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Updated: 9/22/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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F

fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    

fabric

kind of fabric (silk?) - PMP *taluki

face

anger; make a face - *-ŋuC (root)

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

face - PWMP *away₂

face - PCEMP *ijuŋ mata

face (human) - PAN *mujiŋ

face downward - *-keb₂ (root)

face, countenance - PPH *aŋas

face, looks, appearance - PWMP *paras₂

face, looks, appearance - *(loan)

face; front; prow of canoe - POC *nago

fall face downward - PWMP *taŋkeb

fall forward; put face low down - PWMP *subsub

forehead; face - PAN *daqiS

forehead; face - PMP *daqih

forehead; face - PCEMP *raqi

lie face down - PWMP *la(ŋ)keb

lie face downward - PWMP *kureb

lie face downward - *-kem₂ (root)

lie prone, face down - PWMP *tiŋkeb

side of the face, cheek; side planks of a canoe - POC *babaR

to face, confront - PPh *atúbaŋ

to lie face down, prone - PPH *sakeb

to look upward; face upward - POC *tadal

wash hands, feet or face - PMP *hiñaw

wash the hands or face - PWMP *huñaw

face-down

lie prone, face-down - PWMP *leŋkeb

face powder

powder, face powder - *(loan)

face-to-face

facing, face-to-face - PPH *saru

facial

have an angry facial expression - *(noise)

facing

facing, face-to-face - PPH *saru

front, facing part - PMP *qadep

fact

truly, surely, really, in fact - PPH *talagá

fade

fade - *(near)

fade - *(noise)

fade from sight - PWMP *silem

to fade - PPH *kupas

faded

faded - *(noise)

withered, faded - POC *malai

fagiferus

the ‘Tahitian chestnut’: Inocarpus fagiferus or I. edulis - POC *ipi₂

fail

misunderstand, fail to grasp - PWMP *baliŋ₁

failure

to forfeit, lose by failure to meet an obligation - PWMP *leleb

faint

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

faint - *(noise)

to feel light-headed; to faint, lose consciousness momentarily - PPH *lipeŋ

faithful

loyal, faithful, devoted - *(loan)

Falcataria

a plant: Falcataria Moluccana - PCEMP *bail

a plant: Falcataria Moluccana - POC *pail

fall

attack suddenly, fall upon - *(loan)

break up, fall into pieces, scatter, disperse - PWMP *baRbaR

collapse, fall down, as a house - PWMP *rebaq

collapse, fall into ruin - PWMP *rebas

drop off to sleep, fall asleep when one should stay awake - PWMP *ka-tuduR-en

drop, fall - PWMP *sabuq

fall - *-buq (root)

fall - *-tuq (root)

fall away, crumble (as a wall) - PWMP *empas

fall face downward - PWMP *taŋkeb

fall forward; put face low down - PWMP *subsub

fall ill, become sick - POC *masakit-ia

fall in a heap (of a person whose legs collapse) - PPH *lugmúk

fall out - *(noise)

fall with a bang - PWMP *bundak

fall with a dull thud - PMP *tebuk₂

fall with a loud smack - PMP *tebak

fall with a thud - PWMP *lepuk

leak, pour out; loose or crumbling; crumble and fall - POC *pupus

numb; 'fall asleep', of a limb - PPh *banhéd

retreat, fall back - PWMP *undur

rise and fall like the swells at sea - PWMP *humbak-humbak

to fall - PMP *nabuq

to fall - PWMP *dabuq

to fall - PWMP *ma-dabuq

to fall - POC *puka

to fall forward - PPH *sebseb

to fall ill, become very sick - PMP *ma-saki-sakit

to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something - PAN *taktak₁

to fall; drop anchor’ - PWMP *labuq₁

fallen

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

falling

picking of fruit; falling out of teeth - PPH *tipuq

snag, be snagged, caught in something that prevents it from falling - PPH *saq(e)ŋit

sound of ticking, rain drops falling - PPH *tagiktik

to arrest the progress of something by stopping or catching it; to support, keep from falling - PWMP *saŋgaq

fallow

fallow land; secondary forest - PAN *CaluN

fallow land; secondary forest - PMP *talun₁

false

false - *(noise)

false hair - PWMP *buhek buhek-an

fam

a shrub, the Jew’s mallow: Corchorus spp., fam. Malvaceae - PPH *saluyut

fame

fame; famous, renowned - PPH *bantug

to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight - PMP *deŋeR

familiar

accustomed to, familiar with; tame - PAN *najam

accustomed to, familiar with; tame - PAN *ma-najam

familiar with, accustomed to - PAN *lajam

family

a large tree in the mahogany family: Dysoxylum sp. - PWMP *tawa₂

a plant in the banana family, probably Musa textilis - PPH *qaRutay

civet cat and similar small predatory mammals of the family Viverridae - PMP *musaŋ

goatfish, family Mullidae - PMP *tiqaw₂

goatfish, family Mullidae - POC *tiqo

member of the parrot family - PEMP *kaRa

root plant in the ginger family - PWMP *temu₃

famine

famine - POC *soŋe

famous

fame; famous, renowned - PPH *bantug

to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight - PMP *deŋeR

fan

fan - PAN *paid

fan - *(loan)

fan palm: Licuala Rumphii - PMP *biRu

fan palm: Licuala Rumphii - POC *piRu

fan; to fan - PMP *irid₁

fan; to fan - PWMP *kiab

palm used to make hats and fans - PWMP *silad

to blow on, fan - PWMP *maŋ-tiup

to fan - POC *tapo

to wave the hand, to fan oneself - PWMP *kiap

vibrate, fan - *(noise)

fancy

(lit. 'fetch the liver') capture someone's fancy - PMP *qalap qatay

fan-knife

fan-knife - *(loan)

fanning

blowing on, fanning - PMP *tiup

to wave the hand, as in beckoning someone or in fanning oneself - PPH *paypáy

fantail

a bird, the fantail: Rhipidura sp. - POC *takere

far

bottom up, as a person bent far forward toward the ground - PWMP *tuad

far - PAN-F *dawiN

far - PWMP *alawid

far - PMP *zauq

far - POC *sauq₁

far - PMP *ma-zauq

far - PPH *adayuq

far apart, rare - PWMP *ma-laka

far apart; rare - PWMP *la(ŋ)ka

far, distant - PPH *hadawiq

far, far away, far off, distant - PPH *ma-adayuq

field hut; temporary shelter used when working for extended periods in fields far from the village - PAN-F *taRuqan

the high seas, far from land - PWMP *lahud-an

to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete - PMP *teka₁

to distance oneself, move far off - PPH *d<um>ayuq

to see or look at something far away - PPH *taq(e)náw

to see or look at something far away - PPH *tanɁaw-én

until, as far as - PWMP *haŋga

until, as far as; limit, boundary - PMP *qiŋga

up to, as far as - PWMP *taman

up to, as far as, until - PMP *sampay₂

up to, until, as far as - PWMP *qeŋgah

farm

swidden farm in swampy ground - PWMP *latiq

to farm - PWMP *paR-quma

farmer

farmer - PWMP *paŋ-quma

fart

break wind, fart - PWMP *q<um>utút

fart - POC *si₂

fart - POC *siki

fart, flatulence - PAN *qetut₁

fart, flatulence; expression of disbelief or denial - PMP *qetut₂

fart, stomach gas - PCMP *pesu₂

fart; stench - PWMP *bentut

flatulence, fart - PWMP *ketut

flatulence; to fart - PMP *qutut

to fart - POC *pisi₂

to fart, break wind - PWMP *maŋ-qetut

to fart, break wind - PWMP *maR-qetut

to fart, break wind - PAN *pa-qetut

to fart, break wind - PAN *q<um>etut

fashion

move around in a circling fashion - PWMP *liliŋ-liliŋ

pave with stones; pile up, arrange, put in an orderly fashion - PWMP *qatuR-an

pile up, arrange, put in an orderly fashion - PWMP *maŋ-qatuR

to move or touch in an agitated or compulsive fashion - PPH *garaw-en

fast

fast - *(noise)

fast, fasting - *(loan)

quick, fast - PMP *rikas

quick, fast - PWMP *teras

quick, fast - PWMP *kilas

quick, fast - *(near)

quick, fast, agile - PWMP *li(ŋ)kas

swift, fast - PAN *bekas₂

swift, fast, speedy - PPH *kaskas₂

swift, strong, energetic, fast - PMP *bakas

fasten

attach, fasten - PWMP *ta(m)bid

clip used to fasten things together - PPH *siR(e)pit

fasten or tie to - *(loan)

fasten thatch to - PWMP *qatep-i

fasten together by sewing or tying - PAN *kapit

fasten with a rope - POC *sau(rR)

fasten, as with a clip - PPH *lig(e)pít

join, fasten together, probably lengthwise - PWMP *diq(e)pit

pinch, press between; fasten thatch together with slats in roofing a house - PMP *kapit

tie down, fasten by binding - PPH *takéd

tie, fasten together - PMP *sa(ŋ)kit

tighten, fasten firmly - PAN *S<um>eReC

tighten, fasten firmly - PMP *h<um>eRet

to bind, to fasten tightly by tying - PPH *i-takéd

to tie with rope, fasten with rope - PAN *C<um>aliS

fastener

fastener, thing used for fastening or making secure - *(loan)

fastening

a clasp or button, fastening or closing device - PWMP *kaput-an

fastener, thing used for fastening or making secure - *(loan)

fastidious

choosy, fussy, fastidious - PMP *ma-piliq

fasting

fast, fasting - *(loan)

fat

fat - *(loan)

fat - *(noise)

fat, corpulent - PWMP *ma-tabeq

fat, grease; ointment - PMP *meñak

fat, grease; ointment - PMP *miñak

fat, grease; sweet taste - POC *moña-moñak

fat, grease; tasty - PWMP *tabeq

fat, oil; oily, tasty - PCMP *bura

fat; sweet, tasty - POC *moñak₂

gain weight, get fat(ter) - POC *tubu₃

grease, oil, fat - PAN *SimaR

grease, oil, fat - PMP *himaR

lard, fat, greasy scum on the surface of liquids - PPH *laneb

fatal

coup-de-grace, fatal blow - PPH *lunsan

fate

luck, fortune, fate - *(loan)

father

father - PAN *aba₁

father - PAN *amax

father - PAN *da-amax

father - PMP *t-amax

father - PMP *baba₂

father - POC *baba₆

father - PMP *papa₂

father (ref.) - PAN *si amax

father (ref.) - PAN *ta-amax

father (voc.) - PMP *amá-ŋ

father (voc.) - PMP *ama-q

father (voc.) - PMP *ama-i

father, uncle, elder sibling - *(noise)

father’s brother - PAN *mamah

father’s sister, father’s sister’s husband - PMP *aya₂

father's brother - PWMP *kam-ama-an

father's sister, possibly address term - PMP *ema₁

father's sister, possibly address term - PMP *ema-ʔ

mother's sister, father's sister - PWMP *kam-ina-en

parent’s younger sibling, junior uncle; a young child’s term of address for his father, vocative of *ama - PMP *mama

relationship of father and child - PWMP *paR-ama-en

relationship of father and children - PWMP *paRi-amax

relationship of father and children - POC *paRi-tama

to be father and child - PAN *maR-amax

treat like a father - PMP *pa(ka)-amax

young child’s term for father - POC *mama

fatherhood

fatherhood - PWMP *ka-ama-en

fathom

fathom - PAN *depa

fathom - POC *ropa

fathom - POC *ŋapa

to measure by fathoms - PWMP *depa-en

to measure by fathoms - PWMP *depa-i

to measure in fathoms - PPH *man-depa

to span with outstretched arms, measure in fathoms - PWMP *d<um>epa

fatigued

fatigued, exhausted - PWMP *lesu₃

fatty

fatty hump on the back of a buffalo, etc. - PWMP *kulasa

greasy, fatty - PWMP *liñab

fault

accuse someone, find fault with someone (?) - PWMP *ma-ñalaq

curse, hex; to bewitch; to criticize, find fault with - PPH *pintas

error, mistake; fault, offense - PWMP *ka-salaq-an

have faults, be at fault (?) - PWMP *ka-salaq

to blame, accuse of error or fault; to punish - PMP *pa(ka)-salaq

to blame, assign fault to (?) - PWMP *salaq-an

wrong, in error (of behavior); miss (a target); mistake, error, fault - PMP *salaq₁

fauna

condylous bone, bone of fauna exclusive of fish - PWMP *tuqelaŋ

condylous bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish - PAN *CuqelaN

condylous bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish - PMP *tuqelan

