Introduction      Index to Sets      Cognate Sets      Finderlist      
Subgroups      Languages      Words      Proto-form indexes      
References+      Roots      Loans      Near      Noise      Formosan      
Updated: 9/22/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Finderlist

 1    2    3    6    9    A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P    Q    R    S    T    U    V    W    X    Y    Z   

H

he    hi    ho    hu    hy    

habit

custom, manner, way, habit - PWMP *ugáliq

hack

chop or hack into pieces - PWMP *ma-nektek

chop, hack off - PWMP *pated

chop, hack, cut off - PMP *etes₁

chop, hack, cut off - PMP *qetes

chop, hack, mince, cut up - POC *totok

clap, beat, hack - PAN *CabCab

hack a passage through - PWMP *maŋ-bentas

hack a passage through vegetation, blaze a trail - PMP *bentas

hack, chop into pieces - PAN *saksak₁

to chop, hack, cut off - PAN *t<um>əktək

to hack, chop off, trim with a bolo; pound, beat, knock on - PWMP *tabtab₁

hack off

hack off - *(loan)

Haemadipsa

jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp. - PAN *-matek

jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp. - PAN *qaNi-matek

jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp. - PWMP *kali-matek

jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp. - PMP *qala-matek

jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp. - PWMP *qali-matek

jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp. - PWMP *sali-matek

haft

tang of a knife, etc. which fits into the haft to attach blade and handle - PMP *utiŋ

haggle

to bargain, haggle over the price - PWMP *tawaD

hail

hail - POC *qusan patu₁

hail (lit. ‘stone rain’) - PMP *quzan batu₁

hail, hailstone - PMP *quzan batu₂

hail, hailstone - POC *qusan patu₂

hail; hailstone - PMP *quzan buaq

hailstone

hail, hailstone - PMP *quzan batu₂

hail, hailstone - POC *qusan patu₂

hail; hailstone - PMP *quzan buaq

hair

any plant with hairs that sting or cause itchiness - PWMP *amiaŋ

body hair - PAN-F *gumuN

body hair, feather - POC *lamu₂

body hair, feathers - PPh *bulbúl

body hair, fur, feathers, floss on plants - POC *pulu₃

body hair; fur; feather; down; antenna of insect or crustacean; spikes of sea urchin; floss on plant skins, color; type, kind - PCEMP *bulu₁

body hair; fur; feather; down; floss on plant stems; color; type, kind - PMP *bulu₁

close-cropped, of hair; bald - PPH *kupkup₄

dress the hair (of women); hair bun - PWMP *saŋgul

false hair - PWMP *buhek buhek-an

for the hair to lie down flat - PPH *kepkép₂

goat hair decoration on a spear or staff - PMP *bandaŋan

gray hair - PAN *qubaN

gray hair - PMP *quban

gray hair - PAN-F *qudaS

hair - *(noise)

hair of, fur of - PMP *bulu-n

hair on the temples - PAN *pispis₁

hair whorl - PAN *qali-puju

hair whorl - PAN *qali-puju-an

hair, feather - POC *ipu-

hairy, covered with hair or fibers - PWMP *ma-bulu

hairy, have lots of hair - PWMP *buhek-en

hairy, have lots of hair - PWMP *ma-buhek

have gray hair - PWMP *ma-quban

have gray hair - PWMP *quban-en

head hair - PAN *bukeS

head hair - PMP *buhek

head hair - PCEMP *buek

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - PCEMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - POC *qulu

husk, coarse hair or fiber - *-but₂ (root)

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PCEMP *daun

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PEMP *raun

lock of hair - *(noise)

lose hair or feathers - *(noise)

molting, losing hair or feathers - PWMP *ka-butbut-an

nit, egg of a hair louse - PAN *liseqeS

nit, egg of a hair louse - PMP *lisehaq, liseqah

oily, as the hair or skin - PMP *lumuk

oily, as the hair or skin - PWMP *lumek

pubic hair - PAN-F *qubiS

pubic hair - PAN-F *kumiS

pubic hair - PAN-F *kumeS

pubic hair - POC *koRo

remove hair or feathers - PPh *hi-bulbul

stench, as of burning hair - PPh *qaŋetej

to cut the hair short - PPH *kiskis-an

to pull out, as hair - PPH *bagut

to pull out, as hair - PPH *bagut-en

to search for lice, as by parting the hair - PPH *sukáy

wear the hair in a bun or topknot - PPH *puyud

hairless

large green hairless stinging caterpillar - PMP *katadu

large green hairless stinging caterpillar - PWMP *tatadu

hair-like

hairy; hair-like growths; plants with hair-like growths - PMP *bulu bulu

hairy

a hairy vine: Pueraria hirsuta - PAN *baSay

a hairy vine: Pueraria hirsuta - PMP *bahay

hairy - PPh *ma-bulbul

hairy - PWMP *bulu-en

hairy - POC *pulu pulu

hairy caterpillar - PMP *qulej bulu-an

hairy eggplant: Solanum ferox Linn. - PPH *basula

hairy filaments of certain plants, husk - PMP *bulut₁

hairy filaments of certain plants, husk - POC *bulut₂

hairy, covered with hair or fibers - PWMP *ma-bulu

hairy, have lots of hair - PWMP *buhek-en

hairy, have lots of hair - PWMP *ma-buhek

hairy; hair-like growths; plants with hair-like growths - PMP *bulu bulu

hairy; kind of hairy fruit, rambutan: Nephelium lappaceum - PWMP *bulu-an

large forest tree with edible brown, hairy fruits: Diospyros discolor - PPH *kamaguŋ

tree with edible hairy brown fruit: Diospyros discolor - *(loan)

Halcyon

kingfisher, Halcyon spp. - POC *kiki₁

kingfisher: Halcyon spp. - PMP *sikek

half

middle, center; half - PMP *teŋaq

one side, one half - PWMP *pihak

side, half - PCEMP *pali₁

to cut in half - PPH *tebteb-en

half-heartedly

insufficient, half-heartedly - PWMP *alaŋ-alaŋ

half-open

to prop half-open - PMP *tukaŋ

halibut

halibut, sole, flounder - POC *alali

halt

interjection used to halt a carabao in the fields - PPH *luá

hamlet

hamlet; kin-based residential unit - PAN *kuan₁

hammer

hammer, mallet, instrument for pounding or hammering - PAN *palu-palu

knock, pound, as with a hammer - PWMP *tabak₁

to hammer - POC *tutup₂

to hammer, pound (something) - PMP *tuktuk-i

to hammer, pound, beat - PAN *pukpuk

to hammer, pound, crush - PAN *tuqtuq

to hammer, pound, hit - PAN *palu₃

to hammer, to hit with a hard implement - PMP *palu

hammerhead

implement with curved blade: adze; hammerhead shark - PMP *biŋkuŋ

hammering

hammer, mallet, instrument for pounding or hammering - PAN *palu-palu

hammock

hammock - *(loan)

hand

beckon with the hand - PMP *away₁

break off with the hand - POC *baki₁

bring down the flat of the hand on something - PWMP *tepap

carry in the hand - PWMP *biŋbiŋ₁

catch fish or shrimp with the hands - PWMP *gamaʔ

catch under the hand - PMP *sikep₂

catch with the hands - PMP *cikep

clap hands - POC *pwajaR

cover nose and mouth with hand - PWMP *penpen₂

cup the hands - PMP *Raqup

do with the hand - PMP *kamet

do with the hand - PPH *kemet

feel, hold in the hand - PWMP *gamak

fire saw; tie a tool around the hand or some other fixture - PPH *kulili

gather in the cupped hands - PMP *ra(ŋ)kup

give a supporting hand - PWMP *abat₁

grab with the hand, catch - PAN *sapet

hand - POC *paRa₃

hand - PAN *kamay

hand - PAN *qa-lima

hand - PAN *qalima

hand arm - *(noise)

hand of bananas - PPH *sápad

hand over - *(loan)

hand over - *(noise)

hand, arm - PMP *baRa₁

hit, beat with hand or club in order to kill - PPH *palpál₁

hold in the hand - PAN *biNiC

hold in the hand - POC *taur

lines in the palm of the hand - PMP *uRat i lima

link in a chain; joined together, as links in a chain, people in sexual intercourse or marriage; hands joined in crossing pattern in circle dance - PWMP *kawiŋ

