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Updated: 7/14/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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G

ge    gh    gi    gl    gn    go    gr    gu    

gaff

to hook, gaff - PCMP *gae

gag

choke, gag - PWMP *cekuk

gain

gain weight, get fat(ter) - POC *tubu₃

profit, gain - *(loan)

profit, gain, fortune, luck - *(loan)

galanga

a plant: Alpinia galanga - PWMP *laŋkuas

gall

gall, gall bladder - PAN-F *paqeju

gall, gall bladder, bile - PAN *qapejux

gall, gall bladder, bile - PWMP *qapejuq

gall, gall bladder, octopus sepia - POC *qasu₂

gambling

cut of gambling money - *(loan)

stake a bet in gambling - PWMP *pasaŋ₃

stakes in gambling, wager, bet - PPH *tayáq

to store, put away for safekeeping, hide valuables; to place a bet in gambling; lay an egg - PMP *taRuq

game

drive game before one - PPH *tabug

game played with thrown reeds - POC *tika

kind of children’s game - PPH *pikuq₂

lie in wait, set an ambush in hunting game - PPH *apat

play games - PWMP *sulaʔ

surround, encircle, as game - PWMP *libut

to hunt wild game - PAN *qanup

to lie in wait for an enemy or wild game - PPH *tambaŋ-an

what is hunted, wild game - PMP *qanup-en

what is hunted, wild game - PAN *qaNup-en

gamelan

a percussive musical instrument or ensemble: the gamelan - PWMP *kulintaŋ

game played by children

game played by children - *(loan)

gantas

to measure by gantas - PPH *salup-en

Ganua

a tree: Ganua obovatifolia.(Merr.), Sapotaceae - PPH *piaŋa

gap

gap, full of gaps - PWMP *Rawaŋ

gap, open space - POC *jiwaŋ

gap, open space, breach - PPH *giwaŋ

gap, open space; groove - PMP *siwaŋ

gap, space, void - *(noise)

having gaps - *(noise)

opened, having a gap or opening - PPh *ma-siwáŋ

opening, gap - PPH *tiwaŋwáŋ

gape

gape, be open - POC *paŋa₃

gape, open the mouth - PMP *ciŋaŋ

gape, open the mouth wide - POC *paŋaŋap

gape, open the mouth wide - PMP *qaŋap

gape, open the mouth wide - PMP *qaŋab

gape, open the mouth wide - *-ŋa (root)

gape, open the mouth wide - *-ŋa(q) (root)

gape, open the mouth wide - *-ŋaq (root)

gape, open the mouth wide; be dazzled, amazed - PMP *beŋaŋ₂

gape, open wide - PMP *laŋaq₁

gape, open, of the mouth - *-ŋab (root)

open the mouth wide, gape - PWMP *taŋaŋaq

open the mouth wide, gape; gaping; opening of a bubu fish trap, basket, etc. - PMP *ŋaŋa₃

open the mouth, gape - PWMP *ŋaqŋaq

to gape stupidly, gawk - PMP *taŋa

gaping

amazed; gaping - *-ŋaŋ (root)

gaping expanse - PPh *waŋwáŋ

open the mouth wide, gape; gaping; opening of a bubu fish trap, basket, etc. - PMP *ŋaŋa₃

open, of the mouth; gaping - *-ŋap (root)

Garcinia

a tree: Garcinia sp. - PWMP *kandis

garden

clear the ground for a garden site - POC *poki

clearing of a garden for planting (?) - POC *sani

cultivated field, garden - PMP *q<in>uma

garden, orchard - PWMP *parelak

hoe up weeds; weed a garden - PAN-F *riSriS

rattan basket used to carry garden produce, etc. - PWMP *karanzaŋ

gargle

gargle, rinse the mouth - PWMP *kali-muRmuR

gargle, rinse the mouth - PMP *kumuR

gargle, rinse the mouth - PMP *muRmuR

gargle, rinse the mouth - *-muR (root)

rinse the mouth, gargle - PCEMP *pupuR

to hold liquid in the mouth; to gargle - POC *gomuR

to hold liquid in the mouth; to gargle - PMP *kemuR

garlic

garlic - *(loan)

garment

borderline, edge, as of roof or garment - PPH *sanipa

garter

garter - *(loan)

gas

fart, stomach gas - PCMP *pesu₂

gas pains - PPH *kábag

gaseous

gaseous defecation - PPh *p<aR>utput

gases

exude or escape, of air, gases or similar substances (?) - PMP *heŋaw

gasp

choke, gasp, struggle for breath - PMP *qekak

choke, gasp, struggle for breath - PWMP *eŋkak-eŋkak

choke, gasp, struggle for breath - PMP *e(ŋ)kak

gasp - PWMP *um-egap

gasp - *(noise)

gasp - *(noise)

gasp for air - PMP *ekap

gasp for breath - PWMP *haŋus₁

gasp for breath - PMP *eŋap

gasp, open the mouth to breathe - PWMP *egap

gasp, pant - PWMP *cuŋ(e)qab

muffled sound of a gasp, etc. - PMP *se(m)bek

gate

door, gate, passageway - PWMP *lawaŋ₂

gate, opening - PWMP *gawaŋ

gather

assemble, collect, gather - *-pun (root)

assemble, gather - PWMP *punpun

bunch or cluster of things; to gather - PWMP *kumpul

collect, gather - PWMP *abun

collect, gather - PWMP *tampuŋ

gather - *(noise)

gather in masses, as smoke - PMP *upun₁

gather in the cupped hands - PMP *ra(ŋ)kup

gather rattan - PPh *maŋ-quay

gather sand, use sand - PWMP *maŋ-qenay

gather together - PMP *rempun

gather, assemble - PMP *ta(m)pun

gather, collect together - PWMP *emuŋ

gather, collect; swarm around - PMP *quruŋ

gather, flock together - *-puk₃ (root)

heap, collection; to gather, heap up - PMP *qi(m)pun

heap, pile, swarm, flock; to swarm, assemble, gather - PMP *ebun

one who gathers firewood (?) - PWMP *pa-ŋahiw

prefixed to a noun means ‘to get, obtain, collect, gather’ (noun) - PAN *ki-

to gather wood, as for fuel; gather firewood - PWMP *ma-ŋahiw

to gather, collect together - PWMP *maŋ-emuŋ

gatherer

rattan gatherer - PPh *paŋ-quay

gathering

collection, gathering, assembly - PAN *puluŋ

formal gathering, as of chiefs - PMP *pened₂

formal gathering, as of chiefs, with possible connections to announcing temporary taboos - POC *ponor

meeting, assembly, gathering - *(loan)

to separate people, disperse a gathering - PWMP *butas₁

gauze

gauze - *(loan)

gawk

to gape stupidly, gawk - PMP *taŋa

gaze

look hard at, gaze, stare at - *(loan)

