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Updated: 11/17/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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D

de    di    do    dr    du    dw    dy    

dagger

dagger - PWMP *baladaw

dagger - PMP *badiq

dagger - *(loan)

daily

daily, every day - PMP *qalejaw-qalejaw

dam

a dam; to dam a stream - PMP *embeŋ

block, obstruct, dam a stream - PMP *empeŋ

block, stop, dam - *-beŋ₂ (root)

dam, dyke, embankment - POC *tabak₂

dam, dyke, embankment; to fill a hole with earth; to heap up - PMP *tambak₂

dam, obstruction of flow - PWMP *tambeŋ

dam, water barrier - PWMP *umpeŋ

heap up, pile up (as earth); dam - PMP *limbun

plug or dam up - PWMP *tampeŋ

plug up, dam; cover - *-peŋ (root)

to block, to dam up - PMP *ubeŋ

to cover with earth, dam up - PPh *tabún-an

damaged

eaten by termites, damaged by termites - PWMP *anay-en

damages

malodorous insect that damages rice plants - PWMP *tanaŋaw

dammed

blocked, plugged, dammed; mute, unable to speak - PWMP *beŋbeŋ

closed, dammed up - POC *bonot

damming

catch fish by damming a stream - PPH *sáRep

damp

damp, moist - PWMP *emeg

damp, moist - *(loan)

wet, moist, damp - PMP *ma-baseq

damsel

damsel fish - PMP *mutu₁

damselfish

small reef fish, perhaps damselfish - POC *tokuku

dance

dance - *(loan)

jump, leap, dance - PWMP *sayaw

link in a chain; joined together, as links in a chain, people in sexual intercourse or marriage; hands joined in crossing pattern in circle dance - PWMP *kawiŋ

round dance - *(noise)

traditional dance form - PPH *tayaw

dancing

village square; dancing ground - POC *malala

dandruff

dirt on skin; dandruff - PAN *daki

dirt on skin; dandruff; tartar on teeth - PMP *daki

danger

spy, scout, one who looks for possible danger ahead - PMP *mata-mata

dangerous

spirit dangerous to children - PWMP *m-atay anak

dangle

(of a person) to hang by the arms, dangle - POC *tuku₃

dangle - *(noise)

dangle, hang down loosely - PWMP *quntay₁

dangle, hang down loosely - PPh *waywáy

dangling

be picked up or carried dangling from the fingers - PWMP *bitbit-en

carry dangling from the fingertips - PMP *binit₁

hanging down, dangling - PWMP *untay₁

pick up or carry dangling from the fingers - PWMP *maŋ-bitbit

pick up or carry dangling from the fingers - PWMP *maR-bitbit

pull at body part; hold something dangling from the fingers - PMP *bitbit₂

to wilt, wither, droop, as plants; dangling, hanging loosely - PPH *layláy

dappled

spotted, dappled - PMP *belaŋ₂

spotted, dappled - PWMP *pantek

spotted, dappled - PPH *kabaŋ

spotted, dappled, speckled - PPh *butik

dare

dare to do something - PWMP *amaŋ amaŋ

hero, war-leader; dare to do - PMP *baRani

daring

brave, bold, daring - PWMP *ma-baRani

dark

dark - PMP *kalem

dark - PWMP *qiReŋ

dark - PWMP *sedem

dark - POC *drolom

dark - *-nem₁ (root)

dark (of color) - PWMP *qirem

dark (of the visual field) - PWMP *qidem

dark blue, bluish-black - PMP *buluŋ₁

dark color - POC *quciŋ

dark color - *-tem (root)

dark color: black - PWMP *beleŋ

dark green, dark blue - POC *buluŋ₃

dark hue, possibly dark red - PMP *biReŋ

dark hue, possibly dark red - PMP *biRiŋ₁

dark hue, possibly dark red - POC *piRiŋ

dark in color or from the absence of light - PWMP *lidem

dark mole - PMP *taqi nu lalej

dark of the moon, moonless night - PMP *delem

dark, black - PWMP *qi(n)dem

dark, cloudy - POC *rodrom₁

dark, darkened - PWMP *tilem₁

dark, dim - PWMP *kulem

dark, discolored - PPH *tudem

dark, dull (of light or color) - PAN *qudem

dark, dusky - PWMP *selem₂

dark, night - PMP *alem

dark, obscure - PWMP *medem

dark, obscure - PPH *kanap₂

dark, obscure, cloudy - PPH *dik(e)lém

dark, obscure, cloudy - PPH *ma-diklém

dark, obscure; black - PMP *tidem

dark, of weather; overcast - PAN *lemlem

dark, overcast, cloudy - PWMP *gelem

dark, overcast, gloomy - PAN *ma-demdem

dark, overcast, visually obscure - PAN *kelem

dark; darkness - PPH *ke(n)dem

dark; obscure - *-lem₁ (root)

dark; overcast - *-dem₁ (root)

dim, dark - PAN *ma-Sulem

dim, dark - PMP *ma-hulem

dim, dark, obscure - PMP *qilem

dim, dark, obscure - PWMP *ma-qilem

feel in the dark, grope - PAN *kapkap

gloom, darkness; dark, overcast, gloomy - PAN *demdem₂

have dark blotches on the skin - PMP *qila-qila

it is getting dark, night is coming on - POC *e boŋi

night, dark - PMP *halem

darken

darken, become black - PWMP *maŋ-qitem

darkened

dark, darkened - PWMP *tilem₁

darkened by clouds, overcast - PAN *kudem

overcast, darkened - PMP *gu(n)dem

overcast, darkened, as the sun - POC *kurom

darkness

be overcome by darkness, be benighted - PPH *ma-Rabi-an

dark; darkness - PPH *ke(n)dem

gloom, darkness; dark, overcast, gloomy - PAN *demdem₂

night, darkness - POC *buŋi

night, darkness - PWMP *malem

overcome by darkness, benighted - PWMP *ka-beRŋi-an

shade, darkness - PMP *elem₁

shade, darkness, gloom - PWMP *qiem₂

storm, darkness - PWMP *gelap₂

dart

a tree: Antiaris toxicaria; poison for blowpipe darts made from the sap of this tree - PWMP *qipuq

blowpipe dart - PMP *anak i sumpit

dart, javelin - *(loan)

darter

kind of water bird, the Oriental darter: Anhinga melanogaster - PPH *kasíli

dash

fling down, dash against - PMP *bantiŋ

mark, line, dash - PWMP *curit

daughter

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

child, offspring; son, daughter; interest on a loan - PAN *aNak

daughter-in-law

affinal relative, probably son-in-law and daughter-in-law - PPH *ma-nuRaŋ

dawn

daybreak, dawn - PMP *zawa₁

day

(for) how many days? - PAN *maka-pija

daily, every day - PMP *qalejaw-qalejaw

day - PAN *daqaNi

day - PAN *qajaw

day - PMP *qalejaw

day - PMP *daqani

day - POC *qaco

day - POC *raqani

day before yesterday - POC *waRisa

day, sun, light - *(noise)

day; sun; dry in the sun - PAN *waRi₁

dusky, twilight, as near the end of day - PWMP *peteŋ

future marker with words for days - PAN *nu-

daybreak

daybreak, dawn - PMP *zawa₁

daylight

daylight; morning sunshine - PWMP *siaŋ

dazed

dazed, confused - PAN *ma-ulaw

dazed, in a trance - PWMP *pukaw₂

dazzle

dazzle, flash - *(noise)

dazzle, shine - *-daŋ₁ (root)

sparkle, dazzle - PMP *silap

dazzled

dazzled - PMP *sili

dazzled, blinded by glaring light - PWMP *siraŋ

gape, open the mouth wide; be dazzled, amazed - PMP *beŋaŋ₂

dazzling

dazzling light - PWMP *ginelaw

dazzling light - PWMP *kinelaw

dazzling light - *-law (root)

dazzling, of light - PMP *silaw

shiny, dazzling - POC *liso

TOP      de    di    do    dr    du    dw    dy    

de

dead

a wake for the dead, night vigil - PPH *lámay

as if dead? - PMP *ma-m-atay

dead - POC *mate-na

dead - PWMP *na-atay

dead - PMP *in-atay

die; dead - PCEMP *matay₁

die; dead - POC *mate

die; dead; eclipse of sun or moon - PAN *ma-aCay

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

ghost, spirit of the dead; owl - PAN *qaNiCu

mourn the dead - PMP *baluq

mourn the dead - POC *paluq

old, of people; very, extremely; to die, dead (euphemism) - PMP *ma-tuqah

one who has died, dead person - POC *m<in>ate

stay awake all night, as in a vigil for the dead - PPH *pulaw

to cry for, cry over, mourn, bewail, weep for the dead - PMP *taŋis-i

deadfall

deadfall trap - *(loan)

deadfall trap to catch small mammals - PAN *qaCeb

deadline

deadline, time limit - *(loan)

deaf

deaf - PMP *beŋel

deaf - PWMP *buŋul

deaf - PAN *Culi

deaf - PPH *tuleŋ

deaf - POC *tuli₁

deaf - *-ŋel (root)

earwax; deaf - PMP *tuli₁

hard of hearing, deaf - PWMP *beŋeR

deal

distribute, deal out - PPh *wáras

death

be affected by a death - PWMP *ka-m-atay-an

bind, bundle, wrap in cloth; death shroud; cloth(ing) - PMP *balun₅

bind, bundle; wrap in cloth; death shroud; cloth(ing) - PCEMP *balun₃

death - PAN *aCay

death - PMP *atay

death - POC *mate-an

death - POC *mate-qaŋa

death - PWMP *ka-p-atay-en

die in throngs; be on the verge of death - PMP *m-atay m-atay

end or death of something (?) - PWMP *ka-p-atay-an

lose someone through death - PMP *m-atay-an

lose someone through death (?) - PAN *ka-aCay-an

debility

weakness, debility; feeble, unable to perform - PPH *kápuy

debt

a debt - PWMP *qutaŋ-an

be in debt - PWMP *maR-qutaŋ

be in debt to someone - PWMP *qutaŋ-en

be in debt, owe - PMP *ma-qutaŋ

borrow, be in debt - PMP *elet₁

borrow, incur a debt - PWMP *maŋ-qutaŋ

debt - PMP *qutaŋ

dunning to collect a debt - *(loan)