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

palm of hand, sole of foot - PMP *palaj₁

palm of the hand - PAN *dapa

palm of the hand, sole of the foot - PWMP *tapak₁

right hand, right side - PMP *ka-taqu₂

rub two things together, create friction, as sticks to make fire, or the hands - PMP *kusu₁

scoop up with both hands - PMP *saRup₁

scoop up with both hands; a double handful - PWMP *aŋkup₁

scrape or scratch with the hand - *(noise)

seize with the hands - PMP *ambit

slap, hit with open hand - PMP *tampek

slap, strike with the hand - PWMP *ta(m)pak

sound of swishing, as of hand passing through water - PPH *kisaw

squeeze with the hand - PWMP *pecel

take hold of, grasp, touch with the hand - POC *taŋop

take in the hand, clasp, grasp - PAN *gemel

take in the hand, clasp, grasp - PMP *kemel

take with hand - *(noise)

take with the hands - PWMP *maŋ-ambit

take with the hands - PWMP *maR-ambit

to bind, tie the hands or feet - PWMP *Rapus-en

to bind, tie the hands or feet, as a person in detention, or an animal to be slaughtered; restraining rope - PMP *Rapus

to detach a hand, or bunch of bananas from the stalk - PPH *sapád-en

to hand to - PPh *i-qabut

to peel by hand - POC *pilit₂

to plait, weave by hand, of baskets or mats - PWMP *laja

to plait, weave by hand, of baskets or mats - PPH *l<um>aja

to seize, take by force, snatch from another’s hands; pillage - PPH *samsám

to squeeze or press with the hand - PPH *pisel-en

to wave the hand, as in beckoning someone or in fanning oneself - PPH *paypáy

to wave the hand, to fan oneself - PWMP *kiap

topmost hand of banana stalk - PMP *qabaRa₂

topmost hand of banana stalk - POC *qapaRa₂

wash hands, feet or face - PMP *hiñaw

wash the hands - PMP *bañaw

wash the hands - POC *paño

wash the hands - PMP *ma-bañaw

wash the hands - PMP *bulu₂

wash the hands - POC *pulu₂

wash the hands or face - PWMP *huñaw

wash, as the hands - PMP *buRiq

wash, as the hands - PMP *puRiq

wave the hand or arms; call by waving - PMP *kaway₁

handful

handful of something - PWMP *kaup

scoop up with both hands; a double handful - PWMP *aŋkup₁

handle

able to cope, able to handle things - PPH *sapal

handle - PAN *pulu₁

handle of a knife or sword - PWMP *daŋanan

handle of an axe or adze - PMP *paRada

handle of an axe or adze - POC *paRara

handle of an implement - PWMP *pakaw

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born - PMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - PCEMP *qulu

tang of a knife, etc. which fits into the haft to attach blade and handle - PMP *utiŋ

handle of a tool

handle of a tool - *(loan)

handsome

handsome - *(loan)

handspan

handspan - PWMP *kilan

handspan - PMP *zaŋan₁

handspan - PWMP *zaŋkal

hang

(of a person) to hang by the arms, dangle - POC *tuku₃

clothesline, place to hang washed clothing - PMP *sampay-an

dangle, hang down loosely - PWMP *quntay₁

dangle, hang down loosely - PPh *waywáy

hang - PPh *bítay

hang of drape over the shoulder - PWMP *salampay

hang one's head - PMP *su(ŋ)kuk

hang, suspend - PPh *bítin

hang, suspend - PPh *bítin-bítin

hook; to hang up - PAN *saqit

to hang down, to lower - PPH *tustus₁

to hang on a hook, suspend from something - PPH *i-saqebít

to hang someone - PPh *maŋ-bítay

to hang up - POC *tau₂

to hang, as something on a nail - PPH *sad(e)qaŋ

to hang, drape over something - PPH *sab(e)láy

to hang, suspend - POC *saur₁

to hang, suspend - POC *kukut

hanging

commit suicide by hanging - POC *liko₁

hanging down, dangling - PWMP *untay₁

to wilt, wither, droop, as plants; dangling, hanging loosely - PPH *layláy

hanging curtain

hanging curtain - *(loan)

happen

become, happen - PWMP *bali₁

meet, encounter, happen upon - PPH *tagbúq

to follow instructions, follow an example; carry along, give in, allow something to happen - PWMP *tuRut

happening

every night, happening every night - PPH *R<in>abiqi

every night, happening every night - PAN *Rabi-Rabi

what are you doing? what’s happening? - PAN *ma-kuja

happy

joyful, happy - PPH *lípay

harbor

estuary, harbor - *(loan)

harbor bad feelings toward - *(noise)

sheltered water: deep place in a river; cove, harbor, lagoon - PMP *namaw

hard

become hard or stonelike, harden - PWMP *b<um>atu

bite down hard - PAN *kemkem₂

blow hard; snort, pant - PMP *qembus

constipation; packed hard and firm - PMP *etel

hard - *(noise)

hard crust of rice that adheres to the bottom of the cooking pot - PPh *itíp

hard of hearing - PWMP *iŋel₁

hard of hearing, deaf - PWMP *beŋeR

hard seed, stone of some fruits - PPH *butúl

hard stone used to make tools - POC *nadi

hard, firm - POC *patu₃

hard, solid - PMP *ma-teRas

hard, solid - POC *ma-toRas

hard, strong - PWMP *ma-tuqa

hard, strong, inflexible; vehement - PMP *keRas

heartwood of a tree, hard, durable core of wood; ironwood tree - PMP *teRas

high-pitched sound of striking against something hard but not resonant - PMP *katik

hit, strike hard - PWMP *batbat

nibble at, gnaw at something hard - POC *bari

press down hard on something - PPH *mudmúd

scrub hard to remove dirt - PPH *ludlud

strike two hard objects together to produce a spark - PPH *piŋkíq

thick or hard skin, buffalo hide, leather; callus - PWMP *balulaŋ

to crush or mash between two hard surfaces - PMP *pipis₂

to hammer, to hit with a hard implement - PMP *palu

to hit, strike, or hard objects colliding - PPh *beRták

to slap hard - POC *sabak

to slap something hard - PWMP *pagpag

to tap lightly on a hard surface - PWMP *ma-niktik

to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface - PAN *tiktik

to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface - PMP *tiktik

to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface - POC *titik₂

harden

become hard or stonelike, harden - PWMP *b<um>atu

harden one's feelings, become inured - PWMP *kalis

hardened

coconut growth stage 9: ripe, flesh hardened - POC *kulu₂

harden metal

harden metal - *(loan)

hardness

hardness, strength (of materials) - PWMP *tuqa₃

hardships

suffer, bear hardships - PWMP *hidap

hardwood

a hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga, Afzelia bijuga - PMP *qipil

hardwood tree with edible fruit and valuable timber: Palaquium spp. - PMP *ñatuq

kind of hardwood tree - PPH *lawaqan

various hardwood trees; heartwood of a tree - POC *toRas

hare

the Formosan hare: Lepus sinensis formosus - PAN-F *lutuk₁

hare-lip

hare-lip - *(noise)

hare-lipped

dented, having a jagged edge; hare-lipped - PWMP *sumbiŋ

harm

evil, harm, disaster - *(noise)

harmony

agreement, consensus; harmony (especially in material exchanges) - PWMP *payu

agreement, harmony - PWMP *sapiq

harpoon

spear, harpoon - PWMP *balabeg

spear, harpoon - POC *jaot

trident harpoon or fish spear - PWMP *sarapaŋ

harrow

comb, comb-like structure; rake, harrow - PMP *sisir

harrow - *(loan)

harrow, plough - *(loan)

harsh

harsh cry, bellow, loud cry - PMP *uak₁

harsh loud sound - PWMP *erak

harsh resonant sound - PWMP *raŋ

harsh throaty sound - PWMP *sukak

make a harsh throaty sound - PMP *pikak

harvest

close the harvest - PWMP *tebas₁

harvest fruits - PMP *buat₁

harvest fruits - POC *puat₁

harvest; to harvest - PWMP *aRani

harvest; to harvest - PAN *qaniS

harvest; to harvest - PMP *qanih

harvest; to harvest - PAN *maR-qani

the harvest, what is harvested - PWMP *qanih-an

to harvest - PWMP *q<aR>anih

to harvest, reap - PPh *qanih-en

harvested

the harvest, what is harvested - PWMP *qanih-an

harvesting

rice between harvesting and cooking; husked rice - PAN *beRas

rice between harvesting and cooking; husked rice - PMP *beRas

sickle for harvesting grain - PAN-F *kawkaw₁

hasta

a fish, the sea-bream: Sparus hasta - PWMP *bakukuŋ

hastily

look quickly here and there, look hastily in all directions - PPH *liŋat

hat

hat - *(loan)

