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Updated: 11/17/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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C

ce    ch    ci    cl    co    cr    cu    cy    

cablin

kind of aromatic herb: Pogostemon cablin - PPH *kab(e)liŋ

cacao

cacao, Theobroma cacao L. - *(loan)

cackle

cackle, laugh loudly - *-kak₁ (root)

caw, cackle - PAN *kakak

sound of a cackle, loud laugh, etc. - PAN *kak

sound of a sob, cackle, etc. - *-kuk₂ (root)

to cackle - PWMP *pekak

to cackle - PWMP *tekak

to cackle - PMP *kakakₐ

to cluck, or cackle; make a clucking or cackling sound - PWMP *ketak

cackling

cackling laughter - PMP *akak

to cluck, or cackle; make a clucking or cackling sound - PWMP *ketak

Caesalpinia

a thorny tree: Caesalpinia spp. - PMP *sepaŋ

a tree: Caesalpinia sappan - PWMP *sapaŋ

the sappan tree: Caesalpinia sappan L. - PPH *sibukaw

Caesionidae

a fish, the fusilier: Caesionidae sp. - PMP *sulig

a fish, the fusilier: Caesionidae sp. - POC *sulik

cage

cage, as for an animal; to enclose in a cage or pen - PWMP *kuruŋ

cage; stockage - PWMP *kuruŋ-an

cajole

cajole - *(loan)

cake

rice cake - *(loan)

rice or sago cake (used as an offering?) - PWMP *tumpiq

rice wine; yeast; fermented rice; fermented rice cake - PWMP *tapay

sticky rice cake - PAN-F *qemu

sticky rice cake - PMP *pusuq₂

calabash

calabash tree: Crescentia spp. - PMP *bila₁

Calamus

a plant: Calamus spp. - PWMP *zariaŋaw

rattan, Calamus sp. - PAN *quay

rattan, Calamus sp. - POC *que

calcium

lime, calcium - PAN *qapuR

lime, calcium carbonate - PMP *kapuR

calculate

count, calculate - PMP *ihap

reckon, calculate, count - PPh *ma-bilaŋ

reckon, calculate, count - PWMP *maŋ-bilaŋ

to count, calculate; hold valuable - PAN *bilaŋ

calculated

be counted, be calculated - PPh *ihap-en

calculation

sticks or other markers used as aids in calculation - PWMP *bilaŋ-bilaŋ

caldera

cauldron; caldera, volcanic crater (?) - PWMP *kawaq

calf

calf - *(loan)

calf of the leg - PAN *beties

calf of the leg - PWMP *butiqes

calf of the leg - PWMP *baties

calf of the leg - PCEMP *betis

calf of the leg - POC *qate qate

calf of the leg - PMP *buaq ni bities

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

lower leg (below the knee); calf of the leg - PMP *bities

lower leg, calf of the leg - PWMP *betiq₁

calf-kicking

calf-kicking contest - PMP *bintiq

calf-kicking contest - PWMP *binti₂

call

a bird and its call, probably the tailor bird: Orthotomus atrogularis - PPH *tiwtiw

call (v.), summon (spirits) - *(loan)

exclamation to express surprise, call attention, etc. - PMP *uy

exclamation to express surprise, call to a friend, respond to a distant call, etc. - PMP *huy

interjection or exclamation to call attention or answer a call - POC *oe

interjection used to call a dog - PPH *tútuq

kind of bird and the sound of its call - PAN *kuaw

small bird and its call - PWMP *kuŋkuŋ₅

small bird that produces a deep resounding call - PAN *kukuŋ₁

sound used to call puppies - PWMP *kuyuk

to call a dog - PCMP *kati₁

to call chickens, cry for calling chickens - PWMP *kuruk

to call on a person to do something - PAN *suRuq₂

to call, summon; chant to call the spirits - PWMP *tawaR₂

to hiss, as to call attention to - POC *sisit

to name, give a name to; to call by name - PWMP *i-ŋajan(-an)

twitter, call out (bird) - PWMP *ciak

wave the hand or arms; call by waving - PMP *kaway₁

word used to call chickens, etc. - PMP *kuru₁

word used to call chickens, etc. - PMP *kur

called

called or regarded as siblings (?) - PAN *Suaji-an

Callicarpa

beautyberry: Callicarpa spp. - PPH *anayup

calling

to call chickens, cry for calling chickens - PWMP *kuruk

callus

callus - PWMP *kubal

callus on the foot (lit. ‘fish eye’) - PMP *mata nu hikan

callus on the foot (lit. ‘fish eye’) - POC *mata ni ikan

callus, blister - PAN *beCuʔ

callus, blister - PMP *betuʔ₂

callus, corn; blister - PAN *buCu

callus, corn; blister - PMP *butu₁

thick or hard skin, buffalo hide, leather; callus - PWMP *balulaŋ

calm

calm (of the wind) - *(noise)

calm, still, as the surface of water - PWMP *teneŋ

calm, still, as the surface of water - PMP *linaw

calm, still, as the surface of water - PMP *ma-linaw

calm, still, of the surface of water - POC *ma-lino

calm, still, quiet - PPH *linak

calm, still, windless - POC *marapu

calm, tranquil, of the surface of water - PAN *liNuŋ

calm, tranquil, of the surface of water - PWMP *lineŋ

calm, tranquil, of the surface of water - PMP *linaŋ

calm, tranquil, of the surface of water - PMP *linuŋ

still, calm - *(noise)

still, calm, quiet - PWMP *anteŋ

calmness

calmness, tranquillity - PWMP *ka-teneŋ-an

Calophyllum

a shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum - PWMP *bintaŋuR

a shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum - PMP *bitaquR

a shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum - POC *pitaquR

a tree: Calophyllum inophyllum - POC *tamanu

camphor

a tree: the camphor laurel: Cinnamomum spp. - PAN-F *dakeS

canal

canal, ditch - PAN *kali₁

ditch, canal - PWMP *parij

ditch, canal - PWMP *parik

womb, uterus; birth canal - PWMP *paR-anak-an

Cananga

a tree with fragrant flowers: Cananga odorata - PMP *kanaŋa

tree sp., Cananga odorata - *(loan)

Canarium

tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune - PMP *kanari

tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune - POC *kaŋaRi

Canarium almond

Canarium almond - *(near)

candlenut

the candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana - PMP *kamiri

the candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana - PEMP *tuRi₂

cane

cane cord used for heavy binding - *(loan)

cane grass, Miscanthus sp. - PAN *biRaSu

cane, staff, walking stick - *-kud (root)

hollow cane for blowing on the fire - PWMP *heyup heyup

kind of reed or cane, including Saccharum spontaneum - POC *pijo

kind of wild cane with edible flower head - POC *piso₁

walking stick, cane, staff - PAN *sukud

canine

barb, point; canine tooth? - PAN-F *waqit

canine companion - PPh *ka-asu

canine tooth (?) - POC *bati

canine tooth; tusk, as of wild boar - PPH *sauŋ

tusk, canine tooth - PMP *baŋelih

tusk; canine tooth - PAN *baŋeliS

cannaeformis

herb used in making baskets: Donax cannaeformis - PWMP *benban

herb used in making baskets: Donax cannaeformis - PWMP *benben₂

canniformis

plant sp.: Donax canniformis, used as material for making baskets - PMP *niniq₁

cannot

person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so - PWMP *i-anu, si-anu

person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so - PMP *sanu

person whose name is unknown, avoided or cannot be remembered: who? - PPh *si-nu

place which is unknown or cannot be remembered: where? - PAN *i-nu

thing whose name is unknown, avoided, or cannot be remembered: what? - PMP *a-nu

whatchamacallit, filler for word that cannot be recollected - PWMP *kua₂

canoe

(small) outrigger canoe or canoe hull - POC *katiR

after, behind, stern of canoe - POC *muri

bail out a canoe - PMP *limas

bailer in a canoe - PAN *nimas

bailer; to bail water from a canoe - POC *nimas

board, plank, side of canoe - POC *baban

boat, canoe - PAN *qabaŋ₁

canoe - PCEMP *waŋka

canoe hull, small outrigger canoe - PMP *katiR

canoe paddle, paddle a canoe - PEMP *boRse

canoe paddle; paddle a canoe - PMP *beRsay

canoe paddle; paddle a canoe - POC *pose

canoe shed, storehouse - POC *pale

canoe type - POC *mona

canoe, small boat - PPH *lunday

canoes joined together lengthwise (?) - POC *kabat₂

cargo; load a canoe - PMP *lujan

cargo; load a canoe - PMP *ujan

dugout canoe - PPh *balútu

face; front; prow of canoe - POC *nago

free side of canoe, opposite the outrigger - POC *katae

gunwale, side plank on canoe - *(loan)

kind of seaweed used to paint canoes - POC *poma

large canoe - POC *tola

non-native canoe - POC *pakaq

outrigger canoe with dugout hull - PEMP *waŋka

outrigger canoe with dugout hull; passengers in a canoe - POC *waŋka

prow of a canoe - PWMP *duluŋ

push, launch a canoe - POC *usu

rollers for beaching a canoe - PMP *laŋen₁

rollers for beaching a canoe - POC *laŋon

rollers for beaching a canoe - POC *luŋan

side of canoe opposite the outrigger - POC *qatai

side of the face, cheek; side planks of a canoe - POC *babaR

sticks that connect the float to the booms of an outrigger canoe - PEMP *patoto

thwarts of a canoe - POC *ili

to backpaddle a canoe; walk backwards - PEMP *suak

type of canoe - PWMP *alud

canopy

palate; canopy - PWMP *laŋit laŋit

canvas

canvas - *(loan)

cap

cap - *(loan)

sores on the scalp; 'cradle cap' - PWMP *buduk

capable

able, capable, strong, wealthy - PWMP *kaya

to be capable, able, knowledgeable - PAN *ma-Caqu

to be capable, able, knowledgeable - PMP *ma-taqu₁

cape

mountain peak, cape of land; tip of anything - PMP *quzuŋ

peninsula cape - *(loan)

split, torn; opening or water passage between two capes of land - PMP *beŋat₁

capped

tightly capped - PPH *takem

capsize

capsize, of a boat; sink - PWMP *kaRem

to sink, submerge, capsize - PPH *ma-lúnud

captive

allowed to live, given life; made captive - PPh *bihaR-en

be carried off, as loot or a captive in war; what is carried off - PWMP *t<in>aban

booty, war captive; what is taken in war; elopement, captured bride - PMP *taban

captive, one taken alive in war; to spare, allow to live - PWMP *bihaR

live, be alive; be captive - PPh *ma-bihaR

capture

(lit. 'fetch the liver') capture someone's fancy - PMP *qalap qatay

domestic fowl used as a decoy or lure to capture wild fowl - PPH *kátiq

domestic fowl used as a decoy or lure to capture wild fowl - PPH *káti

to catch, capture; embrace - PAN *d<um>akep

captured

be caught, captured - PAN *dakep-en

booty, war captive; what is taken in war; elopement, captured bride - PMP *taban

carabao

interjection used to halt a carabao in the fields - PPH *luá

large ruminant species: carabao, water buffalo (?) - PAN *qaNuaŋ

large ruminant species: carabao, water buffalo (?) - PMP *qanuaŋ

water buffalo, carabao - *(loan)

carambola

a tree and its edible fruit, the starfruit: Averrhoa bilimbi, Averrhoa carambola - PWMP *baliŋbiŋ

carbon

charcoal, carbon, soot - PWMP *budiŋ

carbonate

lime, calcium carbonate - PMP *kapuR

carbuncle

boil, carbuncle - PWMP *pi(R)sa

boil, carbuncle - *(noise)

carcass

corpse, carcass - PWMP *baŋkay

card

hunting bow; bow-like instrument used to card kapok fiber - PMP *busuR

playing cards - *(loan)

to card kapok fibers with a bow-like instrument - PWMP *maŋ-busuR

carded

carded kapok fibers - PWMP *paŋ-busuR

care

care for, raise (an animal) - PAN *pa-qudip

take care, be careful - PWMP *maR-iŋat

to care for children - PPH *taR-anak

to care for someone, wait on - PPH *alilaq

to note, remember; care, attention, caution - PMP *iŋat

to take care of, protect - PWMP *k<um>upkup

careful

careful, cautious - *(loan)

mindful, careful, attentive - PWMP *ma-iŋat

take care, be careful - PWMP *maR-iŋat

carefully

think carefully about, consider - PWMP *a(ŋ)gap

caress

caress, cuddle - *(loan)

cargo

cargo, load (on a boat) - PMP *Rujan

cargo; load a canoe - PMP *lujan

cargo; load a canoe - PMP *ujan

load, cargo, freight - POC *ucan

to lift, stand up, arise, emerge, begin, depart, carry; cargo; take something; take a wife - PMP *buhat₃

to load, as cargo on a boat - POC *Rucan

caries

weevil that infests wood, bamboo, and rice; dust produced by the boring of this insect; tooth decay, dental caries - PMP *bukbuk₃

carpenter

carpenter’s plane - *(loan)

carpentry

tongue; tongue of tongue-and-groove joint in carpentry - PMP *dilaq₁

carried

be carried away by water - POC *tape-a

be carried off, as loot or a captive in war; what is carried off - PWMP *t<in>aban

be carried under the arm - PWMP *kilik-en

be picked up or carried dangling from the fingers - PWMP *bitbit-en

bearable, able to be carried - PWMP *ka-taŋguŋ

brought by, carried by - PWMP *in-uit

carried under the arm or on the hip - PWMP *kilik₂

caught up in, carried along - PWMP *tuluy₃

drift on a current, carried away by flowing water - PAN *qañud

lifted, carried - PMP *buhat-an₁

lifted, carried - PWMP *buhat-en

manner in which an action is carried out - PWMP *ka-₆

what is carried on the back - PAN *S<in>ebaN

what is carried on the back - PMP *h<in>eban

what is carried on the head; a burden - PWMP *zuŋzuŋ-an

carry

bring, carry - PAN *kaCu

bring, carry - PWMP *um-uit

bring, carry - *(noise)

carry a child with a carrying cloth - PAN *SebaN

carry a child with a carrying cloth - PMP *heban

carry a load between two people - PPH *tuaŋ₂

carry a person pick-a-back; ride pick-a-back - PAN *baba₁

carry a person pick-a-back; ride pick-a-back - PMP *baba₁

carry between two or more persons - PMP *bintiŋ

carry between two persons - PMP *qusuŋ

carry by a strap over the shoulder - POC *sape

carry dangling from the fingertips - PMP *binit₁

carry in a shoulder cloth - PWMP *qawis

carry in front of one; hold in the lap - PWMP *paŋku

carry in the folds of the clothing - PWMP *hambin

carry in the hand - PWMP *biŋbiŋ₁

carry on a pole between two persons; help someone carry a load - PWMP *bulig

carry on a pole between two persons; help someone carry a load - PPh *bulig-an

carry on a shoulder pole - PWMP *taŋguŋ

carry on a shoulder pole between two people - PWMP *ataŋ₂

carry on the back - PAN-F *apa₂

carry on the head - PAN *suquN

carry on the head - PWMP *zuŋzuŋ

carry on the head - POC *suqun

carry on the shoulders - PMP *pasaqan

carry pick-a-back - PPh *aba₂

carry piggyback - POC *papa₁

carry slung over the shoulder - PPh *qambiday

carry slung over the shoulder - PPh *qambijay

carry water - PAN *CaNum

carry, carry away - POC *kawe

cloth used to carry a child on the back - PAN *SabaN

cloth used to carry a child on the back - PMP *haban

help someone carry a load - PPh *maR-búlig

hold by biting carry in the mouth - *(near)

hold or carry under the arm - PMP *qabin

hold or carry under the arm - PWMP *meŋ-qabin

improvised purse or bag, folded cloth used to carry things - PWMP *puyuŋ

lift, carry - POC *puat-an₂

lift, carry, bring; emerge, appear, begin; take a spouse - POC *puat₂

lift, raise, carry - PWMP *maŋ-aŋkat

pad placed under cooking pots, loads to carry on the head, etc. - PPH *dikén

pick up or carry dangling from the fingers - PWMP *maŋ-bitbit

pick up or carry dangling from the fingers - PWMP *maR-bitbit

press together; pressed together; carry under the arm, press between the legs - PMP *kepit

rattan basket used to carry garden produce, etc. - PWMP *karanzaŋ

shoulder pole; carry with a shoulder pole - PAN *pasaqaN

shoulder; carry on the shoulder - PMP *qabaRa₁

shoulder; carry on the shoulder - POC *qapaRa₁

to bring, to carry along - PAN *k<um>aCu

to carry - POC *binit₂

to carry at the side or on the hip, pressed under the arm - PPH *kilít

to carry off, kidnap, loot a place - PWMP *ma-naban

to carry off, kidnap, loot a place - PWMP *maR-taban

to carry on a shoulder pole - PCMP *lemba

to carry, transport, move something - PAN-F *sakut

to carry, transport, move something - PAN-F *s<um>akut

to follow instructions, follow an example; carry along, give in, allow something to happen - PWMP *tuRut

to lift, stand up, arise, emerge, begin, depart, carry; cargo; take something; take a wife - PMP *buhat₃

tubular basket used to carry and store rice or sago - PWMP *basuŋ

carrying

bringing, carrying - PWMP *uit₂

carry a child with a carrying cloth - PAN *SebaN

carry a child with a carrying cloth - PMP *heban

carrying pouch or small basket - PWMP *uyut₁

carrying vessel made from folded palm leaf sheath - PWMP *timbalaŋ

coiled base on which cooking pots are set or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *riken

coiled base on which cooking pots are set, or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *Riken

kind of large carrying basket - PMP *Rantaŋ

long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying - PAN *Sabit

long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying - PMP *habit

net bag used by men for carrying things on back - PAN-F *kaway₃

to grip with the teeth, as a dog in carrying something - PWMP *saŋal

carve

cut, carve, slice (meat or fish) - PPh *híwaq

cut, carve, slice (meat or fish) - PPh *hiwáq-an

to carve - PWMP *maŋ-ukir

to notch, to carve - POC *korot

carved

be cut, carved, sliced (meat or fish) - PPh *hiwáq-en

carved wooden figure, charm used to provide magical protection - PMP *uduq₂

carving

carving, sculpture - PMP *ukir

carving, thing made by carving wood - PWMP *ukir-an

cascade

rushing of water; rapids, cascade - PPH *dalágan

waterfall, cascade - POC *sabu

case

betel case - *(loan)

betel nut case - PWMP *calapaʔ

betel nut case - PWMP *salapa

genitive case marker for common nouns (cf. *na, *ni) - PAN *nu₃

genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb - PAN *ni

locative case marker (probably for plural personal names; cf. *di, *du) - PAN *da

locative case marker (probably for singular personal names; cf. *da, *du) - PAN *di

locative case marker for common nouns (cf. *da, *di) - PWMP *du

locative case marker for plural personal names - PMP *daₐ

nominative case marker for common nouns - PAN *su

nominative case marker for plural personal names - PAN *sa₁

nominative case marker for singular personal names or kin terms used as personal names - PAN *si₁

oblique case marker for personal nouns - PAN *ki₂

oblique case marker for plural personal names - PAN *ka₃

oblique case marker for singular personal nouns - PMP *ki₂ₐ

cashew

cashew - *(loan)

casket

casket, coffin - *(loan)

cassava

cassava, manioc - *(loan)