multiple debts - PWMP *qutaŋ qutaŋ

paid off, of a debt - PMP *qimpas

to collect a debt - PWMP *siŋir

decaisneana

a plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance) - PAN-F *tanaq

decant

decant, pour liquid out for drinking - PPH *tíqiŋ

decapitate

to behead, decapitate - PPH *pugut-an

decapitated

headless, decapitated - PWMP *pugut

decay

decay, crumble; powder - *-buk₁ (root)

decay, crumble; sound of breaking; powder - *-pek (or *-peqek?) (root)

weevil that infests wood, bamboo, and rice; dust produced by the boring of this insect; tooth decay, dental caries - PMP *bukbuk₃

decayed

decayed, rotten, moldy, mildewed (of wood) - PWMP *lapuk

decayed, rotten, putrid; stinking - PMP *busuk

decaying

decaying wood; dust, powder - PMP *Rabuk

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

worn out, decaying - POC *Rapuk

deceased

cluster (c) == don mourning apparel; mourn for a deceased spouse - PMP *baliw₃

deceit

deceit, fraud - *(noise)

deceit, trickery, fraud - *(loan)

deceive

cheat, deceive - PWMP *buyuk

deceive - *(loan)

lie, deceive - *(loan)

to cheat, deceive - PPH *kalít

to fool, deceive - PWMP *labu₁

deceived

be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true - PMP *kena₁

deceiving

lying, deceiving, untruthful - PWMP *ma-bali₂

decency

offensive to decency, immodest - PPH *law(e)qay

deception

deception - PWMP *udaliq

lie, deception - PMP *bali₄

lie, deception - PMP *baRiq

decide

decide, conclude - PWMP *putus

deck

ridge of the roof; ridge of a mountain, peak; deck of a boat; cover the ridgepole with thatch - PMP *bubuŋ₁

decked

dress up, be decked out in one’s finest clothing - PWMP *kena₂

decoration

decoration, jewelry - *(loan)

goat hair decoration on a spear or staff - PMP *bandaŋan

decorative

an evergreen tree with decorative flowers: Cynometra ramiflora L. - PMP *namut

species of climber used for decorative purposes - POC *bua bua

decorticated

to peel off skin, bark or leaves; excoriated, decorticated, defoliated - PWMP *laklak

decoy

domestic chicken used as a decoy to attract a wild fowl into a trap - PPH *pa-ŋátiq

domestic fowl used as a decoy or lure to capture wild fowl - PPH *kátiq

domestic fowl used as a decoy or lure to capture wild fowl - PPH *káti

decrease

shrink, decrease - PWMP *kekes

decumana

a fruit tree, the pomelo: Citrus decumana - PPH *suháq

deed

deed, action, performance - PWMP *paR-buhat-an

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

deep

black, deep blue - PMP *ma-qitem

current, deep channel in the middle of a river - PAN *qaluR₁

current, deep channel in the middle of a river - PMP *qaluR₂

deep - PAN *ma-dalem

deep - POC *ma-ralom

deep black, shiny black - PWMP *li(n)tem

deep booming sound - PAN *deruŋ

deep booming sound - PWMP *daRehuŋ

deep buzz or hum - *-ŋuŋ (root)

deep cry; bird with deep cry - PMP *kuak

deep grunt or groan - PMP *beReŋ

deep guttural sound - PMP *heqeguk

deep place in a river - PMP *liku₁

deep place in river; pool of water left when a stream dries up - PPH *lib(e)tuŋ

deep place in water - *(noise)

deep pool or pond - PAN-F *waCaN

deep resonant sound; name of a bird with deep resonant cry - PAN *ku(ŋ)kuŋ

deep resounding sound - PPh *buŋbuŋ₂

deep resounding sound - PMP *buŋ

deep resounding sound - PAN *guŋguŋ

deep resounding sound - PAN-F *kaluŋkuŋ

deep resounding sound - *-Cuŋ (root)

deep resounding sound - *-guŋ (or *-guquŋ?) (root)

deep resounding sound - *-kuŋ₂ (root)

deep resounding sound; slit-gong, hollowed tree trunk used to send messages - PAN *kuŋkuŋ₁

deep reverberating sound - PMP *keRaŋ₁

deep rumbling sound; thunder - POC *guRuŋ

deep silence - PWMP *leplep

deep throaty sound - PPh *iŋguk

deep throaty sound - PMP *de(ŋ)guk

deep throaty sound - PWMP *haguk

deep throaty sound - PMP *re(ŋ)guk

deep throaty sound - *-guk (root)

deep throaty sound - *-ŋuk (root)

deep, of sleep - PWMP *lu(n)duq

deep, of sleep - PWMP *lunduq

deep, of the sea; deep sea - PCEMP *laman

deep, of the sea; deep sea beyond the reef - POC *laman

in, inside; deep - PAN *dalem

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - POC *ralom

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings, liver (fig.) - PMP *dalem

kind of bird that buries its eggs deep in the sand - PPH *tabun₁

make something deep, deepen - PWMP *pa-dalem

pit, deep cavity in the ground - PMP *lumbuŋ₁

pool, deep place in water; swamp - PCMP *tibu₁

sheltered water: deep place in a river; cove, harbor, lagoon - PMP *namaw

small bird that produces a deep resounding call - PAN *kukuŋ₁

deepen

make something deep, deepen - PWMP *pa-dalem

deeply

breathe quickly or deeply - PWMP *eŋkaq

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

deep place in river

deep place in river - *(near)

deer

deer - PWMP *u(R)sah

deer of the genus Cervus, either the sika deer or sambar deer - PAN-F *benan

male deer, buck (?) - PMP *saladeŋ

muntjac, barking deer - PAN-F *sakeC

to bark, of a deer - PAN *dekiŋ

defeat

defeat - PWMP *alaq₂

defeat, overcome - PWMP *maŋ-alaq₂

defeated

defeated - PWMP *ka-alaq

to lose, be defeated - PMP *talu₂

defecate

defecate - PEMP *beŋkeR

defecate - POC *bekas₄

defecate - POC *bekeR₂

defecate - PAN *C<um>aki

to defecate - PAN *C<um>aqi

to defecate - PMP *t<um>aqi

to defecate - PAN *pu-Caqi

defecating

strain while defecating or in childbirth - PWMP *teRan

wet; wash the anus after defecating - PMP *biseq

wipe after defecating - PAN *qiluS

defecation

bear down, press out, as in defecation or childbirth - PMP *maŋ-qezen

bearing down, pressing out, as in defecation or childbirth - PMP *qezen

gaseous defecation - PPh *p<aR>utput

defect

visible defect of the eyes - PPh *paqliŋ

defective

bad, defective - PAN-F *kuya₁

having defective eyes - PWMP *ileR

defend

defend oneself, parry a blow - PWMP *taŋgul

defend, protect one’s interests - PPH *agum-an

to defend - PPH *kampi

deferentially

sit deferentially - *(loan)

defiled

defiled, ritually polluted, ceremonially unclean - *(loan)

definite

come to rest in a definite place, settle down, as birds on a tree - PMP *tekas

definite article - *(noise)

deflate

deflate - PWMP *ke(m)pes

deflate, shrink - PMP *kampis

deflate, shrink - PMP *ki(m)pes

deflate, subside (of a swelling) - PWMP *impes

deflate; empty - *-pis₁ (root)

deflated

deflated, empty - PWMP *umpis

deflated, shrunken - PPh *qepés

empty, deflated - *-pes (root)

empty, deflated, shrunken - PMP *i(m)pes

deflect

deflect, divert - PWMP *lias

deflected

deflected off course - PWMP *bias

deflexa

loquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa - PAN-F *Ritu

defoliated

to peel off skin, bark or leaves; excoriated, decorticated, defoliated - PWMP *laklak

degree

stative prefix marking high degree of some quality; extremely; superlative marker - PPH *ka-₃

dehortative

dehortative: don’t! - POC *tabuna

dehortative: don't! - PWMP *ian₁

dehortatory

dehortatory exclamation - PWMP *anaŋ

dehydrated

dry, dehydrated - PMP *tegaŋ

deictic

deictic particle: this - PAN-F *nay

proximal deictic: this - PAN *qani₁

this, proximal deictic - *(noise)

deity

ancestor, deity, divinity - PWMP *qiaŋ

deity - PMP *qatuan

deixis

2pl deixis and spatio-temporal reference: that; there, then - PAN *-Cu

3p deixis and spatial reference: that, there (distant?) - PMP *-di

distal spatio-temporal deixis: that, there; then - PAN *-na

proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here; now - PAN *-ni

delay

put off, delay, postpone, break one’s promise - PPH *liwag

deliberately

to speak clearly and deliberately - PMP *tutur₁

delicacy

delicacy of pounded foods - *(noise)

rice delicacy - *(loan)

delicious

pleasant, agreeable; tasty, delicious - PWMP *sedep₂

tasty, delicious - PWMP *ñaman

tasty, delicious - PCEMP *ñañam

tasty, delicious (?) - PAN *ñamñam

deliver

to deliver, send something to someone - PPH *tugen

delivered

be escorted, be delivered - PWMP *hateD-en

delouse

delouse; preen the feathers - PWMP *siksik₁

delouse; preen the feathers - PWMP *ma-ñiksik

to delouse - PWMP *ma-ŋutu

to delouse - PWMP *maR-kutu

to delouse - PAN *k<um>uCu

to delouse - PMP *k<um>utu

to delouse someone - PWMP *kutu-an

deloused

be deloused - PPH *sukay-án

demolish

demolish - PAN *RibaS

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; break up, dismantle, demolish - PWMP *bekaj