TOP      fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    

fe

fear

avoid someone out of fear - PWMP *ketiR

be struck by fear; a state of fear or worry - PWMP *ka-takut-an

cry out, as in pain or fear - PMP *beŋit

exclamation of pain, fear, excitement, etc. - PMP *qi₁

experience fear - *(noise)

fear - PAN *takut

fear; fearful, afraid - POC *matakut

for the chest to tighten in excitement or fear; for the heart to pound - PPH *kebá

provoke fear (?) - PWMP *pa-nakut

to fear, be intimidated by - POC *nopo-nopo

to frighten, cause to fear - PMP *paka-takut

fearful

apprehensive, fearful - PWMP *gigir

fear; fearful, afraid - POC *matakut

fearful, afraid - PAN *ma-takut

fearful, cowardly - PAN *ma-talaw

timid, fearful; coward - PAN *talaw

feast

distribute, as food at a feast - POC *wa(n)se

feast - *(loan)

feather

body hair, feather - POC *lamu₂

body hair, feathers - PPh *bulbúl

body hair, fur, feathers, floss on plants - POC *pulu₃

body hair; fur; feather; down; antenna of insect or crustacean; spikes of sea urchin; floss on plant skins, color; type, kind - PCEMP *bulu₁

body hair; fur; feather; down; floss on plant stems; color; type, kind - PMP *bulu₁

chicken feathers - PMP *bulu ni manuk

delouse; preen the feathers - PWMP *siksik₁

delouse; preen the feathers - PWMP *ma-ñiksik

feather vane on an arrow - PPH *pulád

feathers - POC *pulu ni manuk

feathers under chin of rooster, chin whiskers - PWMP *bauk

fighting cock with greenish feathers on light background - PWMP *hizaw

hair, feather - POC *ipu-

kind of cockatoo with red neck feathers - POC *sipiri

kind of cockatoo with red neck feathers - POC *supiri

long feathers used for personal adornment - PAN-F *RiNaS

long tail feathers of bird or rooster - PMP *lawi₁

lose hair or feathers - *(noise)

molting, losing hair or feathers - PWMP *ka-butbut-an

remove hair or feathers - PPh *hi-bulbul

shabby looking, in disarray, of the feathers of fowls - PWMP *kuyut

shabby looking, in disarray, of the feathers of fowls - PWMP *kuyu

something that resembles a tail feather (?) - PWMP *lawi-lawi

FeB

parents’ elder sibling: FeB, FeZ, MeB, Me - PMP *ua₂

parents’ elder sibling: FeB, FeZ, MeB, MeZ - PMP *uaq

feces

feces, excrement - PAN *Caqi

feces, excrement - PMP *taqi

feces, excrement - PMP *taqay

feces, excrement - POC *taqe₂

feces, excrement - POC *take₂

feces, excreta - PAN *Caki

feces, excreta - PMP *taki

fed

to feed, be fed - PAN *pa-kaen-en

was fed by someone - PAN *p<in>a-kaen

feeble

weak, feeble, unable to perform - PPH *ma-kápuy

weakness, debility; feeble, unable to perform - PPH *kápuy

feed

bait; fodder; to feed animals - PCEMP *paniŋ

feed - *(noise)

food, to feed - PWMP *maŋan

food; to feed - POC *paŋan

food; to feed - PMP *paŋan

food; to feed, nourish - PMP *p<in>aŋan

to feed - PAN *pa-kaen

to feed, be fed - PAN *pa-kaen-en

to feed, catch with bait - PWMP *maŋ-umpan

feeding

feeding trough - PWMP *paluŋ₁

feeding trough - PWMP *paluŋ-an

feeding trough - PWMP *paluŋ-en

pet animal, animal that is tamed by humans feeding it - POC *paŋan-i

feel

be lazy, feel lazy - PPH *tamad-an

be or feel cold - POC *pout

breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break - PMP *nihawa

feel affection or compassion for - PWMP *maR-qasiq

feel fit, healthy - PMP *se(ŋ)ger

feel in the dark, grope - PAN *kapkap

feel oppressed - PWMP *siqir

feel sad about, deplore - PWMP *iruq

feel with the feet, as in finding clams under the sand - PPH *sedsed₃

feel, grope - PAN *SapSap

feel, grope - PMP *haphap

feel, grope - PAN *SapuSap

feel, grope - PMP *hapuhap

feel, grope - PMP *zemak

feel, grope - *-kap (root)

feel, hold in the hand - PWMP *gamak

feel, touch - PPh *hipuq

itch, feel itchy - PAN *gaCel

itch, feel itchy; sexually stimulated - PMP *gatel

sulk; feel remorse - PPH *tampuq

to feel light-headed; to faint, lose consciousness momentarily - PPH *lipeŋ

to feel sorry for (?) - PWMP *ma-sáyaŋ

to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight - PMP *deŋeR

to know (a person), recognize, be acquainted with; to feel, perceive - PAN *kilala

to pity, have mercy on, feel compassion for - PMP *ma-qasiq

uncomfortable feeling; feel bored, or uneasy about something - PPH *saw(e)qa

feeling

harbor bad feelings toward - *(noise)

harden one's feelings, become inured - PWMP *kalis

have a painful feeling in the teeth, as when eating something very sour or cold, or hearing a screeching or scratching sound - PWMP *ŋilu-an

inner self, feelings, mind - POC *loto

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - POC *ralom

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - PMP *dalem

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

to abate, of strong feelings - PMP *puqas

uncomfortable feeling; feel bored, or uneasy about something - PPH *saw(e)qa

feet

feel with the feet, as in finding clams under the sand - PPH *sedsed₃

press feet against - PPH *sikád-an

push with the feet; press feet against, set feet firmly to prevent being moved - PPH *sikad

stamp the feet - PWMP *anzak

stamp the feet; step, leap - PWMP *tanzak

thresh grain with the feet - PWMP *maŋ-Riqek

thresh with the feet (as rice) - PAN *iRik

thresh with the feet, as rice - PAN *qiRik

tie the feet together - PMP *rimpuŋ

to bind, tie the hands or feet - PWMP *Rapus-en

to bind, tie the hands or feet, as a person in detention, or an animal to be slaughtered; restraining rope - PMP *Rapus

to stamp the feet - PWMP *tandak

wash hands, feet or face - PMP *hiñaw

feign

feign, pretend - *(noise)

somewhat blind; feign blindness - PWMP *buta buta₁

feline

wild feline - PWMP *qari-maquŋ

Felis domesticus

cat, Felis domesticus - *(loan)

fell

to fell trees - PMP *tebaŋ

to fell trees, as in preparing a swidden - PWMP *ma-nebeŋ

felling

felling of trees, as in preparing a swidden - PWMP *tebeŋ

notch, as in a tree that has been cut prior to felling - PWMP *baŋbaŋ₇

fellow

fellow villager - PPh *ka-hili-an

fellow villager, fellow community-member - PMP *anak i banua

mate, companion, fellow; together with; alike, the same as; aligned or in good order - PWMP *sama

female

female - PAN *bahi

female - POC *pine

female breast - PAN *nunuh

female breast - POC *nunu₃

female breast; udder - PAN *susu₁

female genitalia - PMP *teli

female genitalia (child’s word?) - PAN *pipi₂

female genitalia, vulva - PWMP *pukak

female, of animals - PAN *taina

female, of animals - PMP *tina

female, woman - PAN *ma-b<in>ahi

female, woman - POC *mapine

female, woman, wife; female of animals - PMP *bahi

maid, female servant - *(loan)

mother, mother's sister; female animal - PMP *ina

mother, mother's sister; female animal; largest member of a set - PCEMP *ina

old woman; female, of animals - PPH *bakes₂

term of address for females - *(noise)

woman, female - PCEMP *bai

woman, female - PAN *ba-bahi

woman, female - PCEMP *b<in>ai

woman, female - *(noise)

woman; female - PMP *ba-b<in>ahi

woman; female - POC *pai-p<in>ai

woman; female; sister (male speaker) - POC *papine

fence

enclosure; palisade around a village; fence around a planted tree or cultivated field - PMP *pager

fence - PPH *labat

fence, barrier; enclosure - PWMP *tendek₂

fence, wall - PAN *qalad

fence, wall - POC *qalar

fence; animal pen; fortification - POC *bala₄

fence; animal pen; fortification - POC *baRa

fence; animal pen; fortification - POC *bara₄

neck shackle to prevent an animal from passing through fences - PMP *pagal

fencepost

wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail, dowel, or fencepost - PAN *pasek

fennel

anise, aniseed, fennel: Foeniculum vulgare - PWMP *hadas

fermented

fermented rice - PWMP *asiʔ

kind of fermented drink - PWMP *kilaŋ

rice wine; yeast; fermented rice; fermented rice cake - PWMP *tapay

fermenting

substance used in fermenting palm wine - *(noise)

fern

a climbing fern: Lygodium circinatum - PWMP *ituq

a fern: Lygodium spp. - PMP *nituq

bracken, edible fern that grows by rivers: Athyrium esculentum - PAN *paheku

fern - PWMP *paku

fern sp. - PMP *qaRsam

fern used for tying and binding - POC *qasam

kind of fern - PMP *aResam

tree fern - PMP *apuni

tree fern - PMP *puni₁

ferocious

wild, ferocious - PWMP *buas

ferox

hairy eggplant: Solanum ferox Linn. - PPH *basula

fertile

fertile, of soil - PMP *lemek₂

satiatiated, full (of the stomach after eating); fertile, bring forth plentifully, abundance of food - POC *masuR

fertility

spoiled, gone to waste; never realized, of potential for fertility - PPH *baqug

festivals

to sing in unison, as in traditional festivals - PWMP *ñañuy

fetch

able to fetch, get, take, reach - PPh *maka-alap

fetch water, scoop up water - PMP *asu₂

fetch water, scoop up water - PMP *qasu₁

fetch, get, take - PAN *alap

fetch, get, take - PWMP *maŋ-alap

fetch, get, take - PWMP *um-alap

fetch, get, take - PWMP *alap-en

fetch, get, take - PAN *alaq₁

fetch, get, take - PWMP *maŋ-alaq₁

fetch, get, take - PAN *um-alaq

scoop up in a net; fetch water by scooping up - PMP *saruk

take, get, fetch, obtain; marry - PAN *ala

to fetch water - PPH *saR(e)qeb

to fetch water (for drinking) - PPH *sakedú

to fetch water (for drinking) - PPH *sakedu-en

to fetch, get, take - PAN *um-ala

fetched

be fetched, be taken - PAN *ma-ala

fetched, gotten, taken - PWMP *ka-alap

fetched, gotten, taken - PWMP *ka-alap-an

place where something is fetched - PWMP *paŋ-alap-an

taken, fetched - PWMP *ma-alaq

fetching

vessel for fetching water from a well, objects from a pit, etc - PMP *timba

fetid

fetid, foul-smelling - PMP *qaŋiR

fetter

fetter, restriction - PWMP *letak₂

fever

fever, illness - PWMP *damdam

nightmare, fever - *(near)

few

a few, several (?) - POC *pica pica

few - *(near)

interrogative of quantity: how much?, how many?; adjective of indefinite quantity: some, several, a few - PAN *pijax

little, few, small in amount - PAN *dikit

little, few; small amount - PWMP *etik

small in quantity, few; trifling amount - PMP *emit

small, little; few - PAN *qitik₁

small; few - PMP *bitiq₁

small; few - POC *bitiq₂

FeZ

parents’ elder sibling: FeB, FeZ, MeB, Me - PMP *ua₂

parents’ elder sibling: FeB, FeZ, MeB, MeZ - PMP *uaq

TOP      fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    

fi

fiber

Hibiscus tiliaceus, a tree the bark of which provides a fiber much used in making cordage; to lash, tie, bind - POC *paRu

a jointed creeper which yields fiber used to make cordage and fishnets - POC *kabe₁

a plant yielding useful fibers: Thespesia populnea - PMP *balu₁

a plant, the bast fibers of which are used in binding and plaiting: Maranta dichotoma - PWMP *banban

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root - PMP *uRat

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; sinew; tendon; ligament; fiber; tough, sinewy - POC *uRat

bundle of thread or plant fibers - PPH *lábag

carded kapok fibers - PWMP *paŋ-busuR

hairy, covered with hair or fibers - PWMP *ma-bulu

hunting bow; bow-like instrument used to card kapok fiber - PMP *busuR

husk, coarse hair or fiber - *-but₂ (root)

husk, fiber - *-nut (root)

kind of tree with bark that yields a vine-like fiber - PPH *lánut

plant fiber; coconut husk, fibers of areca nuts, fibers covering mango seeds, etc. - PWMP *sabut

plant fibers - PMP *Runut

string, rope, cordage made by twining fibers - PPH *lúbid

to card kapok fibers with a bow-like instrument - PWMP *maŋ-busuR

tree with fiber used to make fish nets - POC *tail

twist fibers into twine - PPH *lubid-en

fibrous

be fibrous - PPh *bunut-en

fibrous and dry to the taste - PPH *sagapsap

fibrous husk of coconut - PMP *benut₁

fibrous integument at the base of coconut fronds - POC *kaka₃

fibrous material at base of coconut frond; bag or lining made from this - PPh *epit₂

fibrous roots, as of grass - PMP *Ramut

Ficus

Ficus sp. - POC *kamwa-kamwa

a shrub with edible figs: Ficus tinctoria - POC *taŋa₃

a tree: Ficus sp. - PWMP *bunut₂

a tree: Ficus sp. - PPH *tebéR

a tree: Ficus sp. - PPH *labnuR

a tree: Ficus spp. - PMP *qaRaʔ

tree or shrub with leaves used for sandpaper: Ficus sp. - PMP *qampelas

tree with leaves like sandpaper: Ficus spp. - PMP *qa(m)pelas

fidgety

restless, fidgety - *(loan)

field

bird clapper (to frighten them from fields) - *(loan)

boundary between adjacent rice fields - PAN-F *Naqeji

cultivated field, garden - PMP *q<in>uma

enclosure; palisade around a village; fence around a planted tree or cultivated field - PMP *pager

field hut - PAN *sapaw

field hut in the rice fields - PMP *kubu

field hut, granary - PMP *lepaw₂

field hut; temporary shelter used when working for extended periods in fields far from the village - PAN-F *taRuqan

field made by dibbling - PPh *hesek-án

frighten off birds or animals from the fields; place used to frighten off birds or animals from the fields - PWMP *buRaw-an

interjection used to halt a carabao in the fields - PPH *luá

paddy bug, foul-smelling insect that preys on rice in the field - PAN *baŋaw

rice bird, small bird found in rice fields - PPH *máya

rice field - PPh *ka-hemay-an

rice in the field; rice plant - PAN *pajay

scarecrow device in paddy field - *(near)

to cut grass or weeds, as in preparing a field for planting - PPH *sipsíp

trample earth, turn into mud, as a paddy field prior to planting - PWMP *lucak

uncultivated field, open grassland; field covered with sword grass (Imperata cylindrica) - PWMP *padaŋ

fierce

fierce, intense, as of appetite or temper - PAN *garaŋ₁

fiery

fiery, on fire - PWMP *ma-hapuy

fifth

fifth (ordinal numeral) - PAN *Sika-lima

fifth (ordinal numeral) - PMP *ika-lima

fifth in order - PWMP *kuma-lima

fifty

fifty - PMP *lima ŋa puluq

fifty - PAN *ma-lima-N

fig

a shrub with edible figs: Ficus tinctoria - POC *taŋa₃

a tree: the banyan or strangler fig - PPh *balítiq

a tree: the banyan or strangler fig - PMP *nunuk

banyan, strangler fig - PEMP *qayawan

fight

fight - POC *(bp)ala₂

fight - *(noise)

provoke a fight - PWMP *atis

short-tempered, hot-headed, quick to fight - PMP *buteŋ

to make war on, fight with - POC *palu₄

to quarrel, argue, fight - PPH *áway

fighters

touching, adjacent, as fighters presenting a united front - PWMP *sundul

fighting

fighting cock (?) - PWMP *paŋ-bulaŋ

fighting cock with greenish feathers on light background - PWMP *hizaw

tie an artificial spur to the leg of a fighting cock - PWMP *maŋ-bulaŋ

fight with fists

box, fight with fists - *(loan)

figure

carved wooden figure, charm used to provide magical protection - PMP *uduq₂

filaments

hairy filaments of certain plants, husk - PMP *bulut₁

hairy filaments of certain plants, husk - POC *bulut₂

filching

pilfering, filching, stealing small amounts - PPH *kúpit

file

a file, rasp - POC *kikir

file, line, row - *(loan)