Cassia

a plant: Cassia sp. - PWMP *asuntiŋ

a tree: Cassia alata - PWMP *galiŋgaŋ

cassowary

cassowary - *(loan)

cast

be cast adrift, cast ashore after going adrift - PPH *padpád

one who is banished or cast out - PWMP *buaŋ-an

throw, cast - PMP *lambeg

to illuminate, cast light on - PWMP *suluq-i

casting

casting net - PWMP *Rambat

casting net for fishing - PAN *tabukul

casting net; spread out, as a casting net - PWMP *Rambaŋ

castor

castor bean: Ricinus communis L. - PAN *katawa

the castor bean plant: Ricinus communis L. - PPH *katana

the castor oil plant: Ricinis communis - PWMP *taŋan-taŋan

castrate

testicles of animals; castrate animals - PMP *butuq

castrated

castrated - *(loan)

Casuarina

a shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia - PMP *aRuhu

a shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia - PMP *qaRuhu

a shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia - POC *aRu

tree sp., Casuarina equisetifolia - *(loan)

cat

cat, Felis domesticus - *(loan)

cat, kitten - PWMP *kutíŋ

civet cat and similar small predatory mammals of the family Viverridae - PMP *musaŋ

kind of civet cat - PWMP *didis

meow of a cat - PWMP *ŋiaw

catappa

a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa - PMP *talisay

a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa - POC *talise₁

cataract

cataract of the eye - PMP *bileR

cataract of the eye - PWMP *biliR

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - PAN *bulaR₁

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - PWMP *buleheR

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - PPh *bulág

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - POC *pulaR₂

ocular cataract - PWMP *putik₁

catastrophe

misfortune, catastrophe - PWMP *geraq

catch

catch a ride, join a group, ride on something - PMP *sakay₁

catch fish by damming a stream - PPH *sáRep

catch fish or shrimp with the hands - PWMP *gamaʔ

catch fish with a dragnet - PWMP *ka-puket

catch one's breath - PWMP *ciŋap

catch or get caught in a trap; hit mark with spear, etc. - PMP *ena

catch with the hands - PMP *cikep

catch, as by covering - PMP *taŋkep

catch, seize - PMP *sakep

catch, seize - PWMP *tikep

catch, seize; embrace - PAN *dakep

deadfall trap to catch small mammals - PAN *qaCeb

grab with the hand, catch - PAN *sapet

hook on, catch with hook - PWMP *cibít

reach, overtake, catch up with - PPh *qabut

scoop up with a net; catch with snare - PPH *ma-ñiluʔ

seize, catch - PMP *ta(ŋ)kep₂

take passage, catch a ride in someone else’s boat - PWMP *tumpaŋ₂

to catch - PMP *sakup₁

to catch by the legs - PPH *batiŋ

to catch by the legs - PPH *ma-masiŋ

to catch with a net, scoop up - PPH *siluʔ-en

to catch, as a thing thrown - POC *sabot

to catch, as in a trap - POC *kabi

to catch, as with a hook - POC *kau₂

to catch, capture; embrace - PAN *d<um>akep

to catch, receive something thrown or sent one’s way - PWMP *sambut₂

to catch, snatch, as a ball in the air - POC *sikop

to feed, catch with bait - PWMP *maŋ-umpan

to hook, catch onto something - PWMP *s<um>abit

to hook, catch with a hook - PWMP *ma-ŋawit

to reach, catch up with - PPH *ábut

to reach, catch up with - PPH *abut-en

catching

means or instrument for catching - PWMP *paŋ-alap

to arrest the progress of something by stopping or catching it; to support, keep from falling - PWMP *saŋgaq

catchment

artificially enclosed catchment for water: well, ditch - PWMP *paRigi

catechu

betel nut: nut of Areca catechu - PAN-F *Sawiki

category

(human) member of a category - POC *ka₅

(human) member of a category - POC *kai

caterpillar

caterpillar - POC *muno

hairy caterpillar - PMP *qulej bulu-an

large green hairless stinging caterpillar - PMP *katadu

large green hairless stinging caterpillar - PWMP *tatadu

large stinging green caterpillar - PWMP *hantatadu

large stinging green caterpillar - PWMP *qantatadu

maggot, caterpillar, larva of a metamorphosing insect - PMP *qulej

cateye

cateye shell - PMP *qaliliŋ

kind of shellfish; eye of cateye shell - PMP *bulan₁

catfish

catfish - PMP *hituq

catfish - PMP *hitu

catfish - POC *kaboRa

large catfish that lives in river estuaries: genus Arius - PWMP *tambaŋuŋu

catty

catty (unit of weight for foodstuffs) - *(loan)

caught

be caught in a mosquito swarm, be overwhelmed by mosquitos - PPH *ñamuk-en

be caught, captured - PAN *dakep-en

be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true - PMP *kena₁

catch or get caught in a trap; hit mark with spear, etc. - PMP *ena

caught up in, carried along - PWMP *tuluy₃

entangled, caught up in, involved, embroiled - PWMP *saŋkut

food particles caught between the teeth - PAN *CiŋaS

food particles caught between the teeth - PMP *tiŋah

get caught in the rain - PWMP *ka-quzan-an

last compartment in a fishtrap, place where fish are caught - PWMP *bunuq-an₂

snag, be snagged, caught in something that prevents it from falling - PPH *saq(e)ŋit

to be caught with a dragnet - PWMP *puket-en

was caught with a dragnet - PWMP *p<in>uket

cauldron

cauldron; caldera, volcanic crater (?) - PWMP *kawaq

caulk

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - PMP *bulit₁

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - POC *bulit₂

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - PWMP *bulit-en

caulk; adhesive material - *-lit₁ (root)

glue, paste, plaster, caulk - PMP *dalit₁

to caulk, fill a hole - PWMP *pakal

caulking

mortar, caulking - *(loan)

causative

causative marker - *(noise)

causative of location - PAN-F *pi-

causative of motion - PAN-F *pu-

causative of stative verbs - PAN *pa-ka-

causative prefix - PAN *pa-₂

causative prefix - POC *paka-

causative-command

verb prefix: third-party causative-command - PPh *ipa-

cause

any plant with hairs that sting or cause itchiness - PWMP *amiaŋ

base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother - PMP *puqun

cause the wind to blow - POC *paka-aŋin

cause to vomit - PAN *pa-utaq

disease that causes swelling of body parts - PWMP *baguq

kind of vine that causes swelling and itching - PPH *lipay

marry off, cause to get married - PMP *pa-qasawa

origin, cause, provided that - *(loan)

spirit that causes sickness - PPh *abat₂

to evaporate, cause to dry up - PPh *maR-hebás

to fill, cause to become full - PMP *pa-penuq

to fill, cause to become full - POC *pa-ponuq

to frighten, cause to fear - PMP *paka-takut

to hurt, cause pain or trouble - PWMP *sakit-an

to intentially drown, cause to drown - PWMP *lemes-en

caused

caused (something to happen) - PWMP *p<in>a-

ditch, rain channel caused by water dripping from a house roof - PWMP *paspas₃

hydropoesia, bodily swelling caused by water retention - PMP *belbel₂

hydropoesia, bodily swelling caused by water retention - POC *popol

caustic soda

lye, caustic soda - *(loan)

cauterize

to roast; singe, cauterize - PPH *pasúq-en

caution

to note, remember; care, attention, caution - PMP *iŋat

cautious

careful, cautious - *(loan)

cautious, suspicious - PWMP *elem₂

cave

cave, cavern - PMP *liaŋ

cave, cavern, possibly submarine - PWMP *lubuk₁

collapse, cave in - PWMP *baŋbaŋ₄

rock shelter, cave under a rock - PAN-F *Nihib

submarine cave (?) - PPH *rawaŋ

cave-in

crumbling, eroded; landslide, cave-in - PPH *tebág

cavern

cave, cavern - PMP *liaŋ

cave, cavern, possibly submarine - PWMP *lubuk₁

hole, cavern - POC *pwaŋa

hole, cavern - POC *babaŋ

hole, cavern, pitfall - PPh *bítu

cavity

cavity, pit, den; to excavate a pit - PMP *baŋbaŋ₃

pit, deep cavity in the ground - PMP *lumbuŋ₁

caw

bird sp.; to caw, crow - PAN *wakwak

caw, as a crow; raucous talking of people - PWMP *gakgak

caw, cackle - PAN *kakak

to crow, to caw - PAN *Sekak

to crow, to caw - PMP *hekak

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ce

cease

cease - PWMP *tiŋkas

stop, cease - *(noise)

stop, cease, of rain - PMP *hedaw

cedar

Philippine cedar tree: Cedrela sp. - PPH *kalantas

Cedrela

Philippine cedar tree: Cedrela sp. - PPH *kalantas

Ceiba

silk cotton tree: Ceiba pentandra Linn. - PPh *buybuy

the kapok tree: Ceiba pentandra - PMP *kabu-kabu

ceiling

ceiling of a house - *(loan)

celebica

the almasiga tree: Agathis celebica (Koord.) - PPH *gala

celebrate

exult, celebrate (as a victory) - *(loan)

center

center post, main housepost - PCEMP *hadiRi bubuŋ-an

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

eye, focal point, center or most prominent part - PAN *maCa

middle, center - PWMP *taŋaq₄

middle, center; half - PMP *teŋaq

navel, umbilicus; mid-point or center of something - PMP *pusej

split down the center - *(noise)

centipede

centipede - PAN *qalu-Sipan

centipede - PMP *qalu-hipan

centipede - PCEMP *qalipan

phosphorescent centipede (?) - PWMP *andap

central

pithy; central - PPh *ma-qunej

pithy; central - PPh *qunej-en

cereal

a cereal grass with edible seeds that are also used as beads, Job’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L. - PMP *zelay

ceremonially

defiled, ritually polluted, ceremonially unclean - *(loan)

ceremony

ceremony - *(noise)

ceremony at planting to insure the well-being of the crops - PWMP *buhat₁

shaman (probably a transvestite or hermaphrodite), shamaness; shamanistic ceremony - PWMP *balian

Ceriops

kind of mangrove, Ceriops spp., with bark used for dyeing - PMP *teŋeR

certain

certain - *(loan)

hairy filaments of certain plants, husk - PMP *bulut₁

hairy filaments of certain plants, husk - POC *bulut₂

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PCEMP *daun

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PEMP *raun

tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits - PWMP *sapeled

tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits - PWMP *sapelet

ten, in counting certain objects - *(noise)

to walk a certain distance (?) - PPH *lakaj-en

cerumen

cerumen, earwax - POC *tule

ear wax, cerumen - PWMP *taqi nu Caliŋa

Cervus

deer of the genus Cervus, either the sika deer or sambar deer - PAN-F *benan

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ch

Chaetodon

butterfly; butterfly fish: Chaetodon spp. - POC *bebe

chaff

chaff - PCMP *uta

rice husk, chaff - PWMP *qepah

separate the chaff from the grain - PMP *siji

chain

link in a chain; joined together, as links in a chain, people in sexual intercourse or marriage; hands joined in crossing pattern in circle dance - PWMP *kawiŋ

chair

chair - *(loan)

sedan chair - *(loan)

challenge

to challenge, confront - PWMP *aŋat

Chamaecyparis

the Japanese cypress: Chamaecyparis obtusa - PAN-F *baŋun₁

chance

meet, come across by chance - *(noise)

change

change - *(loan)

change, exchange; repeat, return; again - PMP *baliw₅

change, exchange; repeat, return; again - PPh *baliw-an

do, bring about, change something - PWMP *ka-buhat

move, change place - PMP *aliq

other, to change - *(noise)

to change appearance - PMP *lian

to move, change location - PWMP *pindaq

turn around, change direction - POC *li-liu

channel

channel - PMP *sawaq₁

channel between islands or islets - POC *mata ni cawa

channel between two islands - POC *sawaŋ₂

current, deep channel in the middle of a river - PAN *qaluR₁

current, deep channel in the middle of a river - PMP *qaluR₂

ditch, rain channel caused by water dripping from a house roof - PWMP *paspas₃

make a gutter, ditch, or channel - PWMP *ŋ-abaŋ

river channel - PAN *iluR₂

Chanos

fish sp.: the milkfish, Chanos chanos - PMP *qawan

chanos

Chanos

fish sp.: the milkfish, Chanos chanos - PMP *qawa₁

chanos

Chanos

the milkfish: Chanos chanos - PMP *qawaʔ

chanos

chant

chant or sung narrative - PWMP *kiduŋ

to call, summon; chant to call the spirits - PWMP *tawaR₂

chaptalii

fish sp.: mullet sp., Neomyxus chaptalii - PMP *qawas

character

character, conduct - *(loan)

nature, character - PAN *k<in>a-Cau-an

nature, character - PMP *k<in>a-tau-an

rotten meat; addled eggs; bad character - PAN *buRuk

rotten, as meat; addled, as eggs; bad, of character - PMP *ma-buRuk

characteristic

inherited characteristic; bloodline - PPH *pulí

charantia

bitter melon: Momordica charantia L. - PWMP *paria

the bitter melon: Momordica charantia - PWMP *pariaq

charcoal

anything used to make charcoal - PPh *qujiŋ-en

charcoal - PMP *qajeŋ

charcoal - PAN *qujiŋ

charcoal, carbon, soot - PWMP *budiŋ

charge

rush forward, charge - PPH *sugud

charity

works of piety, charity - *(loan)

charm

carved wooden figure, charm used to provide magical protection - PMP *uduq₂

charm for invulnerability - *(loan)

love charm, aphrodisiac - PPH *lumay

talisman, protective charm - *(loan)

charred

burning brand; charred or smoldering wood - PMP *aluten

firebrand; unconsumed wood in a fire; charred wood - PWMP *aliten

chase

chase, drive away - PPh *ábuR

chase, pursue - PPH *hápaR

drive away, chase off - PWMP *ka-buRaw

drive off, chase away, expel - PAN *buRaw

drive off, chase away, expel - PPh *buRaw-en

drive off, chase away, expel - PWMP *maŋ-buRaw

drive off, chase away, expel - PPh *maR-buRaw

interjection used to chase off animal - PMP *isu₂

pursue, chase - PWMP *maŋ-usiR

pursue, chase - PWMP *um-usiR

pursue, chase - *(noise)

to chase away or shoo off small animals - PMP *sika

chased

be chased, pursued - PPH *hapáR-en

driven away, chased off - PAN *ma-buRaw

chasm

chasm, precipice - PPh *beŋqáw

chatter

chatter of birds - PWMP *seksek₂

chattering

chattering, crying of monkeys - PAN *keriq

sound of a monkey chattering - *(near)

sound of chattering or loud talk - PWMP *kicaq

chayote

chayote, Sechium edule - *(loan)

cheap

cheap, easy - *(loan)

cotton cloth of cheap quality - *(loan)

cheat

cheat, deceive - PWMP *buyuk

to cheat, deceive - PPH *kalít

checkered

cloth with checkered pattern - *(loan)

checkers

checkers - *(loan)

cheek

cheek - PWMP *anapiŋ

cheek - PCEMP *papaR

cheek - PAN *piŋi

cheek - PPH *apipiŋ

cheek bone - PAN *pasu₁

cheek bone - PMP *pasuŋ

cheeks - PPH *pis(e)ŋí

cheeks, temples - PAN *piSpiS

cheeks, temples - PMP *pihpih

side of the face, cheek; side planks of a canoe - POC *babaR

cheep

peep, cheep - PMP *kiuk

peep, cheep - PMP *piek

peep, cheep - POC *piok

to cheep; baby chick - PAN *siwsíw

cheeping

sound of frightened cheeping - PWMP *kicak

Cheilinus

wrasse, Cheilinus spp. - POC *taŋapa

Chelonia

hawksbill turtle: Chelonia imbricata - PCEMP *keRa

hawksbill turtle: Chelonia imbricata - PCEMP *keRan₂

the green turtle, Chelonia mydas - PMP *peñu

the green turtle, Chelonia mydas - POC *poñu

chest

box chest - *(loan)

chest - PAN *debdeb

chest (anat.) - PAN *daSdaS

chest (anat.) - PWMP *dahdah

fold the arms over the chest; fold the wings, of a bird - PWMP *kumkum

for the chest to tighten in excitement or fear; for the heart to pound - PPH *kebá

medicine chest - *(loan)

storage chest - PWMP *kaban₂

chestnut

a tree: Inocarpus spp., possibly the Tahitian chestnut: Inocarpus edulis - PMP *gayam

the ‘Tahitian chestnut’: Inocarpus fagiferus or I. edulis - POC *ipi₂

chew

betel chew - PAN *apuR

chew - PAN *paqpaq₁

chew - POC *ñamu

chew - *-paq (root)

chew on, gnaw on - PPh *haŋút

chew something tough, as sugarcane - PCEMP *ŋaŋas

chew the juice from something - PWMP *ma-ñepaq

chew without intending to swallow, as betel nut; premasticate food to give to an infant; premasticated food - PMP *mamaq

chew, gnaw on - PAN-F *qelqel

chew, move to and fro in the mouth - POC *kamu₃

prepare betel chew with lime - PPh *maR-qapuR

to chew - POC *ŋau-ŋau

to chew (of animals?) - PPH *sepal

to chew a betel quid - PWMP *mamaq-en

to chew off - PWMP *ŋatŋat

to chew on sugarcane - PWMP *maŋ-ququs

to chew or gnaw on something - PPH *ŋutŋut-en

to chew, chew off - POC *ŋau₁

to chew, masticate - PAN *ŋalŋal

to chew, masticate - PWMP *ŋuyaq

to nibble, chew at - PWMP *gitgit

chewed

be chewed on, of sugarcane - PWMP *ququs-en

chewed betel quid - PWMP *sapaq₃

chewed mass of food or betel nut in the mouth - PWMP *sepaq

chewed material - *(near)

leaf of a vine chewed with betel nut, betel pepper: Piper betle - PWMP *buyuq

plant chewed with betel that invigorates - *(loan)

to spit out chewed betel quid - PPH *sapaq-en

chewing

chewing on sugarcane - PMP *ququs

chick

baby chick; peeping of chick - PMP *piak

baby chick; to peep, of chicks - PMP *piqek

chick - PAN *siap

chick, baby chicken - PMP *anak i manuk

peeping of chick - PWMP *piuk-piuk

peeping of chicks - PWMP *piqek-piqek

to cheep; baby chick - PAN *siwsíw

chicken

chick, baby chicken - PMP *anak i manuk

chicken - PAN-F *tuRukuk

chicken - PAN *manuk

chicken - PMP *manuk

chicken egg - PMP *qiteluR ni manuk

chicken feathers - PMP *bulu ni manuk

chicken flea, itch mite - PWMP *kaRaw₂

chicken louse - *(near)

coop, as for chickens; pen, as for pigs - PPH *taŋkal

domestic chicken used as a decoy to attract a wild fowl into a trap - PPH *pa-ŋátiq

hen, egg-laying chicken - PMP *qupa

perch, roosting place for chickens - PPH *hapun-an

place where chickens are kept - PWMP *manuk-an

raise chickens - PWMP *maR-manuk

rear end of a chicken - PMP *buntut₁

scratch the ground, as a chicken does - PWMP *kahiR

scratch the ground, as a chicken does - PWMP *kahir

scratch up the ground, as chickens - PWMP *kaqis

scratch up the soil, as a chicken looking for food - PAN *kaSkaS

tiny parasite on the body, itch mite, chicken louse - PMP *kuman

to call chickens, cry for calling chickens - PWMP *kuruk

to cluck, of chickens - PWMP *kukkuk

to roost, of chickens; time of roosting - PPh *hápun

to scratch up the ground, as chickens - PWMP *kais-an

to squawk, as a frightened chicken - PMP *kiak

word used to call chickens, etc. - PMP *kuru₁

word used to call chickens, etc. - PMP *kur

chief

formal gathering, as of chiefs - PMP *pened₂

formal gathering, as of chiefs, with possible connections to announcing temporary taboos - POC *ponor