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; split open, break up, dismantle, demolish - PMP *be(ŋ)kaR

demonstrative

demonstrative marker of uncertain meaning - PMP *iaqi

demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there - PMP *ia₂

demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there - PAN *si ia₂

demonstrative: this (?) - POC *ari

den

cavity, pit, den; to excavate a pit - PMP *baŋbaŋ₃

lair, den of an animal - PAN-F *Nibu

Dendrocalamus

bamboo of very large diameter, probably Dendrocalamus sp. - PAN *betuŋ₁

Dendrocygna

wild duck: Dendrocygna sp. - PWMP *bariwis

denial

fart, flatulence; expression of disbelief or denial - PMP *qetut₂

dense

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *dapdap₁

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - POC *rarap

dense undergrowth - PWMP *samek

dense vegetation - *(noise)

dense, close together - *(noise)

leafy, dense, of foliage - PWMP *ma-dahun

set close together, dense, luxuriant - PMP *lebet

thick, of objects; dense, of crowds - PMP *tebel₂

tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *depdep

densely

grass; grow densely, as grass - POC *buburu

grow densely, of vegetation - PWMP *benes

dent

dent - PMP *kepik

dent - *(near)

dent, dented - PWMP *picuk

dent, dimple - PWMP *lemiq₁

dent, dimple - PAN *piuk

nick or dent on the cutting edge of a blade - PPH *lupiŋ

dental

weevil that infests wood, bamboo, and rice; dust produced by the boring of this insect; tooth decay, dental caries - PMP *bukbuk₃

dented

dent, dented - PWMP *picuk

dented, having a jagged edge; hare-lipped - PWMP *sumbiŋ

dented, having an indentation - PWMP *picek₂

deny

concealed, secret; to deny, hide something - PPH *liméd

deny, refuse to acknowledge - PWMP *uŋkir

depart

depart, separate from - PPh *ayaw₁

go, walk away, depart - PAN *paNaw

go, walk away, depart - PMP *panaw₂

to leave, depart - PPH *alís

to leave, depart (?) - PAN *um-aŋay

to lift, stand up, arise, emerge, begin, depart, carry; cargo; take something; take a wife - PMP *buhat₃

departure

departure (?) - PAN *aŋay

dependent

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

deplore

feel sad about, deplore - PWMP *iruq

deposited

be lifted up or deposited on the beach by tide or current - POC *puRe₁

derision

ridicule, derision - *(loan)

sneer, laugh in derision - POC *inap

derivational

derivational circumfix, probably used to form deverbal nouns of location - PWMP *paR- ... -an

derivational prefix, used to form deverbal nouns - PWMP *paR-

derived

a tree from which a sort of shampoo is derived: Albizia spp. - PWMP *laŋiR

dermal

sore, dermal irritation, wound - POC *lake

Derris

a plant used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PMP *bunat

a plant used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - POC *punat

a plant with root used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PPH *tub(e)liq

a plant with roots that are pounded and put in rivers to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PAN *tuba

fish poison: Derris spp. - POC *tupa₂

was poisoned by Derris root - PWMP *t<in>uba

descend

descend, enter - POC *solop

descend, go down - PWMP *h<um>uluR

descend, lower - PWMP *ma-huluR

descend; go down; land from a boat - POC *sipo

go down, descend - PEMP *sombu

go down, descend - POC *sobu

to descend, come or go down - PWMP *t<um>uRun

to descend, go down; to lower - PMP *tuRun₁

descendants

descendants - PPh *ka-apu-an

descendants (?) - PPh *paŋ-apu

descending

relative of the third ascending or descending generation - PCMP *usi

relative of the third or fourth ascending or descending generation - PMP *piut

desert

to desert a place - PPH *layas

deserted

lonely, quiet, deserted - PWMP *sepi

design

draw, make marks or designs - PCEMP *tusi

draw, make marks or designs - PEMP *tosi

make a design; tattoo - PWMP *batik₁

mottled design, as of a tattoo - PMP *batek

plan, design, project - *(noise)

tattooed, marked with a design - PAN *b<in>eCik

tattooed, marked with a design - PMP *b<in>etik

to tattoo, make designs - PAN-F *p<um>ataS

vortical design or motion - PWMP *puyu₂

designate

to mark, designate - *(noise)

designation

one quarter; designation for a division of society, probably a lineage - PMP *suku

desire

crave, desire, intensely - PPh *hínam

desire, want - *(loan)

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

having desire for - PWMP *ka-ibeR

interest, desire - *(near)

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for - PMP *ibeR

saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for - POC *ipoR

to want, desire - PMP *pia₃

want, desire - PWMP *gemes₂

want, desire, wish or long for - PMP *pian

desiring

desiring, craving - PWMP *ma-ibeR

despite

conjunction: despite, nonetheless - PMP *baka

dessicate

to dessicate, parch near a fire - PWMP *salay

destination

direction, goal, destination - PMP *tuzu

to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete - PMP *teka₁

destitute

destitute, without means of support - PPH *pugerut

destroy

to sink something; to destroy - PWMP *ma-ŋaRem

destroy - PWMP *lacak

destroy - *(loan)

destroyed

come to an end, be destroyed - PMP *qa(m)pus

destruction

destruction - *(noise)

destructive

destructive insect - PWMP *taŋaq₃

insect destructive to rice - PWMP *zaŋaw

detach

to detach a hand, or bunch of bananas from the stalk - PPH *sapád-en

detached

broken off; islet; detached reef - POC *motus

unfastened, detached - PWMP *taŋgal

detail

details, particulars - PPH *bágay-bágay

thing; detail - PPH *bagay₂

detention

to bind, tie the hands or feet, as a person in detention, or an animal to be slaughtered; restraining rope - PMP *Rapus

determine

shake something to determine its unseen contents - PWMP *kutug

detour

go around the edge, take a detour - PPH *liklík

deverbal

derivational circumfix, probably used to form deverbal nouns of location - PWMP *paR- ... -an

derivational prefix, used to form deverbal nouns - PWMP *paR-

deviations

winding, full of curves or deviations - PWMP *kiluq kiluq

device

a clasp or button, fastening or closing device - PWMP *kaput-an

device for making thread or yarn - PWMP *laway-an

restraining device on animals - PAN *sakal

scarecrow device in paddy field - *(near)

devil

whirlwind, dust devil - PPH *qali-puRut

devoted

loyal, faithful, devoted - *(loan)

dew

dew - PCEMP *au₁

dew - PWMP *dahemuR

dew - PMP *hapun₁

dew - PAN *ñamuR

dew - PMP *lamuR

dew - *(near)

dew - *(noise)

dew, mist, fog - PWMP *ambun

dew, mist, fog - PWMP *qembun

dewdrop

dewdrop - PAN-F *qulas

dextrous

dextrous, agile, skillful - PWMP *sikap₂

TOP      de    di    do    dr    du    dw    dy    

di

diagonal

rafter, diagonal bamboo poles to which thatch panels are lashed - PMP *kasaw₁

diameter

bamboo of very large diameter, probably Dendrocalamus sp. - PAN *betuŋ₁

diamond

diamond - *(loan)

diarrhoea

colic, choleric diarrhoea - PWMP *kadadak

colic, choleric diarrhoea - PWMP *kadaqdaq

diarrhoea - PWMP *ciderit

to squirt, of liquids; diarrhoea - PWMP *cirit

dibble

dibble stick - PWMP *tugal

dibble, plant seeds with a dibble stick - PMP *hasek₁

plant seed by sprinkling in dibble holes - PWMP *maŋ-bubud

sprinkle seed, sow seed in dibble holes - PWMP *bubud

sprinkle seed, sow seed in dibble holes - PMP *budbud

to dibble - PWMP *ma-nugal

to dibble, plant seeds with a dibble stick - PWMP *maŋ-hasek₁

dibbling

field made by dibbling - PPh *hesek-án

dice

dice - *(loan)

dichotoma

a plant, the bast fibers of which are used in binding and plaiting: Maranta dichotoma - PWMP *banban

a tree: Cordia dichotoma - PMP *hanunaŋ

a tree: Cordia dichotoma - PAN *qaNuNaŋ

die

die in throngs; be on the verge of death - PMP *m-atay m-atay

die; dead - PCEMP *matay₁

die; dead - POC *mate

die; dead; eclipse of sun or moon - PAN *ma-aCay

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

old, of people; very, extremely; to die, dead (euphemism) - PMP *ma-tuqah

died

one who has died, dead person - POC *m<in>ate

difference

with no difference, equally to both - PMP *sama-sama

different

another, other; different, distinct - PPH *iba

different - *(loan)

different; another - PWMP *laqin

except, other than; another, different - PPH *sabáliq

keep to oneself; be different; alone - PCEMP *kese

negator of nominals; other, different - PWMP *beken

someone; other people; be different - PAN *duma

striped, having stripes or streaks of different color - PWMP *garit

striped, in bands of different color - PWMP *patelaŋ

varied, different (?) - PCEMP *kese-kese

difficult

able to resist or persist, as rice grains that are difficult to husk - PWMP *betaq₁

difficult, complicated - PWMP *sulit₁

difficult, taxing (of work); serious (of illness) - PWMP *payaq

weight, heaviness, weightiness; difficult; pregnant - PMP *beReqat

difficulty

a state of pain or difficulty; be afflicted by illness - PWMP *ka-sakit-an

difficulty in breathing - PWMP *seŋek

trouble, toil, difficulty - PWMP *suker

trouble, worry, difficulty - *(loan)

dig

a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers - PAN *kalih

a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers - PMP *kali₂

dig - PWMP *kutkut₁

dig a hole - PPH *kadkad

dig a hole, as by scratching - PPH *kawkaw₂

dig a hole, hollow something out - PPH *kabkáb

dig in the soil - PAN *kurkur

dig up - *(noise)

dig up something buried, disinter - PWMP *hukay

dig up the ground with a digging stick - PWMP *ma-ñuqan

dig up the soil - *(noise)

dig up the soil - *(noise)

dig, dig up - *(noise)