rasp, file - PAN *kiRkiR

rasp, file - PMP *parud

to file, rasp - PMP *kiDkiD

filed

scraped or filed down - PPh *iit

fill

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - PMP *bulit₁

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - POC *bulit₂

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - PWMP *bulit-en

dam, dyke, embankment; to fill a hole with earth; to heap up - PMP *tambak₂

fill a hole with earth; cover something with a heap of earth - PMP *bunbun

fill it (imper.); be filled - POC *qutup-ia

fill the mouth with food or water - PAN *qumuR

fill with liquid - POC *qutup-i

fill with water - PMP *tanum₁

stuff or fill with material - PWMP *zelzel

submerge a container to fill it - PEMP *qutub

submerge a container to fill it - POC *qutub

to caulk, fill a hole - PWMP *pakal

to fill - PWMP *maŋ-isiʔ

to fill - PWMP *maŋ-penuq

to fill - PWMP *penuq-an

to fill, cause to become full - PMP *pa-penuq

to fill, cause to become full - POC *pa-ponuq

to fill, make complete - PWMP *p<um>enuq

to fill; fill it! - PWMP *penuq-en

to provision, fill up - PWMP *penpen₁

to replace someone, fill a vacancy - PPH *pulih-an

to stuff, pack, fill up - POC *sosok

filled

bear fruit; fruitful, filled with fruit - PMP *ma-buaq

fill it (imper.); be filled - POC *qutup-ia

filled - PPH *na-penuq

filled - PWMP *p<in>enuq

filled with - PMP *ma-isiʔ

filled with air, bloated - PWMP *haŋin-an

soaked, saturated, full of liquid; crowded or filled to overflowing - PMP *teReb

swollen, filled out - PMP *kembuŋ

what is filled; container - PWMP *isiʔ-an

filler

whatchamacallit, filler for word that cannot be recollected - PWMP *kua₂

filling

act of filling? - PWMP *ka-penuq-an

fillip

jump repeatedly; knock or fillip repeatedly - POC *pitik-pitik

snap the fingers; flick with the finger, fillip - PAN *betik₁

to fillip, flick with the finger - PMP *pitik₁

to fillip, flick with the finger - POC *pidik

filter

to strain, filter - PWMP *tapis₃

filth

dirt filth - *(noise)

dirt, filth - *(noise)

fin

ear; various types of bracket fungi; pectoral fins of a fish - POC *taliŋa

fin - *(noise)

fin of a fish - PPh *p<al>ikpik

finch

kind of small bird, probably finch or sparrow - PWMP *pipiqit

type of finch, rice bird - PWMP *ampeRij

type of finch, rice bird - PWMP *apiRit

find

accuse someone, find fault with someone (?) - PWMP *ma-ñalaq

curse, hex; to bewitch; to criticize, find fault with - PPH *pintas

divine, find by divination, tell fortunes - *(loan)

finding

feel with the feet, as in finding clams under the sand - PPH *sedsed₃

fine

fine - *(loan)

fine dust, airborne dust - PMP *sapuk

fine particles, powder which results from pounding grains, etc.; pulverize grains - PMP *bekbek₁

fine, of the mesh of a fish net - POC *mata riki

pound into fine particles - PWMP *maŋ-bekbek

pulverized, pounded fine - *-dek₂ (root)

smooth, fine (of texture) - PWMP *linis

fineness

thinness, fineness of texture - PWMP *taRpis

finest

dress up, be decked out in one’s finest clothing - PWMP *kena₂

fine-toothed

fine-toothed lice comb - PWMP *sujud

finger

be picked up or carried dangling from the fingers - PWMP *bitbit-en

crotch, fork of the legs; span, fork of the fingers - PEMP *saŋa₁

crotch, fork of the legs; span, fork of the fingers - POC *saŋa₁

finger - *(near)

finger (?) - POC *bwisi

finger (lit. 'fruit of the hand') - PMP *buaq ni lima

finger, toe - PMP *taŋan

finger, toe - POC *taŋan

flick with the finger - PPH *lituk₂

flick with the finger; sound of flicking - PWMP *letik

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

hook with fingers - PPH *labit

hook, clasp; grasp with fingers - *-bit₁ (root)

index finger - PWMP *pa-nuzuq

index finger - PMP *t<an>uzuq

index finger - PAN *Cuzuq

little finger - PWMP *iŋkiŋ

little finger - PWMP *k<al>iŋkiŋ

little finger, pinkie - PMP *anak i lima

little finger, pinky - PMP *kiŋkiŋ₃

little finger, pinky - PWMP *kaliŋkiŋ

pick out with the fingers - PCMP *kisi

pick up or carry dangling from the fingers - PWMP *maŋ-bitbit

pick up or carry dangling from the fingers - PWMP *maR-bitbit

pick up with the fingers - PWMP *pundut

pinch, take up with the fingers - PWMP *zepit

pointer, index finger - PWMP *tu-tuzuq

poke, as with finger - PPH *tundek

pull at body part; hold something dangling from the fingers - PMP *bitbit₂

roll with fingers - *(near)

snap the fingers; flick with the finger, fillip - PAN *betik₁

snap the fingers; the sound produced by snapping the fingers - PWMP *ketik

snap, as the fingers or a slingshot - PAN *peCik

squeeze between thumb and finger - PWMP *pizet

squeeze between thumb and finger - PWMP *pi(n)zit

squeeze between; pinch, take between fingers - PMP *Ri(m)pit

take with fingers - *(noise)

take with the fingers - PWMP *cubit

tap, touch, or reach in with the finger - PWMP *kuhit

to fillip, flick with the finger - PMP *pitik₁

to fillip, flick with the finger - POC *pidik

to pinch, hold between the fingers - PPH *pidut

fingernail

claw, talon, fingernail - PAN *kuSkuS₁

claw, talon, fingernail - PMP *kukuh

claw, talon, fingernail - PAN *k<aN>uSkuS

claw, talon, fingernail - PMP *k<an>uhkuh

crush lice with the fingernails - PMP *tindes

crush lice with the fingernails - POC *tidros

fingernail, toenail, claw - PPH *sulu₂

fingernail, toenail; claw - PWMP *silu₂

fingertips

carry dangling from the fingertips - PMP *binit₁

hold with the fingertips - PCMP *biqit

finish

do to one’s utmost, do completely, to the finish - PPH *lubus

end, complete, finish - PAN *tapus

end, conclude, finish - PMP *te(m)pus

end, finish - *-pus₁ (root)

end, finish; used up, finished - PMP *upus

end, terminate, finish, use up - *-bus (root)

finish - *(noise)

finish, use up - PWMP *timpus

stop, end, finish, complete; finished, used up - PMP *qeti₃

stump, stub; finish, complete - PMP *epus

to complete, finish - PMP *tu(m)pus

to end, finish, complete something - PWMP *putput₃

to finish, consume, use up - PPH *ubus

finished

all; finished - PAN *amin

end, finish; used up, finished - PMP *upus

finished, completed; all gone - PWMP *puspus₁

finished, gone - PWMP *ebus

finished, gone - PMP *qubus

finished, used up - POC *qoti

finished, used up; all, every one - PWMP *qabiq

finished, used up; all, every one - PWMP *qabis

stop, end, finish, complete; finished, used up - PMP *qeti₃

fire

(what) was warmed by a fire - PWMP *d<in>aŋdaŋ

apply fire to - PWMP *maŋ-hapuy-i

broil; warm oneself or something near a fire - PAN *daŋdaŋ₁

build a fire (?) - PWMP *maR-hapuy

click or clink together, as stones in making fire - PPH *santik

cook over a fire - PMP *baŋi₂

douse a fire, extinguish a fire with water; to hiss, as water on fire - PMP *sebuh

douse a fire, extinguish a fire with water; to hiss, as water on fire’ - PAN *sebuS

douse a fire, extinguish a fire with water; to hiss, as water on fire’ - PAN *sebuS

dry near a fire - *-gaŋ (root)

expose to fire - PPH *maR-daŋdaŋ

expose to the heat of a fire or the sun - PPH *i-da(ŋ)dáŋ

expose to the heat of a fire or the sun - PWMP *maŋ-daŋdaŋ

extinguish a fire - *(noise)

fiery, on fire - PWMP *ma-hapuy

fire - PAN *Sapuy

fire - PMP *hapuy

fire - PEMP *api

fire - POC *api

fire saw; tie a tool around the hand or some other fixture - PPH *kulili

firebrand; unconsumed wood in a fire; charred wood - PWMP *aliten

firewood, what is used to make a fire - PMP *pa-hapuy-an

firewood, what is used to make a fire - POC *papian

flaming, on fire - PMP *tutuŋ-an

fuel for fire, anything used to start a fire - PPH *hátuŋ

glow or flame of fire - POC *pururuŋ

head louse; sparks from a fire; water striker (insect that walks on water) - PMP *kutu₁

heat or dry something near a fire - PWMP *gaŋgaŋ

hollow cane for blowing on the fire - PWMP *heyup heyup

ignite; kindle; set fire to - PPH *súlsul

kindle, light a fire, set ablaze - POC *bula₁

make fire with a fireplow - POC *suka₃

place something near a fire - PAN *daŋdaŋ-an

push, slide or glide forward, as in pushing wood into a fire, or storming the enemy - PWMP *suruŋ

put in or over a fire - PWMP *alub

roast food over a fire - PAN *CuNuh

roast food over a fire - PMP *tunu

roast food over a fire - POC *tunu

roast food over a fire - POC *tunu tunu

roast over a fire, toast - PWMP *paŋgaŋ

rub two things together, create friction, as sticks to make fire, or the hands - PMP *kusu₁

set alight, apply fire to - PWMP *culcul

set fire to - *(noise)

set fire to, smoke out - PMP *sunuR

set on fire - PWMP *maŋ-hapuy

set on fire, burn - PWMP *tutuD

sparks from a fire - PMP *buŋa ni hapuy

sparks of fire - PWMP *anak i hapuy

start a fire - PWMP *epan

stir up a fire - *(noise)

tinder; start a fire - PPH *lublub

to be dried near a fire or by the sun - PWMP *daŋdaŋ-en

to burn or set a fire under to smoke out - PPH *sunúg-en

to burn, expose to fire - PPH *siq(e)láb

to dessicate, parch near a fire - PWMP *salay

to extinguish, douse a fire - PWMP *padem

to extinguish, douse a fire - PAN *padeŋ

to extinguish, douse a fire - PWMP *pideŋ

to hiss or steam, of water touching a fire - PAN *s<um>ebuS

to hiss or steam, of water touching a fire - PWMP *s<um>ebuh

to ignite, set fire to - PMP *tutuŋ

to light a fire - PPH *temtem

to smoulder, of a fire - PWMP *ŋutŋut₃

to warm by a fire - *-daŋ₂ (root)

warm oneself or something near a fire; heat or dry near a fire - PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

firebrand

firebrand; unconsumed wood in a fire; charred wood - PWMP *aliten

firefly

firefly - PWMP *kalim-petpet

firefly - PMP *qali-petpet

firefly - PWMP *salim-petpet

firefly - PWMP *hapuy hapuy₁

firefly - POC *qali-popot

firefly - PMP *teptep

firefly - POC *totop

fireplace

fireplace, hearth - PWMP *paR-hapuy-an

fireplace, hearth - PWMP *hapuy-an

fireplow

make fire with a fireplow - POC *suka₃

tree with wood used to make fireplows - POC *qalo₂

firewood

chop up, as firewood - PAN-F *k<um>etun

firewood - *(noise)

firewood, what is used to make a fire - PMP *pa-hapuy-an

firewood, what is used to make a fire - POC *papian

one who gathers firewood (?) - PWMP *pa-ŋahiw

to gather wood, as for fuel; gather firewood - PWMP *ma-ŋahiw

wrap up; bundle, bundle of firewood - POC *pokos

fireworks

fireworks - *(loan)

firm

constipation; packed hard and firm - PMP *etel

firm, solid - *(loan)

firm, steady, strong - PWMP *pageq

hard, firm - POC *patu₃

steadfast, firm - *(loan)

steadfast, firm - *(noise)

tight, firm - PAN *ma-SeReC

tight, firm - PMP *ma-heRet

tighten, make firm, of a binding - PWMP *maŋ-heRet

firmly

bind firmly - PWMP *tekes

bound firmly - PMP *i(ŋ)kes

encircle, wrap firmly around - *-kes (root)

hold firmly - *(noise)

hold firmly, concentrate - PWMP *pegeŋ

hold tightly or firmly - POC *tabe

push with the feet; press feet against, set feet firmly to prevent being moved - PPH *sikad

stick to, adhere firmly - PMP *kukuq

tighten, fasten firmly - PAN *S<um>eReC

tighten, fasten firmly - PMP *h<um>eRet

wrap firmly around, encircle tightly - PMP *likes

wrap firmly around, encircle tightly - POC *likos

first

affines of the first ascending or zero generation - POC *puŋao

base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother - PMP *puqun

collateral consanguine of the first ascending generation - PAN *tata₁

first - PWMP *ika-isa

first - PPh *unah-an

first cousin - PPH *pinsan

first of anything; first fruits; prime, new, untainted, virgin - PWMP *buŋaR

first of anything; first fruits; prime, new, untainted, virgin - PMP *buŋas

first of anything; new, untainted, virgin - PWMP *buŋaR-an

first, before, anterior in time - PMP *huna

first, before, anterior in time - PAN *(q)uNah

first, foremost; to precede - POC *muqa

foundation, first part? - PWMP *p<am>uqun

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

go first - PMP *um-unah

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born - PMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - PCEMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - POC *qulu

precede, go or be first; earlier, former - PMP *unah

still, yet, til now, first (before doing something else) - PAN *pa₁

to do or go first - PMP *h<um>una

to do or go first; to lead - PAN *(q)<um>uNah

to do or go first; to lead - PMP *(q)<um>una

to unite, unify; first cousin - PWMP *pisan

first-born

first-born child, eldest child - PPH *paŋánay

first-born, eldest child (lit. 'head child') - PMP *anak a qulu

flower, blossom; to flower, bear flowers; yield a benefit (as interest on a loan); first-born child; cotton; vulva (refined or evasive), skin rash, prickly heat; speckled (of fish); kidneys - PMP *buŋa