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born - PMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - PCEMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - POC *qulu

leader, chief - PWMP *paŋ-qulu

chiefly

nobility, member of the chiefly class - PMP *aren

chigger

chigger or similar insect - PPH *kuykúy₁

child

breastfeed, give the breast to a young child - PPH *mapa-susu

brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking) - PWMP *anak-en

carry a child with a carrying cloth - PAN *SebaN

carry a child with a carrying cloth - PMP *heban

child - PWMP *uŋaq

child - PAN *aN-aNak

child - PMP *an-anak

child, offspring - PEMP *natu

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

child, offspring; son, daughter; interest on a loan - PAN *aNak

cloth used to carry a child on the back - PAN *SabaN

cloth used to carry a child on the back - PMP *haban

consider as one's child - PWMP *maka-anak

first-born child, eldest child - PPH *paŋánay

first-born, eldest child (lit. 'head child') - PMP *anak a qulu

flower, blossom; to flower, bear flowers; yield a benefit (as interest on a loan); first-born child; cotton; vulva (refined or evasive), skin rash, prickly heat; speckled (of fish); kidneys - PMP *buŋa

genitals of a young child - PWMP *pipit₂

give birth to, have a child - POC *pasu₃

give birth, bear a child - PWMP *um-anak

give birth; have a child - PMP *maR-anak

give the breast to, nurse a child - PAN *pa-susu

have a child - PMP *ka-anak

hold in the lap, as a small child - PPH *sapupu

last, come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child; west; young; outside - PCEMP *m-udi

last; come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child - PMP *udehi

nickname for youngest child - PWMP *si huaji

offspring, child - *(noise)

parent and child - PAN *maRe-anak

parent’s younger sibling, junior uncle; a young child’s term of address for his father, vocative of *ama - PMP *mama

relationship of father and child - PWMP *paR-ama-en

small child - PWMP *anak anak

someone else's child - PMP *anak i tau

to be father and child - PAN *maR-amax

to be mother and child - PAN *maR-ina

to nurse, give a child the breast (to be sucked) - PAN *pa-susu-en

to slip out, of a child in childbirth - PPH *lusad

whine, whimper, as a child - PPH *ŋuyŋuy

young child’s term for father - POC *mama

youngest child - PWMP *buŋsu

youngest child - *(loan)

childbirth

bear down, press out, as in defecation or childbirth - PMP *maŋ-qezen

bearing down, pressing out, as in defecation or childbirth - PMP *qezen

month of expected childbirth (?) - PPh *ka-bulan-an

strain while defecating or in childbirth - PWMP *teRan

to slip out, of a child in childbirth - PPH *lusad

child-in-law

child-in-law - *(loan)

childless

sterile, barren, childless - PWMP *tamanaŋ

children

bear children, give birth - PMP *ma-anak

brood, flock, lots of children - PPh *hin-anak-an

have children, increase - PWMP *maŋ-anak-i

kind of children’s game - PPH *pikuq₂

relationship of father and children - PWMP *paRi-amax

relationship of father and children - POC *paRi-tama

spirit dangerous to children - PWMP *m-atay anak

to care for children - PPH *taR-anak

chili pepper

chili pepper - *(loan)

chills

chills, as of malaria - PAN *dajem

chills, as of malaria - PAN *ma-dajem

chiming

sound of tinkling or chiming - *(near)

chin

chin, jaw - PMP *qazay

chin, jaw - PAN *timij

chin, jaw - POC *qase

chin, jaw - PMP *timid

feathers under chin of rooster, chin whiskers - PWMP *bauk

chinaware

porcelain, chinaware - *(loan)

Chinese

a vine with red flower clusters, the Chinese honeysuckle, Quisqualis indica - PPH *taluluŋ

Chinese - *(loan)

Chinese boat - *(loan)

Chinese born in Indonesia - *(loan)

cloth acquired in trade from Chinese (?) - *(loan)

chip

break off, chip off - *(noise)

chip off, cut off bit by bit - PWMP *sapsap₁

cut chips or bits from something, scrape off - PPH *dapdáp

strike, chip stone - POC *babak₁

strike, chip stone - POC *babak₃

to break, chip off - PMP *papak

to break, chip off - POC *babak

to cut off small pieces; to chip off bit by bit - PWMP *ma-ñapsap

wood chips - PWMP *tatal

chirp

chirp - PPh *witwít₁

chirp, peep - PWMP *ciap

chirp, squeak - PMP *pikik

chirp, tweet, crow, produce sound (of birds) - PMP *huni

chirp, whistle - PWMP *wikwik

high-pitched sound; chirp of a gecko - PAN *tekiq

to chirp, to crow, to sound off (birds) - PAN *S<um>uni

to chirp, to crow, to sound off (birds) - PMP *h<um>uni

chirping

chirping of birds; noise, sound - PAN *Suni

chirrup

shrill whistle or chirrup - PPh *wiwí

shrill whistle or chirrup - *(noise)

chisel

chisel - *(loan)

tool like chisel or trowel - PPH *saluksuk₁

wood-working tool: chisel - PMP *paqet

wood-working tool: chisel - POC *paqot

choice

be chosen, selected; what is chosen, choice - PWMP *piliq-en

let someone choose, let someone make a choice - PWMP *pa-piliq

choke

choke, gag - PWMP *cekuk

choke, gasp, struggle for breath - PMP *e(ŋ)kak

choke, gasp, struggle for breath - PMP *qekak

choke, gasp, struggle for breath - PWMP *eŋkak-eŋkak

choke, have something stuck in the throat - PWMP *bekeR₁

choke, sob - PWMP *sigek

choke, sob - PPH *sigúk

choke, strangle - PMP *cekel

choke, strangle - POC *sokol

to sob, choke, have broken respiration - PMP *sekuk

choleric

colic, choleric diarrhoea - PWMP *kadadak

colic, choleric diarrhoea - PWMP *kadaqdaq

choose

choose it! - PAN *piliq-i

let someone choose, let someone make a choice - PWMP *pa-piliq

to choose, select, pick out - PWMP *ma-miliq

to choose, select, pick out - PWMP *maR-piliq

to choose, select, pick out - PAN *p<um>iliq

to choose, to select; to pick out - PAN *piliq

choosy

choosy, fussy, fastidious - PMP *ma-piliq

chop

chop down - PMP *beta₂

chop or hack into pieces - PWMP *ma-nektek

chop up, as firewood - PAN-F *k<um>etun

chop up, mince - PWMP *tadtád

chop, hack off - PWMP *pated

chop, hack, cut off - PMP *etes₁

chop, hack, cut off - PMP *qetes

chop, hack, mince, cut up - POC *totok

chop, split, adze something - *(noise)

cut, chop - PPH *tagpás

cut, chop - PWMP *tiRtiR₁

cut, sever, chop - PAN *Setek

cut, sever, chop - PMP *hetek

glancing blow; chop - PWMP *tigtig

hack, chop into pieces - PAN *saksak₁

hit, pound, chop - PMP *retuk

machete, bolo; chop with a machete - PWMP *tabas

slash, chop away - PWMP *etas

to chop, hack, cut off - PAN *t<um>əktək

to chop, to mince, as meat, fish or vegetables preparatory to cooking - PWMP *sagsag₂

to hack, chop off, trim with a bolo; pound, beat, knock on - PWMP *tabtab₁

to hoe, chop up soil - PWMP *bacuk

chopped

be chopped into pieces, be minced, as meat or vegetables; what is chopped up or minced - PAN *tektek-en

be chopped up or minced - PPH *tadtad-én

dish made of chopped meat or vegetables - PPH *t<in>adtád

was chopped up - PAN *t<in>ektek

chopping

chopping block used to prepare food - PWMP *saŋkalan

chopping block, cutting board - PPH *tadtad-án

chopping to pieces, cutting up, as meat or vegetables - PAN *tektek₁

choral

choral singing; to blend voices in song - POC *jaRu

chosen

be chosen, selected; what is chosen, choice - PWMP *piliq-en

was chosen; what was chosen - PWMP *p<in>iliq

was chosen; what was chosen, one’s preference - PWMP *na-piliq

chuckle

shriek, creak, cluck, chuckle - *-kek (root)

chunk

large piece or chunk of meat, etc. - PWMP *la(m)paŋ

lump or chunk of material - PMP *biŋkal

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ci

cicada

cicada - PAN *Nali

cicada - PAN *lalay

cicada - *(loan)

orthopterus insect: cicada or grasshopper - POC *sisi(rR)

shrill sound of an insect, probably cricket or cicada - PWMP *pispis₂

cinder

ash, cinder, powder - PAN *qabu

ash, hearth, cinder, powder, dust; gray - PMP *qabu

cinerascens

a sea fish, the rudderfish: Kyphosus cinerascens - PPH *hilek

Cinnamomum

a tree: the camphor laurel: Cinnamomum spp. - PAN-F *dakeS

circinatum

a climbing fern: Lygodium circinatum - PWMP *ituq

circle

circle round, circumvent - PMP *liu₂

go in a circle - PMP *liliŋ₂

labial circle - PWMP *buŋut

labial circle - PWMP *simuj

labial circle - PMP *suŋut₂

link in a chain; joined together, as links in a chain, people in sexual intercourse or marriage; hands joined in crossing pattern in circle dance - PWMP *kawiŋ

spiral or circle round - PWMP *baliŋ baliŋ

circling

move around in a circling fashion - PWMP *liliŋ-liliŋ

circular

circular opening - PWMP *lauR

to scrape; scraper or grater made from circular bivalve shell: Asaphis spp. - POC *kasi

circumambulate

circumambulate, circumvent - PAN *liuS

circumambulate, go around the edge - *(loan)

circumcision

circumcision - PPH *turiq

circumfix

derivational circumfix, probably used to form deverbal nouns of location - PWMP *paR- ... -an

circumvent

circle round, circumvent - PMP *liu₂

circumambulate, circumvent - PAN *liuS

cistern

well, cistern; spring - PMP *bubun₁

well, cistern; spring - PMP *bubuŋ₂

citrifolia

a tree with roots that furnish a red dye: Morinda citrifolia - POC *gurat

a tree: Morinda citrifolia - PWMP *biŋkudu

small tree, probably Morinda citrifolia Linn. - PPH *apatut

the dye produced from the Morinda citrifolia - POC *kurat

tree with inedible white fruit and root that yields a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia L. - POC *ñoñu

tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia - PWMP *baŋkudu

tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia - PCEMP *ñəñu

citrus

a citrus fruit, the pomelo - PPH *lukbán

Citrus

a fruit tree, the pomelo: Citrus decumana - PPH *suháq

citrus

citrus fruit - PMP *untay₂

citrus fruit - *(near)

citrus fruit (both orange and pomelo?) - PAN-F *iuk

citrus tree with fruit like a lemon - PPH *kalamansiq

kind of citrus fruit, Philippine orange - PPH *kutay

kind of citrus tree and fruit - PAN *dalayap

kind of citrus tree and its fruit - PMP *muntay

Citrus

kind of wild lemon tree, possibly Citrus hystrix - PPH *kabuRaw

citrus

lime, citrus fruit - PWMP *limaw

citrus fruit

citrus fruit - *(loan)

civet

civet cat and similar small predatory mammals of the family Viverridae - PMP *musaŋ

kind of civet cat - PWMP *didis

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cl

clack

clack the tongue - PMP *le(n)tak

clap, clack - PWMP *ti(m)puk

clatter, clack - PAN *taktak₂

clam

bivalve mollusk sp., lucine clam - PMP *bibi₁

bivalve mollusk sp., lucine clam - POC *bibi₂

feel with the feet, as in finding clams under the sand - PPH *sedsed₃

giant clam, Tridacna gigas - PMP *kima

kind of edible clam - POC *tue

kind of edible marine clam - PMP *tuay

clamor

cry out, clamor - PWMP *Riaw

noise, clamor - PAN *quriaw

noise, clamor - PMP *kuruq

clamp

clamp, pinch together - PWMP *sapit

clang

clanging sound; to clang, as in beating metals - PPH *taŋtáŋ

sound of a clang or bang - PMP *taŋ

clanging

clanging sound - *-Raŋ (root)

clanging sound - *-taŋ (or *-taqaŋ?) (root)

clanging sound; to clang, as in beating metals - PPH *taŋtáŋ

clap

clap - PPH *p<al>akpak

clap hands - POC *pwajaR

clap! smack! - PMP *bak₁

clap, beat, hack - PAN *CabCab

clap, clack - PWMP *ti(m)puk

clap, flap, slap - PWMP *epap

clap, make a clapping sound - PWMP *ti(m)bak

clap, slap, pound - PWMP *upuk

clap, thud - PMP *tampuk₁

pat, clap - PWMP *ampik

slap, clap - *-pak₁ (or *-paqak?) (root)

slap, clap - *(noise)

slap, clap on the ear - PWMP *tampar₂

sound of a clap or smack - PMP *pak

throb, thud, clap, break - *-puk₁ (root)

to clap, flap the wings; sound of clapping or flapping - PAN *pakpak₁

clapper

bird clapper (to frighten them from fields) - *(loan)

clapping

clap, make a clapping sound - PWMP *ti(m)bak

hit, sound of hitting, clapping, thumping - PAN *tepuk

slap, sound of slapping or clapping - PWMP *tipak

sound of heavy clapping or pounding, smacking sound - PAN *bakbak₂

to clap, flap the wings; sound of clapping or flapping - PAN *pakpak₁

clarify

clarify, shed light on - *(loan)

clash

clash together - PMP *tu(m)bak

to flap, clash together - PWMP *kibak

clasp

a clasp or button, fastening or closing device - PWMP *kaput-an

clasp in the arms - *(noise)

hook, clasp; grasp with fingers - *-bit₁ (root)

take in the hand, clasp, grasp - PAN *gemel

take in the hand, clasp, grasp - PMP *kemel

tie or clasp together; to button - PMP *kaput₁

to clasp firmly - POC *kokom-i

to clasp, tie together - PWMP *ma-ŋaput

class

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu-ŋ

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu-q

nobility, member of the chiefly class - PMP *aren

classifier

classifier for edible possession - POC *kana-

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PCEMP *daun

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PEMP *raun

stone; testicle; kind of banana; numeral classifier for teeth (?) - PMP *batu

clatter

clatter of a stick poking around in something - PWMP *degaq

clatter, clack - PAN *taktak₂

clattering

clattering sound - PWMP *letek

clause-final

clause-final particle - *(noise)

clavicle

collarbone, clavicle - PAN *-wadaŋ

claw

claw, talon, fingernail - PAN *kuSkuS₁

claw, talon, fingernail - PMP *kukuh

claw, talon, fingernail - PAN *k<aN>uSkuS

claw, talon, fingernail - PMP *k<an>uhkuh

crab claw, lance - *(noise)

fingernail, toenail, claw - PPH *sulu₂

fingernail, toenail; claw - PWMP *silu₂

tongs, pincers, claw of a crab or lobster; to pinch or squeeze - PAN *sipit

clay

clay - PPH *píla

clay cooking pot - PWMP *kurin

clay cooking pot - PAN *kuden

clay cooking pot - PMP *kudin

clay cooking pot - PAN *kudeŋ

clay, sticky earth - PMP *taneq pulut

clay, sticky earth - POC *tanoq pulut

soil, probably clay - PAN *daReq

soil, probably clay - PAN-F *daRiq

clean

clean - PPH *línis

clean oneself by scrubbing - PMP *hisuq

clean oneself by scrubbing - PEMP *isug

clean the teeth - PWMP *sugi

pick or clean the teeth - PWMP *sisig

to clean - PPH *linis-en

to sweep aside, clean by throwing aside - PPH *lunlun₁

to sweep aside, clean by throwing aside - PPH *lunlun-en

to wipe clean - PWMP *sutsut₂

cleanse

wash, cleanse - PWMP *maŋ-huRas

wash, cleanse - PPh *maR-huRas

clear

bright, clear - *(loan)

clear - POC *tino

clear a swidden - PWMP *maŋ-quma

clear forest for planting - *(noise)

clear land for cultivation - PPh *talun-an

clear ringing sound - *-kiŋ (root)

clear ringing sound - *-liŋ₁ (root)

clear ringing sound - *-tiŋ (root)

clear the ground for a garden site - POC *poki

clear, limpid - *-niŋ (root)

clear, of liquid free of impurities - PPH *tenaw

clear, of water - PMP *niŋniŋ

clear, of water - PCEMP *niniŋ

clear, pure, of water - PMP *tin(e)qaw

clear, straightforward - PMP *tegas

cut down small plants to clear a way - PWMP *takebas

cut down, clear away scrub - PWMP *tebas₂

loosen, untie, unwrap; unravel; to clear forest (fig.?) - PWMP *bajbaj

shake something, rinse clothes by shaking in clear water - PPh *waswás₁

to cut, clear vegetation - PAN *tebaS

to cut, clear vegetation - PMP *tebah

trim, prune, clear a path - PWMP *basbas₃

cleared

cleared area around house, cleared ground in village - PMP *natad

clearing

clearing of a garden for planting (?) - POC *sani

cutting or clearing of undergrowth - PWMP *lidik

cutting, slashing, as in clearing land - PWMP *patpat

to cut, slash, as in clearing land - PPH *patpát-en

clearly

in the line of sight, clearly visible - PPH *aŋ(ə)tad

to speak clearly and deliberately - PMP *tutur₁

cleave

cleave, split - PWMP *gatak

cleave, split - PWMP *getak

split, cleave - PWMP *lu(ŋ)ka

split, cleave - PWMP *pisik₁

split, cleave - PMP *betak₂

split, cleave, divide - POC *potak

to split, cleave in two - PWMP *maŋ-belaq

cleaved

split or cleaved - PWMP *siqelak

cleaver

cleaver, sword - PMP *ladiŋ

cleft

a cleft, space between two rocks - PEMP *mawa

clenched

clenched in the fist - PWMP *Ragem

clever

clever, intelligent - *(loan)

click

click - PWMP *pik

click or clink together, as stones in making fire - PPH *santik

click with the tongue - PPH *tak(e)laq

tick, click - PWMP *simetik

clicking

clicking or light knocking sound - *-tek₁ (root)

