

person or place from which something is borrowed - PWMP *hinzam-an

thing borrowed - PWMP *hinzam-en

borrowing

borrowing - PWMP *huzam

borrowing, lending - PWMP *hinzam

boss

master, boss - *(loan)

both

extend both arms sideways - PPH *maR-depa

scoop up with both hands - PMP *saRup₁

scoop up with both hands; a double handful - PWMP *aŋkup₁

two by two, two at a time; two each; both - PMP *duha duha₁

with no difference, equally to both - PMP *sama-sama

bottle

four-cornered bottle - *(loan)

the bottle gourd: Lagenaria siceraria - PWMP *labuq₂

bottom

bottom up, as a person bent far forward toward the ground - PWMP *tuad

buttocks; bottom - *-but₁ (root)

hard crust of rice that adheres to the bottom of the cooking pot - PPh *itíp

hind part, rear, back; base, bottom - PMP *buRit₁

lower surface, bottom; short, low; below, beneath, under - PMP *babaq₁

turn up at the edge, expose the bottom side - PWMP *lukab

bough

branch, bough - PMP *daqan₁

branch, bough - POC *raqan

bought

be bought from or for someone; what one has bought - PWMP *beli-an

was bought by someone - PWMP *b<in>eli

bounce

bounce, rebound - PWMP *entul

bounce, rebound - PWMP *untul

to spring back, bounce off - PWMP *latiŋ

bound

bound firmly - PMP *i(ŋ)kes

bound together - PWMP *kawil₂

bound together (?) - PWMP *paR-Rakit

bound, tied up - PWMP *R<in>apus

tied, bound together - PWMP *hiket-en

boundary

border, boundary - PWMP *balej

border, boundary - PMP *bates

boundary between adjacent rice fields - PAN-F *Naqeji

boundary, border - PMP *supu

until, as far as; limit, boundary - PMP *qiŋga

boundary marker

boundary marker - *(loan)

bow

bend, bow - PAN *sekel

bow the head - PMP *tekuŋ₁

bow the head, nod - PWMP *tuek

bow, bend downward - PMP *dekuk

bow, lower the head - PMP *tutuk₁

draw a bow to its full extent - PAN *biaC

huddle, bow the head - PAN *Cukul

hunting bow - PAN *busuR₂

hunting bow - POC *pusuR

hunting bow; bow-like instrument used to card kapok fiber - PMP *busuR

lower the head, bow or bend down - PWMP *tukuk

shoot with a bow - PAN *p<in>anaq

shoot with a bow - PAN *p<um>anaq

species of palm used for making spears and bows; palm-wood spear or bow - POC *bual bual

stoop, bow, bend over - POC *roko

throw something at a target; shoot with bow and arrow - PAN *panaq

to bend, bow - PWMP *liug

to bend, bow, submit - PWMP *tunduk

bowed

bend, bent, bowed - PMP *bu(ŋ)kuq

bowed, hunched, as from age - PWMP *ru(ŋ)kuq

curved, bowed - PAN *la(n)tuk

hunched over, bowed (as with age) - PAN *qukut

hunched over, bowed (as with age) - PMP *quŋkut

bowl

coconut shell bowl or water scoop - PPH *húŋut

dish, bowl (of clay or wood) - PMP *panay

sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl - PAN *SiRup

sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl - PMP *hiRup

wooden food bowl - POC *tabiRa

bowlegged

bowlegged - PAN *bakaŋ₁

bowlegged - PMP *sakaŋ

bow-legged - PPH *pakáw

bow-like

hunting bow; bow-like instrument used to card kapok fiber - PMP *busuR

to card kapok fibers with a bow-like instrument - PWMP *maŋ-busuR

bowstring

bowstring - PAN *deles

bowstring - POC *quku

bowstring - POC *uka₂

bowstring - POC *rolos

fit snugly, as bowstring in arrow notch - PMP *siŋ(e)qit

box

box - *(loan)

box chest - *(loan)

box, fight with fists - *(loan)