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born - PMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - PCEMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - POC *qulu

fish

a fish, large emperor: Lethrinus sp. - POC *kasika

a fish, small emperor - POC *koraŋa

a fish, the banded sweetlips, Plectorhinchus spp. - POC *lau

a fish, the barracuda - POC *qono₁

a fish, the climbing perch: Anabas testudineus - PWMP *puyu₁

a fish, the climbing perch: Anabas testudineus - PWMP *puyu-puyu

a fish, the emperor: Lethrinus spp. - POC *sabutu

a fish, the emperor: Lethrinus spp. - POC *surup₂

a fish, the fusilier: Caesionidae sp. - PMP *sulig

a fish, the fusilier: Caesionidae sp. - POC *sulik

a fish, the rainbow runner: Elagatis bipinnulata - POC *kamaRi

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod - PWMP *kurapu

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PMP *kuRapu

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PWMP *kuRapuq

a fish, the sea-bream: Sparus hasta - PWMP *bakukuŋ

a fish, the skipjack tuna or bonito - POC *qatun

a fish, the snapper: Lutjanus spp. - PWMP *bambaŋen

a fish: Lethrinidae spp. - POC *kulabo

a fish: Lethrinus spp. - POC *susul

a fish: Scomberoides sp. - PMP *daRi

a fish: barracuda sp. - PMP *qalu

a fish: sardine spp. - PWMP *tamban

a fish: snapper sp. - PPH *maŋaRat

a fish: the big-eyed scad Trachurops crumenophthalmus - PMP *qatulay

a fish: the mullet - PAN *kaNasay

a fish: wrasse spp. - PMP *mamin

a large marine fish, the jackfish or trevally - PMP *bilu-bilu

a large marine fish, the jackfish or trevally - PMP *pilu

a marine fish sp. - PPH *kubalan

a marine fish, probably the silver bream - PWMP *kapas kapas

a marine fish: probably the horse mackerel - PWMP *talaŋ-talaŋ

a plant used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PMP *bunat

a plant used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - POC *punat

a plant with root used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PPH *tub(e)liq

a plant with roots that are pounded and put in rivers to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PAN *tuba

a sea fish, the rudderfish: Kyphosus cinerascens - PPH *hilek

a sea fish: the mullet - PWMP *balanak

a white fish, the tarpon: Megalops cyprinoides - PMP *bulan-bulan₁

a white fish, the tarpon: Megalops cyprinoides - POC *pu-pulan

be laden with roe, of a fish or crustacean - PAN *piRaS-an

be laden with roe, of a fish or crustacean - PMP *piRah-an

be smoked by someone, of meat or fish - PPh *tapa-en

butterfly, moth; butterfly fish - PMP *baŋbaŋ₂

butterfly; butterfly fish: Chaetodon spp. - POC *bebe

catch fish by damming a stream - PPH *sáRep

catch fish or shrimp with the hands - PWMP *gamaʔ

catch fish with a dragnet - PWMP *ka-puket

condylous bone, bone of fauna exclusive of fish - PWMP *tuqelaŋ

condylous bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish - PAN *CuqelaN

condylous bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish - PMP *tuqelan

conical bamboo basket trap for fish - PAN *bubu₂

conical bamboo basket trap for fish - POC *pupu₂

conical bamboo basket trap for fish - PWMP *buʔu

cook fish or meat wrapped in banana leaves - PWMP *paqis

cover trap for fish or crustaceans - PPH *salakeb

damsel fish - PMP *mutu₁

disturbed, of water agitated by fish - PPH *kambuR₂

dried fish - PPH *tuyúq

ear; various types of bracket fungi; pectoral fins of a fish - POC *taliŋa

edible marine fish - PWMP *balaki

edible marine fish - PMP *kuRaw

fin of a fish - PPh *p<al>ikpik

fine, of the mesh of a fish net - POC *mata riki

fish - PAN *Sikan

fish - PMP *hikan

fish - PEMP *ikan

fish - *(noise)

fish corral - PWMP *bakelad

fish corral - PMP *belat₂

fish corral - POC *polat

fish corral - PWMP *belet

fish eagle, fish hawk - POC *taragau

fish eggs, roe - PWMP *bihed

fish eggs, roe - PPh *bujiq

fish hook - PPh *banuit

fish net - *(loan)

fish net float - PEMP *uton

fish poison: Derris spp. - POC *tupa₂

fish scale - PAN *quSeNap

fish scales (collective?) - PMP *qunap qunap

fish sp. - PWMP *abu abu

fish sp. - PWMP *bagahak

fish sp. - PWMP *balidaq

fish sp. - PWMP *balida

fish sp. - PMP *baŋbaŋ₅

fish sp. - POC *baba₅

fish sp. - PWMP *baŋkulis

fish sp. - PWMP *bedbed

fish sp. - PAN *Ciqaw

fish sp. - POC *bunaₐ

fish sp. - PWMP *bunuR₂

fish sp. - PWMP *butaq₁

fish sp. - PWMP *ijuŋ-an

fish sp. - POC *buli buli

fish sp. - PMP *muquŋ

fish sp. - PWMP *katambak

fish sp. - PMP *katawan

fish sp. - PWMP *kulambar

fish sp. - POC *balai₁

fish sp. - POC *balaŋi

fish sp. - POC *bali₆

fish sp. - PMP *palata

fish sp. - PWMP *qabu qabu

fish sp. - POC *qulua

fish sp. - PMP *qutud

fish sp. - PWMP *Riŋaw

fish sp. - PWMP *sepet₂

fish sp. - PMP *turiŋ

fish sp. - POC *(bp)ala(bp)ala

fish sp. - POC *lapa₁

fish sp. - POC *sasau

fish sp. - *(noise)

fish sp. - *(noise)

fish sp. - *(noise)

fish sp. (presumably sea-bream) - PWMP *bakuku

fish sp., possibly murrel - PWMP *buzuk

fish sp., slipmouth: Leiognathus sp. - PPH *sapsap₂

fish sp.: mullet sp., Neomyxus chaptalii - PMP *qawas

fish sp.: the milkfish, Chanos chanos - PMP *qawan

fish sp.: the milkfish, Chanos chanos - PMP *qawa₁

fish sp.: tuna - *(loan)

fish stew - *(loan)

fish with a thin, elongated body: long tom - PMP *selu

fish with poisonous dorsal spines - PMP *lepu

fish with poisonous dorsal spines - POC *lopu

fish with poisonous dorsal spines - PMP *lepuq₂

fish with poisonous dorsal spines - POC *lopu

fish wrapped in banana leaf and cooked over hot coals - PWMP *p<in>aqis

fish; accompaniment to rice - PPH *sedaq

fish-corral, screen trap for fish - PWMP *banelat

go fishing; fish at low tide (?) - PMP *qeti₂

gut a fish, eviscerate - PWMP *ebuq

k.o. small fish - PMP *teRi

kind of brown fish - PSHWNG *iap

kind of ebony or persimmon tree with fruits that are pounded and used to stupefy fish: Diospyros spp. - PPH *kanúmay

kind of fish net or trap - PWMP *siqud

kind of fish net or trap - PWMP *tuaD

kind of fish or crab trap - PWMP *bintul

kind of fish or crab trap - PWMP *bintur

kind of fish or eel - PPH *palú

kind of fish trap - PWMP *sihud

kind of freshwater fish - PWMP *paqit₁

kind of freshwater fish - PWMP *zuluŋ

kind of large, edible marine fish - PWMP *kakap

kind of marine fish - PWMP *benti

kind of marine fish - PWMP *punti₂

kind of marine fish - PPH *bayaŋ₂

kind of marine fish - PPH *talakituk

kind of marine fish - POC *koŋa

kind of marine fish - PWMP *pahuq₂

kind of marine fish with large eyes - PPH *mataqan

kind of marine fish, probably gizzard shad: Anodontostoma spp. - PWMP *kabasi

kind of small fish, probably sardine or anchovy - PMP *paya

kind of striped or spotted marine fish, grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PMP *keRteŋ

large fish, probably grouper - POC *kalia

last compartment in a fishtrap, place where fish are caught - PWMP *bunuq-an₂

long fishing line with many hooks; to fish with such a line - PPH *kitáŋ

marine fish sp. - PWMP *ki(k)kik

marine fish sp. - POC *kuRo

marine fish sp. with venomous dorsal spines, Rabbitfish: Siganus punctatus - PWMP *kiteŋ

marine fish with thorny skin - PMP *utik

marine fish: sea perch - PWMP *kaReteŋ

open the mouth wide, gape; gaping; opening of a bubu fish trap, basket, etc. - PMP *ŋaŋa₃

parrot fish: Scarus spp. - PPH *mulmúl

pickled fish - *(loan)

place where fish or meat are smoked - PWMP *tapa-an

plant used as fish poison - POC *(bp)una

porcupine fish - PMP *taRutum

porcupine fish, puffer fish, Diodon sp. - PMP *taRutuŋ

preserved meat or fish - PMP *kenas

puffer fish sp. - PMP *buntal

puffer fish sp. - POC *puntal

puffer fish, globe fish: Tetrodon lunaris - PWMP *butiti

remove the bones from meat or fish - PWMP *ma-nuqelaŋ

roe, eggs of fish or crustacean - POC *piRa₁

roe, eggs of fish or crustacean - PAN *piRaS

roe, eggs of fish or crustacean - PMP *piRah

roe, eggs of fish or crustacean - POC *biRa

roe, fish eggs - PAN *biRaS

scale of a fish - PMP *enap

scale of fish - PMP *quhenap

scale of fish, lizard or snake; shell of turtle or tortoise - PMP *siksik₂

scale of fish, shell of turtle - POC *qunap₂

scale of fish, turtle shell - PCEMP *qunap₁

scales of fish or snake - PCEMP *qunep

scavenger fish: Lethrinus spp. - POC *oka oka

scoop up, as with a fish net - PAN *kauS

sea fish sp. - PWMP *maŋali

small marine fish - PPh *baranbán

small marine fish: sardine or anchovy - PWMP *bilis

small reef fish, perhaps damselfish - POC *tokuku

small river fish - PWMP *palaw

smoked fish or meat - PAN *C<in>apa

smoked fish or meat - PMP *t<in>apa

spine on fish or plant - PWMP *siqit

stench of fish or blood - *(noise)

stench of spoiling fish - PAN *qaŋeRiS

stench of spoiling fish - PMP *qaŋeRih

stench, odor, as of fish - PWMP *laŋ(e)qes

stringing of beads, skewering of fish, etc. - PMP *tuhuR

sun-dried fish - *(loan)

thorn, spine, as on a fish - PPH *tenek₂

thorn, splinter, fish bone - PMP *duRi

thorn, splinter, fish bone - POC *suRi₁

thorn; splinter; fish bone - POC *ruRi

tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn - PMP *hipun₁

tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn - PEMP *ipun₁

to be agitated, of water, as when fish swarm - PPH *kabuR

to be scaled, as fish - PWMP *siksik-an

to chop, to mince, as meat, fish or vegetables preparatory to cooking - PWMP *sagsag₂

to cook fish in a rich, spicy sauce - PWMP *paŋat

to eat raw fish or meat - PPH *kilaw-en

to fish with a dragnet - PWMP *ma-muket

to fish with a dragnet - PWMP *pa-muket

to fish with a dragnet - PWMP *pa-puket

to fish with a wickerwork basket trap - PWMP *maŋ-bubu

to fish with hook and line - PWMP *ma-ŋawil

to jump, as fish in the water - PWMP *lumpat

to pickle, preserve meat or fish - PAN-F *umaS

to salt meat or fish for storing - PPH *lamuq

to scale a fish - POC *qunap-i

to scale a fish - POC *qunap-ia

to scoop up, as with a fish net - PAN *k<um>auS

to smoke fish or meat for preservation - PAN *Capa

to smoke fish or meat for preservation - PMP *tapa₁

to smoke fish or meat for preservation - PWMP *man-tapa

to string fish, etc. - *(noise)

to string, as fish or beads - PPH *tuhuk

to stun fish with plant poison - PAN *t<um>uba

to stun fish with plant poison - PWMP *tuba-en

to stun fish with plant poisons - PMP *pa-tuba

to stupefy fish with natural plant poisons - PWMP *ma-nuba

trap for fish or eels - *(near)

tree with fiber used to make fish nets - POC *tail

trident harpoon or fish spear - PWMP *sarapaŋ

trigger fish: Balistes sp. - POC *bubu₇

unicorn fish, Naso spp. - PMP *qumi

unicorn fish, Naso spp. - PMP *qumay

unicorn fish: Acanthurus unicornis - PMP *taRaq₂

unicorn fish: Naso unicornis - POC *monoRe

fish-corral

fish-corral, screen trap for fish - PWMP *banelat

fishhook

fishhook - PPh *beŋuit

fishhook - PPh *bunwít

fishhook - PAN *kawil₁

fishhook - *(loan)

spread apart, as the legs or an unbent fishhook - POC *pokaŋ

spread apart, as the legs or an unbent fishhook - PWMP *bukaŋkaŋ

spread apart, as the legs, or an unbent fishhook - PMP *be(ŋ)kaŋ

spread apart, as the legs, or an unbent fishhook - PWMP *bikaŋkaŋ

to hook, as with a fishhook - PPh *saqebit-án

fishing

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root - PMP *uRat

casting net for fishing - PAN *tabukul

fishing line - PMP *hapen

fishing line - PEMP *apen

fishing line - POC *apon

go fishing; fish at low tide (?) - PMP *qeti₂

hook and line fishing - PWMP *pa-ŋawil

kind of large fishing net - PWMP *salambaw

kind of long rectangular fishing net - POC *kupwena

long fishing line with many hooks; to fish with such a line - PPH *kitáŋ

use a torch, as in fishing - PWMP *me-ñuluq

fishline

lower or let down, as on a rope; pay out fishline; launch a boat - PMP *huluR

fishnet

a jointed creeper which yields fiber used to make cordage and fishnets - POC *kabe₁

fishnet (type) - *(loan)

fishnet float - PCEMP *tobV

fishnet float - POC *topV

fishnet float - POC *puta

kind of long fishnet - PMP *lawan₁

fish or shrimp sauce

fish or shrimp sauce - *(loan)

fishtrap

last compartment in a fishtrap, place where fish are caught - PWMP *bunuq-an₂

fishy

fishy smell - PMP *laŋ(e)si

fissure

crack, split, fissure - PAN *Celaq

fissure, split in something - PAN *siwaq

split, crack, fissure - PMP *telaq₁

fissured

fissured, slightly cracked - PMP *kaŋeqa

fist

clenched in the fist - PWMP *Ragem

compressed in the fist; what is compressed in the fist, as a ball of rice - PWMP *kepel

fist; hold in the fist - PAN *gemgem

fist; hold in the fist - POC *kokom-i

grasp in the fist - PMP *Re(ŋ)kem

grasp in the fist - *-gem (root)

hold in the fist - PMP *gem

hold in the fist - PWMP *kemkem₁

hold in the fist - PWMP *kugem

hold something tightly in the fist - PWMP *maŋ-Ragem

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; break up, dismantle, demolish - PWMP *bekaj

