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Updated: 7/20/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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I

id    if    ig    il    im    in    ip    ir    is    it    ix    

I

1sg nominative; I - PAN *aku

1sg., I, me - PAN *i-aku

1sg.: I - POC *ŋau₂

TOP      id    if    ig    il    im    in    ip    ir    is    it    ix    

ic

ichthyosis

disease which produces scaly skin: ichthyosis - PWMP *bugis

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id

idea

think, consider; thought, idea - PPh *henaq

idiotic

stupid, idiotic - *(loan)

idle

lazy, idle - *(loan)

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if

if

as if dead? - PMP *ma-m-atay

but, if - PCEMP *ba₁

conditional, if - PAN *ka₂

conjunction: or, if; perhaps; because - PMP *ba₁

if - PWMP *emun

if, when (in future) - PAN *nu₁

marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any - POC *baraŋ₂

marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any - PMP *baraŋ₁

TOP      id    if    ig    il    im    in    ip    ir    is    it    ix    

ig

ignite

ignite, set aflame - PWMP *deket₂

ignite; kindle; set fire to - PPH *súlsul

to ignite, set fire to - PMP *tutuŋ

ignorant

stupid, silly, ignorant - PPH *taŋah

ignore

ignore, neglect - *(noise)

iguana

iguana, eel - *(noise)

TOP      id    if    ig    il    im    in    ip    ir    is    it    ix    

il

ill

fall ill, become sick - POC *masakit-ia

seriously ill - *(loan)

to fall ill, become very sick - PMP *ma-saki-sakit

illegally

to appropriate to oneself illegally - PPH *kamkam-en

illness

a state of pain or difficulty; be afflicted by illness - PWMP *ka-sakit-an

fever, illness - PWMP *damdam

hurting; sick with something, suffering from an illness - PWMP *sakit-en

sick; illness - PSHWNG *bisik₂

sickness, illness - PWMP *pa-ñakit

suffer illness - PWMP *haŋin-en

suffer in silence, conceal an illness - PWMP *pelaqam

illuminate

illuminate with a torch - PWMP *s<um>uluq

to illuminate, cast light on - PWMP *suluq-i

torch; illuminate - PMP *qilaw

TOP      id    if    ig    il    im    in    ip    ir    is    it    ix    

im

image

shadow, indistinct image - PPh *qaninaw

imbricata

hawksbill turtle: Chelonia imbricata - PCEMP *keRan₂

hawksbill turtle: Chelonia imbricata - PCEMP *keRa

ringworm: Tinea imbricata - POC *puni₃

ringworm: Tinea imbricata - PMP *buqeni

imitate

copy, imitate, pass on - POC *usuri

imitate, copy - *(loan)

similar; imitate - PPh *iriŋ₂

to copy, imitate - PWMP *tulad

to copy, mimic, imitate - POC *toa

to follow, copy, imitate - PWMP *suaq

immature

immature rice grain (?) - PWMP *ubek

immature stage of coconut or areca nut (?) - POC *piras

young (of fruits); immature; light (of colors) - PMP *muda

young, immature, primarily of plants - PPH *ma-ŋuhed

young, immature, primarily of plants - PPH *ŋuhed

immediately

straightaway, immediately; get done at once; continue on, lasting - PMP *tulus

immerse

dive, immerse - PWMP *ce(R)neb

dive; immerse oneself - PWMP *salem

immerse, dip in water - POC *puraq₂

immerse, dip in water - PMP *budaq₂

immerse, submerge - PWMP *ceñeb

sink, immerse oneself in water, dive into the water; to set, of the sun - PAN *selem₁

immodest

offensive to decency, immodest - PPH *law(e)qay

impatience

gnash the teeth in anger or impatience - PWMP *li(ŋ)get

Impatiens

a plant: Impatiens balsamina - PPH *kamantigi

impatient

restless, impatient, annoyed - PWMP *deŋut

impede

impede, obstruct, restrain - PMP *qempeŋ

Imperata

sword grass, Imperata cylindrica - PMP *guRun

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - POC *guRun

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - PAN-F *Rimeja

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - PAN *Riaq

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - PAN *eRiq

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - POC *pitu₂

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - PCEMP *bitu

imperative

imperative suffix - PAN *-i₁

imperative suffix - PAN *-a₁

transitive and imperative suffix - POC *-ia

impetuous

impetuous - PAN *lamlam₁

implement

handle of an implement - PWMP *pakaw

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born - PMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - PCEMP *qulu