to dig - PPH *kubkub₃

to dig - POC *kali ~ keli

to dig a hole or pit - PWMP *maR-lubaŋ

to dig up - PCEMP *keli

to dig up, excavate, as tubers - PAN *k<um>ali

to dig with a digging stick, to husk coconuts with a husking stick - POC *kojom-i

to dig, dig up - PMP *ma-ŋali

to turn over, to dig by turning over, as rocks - POC *kili

digging

dig up the ground with a digging stick - PWMP *ma-ñuqan

digging stick - PMP *suqan

digging stick - PAN *ka-kalih

digging stick - PMP *ka-kali

digging stick (?) - PWMP *pa-ŋali

sharp pointed stick used in planting crops and in husking coconuts; digging stick, coconut husking stick - POC *kojom

to dig with a digging stick, to husk coconuts with a husking stick - POC *kojom-i

tool for cutting with a forward digging motion - PPH *sudsud₂

tool for digging - *(near)

dilate

dilate - *(noise)

dilate, open wide - *(near)

stretch open, dilate - PPh *biŋát

diligent

busy, diligent - PWMP *ku(n)zit

industrious, diligent - PPH *sipag

dilute

thin, of liquids such as soup; to dilute - PPH *labnaw

dim

dark, dim - PWMP *kulem

dim, dark - PAN *ma-Sulem

dim, dark - PMP *ma-hulem

dim, dark, obscure - PMP *qilem

dim, dark, obscure - PWMP *ma-qilem

dim, not well-lit - PPH *kulap

dim, of light - PWMP *kelap₁

dim, of light - PWMP *kelep

dim, of vision - PCMP *balabu

dim, of vision - PAN-F *ma-pukaw

dim, overcast - PWMP *ludem

dimentions

equal in dimentions - PWMP *repeŋ

dimness

dimness, twilight - PAN *Sulem

dimness, twilight - PMP *hulem

dimple

dent, dimple - PWMP *lemiq₁

dent, dimple - PAN *piuk

Diodon

porcupine fish, puffer fish, Diodon sp. - PMP *taRutuŋ

Dioscorea

kind of tuber: Dioscorea spp. - PWMP *gaduŋ

lesser yam: Dioscorea sp. - PPH *tugíq

potato yam, aerial yam: Dioscorea bulbifera - POC *pwatika

wild yam: Dioscorea sp. - POC *balai₂

yam: Dioscorea alata Linn. - PMP *qubi

Diospyros

a tree: Diospyros spp. - PPh *talaŋ₁

kind of ebony or persimmon tree with fruits that are pounded and used to stupefy fish: Diospyros spp. - PPH *kanúmay

large forest tree with edible brown, hairy fruits: Diospyros discolor - PPH *kamaguŋ

plant sp.: Diospyros discolor - PAN *kamaya

dip

dip net, scoop net - PMP *lawaq₁

immerse, dip in water - PMP *budaq₂

immerse, dip in water - POC *puraq₂

to dip in liquid - PPH *sawsáw

dipper

dipper, scoop; to scoop, ladle up - PAN *taku₂

ladle, dipper, scoop, cup - PMP *kabuq

ladle, dipper, scoop, cup - POC *kapuq

scoop up water; water scoop or dipper - PMP *tabuq

spoon, ladle, dipper - PAN *Cidu

Dipterocarpus

a tree, probably Dipterocarpus spp.; resinous substance obtained from this tree - PWMP *balaw₂

direct

marker of direct passive - PAN *-en

straight, direct; flat, level - POC *wane wane

to direct someone to something, to give instructions - PWMP *tuzuq-an

direction

askew, in a slanting direction - PMP *liliŋ₁

direction - *(loan)

direction, goal, destination - PMP *tuzu

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

go against the current, oppose, go in the opposite direction - PPH *sudsud₃

left side or direction - PAN *wiRi

left side or direction - PAN *ka-wiRi

left side or direction - POC *mawiRi

left side or direction - PEMP *mauRi

look quickly here and there, look hastily in all directions - PPH *liŋat

place, location, direction - PPH *dapít

point of the compass, direction - POC *mata ni aŋin

point of the compass, direction of the wind - PMP *mata nu haŋin

point out directions - *(noise)

postposition of location or direction - POC *solo₁

spatter, fly out in all directions - PMP *becik

to pass one another in coming from opposite directions - PWMP *sulaŋ

to point at, point out; give directions - PAN *tuzuq₁

to point at, point out; give directions - POC *tusuq

to point out, give directions (?) - PAN *pa-tuzuq

turn around, change direction - POC *li-liu

directly

go directly, take a shortcut - PWMP *la(n)t(e)qas

dirt

brush or shake off dust or dirt - PPH *pagpág

dirt filth - *(noise)

dirt on skin; dandruff - PAN *daki

dirt on skin; dandruff; tartar on teeth - PMP *daki

dirt under the nails - PWMP *taqi nu kuku

dirt, filth - *(noise)

dirt, grime - *(near)

dusty, full of dust or dirt - POC *tanoq tanoq

scrub hard to remove dirt - PPH *ludlud

scruffiness of the skin; dirt, dregs - POC *kani-kani

to brush away dust or dirt - PWMP *paspas₂

to brush or shake off dust or dirt - PPH *i-pagpág

dirty

black; dirty - PCEMP *ma-qitem, ma-qétem

dirty - *(near)

smeared, smudged, dirty with - PMP *lumes

smeared, smudged, dirty with - PMP *lumeŋ

to pick up with something to avoid getting dirty or burned - PAN *saput₂

disable

to cripple, disable someone - PPH *piláy-en

disagreeable

pungent odor, strong disagreeable smell - PWMP *saŋ(e)hid

recall or drag up disagreeable past experiences - PWMP *uŋkat

disagreement

disagreement - PWMP *tumaŋ

disappear

disappear behind something that envelops or blocks the view - PAN *lipuC

disappear under water - PWMP *leñeb

disappear under water - PWMP *leñep

dive; sink, disappear under water - *-Neb₁ (root)

dive; sink, disappear under water - *-ñep (root)

lose, disappear, be lost (as possessions) - PMP *qilaŋ

sink, disappear - *-leb (root)

sink, disappear under water - PMP *telem

sink, disappear under water - PWMP *teleŋ

sink, disappear under water - PWMP *leñej

submerge, disappear under water - PAN *lezep

disapproval

interjection of disapproval or disgust - PMP *qis

disarray

shabby looking, in disarray, of the feathers of fowls - PWMP *kuyut

shabby looking, in disarray, of the feathers of fowls - PWMP *kuyu

disaster

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

disaster - PMP *baraq

evil, harm, disaster - *(noise)

disastrous

disastrous, incurable - *(noise)

disbelief

fart, flatulence; expression of disbelief or denial - PMP *qetut₂

discard

abort, discard - PWMP *maŋ-buqaŋ

discard, throw away; banish - PMP *buqaŋ

discarded

be thrown away or discarded - PWMP *b<in>uaŋ

discolor

large forest tree with edible brown, hairy fruits: Diospyros discolor - PPH *kamaguŋ

plant sp.: Diospyros discolor - PAN *kamaya

discolored

dark, discolored - PPH *tudem

reddish; discolored, as the skin over a bruise - PWMP *baŋbaŋ₈

disconcert

disconcert, confuse - PMP *beŋaŋ₁

disconnect

separate, disconnect - PMP *peka

discouraged

hurt, frightened, or discouraged by previous bad experience - PWMP *zera

discover

to learn, discover - PPH *tuqun₂

discuss

talk, talk about, discuss - PAN-F *kawaS₂

discussion

discussion - *(loan)

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

disease

a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush - PAN *guSam

a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush - PMP *guham

a skin disease: framboesia, yaws - PMP *puRu

a skin disease: ringworm - POC *lapa₂

disease that causes swelling of body parts - PWMP *baguq

disease which produces scaly skin: ichthyosis - PWMP *bugis

flaky skin disease - POC *kaka₁

get smallpox; get swine disease - PPh *butih-en

scurfy skin disease; scabies - PAN *kudis

scurfy skin disease; scabies - PAN *kuris₁

skin disease - POC *kuli-kulit

skin disease - *(loan)

skin disease - *(noise)

smallpox; swine disease - PPh *butí

disgust

exclamation of wonder, disgust, etc. - PAN *i₁

interjection of disapproval or disgust - PMP *qis

disgusted

disgusted, revolted - PWMP *zizi

dish

dish made of chopped meat or vegetables - PPH *t<in>adtád

dish, bowl (of clay or wood) - PMP *panay

dish, plate - PAN-F *piad

plate dish - *(loan)

plate, dish - *(loan)

spicy condiment side dish with rice - *(loan)

disinter

dig up something buried, disinter - PWMP *hukay

disk

moon, month; menstruation; shell disk collar piece - PMP *bulan₃

shell disk used as ear-ring - POC *sabi-sabi

dislocated

dislocated, of bones - PWMP *salaq₂

dislodge

to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something - PAN *taktak₁

dismantle

take apart, dismantle; break open - PMP *buŋkaR

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; break up, dismantle, demolish - PWMP *bekaj