to box, give a blow - PWMP *pegpeg

to box, give a blow - PWMP *peRpeR

to line, as a shelf or box, provide a lining for - PPH *hapin-an

boy

penis of a little boy - PPH *tutuy

vocative term for boys - PWMP *utuq

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br

brace

brace, splint - PMP *kaq(e)pi

bracken

bracken, edible fern that grows by rivers: Athyrium esculentum - PAN *paheku

bracket

bracket fungus, Polyporus spp. - PAN *kulaC

bracket fungus, Polyporus spp. - PMP *kulat₂

ear; various types of bracket fungi; pectoral fins of a fish - POC *taliŋa

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

brackish

salty, brackish - PCEMP *maqasin

braid

braid - PWMP *apid₁

braid - PWMP *salapid

braid - PPH *lampid

braid, intertwine - PWMP *epid

braid, twine - PAN *qapid

braid, twist together - POC *pijir, pijir-i

braid, wind together - *-pid (root)

intertwine, braid, as strands to make rope - PPH *labid

plait, braid - PMP *añem

to braid, intertwine strands - PPH *lapid

to twist, braid - PWMP *tabíd

braiding

twine round and round; thing made by braiding - POC *piri-piri

brain

brain - POC *moñan

brain - *(loan)

brain, marrow - PAN-F *punuq₁

brain; marrow - PMP *hutek

bran

rice husk, rice bran - PAN *qeCah

rice husk, rice bran - PMP *qeta

branch

bifurcation, fork of a branch - PMP *saŋa₁

branch - PMP *daŋkaq

branch - PWMP *sa(m)pak

branch of a tree - PMP *daqan kahiw

branch of a tree - POC *raqan kayu

branch, bough - PMP *daqan₁

branch, bough - POC *raqan

branch, twig - PMP *daŋkeq

dry sago branch - PMP *kumbal

fork of a branch - PMP *peŋa

fork of a branch; any forked structure; bifurcation - PAN *paŋa₁

forked, as a branch - PWMP *raŋkaŋ

side path, branch or fork in path or stream; take a side path or way; crossroads - PMP *simpaŋ

split, forked, as a branch or path - PMP *ma-saŋa

strip leaves from branch - POC *sali

branches

break off a component piece of something, as twigs or branches from a tree, a banana from a bunch, a section from a fruit, etc. - PPH *sipíq

break off fruit or branches - PAN *sepiq

cut or lop off branches - POC *paRi₃

prune, trim branches - PWMP *tutuq

branching

branching coral; coral limestone - POC *laje

brand

burning brand; charred or smoldering wood - PMP *aluten

brave

(lit. 'big liver') brave, courageous; proud, arrogant - PMP *X₁ + qatay

bold, rude; brave - PPH *tapaŋ₂

brave, bold - POC *paRane

brave, bold, daring - PWMP *ma-baRani

brave, plucky - PMP *gagar

breach

gap, open space, breach - PPH *giwaŋ

breadfruit

birdlime, sticky sap of breadfruit, etc. - PMP *pulut

breadfruit - PMP *kuluR

breadfruit (seeded) - *(noise)

breadfruit sp. - PMP *sukun

breadfruit: Artocarpus spp. - PPH *qatipulu

core of a breadfruit - POC *malon

cut, slice into pieces, as breadfruit or taro - POC *siba

the breadfruit tree and fruit: Artocarpus spp. - PPH *atipulu

tree with fruit similar to breadfruit - PWMP *teRep

tree with fruit similar to breadfruit - PWMP *si teRep

breadth

width, breadth - PWMP *babaq₂

break

beat, crunch, break - PMP *kepuk

break into several large pieces - PAN *peceq₁

break into several large pieces; hatch - PMP *pesak

break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg - PMP *peceq₂

break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg - POC *posaq

break off - PMP *pu(ŋ)kaq

break off - PWMP *upik

break off - PMP *pukaq

break off a component piece of something, as twigs or branches from a tree, a banana from a bunch, a section from a fruit, etc. - PPH *sipíq

break off fruit or branches - PAN *sepiq

break off with the hand - POC *baki₁

break off, chip off - *(noise)

break off, snap off - POC *pati₁

break open - PWMP *beta₁

break open, force open - PWMP *tu(ŋ)kab

break or split off - PMP *ibak

break out in boils - PPh *apúy

break through, of water - PMP *buntaŋ

break to pieces - PWMP *Repak

break to pieces - PWMP *Repik

break under tension - PMP *ku(n)tus

break under tension - *-tus (root)