hooked implement - PWMP *sabit

implement with curved blade: adze; hammerhead shark - PMP *biŋkuŋ

thrust downward with sharp implement - PWMP *tuzaq

to hammer, to hit with a hard implement - PMP *palu

wooden implement - *(noise)

important

heavy; weighty, important - POC *mapat

important (of people); self-important - PWMP *raŋaq

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

impose

impose one’s will, force or compel someone to do something - PWMP *teRel

impotent

sexually impotent - PWMP *basiR

sexually impotent - PWMP *baciR

impression

give an impression (physical or psychological) - PWMP *pa-bekas

imprint

to imprint, leave a temporary mark - PWMP *gerger₂

improvised

improvised purse or bag, folded cloth used to carry things - PWMP *puyuŋ

improvised trail, trail made by passing through? - PAN *ka-zalan-an

impurities

clear, of liquid free of impurities - PPH *tenaw

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in

in

at, on, in, to - POC *pa₂

In

how? In what way? - PPh *anu-en

in

on, onto, in, into - POC *o₁

preposition: at, on, in, to - PMP *ba₃

inalienable

3sg. possessor of inalienable possessed nouns - POC *-ña

possessive marker used with inalienable pronouns - POC *o₂

inarticulate

inarticulate sound - PMP *ŋa(ŋ)ŋaŋ

inarticulate sound - PMP *ŋaŋ

inattentive

inattentive - PWMP *liŋa₁

inattentive - PWMP *balaŋa(q)

incantation

incantation - *(loan)

incapable

incapable, incompetent - PPH *taŋaq₁

incense

incense, ritual smoke - PWMP *asep

incessantly

to weep continuously or incessantly - PMP *taŋis-taŋis

incest

incest - PWMP *sumbaŋ

inchoatives

marker of actor focus for intransitive verbs, and of inchoatives - PMP *<um>

incise

incise, make an incision in flesh - POC *tapa₂

incision

incise, make an incision in flesh - POC *tapa₂

to cut, make an incision - POC *tapar

to cut, make an incision - PMP *tabad

to make an incision to draw blood - PPH *kaldít

incisors

front teeth, incisors - PAN *gutgut

front teeth, incisors; gnaw, to bite or tear off with the incisors - PMP *gutgut

incite

incite - *(loan)

incite, prod into action - *(loan)

incite, spur to action - PMP *asuŋ

incite, urge on, stir up - PWMP *asag

incl

1pl. incl. genitive suffix - PAN *-ta

1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun - POC *-da₁

1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun - PAN *ta-₁

1pl. incl. possessive pronoun: our - PAN *ata₁

1pl. incl. possessive suffix - POC *-da₂

1pl. incl. subject prefix and possessive suffix; we (incl.); our (incl.) - POC *da₂

1st pers. incl. genitive; our - PAN *n-ita

inclination

inclination, leaning to the side - PWMP *keleŋ₂

incline

incline one's head to the side - PAN *qipiŋ

lean against, lean or incline on - PMP *sandiR

lean against, lean or incline on - PWMP *sandeR

lean, incline - PWMP *seŋjiR

lean, incline - PPh *hírig

slant, incline - PWMP *qiriŋ₂

inclined

slanting, inclined - PWMP *sunduŋ

include

include with something else - PPH *taq(e)kip

included

included with - *(noise)

including

also, including - PPH *pati₂

beach creepers, including Ipomoea grandiflora and Ipomoea pes-caprae - POC *puRe₂

kind of reed or cane, including Saccharum spontaneum - POC *pijo

incompetent

incapable, incompetent - PPH *taŋaq₁

increase

add to, increase - PWMP *unzan

add to, increase; addition, supplement - PWMP *tambaq

growth, increase - *(noise)