clicking sound - PWMP *patek

clicking sound - PWMP *sale(n)tek

knock two things together with a clicking sound - PPH *sintík

snap off, snapping or clicking sound - PMP *li(n)tik

cliff

embankment, cliff - PWMP *paŋpaŋ-an

climb

climb - PWMP *abit₁

climb - PMP *panahik

climb - PWMP *taked₂

climb - POC *panek

climb up, as a vine - PPH *kalatkat

climb, ascend - PAN *dakiS

climb, ascend - PAN *d<um>akiS

rise, climb up - PAN *sakat

sloping upward; to climb a mountain - PWMP *tukad₂

to climb vertically (as ladder, tree) - PPH *kay(e)qat

to climb vertically (as ladder, tree) - PPH *i-kay(e)qat

to climb vertically (as ladder, tree) - PPH *k<om>ay(e)qat

to climb, ascend, rise up - PMP *sakay₄

climber

species of climber used for decorative purposes - POC *bua bua

climbing

a climbing fern: Lygodium circinatum - PWMP *ituq

a climbing plant: Wedelia biflora - PMP *qatay qatay₁

a fish, the climbing perch: Anabas testudineus - PWMP *puyu₁

a fish, the climbing perch: Anabas testudineus - PWMP *puyu-puyu

to put something in a high place or reach a high place by climbing - PPH *saŋ(e)qát

cling

cling to - PPH *kapet-en

hold onto, cling to - PPH *kapet

stick, cling to - PWMP *puket₂

clink

click or clink together, as stones in making fire - PPH *santik

clip

clip on - PPH *sigpít

clip used to fasten things together - PPH *siR(e)pit

fasten, as with a clip - PPH *lig(e)pít

clitoris

clitoris - PWMP *itil

clitoris - PPH *tuŋgíl

clod

lump, clod - PWMP *gempal

lump, clod, as of earth - POC *ke(m)pal

clogged

stuffed, crowded; blocked, clogged - PWMP *petpet₂

close

blink, wink, close the eye briefly - PPH *kimit

close a door - PAN *qaNeb

close a door - PMP *qaneb

close by folding - *-kum (root)

close the eyes - PAN *kezem

close the eyes - PWMP *kidem

close the eyes - PWMP *kizem

close the eyes - PMP *pezeŋ

close the eyes - PWMP *pezem

close the eyes - PWMP *pidem

close the eyes - *(noise)

close the eyes; go out, of a light - PWMP *qezep

close the harvest - PWMP *tebas₁

close the lips, smile - PPh *hium

close the mouth - PWMP *buŋkem

close together - PAN *pijpij

close together - *(noise)

close together, compact - PPH *sunsun

close up - PWMP *ti(ŋ)keb

close, cover - PWMP *cu(ŋ)kup

close, shut - PMP *qentep

close, shut - PWMP *sa(ŋ)kep

close, shut - PWMP *cakep

close, shut off - PMP *si(m)pet

close, shut; enclose - PWMP *tikup

closely spaced, set close together - PAN *ma-pizpiz

companion, close relative, other one - PAN *ibaS

companion, close relative, other one - PMP *ibah

companion, close relative, other one - PMP *ibah-an

companion, close relative, other one - PWMP *ka-ibah-an

dense, close together - *(noise)

grip, compress, close in on - POC *komos

near, close by - PWMP *hampir

next to, in close proximity - PPH *sípiŋ

pass close by, brush against in passing - PPH *sag(e)qid

press together, close tightly - PAN *kupit

put close together - PWMP *lapit

set close together, dense, luxuriant - PMP *lebet

sniff at close quarters, of animals - PPH *suŋsuŋ₃

that --- indicating something close to the hearer - PPH *sa₄

to blink, wink, momentarily close the eye - PWMP *kezep

to close or cover up - PMP *ta(ŋ)kub

to close up, shut, as a door - PPH *liŋkep

to close, as a door; cover - PWMP *ma-naŋeb

to close, shut - PWMP *iŋkem

to close, shut - PWMP *maŋ-iŋkem

to close, shut; door - PMP *qeneb₁

to close, to shut - POC *qonop

to close, to shut; door - PAN *qeNeb₁

to shut, close - PPH *keleb

close by

close by, next to - *(loan)

close-cropped

close-cropped, of hair; bald - PPH *kupkup₄

closed

closed bamboo internode used as a container for salt, valuables, etc. - PWMP *tubuŋ

closed, dammed up - POC *bonot

hold in the closed mouth - PAN *qemqem

plugged, stopped, closed off - *-pet (root)

closely

closely spaced, set close together - PAN *ma-pizpiz

look at closely, stare intently - PWMP *sineŋ

observe closely or critically - PPH *mata-en

see, examine, look at closely - PWMP *hiliŋ

see, examine, look at closely - PWMP *iliŋ₂

to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely - PMP *dapet

to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely - PPH *dápat

close together

close together - *(near)

closing

a clasp or button, fastening or closing device - PWMP *kaput-an

cloth

bark cloth - PWMP *zaluaŋ

bark cloth? - PWMP *buyaŋ

bind, bundle, wrap in cloth; death shroud; cloth(ing) - PMP *balun₅

bind, bundle; wrap in cloth; death shroud; cloth(ing) - PCEMP *balun₃

bundle of cloth or clothes - PWMP *bantal

carry a child with a carrying cloth - PAN *SebaN

carry a child with a carrying cloth - PMP *heban

carry in a shoulder cloth - PWMP *qawis

cloth acquired in trade from Chinese (?) - *(loan)

cloth cover - PWMP *awi

cloth used for shawl - *(loan)

cloth used to carry a child on the back - PAN *SabaN

cloth used to carry a child on the back - PMP *haban

cloth with checkered pattern - *(loan)

cotton cloth - *(loan)

cotton cloth of cheap quality - *(loan)

drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth - PAN *sapay

drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth - PMP *sampay₁

improvised purse or bag, folded cloth used to carry things - PWMP *puyuŋ

kind of cloth - PPH *piki

layer of cloth or clothing - PWMP *lampín

long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying - PAN *Sabit

long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying - PMP *habit

loom for weaving cloth - PPh *habel-an

paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material - PCEMP *malaw

piece (of cloth...) - *(loan)

roll of leaves or cloth - PWMP *ampin

tear a leaf or cloth into strips - PPH *kisay

to cover, as with a cloth or mat - POC *taRu

to start the weaving of cloth - PPH *pugiq

trade cloth (bright red) - *(loan)

unit of measure for cloth, sails, etc. - PWMP *bidaŋ

weave cloth - PWMP *habél

weave cloth - PWMP *maŋ-habel

woman’s skirt; cloth used for clothing - PWMP *kain

woven cloth - PAN *t<in>enun-an

cloth covering

cloth covering - *(loan)

clothes

bundle of cloth or clothes - PWMP *bantal

clothes louse; body louse - PAN *CumeS

clothes louse; body louse - PMP *tumah

clothes louse; body louse - PCEMP *tuma

fit tightly, of clothes - PWMP *silet

lift up the clothes, roll up the pant legs (as when crossing shallow water) - PPH *lesles₁

remove the clothes, undress - PPH *luas₂

shake something, rinse clothes by shaking in clear water - PPh *waswás₁

spread out, as a net or clothes on the ground to dry - PPH *ladlad

to wash, as clothes - PPh *maR-baseq

to wear, as clothes; to get dressed, slip into - PPH *suq(e)lut

to wear, put on clothes, etc. - PAN *Si-₃

to wring out, as water from wet clothes - PAN-F *pedel

wash clothes - PAN *baseq

wash clothes - POC *pasoq

wash clothes by pounding on river rocks - PPH *piqpiq

wet; wash clothes - PMP *baseq

clothesline

clothesline, place to hang washed clothing - PMP *sampay-an

clothing

a patch, as on clothing - PAN *Capaŋ

a patch, as on clothing - PWMP *tapal

a patch, as on clothing - PMP *tapaŋ₁

a patch, as on clothing - PMP *tapel

carry in the folds of the clothing - PWMP *hambin

clothesline, place to hang washed clothing - PMP *sampay-an

clothing - PAN *qules₁

clothing - PAN *kabal₁

clothing - PAN-F *kabaR

clothing - *(loan)

clothing; wrapping - PMP *qules₂

dress up, be decked out in one’s finest clothing - PWMP *kena₂

encircling article of clothing or adornment - PWMP *giret

layer of cloth or clothing - PWMP *lampín

lining, insulation, padding; underlayer, as of clothing - PPH *sapín

put on clothing, wrap around body - PMP *suluŋ₂

step into clothing, put on a sarong - PMP *saRuk

tight-fitting, of clothing - PWMP *sikep₂

to wear or put on clothing - PMP *sulut

woman’s skirt; cloth used for clothing - PWMP *kain

clotted

clotted, coagulated - *(loan)

cloud

cloud - PWMP *kunem

cloud - PAN *luNuŋ

cloud - *(near)

darkened by clouds, overcast - PAN *kudem

low cloud, mist, fog - POC *kopu

rain cloud - POC *kadapuR

wind-driven fragments of cloud, light scudding clouds - PMP *taqi nu haŋin

clouded

Formosan clouded leopard - PAN-F *lukeNaw

murky, clouded, turbid - PMP *libuR

cloudy

cloudy, misty, hazy - PWMP *ma-Rabun

dark, cloudy - POC *rodrom₁

dark, obscure, cloudy - PPH *dik(e)lém

dark, obscure, cloudy - PPH *ma-diklém

dark, overcast, cloudy - PWMP *gelem

clove

clove, mace - *(loan)

cloven

to have been split, cloven in two - PAN *b<in>elaq

clover-like

small sour plant with clover-like leaves - PWMP *qalesem qalesem

cloy

to cloy, satiate, do something to excess and so lose interest - PPH *s<um>áwaʔ

cloyed

eat too much, be cloyed, overfull, tired of something through excess; bored - PWMP *sáwaq

club

hit, beat with hand or club in order to kill - PPH *palpál₁

knob on the head of a club - POC *waka

cluck

cluck, squawk - PMP *qiuk

shriek, creak, cluck, chuckle - *-kek (root)

to cluck - PMP *ke(k)kek

to cluck, of chickens - PWMP *kukkuk

to cluck, or cackle; make a clucking or cackling sound - PWMP *ketak

clucking

sound of dull clucking - PWMP *ketek

to cluck, or cackle; make a clucking or cackling sound - PWMP *ketak

clump

cluster, clump - PWMP *rumpun

clumsy

overgrown, clumsy, sluggish - PMP *bagal

cluster

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *dapdap₁

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - POC *rarap

a vine with red flower clusters, the Chinese honeysuckle, Quisqualis indica - PPH *taluluŋ

bunch or cluster of things; to gather - PWMP *kumpul

bunch, cluster - PAN *qupuŋ

bunch, cluster - *-puŋ₁ (root)

bunch, cluster (as of fruit) - POC *pui₁

bunch, cluster (of grain, fruit, areca nuts, etc.) - PAN *puŋuN

bunch, cluster (of grain, fruit, areca nuts, etc.) - PMP *puŋuh

bunch, cluster of fruit - POC *puliR

bunch, cluster, as of fruit - PWMP *kaliŋ

bunch, cluster, as of fruit - PWMP *puŋpuŋ₂

cluster (b) == repay, return in kind; retaliate, take revenge (hence: to equalize a loss or debt) - PMP *baliw₄

cluster (c) == don mourning apparel; mourn for a deceased spouse - PMP *baliw₃

cluster, clump - PWMP *rumpun

cluster, group - PMP *lumpuk

cluster, group - PWMP *lumpuŋ

dual division, moiety == cluster (a) answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - PMP *baliw₁

group, crowd, flock, school, bunch, cluster - PCEMP *butu₂

group, crowd, flock, school, bunch, cluster - POC *putu, butu

stalk or cluster of fruit - POC *kada

tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *depdep

clutch

hold tightly, clutch to oneself - PPH *sak(e)lút

hold tightly, clutch to oneself - PPH *sak(e)lut-en

squeeze, hold tight, clutch - POC *gomol

to clutch, hold tightly - PMP *kupkup₃

to clutch, hold tightly - POC *kukup

TOP      ce    ch    ci    cl    co    cr    cu    cy    

co

coagulated

clotted, coagulated - *(loan)

coal

coal, anthracite - PMP *qajeŋ i batu

ember, glowing coal - PAN *baRah

ember, glowing coal - POC *koran

ember, glowing coal - PMP *baRah hapuy

fish wrapped in banana leaf and cooked over hot coals - PWMP *p<in>aqis

coarse

big, gross, coarse - PWMP *selaR

big, gross, coarse - PWMP *ma-selaR

grit, coarse sand, gravel - PMP *badas

husk, coarse hair or fiber - *-but₂ (root)

kind of coarse grass - PWMP *taŋ(e)buq

tasting 'woody' or coarse; astringent taste, as of unripe bananas - PWMP *sapela

coast

sail along the coast (?) - PWMP *susuR

sail along the coast, follow the coast in voyaging - PMP *siDsiD

sea coast (?) - POC *raRat

coastal

coastal plain, promontory (?) - PCMP *tetun

coastal tree, perhaps Pongamia pinnata - POC *pesi

coating

cover, coating - PWMP *kubkub₂

cobra

kind of snake, possibly cobra - PWMP *teduŋ₂

cock

cock, rooster - PMP *laluŋ

cock's comb - *(noise)

cockscomb; cut off a cock’s comb - PPH *páluŋ

fighting cock (?) - PWMP *paŋ-bulaŋ

fighting cock with greenish feathers on light background - PWMP *hizaw

fowl, cock - POC *toqa

rooster, cock - *(near)

tie an artificial spur to the leg of a fighting cock - PWMP *maŋ-bulaŋ

cockatoo

kind of cockatoo with red neck feathers - POC *sipiri

kind of cockatoo with red neck feathers - POC *supiri

cockroach

cockroach - PAN *Sipes

cockroach - PMP *ipes

cockroach - POC *ipos

cockroach - *(loan)

cockscomb

cockscomb; cut off a cock’s comb - PPH *páluŋ

cockspur

artificial cockspur - *(loan)

artificial cockspur; bind on an artificial cockspur - PWMP *bulaŋ

cockspur - PMP *tara

natural cockspur (cf *tazi, artificial cockspur) - PMP *tada

coconut

blossom of the areca or coconut palm - PWMP *mayaŋ

coconut - PMP *niuR

coconut - *(noise)

coconut beetle, coconut blight - *(loan)

coconut crab: Birgus latro - PMP *qayuyu

coconut crab: Birgus latro - PPH *tatus

coconut cream - *(loan)

coconut embryo - PMP *para

coconut growth stage 12: sprouted - POC *tabwa

coconut growth stage 6: green drinking coconut - POC *karut₂

coconut growth stage 9: ripe, flesh hardened - POC *kulu₂

coconut husk - PMP *buʔut

coconut husk - POC *benu

coconut husk - POC *put₂

coconut husk, coir - PMP *bunut₁

coconut husk, coir - POC *bunut₁

coconut leaf basket - POC *kaso₂

coconut milk - PMP *Rataq

coconut residue - *(loan)

coconut shell - POC *koi

coconut shell bowl or water scoop - PPH *húŋut

coconut shell drinking cup - POC *lasa₂

dry coconut - PCEMP *matu

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

fibrous husk of coconut - PMP *benut₁

fibrous integument at the base of coconut fronds - POC *kaka₃

fibrous material at base of coconut frond - PPH *aqepis

flesh, meat, coconut flesh - POC *kanoŋ

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

germinating coconut (?) - PEMP *upu

grater, rasp, as for coconuts - PWMP *kuDkuD-an

husk a coconut with the teeth - POC *saRi

immature stage of coconut or areca nut (?) - POC *piras

kind of brush made from coconut husk, used to scrub or polish a surface or to treat threads before weaving - PWMP *sikat

midrib of a coconut frond - POC *sasaRi

midrib of coconut frond - PMP *paqpaq₂

midrib of coconut leaf - PMP *palaqpaq

mid-rib of coconut leaf - POC *balapaq

pithy ball inside sprouted coconut, coconut endosperm - POC *piri

plant fiber; coconut husk, fibers of areca nuts, fibers covering mango seeds, etc. - PWMP *sabut

pounded taro with coconut cream - POC *moñak₁

remove coconut husk; scrub with coconut husk - PPh *bunut-an

remove coconut husk; scrub with coconut husk - PPh *maŋ-bunut

ripe coconut - PWMP *buntan

scrape out, as meat from a coconut - PWMP *suqsuq

scrape, grate, as coconut preparatory to cooking - POC *korit

seed bud in a coconut - PWMP *tumbuŋ₂

sharp pointed stick used in planting crops and in husking coconuts; digging stick, coconut husking stick - POC *kojom

sheath of a coconut? - POC *kamu₁

solid residue left after squeezing to remove coconut oil, etc. - PPH *lunek₂

spoiled coconut - PPh *bulalákaw₁

sticky confection made of rice and coconut - PWMP *kalámay

to dig with a digging stick, to husk coconuts with a husking stick - POC *kojom-i

to scrape, as coconut meat from a shell; to grate, as coconut meat - POC *isi₄

to scrape, rasp, grate, as in grating coconuts - PMP *kuDkuD

to shake something, as an egg or coconut - PPH *kalug

type of coconut - POC *lama₃

young coconut - POC *ubu

cod

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod - PWMP *kurapu

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PMP *kuRapu

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PWMP *kuRapuq

rock cod, grouper - POC *kalika

rock cod, grouper sp. - POC *kawa-kawa

cofassus

a woody plant or tree: Vitex cofassus - POC *pasa(rR)

coffin

casket, coffin - *(loan)

coffin - PWMP *luŋun

coffin - *(loan)

cogon

new shoots of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) - PMP *mimis₁

cohort

mate, partner, cohort - PPH *ka-₄

coil

coil - PMP *leken

coil around, wrap with rope - PWMP *libej

coil, curl, undulation - PWMP *keluŋ₁

coil, curve, bend, fold; to coil, to curve, to bend, to fold - PMP *biŋku

to bend, coil or wind up - POC *tali₂

to coil - PPH *likáw-en

to coil up - PPH *lakun

to coil, bend - POC *keke₂

coiled

coiled base on which cooking pots are set or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *riken

coiled base on which cooking pots are set, or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *Riken

coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set - PAN *Reken

coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set - PAN *reken

coir

coconut husk, coir - PMP *bunut₁

coconut husk, coir - POC *bunut₁

coitus

movement in coitus - POC *kiur

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - PMP *kiud

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - PWMP *kiut

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - PMP *kiuq

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - PPH *iut₂

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - POC *kiuq

Coix

a cereal grass with edible seeds that are also used as beads, Job’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L. - PMP *zelay

cold

a cold; nasal mucus, runny nose - PPH *sip(e)qun

be or feel cold - POC *pout

cold - PMP *diŋin

cold - PPH *lamíg

cold - PMP *diŋdiŋ₂

cold - PCEMP *ma-dindiŋ

cold - PMP *ma-diŋin

cold - POC *maridriŋ

cold (of weather) - PAN *ramig

cold, cool - *(noise)

cold, of leftover food; leftovers from a meal - PAN *baSaw

cold, of leftover food; leftovers from a meal - PMP *bahaw

cold, shivering - PAN *giŋgiŋ

have a painful feeling in the teeth, as when eating something very sour or cold, or hearing a screeching or scratching sound - PWMP *ŋilu-an