break under tension, as a rope - PMP *utus₁

break up - PWMP *bugar

break up into small pieces - PPH *sagsag-en

break up, fall into pieces, scatter, disperse - PWMP *baRbaR

break wind, fart - PWMP *q<um>utút

break, broken, cut through - PMP *pataq

break, burst - PMP *talas

break, crack - PWMP *sagsag₁

break, crack off - PMP *lepak₁

break, crack, split - PWMP *epak

break, crack, split - *-pak₂ (root)

break, crush, smash - POC *puaR

break, cut off, sever - POC *kutu₂

break, snap off at a joint - PWMP *sepak₁

break, split - PMP *bitak₁

break, split - POC *pintak

break, split off - PWMP *lu(m)pak

breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break - PMP *nihawa

crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking - PMP *cep(e)qak

crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking - PMP *sapak

crumble, break into small pieces - PWMP *remay

fracture, break - PMP *baliq

in pieces, break open - *-ceq (root)

pick, pluck, break off - PMP *ketuq

put off, delay, postpone, break one’s promise - PPH *liwag

shatter, break - PMP *peta

snap, break off (twigs, etc.) - PMP *lepik

snap, break, as a rope under tension - PMP *butus

snap, break, as a string - PWMP *getus

split, break off - PMP *baqak₁

split, break off - PWMP *hepak

split, break off - PMP *tempak

split, divide, break off - PAN *Cebiq

split, divide, break off - POC *topiq

split, divide, break off; section of a betel nut - PMP *tebiq

stop an activity, take a break, rest - PAN-F *Seked

strike, break - PMP *ra(m)bek

take apart, dismantle; break open - PMP *buŋkaR

tear off, break off - PWMP *gisgis₂

throb, thud, clap, break - *-puk₁ (root)

to break off, cut off - PMP *putul

to break off, cut off, as a limb - PAN *putun₂

to break, chip off - PMP *papak

to break, chip off - POC *babak

to fart, break wind - PWMP *maŋ-qetut

to fart, break wind - PWMP *maR-qetut

to fart, break wind - PAN *pa-qetut

to fart, break wind - PAN *q<um>etut

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; break up, dismantle, demolish - PWMP *bekaj

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; split open, break up, dismantle, demolish - PMP *be(ŋ)kaR

to open, break open - PMP *su(ŋ)kab

to rest, take a break from work or other activity - PAN-F *Ceked

to snap, break off - PWMP *putus₂

to snap, break off - PWMP *putut₁

to snap, break off - PPH *lipuk

to snap, break off, as a twig - PMP *getes

to snap, break off, as a twig - POC *kotos

breaker

breakers, surf, waves - PAN *Nabek

breakers, surf, waves - PMP *nabek

breakers, surf, waves - POC *napok

wave, breaker (?) - POC *ŋalu

breaking

crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking - PMP *cep(e)qak

crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking - PMP *sapak

decay, crumble; sound of breaking; powder - *-pek (or *-peqek?) (root)

sound of breaking - *(loan)

sound of breaking or cracking - PMP *rupuk

sound of breaking or crunching - PCEMP *sepuk

sound of breaking or pounding - PWMP *lutuk₂

sound of breaking, etc. - PAN *bekbek₂

bream

a marine fish, probably the silver bream - PWMP *kapas kapas

breast

breast - PWMP *duduq

breast - *(near)

breast beam of a back loom - PMP *qatip₁

breast; suck the breast - PMP *titi

breast; suck the breast - PMP *titiq

breastfeed, give the breast to a young child - PPH *mapa-susu

female breast - PAN *nunuh

female breast - POC *nunu₃

female breast - POC *mata ni susu

female breast; udder - PAN *susu₁

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

give the breast to, nurse a child - PAN *pa-susu

nipple of the breast - PWMP *qulu ni susu

nipple of the breast - PMP *mata nu susu

to nurse, give a child the breast (to be sucked) - PAN *pa-susu-en

to suck at the breast, suckle - PWMP *ma-ñusu

to suckle, suck at the breast - PAN *s<um>usu

breastfeed

breastfeed, give the breast to a young child - PPH *mapa-susu

breast-feeding

to wean a baby from breast-feeding - PPH *pusiŋ

breath

breath - PWMP *qaseŋ

breath exhalation - *(noise)