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; split open, break up, dismantle, demolish - PMP *be(ŋ)kaR

disordered

tangled, disordered, untidy - PWMP *kusut

disorders

be affected by itching, be infected with scabies or other itchy skin disorders - PWMP *gatel-en

disoriented

confused, disoriented by loud noise - PWMP *begaw

mentally disoriented - PWMP *buŋaw₁

disperse

break up, fall into pieces, scatter, disperse - PWMP *baRbaR

disperse - *(loan)

scatter, disperse - PWMP *ampuk

scatter, disperse - PPh *watnág

to separate people, disperse a gathering - PWMP *butas₁

display

to show, display - PPH *i-pa-kita

displeasure

expression, as of displeasure or surprise - PPh *ata₂

disposal

disposal of objects, banishment of people - PWMP *paŋ-buaŋ-an

dispossess

take away from, dispossess - PWMP *pucut₂

dispute

oppose, dispute with - PWMP *cakaq

to confront one another, as in a dispute - PPH *saŋsáŋ

disseminate

disseminate, strew around - *(noise)

dissention

argue, quarrel, dissention - *(noise)

dissolve

to dissolve something in water; swish around in water - PPH *nawnáw

to melt, dissolve - PPH *túnaw

to melt, dissolve - PPH *tunaw-en

distal

distal spatio-temporal deixis: that, there; then - PAN *-na

distance

attack from concealment, criticize from a distance - PPH *libák

hear at a distance - PPh *ántiŋ

see in the distance - PMP *tindaw

to distance oneself, move far off - PPH *d<um>ayuq

to see at a distance (?) - PWMP *tampay

to walk a certain distance (?) - PPH *lakaj-en

distant

distant rolling thunder - PAN *deRuŋ₁

exclamation to express surprise, call to a friend, respond to a distant call, etc. - PMP *huy

far, distant - PPH *hadawiq

far, far away, far off, distant - PPH *ma-adayuq

distended

distended abdomen - PWMP *buntit

distended, inflated (of the belly) - PMP *bunter

swollen, distended, of the belly - PWMP *buntuD

distilled

alcohol, distilled liquor - *(loan)

distilled liquor - *(loan)

distinct

another, other; different, distinct - PPH *iba

distinction

equally, without distinction - PWMP *pada pada

distinguished

object of respect; distinguished or respected person - PWMP *empu-an

distracted

become distracted or confused, as by noise - PPH *liŋáw

distress

exclamation of pain, distress, etc. - PMP *aduq

to exclaim in pain, distress, etc. - PWMP *maŋ-aduq

distribute

distribute, as food at a feast - POC *wa(n)se

distribute, deal out - PPh *wáras

distribute, divide, give - POC *wa(n)se-a

to distribute an inheritance (?) - PPH *taRak

to distribute, pass out shares (as of food) - PPH *bunuŋ

to distribute, pass out shares of food - PPH *tagtág

distributive

distributive; one-by-one, one at a time - PAN *isa isa

disturb

disturb - PWMP *kacaw

disturb, annoy - PMP *usik

disturbance

disturbance, confusion - PWMP *sigaw

disturbed

disturbed, of water agitated by fish - PPH *kambuR₂

mentally disturbed - PWMP *ma-gila

disunite

separate, disunite - PMP *le(ŋ)kaŋ

ditch

artificially enclosed catchment for water: well, ditch - PWMP *paRigi

canal, ditch - PAN *kali₁

ditch - PWMP *abaŋ₂

ditch, canal - PWMP *parij

ditch, canal - PWMP *parik

ditch, conduit - PWMP *qiliR-an

ditch, rain channel caused by water dripping from a house roof - PWMP *paspas₃

make a gutter, ditch, or channel - PWMP *ŋ-abaŋ

dive

dive - *(noise)

dive submerge - *-ñeb (root)

dive, immerse - PWMP *ce(R)neb

dive; immerse oneself - PWMP *salem

dive; sink, disappear under water - *-Neb₁ (root)

dive; sink, disappear under water - *-ñep (root)

plunge, dive into - PPH *tapuák

sink, immerse oneself in water, dive into the water; to set, of the sun - PAN *selem₁

to dive, submerge - PWMP *tilem₂

to dive, swim under water - PAN *ledep

to dive, swim under water - PAN *l<um>edep

to plunge, dive into water - PWMP *sesed

divert

deflect, divert - PWMP *lias

to divert the attention of someone - PPH *bakaŋ₂

divide

become four, divide into four (intr.) - PWMP *maR-epat

cut through, sever, divide by cutting - PWMP *qutas

distribute, divide, give - POC *wa(n)se-a

divide - PEMP *wa(n)se

divide into five - PPh *paR-lima-en

divide into five (?) - PMP *pa-lima

divide into four (?) - PMP *paR-epat-en

divide into groups of five - PWMP *maŋ-lima

divide into groups of five - PWMP *maR-lima

divide into multiple parts - POC *wa(n)se wa(n)se

divide into seven parts (?) - PWMP *maR-pitu

divide into six (?) - PMP *pa-enem

divide into two - PWMP *maR-duha

divide into two parts - PWMP *man-duha

divide into x (x = numeral) - PAN *paR-₂

divide, separate things that are joined - POC *pokaq

divide, share; portion (as of food) - POC *boi₁

numeral prefix, divide into x (x = numeral) - PMP *pa-₁

part, separate, divide - PWMP *ceray

share, portion, inheritance; to allot, divide property - PMP *baqagi

split, cleave, divide - POC *potak

split, divide - PWMP *balaq

split, divide, break off - PAN *Cebiq

split, divide, break off - POC *topiq

split, divide, break off; section of a betel nut - PMP *tebiq

to divide into three parts - PWMP *maR-telu

to divide, share out - POC *tupa₃

to divide, share out (as an inheritance?) - POC *pari₂

divided

be divided into four - PWMP *epat-en

be divided into seven parts - PWMP *pitu-en

be divided into three (?) - PWMP *telu-en

be divided into two - PAN *duSa-en

be divided into two - PMP *duha-en

divided into four (?) - PMP *ma-epat

divided into ten parts (?) - PWMP *puluq-en

divination

divine, find by divination, tell fortunes - *(loan)

divine

divine, find by divination, tell fortunes - *(loan)

divinity

ancestor, deity, divinity - PWMP *qiaŋ

division

a division, share - POC *wa(n)se-ŋa

division, partition, intervening space - PMP *belat₁

dual division, moiety - PCEMP *bali₈

dual division, moiety == cluster (a) answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - PMP *baliw₁

one quarter; designation for a division of society, probably a lineage - PMP *suku

divorce

parting, separation, as in divorce - PWMP *sarak

dizzy

dizzy - *(loan)

dizzy, drunk - PAN *ma-laŋu

dizzy, giddy - PAN *-medaw

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do

do

ability, skill, knowledge how to do something - PWMP *ka-taqu₁

be attracted to, swarm around, as ants do on finding food - PPH *dapu

continue on with doing something, do immediately, without hesitation - PPH *dágus₁

dare to do something - PWMP *amaŋ amaŋ

do - *(noise)

do again, repeat - PWMP *q<um>uman

do eight times - PWMP *ka-walu

do eight times - PAN *paR-walu-en

do four times - PAN *paR-Sepat-en

do one's utmost - *(loan)

do secretly - PWMP *suleb

do six times - PWMP *ka-enem

do six times - PAN *paR-enem-en

do something quickly, in a hurry - PPH *paspás₄

do something simultaneously - PWMP *maR-deŋan

do something to someone - PWMP *maŋ-apa-i

do something together with others - PAN *sabay₁

do something together with others - PWMP *sa(m)bay

do something twice (?) - PMP *maka-duha

do something twice (?) - PCEMP *maka-dua

do something with someone else, perform an action together - PAN *mi-da-duSa

do something wrong, make a mistake; miss the target - PWMP *s<um>alaq

do such-and-such (action unspecified) - PWMP *maŋ-anu

do to one’s utmost, do completely, to the finish - PPH *lubus

do with the hand - PMP *kamet

do with the hand - PPH *kemet

do wrong, do in reverse - PAN *suŋa

do, bring about, change something - PWMP *ka-buhat

do, make - PCEMP *bait₂

do, make - POC *pait

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

do, perform - *(noise)

force someone to do something - PPH *pilit-en

go or do something slowly, take one’s time - PPH *ananay₂

hero, war-leader; dare to do - PMP *baRani

hide, conceal, do in secret - PWMP *lihem

hide, conceal, do in secret - PWMP *lihim

impose one’s will, force or compel someone to do something - PWMP *teRel

make, do, perform - PWMP *maR-buhat

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something - PAN *zalan

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something; wake of a boat; the Milky Way - PMP *zalan

point at, aim for; intend to do something; do something intentionally - PPH *tuyuq

quick, do quickly; do in a short time - PPH *dalíq

repeat, do again - PAN *ulaŋ

send on a mission, command someone to do something - PWMP *utus₂

to call on a person to do something - PAN *suRuq₂

to cloy, satiate, do something to excess and so lose interest - PPH *s<um>áwaʔ

to do or go first - PMP *h<um>una

to do or go first; to lead - PAN *(q)<um>uNah

to do or go first; to lead - PMP *(q)<um>una

to insist; to force, compel someone to do something - PPH *pílit

twice, do something twice - PAN *paka-duSa

twice, do something twice - PMP *paka-duha

twice, do something twice - POC *paka-rua

unite, do simultaneously - PWMP *raŋkeb

unite, do simultaneously - PMP *raŋkep₂

verbal prefix marking potential action or ability to do something - PWMP *maka-

docile

tame, docile - PPH *ma-haq(e)muq

tame, docile - POC *ma-nacam

tame, docile, mild-mannered - PPH *haq(e)muq

dodge

dodge, evade, avoid - PWMP *qilag

dog

a plant with flowers the shape of a dog's tail, used to treat abscesses - PMP *ikuR ikuR ni asu

barking of a dog - PAN *qaŋqaŋ

dog - PAN *asu₁

howling or yelping of a dog - PAN *quaŋ₂

hunt with dogs - PWMP *maŋ-asu

hunting dog - PPh *paŋ-qanup

interjection used to call a dog - PPH *tútuq

mournful howl of a dog - PMP *quŋal

slurp up food or water, eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *sabsab

slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *tabtab₂

snatch with the mouth, as a dog seizing something in its mouth and running away with it - PPH *sak(e)mál

to bark, as a hunting dog; shouting - PWMP *giak

to bark, of a dog - PAN *qawqaw

to bark, of a dog - PAN *hulhul₁

to bark, of a dog - PAN *q<um>aŋqaŋ

to call a dog - PCMP *kati₁

to grip with the teeth, as a dog in carrying something - PWMP *saŋal

to growl, as a dog - POC *ŋuru

to howl or yelp, of a dog - PWMP *maŋ-quaŋ

to howl, of a dog - PAN *qauŋ

to howl, of a dog - PPH *taqul

to howl, of a dog - PPH *tahúl

to howl, of dogs - PMP *aluluŋ

doing

continue doing something, proceed without stopping - PWMP *tarus

continue on with doing something, do immediately, without hesitation - PPH *dágus₁