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; split open, break up, dismantle, demolish - PMP *be(ŋ)kaR

fit

appropriate, suitable, right; fit together; hit the mark - PAN *tama₁

appropriate, suitable; fit together - PMP *tamaq₁

feel fit, healthy - PMP *se(ŋ)ger

fit snugly, as bowstring in arrow notch - PMP *siŋ(e)qit

fit tightly, of clothes - PWMP *silet

tang of a knife, etc. which fits into the haft to attach blade and handle - PMP *utiŋ

to have fits, convulsions - PWMP *sawan-en

fitting

becoming, fitting, appropriate - *(loan)

proper, fitting, appropriate - *(loan)

same kind or type; fitting; well-matched; suitable - PWMP *bagay₁

five

a set or group of five - PWMP *lima-an

divide into five - PPh *paR-lima-en

divide into five (?) - PMP *pa-lima

divide into groups of five - PWMP *maŋ-lima

divide into groups of five - PWMP *maR-lima

five - PMP *ima₁

five - PAN *lima

five - POC *i-lima

five (in counting people) - PAN *la-lima

five by five, in groups of five - PMP *lima-lima

five each, five together - PWMP *taR-lima

five times - PWMP *iŋ-lima

five times - PWMP *ka-lima

five times - PAN *maka-lima

five times - PMP *paka-lima₁

five times - POC *paka-lima₂

fix

stare, fix the eyes on - PWMP *maŋmaŋ

fixed

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

fixed secure - *(loan)

stare, look at with fixed expression - PWMP *bulalak

to bind, tie tightly, probably of tying one thing which is moveable to another which is fixed - PPH *kedked

fixedly

stare, look fixedly - PAN *NeŋNeŋ

stare, look fixedly - PWMP *nuŋnuŋ

stare, look fixedly - *-Neŋ (root)

stare, look fixedly - *-teŋ₂ (root)

stare, look fixedly at - PMP *e(n)teŋ

stare, look fixedly at something - PWMP *teŋteŋ₂

to stare, look fixedly at something - PCMP *tanaRa

fixture

fire saw; tie a tool around the hand or some other fixture - PPH *kulili

TOP      fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    

fl

flabby

flabby - PPH *luylúy

flag

flag - *(loan)

Flagellaria

a vine: Flagellaria indica - PMP *huaR

flaky

flaky skin disease - POC *kaka₁

flame

flame - PWMP *urub

flare up, burst into flame - *(loan)

flicker, of flames - PMP *ilap₁

glow or flame of fire - POC *pururuŋ

living, alive; grow, flourish; fresh; heal, cure, revive, recover; vital principle, soul, spirit; flame - PMP *ma-qudip

red, reddish color of flames - PMP *siRa₂

reddish, color of flames - PMP *siRaq

flaming

flaming, on fire - PMP *tutuŋ-an

flank

side, flank - PWMP *sampiŋ

side, flank - *(loan)

side, flank - *(noise)

flap

beat the wings, flap the wings; sound of flapping - PMP *kapak

beat, flap the wings - POC *kabak

clap, flap, slap - PWMP *epap

flap the wings - PWMP *kepek

flap the wings - PWMP *kipak

flap the wings repeatedly - POC *kaba-kabak

flutter, flap, sound of rapid wingbeats - PMP *berber₁

to clap, flap the wings; sound of clapping or flapping - PAN *pakpak₁

to flap (wings, fins of fish, etc.) - PWMP *kepay kepay

to flap, clash together - PWMP *kibak

to flap, flutter, wave - PWMP *kayab

to slap, flap the wings - PWMP *ma-makpak

to wave, flap - PPH *payapay

flapping

beat the wings, flap the wings; sound of flapping - PMP *kapak

to clap, flap the wings; sound of clapping or flapping - PAN *pakpak₁

flare up

flare up, burst into flame - *(loan)

flash

blink, wink, flicker, flash - PWMP *ki(n)sap

blink; flash - PMP *kimet

dazzle, flash - *(noise)

flash of light - PMP *binaR

flash of lighting - POC *LapaR₂

flash, shine - PMP *ke(R)lap

flash, sparkle - PMP *kilab

flash, sparkle - PMP *kilap

flash, sparkle - *-lap (root)

flash, sparkle, shine - PMP *dilep

flash, sparkle, twinkle - PPH *kimat

glitter flash - *-laŋ₁ (root)

glitter, flash - *(noise)

glitter, flash, sparkle - PWMP *kidelap

shine, flash repeatedly - PMP *kila-kilat

sparkle, flash - PWMP *kizap

sparkle, flash; lustre - PWMP *kizab

to flash, of lightning - POC *pilak₂

to flash, of lightning - PWMP *maR-kilat

to flash, of lightning - *(noise)

to flash, sparkle - PWMP *g<um>ilap

to lighten, to flash, of lightning - PWMP *k<um>ilat

flashing

shine, flickering or flashing light - *-laC (root)

flat

a cover; to cover with a flat surface - PAN *tekep

bring down the flat of the hand on something - PWMP *tepap

broad and flat - PMP *lapad

broad and flat - POC *lapar

broad, flat rock shaped like a plank - PWMP *batu papan

cover with something flat - PWMP *takelap

edge, rim, flat container - *(noise)

flat - PWMP *pipiq

flat - *(loan)

flat - *(noise)

flat (of things that are expected to rounded), flat on one side - PWMP *sapaD

flat and wide - PWMP *de(m)paD

flat or level land - POC *rataR

flat roof - *(noise)

flat surface - *(near)

flat, even, level - PWMP *palpal₂

flat, even, level - PWMP *parpar

flat, flat or level land - PAN *dataR

flat, level - PWMP *ataR

flat, level - PMP *da(m)paD

flat, level - *-paD (root)

flat, level (of ground) - PWMP *pantay

flat, level, even - PMP *dapaR

flat, level, even - POC *rapaR

for the hair to lie down flat - PPH *kepkép₂

kind of porous, white, round and flat coral growth - POC *buŋa₃

level, flat - PMP *pa(n)tar₁

press between two flat surfaces - PMP *liq(e)pit

press between two flat surfaces; to press down, crush - PMP *luqepit

sheet; flat, wide object - PPh *qelad₁

straight, direct; flat, level - POC *wane wane

to make level or flat, as in levelling land - PWMP *maŋ-dataR

flatfish

flatfish, flounder - PWMP *tampar₁

flatten

flatten; press down in order to squeeze in - PWMP *petpet₁

flattened

bamboo which has been split and flattened - PAN *saqsaq

flattened - PWMP *lepap

flattened - PAN *Sapiq

flattened - *-pap (root)

flattened bamboo - *(noise)

flattened bamboo - *(noise)

flattened, as plants to the ground - PMP *hapiq

flat-topped

flat-topped coral head - POC *lababa

flatulence

fart, flatulence - PAN *qetut₁

fart, flatulence; expression of disbelief or denial - PMP *qetut₂

flatulence - *-tut (root)

flatulence, fart - PWMP *ketut

flatulence; to fart - PMP *qutut

noise of flatulence - PWMP *ka-qetut

person who suffers from extreme flatulence - PWMP *paŋ-qetut-an

flava

fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin: Tinea flava or Pityriasis - PMP *panaw₁

flax

linen, flax - *(loan)

flay

to flay, peel back or off, as bark or skin - PCEMP *sisi₃

to skin, flay - PAN *baNiC

to skin, flay - PWMP *panit

flea

chicken flea, itch mite - PWMP *kaRaw₂

flea - PAN *qatimela

flea - PWMP *timel

flee

run away, flee; flight, escape; fugitive - PMP *pa-laRiw

run, run away, flee - PAN *ma-laRiw

run, run away, flee, escape - PAN *laRiw

flesh

coconut growth stage 9: ripe, flesh hardened - POC *kulu₂

flesh - PWMP *asi₁

flesh (of humans, animals, fruits, tubers); contents; blade of a knife; inhabitants, residents - PAN *isi₅

flesh, lean part of meat; grain of wood - POC *pijiko

flesh, lean part of meat; grain of wood - POC *pisiko

flesh, meat - PAN *Sesi

flesh, meat - PMP *hesi

flesh, meat, coconut flesh - POC *kanoŋ

flesh; kernel - POC *kanon₂

incise, make an incision in flesh - POC *tapa₂

pork, flesh of a pig - PPH *lamán

pulpy, fleshy, as a fruit; soft flesh around the seeds of a fruit - PWMP *lunek₁

raised flesh over a wound - POC *pupula

sliver, splinter, foreign body embedded in the flesh - PAN *uNay

swollen, of the flesh - PPh *butúy

thorn in the flesh - PPH *tunay₁

tree with bright yellow fruit that has dry flesh: Lucuma nervosa - PPH *tisaq

fleshy

pulpy, fleshy, as a fruit; soft flesh around the seeds of a fruit - PWMP *lunek₁

flex

bend, flex - PWMP *hutuk

flexible

soft, weak, flexible - PWMP *lemeq

flick

flick with the finger - PPH *lituk₂

flick with the finger; sound of flicking - PWMP *letik

shake off, flick off - PPh *waksí

snap the fingers; flick with the finger, fillip - PAN *betik₁

tap or flick (finger, small implement, etc.) against something - PAN *t<um>iktik

to fillip, flick with the finger - PMP *pitik₁

to fillip, flick with the finger - POC *pidik

to flick or snap - PWMP *labetik

flicker

blink, wink, flicker, flash - PWMP *ki(n)sap

flicker, of flames - PMP *ilap₁

flutter, flicker - PPH *layab

to flicker - PWMP *kezap

flickering

shine, flickering or flashing light - *-laC (root)

flicking

flick with the finger; sound of flicking - PWMP *letik

sound of tapping or flicking (of finger, small implement, etc.) - PMP *tik₁

sound of tapping or flicking (of finger, small implement, etc.) against something - PAN *tik₁

spring up; flicking motion - *-tik₁ (root)

flies

infested with flies, covered with flies - PAN *laŋaw-en

flight

run away, flee; flight, escape; fugitive - PMP *pa-laRiw

running, running away, flight - PWMP *pa-laRiw-an

to fly; flight - PPH *lepad

fling

fling down, dash against - PMP *bantiŋ

flintstone

flintstone - PMP *batu hapuy

flipping

sound of ticking, flipping, light tapping - PWMP *pa(n)tik

float

bob on the surface of the water; float - PPH *kataŋ-kataŋ

buoy, float - PPH *tagaltáw

fish net float - PEMP *uton

fishnet float - PCEMP *tobV

fishnet float - POC *topV

fishnet float - POC *puta

float - PMP *apuŋ

float - PWMP *ga(m)puŋ

float - PWMP *lutaŋ

float - PWMP *qabaŋ₂

float - PWMP *qabaŋ qabaŋ

float - POC *sale sale

float - *-taw (root)

float - *(loan)

float - *(noise)

float, be adrift - POC *mañur mañur

outrigger float - PMP *saRman

outrigger float - POC *saman

sticks that connect the float to the booms of an outrigger canoe - PEMP *patoto

to float - PWMP *la(n)taw

to float - PWMP *le(n)taw

to float - PWMP *umbaŋ

to float - PWMP *lutaw

to float - *-puŋ₂ (root)

floating

floating - PMP *apuŋ apuŋ

floating, adrift - POC *maqañur

tie together, of floating objects - PWMP *lantiŋ

flock

brood, flock, lots of children - PPh *hin-anak-an

flock together - PMP *tapuk₁

gather, flock together - *-puk₃ (root)

group, crowd, flock, school, bunch, cluster - PCEMP *butu₂

group, crowd, flock, school, bunch, cluster - POC *putu, butu

heap, pile, swarm, flock; to swarm, assemble, gather - PMP *ebun

flood

a flood; to overflow, be in flood - PAN *baSaq

a flood; to overflow, be in flood - PMP *bahaq₂

flood - PCEMP *baaq

flood - POC *pāq

flood tide - PPh *atáb

flood tide - PWMP *pasaŋ₄

flood waters - PCEMP *waiR baaq

flood waters - POC *waiR pāq

flood, of sea - POC *loma

floodwaters

floodwaters - PMP *wahiR bahaq

floor

crossbeam supporting floor - *(noise)

floor beam - PWMP *kalasaR

floor of a house - PMP *saleR

make a floor, install a floor - PWMP *saleR-i

plank, board; floor boards of house - PMP *papan

flooring

raised flooring - PWMP *pa(n)duŋ

floss

body hair, fur, feathers, floss on plants - POC *pulu₃

body hair; fur; feather; down; antenna of insect or crustacean; spikes of sea urchin; floss on plant skins, color; type, kind - PCEMP *bulu₁

body hair; fur; feather; down; floss on plant stems; color; type, kind - PMP *bulu₁

flotsam

driftwood; flotsam - PPH *Rabat

flounder

flatfish, flounder - PWMP *tampar₁

halibut, sole, flounder - POC *alali

flour

meal, flour - *(loan)

palm flour - PWMP *natek

rice flour - PPH *tapuŋ

sago flour - PMP *palu₁

flourish

living, alive; grow, flourish; fresh; heal, cure, revive, recover; vital principle, soul, spirit; flame - PMP *ma-qudip

to flourish, of plants - PPH *lagúq

flourishing

luxuriant, flourishing (of plants) - PPH *ma-laguq

flow

current, flow - PMP *qaRus

dam, obstruction of flow - PWMP *tambeŋ

flow - *-liR (root)

flow - *-luR (root)

flow - *(noise)

flow - *(noise)

flow downstream - PWMP *qiliR

flow swiftly - POC *tape-tape

flow through a small opening, of rushing water - PPh *bugris

flow, current - PWMP *iliʔ

flow, stream together - PWMP *uluR

high tide, tidal flow - PMP *Ruab

high tide, tidal flow - POC *Ruap

obstacle; block, obstruct the flow - PWMP *tubeŋ

obstructed, of the flow of water - PMP *sepet₁

place where water flows - PMP *qaliR-an

stanch the flow, as of blood - PWMP *ampet

strong free flow of water - PPh *busuáŋ

to flow - PPh *maR-búlus

to flow - PMP *qaliR

to flow, of water - PMP *saliR

to flow, run, of water - POC *tape₁

to flow, stream, move out rapidly - POC *rere₂

flower

a plant with flowers the shape of a dog's tail, used to treat abscesses - PMP *ikuR ikuR ni asu

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *dapdap₁

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - POC *rarap

a tree with fragrant flowers: Cananga odorata - PMP *kanaŋa

a vine with red flower clusters, the Chinese honeysuckle, Quisqualis indica - PPH *taluluŋ

an evergreen tree with decorative flowers: Cynometra ramiflora L. - PMP *namut

flower - PWMP *bujak

flower - PAN-F *buRay

flower - POC *see

flower - *(noise)

flower spathe of areca palm - PMP *hupiq

flower, blossom - POC *puŋa₁

flower, blossom - PMP *buŋaŋ

flower, blossom - PAN *buŋa

flower, blossom of fruit tree - PPH *sabuŋ₂

flower, blossom; to flower, bear flowers; yield a benefit (as interest on a loan); first-born child; cotton; vulva (refined or evasive), skin rash, prickly heat; speckled (of fish); kidneys - PMP *buŋa