to look, gaze; water used as a mirror - POC *ti-tiro

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ge

gebang

the gebang palm: Corypha gebanga - PWMP *ibus

gebanga

the gebang palm: Corypha gebanga - PWMP *ibus

gecko

cry of the gecko - PMP *tikek

gecko - PWMP *saksak₂

gecko, house lizard - PWMP *cikcek

gecko, house lizard - PWMP *cekcek

gecko, house lizard - PPh *butikíq

gecko, house lizard (onom.) - PAN *tektek₂

high-pitched sound; chirp of a gecko - PAN *tekiq

gem

gem, jewel - *(loan)

genealogy

lineage, genealogy? - PWMP *ka-puqun

general

puppy; young animal in general? - PAN *titu

generation

affine of Ego's generation - PAN *idas₁

affines of the first ascending or zero generation - POC *puŋao

collateral consanguine of the first ascending generation - PAN *tata₁

collateral relative of the first ascending generation - PWMP *uaq

collateral relative of the first ascending generation - PMP *ua₂

relative of the third ascending or descending generation - PCMP *usi

relative of the third or fourth ascending or descending generation - PMP *piut

generic

generic marker of location in space or time - PAN *i₂

genitalia

female genitalia - PMP *teli

female genitalia (child’s word?) - PAN *pipi₂

female genitalia, vulva - PWMP *pukak

genitals

genitals - *(noise)

genitals of a young child - PWMP *pipit₂

genitive

1pl. excl. genitive, our - PAN *n-ami

1pl. excl. genitive, our - PMP *m-ami

1pl. incl. genitive suffix - PAN *-ta

1sg genitive (marker of non-subject agency and possession; my; by me) - PMP *ni-ku

1sg genitive (marker of non-subject agency and possession; my; by me) - PAN *-ku

1st pers. incl. genitive; our - PAN *n-ita

2pl. genitive, your, by you - PAN *n-amu

2pl. nominative and genitive; you all, your - PMP *kamu-yu

genitive case marker for common nouns (cf. *na, *ni) - PAN *nu₃

genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb - PAN *ni

genitive marker (cf *ni) - PMP *qi₂

genitive of plural personal names - PAN *na₃

genitive particle - PWMP *u₁

gentle

gentle breeze; blow gently, of the wind - PWMP *sap(e)quy

soft, tender, gentle - PMP *ma-lumu

soft, tender, gentle - PMP *lumu₂

to become tame or gentle - PPH *h<um>amuq

weak, frail; gentle in personality - PWMP *lemu

gently

gentle breeze; blow gently, of the wind - PWMP *sap(e)quy

genuine

real, genuine, true, sincere - PWMP *tunay₂

true, real, genuine - PEMP *molaŋ

genus

deer of the genus Cervus, either the sika deer or sambar deer - PAN-F *benan

large catfish that lives in river estuaries: genus Arius - PWMP *tambaŋuŋu

sowbug, woodlouse: terrestrial isopod of the genus Oniscus - PWMP *babuy babuy

trees in the genus Barringtonia - PMP *putat

germinate

germinate, burst out - *(noise)

grow, germinate, sprout - PMP *tubuq, tumbuq

germinating

germinating coconut (?) - PEMP *upu

get

able to fetch, get, take, reach - PPh *maka-alap

catch or get caught in a trap; hit mark with spear, etc. - PMP *ena

fetch, get, take - PAN *um-alaq

fetch, get, take - PWMP *maŋ-alaq₁

fetch, get, take - PAN *alaq₁

fetch, get, take - PWMP *alap-en

fetch, get, take - PWMP *um-alap

fetch, get, take - PWMP *maŋ-alap

fetch, get, take - PAN *alap

gain weight, get fat(ter) - POC *tubu₃

get a mote in the eye - PMP *buta-en mata

get a mote in the eye - PAN *buCa-en maCa

get a splinter in the skin - PPH *ma-salugsug-án

get a splinter or sliver under the skin or nail - PPH *salugsúg

get caught in the rain - PWMP *ka-quzan-an

get drenched by the rain - PPH *ma-quzan-an

get smallpox; get swine disease - PPh *butih-en

get up - PWMP *maR-baŋun

get wrong, be mistaken; forget - PWMP *liŋu

get, bring, take - POC *pa-i

get, obtain - PWMP *uliq₂

get, take, bring - POC *pa₂

hold, get, take - POC *abit₂

marry off, cause to get married - PMP *pa-qasawa

penetrate, get attached to - PWMP *sebet

prefixed to a noun means ‘to get, obtain, collect, gather’ (noun) - PAN *ki-

straightaway, immediately; get done at once; continue on, lasting - PMP *tulus

take, get, fetch, obtain; marry - PAN *ala

thing that gets wet - PWMP *baseq-an

to fetch, get, take - PAN *um-ala

to wear, as clothes; to get dressed, slip into - PPH *suq(e)lut

touch someone lightly, as to get attention - PPH *kablit

use, get use from - PWMP *agem₂

wake up, get out of bed - PAN *baŋuN

getting

instruction, guidance, help in getting started - PWMP *tuntun

it is getting dark, night is coming on - POC *e boŋi

to pick up with something to avoid getting dirty or burned - PAN *saput₂

what is used for getting something - PWMP *paŋ-alaq

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gh

ghost

ghost - *(noise)

ghost, ancestral spirit; nature spirit; corpse; owl; various plants - PMP *qanitu

ghost, spirit of the dead; owl - PAN *qaNiCu

ghoul

ghoul, vampire - *(loan)

TOP      ge    gh    gi    gl    gn    go    gr    gu    

gi

giant

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod - PWMP *kurapu

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PWMP *kuRapuq

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PMP *kuRapu

giant clam, Tridacna gigas - PMP *kima

giddy

dizzy, giddy - PAN *-medaw

gift

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PMP *hateD

give, present gifts to; gift - PMP *beRay

gigantea

a tree: Radermachera gigantea - PWMP *tui₂

elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea - PMP *taŋelaj

elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea - PAN *Caŋelaj

kind of tall grass: Themeda gigantea - PPH *taŋ(e)laj

gigas

giant clam, Tridacna gigas - PMP *kima

giggle

a peep, squeak, giggle - PMP *kik

snicker, giggle; high-pitched laughter - PWMP *hikhik

squeak, giggle - PWMP *qi(ŋ)kik

titter, giggle - PMP *gikgik

to squeak, as a mouse; to giggle - PMP *kikik

gilding

gilding, gold-foil - *(loan)

gills

gills - PWMP *isaŋ

gills - PEMP *asaŋ₂

gills - PMP *hasaŋ

gills of - PEMP *asaŋ-i

have gills - PWMP *hasaŋ-an

gin

mortar or gin for crushing plant material - PPH *lubaŋ₃

ginger

ginger - PMP *laqia

ginger - PAN-F *dukduk

ginger plant with fragrant white flower - PPH *kamiá

kind of ginger - PWMP *lampuyaŋ

root plant in the ginger family - PWMP *temu₃

type of ginger - PMP *panas₂

ginger tea

ginger tea - *(loan)