colic

colic, choleric diarrhoea - PWMP *kadadak

colic, choleric diarrhoea - PWMP *kadaqdaq

collapse

collapse, cave in - PWMP *baŋbaŋ₄

collapse, fall down, as a house - PWMP *rebaq

collapse, fall into ruin - PWMP *rebas

collar

collar bone (?) - *(near)

moon, month; menstruation; shell disk collar piece - PMP *bulan₃

collarbone

collarbone, clavicle - PAN *-wadaŋ

collateral

collateral consanguine of the first ascending generation - PAN *tata₁

formative for collateral kin - PWMP *kam- -an

collect

assemble, collect, gather - *-pun (root)

collect stones(?), use stones for a purpose - PWMP *ma-matu

collect, gather - PWMP *tampuŋ

collect, gather - PWMP *abun

collect, heap up - PMP *impu₁

cut or collect palm leaves for roofing - PMP *sasah

dunning to collect a debt - *(loan)

gather, collect together - PWMP *emuŋ

gather, collect; swarm around - PMP *quruŋ

heap, pile, cover with earth; collect, assemble - *-bun (or *-bequn?) (root)

prefixed to a noun means ‘to get, obtain, collect, gather’ (noun) - PAN *ki-

to collect a debt - PWMP *siŋir

to gather, collect together - PWMP *maŋ-emuŋ

collection

collection, gathering, assembly - PAN *puluŋ

group, company, collection, swarm - PMP *baban

heap, collection; to gather, heap up - PMP *qi(m)pun

heap, pile, collection - PMP *hubun₂

heap, pile, collection - PWMP *umpuk

heap, pile, collection - PWMP *umpuk-an

collective

collective particle - PMP *paRa₂

prefix of reciprocal or collective action - PEMP *paRi-

collide

bump or bang into, collide unceremoniously - PWMP *sempuk

collide, bump into - PWMP *sa(m)puk

collide, hit, strike - *(loan)

collide, hit, strike - *(noise)

knock against, collide with, beat up - PWMP *bugbug

colliding

to hit, strike, or hard objects colliding - PPh *beRták

collision

slap, sound of collision - PWMP *lagepak

slap, sound of collision - PWMP *ragepak

turn aside, swerve to avoid a collision - PWMP *tipas

Colocasia

cultivated taro: Colocasia esculenta - PAN-F *Cali

taro sp., probably Colocasia antiquorum - PWMP *kaladi

taro: Colocasia esculenta - PMP *tales

taro: Colocasia esculenta - POC *talos

color

body hair; fur; feather; down; antenna of insect or crustacean; spikes of sea urchin; floss on plant skins, color; type, kind - PCEMP *bulu₁

body hair; fur; feather; down; floss on plant stems; color; type, kind - PMP *bulu₁

dark color - POC *quciŋ

dark color - *-tem (root)

dark color: black - PWMP *beleŋ

dark in color or from the absence of light - PWMP *lidem

red, reddish color of flames - PMP *siRa₂

reddish, color of flames - PMP *siRaq

striped, having stripes or streaks of different color - PWMP *garit

striped, in bands of different color - PWMP *patelaŋ

variegated in color; spotted or speckled - PWMP *belaŋ belaŋ

whiteness, white color - PWMP *ka-putiq

colored

golden colored - PAN *bulaw

material that has been colored yellow with turmeric - PWMP *k<in>uñij-an

comb

cock's comb - *(noise)

cockscomb; cut off a cock’s comb - PPH *páluŋ

comb - PMP *saRu₁

comb - PMP *saut

comb - PEMP *sura

comb - PWMP *sulud₁

comb - PAN *garuC

comb - PWMP *sunday

comb - *(near)

comb, comb-like structure; rake, harrow - PMP *sisir

fine-toothed lice comb - PWMP *sujud

kind of comb - PMP *suat₁

to comb - PAN *g<um>aruC

combat

a form of martial art or mock combat - PWMP *silat

combine

to unite, combine in one - PAN *paR-isa-an

comb-like

comb, comb-like structure; rake, harrow - PMP *sisir

come

appear, come into view - PMP *betu

appear, come into view - POC *potu₁

come - PAN *ai₃

come into view - POC *pwaka

come on! let's go! - PWMP *itaq

come on! let's go! - PWMP *ita₂

come out, take out - PCMP *lesu₂

come to an end - PMP *ke(m)pus

come to an end - PWMP *pedped₂

come to an end, be destroyed - PMP *qa(m)pus

come to rest in a definite place, settle down, as birds on a tree - PMP *tekas

come to shore, settle down in a place; sit, squat - POC *toka₂

come to the surface - PPH *kápaw

come to the surface, appear from below - PWMP *timbul

come undone, of stitches - PAN *katkat₂

come, toward the speaker - PWMP *ari

come; toward the speaker - POC *mai

come; toward the speaker; let’s go! - PAN *aRi

follow, come after - PCEMP *udi

follow, come after - POC *uri

follow, come after (in sequence) - PWMP *ku(n)tit

hither, come hither - POC *maRi

last, come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child; west; young; outside - PCEMP *m-udi

last; come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child - PMP *udehi

meet, come across by chance - *(noise)

near, come near; edge, border - PMP *ipit

originate from, come from - PAN *Si-₂

originate from, come from - PMP *hi-

return, come back - PAN *wili

run out, come to an end, of supplies; be poor - PMP *kabus₁

sit, squat; come to rest; stay in a place; settle down, as birds on a tree - POC *toka₃

stop, come to a stop - PWMP *endaŋ

suddenly appear, come into view suddenly or partially - PPH *tuq(e)maw

to arrive, appear, come into view - POC *pura

to assemble, come together (of people); bring together (of things) - PPH *típun

to block passage, oppose movement; come to a temporary stop - PPH *saR(e)ked

to come - PAN *um-ai

to come - PWMP *um-ari

to come - PAN *um-aRi

to come loose, as a belt - PPH *hulhul₂

to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete - PMP *teka₁

to descend, come or go down - PWMP *t<um>uRun

to go; to come - POC *oRo

to meet, come together - PAN-F *Cebuŋ

to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely - PMP *dapet

to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely - PPH *dápat

to set free, let loose, liberated; passed by, come to an end - PWMP *lepas

to touch, come in contact with - PPH *denet

touch, come into contact - PWMP *sintuk

wobble, come loose, of something attached - PWMP *uteŋaq

come on!

come on!, lets go! - *(loan)

comfort

breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break - PMP *nihawa

coming

it is getting dark, night is coming on - POC *e boŋi

to pass one another in coming from opposite directions - PWMP *sulaŋ

command

order, request, command; message; something left for another - PWMP *bilin

send on a mission, command someone to do something - PWMP *utus₂

commence

take a trip; commence a voyage - PPH *luás

commercial

money, payment, medium of commercial exchange - PCEMP *matay₂

commit

commit suicide by hanging - POC *liko₁

kill; commit suicide - POC *paka-mate

kill; commit suicide (?) - PMP *pa(ka)-m-atay

make a mistake, commit an error, be wrong about something - PWMP *maR-salaq

commitment

obligation, duty, commitment - *(loan)

common

common noun article - PMP *na₁

genitive case marker for common nouns (cf. *na, *ni) - PAN *nu₃

locative case marker for common nouns (cf. *da, *di) - PWMP *du

nominative case marker for common nouns - PAN *su

oblique of common nouns (cf. *ki, *ka) - PAN *ku

originate; related by common origin; be born - POC *pusa₁

commotion

noise, commotion - POC *uni

communal

communal boat - PPh *baraŋgay

communal help - PWMP *deRep

commune

tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune - PMP *kanari

tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune - POC *kaŋaRi

communicate

communicate with spirits (?) - PWMP *maR-qanitu

communication

communication, conversation - *(loan)

communis

castor bean: Ricinus communis L. - PAN *katawa

the castor bean plant: Ricinus communis L. - PPH *katana

the castor oil plant: Ricinis communis - PWMP *taŋan-taŋan

community

inhabited land, territory supporting the life of a community - PMP *banua

public building, community house, guest house - PMP *balay

community-member

fellow villager, fellow community-member - PMP *anak i banua

compact

close together, compact - PPH *sunsun

compact, compressed, packed in tightly - PWMP *pa(n)det

crowded, compact - PPH *sedsed₂

press together, make compact, as the threads or leaves in weaving - PPH *sensén

short in height, squat and compact in build, of a person - PMP *pandak

companion

canine companion - PPh *ka-asu

companion - PAN *buluN

companion - PMP *bulun

companion - *(noise)

companion in some activity - PPh *ka-sabáy

companion, close relative, other one - PAN *ibaS

companion, close relative, other one - PMP *ibah

companion, close relative, other one - PMP *ibah-an

companion, close relative, other one - PWMP *ka-ibah-an

companion, member of a group (of animals or people); friend - PWMP *kaban₁

friend, companion - PWMP *diŋan

mate, companion, fellow; together with; alike, the same as; aligned or in good order - PWMP *sama

mate, companion; like, similar to - POC *jama

to be friends with, to be a companion of - PMP *maR-kaban

with, in conjunction with; companion - PMP *deŋan

with, in conjunction with; companion - PWMP *deŋen

with, in conjunction with; companion - POC *doŋan

company

group, company - *-ban (root)

group, company, collection, swarm - PMP *baban

to quarrel, part company - PPH *suay

compare

compare two things - PWMP *tandiŋ

to compare - PPH *i-pada

weigh, balance, compare - PMP *imbaŋ

compartment

last compartment in a fishtrap, place where fish are caught - PWMP *bunuq-an₂

compass

point of the compass, direction - POC *mata ni aŋin

point of the compass, direction of the wind - PMP *mata nu haŋin

compassion

feel affection or compassion for - PWMP *maR-qasiq

pity, compassion - *(noise)

pity, compassion, affection, love, sympathy, forgiveness - PMP *qasiq

to pity, have mercy on, feel compassion for - PMP *ma-qasiq

compel

impose one’s will, force or compel someone to do something - PWMP *teRel

to insist; to force, compel someone to do something - PPH *pílit

compensation

compensation, reward - PMP *upaq

compete

compete, confront in a contest - PWMP *adu

compete, confront in a contest - PWMP *maŋ-adu

competition

a race, running competition - PWMP *lumbeq

complain

complain loudly - PMP *eŋut

complain loudly - POC *ŋara

complaint

high-pitched sound of complaint - PWMP *eŋik

sob, mumbled complaint - PWMP *he(m)bek

complete

become complete - PWMP *g<um>enep

complete - *(near)

complete an activity, see through to completion - PPH *perper₁

complete, replete - PWMP *lekep₂

complete; even (of numbers) - PWMP *genep

end, complete, finish - PAN *tapus

stop, end, finish, complete; finished, used up - PMP *qeti₃

stump, stub; finish, complete - PMP *epus

to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete - PMP *teka₁

to complete something - PWMP *genep-i

to complete, finish - PMP *tu(m)pus

to complete, make full, round out - PWMP *pa-genep

to complete, perfect something - PMP *bales₂

to end, finish, complete something - PWMP *putput₃

to fill, make complete - PWMP *p<um>enuq

to perfect, complete something - POC *palos

completed

finished, completed; all gone - PWMP *puspus₁

completely

brood, sit on eggs; cover completely - PMP *ukup

do to one’s utmost, do completely, to the finish - PPH *lubus

to bail out completely - PWMP *limas-an

completion

complete an activity, see through to completion - PPH *perper₁

complexion

complexion - *(loan)

complicated

difficult, complicated - PWMP *sulit₁

tangled, confused, complicated - PWMP *gusut

comply

fulfill a promise, comply with a wish - PPH *tupád

component

break off a component piece of something, as twigs or branches from a tree, a banana from a bunch, a section from a fruit, etc. - PPH *sipíq

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

compose

compose - *(loan)

compress

grip, compress, close in on - POC *komos

grip, compress, squeeze - PMP *kemes

compressa

cooking banana: Musa sapientum Linn. var compressa. Blanco - PWMP *sabeqa

compressed

compact, compressed, packed in tightly - PWMP *pa(n)det

compressed in the fist; what is compressed in the fist, as a ball of rice - PWMP *kepel

cram, crowd, be compressed or congested - PWMP *isek

packed in, compressed - *-det (root)

compulsive

to move or touch in an agitated or compulsive fashion - PPH *garaw-en

concave

concave, curved inward - PMP *leŋkuŋ

concave, curving inward - PWMP *likuŋ

space within a concave object - *(noise)

conceal

cover, conceal - PWMP *lipud

hide, conceal - PWMP *liŋed

hide, conceal - PMP *buni₁

hide, conceal - POC *puni₂

hide, conceal, do in secret - PWMP *lihem

hide, conceal, do in secret - PWMP *lihim

shelter, conceal - *(noise)

suffer in silence, conceal an illness - PWMP *pelaqam

to conceal; be concealed - PMP *limun

to hide, conceal - PAN *buNi

to hide, conceal - PWMP *maŋ-buni

to screen, conceal, cover - PWMP *tabeŋ

concealed

concealed, secret; to deny, hide something - PPH *liméd

to conceal; be concealed - PMP *limun

concealment

ambush, attack from concealment - PAN *RaSuŋ

ambush, attack from concealment - PMP *Rahuŋ

attack from concealment, criticize from a distance - PPH *libák

conceive

conceive - *(noise)

concentrate

hold firmly, concentrate - PWMP *pegeŋ

unable to concentrate - PWMP *liŋas

concession

particle expressing solidarity, concession, qualification, or emphasis - PPH *man

conch

conch shell trumpet - PCEMP *buu₂

conch shell trumpet - PMP *tabuRiq

conch shell trumpet - PMP *tabuRi

conch shell trumpet - POC *buu₅

conch shell trumpet - POC *tapuRiq

conch shell trumpet - POC *tapuRi

the spider conch: Lambis lambis - PMP *Raŋa

the spider conch: Lambis lambis - PMP *Raŋak

the spider conch: Lambis lambis - PMP *RaŋaR

conclude

decide, conclude - PWMP *putus

end, conclude, finish - PMP *te(m)pus

concord

agree with, be in concord with - PPH *áyun

condiment

spices, condiments - PWMP *palapaq

spicy condiment side dish with rice - *(loan)

condition

return to its previous condition - PWMP *puliq

conditional

conditional, if - PAN *ka₂

conduct

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PMP *hateD

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PEMP *ated

character, conduct - *(loan)

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

conducted

curing ritual conducted by a medium in trance - PWMP *dawak

one who is led, one who is conducted - PWMP *in-aRak

conduit

ditch, conduit - PWMP *qiliR-an

water conduit - PWMP *saluD

condylous

condylous bone, bone of fauna exclusive of fish - PWMP *tuqelaŋ

condylous bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish - PAN *CuqelaN

condylous bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish - PMP *tuqelan

confection

sticky confection made of rice and coconut - PWMP *kalámay

confess

admit, confess - PWMP *maŋ-aku

confidence (in lending money)

trust, confidence (in lending money) - *(loan)

confine

surrround in order to confine or protect - PWMP *kuŋkuŋ₄

confined

narrow, tight, confined - PMP *gipit

confiscate

confiscate - *(loan)

confront

compete, confront in a contest - PWMP *adu

compete, confront in a contest - PWMP *maŋ-adu

threaten, confront violently - PWMP *ayat

to challenge, confront - PWMP *aŋat

to confront one another, as in a dispute - PPH *saŋsáŋ

to face, confront - PPh *atúbaŋ

confusa

an evergreen tree, probably Acacia confusa - PAN-F *tuquN

confuse

disconcert, confuse - PMP *beŋaŋ₁

confused

become distracted or confused, as by noise - PPH *liŋáw

confused - *(loan)

confused - *(noise)

confused - *(noise)

confused, disoriented by loud noise - PWMP *begaw

dazed, confused - PAN *ma-ulaw

tangled, confused, complicated - PWMP *gusut

confusion

confusion - PWMP *re(m)but

confusion - *(noise)

confusion, perplexity - PAN *ulaw

disturbance, confusion - PWMP *sigaw

congested

cram, crowd, be compressed or congested - PWMP *isek

congestion

tightness, congestion - PWMP *sendet

conical

conical bamboo basket trap for fish - PAN *bubu₂

conical bamboo basket trap for fish - PWMP *buʔu

conical bamboo basket trap for fish - POC *pupu₂

conjunction

conjunction: and - PMP *a₂

conjunction: and - PAN *Na₁

conjunction: and - POC *mana

conjunction: and - PMP *na₅

conjunction: despite, nonetheless - PMP *baka

conjunction: or, if; perhaps; because - PMP *ba₁

with, in conjunction with; companion - PMP *deŋan

with, in conjunction with; companion - PWMP *deŋen

with, in conjunction with; companion - POC *doŋan

conjunctive

conjunctive particle, and - PAN *ka₁

connect

attach, connect, join - PWMP *tampil

attach, connect, join - PWMP *tampir

sticks that connect the float to the booms of an outrigger canoe - PEMP *patoto

connecting

connecting piece - *(noise)

connecting piece - *(noise)

pair of boats joined by a connecting platform - PWMP *banduŋ

connections

formal gathering, as of chiefs, with possible connections to announcing temporary taboos - POC *ponor

conquered

conquered, subdued; lower, inferior - PWMP *saur₂

consanguine

collateral consanguine of the first ascending generation - PAN *tata₁

conscience

conscience, mind, insight - *(loan)

consciousness

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

lose consciousness - *(noise)

to feel light-headed; to faint, lose consciousness momentarily - PPH *lipeŋ

consensus

agreement, consensus; harmony (especially in material exchanges) - PWMP *payu

consider

consider as one's child - PWMP *maka-anak

consider, regard - *(loan)

consider, think - PWMP *agam

think about, consider - PWMP *qituŋ

think carefully about, consider - PWMP *a(ŋ)gap

think, consider; thought, idea - PPh *henaq

consider closely

scrutinize consider closely - *(loan)

constant

constant longing - PWMP *ka-ibeR ibeR

constant, steady - *(noise)

constellation

a constellation: the Pleiades - PMP *buluq₁

a constellation: the Pleiades - POC *puluq₂

a constellation: the Pleiades - PAN *buNuq₁

a constellation: the Pleiades - PCEMP *bunuq₁

a constellation: the Pleiades - POC *punuq₂

a constellation: the Seven Sisters, Pleiades - PWMP *pariama

a constellation: The Southern Cross - POC *bubu₁

skate, stingray (generic); a constellation - PMP *paRih

spring back suddenly; spring-set spear trap; the constellation Orion - PWMP *bala(n)tik

constipated

constipated - PPH *tebel₁

constipation

constipation; packed hard and firm - PMP *etel

constricted

tight, constricted - PAN *qeCqeC

tight, constricted - PMP *qetqet

constriction

constriction around neck - PWMP *cekig

tighten; constriction - PPh *hiRét

construct

erect, construct - PWMP *maŋ-baŋun

construction

board, lumber, beam in house construction - PPH *tapiq₁

construction, erection of something - PWMP *paŋ-baŋun-an

join together; beams used in house construction - PWMP *lipit

stative marker in irrealis constructions, counterpart to *ma- in realis constructions - PAN *ka-₂

wattle, bamboo plaitwork construction for walls - PWMP *sasag

consume

to eat, consume - PSHWNG *kanon₁

to finish, consume, use up - PPH *ubus

contact

contagious, spreading by contact - PWMP *za(ŋ)kit

to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely - PMP *dapet

to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely - PPH *dápat

to touch, come in contact with - PPH *denet

touch, come into contact - PWMP *sintuk

contagious

contagious, spreading by contact - PWMP *za(ŋ)kit

contain

to contain - PWMP *maR-isi

container

bamboo tube used as a storage container - PWMP *buŋbuŋ₁

bamboo used as a storage container - PMP *putuŋ₁

basketlike container used to steam rice - PWMP *kuskus-an₂

closed bamboo internode used as a container for salt, valuables, etc. - PWMP *tubuŋ

container for liquids - POC *ibu

container for solid objects; package - POC *busa₃

container in which rice is stored - PAN *beRas-an

cover with a hollow container; shelter over a grave - PWMP *cuŋkub

cover with a hollow container; shelter over a grave - PWMP *suŋkub

edge, rim, flat container - *(noise)

full, of a container - PMP *penuq

full, of a container - POC *ponuq

leak, spill through, stream out from a hole in a container - PMP *busbus

lime container - PWMP *paŋ-qapuR-an

lime container - PWMP *paR-qapuR-an

lime container - PWMP *qapuR-an

pour, pour out, as water or grain from a container - PMP *buqbuq

put something into a container - PWMP *dalem-en

sheath, sheath-like container; to sheathe a weapon - PWMP *saruŋ

storage container for paddy - PWMP *pitak₂

submerge a container to fill it - PEMP *qutub

submerge a container to fill it - POC *qutub

to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something - PAN *taktak₁

water container - PEMP *waip

what is filled; container - PWMP *isi-an

woven container - *(noise)

content

content, satisfied - *(loan)

contents - PMP *pa-isi

flesh (of humans, animals, fruits, tubers); contents; blade of a knife; inhabitants, residents - PAN *isi₅