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

ginger plant with fragrant white flower - PPH *kamiá

kind of wild cane with edible flower head - POC *piso₁

strew with flowers, put flowers on - PWMP *buŋa-i

to flower, produce fruit - PWMP *maŋ-búŋa

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; break up, dismantle, demolish - PWMP *bekaj

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; split open, break up, dismantle, demolish - PMP *be(ŋ)kaR

to open, as a flower - PPh *beskag

to open, as a flower - PPh *beskaj

tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *depdep

wilt, droop, as flowers - PWMP *kulay₂

flowering

a flowering plant: Ixora spp. - PPH *santán

flowing

drift on a current, carried away by flowing water - PAN *qañud

flowing water, current - PWMP *seleg

swiftly flowing, of water; heavy, of rain - PMP *deRes

fluid

body fluid from a corpse - PWMP *saRu₂

fluid oozing from a wound, infected sore, or corpse - PWMP *sagu₂

fluid, liquid - *(noise)

thick (of fluids), viscous - *(loan)

flute

bamboo flute - PWMP *suliŋ

bamboo nose flute - PAN *tulani

bamboo nose flute - PMP *tulali

bamboo nose flute - PWMP *turali

flute - *(loan)

play a flute - PWMP *ma-nurali

rice straw; flute made from a rice stalk - PMP *zaRami

flutter

flutter the wings - PMP *kapay

flutter the wings - POC *kape₁

flutter, flap, sound of rapid wingbeats - PMP *berber₁

flutter, flicker - PPH *layab

to flap, flutter, wave - PWMP *kayab

wave, flutter (as a flag) - PAN *watawat

fluttering

onomatopoetic for sound of fluttering, flying - PMP *ber

fly

bluebottle, large fly - PAN *beRŋaw

fly - *(near)

fly (insect) - *-ŋaw (root)

fly off, of solid bits or water droplets - PAN *lecik

fly out, splash, spatter - *-cik (root)

gnat, sandfly, fruit fly - PMP *neknek

horsefly, large biting fly - PWMP *piket₁

maggot, fly egg - PWMP *ias₂

spatter, fly out in all directions - PMP *becik

to fly - PAN *layap

to fly - PMP *Rebek

to fly - POC *Ropok

to fly - *-baŋ₂ (root)

to fly - *(noise)

to fly away - PWMP *tilib

to fly, hurtle through the air - PWMP *lempaD

to fly, soar through the air - PWMP *layaŋ₁

to fly; flight - PPH *lepad

flying

a flying white ant or termite - PMP *dalu₁

bird; any flying creature - POC *manuk

flying - POC *Ropo-Ropok

flying squirrel - PAN-F *lawaR

flying squirrel - PAN-F *lapis

fruit bat, flying fox - POC *bweka

fruit bat, flying fox: Pteropus spp. - PMP *paniki

onomatopoetic for sound of fluttering, flying - PMP *ber

wingbone of flying fox (used in tattooing process) - POC *saRu

wingbone of flying fox, used in tattooing; tattoo - POC *sau₃

fly off

fly off, squirt out - *(near)

TOP      fe    fi    fl    fo    fr    fu    

fo

foam

foam on the surface of water - PMP *bujeq ni wahiR

foam, bubbles - PMP *buseq

foam, bubbles - POC *pusoq

foam, bubbles - POC *puro₂

foam, bubbles - POC *puro puro

foam, bubbles, froth - PAN *bua₁

foam, bubbles, froth - POC *bua

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth - PMP *budaq₁

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth - PAN *bujeq₁

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; bubble up - PCEMP *budaq₄

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; to foam, to bubble; foam at the mouth; fond of talking; type of white bead - PMP *bujeq₂

foam, bubbles; bubble up - POC *buraq

foam, bubbles; bubble up - POC *puraq puraq

foam, bubbles; foaming, bubbling - POC *pucoq pucoq

foam, froth - PAN *buCaq

foam, froth, lather - PAN *puCaq

foam, spume, froth - PPH *lútab

foam, suds - PMP *busa₁

foam, suds - POC *busa₂

froth, foam - PMP *buqiq

to foam, to bubble - PWMP *maŋ-bujeq

to foam, to bubble - PWMP *pa-bujeq

foaming

foam, bubbles; foaming, bubbling - POC *pucoq pucoq

foamy

foamy, bubbly - PMP *ma-bujeq

focal

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

eye, focal point, center or most prominent part - PAN *maCa

focus

instrumental prefix, marker of the instrumental focus - PAN *Si-₁

marker of actor focus - PAN *<um>

marker of actor focus for intransitive verbs, and of inchoatives - PMP *<um>

verbal suffix marking locative focus; nominal suffix marking location - PAN *-an

fodder

bait; fodder - PMP *qumpan

bait; fodder; to feed animals - PCEMP *paniŋ

mix foods, as in preparing pig’s fodder - PWMP *bahuR

Foeniculum

anise, aniseed, fennel: Foeniculum vulgare - PWMP *hadas

foetida

a tall forest tree which emits an unpleasant odor: Sterculia foetida - PMP *bubuR₃

a tree: Sterculia foetida - PMP *kalumpaŋ

fog

dew, mist, fog - PWMP *ambun

dew, mist, fog - PWMP *qembun

drizzling rain, mist; fog - PMP *Rabun

fog, haze, mist - POC *kaput₂

fog, haze, mist; indistinct, blurry - PMP *kabut

fog, mist - POC *oka₁

fog, mist - POC *oke

low cloud, mist, fog - POC *kopu

foggy

foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain - PAN-F *lebleb₁

foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain - PAN-F *ma-lebleb

foil

gilding, gold-foil - *(loan)

fold

a fold or hem; to fold - PWMP *lepiq

bend, fold, folding part of the body; curl up on the ground, of an animal - PMP *leku

carry in the folds of the clothing - PWMP *hambin

coil, curve, bend, fold; to coil, to curve, to bend, to fold - PMP *biŋku

cover; fold over - *-kep₁ (root)

fold - *-pi(q) (root)

fold over - POC *pinu

fold over, fold up - POC *binu

fold the arms over the chest; fold the wings, of a bird - PWMP *kumkum

fold, hem - PWMP *lu(m)pi

fold, hem - PWMP *lupiq

fold, wrinkle - *(noise)

to fold - PMP *piluq

to fold - PPH *tik(e)lup

to fold - PMP *lepet₂

to fold - PMP *lepit₂

to fold - POC *lobi

to fold over - PPH *lapi

to fold over, double - PMP *ta(ŋ)kep₁

to fold, crease - PPH *tupíq

to fold, fold over - PAN *lipet

to fold, hem - PMP *lumiq

to fold, press - PMP *luqemit

folded

carrying vessel made from folded palm leaf sheath - PWMP *timbalaŋ

improvised purse or bag, folded cloth used to carry things - PWMP *puyuŋ

folding

bend, fold, folding part of the body; curl up on the ground, of an animal - PMP *leku

close by folding - *-kum (root)

foliage

foliage, leaves - PMP *dahun-dahun

foliage, leaves - POC *raun-raun

leafy, dense, of foliage - PWMP *ma-dahun

follow

follow a path - PPH *taluntún

follow the edge of a body of water, as in going upstream - PMP *sulsul₁

follow, come after - PCEMP *udi

follow, come after - POC *uri

follow, come after (in sequence) - PWMP *ku(n)tit

follow, go after - *(noise)

follow, obey, agree with - PPH *surut

follow, walk after - PWMP *ayak₁

follow; accompany - PMP *iriŋ₁

follow; drive animals before one - PWMP *maŋ-iriŋ

next; to follow in succession - PPH *sunúd

sail along the coast, follow the coast in voyaging - PMP *siDsiD

to follow - PAN *ikuD

to follow after someone, walk behind - PAN-F *biliN

to follow instructions, follow an example; carry along, give in, allow something to happen - PWMP *tuRut

to follow, copy, imitate - PWMP *suaq

to follow, join with - PMP *ikut

to lead the way; to follow after - POC *suRi₂

to obey, follow orders - PWMP *ma-nuruʔ

follower

follower - PWMP *paŋ-iriŋ

fond

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; to foam, to bubble; foam at the mouth; fond of talking; type of white bead - PMP *bujeq₂

fontanel

fontanel - PWMP *embut-embut

fontanel - PWMP *hubun hubun

fontanel - PMP *hubun₁

fontanel; crown of the head - PWMP *ubun (ubun)

fontanelle

fontanelle - PMP *bubu₄

fontanelle - PWMP *bubun bubun

fontanelle - PWMP *bunbun-an₁

fontanelle; crown of the head - PAN *buNbuN

fontanelle; crown of the head - PMP *bubun₂

food

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PMP *hateD

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PEMP *ated

bite, bitten off, of food - PPH *suŋit₂

boiled foods other than rice - PMP *t<in>anek

boiled foods other than rice? - PAN *t<in>aNek

burnt food which adheres to the pot - PMP *epiq

burnt food which adheres to the pot - PMP *epit₁

chew without intending to swallow, as betel nut; premasticate food to give to an infant; premasticated food - PMP *mamaq

chewed mass of food or betel nut in the mouth - PWMP *sepaq

chopping block used to prepare food - PWMP *saŋkalan

cold, of leftover food; leftovers from a meal - PAN *baSaw

cold, of leftover food; leftovers from a meal - PMP *bahaw

cooled off, as cooked food that has been left to sit too long - PAN *ma-baSaw

crave special foods (of pregnant women) - PWMP *qidam

crumbs of food, esp. rice - PPH *muhmuh

delicacy of pounded foods - *(noise)

distribute, as food at a feast - POC *wa(n)se

edible things, food - PAN *ka-kaen-en

fill the mouth with food or water - PAN *qumuR

food - PWMP *pa-ŋaen

food - *(noise)

food (?) - PWMP *pa-ŋaen-an

food crumbs - PCMP *buqi₁

food offering - POC *qaso

food particles caught between the teeth - PAN *CiŋaS

food particles caught between the teeth - PMP *tiŋah

food plant - *(loan)

food plant - *(noise)

food that is dry roasted - PMP *s<in>aŋelaR

food, to feed - PWMP *maŋan

food; meat - POC *k<in>an

food; to feed - POC *paŋan

food; to feed - PMP *paŋan

food; to feed, nourish - PMP *p<in>aŋan

grinding stone, place where foods are ground up or instrument for grinding them - PWMP *giliŋ-an

gulp down food, gorge on one food to the exclusion of others - PWMP *lunlun₂

have food particles caught between the teeth - PAN *ma-CiŋaS

kind of urn for storing food - PPH *kam(e)qáw

mix foods - PWMP *labuR

mix foods, as in preparing pig’s fodder - PWMP *bahuR

mixed, as foods - PWMP *lahuk

morsel, bit, as of food - PPH *mikmik

mussel sp. or spp. used as food grater or scraper - POC *kukur

non-staple food eaten with rice - PPH *siraq₂

odor of burnt food - PMP *haŋus₂

pepper; to sting, of a wound or spices in food - PMP *lajaq

place where one eats; food - PAN *kaen-an

premasticate food for infant - PMP *paqpaq₁

preserve food in salt - *(loan)

provisions, food for a journey - POC *tamaji

remnants of food - PPH *mukmúk

roast food over a fire - PAN *CuNuh

roast food over a fire - PMP *tunu

roast food over a fire - POC *tunu

roast food over a fire - POC *tunu tunu

satiatiated, full (of the stomach after eating); fertile, bring forth plentifully, abundance of food - POC *masuR

scratch up the soil, as a chicken looking for food - PAN *kaSkaS

slurp up food or water, eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *sabsab

slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *tabtab₂

staple food (?) - POC *kuta

stuff mouth with food - *(near)

to boil food - POC *sakan

to crave special foods - PWMP *maŋ-qidam

to crave, as food one wants to eat - PPH *sab(e)lek

to distribute, pass out shares of food - PPH *tagtág

to heat food - PMP *la(ŋ)ga

to heat food - PMP *la(ŋ)gaq

to let food or hot water cool off - PPH *pa-bahaw-en

to put food into the mouth - PPH *i-súbuq

what has been salted; food preserved in salt - PWMP *q<in>asin

what was eaten; food - PAN *k<in>aen-an

wooden food bowl - POC *tabiRa

food₁

food₁ - POC *kana

foodstuffs

catty (unit of weight for foodstuffs) - *(loan)

fool

foolish; a fool - POC *bobo₁

to fool, deceive - PWMP *labu₁

foolish

foolish - PWMP *bagak

foolish; a fool - POC *bobo₁

foot

base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother - PMP *puqun

callus on the foot (lit. ‘fish eye’) - PMP *mata nu hikan

callus on the foot (lit. ‘fish eye’) - POC *mata ni ikan

crippled; bent or twisted, of the leg or foot - PAN *piluk₁

foot, leg - PAN *qaqay

foot, leg - PAN *waqay

foot, leg - PPH *sikí

foot, leg - PPH *seki

foot, leg - POC *waqe

leg, foot - POC *qaqe

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

palm of hand, sole of foot - PMP *palaj₁

palm of the hand, sole of the foot - PWMP *tapak₁

rest the foot on; touch or knock with the foot - PMP *sakil

sole of the foot - PMP *dapan

sole of the foot; footprint - PAN *dapaN

stamp, put one's foot down - PWMP *qantak

step on, place one's foot on - PMP *re(n)zak

footfalls

sound of footfalls - PPH *tepak₂

footprint

footprints, tracks - PPH *liqed

sole of the foot; footprint - PAN *dapaN

step on; leave footprint - PPH *takad

footrace

footrace - *(loan)

forbid

forbid - *(noise)

to forbid - PAN *laRaŋ

to forbid, make taboo - POC *paka-tabu

forbidden

forbidden taboo - *(loan)

forbidden, taboo - PCEMP *tambu

forbidden, taboo - POC *tabu

strictly forbidden - POC *tapu-tapu

force

be snatched away, taken away by force - PPh *qaRaw-en

blow out, force out - PMP *leput

break open, force open - PWMP *tu(ŋ)kab

breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break - PMP *nihawa

drive or force into - PMP *buRsuk

for force something open or out of its position - PPH *tu(ŋ)kab-án

force open - PWMP *pilak₁

force open - PMP *re(ŋ)kaq

force someone to do something - PPH *pilit-en

forced marriage; to force into marriage - PPH *pikut₂

impose one’s will, force or compel someone to do something - PWMP *teRel

interjection of negative emotive force - PMP *qisaq

join forces, cooperate in working - PPh *abag

open forcibly, force apart (as the eyelids with the fingers) - PMP *bikaq₁

power force - *(loan)