lose interest in doing something (?) - PPH *tantán

what are you doing? what’s happening? - PAN *ma-kuja

Dolichandrone

a tree: Dolichandrone spathacea - PMP *tui₁

doll

doll - PWMP *a-anak-an

doll - *(loan)

doll (?) - PWMP *anak anak-an

dolphin

dolphin - POC *kuriap

dolphin - *(loan)

dolphinfish

dolphinfish - PMP *lajih

dolphinfish - POC *laji₂

domestic

domestic chicken used as a decoy to attract a wild fowl into a trap - PPH *pa-ŋátiq

domestic fowl used as a decoy or lure to capture wild fowl - PPH *kátiq

domestic fowl used as a decoy or lure to capture wild fowl - PPH *káti

sound used to shoo away domestic animals - PWMP *cik

domesticated

domesticated animal - PWMP *qayam₂

domesticated pig - PAN *beRek

domesticated pig - PMP *babuy banua

domesticated pig - PMP *babuy lebu

pen, enclosure for domesticated animals - PMP *bala₂

pen, enclosure for domesticated animals - PMP *baRa₂

pen, enclosure for domesticated animals - PMP *bara₁

roam freely, of domesticated animals that are untethered - PAN *labeR₂

roam freely, of domesticated animals that are untethered - PMP *lambeR

don

cluster (c) == don mourning apparel; mourn for a deceased spouse - PMP *baliw₃

Donax

herb used in making baskets: Donax cannaeformis - PWMP *benban

herb used in making baskets: Donax cannaeformis - PWMP *benben₂

plant sp.: Donax canniformis, used as material for making baskets - PMP *niniq₁

done

past, done, gone - *(loan)

regret, remorse for something done - PWMP *selsel₂

straightaway, immediately; get done at once; continue on, lasting - PMP *tulus

to have had something done with it - PWMP *in-anu

was done, was loaded - PWMP *b<in>uhat-an

what has been said/done (to cause someone to react)? - PAN *k<in>uja

don't

dehortative: don’t! - POC *tabuna

dehortative: don't! - PWMP *ian₁

I don't know - *(noise)

I don't know! - PWMP *away₃

no, not; vetative marker: don't! - PMP *beliq₂

vetative; don't - PMP *edaq

vetative; don't - PWMP *ejaq

door

close a door - PAN *qaNeb

close a door - PMP *qaneb

door - PAN *qiNeb

door - PAN-F *paNiŋ

door - PAN *qaNeb

door - *-Neb₂ (root)

door - *(loan)

door - *(noise)

door opening - *(noise)

door panel - PAN *qaNeb-an

door, doorway - PMP *kataman

door, gate, passageway - PWMP *lawaŋ₂

to close up, shut, as a door - PPH *liŋkep

to close, as a door; cover - PWMP *ma-naŋeb

to close, shut; door - PMP *qeneb₁

to close, to shut; door - PAN *qeNeb₁

doorway

door, doorway - PMP *kataman

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

dorsal

fish with poisonous dorsal spines - PMP *lepu

fish with poisonous dorsal spines - PMP *lepuq₂

fish with poisonous dorsal spines - POC *lopu

marine fish sp. with venomous dorsal spines, Rabbitfish: Siganus punctatus - PWMP *kiteŋ

dot

spot, dot - PWMP *pe(n)tik

doting

silly, senile, doting - PWMP *aŋu aŋu

double

scoop up with both hands; a double handful - PWMP *aŋkup₁

telescoping basket, double basket - PPH *tampipiq

to fold over, double - PMP *ta(ŋ)kep₁

twins; double banana - PMP *apij

double-headed

double-headed parrotfish - POC *amatu

double-headed parrotfish - POC *kamatu

doubt

doubt - *(loan)

doubt, hesitation, uncertainty; to doubt, hesitate, be of two minds - PMP *duha duha₂

doubt, hesitation, uncertainty; to doubt, hesitate, be of two minds - POC *rua rua₂

particle of doubt or interrogation - PMP *ias₁

douse

douse a fire, extinguish a fire with water; to hiss, as water on fire - PMP *sebuh

douse a fire, extinguish a fire with water; to hiss, as water on fire’ - PAN *sebuS

pour water on; to douse (as a fire) - PCEMP *buqi₂

pour water on; to douse (as a fire) - POC *puqi puqi

to extinguish, douse a fire - PWMP *padem

to extinguish, douse a fire - PAN *padeŋ

to extinguish, douse a fire - PWMP *pideŋ

dove

a dove: probably Ducula spp. - PAN *baRuj

a dove: probably Ducula spp. - PMP *baluj

cooing of a dove - PAN *tutur₂

dove sp. - POC *baluc

dove, pigeon - PWMP *acaŋ

fruit dove, probably Treron spp. - POC *bune

greenish fruit dove - PAN *punay

greenish fruit dove - PAN *puna-punay

greenish fruit dove - PMP *punay punay

greenish fruit dove - POC *bune bune

kind of dove or pigeon - POC *kurukuru

omen dove - PWMP *buken₂

omen dove - PMP *muken

pigeon or dove sp. - POC *kupuR

dove (domesticated)

pigeon, dove (domesticated) - *(loan)

dowel

wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail or dowel - PAN *pacek

wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail, dowel, or fencepost - PAN *pasek

down

bamboo cross-lath used to hold down roof thatch - PWMP *belit₁

bear down, press out, as in defecation or childbirth - PMP *maŋ-qezen

bearing down, pressing out, as in defecation or childbirth - PMP *qezen

bend or pull down (as a branch) - PMP *tekuk

bite down hard - PAN *kemkem₂

bite down on - *(noise)

body hair; fur; feather; down; antenna of insect or crustacean; spikes of sea urchin; floss on plant skins, color; type, kind - PCEMP *bulu₁

body hair; fur; feather; down; floss on plant stems; color; type, kind - PMP *bulu₁

bring down the flat of the hand on something - PWMP *tepap

chop down - PMP *beta₂

collapse, fall down, as a house - PWMP *rebaq

come to rest in a definite place, settle down, as birds on a tree - PMP *tekas

come to shore, settle down in a place; sit, squat - POC *toka₂

cut down small plants to clear a way - PWMP *takebas

cut down, clear away scrub - PWMP *tebas₂

dangle, hang down loosely - PWMP *quntay₁

dangle, hang down loosely - PPh *waywáy

descend, go down - PWMP *h<um>uluR

descend; go down; land from a boat - POC *sipo

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

down, under - POC *ba₄

earth, soil, land; down; westward - POC *tanoq

eat voraciously, gulp down, swallow whole - PPH *lamun₂

fall forward; put face low down - PWMP *subsub

flatten; press down in order to squeeze in - PWMP *petpet₁

fling down, dash against - PMP *bantiŋ

for the hair to lie down flat - PPH *kepkép₂

go down, descend - PEMP *sombu

go down, descend - POC *sobu

gulp down food, gorge on one food to the exclusion of others - PWMP *lunlun₂

hanging down, dangling - PWMP *untay₁

hernia; to slip down, slip off, pull back the foreskin of the penis - PMP *luslus

lie down - PPh *hideRáq

lie down to sleep - PCEMP *qenəp

lie down to sleep - PAN *qinep

lie down to sleep’ - POC *qenop

lie down, curl up (of animals) - PWMP *lekuq₂

lie face down - PWMP *la(ŋ)keb

lie prone, face down - PWMP *tiŋkeb

lower or let down, as on a rope - PAN *SuluR

lower or let down, as on a rope; pay out fishline; launch a boat - PMP *huluR

lower the head, bow or bend down - PWMP *tukuk

pick or knock down fruit with a pole - PMP *su(ŋ)kit

press between two flat surfaces; to press down, crush - PMP *luqepit

press down - PMP *Reneg

press down - *(noise)

press down hard on something - PPH *mudmúd

press down on - PAN *qedet

press down, squash - PMP *qeñek

push down, trample down, as vegetation - PPH *desdes₁

put someone down to sleep - PWMP *pa-tuduR

resilient, springing back when pressed down - PWMP *endut

scraped or filed down - PPh *iit

sink down, subside; landslide - POC *solo₃

sit, squat; come to rest; stay in a place; settle down, as birds on a tree - POC *toka₃

slam down with force - PWMP *dakdak

slam down, ram down - PMP *qetak

slam something down - PMP *la(m)bak

slide down - PWMP *durus

slide down - PWMP *ulus

slip down or off - PWMP *rusrus₂

slip down, subside - PPH *kublas

slip or slide down - PWMP *lu(n)cuR

slip or slide down - PWMP *lu(ŋ)suR

slip or slide down or along - PWMP *hurus

slurp up food or water, eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *sabsab

slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *tabtab₂

split down the center - *(noise)

squeeze, press down - PWMP *tepes

stamp, put one's foot down - PWMP *qantak

throw down - *(noise)

throw down, as a burden - PWMP *qempas

tie down, fasten by binding - PPH *takéd

to cut down a stalk of bananas - PPH *tebáq

to cut off, prune; cut down - PWMP *tebteb

to descend, come or go down - PWMP *t<um>uRun

to descend, go down; to lower - PMP *tuRun₁

to hang down, to lower - PPH *tustus₁

to land, settle down - POC *toko

to lay down, put down, put away - PWMP *maR-taRuq

to lie down - PPh *maR-hideRáq

to lie face down, prone - PPH *sakeb

to lower, let something down, as with a rope - PPH *tuntún

to press down, crush - POC *lupit

to roll down or over something - PPH *pulin

to wear something down (?) - PPH *pa-pudpud-en

turn over, roll over; transform; upside down - POC *buliŋ

what is laid, placed or put down - PWMP *t<in>aRuq

worn out, worn down, as by overuse - PPH *ma-pudpud

downpour

downpour - *(noise)