have children, increase - PWMP *maŋ-anak-i

increase, addition - PWMP *imbuq

increase, growth - PMP *bubuq

swell, increase in size - PMP *beŋkak

to speed up, increase the pace of something - PPH *paspas-an₂

incredulity

interjection, exclamation of surprise, incredulity, etc. - PAN *ai₂

incur

borrow, incur a debt - PWMP *maŋ-qutaŋ

incurable

disastrous, incurable - *(noise)

indebtedness

indebtedness - PWMP *ka-qutaŋ-an

indeed

indeed; interjection expressing validity to an interlocutor - PPH *ŋani

indefinite

interrogative of quantity: how much?, how many?; adjective of indefinite quantity: some, several, a few - PAN *pijax

indefiniteness

marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any - POC *baraŋ₂

marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any - PMP *baraŋ₁

indentation

dented, having an indentation - PWMP *picek₂

independent

alone, in isolation, independent - PWMP *taniq

index

index finger - PAN *Cuzuq

index finger - PMP *t<an>uzuq

index finger - PWMP *pa-nuzuq

pointer, index finger - PWMP *tu-tuzuq

Indian

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - POC *rarap

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *dapdap₁

Indian - *(loan)

the Indian tulip tree: Thespesia populnea - PMP *banaRu

tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *depdep

indica

a plant: Lactuca indica Linn., and Sonchus oleraceus Linn. - PAN-F *Samaq

a small bee: Apis indica - PMP *qari-ñuan

a small bee: Apis indica - PMP *qani-Ruan

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - POC *rarap

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *dapdap₁

a tree: Pterocarpus indica - PMP *nara

a tree: Pterocarpus indica - PMP *naRah

a vine with red flower clusters, the Chinese honeysuckle, Quisqualis indica - PPH *taluluŋ

a vine: Flagellaria indica - PMP *huaR

tree sp.: Erythrina indica - *(noise)

tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *depdep

indicate

to point at, indicate - PMP *tusiq

to point at, indicate - POC *dusiq

to point at, indicate; teach, instruct - PWMP *i-tuzuq

to point, indicate; teach, instruct - PMP *tuzuq-i

to point, indicate; to point out, instruct - PPh *tulduq

indicating

prefix indicating place of origin (for ethnic groups) - PPH *taga-

that --- indicating something close to the hearer - PPH *sa₄

indicum

a plant, sesame: Sesamum indicum - PAN-F *Samud

indigo

indigo plant and dye: Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) and Indigofera tinctoria L. - PMP *taRum

Indigofera

indigo plant and dye: Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) and Indigofera tinctoria L. - PMP *taRum

indistinct

fog, haze, mist; indistinct, blurry - PMP *kabut

shadow, indistinct image - PPh *qaninaw

vague, indistinct - PWMP *sawaŋ₁

indolent

lazy, indolent - PPH *tamád

Indonesia

Chinese born in Indonesia - *(loan)

induced

induced, tricked - *(loan)

industrious

industrious, diligent - PPH *sipag

intense, industrious - PWMP *saŋet

zeal, ardor; industrious, keen - PWMP *giqed

inedible

tree with inedible white fruit and root that yields a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia L. - POC *ñoñu

infant

chew without intending to swallow, as betel nut; premasticate food to give to an infant; premasticated food - PMP *mamaq

cry of a newborn infant - PWMP *uhaq

premasticate food for infant - PMP *paqpaq₁

swinging cradle for an infant - PPH *dúyan

infected

be affected by itching, be infected with scabies or other itchy skin disorders - PWMP *gatel-en

fluid oozing from a wound, infected sore, or corpse - PWMP *sagu₂

infection

fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin: Tinea flava or Pityriasis - PMP *panaw₁

have a thrush or stomatitits infection - PWMP *guam-en

inferior

conquered, subdued; lower, inferior - PWMP *saur₂

inferior type of betel nut - PMP *burun

social inferior - *(loan)

