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Updated: 9/22/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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E

eb    ec    ed    ee    ef    eg    ei    el    em    en    ep    eq    er    es    eu    ev    ex    ey    

each

each month, every month, monthly; for months - PMP *bulan-bulan₂

five each, five together - PWMP *taR-lima

four each (?) - PWMP *taR-epat

pit two opponents against each other - PWMP *sabuŋ₁

seven each - PAN *pi-pitu

three each, three by three - PMP *telu-telu

three each, three by three - POC *tolu-tolu

two by two, two at a time; two each - PAN *duSa duSa

two by two, two at a time; two each - PCEMP *dua-dua

two by two, two at a time; two each; both - PMP *duha duha₁

two each? - PWMP *taR-duha

eagle

eagle - *(near)

fish eagle, fish hawk - POC *taragau

hawk, eagle - PPh *banúg

kind of raptorial bird, eagle or hawk - PWMP *kaŋkaŋ₄

large rayfish, probably manta or eagle ray - PMP *paRih manuk

ear

(entire) stalk of bananas; ear of grain - PMP *buliR

ear - PAN *Caŋila

ear - PMP *taŋila

ear - PAN *Caliŋa

ear ornament - PWMP *sumpiŋ₂

ear pendant - PWMP *tiŋgaʔ

ear plug, roll of leaves, etc. inserted through pierced ear - PWMP *subeŋ

ear wax, cerumen - PWMP *taqi nu Caliŋa

ear; kind of tree fungus - PMP *taliŋa

ear; various types of bracket fungi; pectoral fins of a fish - POC *taliŋa

empty, of rice ears - PWMP *buqaw

make a dull sound in the ears - PMP *epeŋ

slap, clap on the ear - PWMP *tampar₂

sticking out or turned forward, of ears - PWMP *kupiŋ

the auricle or shell of the ear - PMP *dahun nu taliŋa

the auricle or shell of the ear - POC *raun ni taliŋa

twist or tweak the ear - PWMP *biŋbiŋ₂

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - PAN *biRaq₁

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - PWMP *biRaʔ

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp.; sexual itch - PMP *biRaq₁

wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks - PAN *Caliŋa na kaSiw

wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks - PMP *taliŋa na kahiw

earlier

earlier, in advance - PAN *zulu

precede, go or be first; earlier, former - PMP *unah

early

to wake up early, be early in rising - PPH *lukag

earring

earring - *(loan)

ear-ring - PPH *lubay

shell disk used as ear-ring - POC *sabi-sabi

earth

atmosphere, space between earth and sky - PMP *awaŋ

atmosphere, space between earth and sky - PWMP *hawan

atmosphere, space between earth and sky - PWMP *hawan hawan

bake or roast in an earth oven - POC *qumun-a

clay, sticky earth - PMP *taneq pulut

clay, sticky earth - POC *tanoq pulut

cook in an earth oven - POC *papi

cook in an earth oven - POC *qumun-i

cook in earth oven - POC *taqo

cover with a heap of earth, etc.; a heap of earth, etc. - PWMP *bunbun-an₂

cover with earth - PMP *hibun

cover with earth - POC *ipun₂

cover with earth - PWMP *Rab(e)qun

dam, dyke, embankment; to fill a hole with earth; to heap up - PMP *tambak₂

earth oven - PMP *qumun

earth, soil - POC *butaq₃

earth, soil, land - PMP *taneq

earth, soil, land; down; westward - POC *tanoq

earth, soil, mud - PMP *buRtaq

fill a hole with earth; cover something with a heap of earth - PMP *bunbun

heap of earth - *(noise)

heap, pile, cover with earth; collect, assemble - *-bun (or *-bequn?) (root)

lump, clod, as of earth - POC *ke(m)pal

mud, ground, earth - PPH *lutáq

mud; earth, ground - *-tak₁ (root)

mud; earth, ground - *-taq (root)

scratch up the earth, as a fowl - PAN *karkar

space between earth and sky - *(noise)

to cover with earth - POC *tapun₂

to cover with earth, dam up - PPh *tabún-an

to cover with earth, sand, etc. - PMP *tabun₂

to pile up earth or rocks, heap up so as to obstruct - PWMP *t<um>ambak

to scratch up the earth, as a fowl - POC *kakar-i

to shake, as the earth in an earthquake - POC *kañul

trample earth, turn into mud, as a paddy field prior to planting - PWMP *lucak

earthen

earthen jar - *(loan)

earthen water jar - PPH *baŋaq₂

earthenware

earthenware cooking pot - PAN *pariuk

shallow earthenware cooking pot or pan - PAN *balaŋa

earthquake

earthquake - PAN *linuR

earthquake - POC *nunu₁

earthquake - POC *nu-nunu

earthquake - PWMP *lindur

earthquake - PMP *linduR

earthquake - POC *lidruR

shake, sway, as the ground in an earthquake - PMP *huyuŋ

to shake, as a house in an earthquake - POC *kañu-kañu

to shake, as the earth in an earthquake - POC *kañul

earthworm

earthworm - PMP *wati₁

earthworm; intestinal worm - PWMP *gelaŋ

roundworm, ascaris, intestinal worm; also earthworm? - PMP *bulati

earwax

cerumen, earwax - POC *tule

earwax - PMP *tilu

earwax; deaf - PMP *tuli₁

ease

breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break - PMP *nihawa

easily

breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break - PMP *nihawa

easily frightened, cowardly - PWMP *takut-an

tearful, crying easily - PAN *ma-Caŋis

tearful, crying easily - PMP *ma-taŋis

east

east monsoon - *(near)

south or east wind - PAN *timuR

easy

cheap, easy - *(loan)

easy, promiscuous (of women) - PWMP *hampaŋ

eat

eat - PMP *maŋan

eat - PAN *kaen

eat - *(noise)

eat it - POC *kani-a

eat it (imper.) - PMP *kaen-a

eat it! - PAN *kaen-i

eat raw meat - PPH *kilaw₁

eat something before it is ready to eat - PWMP *maŋ-qataq

eat something raw - PAN *qataq

eat something raw - PAN *qetaq

eat something raw - PCEMP *qentaq

eat something raw - POC *qodaq

eat together as a group - PPH *laŋlaŋ

eat too much, be cloyed, overfull, tired of something through excess; bored - PWMP *sáwaq

eat voraciously, eat like an animal - PPH *lamun-en

eat voraciously, gulp down, swallow whole - PPH *lamun₂

eating partner; eat together - PPH *ka-laŋlaŋ

edible, able to be eaten; able to eat - PPh *maka-kaen

place where one eats - PAN *ka-kaen-an

place where one eats; food - PAN *kaen-an

raw, eat something raw - PAN *qamataq

ripe; cooked; ready to eat - PAN *qesak

ripe; cooked; ready to eat - PMP *ma-qesak

ripe; cooked; ready to eat - PEMP *ma-qosak

slurp up food or water, eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *sabsab

slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *tabtab₂

to crave, as food one wants to eat - PPH *sab(e)lek

to eat - PWMP *amaq

to eat - PWMP *ma-ŋaen

to eat - PPH *maR-kaen

to eat - PAN *k<um>aen

to eat - POC *kani

to eat raw fish or meat - PPH *kilaw-en

to eat together, join others in eating - PPH *maki-kaen

to eat, consume - PSHWNG *kanon₁

to eat, keep on eating - POC *kani kani

will eat - PAN *kaen-ay

will eat (?) - PAN *ma-kaen

eaten

be eaten by someone; cooked rice - PAN *kaen-en

be gobbled up, eaten voraciously - PPH *sabsab-én

eaten by termites, damaged by termites - PWMP *anay-en

edible, able to be eaten; able to eat - PPh *maka-kaen

non-staple food eaten with rice - PPH *siraq₂

protein side-dish eaten with rice (typically fish) - PPh *sidáq

satisfied from having eaten enough, satiated - PAN *besuR

satisfied from having eaten enough, satiated - POC *bosuR

satisfied from having eaten enough, satiated - PAN *bisuR

satisfied from having eaten enough; satiated - PWMP *busuR₃

was eaten; what was eaten - PAN *k<in>aen

what was eaten; food - PAN *k<in>aen-an

eating

eating partner; eat together - PPH *ka-laŋlaŋ

eating place (?) - PWMP *amaq-an

have a painful feeling in the teeth, as when eating something very sour or cold, or hearing a screeching or scratching sound - PWMP *ŋilu-an

instrument used for eating - PAN *Si-kaen

intense sensation in teeth when eating sour fruit; for teeth to be on edge - PMP *nilu

leaf; blade of paddle or oar; ‘table’ for eating - PMP *dahun

painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour - PMP *ñilu

painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour - PAN *ŋilu

painful, as of teeth on edge from eating something very sour - PAN *ma-ŋilu

satiated, full after eating - PPh *biaR₂

satiated, full from eating - PAN *ma-besuR

satiated, full from eating - PPh *maR-besuR

smack the lips while eating - PCEMP *tamu₁

to eat together, join others in eating - PPH *maki-kaen

to eat, keep on eating - POC *kani kani

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PAN *SuRas

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PMP *huRas

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PEMP *uRas

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eb

ebb

ebb (of water) - *(loan)

ebb tide - *(near)

ebb tide; coral reefs and sandbanks exposed at low tide; evaporate, dry up, of water in cooking, in a river, etc. - PMP *qeti₁

ebb, of water in streams - PAN *qaCi

ebb, of water in streams; low tide - PMP *qati

ebb, of water in streams; low tide - PAN *ma-qaCi

ebb, of water in streams; low tide - PMP *ma-qati

ebony

kind of ebony or persimmon tree with fruits that are pounded and used to stupefy fish: Diospyros spp. - PPH *kanúmay

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ec

Echineis

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting - PMP *kemi

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting - POC *komi

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting’ - PMP *gemi

echo

echo - PMP *aniŋal

echo - PMP *niŋal

Eclectus

male Eclectus Parrot: Eclectus roratus - POC *kaRa

parrot sp., possibly Eclectus parrot - POC *kiRak

eclipse

die; dead; eclipse of sun or moon - PAN *ma-aCay

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

new moon, eclipse (lit. 'dead moon') - PMP *bulan matay

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ed

eddy

whirlpool, eddy, vortex - PWMP *puseD

edge

border, edge - PWMP *qiriŋ₁

border, side, edge - PWMP *p<al>idpid

borderline, edge, as of roof or garment - PPH *sanipa

brink, edge, shore - *(near)

circumambulate, go around the edge - *(loan)

corner, edge, point - PCEMP *buu₃

corner; side, edge - PWMP *zuRu

curved, having a curved edge - PWMP *siŋkuquŋ

dented, having a jagged edge; hare-lipped - PWMP *sumbiŋ

edge - PWMP *kiliD

edge - *(loan)

edge, bank, shore - PWMP *taŋepi

edge, border - PPh *beŋet₁

edge, border - *(noise)

edge, margin - PWMP *simpir

edge, ridge - *(noise)

edge, rim - *(loan)

edge, rim, flat container - *(noise)

edge, seam, hem - PPH *tebir

follow the edge of a body of water, as in going upstream - PMP *sulsul₁

go around the edge, take a detour - PPH *liklík

intense sensation in teeth when eating sour fruit; for teeth to be on edge - PMP *nilu

near, come near; edge, border - PMP *ipit

outskirts, edge of settlement - PPh *hilít

painful, as of teeth on edge from eating something very sour - PAN *ma-ŋilu

rim, edge - *-bir (root)

rim, edge, border - PMP *birbir₁

rim, edge, border - PWMP *su(m)bir

side, edge - PMP *bidiŋ

side, edge - POC *piriŋ₁

side, edge - PMP *biriŋ₁

side, edge - POC *piriŋ₂

side, edge, border - POC *taba₂

side, edge, border - PWMP *piRpiR₁

turn up at the edge, expose the bottom side - PWMP *lukab

uneven, of edges, jagged, rough - PMP *garaŋ₂

uneven, of edges, jagged, rough - PMP *garaŋ-gasaŋ

edible

a cereal grass with edible seeds that are also used as beads, Job’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L. - PMP *zelay

a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa - PMP *talisay

a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa - POC *talise₁

a shrub with edible figs: Ficus tinctoria - POC *taŋa₃

a tree and its edible fruit, the starfruit: Averrhoa bilimbi, Averrhoa carambola - PWMP *baliŋbiŋ

a tree with edible fruit, and medicinal uses, probably Buchanania arborescens - PMP *balunuR

a tree with edible fruit: Antidesma bunius - PWMP *buRnay

an edible plant: Amaranthus spinosus - PWMP *bayaŋ₁

bracken, edible fern that grows by rivers: Athyrium esculentum - PAN *paheku

classifier for edible possession - POC *kana-

edible marine fish - PWMP *balaki

edible marine fish - PMP *kuRaw

edible marine invertebrate - probably sea cucumber - PPh *balát

edible mushroom - PMP *quhuŋ

edible mushroom (generic) - PAN *quSuŋ

edible mushroom sp. - PAN-F *bajiw

edible sea animal or plant - PWMP *gamet

edible sea worm: Sipunculus spp. - POC *ibo

edible seaweed sp. - PMP *latuq

edible shellfish - PMP *qibaw₁

edible snail - PWMP *sisuq

edible snail - PMP *susuq

edible snail sp. - PWMP *kuhul

edible things, food - PAN *ka-kaen-en

edible, able to be eaten; able to eat - PPh *maka-kaen

hardwood tree with edible fruit and valuable timber: Palaquium spp. - PMP *ñatuq

kind of edible clam - POC *tue

kind of edible fruit - PWMP *kalikiq

kind of edible marine clam - PMP *tuay

kind of edible squash or gourd: Lagenaria leucantha - PPH *tabayaR

kind of edible tuber - PWMP *buga

kind of large, edible marine fish - PWMP *kakap

kind of sour edible fruit, possibly fruit of rattan - PWMP *libas₁

kind of wild cane with edible flower head - POC *piso₁

large forest tree with edible brown, hairy fruits: Diospyros discolor - PPH *kamaguŋ