downriver

downriver, toward the sea - POC *laur

go downriver, go seaward - PMP *pa-lahud

downstream

downstream, toward the sea - PAN *lahud

flow downstream - PWMP *qiliR

downward

bow, bend downward - PMP *dekuk

downward pressure; bamboo punting pole - PMP *teken

face downward - *-keb₂ (root)

fall face downward - PWMP *taŋkeb

lie face downward - PWMP *kureb

lie face downward - *-kem₂ (root)

sloping, bent downward - PWMP *duyuŋ₁

thrust downward with sharp implement - PWMP *tuzaq

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dr

Dracaena

a shrub: Cordyline, Dracaena - PMP *siRi

Dracontomelum

a tree: Dracontomelum edule - PMP *daqu₁

draft

gust, draft, current of air - POC *aŋin-aŋin

gust, draft, current of air; rumor - PMP *haŋin-haŋin

drag

drag, pull - PWMP *hilah

drag, pull - PWMP *batak

drag, pull - *(loan)

pull or drag a heavy object along, as on a sled - PWMP *guyud₃

pull, draw, drag - PWMP *irid₂

recall or drag up disagreeable past experiences - PWMP *uŋkat

to pull, draw, drag - PWMP *ŋ-irid

to pull, haul, drag - PCMP *dada

dragged

be pulled or dragged along - PPH *guyúd-en

dragging

sled or board used for dragging materials (?) - PPH *guyúd-an

dragnet

catch fish with a dragnet - PWMP *ka-puket

dragnet - PMP *puket₁

dragnet - POC *pukot

to be caught with a dragnet - PWMP *puket-en

to fish with a dragnet - PWMP *ma-muket

to fish with a dragnet - PWMP *pa-muket

to fish with a dragnet - PWMP *pa-puket

was caught with a dragnet - PWMP *p<in>uket

drain

drip or drain out - PAN *SuqSuq

drip or drain out - PAN *SuSuq

drip or drain out - PMP *huqhuq

drip or drain out - PMP *huhuq

drip, drain - PWMP *tiqtiq

drank

drank (past) - PPh *in-inum

drape

drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth - PAN *sapay

drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth - PMP *sampay₁

hang of drape over the shoulder - PWMP *salampay

to hang, drape over something - PPH *sab(e)láy

draw

draw a bow to its full extent - PAN *biaC

draw a line - PWMP *bad(e)ris

draw toward oneself; annex, make subject - PWMP *kabiR

draw, make marks or designs - PCEMP *tusi

draw, make marks or designs - PEMP *tosi

pull, draw - PAN *SuRut

pull, draw, drag - PWMP *irid₂

to brush past, rub or scrape against; draw a line - PMP *garis

to make an incision to draw blood - PPH *kaldít

to pull, draw, drag - PWMP *ŋ-irid

touch or tap so as to draw someone's attention - PMP *kebit

drawn

be pulled or drawn - PAN *SuRut-en

drawn, tied, even in score - *(loan)

drawstring

drawstring; to thread a drawstring - PAN *SuRSuR

drawstring; to thread a drawstring - PMP *huRhuR

dream

a dream - PWMP *paŋ-hipi

a dream; was dreamt by - PMP *h<in>ipi

dream - PAN *Sipi

dream - PWMP *lupi

dream - PAN *Sepi

dream - PWMP *nupi

dream - PMP *hipi

dream - PPh *taRa-qinep

dream - PMP *hepi

dream - PCEMP *nipi

dream - *-pi (root)

to dream - PWMP *maŋ-hipi

to dream - PMP *h<um>ipi

to dream - PCEMP *mipi

dreamt

a dream; was dreamt by - PMP *h<in>ipi

dregs

dregs - PWMP *tu(m)bas

dregs, refuse - *(loan)

residue, dregs - *(loan)

scruffiness of the skin; dirt, dregs - POC *kani-kani

drenched

get drenched by the rain - PPH *ma-quzan-an

dress

dress - *(loan)

dress the hair (of women); hair bun - PWMP *saŋgul

dress up, be decked out in one’s finest clothing - PWMP *kena₂

dressed

to wear, as clothes; to get dressed, slip into - PPH *suq(e)lut

dress up in finery

use, wear, dress up in finery - *(loan)

dried

dried fish - PPH *tuyúq

dried mucus on the eyelid - PWMP *mismis₁

dried nasal mucus - PPH *kulaŋut

dried out - POC *(bp)ala₁

dried up, scorched, shrivelled - POC *koRaŋ₁

dried up, wilted (of plants) - PPH *lanes

dry, dried up - PWMP *egaŋ

to be dried near a fire or by the sun - PWMP *daŋdaŋ-en

torch, probably of dried palm frond - PMP *suluq

dried fish

dried fish - *(loan)

dries

deep place in river; pool of water left when a stream dries up - PPH *lib(e)tuŋ

drift

drift on a current, carried away by flowing water - PAN *qañud

driftwood

driftwood and scum (?); lit. 'refuse of the current' - PWMP *taqi qaRus

driftwood; flotsam - PPH *Rabat

drill

bore a hole, drill - *(noise)

drill through, pierce, perforate - POC *paRo₁

drink

be drunk by; what is drunk: drink, beverage - PWMP *inum-en

drink - PWMP *inem

drink - PCEMP *unum

drink - *(noise)

drink it! (imper.) - PWMP *inum-a

drink it! (imper.) - POC *inum-ia

drink, beverage - PWMP *inum-an

drink, slurp, suck - PMP *ñepñep

give (him, her, it) something to drink (command) - PWMP *pa-inum-en

give someone something to drink - PMP *pa-inum

kind of fermented drink - PWMP *kilaŋ

refreshments taken with drink - *(loan)

to drink - PMP *um-inum

to drink (habitual) - PWMP *maR-inum

to drink (repetitive, frequentative, etc.) - POC *inum-inum

to drink (trans.) - PMP *maŋ-inum

to sip, to drink - PWMP *maŋ-hiRup

various drinks - PMP *inum-inum-an

drinking

act of drinking - PMP *inum

coconut growth stage 6: green drinking coconut - POC *karut₂

coconut shell drinking cup - POC *lasa₂

decant, pour liquid out for drinking - PPH *tíqiŋ

drinking (progressive) - POC *unum-unum

drinking vessel - PWMP *paŋ-inum-an

place of drinking - PWMP *hiRup-an

water not intended for drinking - *(loan)

drip

drip - *-bis (root)

drip - *-Ris (root)

drip or drain out - PAN *SuqSuq

drip or drain out - PAN *SuSuq

drip or drain out - PMP *huqhuq

drip or drain out - PMP *huhuq

drip or pour out - POC *pupus-a

drip, drain - PWMP *tiqtiq

drip, leak - PMP *tiktik₂

drip, ooze - PMP *titis

drip, ooze through - PMP *tiRis

leak, drip - POC *turuq

to drip - PPH *títiq

to drip - PAN *tuduq-en

to drip - PAN *tuduq-an

to drip, to leak - PPh *t<um>uduq

to leak, drip, as a leaky roof; a drop of water - PAN *tuduq

dripped

dripped; what dripped - PAN *t<in>uduq

dripping

ditch, rain channel caused by water dripping from a house roof - PWMP *paspas₃

dripping wet - PWMP *kuyup

leaking, dripping (as a leaky roof) - PMP *ma-tuduq

drive

chase, drive away - PPh *ábuR

cry to drive away fowls: shoo! - PWMP *siuq

drive animals away - PMP *busay

drive away (as animals) - PWMP *halaw

drive away, chase off - PWMP *ka-buRaw

drive game before one - PPH *tabug

drive in (stakes, etc.) - PWMP *usuk-an

drive in, as a stake; to plant (crops) - PCEMP *pasekₐ

drive in, erect, as a piling - PMP *uzeg

drive off, chase away, expel - PAN *buRaw

drive off, chase away, expel - PPh *buRaw-en

drive off, chase away, expel - PWMP *maŋ-buRaw

drive off, chase away, expel - PPh *maR-buRaw

drive or force into - PMP *buRsuk

drive pigs into a net - POC *bubuR₂

follow; drive animals before one - PWMP *maŋ-iriŋ

insert, put or drive in - PWMP *ra(ŋ)suk

press into, penetrate; enter crouching; drive in stakes - PMP *usuk

tethering stake; drive a stake into the ground - PPH *palpál₂

to drive away, shoo off - PPH *tabuR₂

wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail or dowel - PAN *pacek

wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail, dowel, or fencepost - PAN *pasek

drivel

saliva, drivel - PAN *ŋajay

driven

driven away, chased off - PAN *ma-buRaw

drizzle

drizzle - *(near)

drizzle, drizzling rain - PWMP *rinis

drizzle, light rain - PPH *tariktik

drizzle, light rain - PPH *taRihtih

drizzle, trickle - *(noise)

drizzling

drizzle, drizzling rain - PWMP *rinis

drizzling rain, mist; fog - PMP *Rabun

drone

drone, droning tone - PAN *teŋteŋ₁

hum, drone - *-teŋ₁ (root)

drongo

small bird with shiny black plumage: drongo - PWMP *cawi

droning

buzzing, droning, humming - PAN *b<aR>eŋbeŋ

drone, droning tone - PAN *teŋteŋ₁

sound of buzzing or droning - PMP *qiuŋ₂

drool

drool profusely (?) - PWMP *ibeR ibeR

saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for - PMP *ibeR

saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for - POC *ipoR

drooling

drooling - PWMP *ibeR-en

droop

sag, droop - PWMP *luyu

to wilt, wither, droop, as plants; dangling, hanging loosely - PPH *layláy

wilt, droop, as flowers - PWMP *kulay₂

droopy

droopy, languid - PPH *lupaypáy

droopy-eared

droopy-eared (as dogs) - PPH *lupíŋ

drop

crumbs that drop when eating rice - PWMP *mukmuk

drop by, pay a visit - PWMP *lawa₃

drop of liquid - PWMP *itik₁

drop off to sleep, fall asleep when one should stay awake - PWMP *ka-tuduR-en

drop, fall - PWMP *sabuq

lower, drop - PPh *i-huluR

pay a visit, drop by to see someone - PPH *dálaw

sound of ticking, rain drops falling - PPH *tagiktik

to fall; drop anchor’ - PWMP *labuq₁

to leak, drip, as a leaky roof; a drop of water - PAN *tuduq

droplets

fly off, of solid bits or water droplets - PAN *lecik

to shake off water droplets - PWMP *piRpiR₂

drown

sink, drown - PMP *keñej

sink; drown - PWMP *benem₂

stifle, suffocate; drown - PMP *lemes

submerge, sink, drown - *-ñej (root)