palm used to make hats and fans - PWMP *silad

sun hat, used to provide shade - PPH *taduŋ

hatch

break into several large pieces; hatch - PMP *pesak

break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg - PMP *peceq₂

break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg - POC *posaq

to hatch - *(noise)

hate

hate - *(loan)

haughty

proud, haughty - PWMP *ambuŋ

haul

to pull, haul, drag - PCMP *dada

haunt

animal haunt, place frequented by animals - PAN *qenuR-an₁

animal haunt, place frequented by animals - PMP *qenuR-an₂

have

be, exist, have; not be, not have - PWMP *wada-i

be, exist, have; not exist, not have - PWMP *wada-q

be, exist, have; wealthy; not exist, not have - PMP *wada

having radical mood swings

moody, having radical mood swings - *(loan)

hawk

fish eagle, fish hawk - POC *taragau

hawk sp. - PWMP *sikep₁

hawk sp. (harrier?) - PAN-F *qadiS

hawk, eagle - PPh *banúg

kind of raptorial bird, eagle or hawk - PWMP *kaŋkaŋ₄

screech, as a hawk - PWMP *kuliqik

screech, as a hawk - PWMP *kuriqik

hawksbill

hawksbill turtle: Chelonia imbricata - PCEMP *keRa

hawksbill turtle: Chelonia imbricata - PCEMP *keRan₂

haze

fog, haze, mist - POC *kaput₂

fog, haze, mist; indistinct, blurry - PMP *kabut

hazy

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - PAN *bulaR₁

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - POC *pulaR₂

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - PWMP *buleheR

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - PPh *bulág

cloudy, misty, hazy - PWMP *ma-Rabun

TOP      he    hi    ho    hu    hy    

he

he

3sg. personal pronoun: he, she, it - PAN *si ia₁

3sg. personal pronoun: he, she; him, her, it - PAN *ia₁

head

back of the head - POC *keju

bow the head - PMP *tekuŋ₁

bow the head, nod - PWMP *tuek

bow, lower the head - PMP *tutuk₁

carry on the head - PAN *suquN

carry on the head - PWMP *zuŋzuŋ

carry on the head - POC *suqun

coiled base on which cooking pots are set or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *riken

coiled base on which cooking pots are set, or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *Riken

crown of the head - POC *tubuŋa

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

flat-topped coral head - POC *lababa

fontanel; crown of the head - PWMP *ubun (ubun)

fontanelle; crown of the head - PAN *buNbuN

fontanelle; crown of the head - PMP *bubun₂

hang one's head - PMP *su(ŋ)kuk

head - PAN *quluh

head - POC *batu

head - POC *pwau

head cover for women - PWMP *kuduŋ

head cover, protection from sun or rain - PMP *tuduŋ

head covering - PPH *panduŋ

head covering - *(noise)

head covering for women - PWMP *kulubuŋ

head hair - PAN *bukeS

head hair - PMP *buhek

head hair - PCEMP *buek

head louse - PAN *kuCux

head louse; sparks from a fire; water striker (insect that walks on water) - PMP *kutu₁

head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?) - PAN *tabaN

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born - PMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - PCEMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - POC *qulu

huddle, bow the head - PAN *Cukul

incline one's head to the side - PAN *qipiŋ

kind of wild cane with edible flower head - POC *piso₁

knob on the head of a club - POC *waka

knock on the head; crazy, insane - PPH *katúk

knock or bump the head - PAN *CugCug₂

knock or bump the head - PMP *tugtug₁

knock or bump the head - PAN *C<um>ugCug

knock or bump the head - PMP *t<um>ugtug

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PCEMP *daun

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PEMP *raun

look from side to side, turn the head in this way - PWMP *liŋaR

lower the head, bow or bend down - PWMP *tukuk

nod the head in drowsiness - PWMP *kantuk

nod the head in drowsiness - PWMP *qantuk

pad placed under cooking pots, loads to carry on the head, etc. - PPH *dikén

place where one rests the head: wooden headrest - PMP *qulun-an

rest the head on - PMP *qulun₂

rest the head on; wooden headrest - POC *quluŋ-an

shake the head in negation, shake the head from side-to-side - PWMP *iliŋ₃

side of the head - POC *tabal

take shelter, cover the head - PMP *teduŋ₁

temple, side of the head - PWMP *pilis

to nod the head, as in agreement - PPH *taŋuq

to rest the head against something; pillow - PPH *puŋan

turn one’s head to the side to look back - PPH *liŋiq

turn the head aside - PWMP *liŋeR

turn the head aside - PWMP *liŋus

turn the head to look back - PPH *liŋaw₂

what is carried on the head; a burden - PWMP *zuŋzuŋ-an

headcloth

head covering, kerchief, headcloth - *(loan)

type of headcloth - PWMP *sampir

head covering

head covering - *(loan)

head covering, kerchief, headcloth - *(loan)

head-end

head-end, upper part - PMP *qulu-an

head-end, upper part - PAN *qulu qulu

headhunting

go headhunting - PMP *ma-ŋáyaw

head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?) - PAN *tabaN

headhunting - PAN *ŋayaw

headhunting - PMP *kayaw

headhunting expedition - PWMP *pa-ŋáyaw

raid, go headhunting - PWMP *ayaw₂

headland

headland - POC *qulu ni panua

headless

headless, decapitated - PWMP *pugut

headrest

place where one rests the head: wooden headrest - PMP *qulun-an

rest the head on; wooden headrest - POC *quluŋ-an

wooden headrest - POC *kalik

wooden headrest, pillow - PMP *qalunan

headwaters

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born - PMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - PCEMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - POC *qulu

headwaters of a river - PMP *qulu ni wahiR

heal

living, alive; grow, flourish; fresh; heal, cure, revive, recover; vital principle, soul, spirit; flame - PMP *ma-qudip

to heal, as a wound - POC *mapo

healed

healed, of a wound with shiny skin - PPH *luqnit

healthy

feel fit, healthy - PMP *se(ŋ)ger

grow rapidly, thrive, be healthy - PPH *talúbuq

heap

collect, heap up - PMP *impu₁

cover with a heap of earth, etc.; a heap of earth, etc. - PWMP *bunbun-an₂

dam, dyke, embankment; to fill a hole with earth; to heap up - PMP *tambak₂

fall in a heap (of a person whose legs collapse) - PPH *lugmúk

fill a hole with earth; cover something with a heap of earth - PMP *bunbun

heap - *(noise)

heap of earth - *(noise)

heap up - PWMP *Ri(m)bun

heap up, pile up (as earth); dam - PMP *limbun

heap, collection; to gather, heap up - PMP *qi(m)pun

heap, pile - POC *opun

heap, pile - POC *upun₂

heap, pile, collection - PMP *hubun₂

heap, pile, collection - PWMP *umpuk

heap, pile, collection - PWMP *umpuk-an

heap, pile, cover with earth; collect, assemble - *-bun (or *-bequn?) (root)

heap, pile, swarm, flock; to swarm, assemble, gather - PMP *ebun

heap, pile; cover up - PWMP *tumbun

heap, pile; elevated platform used as a look-out - PWMP *paŋguŋ

hoard, heap - *(noise)

small heap, rounded mass - PWMP *tumpuk

to heap up, make a pile - PWMP *simpuk

to pile up earth or rocks, heap up so as to obstruct - PWMP *t<um>ambak

heaped

heaped up - PWMP *timbun

heaped up, as an obstruction - PWMP *ma-tambak

hear

hear - PMP *diŋeR

hear - *-neR (root)

hear at a distance - PPh *ántiŋ

hear; noise - *-ŋeR (root)

to be able to hear - PPH *maka-deŋeR

to hear - PWMP *man-deŋeR

to hear - PWMP *d<um>eŋeR

to hear - PAN *kiŋeR

to hear, listen - PMP *diŋa

to hear, listen - PAN-F *tumaNa

to hear, listen - PAN-F *t<um>umaNa

to hear, listen - PWMP *liŋa₂

to hear, listen - PAN-F *timaNa

to hear, listen - PAN-F *t<um>imaNa

to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight - PMP *deŋeR

to hear; sound - PAN *deŋeR

to hear; what is heard, news; to perceive by any sense other than sight - POC *roŋoR

heard

to hear; what is heard, news; to perceive by any sense other than sight - POC *roŋoR

hearer

away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer - PMP *a-tu

away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer - PMP *wa-tu

that --- indicating something close to the hearer - PPH *sa₄

hearing

hard of hearing - PWMP *iŋel₁

hard of hearing, deaf - PWMP *beŋeR

have a painful feeling in the teeth, as when eating something very sour or cold, or hearing a screeching or scratching sound - PWMP *ŋilu-an

heart

areca nut and palm; heart - POC *buaq

beating of the heart; pulse - PWMP *keteg

for the chest to tighten in excitement or fear; for the heart to pound - PPH *kebá