press in by force - PMP *pucek

press, cram in with force - PWMP *maŋ-hasek₂

press, cram in with force - PWMP *hasek-i

pull out with force - PMP *cabut

slam down with force - PWMP *dakdak

snatch, take away by force - PWMP *maŋ-qaRaw

snatch, take away by force, rob - PAN *qaRaw

strength, vigor, force - PAN *keseR

to be pounded, struck with force - PWMP *tutu-en

to force apart, at with a wedge; force something into someone’s mouth - PPH *tiŋal

to force upon, oppress - PPH *luges

to force, achieve by force - PPH *duldúl

to insist; to force, compel someone to do something - PPH *pílit

to lever up, tip up by force - PWMP *tuas

to press into, force or cram in - PWMP *ma-ñeksek

to seize, take by force - PPH *ma-ñamsám

to seize, take by force - PWMP *kamkam

to seize, take by force, snatch from another’s hands; pillage - PPH *samsám

to stuff, press in by force - PWMP *maR-seksek

forced

crammed, forced into an opening, stuff full - PWMP *pelpel

forced marriage; to force into marriage - PPH *pikut₂

forceful

strong, vigorous, energetic, forceful - PAN *ma-keseR

forcibly

open forcibly - *-kaq₁ (root)

open forcibly, force apart (as the eyelids with the fingers) - PMP *bikaq₁

ford

ford a river, cross to the other side (of a river, street, etc.) - PPH *dákit

forearm

forearm, lower arm - PMP *leŋen

forefathers

forefathers, ancestors - PPh *apu apu

forehead

forehead - POC *raqe

forehead - POC *damwa

forehead; eyebrow - POC *pasu₂

forehead; face - PAN *daqiS

forehead; face - PMP *daqih

forehead; face - PCEMP *raqi

foreign

foreign object in the eye - PWMP *puliŋ₂

sliver, splinter, foreign body embedded in the flesh - PAN *uNay

foreigner

horizon (lit. ‘foundation/beginning of the sky’); stranger, foreigner - PMP *puqun nu laŋit

forelegs

forelegs of an animal - POC *luma

foremost

first, foremost; to precede - POC *muqa

foresee

see (abstract things), foresee, know - PWMP *ila₂

foreskin

hernia; to slip down, slip off, pull back the foreskin of the penis - PMP *luslus

prepuce, foreskin; pull back the prepuce - PPH *lusiq

to pull back the foreskin - PPH *lusiq-en

forest

a tall forest tree which emits an unpleasant odor: Sterculia foetida - PMP *bubuR₃

clear forest for planting - *(noise)

fallow land; secondary forest - PAN *CaluN

fallow land; secondary forest - PMP *talun₁

forest, uninhabited land - POC *wao

forest, wilderness, woods - PAN *Salas

forest, wilderness, woods, jungle - PMP *halas

forest, wooded area - POC *kayu-kayu

large forest tree with edible brown, hairy fruits: Diospyros discolor - PPH *kamaguŋ

loosen, untie, unwrap; unravel; to clear forest (fig.?) - PWMP *bajbaj

old, of people; primary forest, old forest - PAN *tuqaS

old, older person, elder; old stand forest - POC *matuqa

primary forest - PMP *tuqan

primary forest, primeval jungle - PMP *halas + "dark"

primary forest, virgin jungle (lit. 'big forest') - PWMP *halas Raya

wooded area, forest - PWMP *kahiw-an

woods, forest - PWMP *ka-kahiw-an

forested

area of forested mountains - PPh *ka-bukij-an

forested area, wilderness - PWMP *halas-an

mountain; forested inland mountain areas - PAN *bukij

forfeit

forfeit (a pledge, etc.) - PWMP *le(b)leb

to forfeit, lose by failure to meet an obligation - PWMP *leleb

forget

forget - PWMP *liqu

forget - PWMP *ma-liqu

forget - PAN-F *alim

forget - *(near)

forget - *(noise)

forget a skill, make a mistake - PWMP *beluy

forget, be forgotten - PPH *lipat-en

get wrong, be mistaken; forget - PWMP *liŋu

to forget - PPH *lipat

to forget - PMP *lupa

to forget, be forgotten - PWMP *kaliŋaw

forgive

pardon, forgive - PWMP *maŋ-ampun

pardon, forgive - PWMP *maŋ-ampun-i

forgiveness

forgiveness (?) - PWMP *paŋ-ampun-an

pardon, forgiveness - PMP *ampun

pardon, forgiveness - PWMP *ampun-an

pardon, forgiveness - *(noise)

pity, compassion, affection, love, sympathy, forgiveness - PMP *qasiq

forgotten

forget, be forgotten - PPH *lipat-en

to forget, be forgotten - PWMP *kaliŋaw

fork

bifurcation, fork of a branch - PMP *saŋa₁

crotch, fork of the legs; span, fork of the fingers - PEMP *saŋa₁

crotch, fork of the legs; span, fork of the fingers - POC *saŋa₁

fork of a branch - PMP *peŋa

fork of a branch; any forked structure; bifurcation - PAN *paŋa₁

side path, branch or fork in path or stream; take a side path or way; crossroads - PMP *simpaŋ

forked

fork of a branch; any forked structure; bifurcation - PAN *paŋa₁

forked, as a branch - PWMP *raŋkaŋ

forked, pronged - PMP *paŋaq

split, forked, as a branch or path - PMP *ma-saŋa

forking

forking, bifurcation - PPH *síŋit

forlorn

lonely, forlorn - PWMP *puŋaw

form

a form of martial art or mock combat - PWMP *silat

derivational circumfix, probably used to form deverbal nouns of location - PWMP *paR- ... -an

derivational prefix, used to form deverbal nouns - PWMP *paR-

form - *(noise)

to form moss on something - PWMP *ŋa-lumut

to match, form a pair - PPH *tupáj

traditional dance form - PPH *tayaw

formal

formal gathering, as of chiefs - PMP *pened₂

formal gathering, as of chiefs, with possible connections to announcing temporary taboos - POC *ponor

formative

formative for abstract nouns (often deverbal) - PAN *ka- -an₃

formative for abstract nouns of quality - PAN *ka-₅

formative for collateral kin - PWMP *kam- -an

formative for nouns of location - PAN *ka- -an₂

former

old, former - PAN *lama₂

precede, go or be first; earlier, former - PMP *unah

formerly

old, ancient; formerly - PPH *daqan₂

forming

visual assessment of something, as in taking aim, making a straight line, or forming an opinion - PWMP *sipat

Formosan

a bird: the Formosan bamboo partridge - PAN *tikuRas

Formosan black bear - PAN-F *Cumay

Formosan blind mole: Talpa micrura insularis (Swinhoe) - PAN-F *mumu

Formosan clouded leopard - PAN-F *lukeNaw

Formosan hill partridge - PAN-F *kuNkuN

Formosan maple: Liquidambar formosana - PAN-F *daRa₁

Formosan serow, mountain goat - PAN-F *Sidi

the Formosan hare: Lepus sinensis formosus - PAN-F *lutuk₁

the Formosan rock monkey: Macaca cyclopis - PAN *luCuŋ

formosana

Formosan maple: Liquidambar formosana - PAN-F *daRa₁

formosensis

mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta) - PAN *taNiud

formosus

the Formosan hare: Lepus sinensis formosus - PAN-F *lutuk₁

forth

back and forth movement - POC *puis

pull back and forth - PMP *buis

rock or hover back and forth - PWMP *kindaŋ-kindaŋ

satiatiated, full (of the stomach after eating); fertile, bring forth plentifully, abundance of food - POC *masuR

to sway back and forth, as plant stems in the wind - PWMP *liŋgaŋ

turn over, rock back and forth, swing - POC *pui₂

turn over, rock back and forth, swing - POC *pui pui

wag, shake back and forth - PWMP *kilay

wave back and forth - PWMP *ambay

wave back and forth - PWMP *kipay

wave back and forth - *(noise)

wave back and forth (hand, flag) - PPh *wasíwas

fortification

fence; animal pen; fortification - POC *bala₄

fence; animal pen; fortification - POC *baRa

fence; animal pen; fortification - POC *bara₄

fortification - *(loan)

fortress, fortification - *(loan)

fortified

fortified place; village - POC *koro₂

fortify

rim used to fortify (as on a basket) - PWMP *biŋkay

fortress

fortress, fortification - *(loan)

fortune

divine, find by divination, tell fortunes - *(loan)

luck, fortune - PWMP *palaj₂

luck, fortune - *(loan)

luck, fortune, fate - *(loan)

luck, good fortune - PWMP *tuaq

profit, gain, fortune, luck - *(loan)

forward

away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer - PMP *a-tu

away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer - PMP *wa-tu

be poled forward, of a boat in shallow water - PWMP *teken-en

bottom up, as a person bent far forward toward the ground - PWMP *tuad

fall forward; put face low down - PWMP *subsub

push, slide or glide forward, as in pushing wood into a fire, or storming the enemy - PWMP *suruŋ

rush forward, charge - PPH *sugud

shove, thrust forward - PWMP *unzur

sticking out or turned forward, of ears - PWMP *kupiŋ

thrust out, extend forward - PMP *qunzur

to fall forward - PPH *sebseb

to have ‘buck teeth’, project forward, of the teeth - PWMP *suŋar

to progress, push forward - PWMP *su(n)duŋ

to rush forward - PPH *s<um>ugud

tool for cutting with a forward digging motion - PPH *sudsud₂

foster

foster mother, stepmother - PWMP *ina ina

foul-smelling

fetid, foul-smelling - PMP *qaŋiR

paddy bug, foul-smelling insect that preys on rice in the field - PAN *baŋaw

found

a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp. - PWMP *paRatpat

a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp. - PWMP *paRepat

found? - PAN-F *ma-kiRim

place where salt is found; salt beds - PPh *paŋ-qasin-an

rice bird, small bird found in rice fields - PPH *máya

foundation

foundation, basis - *(loan)

foundation, basis - *(noise)

foundation, first part? - PWMP *p<am>uqun

fountain

spring, fountain - PWMP *umbul

four

be divided into four - PWMP *epat-en

become four, divide into four (intr.) - PWMP *maR-epat

divide into four (?) - PMP *paR-epat-en

divided into four (?) - PMP *ma-epat

do four times - PAN *paR-Sepat-en

four - PAN *Sepat

four - PMP *epat

four - PEMP *pat

four - PCEMP *pat-i

four (combination form) - PWMP *pat-aŋ

four (in counting certain referents) - PAN *pat-a

four (of humans) - PAN *Sa-Sepat

four (of humans) - PMP *a-epat

four at a time - PMP *epat epat

four at a time - POC *pati pati

four each (?) - PWMP *taR-epat

four times - PWMP *iŋg-epat

four times - PAN *maka-Sepat

four times - PWMP *maka-epat

four times - PMP *paka-epat

four times - POC *paka-pat

group of four (?) - PWMP *epat-an

one of the four principal rafters - PPh *paRbu

four-cornered

four-cornered bottle - *(loan)

fourth

fourth - PPh *ika-epat

fourth - PMP *ka-epat

fourth - PWMP *ka-epat-an

fourth, quarter - *(loan)

relative of the third or fourth ascending or descending generation - PMP *piut

fowl

Bismarck scrub fowl: Megapodius eremita - POC *kikau

Bismarck scrub fowl: Megapodius eremita - POC *kipau

cry to drive away fowls: shoo! - PWMP *siuq

domestic chicken used as a decoy to attract a wild fowl into a trap - PPH *pa-ŋátiq

domestic fowl used as a decoy or lure to capture wild fowl - PPH *kátiq

domestic fowl used as a decoy or lure to capture wild fowl - PPH *káti

fowl, cock - POC *toqa

kind of water fowl - PWMP *bintapu

leg of a fowl (?) - PPH *sáka

scratch up the earth, as a fowl - PAN *karkar

shabby looking, in disarray, of the feathers of fowls - PWMP *kuyut

shabby looking, in disarray, of the feathers of fowls - PWMP *kuyu

to scratch up the earth, as a fowl - POC *kakar-i

wild fowl, jungle fowl - PPH *talun₂

fox

fruit bat, flying fox - POC *bweka

fruit bat, flying fox: Pteropus spp. - PMP *paniki

wingbone of flying fox (used in tattooing process) - POC *saRu

wingbone of flying fox, used in tattooing; tattoo - POC *sau₃

foxtail

millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica - PAN *beCeŋ

millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica - PMP *beteŋ₁

millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica - PMP *betem

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fr

fraction

part fraction - *(noise)

fracture

crooked, of limbs; bone fracture - PWMP *lepuq₁

fracture, break - PMP *baliq

fragile

weak, fragile - *(noise)

fragment

fragment, piece broken off - *(noise)

fragment, piece of something - PCEMP *ŋaŋar

fragment, split-off piece - PMP *ŋarŋar

wind-driven fragments of cloud, light scudding clouds - PMP *taqi nu haŋin

fragrance

fragrance, pleasant odor - PPH *baŋ(e)lu

fragrance, pleasant odor or smell - PMP *beŋi

fragrant

a tree with fragrant flowers: Cananga odorata - PMP *kanaŋa

fragrant - PAN *baŋeSiS

fragrant - PMP *baŋehih

fragrant, sweet-smelling - POC *manoŋi

fragrant, sweet-smelling - PPH *ma-baŋlu

ginger plant with fragrant white flower - PPH *kamiá

frail

weak, frail; gentle in personality - PWMP *lemu

framboesia

a skin disease: framboesia, yaws - PMP *puRu

frame

shelf; bed frame of wooden or bamboo laths - PMP *pa(n)tar₂

fraud

deceit, fraud - *(noise)

freckle

any natural mark on human skin: birthmark, freckle, mole - PMP *qila

spot freckle - *-rik (root)

free

clear, of liquid free of impurities - PPH *tenaw

free side of canoe, opposite the outrigger - POC *katae

free, on the loose - *(noise)

loosen, untie, set free - POC *takas

set free - PMP *lumbar

strong free flow of water - PPh *busuáŋ

to set free, let loose, liberated; passed by, come to an end - PWMP *lepas

freely

roam freely, of domesticated animals that are untethered - PAN *labeR₂

roam freely, of domesticated animals that are untethered - PMP *lambeR

free-standing

stake, free-standing post - PMP *turus

freight

load, cargo, freight - POC *ucan

frequented

animal haunt, place frequented by animals - PAN *qenuR-an₁

animal haunt, place frequented by animals - PMP *qenuR-an₂

fresh

fresh water - PCEMP *waiR

fresh water - PAN *daNum

fresh water - PMP *danum

fresh water - POC *ranum

fresh water; stream, river - PMP *wahiR

go out for some fresh air - PMP *pa(ka)-haŋin-haŋin

living, alive; grow, flourish; fresh; heal, cure, revive, recover; vital principle, soul, spirit; flame - PMP *ma-qudip

natural spring, fresh water spring - PAN *Cebuj

natural spring, fresh water spring - POC *topuc

natural spring, fresh water spring - PMP *tebuR

natural spring, fresh water spring - POC *topuR

natural spring, fresh water spring - PMP *tubuR

natural spring, fresh water spring - POC *tupuR

new, fresh; recent(ly); youth, bachelor; beautiful, in one's prime - PMP *baqeRu

new, recent; young, fresh - PEMP *baqoRu

refresh oneself, go out for some fresh air - POC *paka-aŋin-aŋin

spring, source of fresh water - PAN *bual₁

sweet, fresh (of water) - POC *mamis

sweet; insipid, as fresh water - PCEMP *ma-emis

freshwater

freshwater eel - PWMP *kasuli

freshwater eel - PAN *tuNa

freshwater eel - PMP *tuna

fresh-water spring - PWMP *buak-an

kind of freshwater fish - PWMP *paqit₁

kind of freshwater fish - PWMP *zuluŋ

land turtle, fresh-water turtle - PPh *pagquŋ

small edible freshwater crab - PAN *gaRaŋ

small edible freshwater crab - PMP *kaRaŋ

freshwater fish sp.