to drown - PMP *limes

to intentially drown, cause to drown - PWMP *lemes-en

drowned

to be drowned - PPH *ma-lemes

drowsiness

nod the head in drowsiness - PWMP *kantuk

nod the head in drowsiness - PWMP *qantuk

drowsy

sleepy, drowsy - PPH *tuŋkaq

drum

beat time on a drum or slitgong - POC *tutu

drum - PWMP *gimbal

drum - *(loan)

hourglass drum - POC *kude

small drum - PCMP *tibal

drumstick

drumstick - *(noise)

drunk

be drunk by; what is drunk: drink, beverage - PWMP *inum-en

dizzy, drunk - PAN *ma-laŋu

drunk, intoxicated - PAN *ma-buSuk

drunk, intoxicated - PMP *ma-buhuk

drunkard

drunkard - PWMP *paR-inum

drunkenness

drunkenness, intoxication - PAN *buSuk

drunkenness, intoxication - PMP *buhuk

dry

day; sun; dry in the sun - PAN *waRi₁

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

dry - PWMP *kaRiŋ

dry - PWMP *kelaŋ

dry - PWMP *Raŋkay

dry - PMP *Raŋu

dry - PAN-F *qaRiw

dry - PAN *keRaŋ₃

dry - PWMP *keRiŋ

dry - PCEMP *ma-Raŋu

dry - *(noise)

dry coconut - PCEMP *matu

dry measure for grain etc. - *(loan)

dry near a fire - *-gaŋ (root)

dry out, become dry - PMP *asat

dry rot in wood - PMP *rebuk

dry sago branch - PMP *kumbal

dry stream bed - PWMP *laqaD

dry up - PMP *ma-maja

dry up, evaporate - PMP *maja

dry up; low tide - PWMP *keti

dry, dehydrated - PMP *tegaŋ

dry, dried up - PWMP *egaŋ

dry, grainy, brittle - PWMP *pera

ebb tide; coral reefs and sandbanks exposed at low tide; evaporate, dry up, of water in cooking, in a river, etc. - PMP *qeti₁

evaporate, dry up - PPh *hebás

evaporate, dry up - PMP *tuquR

expose to the sun, dry in the sun - PPh *belaj

fibrous and dry to the taste - PPH *sagapsap

food that is dry roasted - PMP *s<in>aŋelaR

heat or dry something near a fire - PWMP *gaŋgaŋ

place to dry wood - PWMP *salay-an

small basket; a unit of measure for dry goods - PPH *salúp

spread out in the sun to dry - PMP *bilaj

spread out, as a net or clothes on the ground to dry - PPH *ladlad

to dry something in the sun - PPH *kagkag

to dry something in the sun - PWMP *kaRkaR

to dry up - PPH *keRaw

to evaporate, cause to dry up - PPh *maR-hebás

to stir-fry, dry roast - PWMP *ma-naŋelaR

to subside, dry up - PPh *h<um>ebás

tree with bright yellow fruit that has dry flesh: Lucuma nervosa - PPH *tisaq

warm oneself or something near a fire; heat or dry near a fire - PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

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du

dual

dual division, moiety - PCEMP *bali₈

dual division, moiety == cluster (a) answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - PMP *baliw₁

dubius

Pandanus dubius - POC *pakum

duck

duck - *(loan)

duck, Anas spp. - PWMP *itik₂

wild duck - PWMP *baliwis

wild duck - PMP *ŋaRaq

wild duck: Dendrocygna sp. - PWMP *bariwis

Ducula

a dove: probably Ducula spp. - PAN *baRuj

a dove: probably Ducula spp. - PMP *baluj

dug

dug out, excavated - *(noise)

dug up - PWMP *hukay-an

place that has been dug up - PAN *k<in>alih-an

place that has been dug up - PMP *k<in>ali-an

dugong

dugong - PMP *duyuŋ₂

dugong - PCEMP *ruyuŋ₂

dugong - POC *ruyuŋ₂

dugout

dugout canoe - PPh *balútu

outrigger canoe with dugout hull - PEMP *waŋka

outrigger canoe with dugout hull; passengers in a canoe - POC *waŋka

type of boat, possibly dugout with outrigger - PWMP *bilug

dulcis

a fruit tree: Spondias dulcis - PCEMP *quRi

dull

blunt dull - *(loan)

blunt, dull - PMP *pudul

blunt, dull - PMP *tultul

blunt, dull - POC *burul₁

blunt, dull - *-pul (root)

dark, dull (of light or color) - PAN *qudem

dull resonance - PMP *re(ŋ)geŋ

dull resounding sound - PMP *geŋ

dull resounding sound - *-beŋ₃ (root)

dull resounding sound - *(noise)

dull rustling sound - PPH *kaRuskus

dull sound - PMP *cepuk

dull sound - PWMP *ges

dull sound - PMP *peŋ

dull throaty sound - PMP *tekek

dull throaty sound - *-gek (root)

dull, blunt - PWMP *budul

dull, blunt - PMP *de(m)pul

dull, blunt - PMP *dumpul

dull, blunt - PWMP *ku(n)dul

dull, blunt - PMP *tumpel

dull, blunt - PMP *tumpul

dull, blunt - PWMP *ŋazel

dull, blunt - PWMP *ma-ŋazel

dull, blunt; blocked, plugged; stupid - PMP *belbel₁

dull, blunt; blocked, plugged; stupid - PCEMP *bebel

dull, muffled sound - PMP *ibuk

dull, muffled sound - *-bek₁ (root)

fall with a dull thud - PMP *tebuk₂

make a dull sound in the ears - PMP *epeŋ

onom. for dull sound - PWMP *desuR

onomatopoetic for dull sound - PWMP *bek

overcast; dull lustre - PWMP *edem₁

overcast; dull lustre - PWMP *ma-edem

sound of a dull thud - PMP *buk

sound of a dull thud - POC *puk₁

sound of dull clucking - PWMP *ketek

dull (physically and mentally)

dull (physically and mentally) - *(loan)

dull-witted

dull-witted, stupid - PWMP *balbal₂

dumb

dumb, mute - PWMP *gagu

speechless, dumb, mute - PMP *umel

dunning

dunning to collect a debt - *(loan)

durable

durable, strong, well-made - *(loan)

heartwood of a tree, hard, durable core of wood; ironwood tree - PMP *teRas

duration

duration of time, time period - PWMP *tagal

long duration - *(noise)

durian

a tree and its fruit, the durian: Durio zibethinus - PWMP *duRi-an

Durio

a tree and its fruit, the durian: Durio zibethinus - PWMP *duRi-an

dusky

dark, dusky - PWMP *selem₂

dusky, twilight, as near the end of day - PWMP *peteŋ

obscure, dusky - PWMP *sidem

dust

ash, hearth, cinder, powder, dust; gray - PMP *qabu

ashes, dust - POC *qapu

brush or shake off dust or dirt - PPH *pagpág

decaying wood; dust, powder - PMP *Rabuk

dust - PWMP *abuR

dust - PMP *apuk

dust - PWMP *qabug

dust - PPH *dabuk₂

dust - POC *qapuk

dust - PPh *alik-qabuk

dust - *-bu (or *-buH?) (root)

dust - *-puk₂ (root)

dust - *(near)

dust - *(noise)

dust in the air, stir up dust - PPH *tapuk₂

dust, powder - PMP *ebuk

dust, pulverized stone - PAN *bulbul

dust, sawdust - PMP *qabuk

dusty, full of dust or dirt - POC *tanoq tanoq

fine dust, airborne dust - PMP *sapuk

insect that infests wood and bamboo; dust produced by the boring of this insect - POC *pupuk₂

powdery substance, dust - PMP *habuk

to brush away dust or dirt - PWMP *paspas₂

to brush or shake off dust or dirt - PPH *i-pagpág

weevil that infests wood, bamboo, and rice; dust produced by the boring of this insect; tooth decay, dental caries - PMP *bukbuk₃

whirlwind, dust devil - PPH *qali-puRut

dusty

dusty, full of dust or dirt - POC *tanoq tanoq

duty

obligation, duty, commitment - *(loan)

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dw

dwarfish

dwarfish, small (of people) - PPh *bulilít

dwell

dwell, reside - PWMP *geneŋ

dwell, reside, live in a place - PAN *ian₂

stay, dwell in a place - POC *mono

to stay, dwell, reside - PWMP *um-ian

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dy

dye

a tree with roots that furnish a red dye: Morinda citrifolia - POC *gurat

dye - *(loan)

indigo plant and dye: Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) and Indigofera tinctoria L. - PMP *taRum

soak, dye - PAN *edem₂

the dye produced from the Morinda citrifolia - POC *kurat

tree with inedible white fruit and root that yields a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia L. - POC *ñoñu

tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia - PWMP *baŋkudu

tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia - PCEMP *ñəñu

dyeing

kind of mangrove, Ceriops spp., with bark used for dyeing - PMP *teŋeR

dyestuff

plant from which a dyestuff is obtained - PWMP *gamat

dyke

dam, dyke, embankment - POC *tabak₂

dam, dyke, embankment; to fill a hole with earth; to heap up - PMP *tambak₂

Dysoxylum

a large tree in the mahogany family: Dysoxylum sp. - PWMP *tawa₂

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/17/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_d.htm