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

heart - POC *puso₃

heart - *(near)

heart (figurative); term of endearment - PMP *buaq ni qatay

heart leaves - PWMP *buŋbuŋ₃

heart leaves - POC *upur

heart of a person or animal; purple heart-shaped inflorescence of banana plant - PMP *pusuq₁

heart of palm, palm-cabbage - PMP *qubud

heart; heart of banana - PMP *pusuŋ₂

heart; mind - PAN-F *ajem

hearth

ash, hearth, cinder, powder, dust; gray - PMP *qabu

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

fireplace, hearth - PWMP *paR-hapuy-an

fireplace, hearth - PWMP *hapuy-an

hearth - PMP *dapuR

hearth - POC *rapuR

hearth, cooking place - PWMP *dapuR-an

place of ashes; hearth - PAN *qabu-an

storage shelf above the hearth - POC *paRa, baRa

heart-shaped

heart of a person or animal; purple heart-shaped inflorescence of banana plant - PMP *pusuq₁

heartwood

heartwood - *(noise)

heartwood of a tree, hard, durable core of wood; ironwood tree - PMP *teRas

various hardwood trees; heartwood of a tree - POC *toRas

heat

affected by heat (?) - PPH *ka-pasuq-an

expose to the heat of a fire or the sun - PPH *i-da(ŋ)dáŋ

expose to the heat of a fire or the sun - PWMP *maŋ-daŋdaŋ

flower, blossom; to flower, bear flowers; yield a benefit (as interest on a loan); first-born child; cotton; vulva (refined or evasive), skin rash, prickly heat; speckled (of fish); kidneys - PMP *buŋa

heat or dry something near a fire - PWMP *gaŋgaŋ

heat, warmth - PWMP *qinit

hot; blistered by heat - PAN *lasuq₁

sexual heat, sexual excitement - PMP *telaq₂

sexual heat, sexual excitement - POC *tolaq

to heat food - PMP *la(ŋ)ga

to heat food - PMP *la(ŋ)gaq

to heat up, warm up - PMP *panas-i

warm oneself or something near a fire; heat or dry near a fire - PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

heated

be heated or warmed by - PPh *qinit-en

heave

heave upward - PWMP *hampul

heaven

year, season; sky, heaven - PAN-F *kawaS₁

heavenly

to shine, of heavenly bodies - PMP *cilak

heavily

heavily laden, as a boat that is low in the water - PWMP *saRad

heaviness

weight, heaviness, weightiness; difficult; pregnant - PMP *beReqat

heavy

cane cord used for heavy binding - *(loan)

heavy; burdensome - PMP *ma-beReqat

heavy; weighty, important - POC *mapat

hit, strike a heavy blow - PMP *sambak

pound, thud, heavy splash - *-buk₂ (root)

pull or drag a heavy object along, as on a sled - PWMP *guyud₃

sound of a heavy smack - *-bag (root)

sound of a heavy smack - *-bak₂ (root)

sound of heavy clapping or pounding, smacking sound - PAN *bakbak₂

swiftly flowing, of water; heavy, of rain - PMP *deRes

thick, heavy rope - PWMP *kalat

to pour, of heavy rain - PAN-F *salaw

waves, heavy weather at sea - PWMP *bakat

hedge

ornamental shrub used for hedges Graptophyllum pictum - PWMP *qatay qatay₂

to surround, hedge in, besiege - PPH *k<um>ubkub

hedged

be surrounded, hedged in, besieged - PPH *kubkub-en

heed

listen to, heed - PWMP *maR-deŋeR

heel

heel - PMP *tiked

heel - POC *m-uri qaqe, m-uri waqe

heel - PWMP *tumid

heel - PWMP *tumbid

to squat, sit on one’s heels - POC *tiko

height

equal in height or length - PPH *tepeŋ₂

short in height, squat and compact in build, of a person - PMP *pandak

heir

heir, inheritance - *(loan)

Heliconia

a plant: Heliconia spp. - POC *paqo

help

carry on a pole between two persons; help someone carry a load - PWMP *bulig

carry on a pole between two persons; help someone carry a load - PPh *bulig-an

communal help - PWMP *deRep

help someone carry a load - PPh *maR-búlig

help, assist - PMP *tabaŋ

help, assistance - PWMP *awat

help, assistance; to help, assist - PWMP *uRup

instruction, guidance, help in getting started - PWMP *tuntun

push something to start it moving; accompany someone to help them start a journey - PPH *tulúd

to aid, assist, help - PWMP *t<um>uluŋ

to help, assist - PMP *tuluŋ

to help, assist with work - PWMP *saqup

hem

a fold or hem; to fold - PWMP *lepiq

edge, seam, hem - PPH *tebir

fold, hem - PWMP *lu(m)pi

fold, hem - PWMP *lupiq

hem - PPH *lílip

to fold, hem - PMP *lumiq

hemp

hemp plant; hemp - PAN-F *keRiw

Manila hemp: Musa textilis - PPh *abaká

hen

hen, egg-laying chicken - PMP *qupa

strut as rooster around hen - *(near)

her

3sg. personal pronoun: he, she; him, her, it - PAN *ia₁

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PMP *hateD

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PEMP *ated

his/her unnamed thing: his/hers - PMP *a-nu-ni a

his/her unnamed thing: his/hers - POC *anu-ña

herb

all kinds of medicinal herbs - PWMP *buluŋ buluŋ

grass, herbs; medicine - PAN-F *Cemel

herb used in making baskets: Donax cannaeformis - PWMP *benban

herb used in making baskets: Donax cannaeformis - PWMP *benben₂

kind of aromatic herb: Pogostemon cablin - PPH *kab(e)liŋ

kind of herb - PWMP *baŋun-baŋun

medicinal herbs - PMP *buluŋ₂

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - PMP *buRah

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - POC *puRa

various creeping herbs - PWMP *qasin qasin

herbaceous

small, wild herbaceous plants; scrub-land, bush - PMP *qutan

here

demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there - PMP *ia₂

demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there - PAN *si ia₂

here - PWMP *di-ieq

here - PAN *di-ni

here - PWMP *si-ni

here - PMP *tani₂

look quickly here and there, look hastily in all directions - PPH *liŋat

proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here; now - PAN *-ni

this, here - PAN *i-ni

this, here - PAN *-i-ti

this; here - PAN *ia-ni

this; here - PAN *qa-ni

Heritiera

a shore tree: Heritiera littoralis - PWMP *duŋun

hermit

hermit crab - PMP *qumaŋ qumaŋ

hermit crab - PAN *qumaŋ

hermit crab - POC *qumwaŋ

hermit crab - POC *koba

hermit crab - PMP *kumaŋ

kind of hermit crab - POC *katou

hernia

hernia - *(loan)

hernia - *(noise)

hernia; to slip down, slip off, pull back the foreskin of the penis - PMP *luslus

hero

hero, war-leader; dare to do - PMP *baRani

heron

heron - *(noise)

heron, egret - POC *sou

heron, probably Egretta sp. - POC *kao

herring

herring: Megalops cyprinoides - POC *pu-pulan

hesitate

doubt, hesitation, uncertainty; to doubt, hesitate, be of two minds - PMP *duha duha₂

doubt, hesitation, uncertainty; to doubt, hesitate, be of two minds - POC *rua rua₂

hesitate, not able to act - PPH *taka

hesitation

doubt, hesitation, uncertainty; to doubt, hesitate, be of two minds - PMP *duha duha₂

doubt, hesitation, uncertainty; to doubt, hesitate, be of two minds - POC *rua rua₂