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

punctured, perforated so that the contents spill out - PWMP *busbus-en

shake something to determine its unseen contents - PWMP *kutug

to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something - PAN *taktak₁

contest

calf-kicking contest - PMP *bintiq

calf-kicking contest - PWMP *binti₂

compete, confront in a contest - PWMP *adu

compete, confront in a contest - PWMP *maŋ-adu

continually

cry continually, weep a lot - POC *taŋi-taŋis

continue

continue - PMP *tuluy₁

continue - *(loan)

continue doing something, proceed without stopping - PWMP *tarus

continue on with doing something, do immediately, without hesitation - PPH *dágus₁

straightaway, immediately; get done at once; continue on, lasting - PMP *tulus

to continue, persist in something - PPH *layun

continuous

continuous, unceasing - PWMP *amat

continuously

give off smoke continuously, pour out smoke - PMP *qasu qasu

to weep continuously or incessantly - PMP *taŋis-taŋis

contract

shrink, contract - PMP *Re(ŋ)keŋ

shrink, contract - POC *Rokoŋ

contradict

contradict someone - *(noise)

oppose, contradict - *(near)

contrary

against, contrary to custom - PPH *labag

conventional

conventional story, traditional narrative - PWMP *sudsud₁

conversation

communication, conversation - *(loan)

word; talk; conversation; language - PMP *sau₄

converse

speak, converse - *(loan)

convey

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PMP *hateD

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PEMP *ated

convolvulus

a strand creeper, convolvulus - POC *pula₂

convolvulus - *(loan)

convulsion

convulsion; to have convulsions - PWMP *sawan

to have fits, convulsions - PWMP *sawan-en

coo

coo; turtledove - PWMP *bekur

coo; turtledove - *-kur (root)

cooing

cooing of a dove - PAN *tutur₂

sound of cooing or barking - PMP *kuŋ

cook

cook - PWMP *lutuq

cook by boiling - PAN *nasuk

cook by boiling - PAN *Nasu

cook by boiling - PMP *nasu

cook fish or meat wrapped in banana leaves - PWMP *paqis

cook in a tube of green bamboo - PWMP *lemeŋ₂

cook in an earth oven - POC *papi

cook in an earth oven - POC *qumun-i

cook in earth oven - POC *taqo

cook over a fire - PMP *baŋi₂

cook, boil - *(noise)

to boil, to cook - PWMP *ma-nanek

to boil, to cook - PWMP *maR-tanek

to cook - PMP *tanek

to cook anything but rice - PAN *taNek

to cook anything but rice - PAN *t<um>aNek

to cook anything but rice - PMP *t<um>anek

to cook fish in a rich, spicy sauce - PWMP *paŋat

to cook in water, cook rice - PMP *zakan

to cook vegetables - PPH *deŋdeŋ₁

to slow cook in a tightly covered vessel - PWMP *kulub₂

to stir-fry, cook in a frying pan without oil - PMP *saŋelaR

cooked

be eaten by someone; cooked rice - PAN *kaen-en

cooked rice - PAN *Semay

cooked rice - PMP *hemay

cooked rice? - PWMP *in-asi

cooked, ripe - PMP *esak

cooked, ripe - PWMP *ma-lutuq

cooked, ripe - PMP *ma-esak

cooked, ripe - POC *maosak

cooled off, as cooked food that has been left to sit too long - PAN *ma-baSaw

fish wrapped in banana leaf and cooked over hot coals - PWMP *p<in>aqis

packet of cooked rice - *(loan)

ripe, cooked - PMP *ma-tasak

ripe, cooked - PMP *ma-hasak

ripe, cooked - PEMP *masak

ripe; cooked - PAN *Sasak

ripe; cooked - PMP *hasak

ripe; cooked - PAN *ma-Sasak

ripe; cooked; ready to eat - PAN *qesak

ripe; cooked; ready to eat - PMP *ma-qesak

ripe; cooked; ready to eat - PEMP *ma-qosak

to be cooked - PAN *taNek-en

to be cooked - PMP *tanek-en

wrapped packet of cooked rice - PWMP *lepet₃

cooking

clay cooking pot - PWMP *kurin

clay cooking pot - PAN *kuden

clay cooking pot - PMP *kudin

clay cooking pot - PAN *kudeŋ

coiled base on which cooking pots are set or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *riken

coiled base on which cooking pots are set, or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *Riken

coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set - PAN *Reken

coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set - PAN *reken

cooking banana: Musa sapientum Linn. var compressa. Blanco - PWMP *sabeqa

cooking shed - PWMP *baŋsal

earthenware cooking pot - PAN *pariuk

ebb tide; coral reefs and sandbanks exposed at low tide; evaporate, dry up, of water in cooking, in a river, etc. - PMP *qeti₁

hard crust of rice that adheres to the bottom of the cooking pot - PPh *itíp

hearth, cooking place - PWMP *dapuR-an

large cooking banana or plantain variety - PPH *tinduk

pad placed under cooking pots, loads to carry on the head, etc. - PPH *dikén

rice between harvesting and cooking; husked rice - PAN *beRas

rice between harvesting and cooking; husked rice - PMP *beRas

scrape, grate, as coconut preparatory to cooking - POC *korit

shallow earthenware cooking pot or pan - PAN *balaŋa

to chop, to mince, as meat, fish or vegetables preparatory to cooking - PWMP *sagsag₂

to mix together, as ingredients in cooking - PWMP *ŋa-lamud

trivet, arrangement of three stones on which the cooking pot is placed - PMP *dalikan

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PAN *SuRas

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PMP *huRas

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PEMP *uRas

cool

cold, cool - *(noise)

to let food or hot water cool off - PPH *pa-bahaw-en

cooled

cooled off, as cooked food that has been left to sit too long - PAN *ma-baSaw

coop

coop, as for chickens; pen, as for pigs - PPH *taŋkal

cooperate

join forces, cooperate in working - PPh *abag

co-parent-in-law

become a co-parent-in-law (?) - PWMP *baisan-an

co-parent-in-law, the kinship tie between the parents of a married couple - PWMP *baisan

co-parent-in-law, the relationship between parents of spouses - PPh *balaqih

cope

able to cope, able to handle things - PPH *sapal

copper

copper-gold alloy - *(loan)

copulate

copulate - PPh *abij

copulate, have sexual intercourse - PWMP *ayud

copulate, have sexual intercourse - PWMP *ayut

copulate, have sexual intercourse - PAN *qiut

copulate; copulation, sexual intercourse - POC *qait

embrace from behind, copulate by mounting from behind (of animals, or coarsely of humans) - PPH *takbá

copulation

copulate; copulation, sexual intercourse - POC *qait

copy

copy, imitate, pass on - POC *usuri

imitate, copy - *(loan)

to copy, imitate - PWMP *tulad

to copy, mimic, imitate - POC *toa

to follow, copy, imitate - PWMP *suaq

coral

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *dapdap₁

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - POC *rarap

branching coral; coral limestone - POC *laje

coral - *(noise)

coral reef - POC *papo₃

coral sponge - PMP *buŋa na batu

coral, limestone - PMP *karaŋ

ebb tide; coral reefs and sandbanks exposed at low tide; evaporate, dry up, of water in cooking, in a river, etc. - PMP *qeti₁

flat-topped coral head - POC *lababa

kind of porous, white, round and flat coral growth - POC *buŋa₃

lime, coral limestone - POC *kau₁

submerged rock or coral reef - POC *mʷaloq

tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *depdep

Corchorus

a shrub, the Jew’s mallow: Corchorus spp., fam. Malvaceae - PPH *saluyut

cord

cane cord used for heavy binding - *(loan)

navel, umbilical cord - PAN-F *puja

navel, umbilical cord - PAN-F *pujek

plait a cord, twist, wrap around - PMP *pirit

rope, cord, twine, string - PAN *CaliS

rope, cord, twine, string - PMP *talih

rope, string, cord - POC *tali₁

umbilicus, navel cord - PWMP *talih pusej

cordage

Hibiscus tiliaceus, a tree the bark of which provides a fiber much used in making cordage; to lash, tie, bind - POC *paRu

a jointed creeper which yields fiber used to make cordage and fishnets - POC *kabe₁

binding material, cordage; bundle - PPh *betek₁

cordage (?) - PMP *ta-talih

string, rope, cordage made by twining fibers - PPH *lúbid

Cordia

a tree: Cordia dichotoma - PMP *hanunaŋ

a tree: Cordia dichotoma - PAN *qaNuNaŋ

a tree: Cordia subcordata - POC *toRu

a tree: Cordia spp. - PMP *kanawa

a tree: Cordia spp. - PMP *kendal

tree with sticky fruits: Cordia spp. - PAN *quNuNaŋ

Cordyline

a shrub: Cordyline spp. - PWMP *sabaqaŋ

a shrub: Cordyline, Dracaena - PMP *siRi

core

core of a boil - PMP *mata nu bisul

core of a boil - PWMP *mata nu piRsa

core of a breadfruit - POC *malon

core of a fruit - POC *uso

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

heartwood of a tree, hard, durable core of wood; ironwood tree - PMP *teRas

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

pith of plants or trees; core or middle of something - PMP *qunej

coriander

coriander seed - *(loan)

cork

cork, stopper - *(loan)

cork, stopper, plug - PAN *seŋseŋ

cork, stopper, plug - POC *joŋjoŋ

plug up, stop something up, as with a cork - PWMP *suŋsuŋ₂

plug, stopper, cork - PWMP *sumbad

stopper, plug, cork - PWMP *sumpel

corn

callus, corn; blister - PAN *buCu

callus, corn; blister - PMP *butu₁

corner

angle, corner - PWMP *suy(e)quk

angle, corner - PWMP *seruk

corner - POC *buu₆

corner, edge, point - PCEMP *buu₃

corner; side, edge - PWMP *zuRu

curved area; corner, angle - PWMP *celuk

outer corner of the eye - PMP *ikuR ni mata

cornered

cornered, unable to escape - PMP *sukul₂

cornered, unable to escape - POC *jukul₁

corpse

body fluid from a corpse - PWMP *saRu₂

burial shroud; to enshroud a corpse - PMP *saput₁

corpse, carcass - PWMP *baŋkay

fluid oozing from a wound, infected sore, or corpse - PWMP *sagu₂

ghost, ancestral spirit; nature spirit; corpse; owl; various plants - PMP *qanitu

stiff, as a corpse - PMP *keŋ₂

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

corpulence

corpulence, obesity - PWMP *ka-tabeq-an

corpulent

fat, corpulent - PWMP *ma-tabeq

corral

fish corral - PWMP *bakelad

fish corral - PMP *belat₂

fish corral - PWMP *belet

fish corral - POC *polat

correct

be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true - PMP *kena₁

correct, proper - PWMP *tuman

right correct - *(loan)

straight; correct, proper; righteous - POC *tonuq

true, believable, correct - POC *tuna

true, correct, upright - POC *bonor₁

Corypha

a palm: Corypha spp. - PPH *silaR

palm sp: Corypha elata - PMP *buri

the gebang palm: Corypha gebanga - PWMP *ibus

cost

price, worth, cost - PPH *ŋina

value, cost, price of something - PWMP *beli-en

cot

cot, bed - *(loan)

cotton

cotton - *(loan)

cotton cloth - *(loan)

cotton cloth of cheap quality - *(loan)

flower, blossom; to flower, bear flowers; yield a benefit (as interest on a loan); first-born child; cotton; vulva (refined or evasive), skin rash, prickly heat; speckled (of fish); kidneys - PMP *buŋa

silk cotton tree: Ceiba pentandra Linn. - PPh *buybuy

silk cotton, kapok - PAN-F *kapua

spin cotton thread - *(loan)

cough

a cough; to cough - POC *buu₄

a cough; to cough - POC *koso

cough - PWMP *ikej

cough - PMP *batuk₁

cough - *(loan)

cough - *(noise)

cough - *(noise)

cough repeatedly - PWMP *batuk batuk

cough; to cough - POC *pukuR

cough; to cough; sound of coughing - PMP *ukuk

phlegm; cough up phlegm - PWMP *dahak

to cough - PMP *qekqek

to cough - PCEMP *qekek

to cough - POC *qokok

coughing

cough; to cough; sound of coughing - PMP *ukuk

count

count - *(noise)

count, calculate - PMP *ihap

count, enumerate - PPh *huyáp

reckon, calculate, count - PPh *ma-bilaŋ

reckon, calculate, count - PWMP *maŋ-bilaŋ

to count - PAN-F *SipuR

to count - PWMP *bilaŋ-en

to count, calculate; hold valuable - PAN *bilaŋ

counted

be counted, be calculated - PPh *ihap-en

countenance

face, countenance - PPH *aŋas

counterpart

stative marker in irrealis constructions, counterpart to *ma- in realis constructions - PAN *ka-₂

counting

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PCEMP *daun

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PEMP *raun

means or instrument for counting - PWMP *paŋ-bilaŋ

ten, in counting certain objects - *(noise)

country

interior hill country, hilly or mountainous part of island - POC *solos

coup-de-grace

coup-de-grace, fatal blow - PPH *lunsan

couple

co-parent-in-law, the kinship tie between the parents of a married couple - PWMP *baisan

married couple - PPh *tala-qasawa

courageous

(lit. 'big liver') brave, courageous; proud, arrogant - PMP *X₁ + qatay

course

blown off course - PWMP *babas

deflected off course - PWMP *bias

stopped in its course, as something which sticks in the throat - PWMP *buqul

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

court

to court girls; to womanize - PPh *ma-ba-bahi

courtyard

yard, courtyard - *(noise)

cousin

first cousin - PPH *pinsan

to unite, unify; first cousin - PWMP *pisan

younger sibling of the same sex (vocative); younger parallel cousin of the same sex (vocative) - PWMP *huaji-ŋ

younger sibling of the same sex (vocative); younger parallel cousin of the same sex (vocative) - PMP *huaji-q

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PMP *huaji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PCEMP *waji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PWMP *paR-huaji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PMP *ta-huaji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - POC *taci

cove

sheltered water: deep place in a river; cove, harbor, lagoon - PMP *namaw

cover

a cover - PAN *aCab

a cover - PMP *atab

a cover, to cover - PMP *e(ŋ)keb

a cover; to cover - PPH *takíp

a cover; to cover with a flat surface - PAN *tekep

brood, sit on eggs; cover completely - PMP *ukup

close, cover - PWMP *cu(ŋ)kup

cloth cover - PWMP *awi

cover - PMP *aŋkub

cover - PWMP *lu(ŋ)keb

cover - PWMP *ri(ŋ)kep

cover - PWMP *se(ŋ)keb

cover - PWMP *si(ŋ)keb

cover - PWMP *tu(ŋ)kub

cover - PWMP *ukub

cover - PWMP *tuŋkup

cover - POC *akup

cover - *-keb₁ (root)

cover - *-kub₁ (root)

cover nose and mouth with hand - PWMP *penpen₂

cover over, cover up - PMP *Ruŋkeb

cover trap for fish or crustaceans - PPH *salakeb

cover with a heap of earth, etc.; a heap of earth, etc. - PWMP *bunbun-an₂

cover with a hollow container; shelter over a grave - PWMP *cuŋkub

cover with a hollow container; shelter over a grave - PWMP *suŋkub

cover with a thin layer - PWMP *kupkup₁

cover with ashes, put ashes on - PWMP *maŋ-qabu

cover with earth - PMP *hibun

cover with earth - PWMP *Rab(e)qun

cover with earth - POC *ipun₂

cover with something (?) - POC *okop

cover with something flat - PWMP *takelap

cover with thatch; place of thatching - PWMP *qatep-an

cover, as with a blanket - PCMP *atek

cover, coating - PWMP *kubkub₂

cover, conceal - PWMP *lipud

cover, enclose - PWMP *takup₁

cover, overlapping part - PWMP *ta(ŋ)keb

cover, shut - *(noise)

cover, shut in - PWMP *lekep₁

cover, shut in - PWMP *lekeb

cover, wrapping - PAN *lakup

cover; fold over - *-kep₁ (root)

enclose, cover - PWMP *ekup

enclose, cover - *-kup (root)

enclose, cover; grasp - *-kem₁ (root)