small edible freshwater crab - PAN *gaRaŋ

small edible freshwater crab - PMP *kaRaŋ

species of edible snail - PPh *balilit

tree with edible fruit Sandoricum indicum or Sandoricum koetjape - *(loan)

tree with edible hairy brown fruit: Diospyros discolor - *(loan)

tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune - PMP *kanari

tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune - POC *kaŋaRi

wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks - PAN *Caliŋa na kaSiw

wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks - PMP *taliŋa na kahiw

edule

a plant with toxic properties, Erioglossum edule or Lepisanthes rubiginosa - PWMP *kalayu

a tree: Dracontomelum edule - PAN *daqu₁

a tree: Pangium edule - PWMP *paŋi

edulis

a tree: Inocarpus spp., possibly the Tahitian chestnut: Inocarpus edulis - PMP *gayam

the ‘Tahitian chestnut’: Inocarpus fagiferus or I. edulis - POC *ipi₂

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ee

eel

eel - PPh *ígat

eel - *(loan)

eel - *(noise)

eel (small or young) - *(near)

freshwater eel - PWMP *kasuli

freshwater eel - PAN *tuNa

freshwater eel - PMP *tuna

iguana, eel - *(noise)

kind of fish or eel - PPH *palú

kind of marine eel - PMP *haRemaŋ

trap for fish or eels - *(near)

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ef

effeminate

effeminate, of a man - PPh *b<in>a-bahi

effervesce

to boil, effervesce - POC *ririq

efficacious

tasteless; neutralize something efficacious, as an antidote for poison - PWMP *tawaR₁

effigy

human effigy; pupil of the eye - PMP *tau tau

effort

exert strength or effort - PWMP *elet₂

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eg

egg

break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg - PMP *peceq₂

break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg - POC *posaq

brood, sit on eggs - PMP *ekep

brood, sit on eggs - POC *opi

brood, sit on eggs - PWMP *qerem

brood, sit on eggs; cover completely - PMP *ukup

chicken egg - PMP *qiteluR ni manuk

egg - POC *qatoluR

egg - PAN *qiCeluR

egg; testicle - PMP *qateluR

egg; testicle - PMP *qiteluR

fish eggs, roe - PWMP *bihed

fish eggs, roe - PPh *bujiq

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

kind of bird that buries its eggs deep in the sand - PPH *tabun₁

lay an egg - PWMP *mag-qiteluR

lay eggs - PWMP *maŋ-qateluR

maggot, fly egg - PWMP *ias₂

nit, egg of a hair louse - PAN *liseqeS

nit, egg of a hair louse - PMP *lisehaq, liseqah

nit, egg of a louse - PMP *leseq

nit, egg of a louse - POC *lisa

nit, louse egg - PWMP *liqes

roe, eggs of fish or crustacean - POC *piRa₁

roe, eggs of fish or crustacean - PAN *piRaS

roe, eggs of fish or crustacean - PMP *piRah

roe, eggs of fish or crustacean - POC *biRa

roe, fish eggs - PAN *biRaS

rotten meat; addled eggs; bad character - PAN *buRuk

rotten, as meat; addled, as eggs; bad, of character - PMP *ma-buRuk

to brood, sit on eggs - PWMP *eden

to shake something, as an egg or coconut - PPH *kalug

to store, put away for safekeeping, hide valuables; to place a bet in gambling; lay an egg - PMP *taRuq

egg-laying

hen, egg-laying chicken - PMP *qupa

eggplant

eggplant - *(loan)

hairy eggplant: Solanum ferox Linn. - PPH *basula

Ego

affine of Ego's generation - PAN *idas₁

egret

heron, egret - POC *sou

Egretta

heron, probably Egretta sp. - POC *kao

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ei

eight

do eight times - PWMP *ka-walu

do eight times - PAN *paR-walu-en

eight - PAN *walu

eight (of humans) - PAN *wa-walu

eight by eight, eight at a time - PMP *walu walu

eight times - PWMP *in-walu

eight times - PMP *paka-walu

eight times (frequentative, multiplicative) - PAN *maka-walu

group of eight - PPh *walu(h)-an

eighth

eighth (ordinal) - PMP *ika-walu

eighty

eighty - PMP *walu ŋa puluq

either

deer of the genus Cervus, either the sika deer or sambar deer - PAN-F *benan

or, either - *(loan)

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el

Elaeocarpus

a tree: Elaeocarpus sp.? - PWMP *saŋa₂

Elagatis

a fish, the rainbow runner: Elagatis bipinnulata - POC *kamaRi

elastic

stretchy; elastic - *-ñut (root)

tough, elastic (of flesh) - PWMP *keñat

tough, rubbery, elastic - PPH *kúñat

elata

palm sp: Corypha elata - PMP *buri

wild palm tree with fruit similar to areca nut: Heterospathe elata - PPH *sagisí

elbow

elbow - PAN *sikux

elbow, knee; joint, node - POC *pwatu

knock someone or something with the elbow - PMP *pa-siku

to be elbowed, nudged or poked with an elbow - PWMP *siku-en

to elbow; to push or jab with the elbow - PAN *s<um>iku

to prod or knock with the elbow - PWMP *ka-siku

to prod or knock with the elbow - PWMP *maka-siku

was elbowed, was nudged with an elbow - PWMP *s<in>iku

elbowed

to be elbowed, nudged or poked with an elbow - PWMP *siku-en

was elbowed, was nudged with an elbow - PWMP *s<in>iku

elder

elder kinsman - *(noise)

elder same sex sibling - POC *tuaka

elder sibling - PWMP *aka

elder sibling - PAN *kaka₂

elder sibling (vocative?) - PWMP *aka-ŋ

elder sibling (vocative?) - PWMP *aka-q

elder sibling of the same sex - PMP *teka₂

elder sibling of the same sex - POC *toka

elder sibling of the same sex - PMP *kaka₂

father, uncle, elder sibling - *(noise)

old, elder, senior - PAN *ma-tuqaS tuqaS

old, older person, elder; old stand forest - POC *matuqa

older people, elders - PAN *tuqaS tuqaS

older people, elders - PMP *tuqah tuqah

parents' elder sibling - PMP *uaʔ

parents’ elder sibling: FeB, FeZ, MeB, Me - PMP *ua₂

parents’ elder sibling: FeB, FeZ, MeB, MeZ - PMP *uaq

eldest

first-born child, eldest child - PPH *paŋánay

first-born, eldest child (lit. 'head child') - PMP *anak a qulu

elephant

elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea - PAN *Caŋelaj

elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea - PMP *taŋelaj

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - PAN *biRaq₁

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - PWMP *biRaʔ

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp.; sexual itch - PMP *biRaq₁

elephant-ear

wild taro, elephant-ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - POC *piRaq₂

elephantiasis

elephantiasis - POC *pwiRa

elevate

lift, elevate - PWMP *maŋ-aŋkat-aŋkat

elevated

elevated ground - PMP *bunduk

elevated place - PWMP *paŋguŋ-an

heap, pile; elevated platform used as a look-out - PWMP *paŋguŋ

ell

ell - *(loan)

elliptica

a plant used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PMP *bunat

a plant used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - POC *punat

a plant with root used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PPH *tub(e)liq

a plant with roots that are pounded and put in rivers to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PAN *tuba