hesitation particle - PAN *a₄

Heterospathe

wild palm tree with fruit similar to areca nut: Heterospathe elata - PPH *sagisí

Hew

Adze it!, Hew it! - PAN *taRaq-i

hew

to adze wood, hew wood with an adze - PAN *t<um>aRaq

to hew with an adze - PWMP *ma-naRaq

hewing

hewing with an adze - PAN *taRaq₁

hex

curse, hex; to bewitch; to criticize, find fault with - PPH *pintas

TOP      he    hi    ho    hu    hy    

hi

Hibiscus

Hibiscus tiliaceus, a tree the bark of which provides a fiber much used in making cordage; to lash, tie, bind - POC *paRu

a small shore tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus - PMP *baRu

hiccough

hiccough - PAN *sedu

hiccough - PWMP *ceguk

hiccough, sob - *-dek₁ (or *-deqek?) (root)

hiccup

hiccup - PWMP *siqedu

hiccup, produce a sound in the throat - PPH *sineqek

make a gurgling sound in the throat, or hiccup - PWMP *seguk

hidden

be hidden (?) - PWMP *buni-an

hidden - *(noise)

hidden behind something else - PPH *limeŋ

hidden from view - POC *boñu

hide, stay in a tight or hidden place - PPH *lukluk

secret, hidden - PWMP *silib

secret; hidden - PWMP *b<in>uni

that which is hidden or kept secret - PWMP *paŋ-buni

to hide, hidden - PWMP *sambuni

to hide, hidden - PWMP *tabuni₂

hide

animal skin, hide, leather - PAN *qaNiC

animal skin, hide, leather - PMP *qanit

concealed, secret; to deny, hide something - PPH *liméd

hide oneself - PWMP *tapuk₃

hide, conceal - PMP *buni₁

hide, conceal - POC *puni₂

hide, conceal - PWMP *liŋed

hide, conceal, do in secret - PWMP *lihem

hide, conceal, do in secret - PWMP *lihim

hide, stay in a tight or hidden place - PPH *lukluk

skin; hide; rind; bark - PMP *kulit

take cover, hide behind - PPH *kub(e)li

thick or hard skin, buffalo hide, leather; callus - PWMP *balulaŋ

to hide - POC *mumuni

to hide, conceal - PAN *buNi

to hide, conceal - PWMP *maŋ-buni

to hide, hidden - PWMP *sambuni

to hide, hidden - PWMP *tabuni₂

to store, put away for safekeeping, hide valuables; to place a bet in gambling; lay an egg - PMP *taRuq

high

high - *(loan)

high sea or tide - *(noise)

high tide (?) - PWMP *taeb

high tide, tidal flow - PMP *Ruab

high tide, tidal flow - POC *Ruap

high up, on top - PWMP *timbaw₂

high, lofty - PMP *abaw

high, lofty - PWMP *ambuq

high, on top - PWMP *embaw

high, tall - PAN *aCas

high, tall - PMP *atas

high, tall - PMP *laŋkaw

high, tall - *-kaw (root)

high; top - *-baw₁ (root)

stative prefix marking high degree of some quality; extremely; superlative marker - PPH *ka-₃

tall, high - PWMP *ma-atas

the high seas, far from land - PWMP *lahud-an

to put something in a high place or reach a high place by climbing - PPH *saŋ(e)qát

top part; high - PMP *umbaw

highlands

upper surface, top; highlands; on, upon, over, above - PAN *babaw₃

high-pitched

high-pitched cry - POC *ŋiŋik

high-pitched sound - PMP *eliŋ

high-pitched sound - PWMP *tekik

high-pitched sound of complaint - PWMP *eŋik

high-pitched sound of striking against something hard but not resonant - PMP *katik

high-pitched sound; chirp of a gecko - PAN *tekiq

high-pitched throaty sound - PMP *egik

high-pitched vocal sound - *-kiq (root)

short, high-pitched sound - PWMP *qepik

snicker, giggle; high-pitched laughter - PWMP *hikhik

hike

go overland, hike - PPH *t<um>aneq

hill

base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother - PMP *puqun

Formosan hill partridge - PAN-F *kuNkuN

hill, mountain - POC *puŋa-puŋa

interior hill country, hilly or mountainous part of island - POC *solos

mountain, hill - POC *oro

small hill, knoll - PMP *buntud

small hill, knoll - POC *putur

small hill, knoll - PMP *buntul

small hill, knoll - POC *putul₁

small hill, knoll - PMP *buntul buntul

small hill, knoll - POC *putul putul

small hill, knoll - PMP *buntu

small hill, knoll - POC *puntu

small hill, knoll - PMP *buntu buntu

valley, watercourse between hills - PWMP *le(m)baq

valley, watercourse between hills - PWMP *le(m)baŋ

hilltop

mountain, hilltop - POC *koro₃

hilly

interior hill country, hilly or mountainous part of island - POC *solos

hilt

hilt of knife or bolo; to support - PWMP *saŋga₁

him

3sg. personal pronoun: he, she; him, her, it - PAN *ia₁

hind

hind part, rear, back - POC *buRit₂

hind part, rear, back - PMP *burit₁

hind part, rear, back - POC *burit₃

hind part, rear, back; base, bottom - PMP *buRit₁

hinder

block, hinder, obstruct - PWMP *ayum

hindrance

ambush, block the way; obstacle, hindrance - PMP *abaŋ₁

ambush, block the way; obstacle, hindrance - PMP *qambat

hindrance, obstacle - PWMP *aped

hindrance, obstacle - PWMP *habed

hip

carried under the arm or on the hip - PWMP *kilik₂

hips - PWMP *balakaŋ

hips - *(loan)

to carry at the side or on the hip, pressed under the arm - PPH *kilít

hirsuta

a hairy vine: Pueraria hirsuta - PAN *baSay

a hairy vine: Pueraria hirsuta - PMP *bahay

his

his/her unnamed thing: his/hers - PMP *a-nu-ni a

his/her unnamed thing: his/hers - POC *anu-ña

parent’s younger sibling, junior uncle; a young child’s term of address for his father, vocative of *ama - PMP *mama

hispida

the wax gourd: Benincasa hispida - PWMP *kundul

the wax gourd: Benincasa hispida - PWMP *kunduR

hiss

douse a fire, extinguish a fire with water; to hiss, as water on fire - PMP *sebuh

douse a fire, extinguish a fire with water; to hiss, as water on fire’ - PAN *sebuS

hiss - POC *isi₃

hiss - PWMP *pis

hiss - PMP *sitsit

hiss - *(noise)

hiss, sizzle - PAN *qesir

hiss, whizzing sound - PMP *pus

hiss; whistle - PMP *siuk

to hiss - PMP *zitzit

to hiss or steam, of water touching a fire - PAN *s<um>ebuS

to hiss or steam, of water touching a fire - PWMP *s<um>ebuh

to hiss, as to call attention to - POC *sisit

to hiss, sizzle - PPH *sagitsit

hissing

hissing sound - *-sir (root)

hit

appropriate, suitable, right; fit together; hit the mark - PAN *tama₁

be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true - PMP *kena₁

be hit or beaten - PWMP *pukpuk-en

beat, hit - PAN *pekpek₁

beat, pound, hit - PAN *CegCeg

beating stick; to hit, beat (esp. clothes in washing them) - PAN *balbal₁

catch or get caught in a trap; hit mark with spear, etc. - PMP *ena

collide, hit, strike - *(loan)

collide, hit, strike - *(noise)

hit something against something else - PAN *CugCug₁

hit with a spear - POC *ona₁

hit with a stick - PWMP *pukul

hit, beat - POC *rotuk

hit, beat - *-peg (root)

hit, beat - *-teg (root)

hit, beat on - *-kug₂ (root)

hit, beat with hand or club in order to kill - PPH *palpál₁

hit, beat, thrash - PWMP *banat

hit, making a loud sound - PWMP *latak₁

hit, pound on - PMP *tambak₁

hit, pound, beat - PMP *bukbuk₂

hit, pound, chop - PMP *retuk

hit, ram into - *(loan)

hit, slap - PWMP *lipák

hit, sound of hitting, clapping, thumping - PAN *tepuk

hit, strike - PAN *basbas₁

hit, strike - PWMP *puqpuq₃

hit, strike a heavy blow - PMP *sambak

hit, strike hard - PWMP *batbat

hit, thump - *(noise)

pound on, hit, beat, or crush - PWMP *pilpil

pound, hit - *-tug (root)

punch, hit, pound - PMP *tumbuk

slap, hit with open hand - PMP *tampek

slap, hit, beat - PWMP *upak₂

strike, hit - PWMP *le(m)pag

throw at, hit with a projectile - PAN *buNuq₂

throw at, hit, strike with a sharp object; kill; extinguish (a fire) - PMP *bunuq₂