girl

maiden, virgin, girl of marriageable age - PWMP *anak daRa

maiden, virgin, unmarried girl - PWMP *da-daRa

maiden, virgin, unmarried girl - PMP *daRa₂

term of address for girls - *(loan)

term of address for girls - *(noise)

term of address to girls - PWMP *enzi-q

term of address to girls - PWMP *enzi

to court girls; to womanize - PPh *ma-ba-bahi

vulva, vagina; pet name for girls - PWMP *uki

give

be born, give birth - *(noise)

bear children, give birth - PMP *ma-anak

breastfeed, give the breast to a young child - PPH *mapa-susu

chew without intending to swallow, as betel nut; premasticate food to give to an infant; premasticated food - PMP *mamaq

distribute, divide, give - POC *wa(n)se-a

give - POC *pani₁

give - PWMP *maŋ-beRay

give - PEMP *boRe

give - PAN *beRay

give - *(noise)

give (him, her, it) something to drink (command) - PWMP *pa-inum-en

give a love potion to someone - PPH *lumay-en

give a supporting hand - PWMP *abat₁

give an impression (physical or psychological) - PWMP *pa-bekas

give birth - PMP *pañaRu

give birth - PWMP *anak-an

give birth - PWMP *maŋ-anak

give birth - PWMP *i-anak

give birth to - PWMP *mampaR-anak aken

give birth to, have a child - POC *pasu₃

give birth, bear a child - PWMP *um-anak

give birth; have a child - PMP *maR-anak

give knowledge, teach - PAN *pa-bajaq

give off an odor (?) - PWMP *bahu-an

give off smoke continuously, pour out smoke - PMP *qasu qasu

give someone something to drink - PMP *pa-inum

give the breast to, nurse a child - PAN *pa-susu

give, present gifts to; gift - PMP *beRay

join two things to give added length (rope, bamboo, etc.) - PAN-F *Nutud

make alive, give life to - PPh *maŋ-bihaR

sell, give in exchange - PWMP *pa-beli

to box, give a blow - PWMP *peRpeR

to box, give a blow - PWMP *pegpeg

to direct someone to something, to give instructions - PWMP *tuzuq-an

to follow instructions, follow an example; carry along, give in, allow something to happen - PWMP *tuRut

to give - PAN-F *bula₂

to give - PAN *pa-beRay

to give a name to someone or something - PWMP *ŋajan-an

to give shelter to - PPH *pa-siduŋ-en

to lend, give a loan - PPh *ipa-qútaŋ

to lend, give on credit - PWMP *pa-qutaŋ

to name, give a name to - PMP *i-pa-ŋajan

to name, give a name to - PMP *pa(ka)-ajan

to name, give a name to; to call by name - PWMP *i-ŋajan(-an)

to nurse, give a child the breast (to be sucked) - PAN *pa-susu-en

to point at, point out, lecture or instruct, give advice - PAN *t<um>uzuq

to point at, point out; give directions - POC *tusuq

to point at, point out; give directions - PAN *tuzuq₁

to point out, give directions (?) - PAN *pa-tuzuq

to shelter, give shelter to - POC *paka-maluRu

yes; agree, give assent - POC *qo

given

allowed to live, given life; made captive - PPh *bihaR-en

be satiated, given a full belly - PWMP *besuR-en

something given to another for safekeeping (?) - PMP *pa-taRuq

what is given to someone - PWMP *huluR-an

giving

act of giving birth (?) - PWMP *paR-anak

gizzard

kind of marine fish, probably gizzard shad: Anodontostoma spp. - PWMP *kabasi

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gl

glance

glance, glimpse - PMP *kilep

glance, look at quickly - PPH *sirap

glancing

glancing blow; chop - PWMP *tigtig

glans

notch, as in a tree trunk; notch-shaped area under the glans penis - PWMP *etak

glaring

dazzled, blinded by glaring light - PWMP *siraŋ

glauca

a leguminous shrub: Leucaena glauca - PPh *ipil ipil

gleam

shine, gleam - *(near)

gleaming

gleaming, luminous - PWMP *gilaw

glen

ravine, glen, valley - PWMP *lebak₂

glide

glide off, slide off - *(noise)

push, slide or glide forward, as in pushing wood into a fire, or storming the enemy - PWMP *suruŋ

slide, glide - *(noise)

to soar, glide, hover, as birds of prey - POC *tapa₃

glimpse

glance, glimpse - PMP *kilep

silhouette, shadow; glimpse of something - PMP *ilap₂

glitter

glitter flash - *-laŋ₁ (root)

glitter, flash - *(noise)

glitter, flash, sparkle - PWMP *kidelap

shine, glitter - PMP *gilak

shine, glitter - PMP *bilak₁

sparkle, glitter - PPH *kis(e)láp

globe

puffer fish, globe fish: Tetrodon lunaris - PWMP *butiti

Glochidion

a plant: Glochidion spp. - PPH *anam

gloom

gloom, darkness; dark, overcast, gloomy - PAN *demdem₂

shade, darkness, gloom - PWMP *qiem₂

gloomy

dark, overcast, gloomy - PAN *ma-demdem

foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain - PAN-F *ma-lebleb

foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain - PAN-F *lebleb₁

gloom, darkness; dark, overcast, gloomy - PAN *demdem₂

glory

creeping vine that grows on sandy beaches, the beach morning glory: Ipomoea pes-caprae - PPH *balinu

glow

glow or flame of fire - POC *pururuŋ

glowing

ember, glowing coal - POC *koran

ember, glowing coal - PMP *baRah hapuy

ember, glowing coal - PAN *baRah

glue

glue - *(loan)

glue, paste, plaster, caulk - PMP *dalit₁

glutted

glutted, sated; swollen (of the belly) - PMP *be(n)tur

glutted, sated; swollen (of the belly) - PMP *be(n)tuR

glutton

glutton - POC *puso₂

glutton - PMP *busaw

gluttony

gluttony, uncontrolled appetite - PPH *sibáq

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gn

gnash

angry; gnash the teeth - *-ŋeC (or *-ŋeqeC?) (root)

gnash the teeth - PAN *ŋeCŋeC

gnash the teeth in anger or impatience - PWMP *li(ŋ)get

gnat

gnat - *(loan)

gnat, midge - PWMP *reŋit

gnat, sandfly, fruit fly - PMP *neknek

tiny biting insect: gnat, sandfly - PMP *ñikñik

gnaw

chew on, gnaw on - PPh *haŋút

chew, gnaw on - PAN-F *qelqel

front teeth, incisors; gnaw, to bite or tear off with the incisors - PMP *gutgut

gnaw - PAN *ŋitŋit₁

gnaw - *-gut₁ (root)