Elm

a tree: Mallotus lackeyi Elm. - PPH *lamay

elongated

fish with a thin, elongated body: long tom - PMP *selu

elope

to seize property and run off with it; to elope - PPH *taŋaR

elopement

booty, war captive; what is taken in war; elopement, captured bride - PMP *taban

else

do something with someone else, perform an action together - PAN *mi-da-duSa

hidden behind something else - PPH *limeŋ

hit something against something else - PAN *CugCug₁

include with something else - PPH *taq(e)kip

namesake, have the same name as someone else - PWMP *saŋay

pawned, pledged in place of something else - PWMP *sanda

put something on top of something else - PPH *i-taq(e)paw

put something on top of something else - PPH *taq(e)paw-an

share the possession of something with someone else; co-wife (?) - PWMP *duha-i

someone else's child - PMP *anak i tau

take passage, catch a ride in someone else’s boat - PWMP *tumpaŋ₂

to make something wind around something else - PAN *pa-litlit

to mix something with something else - PPH *lahuk-án

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em

embankment

dam, dyke, embankment - POC *tabak₂

dam, dyke, embankment; to fill a hole with earth; to heap up - PMP *tambak₂

embankment - PWMP *baŋbaŋan

embankment, cliff - PWMP *paŋpaŋ-an

embark

put out to sea, embark on a voyage - POC *toka₃

embarrassed

red; embarrassed - PWMP *ma-iraŋ

shy, embarrassed, ashamed - PCEMP *ma-mayaq

shy, embarrassed; ashamed - PAN *ma-Seyaq

shy, embarrassed; ashamed - PMP *ma-heyaq

embarrassment

embarrassment - *(near)

redness; embarrassment - PWMP *iraŋ₁

shyness, embarrassment; shame - PAN *Seyaq

shyness, embarrassment; shame - PMP *heyaq

embedded

loosely embedded, wobbly; to shake - PWMP *ugaq

sliver, splinter, foreign body embedded in the flesh - PAN *uNay

ember

ember - PMP *baRah

ember, glowing coal - PAN *baRah

ember, glowing coal - PMP *baRah hapuy

ember, glowing coal - POC *koran

embrace

catch, seize; embrace - PAN *dakep

embrace - PWMP *dekep

embrace - POC *rakop

embrace from behind, copulate by mounting from behind (of animals, or coarsely of humans) - PPH *takbá

grasp, embrace - PWMP *hakep

seize, grasp, embrace - *-kep₂ (root)

to catch, capture; embrace - PAN *d<um>akep

to seize, hug, embrace - PWMP *kepkép₁

to wrap around; embrace, hug - PAN *takes

embroiled

entangled, caught up in, involved, embroiled - PWMP *saŋkut

embryo

coconut embryo - PMP *para

emerge

lift, carry, bring; emerge, appear, begin; take a spouse - POC *puat₂

to lift, stand up, arise, emerge, begin, depart, carry; cargo; take something; take a wife - PMP *buhat₃

emit

a tall forest tree which emits an unpleasant odor: Sterculia foetida - PMP *bubuR₃

emit smoke or steam - POC *kupuk

emotion

inside, interior; thoughts, emotions, memories - POC *ilo

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

strong emotion - PMP *rawan

violent emotion - PWMP *siŋit

emotional

emotional pain - *(near)

emotionally

affected by the moon, mentally or emotionally unstable - PWMP *bulan-en

affected by the moon, mentally or emotionally unstable - PWMP *bulan bulan-en

emotionally upset - *(noise)

emotive

interjection of negative emotive force - PMP *qisaq

emperor

a fish, large emperor: Lethrinus sp. - POC *kasika

a fish, small emperor - POC *koraŋa

a fish, the emperor: Lethrinus spp. - POC *sabutu

a fish, the emperor: Lethrinus spp. - POC *surup₂

emphatic

emphatic particle - PMP *lagi

emphatic particle - PWMP *ta₂

linker marking emphatic attribution - PAN *na₂

empty

deflate; empty - *-pis₁ (root)

deflated, empty - PWMP *umpis

empty husk (of rice, etc.) - PMP *ampaw

empty husk (of rice, etc.) - PMP *qapah

empty husk (of rice, etc.) - PWMP *qapah qapah

empty out - PWMP *Ruaq

empty, deflated - *-pes (root)

empty, deflated, shrunken - PMP *i(m)pes

empty, of rice ears - PWMP *buqaw

empty, vacant - PAN *quaŋ₁

open space, empty of obstruction - PWMP *tawaŋ

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en

encircle

belt, anything that encircles tightly - PMP *bakes₁

encircle tightly - PWMP *sel(e)qut

encircle tigthly; band or ring around something - PWMP *selut

encircle, wrap around - PPh *balíkes

encircle, wrap firmly around - *-kes (root)

enclose, encircle - PWMP *kepuq

go around, encircle - PWMP *liut₁

surround, encircle - PWMP *pa-libut

surround, encircle - *-kub₂ (root)

surround, encircle, as game - PWMP *libut

surround, encircle, as in attacking someone - PPH *liput₁

to encircle, surround - PPH *lukúb

to surround, encircle - PWMP *li(ŋ)kub

to wrap, encircle, as with the arms or wings - PPH *kupkup₂

wind around, encircle - PWMP *ti(ŋ)kes

wrap around, encircle - PAN *ta(R)kes

wrap firmly around, encircle tightly - PMP *likes

wrap firmly around, encircle tightly - POC *likos

encircling

encircling article of clothing or adornment - PWMP *giret

enclose

cage, as for an animal; to enclose in a cage or pen - PWMP *kuruŋ

close, shut; enclose - PWMP *tikup

cover, enclose - PWMP *takup₁

enclose, cover - PWMP *ekup

enclose, cover - *-kup (root)

enclose, cover; grasp - *-kem₁ (root)

enclose, encircle - PWMP *kepuq

enclose; hold something inside the mouth - PMP *qeŋkem

enclosure; to enclose - PPH *lakub

pinch, squeeze, enclose - PWMP *maŋ-hapit

to cover, enclose - PWMP *likup₁

to enclose, shut in - PMP *kebkeb

to enclose, shut in’ - POC *kokop

enclosed

artificially enclosed catchment for water: well, ditch - PWMP *paRigi

enclosed body of water - *-naw₁ (root)

enclosing

enclosing wall - *(noise)

enclosure

enclosure, pen for animals - PWMP *kandaŋ

enclosure; palisade around a village; fence around a planted tree or cultivated field - PMP *pager

enclosure; to enclose - PPH *lakub

fence, barrier; enclosure - PWMP *tendek₂

pen, enclosure for domesticated animals - PMP *bala₂

pen, enclosure for domesticated animals - PMP *baRa₂

pen, enclosure for domesticated animals - PMP *bara₁

protective covering or enclosure; mosquito net - PPH *kubuŋ₂

encounter

meet, encounter, happen upon - PPH *tagbúq

to meet or greet someone who is arriving, or who one encounters by surprise - PPH *sabat-en