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

fill a hole with earth; cover something with a heap of earth - PMP *bunbun

head cover for women - PWMP *kuduŋ

head cover, protection from sun or rain - PMP *tuduŋ

heap, pile, cover with earth; collect, assemble - *-bun (or *-bequn?) (root)

heap, pile; cover up - PWMP *tumbun

keep secret, cover up - PMP *sekep

kind of basket with cover - PPH *suk(e)luban

lid, cover - PMP *taŋeb

lid, cover - PPH *sakúb

lift off a cover, be lifted off - PMP *tikas

log or bamboo ridgepole cover - PWMP *kulub₁

plug up, dam; cover - *-peŋ (root)

ridge of the roof; ridge of a mountain, peak; deck of a boat; cover the ridgepole with thatch - PMP *bubuŋ₁

shelter, cover, protection; shade - PAN *liduŋ

sheltering cover - PWMP *tabiŋ

take cover, hide behind - PPH *kub(e)li

take shelter, cover the head - PMP *teduŋ₁

to close or cover up - PMP *ta(ŋ)kub

to close, as a door; cover - PWMP *ma-naŋeb

to cover - PWMP *Raŋkub

to cover - PMP *tutub

to cover - PMP *tutup₁

to cover - PWMP *tekeb

to cover - PWMP *tak(e)lúb

to cover - POC *tutup₁

to cover - POC *tokup

to cover up - PWMP *likup-an

to cover with earth - POC *tapun₂

to cover with earth, dam up - PPh *tabún-an

to cover with earth, sand, etc. - PMP *tabun₂

to cover, as with a cloth or mat - POC *taRu

to cover, enclose - PWMP *likup₁

to cover, shelter, protect - PWMP *tiduŋ

to cover, shut - PMP *tekub

to patch, cover with something - PPH *takúp

to screen, conceal, cover - PWMP *tabeŋ

covered

covered with ashes; ashen, gray - PWMP *ma-qabu

covered with moss - PMP *lumut-an

covered with moss - PWMP *lumut-en

covered with thatch; place of thatching - PWMP *q<in>atep-an

covered, veiled - *(noise)

hairy, covered with hair or fibers - PWMP *ma-bulu

infested with flies, covered with flies - PAN *laŋaw-en

place covered by shallow water - PWMP *limbuŋ

to slow cook in a tightly covered vessel - PWMP *kulub₂

uncultivated field, open grassland; field covered with sword grass (Imperata cylindrica) - PWMP *padaŋ

was covered with ashes - PWMP *q<in>abu

covering

catch, as by covering - PMP *taŋkep

covering - *(loan)

covering membrane of plants - *(noise)

covering structure - POC *takup₂

covering, lid - PWMP *aŋkeb

head covering - PPH *panduŋ

head covering - *(noise)

head covering for women - PWMP *kulubuŋ

place where ridgepole covering has been attached - PWMP *b<in>ubuŋ-an

plant fiber; coconut husk, fibers of areca nuts, fibers covering mango seeds, etc. - PWMP *sabut

protective covering or enclosure; mosquito net - PPH *kubuŋ₂

roof covering - *(noise)

sheath, covering - PWMP *sambuŋ

thin covering, eyelid - PMP *takub

coverlet

blanket, coverlet - *(noise)

cow

cow - *(loan)

coward

timid, fearful; coward - PAN *talaw

cowardly

cowardly; shameful - PWMP *putiq mata

easily frightened, cowardly - PWMP *takut-an

fearful, cowardly - PAN *ma-talaw

co-wife

share the possession of something with someone else; co-wife (?) - PWMP *duha-i

cowlick

cowlick - PWMP *pulipis

cowrie

cowrie shell: Cypraea mauritiana - PMP *buliq₁

cowrie shell: Cypraea mauritiana - POC *buliq₁

cowrie shell: Cypraea spp. - PWMP *sígay

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cr

crab

coconut crab: Birgus latro - PMP *qayuyu

coconut crab: Birgus latro - PPH *tatus

crab (generic) - POC *kuka

crab claw, lance - *(noise)

crab sp. - PMP *kaRakap

crab sp. - PWMP *qaRama

crab sp. - PPH *kataŋ

crab sp. - POC *talise₂

crab taxon, probably a rock crab (Grapsidae) - POC *kape₂

hermit crab - PMP *qumaŋ qumaŋ

hermit crab - PAN *qumaŋ

hermit crab - POC *koba

hermit crab - PMP *kumaŋ

hermit crab - POC *qumwaŋ

kind of fish or crab trap - PWMP *bintul

kind of fish or crab trap - PWMP *bintur

kind of hermit crab - POC *katou

kind of small land crab - POC *tubaRa

mangrove crab - PMP *qali-maŋaw

mangrove crab - PMP *qali-maŋu

mangrove crab - POC *qali-maŋo

sand crab - PMP *kaRuki

small edible freshwater crab - PAN *gaRaŋ

small edible freshwater crab - PMP *kaRaŋ

tongs, pincers, claw of a crab or lobster; to pinch or squeeze - PAN *sipit

crab sp.

crab sp. - *(loan)

crack

break, crack - PWMP *sagsag₁

break, crack off - PMP *lepak₁

break, crack, split - PWMP *epak

break, crack, split - *-pak₂ (root)

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - PMP *bulit₁

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - POC *bulit₂

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - PWMP *bulit-en

crack apart at the joints - PWMP *sipak

crack, split - PMP *kelaq

crack, split - PCEMP *sepak₂

crack, split open - PWMP *reŋat

crack, split open (as dry ground) - PAN *betak₁

crack, split open (as the stomach of a fish) - PMP *belak

crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking - PMP *cep(e)qak

crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking - PMP *sapak

crack, split, fissure - PAN *Celaq

snap, crack - PMP *depuk

split, crack - PWMP *letak₁

split, crack - PWMP *ripak

split, crack - PMP *tela

split, crack - PWMP *Ripak

split, crack (intr.) - PWMP *Retak

split, crack open - PMP *bekaq

split, crack open - PMP *beka

split, crack, fissure - PMP *telaq₁

to crack - POC *piti

cracked

cracked, peeling, of skin - PWMP *kur(i)siŋ

fissured, slightly cracked - PMP *kaŋeqa

cracking

crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking - PMP *cep(e)qak

crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking - PMP *sapak

sound of breaking or cracking - PMP *rupuk

sound of cracking, splitting, knocking - *-tak₂ (or *-taqak?) (root)

cradle

sores on the scalp; 'cradle cap' - PWMP *buduk

swinging cradle for an infant - PPH *dúyan

to cuddle, cradle, as a baby - PPH *kelkel

craft

intelligence, craft, scheme - *(loan)

craftsman

craftsman - *(loan)

crag

crag - *(noise)

cram

cram, crowd - *-sek₁ (root)

cram, crowd, be compressed or congested - PWMP *isek

insert, cram in - PAN *selsel₁

plug, stopper; to cram - *-pel (root)

press in, cram, crowd - PMP *hasek₂

press, cram in with force - PWMP *maŋ-hasek₂

press, cram in with force - PWMP *hasek-i

to cram, stuff in - PPH *i-seksek

to insert, cram, stuff - PMP *suksuk-i

to press into, force or cram in - PWMP *ma-ñeksek

to stuff, cram in; be crowded - PAN *seksek₁

crammed

crammed, forced into an opening, stuff full - PWMP *pelpel

cramping

bruised or cramping, of feet after too much walking - PPH *tikal

cramps

cramps, stiffening of limbs - *-keŋ₁ (root)

cramps, stiffening of the limbs - PMP *keŋkeŋ₂

cramps, stiffening of the limbs - PWMP *kukuŋ

cramps, stiffening of the limbs, rigor mortis - PMP *kaŋkaŋ₃

stiff, rigid; cramps - *-kaŋ₃ (root)

cranium

skull, cranium - *(noise)

crashing

crashing sound - *(noise)

roar of a current, crashing waves, etc.; moan, groan (as in pain or when near death) - PMP *huRuŋ

crater

cauldron; caldera, volcanic crater (?) - PWMP *kawaq

crave

crave special foods (of pregnant women) - PWMP *qidam

crave, desire, intensely - PPh *hínam

miss, crave, long for something - PWMP *kidam

saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for - PMP *ibeR

saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for - POC *ipoR

to crave special foods - PWMP *maŋ-qidam

to crave, as food one wants to eat - PPH *sab(e)lek

craving

cravings of a pregnant woman - PWMP *ŋidam

desiring, craving - PWMP *ma-ibeR

crawl

crawl - PWMP *raŋkep₁

creep, crawl - PWMP *kamaŋ

creep, crawl - PMP *kanap₁

creep, crawl - PWMP *icir

to crawl - POC *kawar

to crawl - POC *kaRaka

crawling

lots of worms; crawling with worms, extremely wormy - PMP *qulej qulej

crayfish

shrimp, crayfish, lobster - PAN *qudaŋ

shrimp, crayfish, lobster - POC *quraŋ

slipper lobster; crayfish - POC *papaba

crazy

knock on the head; crazy, insane - PPH *katúk

creak

creak, squeak - PWMP *kuRiat

creak, squeak - PWMP *kuRiut

creaking sound; to creak - PWMP *kiet

shriek, creak, cluck, chuckle - *-kek (root)

creaking

creaking sound; to creak - PWMP *kiet

cream

coconut cream - *(loan)

pounded taro with coconut cream - POC *moñak₁

crease

to fold, crease - PPH *tupíq

create

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

make, create, invent - POC *buat

rub two things together, create friction, as sticks to make fire, or the hands - PMP *kusu₁

created

made, created - POC *buat-an

made, created; thing made or created - PMP *buhat-an₂

things that have been made, created objects - PWMP *paR-buhat-en

creation

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

creature

bird; any flying creature - POC *manuk

credit

to lend, give on credit - PWMP *pa-qutaŋ

creditor

creditor - PWMP *paR-qutaŋ-an

creep

creep, crawl - PWMP *kamaŋ

creep, crawl - PMP *kanap₁

creep, crawl - PWMP *icir

creeper

a jointed creeper which yields fiber used to make cordage and fishnets - POC *kabe₁

a strand creeper, convolvulus - POC *pula₂

beach creepers, including Ipomoea grandiflora and Ipomoea pes-caprae - POC *puRe₂

kind of creeper - PWMP *barunus

vine, creeper - PMP *waRej

vine, creeper - POC *waRoc

vine, creeper sp. - PWMP *itik₃

creeping

a creeping plant: Hydrocotyle asiatica - PWMP *paŋgaga

creeping vine that grows on sandy beaches, the beach morning glory: Ipomoea pes-caprae - PPH *balinu

various creeping herbs - PWMP *qasin qasin

Crescentia

calabash tree: Crescentia spp. - PMP *bila₁

crevice

slit, crevice - PMP *maŋaq

cricket

shrill sound of an insect, probably cricket or cicada - PWMP *pispis₂

Crinum

a lily-like plant: Crinum asiaticum L. - PAN *bakuŋ₁

cripple

to cripple, disable someone - PPH *piláy-en

crippled

crippled, lame - PPH *piqaŋ

crippled; bent or twisted, of the leg or foot - PAN *piluk₁

lame, crippled - PAN *piNay

lame, crippled - PAN *ma-piNay

lame, crippled - PMP *ma-pilay

lame, crippled - *(loan)

critically

observe closely or critically - PPH *mata-en

criticize

attack from concealment, criticize from a distance - PPH *libák

curse, hex; to bewitch; to criticize, find fault with - PPH *pintas

croak

bark, croak - *-kaŋ₂ (root)

hoot, croak - PWMP *ekaŋ

sound of sob, croak, etc. - PMP *kuk

croaking

make a croaking sound - PMP *ekuk

crocodile

crocodile - PAN *buqaya

crocodile - POC *puqaya

crocodile; greedy - PMP *buqaya

crocodile; seahorse - PCEMP *buqaya

crooked

bend; crooked - POC *loki

bent, crooked - PMP *buŋkuk

bent, crooked - *-kuk₁ (root)

bent, crooked, twisted - PMP *ma-kiluq

crooked, bent - PWMP *bilut

crooked, of limbs; bone fracture - PWMP *lepuq₁

crooked, out of alignment - PWMP *biqaŋ₂

crooked, twisted (of the mouth) - PWMP *hiwiʔ

crooked, winding - PWMP *kikuʔ

curved, crooked - POC *pilolo

curved, crooked, bent - PAN *biqut

curved, crooked, bent - PWMP *biquŋ

curved, crooked, bent - PWMP *tikuŋ

to bend, curve; bent, curved, crooked - PMP *kiluq

crop

a tithe, share given for help in harvesting the crops - PPH *húnus₂

ceremony at planting to insure the well-being of the crops - PWMP *buhat₁

crop, load of fruit - POC *puat-an₁

cut something slender or soft; reap crops - PAN *keRet

sharp pointed stick used in planting crops and in husking coconuts; digging stick, coconut husking stick - POC *kojom

to plant root crops, plant cuttings - PPH *lubaŋ₂

cropland

cropland - *(noise)

cropped

short-tailed; cropped, of the tail - PPH *kibul

Cross

a constellation: The Southern Cross - POC *bubu₁

cross

cross a river - PWMP *etes₂

ford a river, cross to the other side (of a river, street, etc.) - PPH *dákit

to pass, cross over to the other side; to be past, of time for an action - PWMP *lapas

cross a body of water

cross a body of water - *(near)

crossbar

crossbar, strut, something to hold things apart - PMP *sekaŋ

crossbeam

crossbeam - PMP *ataŋ₃

crossbeam - PAN *baRat₁

crossbeam - PAN *barat₁

crossbeam supporting floor - *(noise)

cross-eyed

cross-eyed - PMP *zilak

cross-eyed - PPH *libat

cross-eyed - PWMP *zuliŋ

cross-eyed - POC *silak₂

cross-eyed - *-liŋ₂ (root)

cross-eyed; squint - PWMP *zeliŋ

crossing

link in a chain; joined together, as links in a chain, people in sexual intercourse or marriage; hands joined in crossing pattern in circle dance - PWMP *kawiŋ

cross-lath

bamboo cross-lath used to hold down roof thatch - PWMP *belit₁

cross-legged

sit cross-legged - *(loan)

crosspiece

crosspiece - POC *barabara₂

thwart, crosspiece - PMP *palaŋ₁

thwart, crosspiece, as one used to restrain person; lie athwart or across - PWMP *balagbag

crossroads

side path, branch or fork in path or stream; take a side path or way; crossroads - PMP *simpaŋ

cross-sibling

cross-sibling - *(near)

cross-stick

cross-stick for outrigger - *(loan)

crosswise

crosswise - POC *baRa baRa

crosswise beam or shelf - POC *baRat, paRat

crosswise beam or shelf - POC *barat, parat

crosswise, athwart - PPh *bala(R)baR

crotch

armpit, crotch - PWMP *apaqpaq

crotch - PWMP *pukaŋ

crotch - *(noise)

crotch, fork of the legs; span, fork of the fingers - PEMP *saŋa₁

crotch, fork of the legs; span, fork of the fingers - POC *saŋa₁

crotch, space between thighs - PWMP *lakaŋ

crouching

press into, penetrate; enter crouching; drive in stakes - PMP *usuk

crow

bird sp.; to caw, crow - PAN *wakwak

caw, as a crow; raucous talking of people - PWMP *gakgak

chirp, tweet, crow, produce sound (of birds) - PMP *huni

crow - PPh *wáak

to chirp, to crow, to sound off (birds) - PAN *S<um>uni

to chirp, to crow, to sound off (birds) - PMP *h<um>uni

to crow, of a rooster - PPH *taRaquk

to crow, of a rooster - PPH *tuRauk

to crow, to caw - PAN *Sekak

to crow, to caw - PMP *hekak

crowd

cram, crowd - *-sek₁ (root)

cram, crowd, be compressed or congested - PWMP *isek

crowd, push together - PWMP *da(ŋ)sek

crowd, throng - *(noise)

crowded; crowd together - PMP *esek

crowded; crowd together - POC *osok

group, crowd, flock, school, bunch, cluster - PCEMP *butu₂

group, crowd, flock, school, bunch, cluster - POC *putu, butu

lost, as in a crowd or in an unfamilar place - PWMP *tawtaw

press in, cram, crowd - PMP *hasek₂

thick, of objects; dense, of crowds - PMP *tebel₂

to press against, crowd in on - PWMP *sulsul₂

crowded

crowded - PMP *besek

crowded with people - PPh *ma-tau

crowded, compact - PPH *sedsed₂

crowded; crowd together - PMP *esek

crowded; crowd together - POC *osok

crowded; mass of people - POC *puŋa₂

soaked, saturated, full of liquid; crowded or filled to overflowing - PMP *teReb

stuffed, crowded; blocked, clogged - PWMP *petpet₂

to stuff, cram in; be crowded - PAN *seksek₁

crowing

crowing of a rooster - PPH *taraquk

crown

crown of the head - POC *tubuŋa

fontanel; crown of the head - PWMP *ubun (ubun)

fontanelle; crown of the head - PAN *buNbuN

fontanelle; crown of the head - PMP *bubun₂

top, summit, crown - PAN *tuktuk₂

top, summit, crown - *-tuk₄ (root)

cruel

cruel - PWMP *baŋis

cruel - PWMP *riŋis₂

mean, cruel - *(noise)

cruelty

anger, cruelty - PWMP *ka-beŋis-an

crumble

brittle, friable; to crumble - PMP *repek

crumble - PWMP *Rapiq

crumble, break into small pieces - PWMP *remay

crush, pulverize; crumble - PMP *Remek

crush, pulverize; crumble - PMP *remek

decay, crumble; powder - *-buk₁ (root)

decay, crumble; sound of breaking; powder - *-pek (or *-peqek?) (root)

fall away, crumble (as a wall) - PWMP *empas

leak, pour out; loose or crumbling; crumble and fall - POC *pupus

pulverize; crumble - PAN *Cumek

crumbling

crumbling, eroded; landslide, cave-in - PPH *tebág

crumbling, of wood - PMP *Re(m)puk

leak, pour out; loose or crumbling; crumble and fall - POC *pupus

rotten, crumbling - PWMP *Rapuq

rotten, crumbling, pulverized - *-bek₂ (root)

crumbly

crumbly, friable - PPH *ma-dabuk

crumbs

crumbs of food that fall on the table or floor - PWMP *muqmuq

crumbs of food, esp. rice - PPH *muhmuh

crumbs that drop when eating rice - PWMP *mukmuk

food crumbs - PCMP *buqi₁

crumenophthalmus

a fish: the big-eyed scad Trachurops crumenophthalmus - PMP *qatulay

crumple

roll or crumple up - PMP *lukut

crumpled

curled or crumpled up - PMP *rekut

crunch

beat, crunch, break - PMP *kepuk

to crunch; sound of crunching - POC *keke₁

crunching

sound of breaking or crunching - PCEMP *sepuk

to crunch; sound of crunching - POC *keke₁

crush

break, crush, smash - POC *puaR

crush - *(noise)

crush between weights; press out - PPH *gimpis

crush lice between the thumbnails - PWMP *tedes

crush lice with the fingernails - PMP *tindes

crush lice with the fingernails - POC *tidros

crush to powder - PWMP *maŋ-bukbuk

crush with the teeth - PMP *ŋasŋas

crush with the thumbnail (as a louse) - PWMP *tedis

crush, press in - PMP *picak

crush, pulverize; crumble - PMP *Remek

crush, pulverize; crumble - PMP *remek

crush, pulverize; powder - *-mek (root)

crush, pulverize; powder - *-muk (root)

crush, roll over - PWMP *li(n)dis

crush, roll over - PWMP *li(ŋ)gis

pound on, hit, beat, or crush - PWMP *pilpil

press between two flat surfaces; to press down, crush - PMP *luqepit

pulverize, crush by pounding - PMP *dekdek

to crush or mash between two hard surfaces - PMP *pipis₂

to grind, crush by grinding - PWMP *galiŋ

to hammer, pound, crush - PAN *tuqtuq

to knock, pound, beat; crush - PAN *tuktuk₃

to pound repeatedly, crush - PPH *dukduk₂

to pound, crush by pounding - PWMP *seseg

to press down, crush - POC *lupit

crushed

crushed or squeezed out of shape - PWMP *lu(q)luq

was crushed or pulverized; what is crushed or pulverized - PWMP *b<in>ekbek

crushing

mortar or gin for crushing plant material - PPH *lubaŋ₃

crust

hard crust of rice that adheres to the bottom of the cooking pot - PPh *itíp

scab, crust on a wound - PAN *keRaŋ₂

crustacean

be laden with roe, of a fish or crustacean - PAN *piRaS-an

be laden with roe, of a fish or crustacean - PMP *piRah-an

body hair; fur; feather; down; antenna of insect or crustacean; spikes of sea urchin; floss on plant skins, color; type, kind - PCEMP *bulu₁