gnaw meat off bones - PWMP *kilkil

gnaw, nibble - PAN *ŋetŋet

gnaw, nibble at - PMP *qitqit

nibble at, gnaw at something hard - POC *bari

nibble off, gnaw off - PAN *qiCqiC

nibble or gnaw at - PPH *kibkíb

nibble, gnaw; moth - PMP *getget₁

to bite, gnaw - PWMP *kitkit

to bite, gnaw - PWMP *ketket

to chew or gnaw on something - PPH *ŋutŋut-en

to gnaw - PPH *ŋutŋut

to gnaw, nibble - POC *ŋoŋot-(i)

to gnaw, nibble - POC *ŋoŋot-i

to gnaw, sound of gnawing on something - PMP *keRut

gnawing

move the lips rapidly, as in gnawing or nibbling on something - PPH *kútib

sound of ripping, gnawing, etc. - PAN *geriC

to gnaw, sound of gnawing on something - PMP *keRut

gnemon

a shrub or tree: Gnetum gnemon - PWMP *baguh

a tree: Gnetum gnemon - PMP *suka₁

Gnetum

a shrub or tree: Gnetum gnemon - PWMP *baguh

a tree: Gnetum gnemon - PMP *suka₁

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go

go

accompany, go together with - PWMP *duluR

circumambulate, go around the edge - *(loan)

close the eyes; go out, of a light - PWMP *qezep

come on! let's go! - PWMP *ita₂

come on! let's go! - PWMP *itaq

come; toward the speaker; let’s go! - PAN *aRi

descend, go down - PWMP *h<um>uluR

descend; go down; land from a boat - POC *sipo

exceed, surpass, go beyond - PWMP *lalaw

follow, go after - *(noise)

go - PAN-F *uSa

go - POC *pano

go - PMP *lampaŋ

go - PWMP *lambaq

go - POC *pa₃

go - PCEMP *ba₆

go against the current, oppose, go in the opposite direction - PPH *sudsud₃

go against wind or current - PWMP *suŋsuŋ₁

go around the edge, take a detour - PPH *liklík

go around, encircle - PWMP *liut₁

go around, envelop, surround - PWMP *l<um>iput

go away from - POC *tani₁

go beyond, go over, go past - PWMP *la(m)baŋ

go directly, take a shortcut - PWMP *la(n)t(e)qas

go down, descend - POC *sobu

go down, descend - PEMP *sombu

go downriver, go seaward - PMP *pa-lahud

go first - PMP *um-unah

go fishing; fish at low tide (?) - PMP *qeti₂

go for a walk - PPH *talaq₂

go headhunting - PMP *ma-ŋáyaw

go home - PWMP *uliq-en

go home - PWMP *uliq-an

go in a circle - PMP *liliŋ₂

go or do something slowly, take one’s time - PPH *ananay₂

go out for some fresh air - PMP *pa(ka)-haŋin-haŋin

go over and beyond - PPH *l<um>ápus

go over and beyond - PPH *lápus

go overland, hike - PPH *t<um>aneq

go past, go beyond - PCEMP *sepat

go right through, penetrate through and through - PWMP *terus

go straight; straighten - POC *kodos

go through a narrow passage - POC *solso

go to sea, make a sea voyage - POC *pa-laur

go together - PMP *hampil

go upstream - PWMP *um-udahik

go with, accompany someone - PWMP *man-deŋan

go, move - POC *pana

go, walk away, depart - PMP *panaw₂

go, walk away, depart - PAN *paNaw

make something go or move - PWMP *pa-zalan

oppose, go against someone - PMP *laban-an

oppose, go against someone - PMP *laban₂

precede, go before - PPh *unah-unah

precede, go or be first; earlier, former - PMP *unah

raid, go headhunting - PWMP *ayaw₂

refresh oneself, go out for some fresh air - POC *paka-aŋin-aŋin

return, go back - PWMP *pulaŋ

return, go back - PAN *Cikel

return; go back - PPh *maR-uliq

round about, around, in one’s surroundings; go around - PMP *kuliliŋ

send for, allow to go - PPH *tubuy

side, go to the side - PWMP *sisiq

submerge, go under water - POC *lomos

to attack, go to war - PPH *gubát

to be in motion; go, walk - PMP *lakaw

to descend, come or go down - PWMP *t<um>uRun

to descend, go down; to lower - PMP *tuRun₁

to do or go first - PMP *h<um>una

to do or go first; to lead - PMP *(q)<um>una

to do or go first; to lead - PAN *(q)<um>uNah

to go - PMP *l<um>akaw

to go - POC *lako

to go past, go beyond, be excessive - PPH *lampás

to go upstream, ascend a river - PPH *súbaq

to go, to walk - PAN-F *um-uSa

to go; to come - POC *oRo

to hunt, go hunting - PAN *q<um>aNup

to oppose, go against - PPH *sudsud-en

to pass someone by, overtake in walking, go past - PWMP *libas₂

turn, go around - PAN *taliuk

walk, go - PWMP *makaw

walk, go - PMP *lampaq

go ahead!

go ahead!, O.K.! - *(loan)

goal

direction, goal, destination - PMP *tuzu

goat

Formosan serow, mountain goat - PAN-F *Sidi

goat - PWMP *kandiŋ

goat - *(loan)

goat - *(loan)

goat hair decoration on a spear or staff - PMP *bandaŋan

goatfish

goatfish - POC *suaR₂

goatfish spp. - PMP *tiqaw₁

goatfish, family Mullidae - POC *tiqo

goatfish, family Mullidae - PMP *tiqaw₂

gobbled

be gobbled up, eaten voraciously - PPH *sabsab-én

goby

goby, blenny - POC *kakawa₂

going

be cast adrift, cast ashore after going adrift - PPH *padpád

follow the edge of a body of water, as in going upstream - PMP *sulsul₁

goiter

goiter - PAN *biqel

goiter - *(noise)

goiter - *(noise)

gold

copper-gold alloy - *(loan)

gold - PAN *bulaw-an

gold - *(loan)

inlay of gold or silver - PWMP *tataq

Golden

a bird, the Golden Whistler, Pachycephala spp. - POC *sau

golden

golden colored - PAN *bulaw

Golden

shore bird: sandpiper, Pacific Golden Plover - POC *kiwiwi

gold-foil

gilding, gold-foil - *(loan)

gone

finished, completed; all gone - PWMP *puspus₁

finished, gone - PMP *qubus

finished, gone - PWMP *ebus

gone, used up - PMP *mampus

gone, vanished, terminated - PWMP *la(m)pus₁

past, done, gone - *(loan)

spoiled, gone to waste; never realized, of potential for fertility - PPH *baqug

gong

gong - *(loan)