infertile

infertile rice grain, husk without grain inside - PPH *lupes

infested

be infested with worms, worm-eaten - PMP *qulej-en

infested with flies, covered with flies - PAN *laŋaw-en

infested with wood-boring insects - PPh *ma-bukbuk

infested with wood-boring insects - PWMP *bukbuk-en

infested with lice

infested with lice - *(near)

infests

insect that infests wood and bamboo; dust produced by the boring of this insect - POC *pupuk₂

weevil that infests wood, bamboo, and rice; dust produced by the boring of this insect; tooth decay, dental caries - PMP *bukbuk₃

inflammation

inflammation of the skin - POC *tubu₁

inflate

inflate - *(noise)

inflated

distended, inflated (of the belly) - PMP *bunter

have an inflated abdomen - PPh *butítiq

suffer from an inflated abdomen as punishment for wrongdoing - PWMP *busuŋ-en

inflexible

hard, strong, inflexible; vehement - PMP *keRas

strong, tough, inflexible - POC *kayu kayu

unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn - PMP *teger

unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn - PMP *tegel

inflorescence

heart of a person or animal; purple heart-shaped inflorescence of banana plant - PMP *pusuq₁

influence

influence - *(loan)

inform

tell, inform; ask, inquire - PMP *bajaq₂

to spy, inform on someone - PPH *tiktík

ingredient

ingredient in a mixture - PPH *ka-lahúk

to mix together, as ingredients in cooking - PWMP *ŋa-lamud

inhabitant

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

flesh (of humans, animals, fruits, tubers); contents; blade of a knife; inhabitants, residents - PAN *isi₅

inhabited

inhabited land, territory supporting the life of a community - PMP *banua

inhale

sob, inhale suddenly - PWMP *si(n)dek

suck, inhale - POC *isop

suck, inhale - PAN *hisep

in harmony

in harmony, synchronized - *(loan)

inherit

inherit, inheritance - PWMP *maña

inherit, inheritance - PWMP *mana₁

inheritance

heir, inheritance - *(loan)

inherit, inheritance - PWMP *maña

inherit, inheritance - PWMP *mana₁

share, portion, inheritance; to allot, divide property - PMP *baqagi

to distribute an inheritance (?) - PPH *taRak

inherited

inherited characteristic; bloodline - PPH *pulí

injure

to hurt or injure others - PWMP *ma-ñakit

injustice

injustice, oppression - *(loan)

inland

mountain; forested inland mountain areas - PAN *bukij

inlay

inlay of gold or silver - PWMP *tataq

inlet

bay, inlet - POC *tobwa

inner

groin, inner thigh where it joins the trunk - PCMP *kelen

inner pulp or young leaves - PPH *sepet

inner self, feelings, mind - POC *loto

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - PMP *dalem

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - POC *ralom

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

Inocarpus

a tree: Inocarpus spp., possibly the Tahitian chestnut: Inocarpus edulis - PMP *gayam

the ‘Tahitian chestnut’: Inocarpus fagiferus or I. edulis - POC *ipi₂

inophyllum

a shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum - POC *pitaquR

a shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum - PMP *bitaquR

a shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum - PWMP *bintaŋuR

a tree: Calophyllum inophyllum - POC *tamanu

inquire

ask, inquire - PMP *utaña

ask, inquire about - PWMP *maR-kutaña

ask, inquire about - PMP *kutaña

know, understand; ask, inquire - PAN *bajaq₁

tell, inform; ask, inquire - PMP *bajaq₂

insane

knock on the head; crazy, insane - PPH *katúk

wild; insane - PMP *gila-gila

wild; skittish; insane - PMP *gila

insect

body hair; fur; feather; down; antenna of insect or crustacean; spikes of sea urchin; floss on plant skins, color; type, kind - PCEMP *bulu₁

chigger or similar insect - PPH *kuykúy₁

destructive insect - PWMP *taŋaq₃

fly (insect) - *-ŋaw (root)