cover trap for fish or crustaceans - PPH *salakeb

pincer of crustaceans; press together, pinch, squeeze - PMP *qipit

pincer of crustaceans; tongs; press together, pinch, squeeze - PAN *qipit

roe, eggs of fish or crustacean - PAN *piRaS

roe, eggs of fish or crustacean - POC *piRa₁

roe, eggs of fish or crustacean - PMP *piRah

roe, eggs of fish or crustacean - POC *biRa

cry

a bird sp. and its cry - PWMP *tuqaw

animal cry - PAN *qiaw

cry about something - PPH *luheq-an

cry continually, weep a lot - POC *taŋi-taŋis

cry loudly - PWMP *ŋiak

cry of a monkey - PMP *akerahaq

cry of a newborn infant - PWMP *uhaq

cry of the gecko - PMP *tikek

cry out, as in pain or fear - PMP *beŋit

cry out, clamor - PWMP *Riaw

cry out, shout - PMP *iag

cry out, shout - PMP *iak

cry to drive away fowls: shoo! - PWMP *siuq

cry, shout - PWMP *kuriak

deep cry; bird with deep cry - PMP *kuak

deep resonant sound; name of a bird with deep resonant cry - PAN *ku(ŋ)kuŋ

groan, cry of pain - PPh *áŋal

harsh cry, bellow, loud cry - PMP *uak₁

high-pitched cry - POC *ŋiŋik

howl, cry out in pain - PWMP *qeraŋ

kind of plover and its cry - POC *kekekeke

kind of small bird and its cry - PWMP *pitpit₁

shrill cry - PMP *e(ŋ)kik

shrill cry - PWMP *kicek

squeak, shriek, shrill cry - PWMP *qikqik

to call chickens, cry for calling chickens - PWMP *kuruk

to cry for someone or something - POC *taŋis-ia

to cry for, cry over, mourn, bewail, weep for the dead - PMP *taŋis-i

to cry over something or someone - PAN *Caŋis-an

to cry over something or someone - PMP *taŋis-an

to cry over something or someone (?) - PWMP *taŋis-en

to make someone cry; to let someone cry - PAN *pa-Caŋis

to make someone cry; to let someone cry - PMP *pa-taŋis

to make someone cry; to let someone cry - PMP *paka-taŋis

to sound off, cry out - PPH *tekuk

to wail, cry out in grief - PWMP *ŋulŋul₂

to weep, cry, mourn - PAN *C<um>aŋis

to weep, to cry - PMP *ma-naŋis

weep, cry; mourn - PMP *taŋis

weep, cry; mourn; to beseech - PAN *Caŋis

crying

chattering, crying of monkeys - PAN *keriq

tearful, crying easily - PAN *ma-Caŋis

tearful, crying easily - PMP *ma-taŋis

crystal

quartz crystal (?) - PWMP *kiñaŋ

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cu

cubea

a plant: Litsea cubea (Lour.) - PAN-F *maqaw

cuckoo

cuckoo - POC *seke

cucumber

cucumber - *(loan)

cucumber: Cucumis sativa L. - PMP *qatimun

cucumber: Cucumis sativus - PAN-F *baRat₂

edible marine invertebrate - probably sea cucumber - PPh *balát

sea cucumber, sea slug - POC *pula₃

cucumber-like

a vine with gourd or cucumber-like fruit, probably Luffa sp. - PPH *kabatíti

Cucumis

cucumber: Cucumis sativa L. - PMP *qatimun

cucumber: Cucumis sativus - PAN-F *baRat₂

cuddle

caress, cuddle - *(loan)

to cuddle, cradle, as a baby - PPH *kelkel

cultivated

cultivated field, garden - PMP *q<in>uma

cultivated land - *(noise)

cultivated taro: Colocasia esculenta - PAN-F *Cali

enclosure; palisade around a village; fence around a planted tree or cultivated field - PMP *pager

cultivation

clear land for cultivation - PPh *talun-an

cumini

a tree and its fruit, the Java plum: Syzygium cumini - PPH *luŋ(e)búy

cunning

cunning; spy on, examine - PPH *sikap₁

cup

coconut shell drinking cup - POC *lasa₂

cup - *(loan)

cup the hands - PMP *Raqup

ladle, dipper, scoop, cup - PMP *kabuq

ladle, dipper, scoop, cup - POC *kapuq

cup for dinking

cup for dinking - *(loan)

cupped

gather in the cupped hands - PMP *ra(ŋ)kup

curcas

a tree: Jatropha curcas L. - PWMP *kataŋan

Curcuma

turmeric: Curcuma longa - POC *aŋo

turmeric: Curcuma zedoaria - PWMP *tamu₂

turmeric: Curcuma longa - PMP *kunij

cure

living, alive; grow, flourish; fresh; heal, cure, revive, recover; vital principle, soul, spirit; flame - PMP *ma-qudip

curing

curing ritual conducted by a medium in trance - PWMP *dawak

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - PMP *buRah

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - POC *puRa

curl

bend the limbs, curl up the body - PWMP *kulkul

bend, curl - *-kel (root)

bend, curl - *(noise)

bend, curl up - PPh *balikutkút

bend, fold, folding part of the body; curl up on the ground, of an animal - PMP *leku

coil, curl, undulation - PWMP *keluŋ₁

curl - *(noise)

curl, bend - *-kul₁ (root)

curl, curve - PMP *kuluŋ

curl, curve - *-keŋ₂ (root)

curl, curve - *-kug₁ (root)

curly, to curl - POC *piluk₂

hunch over, curl up (body) - POC *pokut

lie down, curl up (of animals) - PWMP *lekuq₂

roll up, curl up tightly - PAN-F *kuCkuC

roll, curl up - PMP *lekes

to curl, make curly - PPH *kulut-én

curled

curled or crumpled up - PMP *rekut

curled up - PMP *likut

curled, curved - PWMP *li(ŋ)kug

curly

curly, to curl - POC *piluk₂

curly, wavy (as the hair) - PWMP *ikel

to curl, make curly - PPH *kulut-én

curly-haired

curly-haired - PMP *kulut

curly-haired - PMP *kurut

current

a current; to flow - POC *roRos

be lifted up or deposited on the beach by tide or current - POC *puRe₁

current - PWMP *bulus

current - PWMP *bulús-an

current, deep channel in the middle of a river - PAN *qaluR₁

current, deep channel in the middle of a river - PMP *qaluR₂

current, flow - PMP *qaRus

drift on a current, carried away by flowing water - PAN *qañud

driftwood and scum (?); lit. 'refuse of the current' - PWMP *taqi qaRus

flow, current - PWMP *iliʔ

flowing water, current - PWMP *seleg

flowing water, current - PPH *seleR

go against the current, oppose, go in the opposite direction - PPH *sudsud₃

go against wind or current - PWMP *suŋsuŋ₁

gust, draft, current of air - POC *aŋin-aŋin

gust, draft, current of air; rumor - PMP *haŋin-haŋin

move on a current - PWMP *q<um>añud

roar of a current, crashing waves, etc.; moan, groan (as in pain or when near death) - PMP *huRuŋ

curse

curse - *(noise)

curse, hex; to bewitch; to criticize, find fault with - PPH *pintas

curse, put a curse on - PWMP *saraw

oath, pledge; curse - PWMP *sumpaq

oath, pledge; curse - PWMP *sapaq₂

oath; curse - PWMP *kutuk₁

to curse someone - PPH *i-sumpaq

cursed

cursed - PWMP *beRaw

curtain

blocked, as by a wall or curtain - PAN *beŋbeŋ₁

curtain - *(loan)

curvature

curvature - *(noise)

curve

bend curve - *-kuŋ (or *-kuquŋ?) (root)

bend curve - *-tuk₁ (root)

bend, curve - PWMP *beluŋ

bend, curve - PMP *beŋkuq

bend, curve - PMP *bikuq

bend, curve - PMP *bilikuŋ

bend, curve - PWMP *buqekuŋ

bend, curve - PAN *du(ŋ)kuŋ

bend, curve - PMP *eluŋ

bend, curve - PWMP *siluk

bend, curve - PMP *leŋkuk

bend, curve - PWMP *lu(ŋ)kuq

bend, curve - POC *belu

bend, curve - PMP *pekuq₁

bend, curve - PMP *pikel

bend, curve - PMP *pi(ŋ)kuk

bend, curve - PWMP *qeluk

bend, curve - PWMP *tikur

bend, curve - PWMP *keluk

bend, curve - PWMP *tikuq₁

bend, curve - PMP *pikul

bend, curve - PMP *peluk

bend, curve - PAN *piku

bend, curve - POC *rokuŋ

bend, curve - *-ku(q) (root)

bend, curve - *-luk (or *-luquk?) (root)

bend, curve - *-luŋ₁ (root)

bent into a curve - PWMP *iŋkul

bent, curve, arch - PMP *beŋkuŋ

coil, curve, bend, fold; to coil, to curve, to bend, to fold - PMP *biŋku

curl, curve - PMP *kuluŋ

curl, curve - *-keŋ₂ (root)

curl, curve - *-kug₁ (root)

curve - PMP *bentuk

curve - PWMP *galuŋ

curve - *(near)

curve, bend around - PWMP *biŋkeluŋ

curve, bend, meander - POC *liko₂

curve, bend, winding - PAN *likaw

curve, curved; hollow - PMP *kuŋkuŋ₂

graceful curve - PWMP *lentik

graceful curve (of body) - PPH *lantik

to bend, curve - PPH *lituk₁

to bend, curve; bent, curved - PAN *pikuq₁

to bend, curve; bent, curved, crooked - PMP *kiluq

to wind, curve, turn to the side; to tack, sail into the wind - PMP *biluk

winding, full of curves or deviations - PWMP *kiluq kiluq

curved

bend, bent, curved - PWMP *tikug

bent, curved - PMP *ci(ŋ)kuk

bent, curved - PWMP *piŋkuŋ

bent, curved - POC *sokuŋ

bent, curved - PCEMP *si(ŋ)kuk₂

concave, curved inward - PMP *leŋkuŋ

curled, curved - PWMP *li(ŋ)kug

curve, curved; hollow - PMP *kuŋkuŋ₂

curved - PWMP *kaluŋ

curved - PWMP *palantik

curved - PMP *zeŋkuŋ

curved area, angle - PWMP *seluk

curved area; corner, angle - PWMP *celuk

curved inward, sunken - PWMP *sa(ŋ)kuŋ₂

curved, as a shoreline - PWMP *teluk

curved, bent - PMP *ba(ŋ)kuq

curved, bent - PMP *bekug

curved, bent - PMP *bekuk

curved, bent - PMP *bekul₁

curved, bent - PWMP *bikug

curved, bent - PMP *biŋkuk

curved, bent - POC *piŋkuk

curved, bowed - PAN *la(n)tuk

curved, crooked - POC *pilolo

curved, crooked, bent - PAN *biqut

curved, crooked, bent - PWMP *biquŋ

curved, crooked, bent - PWMP *tikuŋ

curved, having a curved edge - PWMP *siŋkuquŋ

curved, warped, as a board - PWMP *tikul

curved; bay - PAN *kiluŋ

implement with curved blade: adze; hammerhead shark - PMP *biŋkuŋ

to bend, curve; bent, curved - PAN *pikuq₁

to bend, curve; bent, curved, crooked - PMP *kiluq

curved chisel

curved chisel, gouge - *(loan)

curvilinear

curvilinear - PWMP *li(ŋ)keŋ

curving

concave, curving inward - PWMP *likuŋ

winding or curving - PWMP *liku₂

winding, curving repeatedly - PWMP *liku-likuq

zigzag, winding or curving - PMP *likuq

cuscus

cuscus, phalanger - PCEMP *kandoRa

cuscus, phalanger - POC *kadoRa

custom

against, contrary to custom - PPH *labag

custom, manner, way, habit - PWMP *ugáliq

customary

be afflicted with a swollen abdomen as a result of violating customary law. - PWMP *busuŋ

swollen, of the abdomen as a result of the violation of customary law - PWMP *ma-busuŋ

customer

customer - *(loan)

cut

be cut - PAN *keRet-en

be cut or snapped - PWMP *pated-en

be cut, carved, sliced (meat or fish) - PPh *hiwáq-en

be rasped or cut off (?) - PWMP *sapsap-en

break, broken, cut through - PMP *pataq

break, cut off, sever - POC *kutu₂

broken off, cut off - PEMP *mutu₂

chip off, cut off bit by bit - PWMP *sapsap₁

chop, hack, cut off - PMP *etes₁

chop, hack, cut off - PMP *qetes

chop, hack, mince, cut up - POC *totok

cockscomb; cut off a cock’s comb - PPH *páluŋ

cut - *(noise)

cut across - POC *polos₁

cut chips or bits from something, scrape off - PPH *dapdáp

cut down small plants to clear a way - PWMP *takebas

cut down, clear away scrub - PWMP *tebas₂

cut into pieces - PMP *keleŋ₁

cut meat from the bone - PPH *laplap₂

cut of gambling money - *(loan)

cut off - PMP *hiras

cut off - POC *koRot

cut off - *(noise)

cut off with a knife - POC *tapa

cut off, prune - PWMP *eteb

cut off, sever; ring a tree - PWMP *geleŋ

cut or collect palm leaves for roofing - PMP *sasah

cut or lop off branches - POC *paRi₃

cut or tear off - PWMP *ri(n)tas

cut or tear open stitches - PWMP *t<um>astas

cut short, as a bird’s tail - PWMP *puŋgu

cut short, bobbed; short in stature - PWMP *putut₂

cut something slender - PAN *k<um>eRet

cut something slender or soft; reap crops - PAN *keRet

cut through - PWMP *qantas

cut through, sever - PWMP *butas₂

cut through, sever, divide by cutting - PWMP *qutas

cut through, tear - PMP *ra(n)tas

cut up, cut off - *(noise)

cut with a knife - PMP *taba₃

cut, carve, slice (meat or fish) - PPh *híwaq

cut, carve, slice (meat or fish) - PPh *hiwáq-an

cut, chop - PPH *tagpás

cut, chop - PWMP *tiRtiR₁

cut, sever - PAN-F *ketun

cut, sever - POC *otok

cut, sever, chop - PAN *Setek

cut, sever, chop - PMP *hetek

cut, slice - PAN *disdis

cut, slice - PMP *qiris

cut, slice - PEMP *riris

cut, slice into pieces, as breadfruit or taro - POC *siba

lop off, cut off - PWMP *ta(m)pas

notch cut in a tree - PAN *qabaS

notch, as in a tree that has been cut prior to felling - PWMP *baŋbaŋ₇

prune, cut off the tip - PWMP *puŋgal

prune, cut off the tip - PWMP *puŋgel

prune, cut off the tip - PMP *puŋgul

scratch a line, make a long shallow cut - PWMP *turis

sever, cut through, rip out stitches - PWMP *tastas

sever, rip, cut through; short cut - *-tas (root)

slice, cut (as meat) - PPH *ilap₃

slice, cut into pieces - PWMP *sayat

tear, rip open, cut open - POC *potas

tear, split, cut - PMP *Risi

tear, split, cut - PMP *Risiq

to break off, cut off - PMP *putul

to break off, cut off, as a limb - PAN *putun₂

to chop, hack, cut off - PAN *t<um>əktək

to cut across, cut off - PWMP *pi(n)tas

to cut down a stalk of bananas - PPH *tebáq

to cut grass or weeds, as in preparing a field for planting - PPH *sipsíp

to cut in half - PPH *tebteb-en

to cut off a piece - PCMP *lolan

to cut off small pieces; to chip off bit by bit - PWMP *ma-ñapsap

to cut off, prune; cut down - PWMP *tebteb

to cut or slice meat - PPH *maŋ-ilap

to cut out, as a pattern - PWMP *tabas₂

to cut the hair short - PPH *kiskis-an

to cut up, butcher, slaughter an animal - PAN *lapaq

to cut, clear vegetation - PAN *tebaS

to cut, clear vegetation - PMP *tebah

to cut, cut off - POC *koti

to cut, make an incision - PMP *tabad

to cut, make an incision - POC *tapar

to cut, sever - PWMP *ketas

to cut, slash, as in clearing land - PPH *patpát-en

to cut, slice - PWMP *maŋ-qiris

to cut, slice (as meat) - PPH *ilap-en

to cut, to slash - PPH *tabtab-an

to peel, pare, as fruit or yam; to cut into slices - PPH *tájip

to sever, cut off - PAN *keret

to shorten, cut short or abbreviate - PWMP *putuŋ₂

trim, cut off excess - PWMP *Ri(ŋ)kas

trim, cut the tips off - PWMP *tiptip

cutlass

cutlass, sword - *(loan)

cutter

areca nut cutter - *(loan)

cutting

chopping block, cutting board - PPH *tadtad-án

chopping to pieces, cutting up, as meat or vegetables - PAN *tektek₁

cut through, sever, divide by cutting - PWMP *qutas

cutting or clearing of undergrowth - PWMP *lidik

cutting, slashing, as in clearing land - PWMP *patpat

line, groove, mark made by cutting - PPH *getget₂

nick or dent on the cutting edge of a blade - PPH *lupiŋ

plant shoot, sprout, cutting - PMP *suli₁

to plant root crops, plant cuttings - PPH *lubaŋ₂

tool for cutting with a forward digging motion - PPH *sudsud₂

cuttlefish

cuttlefish - POC *monaki

large cuttlefish and squid - POC *mwamwaki

squid, cuttlefish - PWMP *kanuqus

squid, cuttlefish - PMP *nus

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cy

cycad

a cycad: Cycas rumphii - PMP *patuRu

Cycas

a cycad: Cycas rumphii - PMP *patuRu

cyclopis

the Formosan rock monkey: Macaca cyclopis - PAN *luCuŋ

cylindrica

sword grass, Imperata cylindrica - PMP *guRun

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - PCEMP *bitu

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - PAN *eRiq

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - PAN *Riaq

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - PAN-F *Rimeja

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - POC *pitu₂

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - POC *guRun

Cymbopogon

lemon grass: Cymbopogon spp. - PWMP *seray

Cynometra

a tree: Cynometra spp. - PMP *namut-namut

an evergreen tree with decorative flowers: Cynometra ramiflora L. - PMP *namut

Cypraea

cowrie shell: Cypraea mauritiana - PMP *buliq₁

cowrie shell: Cypraea mauritiana - POC *buliq₁

cowrie shell: Cypraea spp. - PWMP *sígay

cypress

the Japanese cypress: Chamaecyparis obtusa - PAN-F *baŋun₁

cyprinoides

a white fish, the tarpon: Megalops cyprinoides - PMP *bulan-bulan₁

a white fish, the tarpon: Megalops cyprinoides - POC *pu-pulan

herring: Megalops cyprinoides - POC *pu-pulan

cyst

wart; cyst; non-purulent skin eruption - PMP *buteliR

wart; cyst; non-purulent skin eruption - PCEMP *butiR

wart; cyst; non-purulent skin eruption - POC *putiR

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/17/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_c.htm