to meet, encounter - POC *toka₁

encumbered

encumbered - PWMP *rimbit

end

beam, house end - *(noise)

come to an end - PMP *ke(m)pus

come to an end - PWMP *pedped₂

come to an end, be destroyed - PMP *qa(m)pus

dusky, twilight, as near the end of day - PWMP *peteŋ

end of tuber that is kept for planting - PEMP *upe

end or death of something (?) - PWMP *ka-p-atay-an

end, complete, finish - PAN *tapus

end, conclude, finish - PMP *te(m)pus

end, finish - *-pus₁ (root)

end, finish; used up, finished - PMP *upus

end, terminate, finish, use up - *-bus (root)

rear end of a chicken - PMP *buntut₁

rear end of an animal - POC *buntut₂

run out, come to an end, of supplies; be poor - PMP *kabus₁

stop, end, finish, complete; finished, used up - PMP *qeti₃

tail; end of something long, as a rope; tip of a leaf - POC *siku

to end, finish, complete something - PWMP *putput₃

to set free, let loose, liberated; passed by, come to an end - PWMP *lepas

endearment

heart (figurative); term of endearment - PMP *buaq ni qatay

term of endearment - PWMP *buaq qatay

endeavor

persist in an endeavor - PWMP *atag

endosperm

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

pithy ball inside sprouted coconut, coconut endosperm - POC *piri

endure

bear, endure - *(loan)

bear, endure - *(noise)

endure, last a long time - POC *loan

enduring

lasting, enduring - PWMP *bantas

enema

enema - *(loan)

enemy

answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - POC *bali₇

dual division, moiety == cluster (a) answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - PMP *baliw₁

enemy - PAN *busuR₁

enemy - PAN-F *pajiS

enemy - POC *kana₂

enemy - *(loan)

enemy - *(noise)

push, slide or glide forward, as in pushing wood into a fire, or storming the enemy - PWMP *suruŋ

stranger; enemy - PAN-F *qaNa

to lie in wait for an enemy or wild game - PPH *tambaŋ-an

energetic

agile, quick, swift, energetic - PMP *ta(ŋ)kas

energetic, active - PWMP *sikaD

quick, energetic, strong - PMP *lakas

quick, energetic, strong - POC *lagas

spirited, energetic - PMP *la(ŋ)kas

strong, vigorous, energetic - PWMP *bikas

strong, vigorous, energetic - PWMP *ma-bikas

strong, vigorous, energetic, forceful - PAN *ma-keseR

swift, agile, strong, energetic - *-kas₃ (root)

swift, energetic - PMP *ti(ŋ)kas

swift, strong, energetic, fast - PMP *bakas

energy

raw energy, animal appetite - PMP *ganas

engaged

engaged, pledged to be married - PWMP *tunaŋ

engagement

involvement, engagement, business - PPH *labut

enough

satisfied from having eaten enough, satiated - PAN *besuR

satisfied from having eaten enough, satiated - POC *bosuR

satisfied from having eaten enough, satiated - PAN *bisuR

satisfied from having eaten enough; satiated - PWMP *busuR₃

sufficient, enough - PPH *sapat₂

ensemble

a percussive musical instrument or ensemble: the gamelan - PWMP *kulintaŋ

enshroud

burial shroud; to enshroud a corpse - PMP *saput₁

ensign

banner, ensign - *(loan)

ensnared

be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true - PMP *kena₁

Entada

a vine: Entada scandens - PWMP *baluRu

entangle

entangle, snarl, tie up, wind around, wrap - POC *pisi₁

hook on to something; entangle - PMP *saqebit

entangled

entangled, caught up in, involved, embroiled - PWMP *saŋkut

entangled, trapped - POC *sogo

enter

descend, enter - POC *solop

enter - PPH *suquk

enter - PAN *pasuk

enter, penetrate - PMP *dusuk

enter, penetrate - PWMP *hacuk

enter, penetrate - PAN *sejep

enter, penetrate - PMP *selep

enter, penetrate, insert - PWMP *hasuk

enter, penetrate; bold, of persons - PMP *tama₂

enter, penetrate; bold, of persons - PMP *tamaq₂

enter, penetrate; to set, of the sun - PMP *surup₁

insert, penetrate, enter - *-suk (or *suquk?) (root)

press into, penetrate; enter crouching; drive in stakes - PMP *usuk

to enter - PMP *p<um>asuk

to enter, penetrate, pierce - PAN *s<um>uksuk

entice

entice - *(noise)

entice, persuade - *(noise)

entrapped

be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true - PMP *kena₁

enumerate

count, enumerate - PPh *huyáp

envelop

disappear behind something that envelops or blocks the view - PAN *lipuC

go around, envelop, surround - PWMP *l<um>iput

envious

envious, jealous - PMP *buRehuʔ

envious, jealous - PCEMP *buRu₂

envious, jealous - PWMP *qiRih

jealous, envious - PPh *imún

envy

envy - *(near)

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ep

epilepsy

epilepsy - PWMP *babuy₂

Epinephelus

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PMP *kuRapu

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PWMP *kuRapuq

kind of striped or spotted marine fish, grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PMP *keRteŋ

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eq

equal

border on, neighbor; peer, equal - PWMP *sidiŋ

equal in dimentions - PWMP *repeŋ

equal in height or length - PPH *tepeŋ₂

equal, equivalent - PWMP *bali₂

same, equal, like - PWMP *pada

uniform, equal to - *(loan)

various, suitable, equal - *(loan)

equal in weight

equal in weight - *(loan)

equally

equally, without distinction - PWMP *pada pada

with no difference, equally to both - PMP *sama-sama

equisetifolia

a shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia - PMP *aRuhu

a shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia - POC *aRu

a shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia - PMP *qaRuhu

tree sp., Casuarina equisetifolia - *(loan)

equivalent

equal, equivalent - PWMP *bali₂

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er

Erechtites

a plant: Erechtites spp. - PAN-F *Sina

erect

drive in, erect, as a piling - PMP *uzeg

erect, construct - PWMP *maŋ-baŋun

erect, of the penis - PPh *utúg

erect, stand upright - PWMP *ma-baŋun

stand erect - PMP *ti(n)zeg

stand erect - *-zeg (root)

stand erect - *-zer (root)

upright, erect - PMP *tenzeg, te(n)dek

wake someone, rouse someone from sleep; erect something, put something in an upright position - PMP *baŋun₂

erection

construction, erection of something - PWMP *paŋ-baŋun-an

eremita

Bismarck scrub fowl: Megapodius eremita - POC *kikau

Bismarck scrub fowl: Megapodius eremita - POC *kipau

Eriobotrya

loquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa - PAN-F *Ritu

Erioglossum

a plant with toxic properties, Erioglossum edule or Lepisanthes rubiginosa - PWMP *kalayu