to hammer, pound, hit - PAN *palu₃

to hammer, to hit with a hard implement - PMP *palu

to hit, pound, rap on something - PWMP *latuk

to hit, strike - POC *ŋau₃

to hit, strike, or hard objects colliding - PPh *beRták

to hit, to strike - PWMP *ma-ŋena

to slap, hit - POC *pwasa(r,R)

to strike, beat, hit - PWMP *ma-mukpuk

hitch

to hitch, tie two things together - PPH *Rakéd

hither

hither, come hither - POC *maRi

hitting

hit, sound of hitting, clapping, thumping - PAN *tepuk

TOP      he    hi    ho    hu    hy    

ho

hoard

hoard, heap - *(noise)

hoarse

hoarse - PMP *paRaek

hoarse - POC *paRak

hoarse - PAN *paRaw

hoarse - *-Raw (root)

hoarse, husky (of the voice) - PPH *pagas

hoarse, husky, of the voice - PPH *paqus₁

hoarse, husky, of the voice - PWMP *peRaw

hoarse, raspy (of the voice) - PWMP *gaRaw

hoarse (of the voice)

hoarse (of the voice) - *(near)

hoe

hoe - PAN-F *tatak

hoe up weeds; weed a garden - PAN-F *riSriS

hoe, mattock - *(loan)

pickaxe, mattock, hoe - *(loan)

to hoe, chop up soil - PWMP *bacuk

hold

bamboo cross-lath used to hold down roof thatch - PWMP *belit₁

brood, hold a grudge, remember, keep still - PAN *demdem₁

carry in front of one; hold in the lap - PWMP *paŋku

crossbar, strut, something to hold things apart - PMP *sekaŋ

enclose; hold something inside the mouth - PMP *qeŋkem

feel, hold in the hand - PWMP *gamak

fist; hold in the fist - PAN *gemgem

fist; hold in the fist - POC *kokom-i

hold a grudge - PWMP *idap

hold firmly - *(noise)

hold firmly, concentrate - PWMP *pegeŋ

hold in the closed mouth - PAN *qemqem

hold in the fist - PMP *gem

hold in the fist - PWMP *kemkem₁

hold in the fist - PWMP *kugem

hold in the hand - PAN *biNiC

hold in the hand - POC *taur

hold in the lap, as a small child - PPH *sapupu

hold in the mouth - PMP *emuR

hold in the mouth - POC *oŋkom

hold in the mouth - PWMP *luqum

hold in the mouth - PAN *umuR

hold in the mouth - POC *gomu

hold in the mouth and suck - PMP *mulmul

hold in the mouth, hold with the mouth - PWMP *uRem

hold onto, cling to - PPH *kapet

hold or carry under the arm - PMP *qabin

hold or carry under the arm - PWMP *meŋ-qabin

hold something in the mouth - POC *qoŋkom

hold something inside the mouth - PMP *eŋgem

hold something tightly in the fist - PWMP *maŋ-Ragem

hold tightly or firmly - POC *tabe

hold tightly, clutch to oneself - PPH *sak(e)lút

hold tightly, clutch to oneself - PPH *sak(e)lut-en

hold up, keep aloft - PWMP *aŋkat aŋkat

hold with the fingertips - PCMP *biqit

hold within (of emotions, thoughts)? - PMP *dalem qatay

hold, get, take - POC *abit₂

hold, grip - PWMP *agem₁

pull at body part; hold something dangling from the fingers - PMP *bitbit₂

squeeze, hold tight, clutch - POC *gomol

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting - PMP *kemi

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting - POC *komi

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting’ - PMP *gemi

take hold of, grasp - POC *abi

take hold of, grasp - POC *qabi

take hold of, grasp, touch with the hand - POC *taŋop

to clutch, hold tightly - PMP *kupkup₃

to clutch, hold tightly - POC *kukup

to count, calculate; hold valuable - PAN *bilaŋ

to hold - POC *poso

to hold an umbrella or parasol over someone - PWMP *payuŋ-an

to hold back, keep in reserve - PWMP *taqan₂

to hold liquid in the mouth; to gargle - PMP *kemuR

to hold liquid in the mouth; to gargle - POC *gomuR

to hold or pull with a hook - PMP *kaqit

to hold tightly in the arms - PPH *k<um>epkep

to pinch, hold between the fingers - PPH *pidut

to seize with the teeth, hold by biting - PMP *taŋáR

to touch or hold - PPH *kapút

tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching - PAN *qapiC

tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching - PMP *qapit

touch, hold - PWMP *hemel

hold by biting

hold by biting carry in the mouth - *(near)

holder

spool, shuttle; thread holder (in weaving or making nets) - PWMP *sikuqan

hold tightly

grip, hold tightly - *(loan)

hole

a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers - PAN *kalih

a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers - PMP *kali₂

a hole; make a hole in, perforate - PPH *lubut

a tear, small hole, or rip - PPH *punit

bore a hole, drill - *(noise)

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - PMP *bulit₁

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - POC *bulit₂

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - PWMP *bulit-en

dam, dyke, embankment; to fill a hole with earth; to heap up - PMP *tambak₂

dig a hole - PPH *kadkad

dig a hole, as by scratching - PPH *kawkaw₂

dig a hole, hollow something out - PPH *kabkáb

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

fill a hole with earth; cover something with a heap of earth - PMP *bunbun

have a hole; be perforated - POC *posu

have a hole; be perforated - PMP *pesuk

have a hole; be perforated - POC *posuk

hole - *(noise)

hole in something - PMP *pesu₁

hole in the ground - PMP *luaŋ₁

hole, cavern - POC *babaŋ

hole, cavern - POC *pwaŋa

hole, cavern, pitfall - PPh *bítu

hole, hollow - POC *ŋata

hole, pit - PAN *buhaŋ

hole, pit - PMP *lubaŋ₁ₐ

hole, pit - PWMP *Ruqaŋ

leak, spill through, stream out from a hole in a container - PMP *busbus

plant in holes in the ground - POC *asok

plant seed by sprinkling in dibble holes - PWMP *maŋ-bubud

punctured, having a hole - PWMP *lesu₁

round (holes) - *(noise)

sprinkle seed, sow seed in dibble holes - PWMP *bubud

sprinkle seed, sow seed in dibble holes - PMP *budbud

to bury, place in a pit or hole - PAN *l<um>ubaŋ

to caulk, fill a hole - PWMP *pakal

to dig a hole or pit - PWMP *maR-lubaŋ

to plug, put a stopper in a hole - PWMP *seŋseŋ-en

widen a hole in something - PPH *watwát

hole in road

pothole, hole in road - *(loan)

hollow

cover with a hollow container; shelter over a grave - PWMP *cuŋkub

cover with a hollow container; shelter over a grave - PWMP *suŋkub

curve, curved; hollow - PMP *kuŋkuŋ₂

dig a hole, hollow something out - PPH *kabkáb

hole, hollow - POC *ŋata

hollow cane for blowing on the fire - PWMP *heyup heyup

hollow, resounding sound - PAN *keŋkeŋ₁

hollow, resounding sound - PMP *keŋ₁

hollow, resounding sound - *-keŋ₃ (root)

knock anything hollow so as to extract what is inside - PWMP *tuŋtuŋ₁

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

hollowed

deep resounding sound; slit-gong, hollowed tree trunk used to send messages - PAN *kuŋkuŋ₁