good

good - PMP *ma-pia

good - PMP *diqaq

good - *(noise)

good, kind, pleasant - PWMP *bait₁

luck, good fortune - PWMP *tuaq

mate, companion, fellow; together with; alike, the same as; aligned or in good order - PWMP *sama

reciprocate good or evil - PWMP *baras

to answer, retaliate; reciprocate good or evil - PAN *bales₁

to balance, be in good balance - PWMP *ma-nimbaŋ

goodness

goodness - PMP *pia₂

goods

goods, belongings, things, possessions - *(loan)

goods, valuables - *(loan)

small basket; a unit of measure for dry goods - PPH *salúp

stolen goods (?) - PWMP *takaw-an

stolen; stolen goods - PWMP *t<in>akaw

what is stolen, stolen goods; was stolen (past tense of direct passive) - PAN *C<in>akaw

goose

goose - *(loan)

gore

horn of an animal; to butt or gore - PPH *suŋay

gorge

gulp down food, gorge on one food to the exclusion of others - PWMP *lunlun₂

gossip

gossip, slander - PWMP *buat buat

gotten

fetched, gotten, taken - PWMP *ka-alap-an

fetched, gotten, taken - PWMP *ka-alap

gouge

curved chisel, gouge - *(loan)

to gouge or pry out - PWMP *lugit

gourami: a fish

gourami (fish) - *(loan)

gourd

a vine with gourd or cucumber-like fruit, probably Luffa sp. - PPH *kabatíti

gourd, pumpkin - *(noise)

kind of edible squash or gourd: Lagenaria leucantha - PPH *tabayaR

the bottle gourd: Lagenaria siceraria - PWMP *labuq₂

the wax gourd: Benincasa hispida - PWMP *kunduR

the wax gourd: Benincasa hispida - PWMP *kundul

government

government - *(loan)

TOP      ge    gh    gi    gl    gn    go    gr    gu    

gr

grab

grab with the hand, catch - PAN *sapet

grab, grasp, seize - PAN *za(ŋ)kuC

snatch, grab - PAN *dakuC

graceful

graceful curve - PWMP *lentik

graceful curve (of body) - PPH *lantik

gradually

gradually sloping (of terrain); soft-spoken - PWMP *la(n)day

grain

(entire) stalk of bananas; ear of grain - PMP *buliR

able to resist or persist, as rice grains that are difficult to husk - PWMP *betaq₁

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root - PMP *uRat

dry measure for grain etc. - *(loan)

fine particles, powder which results from pounding grains, etc.; pulverize grains - PMP *bekbek₁

flesh, lean part of meat; grain of wood - POC *pisiko

flesh, lean part of meat; grain of wood - POC *pijiko

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

grain, kernel - PWMP *butir

grain, kernel - PWMP *butil

immature rice grain (?) - PWMP *ubek

infertile rice grain, husk without grain inside - PPH *lupes

pour, pour out, as water or grain from a container - PMP *buqbuq

reaping knife; to reap grain - PWMP *ketep₂

separate the chaff from the grain - PMP *siji

shake grains on winnowing tray - *(loan)

sheaf to which rice grains are attached - PPh *quhut

sickle for harvesting grain - PAN-F *kawkaw₁

thresh grain by trampling - PAN *Riqek

thresh grain with the feet - PWMP *maŋ-Riqek

to husk rice; be afflicted with pimples on the skin resembling rice grains - PWMP *beRas-en

to pound into powder, as grain - PWMP *ledek

unhusked rice grain left among the husked grains - PWMP *ataq

grainy

dry, grainy, brittle - PWMP *pera

grammatical

grammatical particle - PAN *qu₂

granary

field hut, granary - PMP *lepaw₂

rice barn, granary - PMP *lumbuŋ₂

grandchild

grandchild - POC *mo-kobu

grandchild - PMP *kempu

grandchild - POC *mokobu

grandchild - PMP *maki-empu

grandparent, grandchild - *(noise)

grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor - PMP *umpu

grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor; lord, master, owner - PMP *empu

grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal term of address) - POC *bubu₆

grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal term of address) - PAN *bubu₆

grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal) - PEMP *t-ampu

grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal) - PMP *ampu

grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal) - PAN *apu

grandparent/grandchild (ref.) - PMP *t-empu

grandparent/grandchild (referential term used reciprocally) - PMP *ta-umpu

grandparent/grandchild; ancestor - POC *tubu₂

regard as a grandparent or grandchild (?) - PPh *apu-en

grandfather

grandfather - PWMP *lakay

grandfather - PAN-F *baki₂

grandfather - *(loan)

grandfather - *(noise)

grandfather, ancestor - PAN-F *aki

grandfather, grandmother, ancestor (vocative) - PMP *empu-q

grandfather, grandmother; ancestor (vocative) - PWMP *empú-ŋ

grandiflora

a plant: Sesbania grandiflora - PPH *katuday

beach creepers, including Ipomoea grandiflora and Ipomoea pes-caprae - POC *puRe₂

tree sp.: Sesbania grandiflora - PMP *tudiq

grandmother

grandfather, grandmother, ancestor (vocative) - PMP *empu-q

grandfather, grandmother; ancestor (vocative) - PWMP *empú-ŋ

grandmother - PAN *baqi

grandmother - *(loan)

grandparent

ancestor, grandparent - POC *tibu₂

grandparent - PMP *t-impu

grandparent - PMP *impu₂

grandparent, ancestor, lord, master, owner (voc.) - PPh *apu-ʔ

grandparent, grandchild - *(noise)

grandparent, possibly vocative - PMP *pa-ampu

grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor - PMP *umpu

grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor; lord, master, owner - PMP *empu

grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal term of address) - POC *bubu₆

grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal term of address) - PAN *bubu₆

grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal) - PEMP *t-ampu

grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal) - PMP *ampu

grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal) - PAN *apu

grandparent/grandchild (ref.) - PMP *t-empu

grandparent/grandchild (referential term used reciprocally) - PMP *ta-umpu

grandparent/grandchild; ancestor - POC *tubu₂

great grandparent - *(loan)

great grandparent - *(noise)

regard as a grandparent or grandchild (?) - PPh *apu-en

grapple

wrestle, grapple with - PWMP *gumul

Graptophyllum

ornamental shrub used for hedges Graptophyllum pictum - PWMP *qatay qatay₂

grasp

enclose, cover; grasp - *-kem₁ (root)

grab, grasp, seize - PAN *za(ŋ)kuC

grasp in the fist - PMP *Re(ŋ)kem

grasp in the fist - *-gem (root)

grasp, embrace - PWMP *hakep

grasp, grip, squeeze - PMP *mesmes

grip, grasp - *(noise)

hook, clasp; grasp with fingers - *-bit₁ (root)