eroded

crumbling, eroded; landslide, cave-in - PPH *tebág

erratically

to walk or move unsteadily, erratically - POC *tibaŋ

error

error, mistake; fault, offense - PWMP *ka-salaq-an

make a mistake, commit an error, be wrong about something - PWMP *maR-salaq

to blame, accuse of error or fault; to punish - PMP *pa(ka)-salaq

wrong, in error (of behavior); miss (a target); mistake, error, fault - PMP *salaq₁

eruption

wart; cyst; non-purulent skin eruption - PMP *buteliR

wart; cyst; non-purulent skin eruption - PCEMP *butiR

wart; cyst; non-purulent skin eruption - POC *putiR

Erythrina

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *dapdap₁

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - POC *rarap

a tree: Erythrina spp. - PMP *dedap

a tree: Erythrina spp. - PPH *sabaŋ₂

tree sp.: Erythrina indica - *(noise)

tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *depdep

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es

escape

cornered, unable to escape - PMP *sukul₂

cornered, unable to escape - POC *jukul₁

exude or escape, of air, gases or similar substances (?) - PMP *heŋaw

run away, flee; flight, escape; fugitive - PMP *pa-laRiw

run, run away, flee, escape - PAN *laRiw

escaping

sound of escaping air - *-pus₂ (root)

sound of escaping air, etc. - PMP *pes

escort

accompany, escort - PAN *S<um>ateD

accompany, escort - PMP *h<um>ateD

accompany, escort - *(noise)

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PMP *hateD

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PEMP *ated

accompany, escort; send, return - PAN *SateD

escort, accompany - PAN *ma-SateD

escort, accompany (imperative) - PAN *SateD-an

escort, accompany (imperative) - PMP *hateD-an

person who leads or escorts another; means of leading or escorting - PWMP *paŋ-hateD

escorted

be escorted, be delivered - PWMP *hateD-en

was escorted or brought; person escorted, thing brought - PWMP *h<in>ateD

escorting

person who leads or escorts another; means of leading or escorting - PWMP *paŋ-hateD

esculenta

cultivated taro: Colocasia esculenta - PAN-F *Cali

taro: Colocasia esculenta - PMP *tales

taro: Colocasia esculenta - POC *talos

esculentum

bracken, edible fern that grows by rivers: Athyrium esculentum - PAN *paheku

esp

crumbs of food, esp. rice - PPH *muhmuh

young, esp. of vegetation - PWMP *bataq

essence

essence, best part - *(loan)

estuaries

large catfish that lives in river estuaries: genus Arius - PWMP *tambaŋuŋu

estuary

estuary, harbor - *(loan)

estuary, mouth of a river - PMP *naŋa₁

estuary, river mouth - *(loan)

estuary, shore near the mouth of a river - PMP *sabaŋ₁

inside area, estuary - PPH *luqúb

mouth of a river, estuary - PMP *binaŋa

mouth of a river, estuary - PCEMP *naŋa₃

mouth of a river, estuary - PMP *minaŋa

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eu

Eugenia

mountain apple: Eugenia spp. - PPH *makúpa

Euphorbiaceae

a tree: Macaranga spp., Euphorbiaceae - POC *koka

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ev

evade

avoid, evade (as people one does not wish to be with) - PPh *iwas

dodge, evade, avoid - PWMP *qilag

evaporate

dry up, evaporate - PMP *maja

ebb tide; coral reefs and sandbanks exposed at low tide; evaporate, dry up, of water in cooking, in a river, etc. - PMP *qeti₁

evaporate - PWMP *ma-huab₂

evaporate, dry up - PPh *hebás

evaporate, dry up - PMP *tuquR

to evaporate - PPH *s<um>eŋaw

to evaporate, cause to dry up - PPh *maR-hebás

even

complete; even (of numbers) - PWMP *genep

drawn, tied, even in score - *(loan)

even - PPH *ŋaniq

flat, even, level - PWMP *palpal₂

flat, even, level - PWMP *parpar

flat, level, even - PMP *dapaR

flat, level, even - POC *rapaR

more (intensive), even more, moreso; surplus - PWMP *laluq

more (intensive), even more, moreso; surplus; to worsen (as an illness) - PWMP *lalu₁

even if

although, even if - *(loan)

evening

afternoon, evening - POC *paka-Rapi

afternoon, evening; yesterday - POC *Rapi

evening (?) - POC *ka-Rabiqi

evening, night - PAN *Rabi-an

late afternoon, evening; evening meal - PAN *Rabiqi

late afternoon, evening; evening meal; yesterday - PMP *Rabiqi

evergreen

an evergreen tree with decorative flowers: Cynometra ramiflora L. - PMP *namut

an evergreen tree, probably Acacia confusa - PAN-F *tuquN

every

daily, every day - PMP *qalejaw-qalejaw

each month, every month, monthly; for months - PMP *bulan-bulan₂

every night, happening every night - PPH *R<in>abiqi

every night, happening every night - PAN *Rabi-Rabi

finished, used up; all, every one - PWMP *qabiq

finished, used up; all, every one - PWMP *qabis

nightly, every night - PMP *beRŋi beRŋi

everything

something; anything; everything - PMP *apa apa

evil

bad, evil - PPh *iba₂

bad, evil - PMP *ma-zaqat

bad, evil; ugly - PMP *zaqat

bad, evil; ugly - PWMP *zaqet

evil spirit, vampire, witch - *(loan)

evil, harm, disaster - *(noise)

plot evil - *(noise)

reciprocate good or evil - PWMP *baras

to answer, retaliate; reciprocate good or evil - PAN *bales₁

eviscerate

gut a fish, eviscerate - PWMP *ebuq

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ex

ex

1pl ex oblique - PAN *amen

1pl ex oblique - PWMP *ameq

exact

exact, precise - PWMP *tepet

exact, precise - *(loan)

examine

cunning; spy on, examine - PPH *sikap₁

inspect, examine - PWMP *indaŋ

see, examine, look at closely - PWMP *iliŋ₂

see, examine, look at closely - PWMP *hiliŋ

test, assay, examine - PWMP *uzi

to test, try, examine - PPH *subuk₂

example

base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother - PMP *puqun

example - *(loan)

to follow instructions, follow an example; carry along, give in, allow something to happen - PWMP *tuRut

exasperated

exasperated, exasperating - PWMP *sera

exasperating

exasperated, exasperating - PWMP *sera

excavate

a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers - PAN *kalih

a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers - PMP *kali₂

cavity, pit, den; to excavate a pit - PMP *baŋbaŋ₃

to dig up, excavate, as tubers - PAN *k<um>ali

excavated

dug out, excavated - *(noise)

exceed

exceed - PWMP *lawan₂

exceed, excess - PWMP *la(m)paw

exceed, surpass, go beyond - PWMP *lalaw

exceed; excessive - PPH *lábis

surpass, exceed - PMP *liu₁

surpass, exceed, overdo - PPH *lepaw₃

except

besides, except - PWMP *laban₁

except, other than; another, different - PPH *sabáliq

excess

eat too much, be cloyed, overfull, tired of something through excess; bored - PWMP *sáwaq