breath loudly, snore - POC *ŋoŋok

breath, breath soul - PCEMP *ñawa

breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break - PMP *nihawa

breath; to breathe - PAN *NiSawa

catch one's breath - PWMP *ciŋap

choke, gasp, struggle for breath - PMP *e(ŋ)kak

choke, gasp, struggle for breath - PMP *qekak

choke, gasp, struggle for breath - PWMP *eŋkak-eŋkak

gasp for breath - PMP *eŋap

gasp for breath - PWMP *haŋus₁

out of breath - PMP *heŋak

pant, be out of breath - *(noise)

to pant, be out of breath - PAN *ŋesŋes

breathe

breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break - PMP *nihawa

breath; to breathe - PAN *NiSawa

breathe quickly or deeply - PWMP *eŋkaq

gasp, open the mouth to breathe - PWMP *egap

to breathe - PAN-F *Seŋad

to breathe - PAN-F *S<um>eŋad

to breathe - PMP *ma-ñawa

to breathe (?) - PAN *Seŋaw

to breathe; to rest, take a ‘breather’ - POC *mañawa

'breather'

to breathe; to rest, take a ‘breather’ - POC *mañawa

breathing

breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break - PMP *nihawa

difficulty in breathing - PWMP *seŋek

breeze

a breeze, soft wind - PWMP *bui₁

breeze - PWMP *ibut₂

gentle breeze; blow gently, of the wind - PWMP *sap(e)quy

bribe

bribe - *(loan)

bride

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PMP *hateD

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PEMP *ated

booty, war captive; what is taken in war; elopement, captured bride - PMP *taban

brideprice

value, price; marriage prestations, brideprice; purchase - PMP *beli

value, price; marriage prestations, brideprice; purchase - PEMP *poli

bridewealth

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PMP *hateD

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PEMP *ated

bridge

bridge - PCMP *letay₂

bridge - PPH *tuláy

bridge of the nose - PWMP *bataŋ qijuŋ

log or plank bridge - PWMP *taytay-an

narrow bridge - PPH *t<ag>aytay

single log bridge (?) - PMP *taytay

single log bridge; stairs, ladder - POC *tete

suspension bridge - PWMP *kitey

suspension bridge - PMP *titey

suspension bridge - *-tay (root)

to bridge or span, build a bridge across something - PPH *tulay-an

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

walk over a plank or log bridge - PWMP *ma-naytay

bridle

bridle, as for a horse - PWMP *kakaŋ

briefly

blink, wink, close the eye briefly - PPH *kimit

bright

bright - *(loan)

bright light - PMP *nilaw

bright, clear - *(loan)

bright, shiny - PWMP *ma-silaw

light, bright - PMP *sindar

spark, bright light - PMP *sigá

to shine; shining, bright - POC *ma-ramaR

tree with bright yellow fruit that has dry flesh: Lucuma nervosa - PPH *tisaq

brilliant

brilliant, sparkling - PPH *lináb

luminous, brilliant, full of light - PWMP *kilaw₂

bring

bring - PAN-F *um-adaS

bring down the flat of the hand on something - PWMP *tepap

bring, carry - PAN *kaCu

bring, carry - PWMP *um-uit

bring, carry - *(noise)

bring, take along - PWMP *embaq

bring, take along - PAN-F *adaS

do, bring about, change something - PWMP *ka-buhat

get, bring, take - POC *pa-i

get, take, bring - POC *pa₂

lift, carry, bring; emerge, appear, begin; take a spouse - POC *puat₂

satiatiated, full (of the stomach after eating); fertile, bring forth plentifully, abundance of food - POC *masuR

take, bring - *(noise)

to assemble, come together (of people); bring together (of things) - PPH *típun

to bring, to carry along - PAN *k<um>aCu

bringing

bringing, carrying - PWMP *uit₂

brink

brink, edge, shore - *(near)

bristles

pig bristles; type of sea urchin with thin black spines - PMP *bulu ni babuy

brittle

brittle - PWMP *tepuq

brittle - *-puq (root)

brittle, friable; to crumble - PMP *repek

dry, grainy, brittle - PWMP *pera

brittleness

rotten to brittleness, of wood - PMP *reput

broad

broad - *-baŋ₁ (root)