misunderstand, fail to grasp - PWMP *baliŋ₁

seize, grasp - PMP *cekep

seize, grasp, embrace - *-kep₂ (root)

seize, grasp, wrap around - PWMP *Rakep

take hold of, grasp - POC *qabi

take hold of, grasp - POC *abi

take hold of, grasp, touch with the hand - POC *taŋop

take in the hand, clasp, grasp - PMP *kemel

take in the hand, clasp, grasp - PAN *gemel

to grasp, reach for; grasping, greedy - PPH *sakém

to grip, grasp tightly - PWMP *pigeŋ

touch, grasp - PMP *ibit

grasping

to grasp, reach for; grasping, greedy - PPH *sakém

grass

a cereal grass with edible seeds that are also used as beads, Job’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L. - PMP *zelay

be overgrown with grass or weeds - PWMP *dukut-en

cane grass, Miscanthus sp. - PAN *biRaSu

elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea - PMP *taŋelaj

elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea - PAN *Caŋelaj

fibrous roots, as of grass - PMP *Ramut

grass - PMP *dukut₂

grass - PMP *zukut

grass - PAN *udu

grass - PWMP *rikut

grass - POC *palisi₂

grass - POC *palisi₁

grass - *(noise)

grass, brush - *(noise)

grass, herbs; medicine - PAN-F *Cemel

grass; grow densely, as grass - POC *buburu

kind of coarse grass - PWMP *taŋ(e)buq

kind of grass - PPH *kumpay

kind of grass - PMP *balizi

kind of grass - PMP *baliji

kind of grass or rush - PWMP *sedsed₁

kind of tall grass: Themeda gigantea - PPH *taŋ(e)laj

lemon grass: Cymbopogon spp. - PWMP *seray

swamp grass - PMP *lamun₁

sword grass, Imperata cylindrica - PMP *guRun

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - POC *guRun

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - PAN-F *Rimeja

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - PAN *Riaq

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - PAN *eRiq

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - POC *pitu₂

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - PCEMP *bitu

to cut grass or weeds, as in preparing a field for planting - PPH *sipsíp

trimmed short, as grass; bare (of a field) - PWMP *palpal₁

uncultivated field, open grassland; field covered with sword grass (Imperata cylindrica) - PWMP *padaŋ

grasshopper

bait, grasshopper - *(noise)

grasshopper - POC *siko

grasshopper - PMP *batik₂

grasshopper - PWMP *bilalaŋ

grasshopper or stick insect - POC *sakwa

grasshopper, locust - PPh *dúdun

grasshopper, locust - PWMP *balalaŋ₁

orthopterus insect: cicada or grasshopper - POC *sisi(rR)

grassland

uncultivated field, open grassland; field covered with sword grass (Imperata cylindrica) - PWMP *padaŋ

grate

scrape, grate - PPH *kagud

scrape, grate - PWMP *kerud

scrape, grate - POC *pari₁

scrape, grate - PWMP *kerus₁

scrape, grate, as coconut preparatory to cooking - POC *korit

scrape, grate, rasp - PMP *kaRud

scratch, grate - PMP *kerit

scratch, grate, scrape - *-kis₁ (root)

sharpen, rub, grate - PEMP *asaq

to grate - *(noise)

to scrape, as coconut meat from a shell; to grate, as coconut meat - POC *isi₄

to scrape, rasp, grate, as in grating coconuts - PMP *kuDkuD

to whet, grate, sharpen - PAN-F *s<um>upay

grater

grater - *(loan)

grater, rasp, as for coconuts - PWMP *kuDkuD-an

mussel sp. or spp. used as food grater or scraper - POC *kukur

to scrape; scraper or grater made from circular bivalve shell: Asaphis spp. - POC *kasi

grating

sound of grating - PWMP *kad(e)rit

sound of grating, rain pounding, etc. - PPH *kaRitkit

sound of grinding or grating - PPH *kaRadkad

to scrape, rasp, grate, as in grating coconuts - PMP *kuDkuD

grave

cover with a hollow container; shelter over a grave - PWMP *suŋkub

cover with a hollow container; shelter over a grave - PWMP *cuŋkub

grave; to bury - PAN *CaNem

grave; to bury; to plant - PMP *tanem

gravel

grit, coarse sand, gravel - PMP *badas

small stones, gravel - PMP *anak i batu

stony, gravel - PMP *batu-batu

graven image

graven image, statue - *(loan)

gravy

broth, gravy - *(loan)

juice; broth, soup; gravy - POC *suRuq₁

juice; sap; gravy; soup - PMP *zuRuq

gray

ash, hearth, cinder, powder, dust; gray - PMP *qabu

covered with ashes; ashen, gray - PWMP *ma-qabu

gray - *(loan)

gray hair - PAN-F *qudaS

gray hair - PMP *quban

gray hair - PAN *qubaN

have gray hair - PWMP *quban-en

have gray hair - PWMP *ma-quban

grayish

ashen, grayish - PMP *labu₂

whitish, grayish - PPH *pudaw

graze

graze, strike lightly against - PMP *tiŋkuq

prune; graze - *-teb (root)

grease

fat, grease; ointment - PMP *miñak

fat, grease; ointment - PMP *meñak

fat, grease; sweet taste - POC *moña-moñak

fat, grease; tasty - PWMP *tabeq

grease, oil, fat - PMP *himaR

grease, oil, fat - PAN *SimaR

oil, grease - POC *lumu₁

semen, smegma, grease - POC *biRas₂

semen, smegma, grease - POC *biRaq₃

greasy

greasy, fatty - PWMP *liñab

lard, fat, greasy scum on the surface of liquids - PPH *laneb

great

big, great, large - POC *lapat

great grandparent - *(loan)

great grandparent - *(noise)

stunned by great noise - PWMP *biRaw

greedy

crocodile; greedy - PMP *buqaya

to grasp, reach for; grasping, greedy - PPH *sakém

green

coconut growth stage 6: green drinking coconut - POC *karut₂

cook in a tube of green bamboo - PWMP *lemeŋ₂

dark green, dark blue - POC *buluŋ₃

green - *(loan)

green jobfish: Aprion virescens - PMP *qutun

green, as vegetation - PPH *lunaw₂

intense green or blue-green - POC *keja

large green hairless stinging caterpillar - PWMP *tatadu

large green hairless stinging caterpillar - PMP *katadu

large stinging green caterpillar - PWMP *qantatadu

large stinging green caterpillar - PWMP *hantatadu

raw, unripe, green (fruit), uncooked - PCEMP *ma-qetaq

raw, unripe, green (fruit), uncooked - PAN *ma-qetaq

the green turtle - PAN *peñu

the green turtle, Chelonia mydas - POC *poñu

the green turtle, Chelonia mydas - PMP *peñu

greenish

fighting cock with greenish feathers on light background - PWMP *hizaw

greenish fruit dove - POC *bune bune

greenish fruit dove - PMP *punay punay

greenish fruit dove - PAN *puna-punay

greenish fruit dove - PAN *punay

greet

to meet or greet someone who is arriving, or who one encounters by surprise - PPH *sabat-en

to meet or greet someone, welcome someone who is arriving - PWMP *sabat

to meet, receive; greet a guest - PWMP *temu₂

greeting

excuse oneself; greeting - *(loan)