exceed, excess - PWMP *la(m)paw

excess, surplus - PAN *labiq

excess, surplus - PWMP *lebiq

excess; excessive - PCMP *lesi

excess; more than; surpass - PMP *labi

in excess, overabundant; surplus - PPH *saway

to cloy, satiate, do something to excess and so lose interest - PPH *s<um>áwaʔ

trim, cut off excess - PWMP *Ri(ŋ)kas

excessive

exceed; excessive - PPH *lábis

excess; excessive - PCMP *lesi

to go past, go beyond, be excessive - PPH *lampás

exchange

change, exchange; repeat, return; again - PMP *baliw₅

change, exchange; repeat, return; again - PPh *baliw-an

exchange - PPh *palit

exchange - *(near)

exchange barter - *(loan)

money, payment, medium of commercial exchange - PCEMP *matay₂

sell, give in exchange - PWMP *pa-beli

to barter, purchase by exchange - POC *poli-a

excitement

exclamation of pain, fear, excitement, etc. - PMP *qi₁

for the chest to tighten in excitement or fear; for the heart to pound - PPH *kebá

passion, excitement - *(loan)

sexual arousal, sexual excitement - PAN *qeCuR

sexual heat, sexual excitement - PMP *telaq₂

sexual heat, sexual excitement - POC *tolaq

squeal, as in excitement - POC *koŋe

excl

1pl. excl. genitive, our - PMP *m-ami

1pl. excl. genitive, our - PAN *n-ami

1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we (exclusive) - PAN *ami

1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we (exclusive) - PAN *k-ami

1pl. excl. nominative, we - PAN *i-ami

1pl. excl., we - PMP *kam-ami

exclaim

shout, exclaim - POC *pela pela

to exclaim in pain, distress, etc. - PWMP *maŋ-aduq

exclamation

dehortatory exclamation - PWMP *anaŋ

exclamation - POC *ui

exclamation - *(noise)

exclamation (probably of affirmation or confirmation) - PAN *qia

exclamation of acknowledgement, surprise, etc. - PMP *qu₁

exclamation of annoyance, surprise, etc. - PAN *aya₁

exclamation of astonishment, fright, etc. - PMP *qina

exclamation of joy or sorrow - PCEMP *qaué

exclamation of pain - *(near)

exclamation of pain or surprise - PWMP *ajiq

exclamation of pain, distress, etc. - PMP *aduq

exclamation of pain, fear, excitement, etc. - PMP *qi₁

exclamation of pain; ouch! - PPH *ananay₁

exclamation of surprise - POC *awa

exclamation of surprise, etc. - PMP *ihi

exclamation of surprise, etc. - PAN *ua₁

exclamation of surprise, pain, etc. - PMP *iqi

exclamation of wonder, disgust, etc. - PAN *i₁

exclamation of wonder, pain, etc. - PMP *inda₁

exclamation to express surprise, call attention, etc. - PMP *uy

exclamation to express surprise, call to a friend, respond to a distant call, etc. - PMP *huy

exclamation, interjection - PMP *a₃

exclamation: ah!, oh!, alas! - PWMP *abá

interjection or exclamation - PMP *ba₂

interjection or exclamation to call attention or answer a call - POC *oe

interjection, exclamation of surprise, incredulity, etc. - PAN *ai₂

exclusion

gulp down food, gorge on one food to the exclusion of others - PWMP *lunlun₂

exclusive

condylous bone, bone of fauna exclusive of fish - PWMP *tuqelaŋ

condylous bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish - PAN *CuqelaN

condylous bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish - PMP *tuqelan

Excoecaria

a tree: Excoecaria spp. - PWMP *buta buta₂

excoriated

to peel off skin, bark or leaves; excoriated, decorticated, defoliated - PWMP *laklak

excrement

feces, excrement - PAN *Caqi

feces, excrement - PMP *taqi

feces, excrement - PMP *taqay

feces, excrement - POC *taqe₂

feces, excrement - POC *take₂

excreta

feces, excreta - PAN *Caki

feces, excreta - PMP *taki

excuse oneself

excuse oneself; greeting - *(loan)

exemplar

model, exemplar - PWMP *tulad-an

exert

exert strength or effort - PWMP *elet₂

exhalation

breath exhalation - *(noise)

exhausted

exhausted - PWMP *haŋak

exhausted - *(noise)

exhausted - *(noise)

fatigued, exhausted - PWMP *lesu₃

tired, exhausted - PWMP *pagel

tired, weak, exhausted - PPH *lutuy

to grow weak or exhausted - PWMP *l<um>esu

weak, exhausted - PAN *lutay

exhaustion

throb with pain or exhaustion - PPH *seŋet-seŋet

exist

be, exist, have; not be, not have - PWMP *wada-i

be, exist, have; not exist, not have - PWMP *wada-q

be, exist, have; wealthy; not exist, not have - PMP *wada

existential

negative existential: there is none - PAN-F *uka₁

exorcise

purify ritually, exorcise - PWMP *lukat₁

expanding

swollen, expanding outward - PWMP *kembaŋ

expanse

gaping expanse - PPh *waŋwáŋ

open space, expanse of land or water - PWMP *bawaŋ

expected

month of expected childbirth (?) - PPh *ka-bulan-an

expectorate

to spit, expectorate - PMP *supaq

expedition

headhunting expedition - PWMP *pa-ŋáyaw

expel

drive off, chase away, expel - PAN *buRaw

drive off, chase away, expel - PPh *buRaw-en

drive off, chase away, expel - PWMP *maŋ-buRaw

drive off, chase away, expel - PPh *maR-buRaw

puff, blow, expel air rapidly, as in using a blowgun - PMP *putput₂

expenditure

expense, expenditure - *(loan)

expense

expense, expenditure - *(loan)

expenses - *(loan)

experience

experience fear - *(noise)

hurt, frightened, or discouraged by previous bad experience - PWMP *zera

recall or drag up disagreeable past experiences - PWMP *uŋkat

experiment

experiment - *(noise)

explicitly

state explicitly, stipulate - PWMP *tandes

explode

explode - POC *botu

explode; explosion (as of a volcano) - PMP *betuʔ₁

exploding

make an exploding sound - PPh *pa-betuʔ

exploit

take advantage of a situation or opportunity, exploit an advantage - PPH *sambut₁

explosion

explode; explosion (as of a volcano) - PMP *betuʔ₁

expose

expose to fire - PPH *maR-daŋdaŋ

expose to the heat of a fire or the sun - PPH *i-da(ŋ)dáŋ

expose to the heat of a fire or the sun - PWMP *maŋ-daŋdaŋ

expose to the sun, dry in the sun - PPh *belaj

expose to the wind - PMP *pa(ka)-haŋin

to burn, expose to fire - PPH *siq(e)láb

to open, uncover, expose - PMP *buka

to uproot, expose by uncovering - PPH *lukat₂

turn up at the edge, expose the bottom side - PWMP *lukab

exposed

ebb tide; coral reefs and sandbanks exposed at low tide; evaporate, dry up, of water in cooking, in a river, etc. - PMP *qeti₁