broad and flat - PMP *lapad

broad and flat - POC *lapar

broad, flat rock shaped like a plank - PWMP *batu papan

broad, spacious - PWMP *baŋbaŋ₁

broad, wide - PWMP *lak(e)baŋ

broad, wide - PWMP *lawaq₃

wide, broad - PAN *lawas₁

wide, broad - PWMP *ma-bekelaj

wide, broad, open (of land) - PWMP *layaŋ₂

broadcast

sow, scatter, broadcast seed - PWMP *sa(m)beR

broil

broil; warm oneself or something near a fire - PAN *daŋdaŋ₁

to roast, broil; scald, sear, burn - PPH *pásuq

broken

break, broken, cut through - PMP *pataq

broken - POC *ma-posaq

broken bit of pottery, potsherd - PWMP *biqbiq₁

broken off, cut off - PEMP *mutu₂

broken off; islet; detached reef - POC *motus

broken piece of rope or string - PWMP *butes

broken to bits - PMP *mekmek

broken, shattered - PPh *búquŋ

fragment, piece broken off - *(noise)

piece broken off, husk - PWMP *upek

to sob, choke, have broken respiration - PMP *sekuk

worn out by overuse; broken; blunt - PPH *pudpud

bronze

bronze - PWMP *luyaŋ

brood

brood, flock, lots of children - PPh *hin-anak-an

brood, hold a grudge, remember, keep still - PAN *demdem₁

brood, sit on eggs - PMP *ekep

brood, sit on eggs - POC *opi

brood, sit on eggs - PWMP *qerem

brood, sit on eggs; cover completely - PMP *ukup

brood, think, be silent - PMP *sendem

litter, brood - PPh *saŋa-anak

think, ponder, brood; remember - *-dem₂ (root)

think, ponder; brood - PWMP *qendem

to brood, keep still - POC *rodrom₂

to brood, sit on eggs - PWMP *eden

brood-remember

think, ponder, brood;-remember - *-nem₂ (root)

brook

brook or small stream - PWMP *saluR

broom

broom - PAN-F *Ca-Capuh

broom - PAN-F *Sijap

broom, to sweep - POC *salap

broom, to sweep - POC *salap-i

to sweep with a broom - PWMP *ma-ñapu

to wipe off or brush off; broom - PMP *sapu

broomcorn

broomcorn millet: Panicum miliaceum - PAN-F *baCaR

broth

broth, gravy - *(loan)

juice; broth, soup; gravy - POC *suRuq₁

soup, broth - PWMP *sa(m)baw

brother

base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother - PMP *puqun

brother (woman speaking) - PMP *ñaRa

brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking) - PWMP *anak-en

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

father’s brother - PAN *mamah

father's brother - PWMP *kam-ama-an

brother-in-law

brother-in-law (man speaking) - PWMP *bayaw

brother-in-law, sister-in-law - *(noise)

brought

brought by, carried by - PWMP *in-uit

was brought; what was brought - PAN *k<in>aCu

was escorted or brought; person escorted, thing brought - PWMP *h<in>ateD

Brousonnetia

paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material - PCEMP *malaw

brown

brown triggerfish: Pseudobalistes fuscus - POC *lio-lio

kind of brown fish - PSHWNG *iap

large forest tree with edible brown, hairy fruits: Diospyros discolor - PPH *kamaguŋ

mottled brown and grey (of the feathers of cocks) - PWMP *baRunbun

reddish brown - POC *meRaq

tree with edible hairy brown fruit: Diospyros discolor - *(loan)

brows

raise the eyebrows as a signal to another person; to furrow the brows (?) - PWMP *kindat

bruise

beat up, bruise someone - PPh *bunal

bruise marks - PWMP *bakelag

reddish; discolored, as the skin over a bruise - PWMP *baŋbaŋ₈

to bruise, raise welts - PPh *baneR

bruised

bruised or cramping, of feet after too much walking - PPH *tikal

brush

brush or shake off dust or dirt - PPH *pagpág

grass, brush - *(noise)

kind of brush made from coconut husk, used to scrub or polish a surface or to treat threads before weaving - PWMP *sikat

pass close by, brush against in passing - PPH *sag(e)qid

to brush away dust or dirt - PWMP *paspas₂

to brush or shake off dust or dirt - PPH *i-pagpág

to brush past, rub or scrape against; draw a line - PMP *garis

to wipe off or brush off; broom - PMP *sapu

touch or brush against - PPH *saq(e)gid

TOP      be    bi    bl    bo    br    bu    

bu

bubble

bubble up, as spring water - PMP *bukal₁

bubble up, as spring water - POC *bukal₂

foam, bubbles - PMP *buseq

foam, bubbles - POC *puro₂

foam, bubbles - POC *pusoq

foam, bubbles - POC *puro puro

foam, bubbles, froth - PAN *bua₁

foam, bubbles, froth - POC *bua

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth - PMP *budaq₁

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth - PAN *bujeq₁

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; bubble up - PCEMP *budaq₄

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; to foam, to bubble; foam at the mouth; fond of talking; type of white bead - PMP *bujeq₂