Holocentrus

squirrelfish: Holocentrus spp. - PMP *taRaqan

holy

purify by sprinkling with holy water - PWMP *basbas₄

home

go home - PWMP *uliq-an

go home - PWMP *uliq-en

return home - PMP *um-uliq

return home - POC *m-ule

return home; return something; restore, repair; repeat; motion to and fro - PMP *uliq₁

take something home - PPh *i-uliq

homesick

homesick; long for something that is missed - PPh *íliw

honest

true, righteous, honest - PMP *bener

honesty

truth, righteousness, honesty - PWMP *ka-bener-an

honey

honey - *(loan)

kind of honey bee - PWMP *patiukan

the Malayan honey bear: Ursus malayanus - PWMP *biRuaŋ

honeybee

honeybee - PMP *wani

honeybee - PAN-F *waNu

honeybee - POC *kororo

honeybee - *(loan)

honeycomb

honeycomb - PPH *kalába

honeysuckle

a vine with red flower clusters, the Chinese honeysuckle, Quisqualis indica - PPH *taluluŋ

honor

what is honored, object of honor or respect - PWMP *paŋ-empu-an

honored

what is honored, object of honor or respect - PWMP *paŋ-empu-an

hoof

hoof, lower leg of an ungulate - PAN *kudkud

hook

barb of a hook - PPH *simaq

bend, hook - PMP *tekuq

fish hook - PPh *banuit

hook - PWMP *kalawit

hook - PMP *lawit

hook - PAN *kabit₁

hook - PAN *kawit

hook - *(loan)

hook and line fishing - PWMP *pa-ŋawil

hook on to something; entangle - PMP *saqebit

hook on, catch with hook - PWMP *cibít

hook shaped - *-wit (root)

hook together - PWMP *ra(m)bit

hook with fingers - PPH *labit

hook, clasp; grasp with fingers - *-bit₁ (root)

hook, thorn - PPH *sibít

hook; to hang up - PAN *saqit

long fishing line with many hooks; to fish with such a line - PPH *kitáŋ

to catch, as with a hook - POC *kau₂

to fish with hook and line - PWMP *ma-ŋawil

to hang on a hook, suspend from something - PPH *i-saqebít

to hold or pull with a hook - PMP *kaqit

to hook - PWMP *maR-kawit

to hook something - PWMP *kawit-an

to hook something - PWMP *kawit-en

to hook, as with a fishhook - PPh *saqebit-án

to hook, catch onto something - PWMP *s<um>abit

to hook, catch with a hook - PWMP *ma-ŋawit

to hook, gaff - PCMP *gae

to pick, as fruit from a tree using a pole with a hook - PPH *su(ŋ)kit-en

hooked

hooked implement - PWMP *sabit

hooked instrument or tool - PWMP *pa-ŋawit

hoot

hoot, as an owl - POC *ŋoŋoŋ

hoot, croak - PWMP *ekaŋ

hop

hop on one leg - PWMP *kiŋkiŋ₂

hop on one leg, limp - POC *tige

hope

hope - *(loan)

hopefully

marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any - PMP *baraŋ₁

marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any - POC *baraŋ₂

horizon

horizon (lit. ‘foundation/beginning of the sky’); stranger, foreigner - PMP *puqun nu laŋit

horn

horn - PCMP *sula

horn - PCMP *sulan

horn - *(loan)

horn of an animal - PAN-F *sequŋ

horn of an animal - PAN *uReŋ

horn of an animal; to butt or gore - PPH *suŋay

hornbill

a bird, the hornbill - POC *binam

a bird: the hornbill - PMP *kalaw

hornbill - *(noise)

horse

a marine fish: probably the horse mackerel - PWMP *talaŋ-talaŋ

bridle, as for a horse - PWMP *kakaŋ

horse - *(loan)

horsefly

bluebottle, blowfly, horsefly - PMP *laŋaw

horsefly, large biting fly - PWMP *piket₁

horseradish

the horseradish tree: Moringa oleifera - PPH *maruŋgay

hortative

1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun - PAN *ta-₁

1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun - POC *-da₁

hospita

a plant: Kleinhovia hospita - POC *pau

hostile

hostile - PPH *suŋit₃

hot

coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set - PAN *Reken

coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set - PAN *reken

fish wrapped in banana leaf and cooked over hot coals - PWMP *p<in>aqis

hot, warm - PPh *ma-qinit

hot; blistered by heat - PAN *lasuq₁

roast in hot ashes - PWMP *benem₁

sunny, hot - PAN *ma-qajaw

to let food or hot water cool off - PPH *pa-bahaw-en

warm, hot - PMP *panas₁

warm, hot - PMP *ma-panas

warm, hot - POC *ma-panas-panas

warm, hot - POC *pa-panas

warm, hot - PWMP *panes

hot-headed

short-tempered, hot-headed, quick to fight - PMP *buteŋ

hotness

hotness of taste, spiciness; bitterness - PAN *paqiC

hourglass

hourglass drum - POC *kude

house

bachelor’s house, men’s house - PMP *kamaliR

beam, house end - *(noise)

board, lumber, beam in house construction - PPH *tapiq₁

ceiling of a house - *(loan)

cleared area around house, cleared ground in village - PMP *natad

collapse, fall down, as a house - PWMP *rebaq

ditch, rain channel caused by water dripping from a house roof - PWMP *paspas₃

extension to a house (?) - PPH *sibay

extension to house - PWMP *ambiq

extension to house - PWMP *surambi

extension to house - PWMP *surambiq

floor of a house - PMP *saleR

gecko, house lizard - PPh *butikíq

gecko, house lizard - PWMP *cekcek

gecko, house lizard - PWMP *cikcek

gecko, house lizard (onom.) - PAN *tektek₂

house - PAN *Rumaq

house beam - POC *oka₂

join together; beams used in house construction - PWMP *lipit

kind of house spider - POC *koko

pinch, press between; fasten thatch together with slats in roofing a house - PMP *kapit

plank, board; floor boards of house - PMP *papan

prop, supporting beam in house - PPH *tukal

public building, community house, guest house - PMP *balay

support beams in a house - PMP *bara₂

support beams in a house - PMP *barabara₁

to shake, as a house in an earthquake - POC *kañu-kañu

to thatch a roof, put thatch on a house - PWMP *maŋ-qatep

transverse beams that support the roof of a house - POC *sokar

transverse beams that support the roof of a house; thwart or ribs of a boat - PMP *seŋkar

wall of a house - POC *ridriŋ

wall of a house; partition off - PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

housefly

housefly - PMP *lalej

housefly - PAN *laŋaw

housefly - POC *laŋo

housefly - PWMP *dalej

housepost

center post, main housepost - PCEMP *hadiRi bubuŋ-an

housepost - PAN *SadiRi

housepost - PCEMP *adiRi

housepost - POC *ariRi

housepost - POC *tuRu₂

housepost - PMP *hadiRi

housepost, pillar - PAN-F *qelud

hover

rock or hover back and forth - PWMP *kindaŋ-kindaŋ

to soar, glide, hover, as birds of prey - POC *tapa₃

how

(for) how many days? - PAN *maka-pija

ability, skill, knowledge how to do something - PWMP *ka-taqu₁

how many times? - POC *paka-pica

how many? (of people) - PAN *pa-pija

how much/how many? - PWMP *saŋ-kuja

how much?, how many? - POC *pica

how much?, how many? - POC *ga-pica

how? In what way? - PPh *anu-en

how?, How is it? What is the matter? - PMP *kua₁

How

how

how?, how is it? what is the matter? - PAN *kuja

how?, how is it? what is the matter? - PMP *kuja

interrogative of quantity: how much?, how many?; adjective of indefinite quantity: some, several, a few - PAN *pijax

skilled, knowing how (to do something) - PWMP *ka-taqu-an

to know how, be able to, be skilled at - PAN *Caqu

to know how, be able to, be skilled at - PMP *taqu₂

howl

howl - PMP *lauŋ

howl, cry out in pain - PWMP *qeraŋ

howl, shout, scream - *-ŋar (root)

howl, wail - PWMP *rauŋ

moan, hum, howl - PMP *eŋkeŋ

mournful howl of a dog - PMP *quŋal

screech, howl - *-ŋak (root)

to howl or yelp, of a dog - PWMP *maŋ-quaŋ

to howl, of a dog - PAN *qauŋ

to howl, of a dog - PPH *tahúl

to howl, of a dog - PPH *taqul

to howl, of dogs - PMP *aluluŋ

to howl, of the wind - POC *puuŋ

howling

howling or yelping of a dog - PAN *quaŋ₂

TOP      he    hi    ho    hu    hy    

hu

huddle

huddle, bow the head - PAN *Cukul

hue

dark hue, possibly dark red - PMP *biReŋ

dark hue, possibly dark red - PMP *biRiŋ₁

dark hue, possibly dark red - POC *piRiŋ

hug

to seize, hug, embrace - PWMP *kepkép₁

to wrap around; embrace, hug - PAN *takes

wrap around; hug - PPH *hagkes

huge

big, huge; superlative - PCEMP *tinana

tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn - PMP *hipun₁

tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn - PEMP *ipun₁

hull

(small) outrigger canoe or canoe hull - POC *katiR

canoe hull, small outrigger canoe - PMP *katiR

outrigger canoe with dugout hull - PEMP *waŋka

outrigger canoe with dugout hull; passengers in a canoe - POC *waŋka

hum

buzz, hum - PAN *beŋbeŋ₂

buzz, hum - PWMP *beŋ

buzz, hum - PWMP *eŋeŋ

buzz, hum - PMP *teŋ

buzz, hum - PMP *ŋeŋ

buzz, hum - PMP *ŋeŋeŋ

buzz, hum - PMP *ŋiŋ

buzz, hum - PMP *ŋi(ŋ)ŋiŋ

buzz, hum - PMP *ŋuŋ

buzz, hum - PMP *ŋu(ŋ)ŋuŋ

buzz, hum - POC *ŋiŋiŋ

buzz, hum - PCEMP *ŋuŋuŋ

buzz, hum - *-ŋeŋ (root)