Grewia

a tree; Grewia spp. - PMP *qanilaw

grey

mottled brown and grey (of the feathers of cocks) - PWMP *baRunbun

grief

to wail, cry out in grief - PWMP *ŋulŋul₂

grimace

grimace at pain - PAN *teŋiC

grimace at pain - PAN *reŋiC

grime

dirt, grime - *(near)

grin

grin widely, showing the teeth - PMP *beŋis₂

grin, show the teeth - PMP *zizir

grin, show the teeth - POC *ŋiŋis

grin, show the teeth - PWMP *ŋiŋi

grin, show the teeth - PMP *ŋisŋis

grin, show the teeth - PMP *ziziq

to grin, show the teeth - PMP *ŋisi

grind

a person who turns or grinds something; an instrument used for rolling or grinding - PWMP *paŋ-giliŋ

grind to a powder, pulverize - PWMP *begbeg

mill or grind - PWMP *gariŋ

person or instrument that grinds or sharpens - PWMP *paŋ-hasaq

to grind, as by rolling over - PMP *giliŋ

to grind, be ground up by someone - PWMP *giliŋ-en

to grind, crush by grinding - PWMP *galiŋ

to turn, roll over; grind up - PWMP *g<um>iliŋ

to turn, rotate; to grind with a stone roller - PWMP *maŋ-giliŋ

grinding

a person who turns or grinds something; an instrument used for rolling or grinding - PWMP *paŋ-giliŋ

grinding stone, place where foods are ground up or instrument for grinding them - PWMP *giliŋ-an

sound of grinding or grating - PPH *kaRadkad

to grind, crush by grinding - PWMP *galiŋ

what is ground up, what is produced by twisting around or grinding - PPH *g<in>iliŋ

grindstone

whetstone, grindstone - PMP *hasaq-an

whetstone, grindstone - PAN *Sasaq-an

grinning

show the teeth, as in grinning - POC *sisi₂

grip

grasp, grip, squeeze - PMP *mesmes

grip, compress, close in on - POC *komos

grip, compress, squeeze - PMP *kemes

grip, grasp - *(noise)

grip, hold tightly - *(loan)

hold, grip - PWMP *agem₁

seize, grip - *(loan)

to grip with the teeth, as a dog in carrying something - PWMP *saŋal

to grip, grasp tightly - PWMP *pigeŋ

grit

grit, coarse sand, gravel - PMP *badas

groan

deep grunt or groan - PMP *beReŋ

groan, cry of pain - PPh *áŋal

groan, moan - PAN *daRiŋ

groan, moan, roar - PWMP *qereŋ

groan, moan, roar, growl - PMP *heReŋ

groan, moan, snore - *-Reŋ (root)

groan, roar - POC *uRuŋ

grunt, groan - *-ŋek (root)

moan or groan - PMP *iŋus

moan, groan - PPh *hendek

roar of a current, crashing waves, etc.; moan, groan (as in pain or when near death) - PMP *huRuŋ

snore, groan, etc. - PMP *haRuŋ

snore, groan, etc. - PAN *SaRuŋ

to groan, moan, roar - PWMP *maŋ-heReŋ

to moan, groan, grunt - POC *ŋuRuR

groaning

sound of groaning, moaning, roaring, etc. - PMP *deReŋ

groin

groin, inner thigh where it joins the trunk - PCMP *kelen

groove

gap, open space; groove - PMP *siwaŋ

line, groove, mark made by cutting - PPH *getget₂

notch, groove - PMP *geret₁

grope

feel in the dark, grope - PAN *kapkap

feel, grope - PMP *zemak

feel, grope - PMP *hapuhap

feel, grope - PAN *SapuSap

feel, grope - PMP *haphap

feel, grope - PAN *SapSap

feel, grope - *-kap (root)

to grope - PWMP *dapdap₂

to grope, fumble about - PPH *kapaq-kapaq

gross

big, gross, coarse - PWMP *ma-selaR

big, gross, coarse - PWMP *selaR

ground

a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers - PMP *kali₂

a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers - PAN *kalih

bend, fold, folding part of the body; curl up on the ground, of an animal - PMP *leku

bottom up, as a person bent far forward toward the ground - PWMP *tuad

burial ground (?) - PAN *m<in>aCay

clear the ground for a garden site - POC *poki

cleared area around house, cleared ground in village - PMP *natad

dig up the ground with a digging stick - PWMP *ma-ñuqan

elevated ground - PMP *bunduk

flattened, as plants to the ground - PMP *hapiq

grinding stone, place where foods are ground up or instrument for grinding them - PWMP *giliŋ-an

hole in the ground - PMP *luaŋ₁

hunting ground, hunting territory - PMP *qanup-an

hunting ground, hunting territory - PAN *qaNup-an

level ground; plain - PWMP *pataR₂

marshy ground - PPH *sarebséb

mud, ground, earth - PPH *lutáq

mud; earth, ground - *-tak₁ (root)

mud; earth, ground - *-taq (root)

pierce the ground - PAN *hesek

pit, deep cavity in the ground - PMP *lumbuŋ₁

plant in holes in the ground - POC *asok

root up the ground, of a pig; uproot - PMP *sual

scratch the ground, as a chicken does - PWMP *kahir

scratch the ground, as a chicken does - PWMP *kahiR

scratch up the ground, as chickens - PWMP *kaqis

shake, sway, as the ground in an earthquake - PMP *huyuŋ

sit on the ground - PWMP *timpuhuq

spread out on ground - PPH *latag

spread out, as a net or clothes on the ground to dry - PPH *ladlad

stick into the ground - PWMP *tazuk

stony place, stony ground - PWMP *ka-batu-an

swidden farm in swampy ground - PWMP *latiq

tethering stake; drive a stake into the ground - PPH *palpál₂

to grind, be ground up by someone - PWMP *giliŋ-en

to scratch up the ground, as chickens - PWMP *kais-an

village square; dancing ground - POC *malala

visible tree roots above the ground - PWMP *paŋkal

what is ground up, what is produced by twisting around or grinding - PPH *g<in>iliŋ

wrestle, seize and throw a person to the ground - PPH *ludeg

group

a set or group of five - PWMP *lima-an

catch a ride, join a group, ride on something - PMP *sakay₁

cluster, group - PWMP *lumpuŋ

cluster, group - PMP *lumpuk

companion, member of a group (of animals or people); friend - PWMP *kaban₁

divide into groups of five - PWMP *maR-lima

divide into groups of five - PWMP *maŋ-lima

eat together as a group - PPH *laŋlaŋ

five by five, in groups of five - PMP *lima-lima

group of eight - PPh *walu(h)-an

group of four (?) - PWMP *epat-an

group of six - PPh *enem-an

group of ten - PAN *puluq₁

group, company - *-ban (root)