foam, bubbles; bubble up - POC *buraq

foam, bubbles; bubble up - POC *puraq puraq

foam, bubbles; foaming, bubbling - POC *pucoq pucoq

gush or bubble up, of spring water - PMP *bual₂

to bubble, as liquid that is starting to boil; to boil, of water - PMP *diqdiq

to foam, to bubble - PWMP *maŋ-bujeq

to foam, to bubble - PWMP *pa-bujeq

bubbling

bubbling up (as spring water) - PWMP *buag

bubbling up (as spring water) - PAN *buak

bubbling up, as spring water - PWMP *bukal bukal

bubbling, boiling - PMP *bukbuk₁

foam, bubbles; foaming, bubbling - POC *pucoq pucoq

sound of knocking or bubbling - PPH *p<aR>ukpuk

sound of slapping, bubbling, etc. - PWMP *bikbik

bubbly

foamy, bubbly - PMP *ma-bujeq

bubu

open the mouth wide, gape; gaping; opening of a bubu fish trap, basket, etc. - PMP *ŋaŋa₂

Buchanania

a tree with edible fruit, and medicinal uses, probably Buchanania arborescens - PMP *balunuR

buck

male deer, buck (?) - PMP *saladeŋ

to have ‘buck teeth’, project forward, of the teeth - PWMP *suŋar

bucket

bucket, pail - *(loan)

bud

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

seed bud in a coconut - PWMP *tumbuŋ₂

budding

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

budge

budge, move a bit - *-suD (root)

budge, move slowly - *(loan)

budge, shift, move - PMP *isud

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *ised

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *iseR

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *isuR

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *isu₁

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *icud

move slightly, budge - PWMP *iŋsiD

buffalo

fatty hump on the back of a buffalo, etc. - PWMP *kulasa

large ruminant species: carabao, water buffalo (?) - PAN *qaNuaŋ

large ruminant species: carabao, water buffalo (?) - PMP *qanuaŋ

thick or hard skin, buffalo hide, leather; callus - PWMP *balulaŋ

water buffalo, carabao - *(loan)

bug

paddy bug, foul-smelling insect that preys on rice in the field - PAN *baŋaw

rice bug - *(near)

build

build a fire (?) - PWMP *maR-hapuy

short in height, squat and compact in build, of a person - PMP *pandak

to bridge or span, build a bridge across something - PPH *tulay-an

building

addition, annex to a building - PWMP *taŋkir

kind of building - PWMP *baruga

public building, community house, guest house - PMP *balay

bulbifera

potato yam, aerial yam: Dioscorea bulbifera - POC *pwatika

bulge

bulge out - *(loan)

bulge, as the belly of a pregnant woman, a hunchback - PPh *buktút

bulge, swelling - POC *potu₂

bulging

bulging, as the stomach - PWMP *tambuk

bulldog

large black ant with painful sting, probably bulldog ant - POC *kadik

bully

to bully - *(noise)

bumblebee

bumblebee - PPh *buyug

bumblebee - PWMP *buyuŋ

bump

beat, pound, bump, thump - PAN *tutuh

bump or bang into, collide unceremoniously - PWMP *sempuk

bump, hump, lump - PWMP *buŋkul-an

bump, knob - PWMP *buŋkul-en

collide, bump into - PWMP *sa(m)puk

knock or bump the head - PAN *CugCug₂

knock or bump the head - PMP *tugtug₁

knock or bump the head - PAN *C<um>ugCug

knock or bump the head - PMP *t<um>ugtug

nudge, bump against another person - PWMP *da(m)pil

swelling; lump or bump under the skin - PWMP *buŋkug

swelling; lump or bump under the skin - POC *buŋkul₂

swelling; lump or bump under the skin; wad of something - PMP *buŋkul₁

bun

dress the hair (of women); hair bun - PWMP *saŋgul

wear the hair in a bun or topknot - PPH *puyud

bunch

break off a component piece of something, as twigs or branches from a tree, a banana from a bunch, a section from a fruit, etc. - PPH *sipíq