freshwater fish sp. - *(loan)

friable

brittle, friable; to crumble - PMP *repek

friction

rub two things together, create friction, as sticks to make fire, or the hands - PMP *kusu₁

friend

answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - POC *bali₇

companion, member of a group (of animals or people); friend - PWMP *kaban₁

dual division, moiety == cluster (a) answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - PMP *baliw₁

exclamation to express surprise, call to a friend, respond to a distant call, etc. - PMP *huy

friend - POC *tu(rR)a

friend (male to male) - *(near)

friend, companion - PWMP *diŋan

friend, partner; one of a pair; trading partner? - POC *soRa

to be friends with, to be a companion of - PMP *maR-kaban

frigate

frigate bird - POC *katapa

fright

exclamation of astonishment, fright, etc. - PMP *qina

frighten

bird clapper (to frighten them from fields) - *(loan)

frighten off birds or animals from the fields; place used to frighten off birds or animals from the fields - PWMP *buRaw-an

to frighten someone - PWMP *takut-en

to frighten, cause to fear - PMP *paka-takut

to frighten, make afraid - PWMP *pa-takut

frightened

easily frightened, cowardly - PWMP *takut-an

hurt, frightened, or discouraged by previous bad experience - PWMP *zera

sound of frightened cheeping - PWMP *kicak

to squawk, as a frightened chicken - PMP *kiak

fro

chew, move to and fro in the mouth - POC *kamu₃

return home; return something; restore, repair; repeat; motion to and fro - PMP *uliq₁

scatter to and fro - PWMP *liwed

to and fro - POC *oliq oliq

frog

frog - *(loan)

frog - *(noise)

kind of loud frog - PPH *tukák

frond

fibrous integument at the base of coconut fronds - POC *kaka₃

fibrous material at base of coconut frond; bag or lining made from this - PPh *epit₂

frond of a palm - PMP *papaq₁

midrib of a coconut frond - POC *sasaRi

midrib of coconut frond - PMP *paqpaq₂

netlike appendages at the base of a coconut frond - PPH *qepis

torch, probably of dried palm frond - PMP *suluq

front

carry in front of one; hold in the lap - PWMP *paŋku

face; front; prow of canoe - POC *nago

front side; belly (of an animal?) - POC *qarop

front teeth, incisors - PAN *gutgut

front teeth, incisors; gnaw, to bite or tear off with the incisors - PMP *gutgut

front, facing part - PMP *qadep

touching, adjacent, as fighters presenting a united front - PWMP *sundul

froth

foam, bubbles, froth - PAN *bua₁

foam, bubbles, froth - POC *bua

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth - PMP *budaq₁

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth - PAN *bujeq₁

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; bubble up - PCEMP *budaq₄

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; to foam, to bubble; foam at the mouth; fond of talking; type of white bead - PMP *bujeq₂

foam, froth - PAN *buCaq

foam, froth, lather - PAN *puCaq

foam, spume, froth - PPH *lútab

froth, foam - PMP *buqiq

frown

wrinkled; frown - PMP *reŋut

fruit

a citrus fruit, the pomelo - PPH *lukbán

a fruit tree, the pomelo: Citrus decumana - PPH *suháq

a fruit tree: Spondias dulcis - PCEMP *quRi

a tree and its edible fruit, the starfruit: Averrhoa bilimbi, Averrhoa carambola - PWMP *baliŋbiŋ

a tree and its fruit, the durian: Durio zibethinus - PWMP *duRi-an

a tree and its fruit, the Java plum: Syzygium cumini - PPH *luŋ(e)búy

a tree and its fruit: Artocarpus odoratissimus - PPH *mádaŋ

a tree with edible fruit, and medicinal uses, probably Buchanania arborescens - PMP *balunuR

a tree with edible fruit: Antidesma bunius - PWMP *buRnay

a vine and the seeds of its fruit: Abrus precatorius - PWMP *saga

a vine with gourd or cucumber-like fruit, probably Luffa sp. - PPH *kabatíti

bear fruit - PWMP *maR-beRas

bear fruit - PWMP *maŋ-buaq

bear fruit - PAN *maR-buaq

bear fruit - PWMP *maR-búŋa

bear fruit; fruitful, filled with fruit - PMP *ma-buaq

bearing fruit - PWMP *ma-búŋa

bearing fruit, fruitful - POC *puaq puaq

blossom of a fruit tree - PMP *buŋa na kahiw

break off a component piece of something, as twigs or branches from a tree, a banana from a bunch, a section from a fruit, etc. - PPH *sipíq

break off fruit or branches - PAN *sepiq

bunch, cluster of fruit - POC *puliR

bunch, cluster, as of fruit - PWMP *kaliŋ

bunch, cluster, as of fruit - PWMP *puŋpuŋ₂

citrus fruit - PMP *untay₂

citrus fruit - *(near)

citrus fruit (both orange and pomelo?) - PAN-F *iuk₂

citrus tree with fruit like a lemon - PPH *kalamansiq

core of a fruit - POC *uso

crop, load of fruit - POC *puat-an₁

first of anything; first fruits; prime, new, untainted, virgin - PWMP *buŋaR

first of anything; first fruits; prime, new, untainted, virgin - PMP *buŋas

flower, blossom of fruit tree - PPH *sabuŋ₂

fruit - PAN *buaq

fruit (of a tree) - PMP *buaq ni kahiw

fruit (of a tree) - POC *puaq ni kayu

fruit bat, flying fox - POC *bweka

fruit bat, flying fox: Pteropus spp. - PMP *paniki

fruit dove, probably Treron spp. - POC *bune

fruit of the betel pepper - PAN *pudu

fruit tree - PWMP *baraŋan₂

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

gnat, sandfly, fruit fly - PMP *neknek

greenish fruit dove - PAN *punay

greenish fruit dove - PAN *puna-punay

greenish fruit dove - PMP *punay punay

greenish fruit dove - POC *bune bune

hairy; kind of hairy fruit, rambutan: Nephelium lappaceum - PWMP *bulu-an

hard seed, stone of some fruits - PPH *butúl

hardwood tree with edible fruit and valuable timber: Palaquium spp. - PMP *ñatuq

harvest fruits - PMP *buat₁

harvest fruits - POC *puat₁

intense sensation in teeth when eating sour fruit; for teeth to be on edge - PMP *nilu

kind of citrus fruit, Philippine orange - PPH *kutay

kind of citrus tree and fruit - PAN *dalayap

kind of citrus tree and its fruit - PMP *muntay

kind of ebony or persimmon tree with fruits that are pounded and used to stupefy fish: Diospyros spp. - PPH *kanúmay

kind of edible fruit - PWMP *kalikiq

kind of fruit tree: Pometia pinnata - PMP *tawan

kind of sour edible fruit, possibly fruit of rattan - PWMP *libas₁

large forest tree with edible brown, hairy fruits: Diospyros discolor - PPH *kamaguŋ

large fruit bat - PPH *kabég

lime, citrus fruit - PWMP *limaw

loquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa - PAN-F *Ritu

mango tree and its fruit, probably Mangifera altissima - PMP *pahuq₁

mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta) - PAN *taNiud

old, of people; mature, as fruit - PMP *tuqah

pick or knock down fruit with a pole - PMP *su(ŋ)kit

picking of fruit; falling out of teeth - PPH *tipuq

pluck (as fruit) - *(noise)

pluck, as fruit - PPh *bujas

produce fruit; produce results - PPh *paŋ-búŋa

pulpy, fleshy, as a fruit; soft flesh around the seeds of a fruit - PWMP *lunek₁

rind, peeling of fruits or tubers - PAN *kuliC

sour fruit - *(loan)

stalk or cluster of fruit - POC *kada

tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits - PWMP *sapeled

tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits - PWMP *sapelet

to become soft or overripe, as fruits that are kept too long - PPH *lúnus

to flower, produce fruit - PWMP *maŋ-búŋa

to peel, pare, as fruit or yam; to cut into slices - PPH *tájip

to pick, as fruit from a tree using a pole with a hook - PPH *su(ŋ)kit-en

to pick, pluck fruit - PWMP *putik₂

to pluck, as fruit - PPh *maŋ-bujas

to pluck, as fruit; strip off leaves - PWMP *pulpul₁

tree with bright yellow fruit that has dry flesh: Lucuma nervosa - PPH *tisaq

tree with edible fruit Sandoricum indicum or Sandoricum koetjape - *(loan)

tree with edible hairy brown fruit: Diospyros discolor - *(loan)

tree with fruit similar to breadfruit - PWMP *teRep

tree with fruit similar to breadfruit - PWMP *si teRep

tree with inedible white fruit and root that yields a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia L. - POC *ñoñu

tree with sticky fruits: Cordia spp. - PAN *quNuNaŋ

tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia - PWMP *baŋkudu

tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia - PCEMP *ñəñu

wild palm tree with fruit similar to areca nut: Heterospathe elata - PPH *sagisí

fruit-bearing

a fruit-bearing plant: Pisonia umbellifera - PMP *anuliŋ

fruit-bearing bush or tree - PAN *qanibuŋ

fruitful

bear fruit; fruitful, filled with fruit - PMP *ma-buaq

bearing fruit, fruitful - POC *puaq puaq

fruitful, prolific - PWMP *biak

fruit tree

fruit tree, tamarind, Tamarindus indica - *(loan)

fruticans

a swamp palm: Nipa fruticans - PMP *nipaq

frying

potsherd used as a frying pan - POC *palaŋa

to stir-fry, cook in a frying pan without oil - PMP *saŋelaR

frying pan

frying pan - *(loan)

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fu

fuel

fuel for fire, anything used to start a fire - PPH *hátuŋ

to gather wood, as for fuel; gather firewood - PWMP *ma-ŋahiw

fugitive

run away, flee; flight, escape; fugitive - PMP *pa-laRiw

fulfill

fulfill a promise, comply with a wish - PPH *tupád

full

(lit. 'rotten liver') full of malice - PMP *X₃ + qatay

be satiated, given a full belly - PWMP *besuR-en

crammed, forced into an opening, stuff full - PWMP *pelpel

draw a bow to its full extent - PAN *biaC

dusty, full of dust or dirt - POC *tanoq tanoq

full - PMP *ma-penuq

full of veins or tendons - PWMP *uRat-en

full of waves - PWMP *ma-qalun

full of waves, as a stormy sea - PWMP *ma-humbak

full to the top - POC *ponuq sake

full, of a container - PMP *penuq

full, of a container - POC *ponuq

gap, full of gaps - PWMP *Rawaŋ

knotty, full of knots or nodes - PPh *ma-buku

luminous, brilliant, full of light - PWMP *kilaw₂

lumpy, full of lumps - PPh *bukul bukul

murky, full of sediment - PPH *ma-parek

satiated, full (of the stomach) - PPh *bútil

satiated, full after eating - PPh *biaR₂

satiated, full from eating - PAN *ma-besuR

satiated, full from eating - PPh *maR-besuR

satiatiated, full (of the stomach after eating); fertile, bring forth plentifully, abundance of food - POC *masuR

soaked, saturated, full of liquid - POC *toRop

soaked, saturated, full of liquid; crowded or filled to overflowing - PMP *teReb

to complete, make full, round out - PWMP *pa-genep

to fill, cause to become full - PMP *pa-penuq

to fill, cause to become full - POC *pa-ponuq

visible, in full view - PWMP *hantaD

winding, full of curves or deviations - PWMP *kiluq kiluq

fumble

to grope, fumble about - PPH *kapaq-kapaq

fumes

smoke, fumes, steam; to smoke (as a fire) - PMP *qasu₃

fumigate

to smoke, fumigate - PMP *pa(ka)-qasu

functions

preposition with locative and possessive functions - PCEMP *ta₁

fungal

a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush - PAN *guSam

a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush - PMP *guham

fungi

ear; various types of bracket fungi; pectoral fins of a fish - POC *taliŋa

fungus

bracket fungus, Polyporus spp. - PAN *kulaC

bracket fungus, Polyporus spp. - PMP *kulat₂

ear; kind of tree fungus - PMP *taliŋa

fungus - *(noise)

fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin: Tinea flava or Pityriasis - PMP *panaw₁

fungus that grows on the sugar palm; tinder - PMP *baruk

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks - PAN *Caliŋa na kaSiw

wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks - PMP *taliŋa na kahiw

fur

body hair, fur, feathers, floss on plants - POC *pulu₃

body hair; fur; feather; down; antenna of insect or crustacean; spikes of sea urchin; floss on plant skins, color; type, kind - PCEMP *bulu₁

body hair; fur; feather; down; floss on plant stems; color; type, kind - PMP *bulu₁

hair of, fur of - PMP *bulu-n

furious

(lit. 'burning liver') angry, furious - PMP *X₂ + qatay

furnish

a tree with roots that furnish a red dye: Morinda citrifolia - POC *gurat

furrow

line, scratch, furrow - PPH *gúlis

raise the eyebrows as a signal to another person; to furrow the brows (?) - PWMP *kindat

fuscus

brown triggerfish: Pseudobalistes fuscus - POC *lio-lio

fusilier

a fish, the fusilier: Caesionidae sp. - PMP *sulig

a fish, the fusilier: Caesionidae sp. - POC *sulik

fussy

choosy, fussy, fastidious - PMP *ma-piliq

future

future marker with words for days - PAN *nu-

future prefix - PAN *ma-₂

last, come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child; west; young; outside - PCEMP *m-udi

last; come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child - PMP *udehi

later, tomorrow, in the future - PWMP *pagi

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/22/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
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