group, company, collection, swarm - PMP *baban

group, crowd, flock, school, bunch, cluster - POC *putu, butu

group, crowd, flock, school, bunch, cluster - PCEMP *butu₂

group, pile - PMP *hebun

leader in a group - PWMP *tuqay

grouper

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PWMP *kuRapuq

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PMP *kuRapu

kind of striped or spotted marine fish, grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PMP *keRteŋ

large fish, probably grouper - POC *kalia

rock cod, grouper - POC *kalika

rock cod, grouper sp. - POC *kawa-kawa

grow

bracken, edible fern that grows by rivers: Athyrium esculentum - PAN *paheku

creeping vine that grows on sandy beaches, the beach morning glory: Ipomoea pes-caprae - PPH *balinu

fungus that grows on the sugar palm; tinder - PMP *baruk

grass; grow densely, as grass - POC *buburu

grow densely, of vegetation - PWMP *benes

grow rapidly, thrive, be healthy - PPH *talúbuq

grow, germinate, sprout - PMP *tubuq, tumbuq

let something grow, make something grow - PWMP *pa-tubuq-en

let something grow, make something grow - PPh *pa-tubuq

living, alive; grow, flourish; fresh; heal, cure, revive, recover; vital principle, soul, spirit; flame - PMP *ma-qudip

make something grow - POC *paka-tupuq

place where something grows or is added - PWMP *tubuq-an

tired, weary; to tire, grow tired - PPh *belay

to grow (of plants) - POC *polok

to grow weak or exhausted - PWMP *l<um>esu

to grow, spring up - POC *tubuq, tupuq

to lose weight, grow thin - PMP *sutsut₁

to sprout, begin to grow - PAN *tukul

to sprout, to grow - PMP *t<um>ubuq

to sprout, to grow - PAN *C<um>ubuq

to take root, grow roots - PWMP *maka-Ramut

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

trellis for plants to grow up - PWMP *paraq paraq

wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks - PMP *taliŋa na kahiw

wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks - PAN *Caliŋa na kaSiw

growl

be angry, growl at - PPh *íŋel₂

groan, moan, roar, growl - PMP *heReŋ

growl - PAN *ŋerŋer

growl - *(near)

growl - *(noise)

growl, whine - PMP *ŋurut

moan, growl - PPh *úŋur

to growl, as a dog - POC *ŋuru

to snore, growl, grunt - PAN *ŋusŋus

growth

coconut growth stage 12: sprouted - POC *tabwa

coconut growth stage 6: green drinking coconut - POC *karut₂

coconut growth stage 9: ripe, flesh hardened - POC *kulu₂

growth stage of rice - *(noise)

growth, increase - *(noise)

hairy; hair-like growths; plants with hair-like growths - PMP *bulu bulu

increase, growth - PMP *bubuq

kind of porous, white, round and flat coral growth - POC *buŋa₃

send out new growth, of vegetation - POC *tupul

to prune a tree; new growth from pruning - PPH *saliŋsíŋ

young growth stage of mullet - PMP *qaRuas

grub

sago grub - PMP *qabatiR

sago grub - POC *qapatoR

sago grub - PMP *qabateR

sago grub - POC *qapator

sago grub - PMP *qabated

grudge

brood, hold a grudge, remember, keep still - PAN *demdem₁

hold a grudge - PWMP *idap

gruel

rice gruel; rice porridge; to mix - *-buR₁ (root)

rice porridge, rice gruel - PMP *buRbuR₁

to make into gruel, rice porridge - PPH *lugaw-en

grumble

mumble angrily, grumble - PWMP *uŋut

mumble, grumble - PWMP *temud

grunt

deep grunt or groan - PMP *beReŋ

grunt - PMP *ŋek

grunt, groan - *-ŋek (root)

grunt, moan, etc. - PMP *ŋukŋuk

grunt, moan, etc. - PMP *ŋuk

sound of a grunt, etc. - PMP *ger

to moan, groan, grunt - POC *ŋuRuR

to snore, growl, grunt - PAN *ŋusŋus

TOP      ge    gh    gi    gl    gn    go    gr    gu    

gu

guard

be attentive, stand guard - *(loan)

guard, sentinel; to stand guard - PPH *tánud

guard, watchman - *(loan)

guava

guava - *(loan)

guess

guess, approximate - *(loan)

guess, suspect - PPh *antap

guess, suspect - *(noise)

guest

public building, community house, guest house - PMP *balay

stranger; visitor; guest - PWMP *sakay₃

to meet, receive; greet a guest - PWMP *temu₂

Guettarda

a plant: Guettarda speciosa - POC *pwano-pwano

guidance

instruction, guidance, help in getting started - PWMP *tuntun

guide

middle of the road, most trodden part of a path or road; guide who shows the way - PMP *mata nu zalan

to lead, guide; leader? - POC *turaŋa

gull

kind of white bird: probably gull sp. - PMP *kanaway

kind of white sea bird, probably gull sp. - POC *kanawe

gulp

eat voraciously, gulp down, swallow whole - PPH *lamun₂

gulp down food, gorge on one food to the exclusion of others - PWMP *lunlun₂

gulp, swallow - PWMP *leq(e)guk

slurp up food or water, eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *sabsab

slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *tabtab₂

to gulp, swallow all at once - PMP *teguk

gummy

gummy secretion - PAN *puteq

gummy secretion of the eyes - PWMP *muteq

sap, gummy secretion - PWMP *geteq

sap, gummy secretion - *-teq (root)

gums

gums - POC *ŋadasₐ

gums - PAN *gusi(ʔ)

gunpowder

gunpowder, medicine - *(loan)

gunwale

gunwale, side plank on canoe - *(loan)

gurgle

gurgle, sob - *(loan)

gurgling

make a gurgling sound - PMP *e(ŋ)guk

make a gurgling sound in the throat, or hiccup - PWMP *seguk

sound of gurgling water - PWMP *lagak

gush

gush or bubble up, of spring water - PMP *bual₂

spurt or gush out - PMP *puRcit

gust

gust, draft, current of air - POC *aŋin-aŋin

gust, draft, current of air; rumor - PMP *haŋin-haŋin

gut

gut a fish, eviscerate - PWMP *ebuq

gutter

make a gutter, ditch, or channel - PWMP *ŋ-abaŋ

guttural

deep guttural sound - PMP *heqeguk

guttural sound - PMP *eŋkut

low guttural or rumbling sound; snore, roar - PWMP *eŋker

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 7/14/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_g.htm