exposed to the sun - POC *bilac

exposure

nudity, exposure of the body - PWMP *pukas₁

soft through exposure to moisture; sticky - PWMP *luyak

express

exclamation to express surprise, call attention, etc. - PMP *uy

exclamation to express surprise, call to a friend, respond to a distant call, etc. - PMP *huy

state, express in words - PPh *beŋát₂

expressing

indeed; interjection expressing validity to an interlocutor - PPH *ŋani

expression

base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother - PMP *puqun

expression of pity or affection - PMP *ka-qasiq-an

expression of warning: watch out! - PWMP *hatay

expression, as of displeasure or surprise - PPh *ata₂

fart, flatulence; expression of disbelief or denial - PMP *qetut₂

have an angry facial expression - *(noise)

marker of past time in temporal expressions - PAN *ka-₁

stare, look at with fixed expression - PWMP *bulalak

yes; expression of affirmation - PMP *qio

yes; expression of agreement - PMP *heqe

extend

extend both arms sideways - PPH *maR-depa

extend the arms sideways - PPH *i-depa

thrust out, extend forward - PMP *qunzur

thrust out; extend - *-zur (root)

to reach, extend to - PMP *taRus

extended

extended, stretched taut, put under tension - PMP *benteŋ

field hut; temporary shelter used when working for extended periods in fields far from the village - PAN-F *taRuqan

extension

extension to a house (?) - PPH *sibay

extension to house - PWMP *ambiq

extension to house - PWMP *surambi

extension to house - PWMP *surambiq

extent

draw a bow to its full extent - PAN *biaC

width, extent across - PMP *beraŋ

external

external part of something - PWMP *dapuR dapuR

extinction

extinction - PWMP *ripur

extinguish

douse a fire, extinguish a fire with water; to hiss, as water on fire - PMP *sebuh

douse a fire, extinguish a fire with water; to hiss, as water on fire’ - PAN *sebuS

extinguish a fire - *(noise)

strike, beat; pierce; kill; extinguish (a fire) - POC *punuq₃

throw at, hit, strike with a sharp object; kill; extinguish (a fire) - PMP *bunuq₂

to extinguish, douse a fire - PWMP *padem

to extinguish, douse a fire - PAN *padeŋ

to extinguish, douse a fire - PWMP *pideŋ

extinguished

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

extra

extra, surplus, in addition to - PWMP *kapin

extract

extract the pith from the sago palm - PMP *saku₁

knock anything hollow so as to extract what is inside - PWMP *tuŋtuŋ₁

pierce, as wth a needle; extract by piercing - PMP *suŋkit

pull out, extract - PAN *beNuC

pull out, extract - PMP *benut₂

squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing - PAN *peRes

squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing - POC *poRos

squeeze to extract juice - POC *pite

withdraw, pull out, extract - PAN *SuNus

withdraw, pull out, extract - PMP *hunus

withdraw, pull out, extract - POC *unus

withdraw, pull out, extract - POC *unus-i

extravagant

wasteful, extravagant - PWMP *burus₂

extreme

person who suffers from extreme flatulence - PWMP *paŋ-qetut-an

extremely

lots of worms; crawling with worms, extremely wormy - PMP *qulej qulej

old, of people; very, extremely; to die, dead (euphemism) - PMP *ma-tuqah

stative prefix marking high degree of some quality; extremely; superlative marker - PPH *ka-₃

extremity

extremity, tip - PWMP *utuŋ

tip, extremity - PMP *budu

top of a tree, tip, extremity - PWMP *lawi₂

exude

exude or escape, of air, gases or similar substances (?) - PMP *heŋaw

exult

exult, celebrate (as a victory) - *(loan)

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ey

eye

affliction of the eyes - POC *buta₃

blind in one eye - PPh *buldíŋ

blind in one eye - PWMP *picek

blink, wink, close the eye briefly - PPH *kimit

cataract of the eye - PMP *bileR

cataract of the eye - PWMP *biliR

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - PAN *bulaR₁

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - POC *pulaR₂

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - PWMP *buleheR

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - PPh *bulág

close the eyes - PAN *kezem

close the eyes - PWMP *kidem

close the eyes - PWMP *kizem

close the eyes - PMP *pezeŋ

close the eyes - PWMP *pezem

close the eyes - PWMP *pidem

close the eyes - *(noise)

close the eyes; go out, of a light - PWMP *qezep

eye ailment - *(loan)

eye of a needle - PWMP *mata nu zaRum

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

eye, focal point, center or most prominent part - PAN *maCa

foreign object in the eye - PWMP *puliŋ₂

get a mote in the eye - PAN *buCa-en maCa

get a mote in the eye - PMP *buta-en mata

gummy secretion of the eyes - PWMP *muteq

having defective eyes - PWMP *ileR

human effigy; pupil of the eye - PMP *tau tau

kind of marine fish with large eyes - PPH *mataqan

kind of shellfish; eye of cateye shell - PMP *bulan₁

look over a wide area, search for something with the eyes while standing in place - PPH *nanaw

mote in the eye; blind; blindness - PAN *buCa

mote in the eye; blind; blindness - PMP *buta₁

open the eyes - PMP *kulat₁

open the eyes wide - PMP *bilat₁

open the eyes wide - POC *pilat₁

open the eyes wide - PMP *kilat₂

open the eyes wide - *-lat₁ (root)

open the eyes wide, stare with round eyes - PMP *bulat₁

open the eyes wide, stare with round eyes - POC *bulat₂

open the eyes wide, stare with round eyes - PWMP *maŋ-bulat

open, of the eyes - PMP *bidak

outer corner of the eye - PMP *ikuR ni mata

pupil of the eye - PMP *anak i mata

pupil of the eye - PAN *CaCaw

pupil of the eye (‘child of the eye’) - PMP *anak nu mata

pupil of the eye (‘person of the eye’) - PAN *Cau nu maCa

pupil of the eye (‘person of the eye’) - PMP *tau nu mata

slanted, of the eyes - PPH *siŋkít

stare, fix the eyes on - PWMP *maŋmaŋ

to blink, wink, momentarily close the eye - PWMP *kezep

to rub the eyes - PAN *ledled

visible defect of the eyes - PPh *paqliŋ

wide open, of the eyes - PMP *hilat

eyeball

eyeball - POC *kanoŋ qi mata

eyebrow

eyebrow - PWMP *kiray

eyebrow - PWMP *kiday

eyebrow - POC *paju

eyebrow - PWMP *keniŋ

eyebrow - PWMP *kiniŋ

forehead; eyebrow - POC *pasu₂

raise the eyebrows as a signal to another person; to furrow the brows (?) - PWMP *kindat

eyelash

eyelash - PMP *bulu ni mata

eyelash - POC *pulu qi mata

eyelash - POC *pisi ni mata

eyelash - PPH *pidek₂

eyelash - *(near)

eyelashes

eyelashes - PWMP *qizep

eyelid

dried mucus on the eyelid - PWMP *mismis₁

eyelid - PPH *talukaeb

eyelid - PMP *takub-takub

thin covering, eyelid - PMP *takub

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/22/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_e.htm