bunch - *(noise)

bunch of bananas - PMP *qitiŋ

bunch or cluster of things; to gather - PWMP *kumpul

bunch, bundle (probably of long objects) - PWMP *uyun

bunch, cluster - PAN *qupuŋ

bunch, cluster - *-puŋ₁ (root)

bunch, cluster (as of fruit) - POC *pui₁

bunch, cluster (of grain, fruit, areca nuts, etc.) - PAN *puŋuN

bunch, cluster (of grain, fruit, areca nuts, etc.) - PMP *puŋuh

bunch, cluster of fruit - POC *puliR

bunch, cluster, as of fruit - PWMP *kaliŋ

bunch, cluster, as of fruit - PWMP *puŋpuŋ₂

group, crowd, flock, school, bunch, cluster - PCEMP *butu₂

group, crowd, flock, school, bunch, cluster - POC *putu, butu

to detach a hand, or bunch of bananas from the stalk - PPH *sapád-en

bundle

a sheaf or bundle of rice stalks - PPH *taq(e)nay

bind up; bundle - PWMP *beRkis

bind, bundle - PAN *baluN

bind, bundle, wrap in cloth; death shroud; cloth(ing) - PMP *balun₅

bind, bundle; wrap in cloth; death shroud; cloth(ing) - PCEMP *balun₃

binding material, cordage; bundle - PPh *betek₁

bunch, bundle (probably of long objects) - PWMP *uyun

bundle - PWMP *tuŋkus

bundle - *(noise)

bundle (as of firewood); package - PMP *beRkes

bundle (of firewood, etc.) - POC *boboc

bundle of cloth or clothes - PWMP *bantal

bundle of thread or plant fibers - PPH *lábag

bundle, package; to wrap up - PWMP *buŋkus

bundle; package - PEMP *bokes

tie together into a bundle - PWMP *maŋ-beRkes

to wrap up, bundle up - PWMP *maŋ-buŋkus

wind around; bundle - *-kus (root)

wrap around repeatedly, bind by wrapping; bundle of wrapped material - PAN *bejbej₁

wrap up; bundle, bundle of firewood - POC *pokos

wrap, bundle up - PWMP *kabat₁

bunius

a tree with edible fruit: Antidesma bunius - PWMP *buRnay

buoy

buoy - PPH *patáw

buoy - *(loan)

buoy, float - PPH *tagaltáw

burden

throw down, as a burden - PWMP *qempas

what is carried on the head; a burden - PWMP *zuŋzuŋ-an

burden on the shoulder

burden on the shoulder - *(loan)

burdensome

heavy; burdensome - PMP *ma-beReqat

burial

burial ground (?) - PAN *m<in>aCay

burial pit - PAN *lubaŋ₁

burial shroud; to enshroud a corpse - PMP *saput₁

buried

dig up something buried, disinter - PWMP *hukay

what is buried or planted - PAN *CaNem-en

buries

kind of bird that buries its eggs deep in the sand - PPH *tabun₁

burl

burl on a tree - PWMP *buŋkul kahiw

burl, knot; protuberant part - PMP *butequl

burn

burn - PWMP *sirab

burn - *(noise)

set on fire, burn - PWMP *tutuD

to burn - POC *sulu₁

to burn - POC *sokot

to burn (fields, etc.) - PMP *zeket

to burn or set a fire under to smoke out - PPH *sunúg-en

to burn, expose to fire - PPH *siq(e)láb

to burn, singe - PPH *seReb

to roast, broil; scald, sear, burn - PPH *pásuq

to roast, burn - POC *mwaRi

to singe, burn off - PWMP *sadab

to singe, burn slightly - PPH *sajab

burn cuttings in fields

burn cuttings in fields - *(loan)

burned

to pick up with something to avoid getting dirty or burned - PAN *saput₂

burning

burning brand; charred or smoldering wood - PMP *aluten

last burning bit; to snuff out a spark - PMP *latu

make lime by burning shells - PWMP *maŋ-qapuR

place of burning - *(noise)

sparks, burning ashes in the wind - PWMP *lalatu₂

stench of burning substances - PAN *qaŋeliC

stench, as of burning hair - PPh *qaŋetej

burnt

burnt food which adheres to the pot - PMP *epiq

burnt food which adheres to the pot - PMP *epit₁

burnt rice which adheres to the pot - PWMP *etip

odor of burnt food - PMP *haŋus₂

burst

break, burst - PMP *talas

burst open, as an overfilled sack - PMP *betus

burst open, split open - POC *poŋkaR

burst out - *(noise)