deep buzz or hum - *-ŋuŋ (root)

hum, buzz - *-geŋ (root)

hum, drone - *-teŋ₁ (root)

moan, hum, howl - PMP *eŋkeŋ

shrill buzz or hum; ring - *-ŋiŋ (root)

human

any natural mark on human skin: birthmark, freckle, mole - PMP *qila

human effigy; pupil of the eye - PMP *tau tau

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something - PAN *zalan

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something; wake of a boat; the Milky Way - PMP *zalan

person, human being - PAN *Cau

person, human being - PMP *tau₁

person, human being - PMP *tau-mata

pet animal, animal that is tamed by humans feeding it - POC *paŋan-i

humble oneself

submit, humble oneself - *(loan)

humming

buzzing or humming sound - PAN *buuŋ

buzzing, droning, humming - PAN *b<aR>eŋbeŋ

humming sound - PMP *beŋuŋ

soothing sound of humming activity, twittering, etc. - PWMP *kicaw

hummock

hummock, small rise of land - PPH *taluktuk

hump

bump, hump, lump - PWMP *buŋkul-an

fatty hump on the back of a buffalo, etc. - PWMP *kulasa

humpbacked

humpbacked - PWMP *beketut

hunch

hunch over, curl up (body) - POC *pokut

hunchback

bulge, as the belly of a pregnant woman, a hunchback - PPh *buktút

hunchback - PMP *bukut

hunchbacked

hunchbacked - PAN *bekuC

hunchbacked - PMP *bekut

hunchbacked, stoop-shouldered - PPH *kubuq

hunched

bent over, hunched - PWMP *ukuq

bowed, hunched, as from age - PWMP *ru(ŋ)kuq

hunched over - PMP *bikut

hunched over - PMP *duŋkuk

hunched over - *(loan)

hunched over, bent - *-kut (root)

hunched over, bowed (as with age) - PAN *qukut

hunched over, bowed (as with age) - PMP *quŋkut

hunched over, stoop-shouldered - PAN *SekuC

hunched over, stoop-shouldered - PMP *hekut

hunched, bent over - PWMP *hukuq

hundred

by hundreds, hundreds at a time - PWMP *Ratus-an

hundred - PAN *RaCus

hundred - PMP *Ratus

one hundred - PWMP *ma-Ratus

one hundred - PMP *sa-ŋa-Ratus

seven hundred (700) - PMP *pitu ŋa Ratus

hung

be hung, suspended - PPh *bitay-en

hunger

thirst, hunger - PWMP *laqu

weakness, as from hunger - PPH *kasay

hungry

hungry - POC *pitolon

hungry - PMP *lapaR₁

hungry; starve - PMP *bitil₁

hunt

hunt - *(loan)

hunt for shellfish on the reef - POC *paŋoda

hunt with dogs - PWMP *maŋ-asu

to hunt - PWMP *maŋ-qanup

to hunt wild game - PAN *qanup

to hunt, go hunting - PAN *q<um>aNup

hunted

what is hunted (?) - PPh *paŋ-asu

what is hunted, wild game - PAN *qaNup-en

what is hunted, wild game - PMP *qanup-en

hunting

hunting bow - PAN *busuR₂

hunting bow - POC *pusuR

hunting bow; bow-like instrument used to card kapok fiber - PMP *busuR

hunting dog - PPh *paŋ-qanup

hunting ground, hunting territory - PAN *qaNup-an

hunting ground, hunting territory - PMP *qanup-an

hunting net; net used in hunting - PPH *batéŋ

hunting spear - PAN *gayaŋ

lie in wait, set an ambush in hunting game - PPH *apat

to bark, as a hunting dog; shouting - PWMP *giak

to hunt, go hunting - PAN *q<um>aNup

hurl

sling, hurl - *(noise)

hurry

do something quickly, in a hurry - PPH *paspás₄

hurt

hurt someone; make someone sick - PMP *pa-sakit

hurt, frightened, or discouraged by previous bad experience - PWMP *zera

to hurt or injure others - PWMP *ma-ñakit

to hurt, cause pain or trouble - PWMP *sakit-an

was hurt or sick - PPH *na-sakit

hurting

hurting; sick with something, suffering from an illness - PWMP *sakit-en

hurtle

to fly, hurtle through the air - PWMP *lempaD

husband

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PMP *hateD

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PEMP *ated

father’s sister, father’s sister’s husband - PMP *aya₂

husband - PMP *banah

spouse: husband, wife - PAN *qasawa

wife's sister's husband - PWMP *biras₂

husk

able to resist or persist, as rice grains that are difficult to husk - PWMP *betaq₁

coconut husk - PMP *buʔut

coconut husk - POC *put₂

coconut husk - POC *benu

coconut husk, coir - PMP *bunut₁

coconut husk, coir - POC *bunut₁

empty husk (of rice, etc.) - PMP *ampaw

empty husk (of rice, etc.) - PMP *qapah

empty husk (of rice, etc.) - PWMP *qapah qapah

fibrous husk of coconut - PMP *benut₁

hairy filaments of certain plants, husk - PMP *bulut₁

hairy filaments of certain plants, husk - POC *bulut₂

husk a coconut with the teeth - POC *saRi

husk it! - PPh *bunut-i

husk, bark - PWMP *upis

husk, coarse hair or fiber - *-but₂ (root)

husk, fiber - *-nut (root)

infertile rice grain, husk without grain inside - PPH *lupes

kind of brush made from coconut husk, used to scrub or polish a surface or to treat threads before weaving - PWMP *sikat

piece broken off, husk - PWMP *upek

plant fiber; coconut husk, fibers of areca nuts, fibers covering mango seeds, etc. - PWMP *sabut

remove coconut husk; scrub with coconut husk - PPh *bunut-an

remove coconut husk; scrub with coconut husk - PPh *maŋ-bunut

rice husk - PWMP *padek

rice husk, chaff - PWMP *qepah

rice husk, rice bran - PAN *qeCah

rice husk, rice bran - PMP *qeta

to dig with a digging stick, to husk coconuts with a husking stick - POC *kojom-i

to husk rice; be afflicted with pimples on the skin resembling rice grains - PWMP *beRas-en

husked

rice between harvesting and cooking; husked rice - PAN *beRas

rice between harvesting and cooking; husked rice - PMP *beRas

unhusked rice grain left among the husked grains - PWMP *ataq

husking

sharp pointed stick used in planting crops and in husking coconuts; digging stick, coconut husking stick - POC *kojom

to dig with a digging stick, to husk coconuts with a husking stick - POC *kojom-i

husky

hoarse, husky (of the voice) - PPH *pagas

hoarse, husky, of the voice - PPH *paqus₁

hoarse, husky, of the voice - PWMP *peRaw

hut

field hut - PAN *sapaw

field hut in the rice fields - PMP *kubu

field hut, granary - PMP *lepaw₂

field hut; temporary shelter used when working for extended periods in fields far from the village - PAN-F *taRuqan

hut - PAN *lepaw₁

hut - *(noise)

hut, shack - *(loan)

hut, temporary shelter - PMP *uduŋ

shelter, temporary hut - PPH *luŋáluŋ

TOP      he    hi    ho    hu    hy    

hy

Hydrocotyle

a creeping plant: Hydrocotyle asiatica - PWMP *paŋgaga

hydrophyllacea

a moderate-sized shrub: Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea - PWMP *sabasaq

hydropoesia

hydropoesia, bodily swelling caused by water retention - PMP *belbel₂

hydropoesia, bodily swelling caused by water retention - POC *popol

hypogastrium

hypogastrium, abdomen below the navel - PPH *pusequŋ

hystrix

kind of wild lemon tree, possibly Citrus hystrix - PPH *kabuRaw

 1    2    3    6    9    A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P    Q    R    S    T    U    V    W    X    Y    Z   


Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/22/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_h.htm