burst, split open - PMP *betaq₂

flare up, burst into flame - *(loan)

germinate, burst out - *(noise)

knock; pop, burst - PWMP *pe(R)tak

split open, burst under pressure - PMP *besiq

bury

able to plant or bury - PWMP *ma-tanem

grave; to bury - PAN *CaNem

grave; to bury; to plant - PMP *tanem

to bury - PAN *lebeŋ₁

to bury - POC *lopoŋ

to bury, place in a pit or hole - PAN *l<um>ubaŋ

to bury, to plant - PPH *i-tanem

to bury, to plant - PWMP *maR-tanem

to bury; to plant - POC *tanom

to bury; to plant - PWMP *ma-nanem

to plant, bury - POC *tanum₂

bush

bush knife, machete - PPh *eták

fruit-bearing bush or tree - PAN *qanibuŋ

machete, bush knife - *(loan)

scrub-land, bush - PAN *quCaN

small, wild herbaceous plants; scrub-land, bush - PMP *qutan

business

involvement, engagement, business - PPH *labut

busy

busy - *(near)

busy, diligent - PWMP *ku(n)zit

but

but, if - PCEMP *ba₁

high-pitched sound of striking against something hard but not resonant - PMP *katik

only, just, but - PPH *lámaŋ

or, because, but, perhaps - POC *ba₁

to cook anything but rice - PAN *taNek

to cook anything but rice - PAN *t<um>aNek

to cook anything but rice - PMP *t<um>anek

butcher

to cut up, butcher, slaughter an animal - PAN *lapaq

butchering

allotment of meat after butchering an animal - PPH *sapuq

butt

butt of a rifle - *(loan)

horn of an animal; to butt or gore - PPH *suŋay

butterflies

kind of tree with leaves shaped like butterflies - PWMP *qali-baŋbaŋ

butterfly

butterfly - PWMP *bale(m)baŋ

butterfly - PWMP *belembaŋ

butterfly - POC *kaubebe

butterfly - PMP *beŋbeŋ₄

butterfly - POC *boboŋ

butterfly - *(loan)

butterfly - *(noise)

butterfly, moth - PAN *baŋbaŋ₂

butterfly, moth; butterfly fish - PMP *baŋbaŋ₂

butterfly; butterfly fish: Chaetodon spp. - POC *bebe

buttock

buttocks - PMP *birit₂

buttocks - PWMP *lubet

buttocks - PWMP *puet

buttocks, posterior - PMP *ubet

buttocks; bottom - *-but₁ (root)

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

rectum, anus, buttocks - PMP *buliq₂

button

a clasp or button, fastening or closing device - PWMP *kaput-an

button - *(loan)

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

tie or clasp together; to button - PMP *kaput₁

buttress

buttress root - PPH *dalig

buttress root - PMP *dalij

buttress root - PWMP *daliŋ

buttress root - POC *ralic

buy

buy - PAN-F *b<um>aliw

buy, sell - PAN *saliw

buy, sell - PAN-F *baliw

to buy - PAN *beli

buzz

buzz, hum - PAN *beŋbeŋ₂

buzz, hum - PWMP *beŋ

buzz, hum - PWMP *eŋeŋ

buzz, hum - PMP *ŋuŋ

buzz, hum - PMP *ŋu(ŋ)ŋuŋ

buzz, hum - PMP *teŋ

buzz, hum - PMP *ŋeŋ

buzz, hum - PMP *ŋeŋeŋ

buzz, hum - PMP *ŋiŋ

buzz, hum - PMP *ŋi(ŋ)ŋiŋ

buzz, hum - POC *ŋiŋiŋ

buzz, hum - PCEMP *ŋuŋuŋ

buzz, hum - *-ŋeŋ (root)

deep buzz or hum - *-ŋuŋ (root)

hum, buzz - *-geŋ (root)

shrill buzz or hum; ring - *-ŋiŋ (root)

to ring, buzz, etc. - PWMP *deRiŋ

buzzing

buzzing or humming sound - PAN *buuŋ

buzzing, droning, humming - PAN *b<aR>eŋbeŋ

sound of buzzing or droning - PMP *qiuŋ₂

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/17/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_b.htm