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

grasshopper or stick insect - POC *sakwa

infested with wood-boring insects - PPh *ma-bukbuk

infested with wood-boring insects - PWMP *bukbuk-en

insect - POC *manu-manuk

insect destructive to rice - PWMP *zaŋaw

insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant - POC *ane

insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant - PAN *aNay

insect sp. - PPh *wasay wasay

insect sp. - *(noise)

insect that infests wood and bamboo; dust produced by the boring of this insect - POC *pupuk₂

maggot, caterpillar, larva of a metamorphosing insect - PMP *qulej

malodorous insect that damages rice plants - PWMP *tanaŋaw

orthopterus insect: cicada or grasshopper - POC *sisi(rR)

paddy bug, foul-smelling insect that preys on rice in the field - PAN *baŋaw

shrill sound of an insect, probably cricket or cicada - PWMP *pispis₂

stinger of an insect - PWMP *seRed

tiny biting insect: gnat, sandfly - PMP *ñikñik

to sting or bite, of an insect - PAN *seŋet₂

venom of a poisonous snake or insect - PPH *kamandag

weevil that infests wood, bamboo, and rice; dust produced by the boring of this insect; tooth decay, dental caries - PMP *bukbuk₃

worm, insect - PAN-F *kulay₁

insert

enter, penetrate, insert - PWMP *hasuk

insert - PMP *cu(l)cul

insert - *(near)

insert between - PMP *selet

insert between, slip in - PPH *luq(e)kip

insert, cram in - PAN *selsel₁

insert, penetrate, enter - *-suk (or *suquk?) (root)

insert, pierce, penetrate - PAN *Cesek

insert, plug - PMP *suled

insert, plug - PMP *sulen

insert, plug - PAN *suleN

insert, put or drive in - PWMP *ra(ŋ)suk

insert, slip between - PPH *saluksuk₂

insert, slip between - PWMP *sisip

insert, stick into a soft surface - *-sek₂ (root)

insert, tuck in - PPH *suq(e)kip

insert, wedge in; prepare something for use - PWMP *pasaŋ₂

pierce, penetrate; insert - PAN *suksuk

to insert between, intersperse - PPH *saletán

to insert between, intersperse - PPH *i-salét

to insert between, intersperse - PPH *salét

to insert something - PPH *i-síŋit

to insert, cram, stuff - PMP *suksuk-i

to insert, plug something in - PPH *i-saksák

to poke into, pierce, insert - PWMP *ma-ñuksuk

inserted

ear plug, roll of leaves, etc. inserted through pierced ear - PWMP *subeŋ

inserted, thrust in - PWMP *s<al>uksuk

inside

below, beneath; inside - POC *i rarom

below, beneath; inside - PMP *i dalem

enclose; hold something inside the mouth - PMP *qeŋkem

hold something inside the mouth - PMP *eŋgem

in, inside - PMP *lem

in, inside; deep - PAN *dalem

infertile rice grain, husk without grain inside - PPH *lupes

inside area, estuary - PPH *luqúb

inside, interior; thoughts, emotions, memories - POC *ilo

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - PMP *dalem

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - POC *ralom

knock anything hollow so as to extract what is inside - PWMP *tuŋtuŋ₁

pithy ball inside sprouted coconut, coconut endosperm - POC *piri

insight

conscience, mind, insight - *(loan)

insipid

sweet; insipid, as fresh water - PCEMP *ma-emis

tasteless, insipid - PMP *qambaR

tasteless, insipid; powerless; antidote, as against snakebite - PWMP *tabaR

weak (in intensity); insipid - PWMP *lamlam₂

insipit

tasteless, insipit - PPH *tabeqaŋ

insist

to insist; to force, compel someone to do something - PPH *pílit

insistently

to urge, press on insistently - PWMP *perper₂

insomnia

insomnia, sleeplessness - PPH *púyat

inspect

inspect, examine - PWMP *indaŋ

install

make a floor, install a floor - PWMP *saleR-i

instruct

to point at, indicate; teach, instruct - PWMP *i-tuzuq

to point at, point out, lecture or instruct, give advice - PAN *t<um>uzuq

to point out, instruct - PMP *tuzuq₂

to point, indicate; teach, instruct - PMP *tuzuq-i

to point, indicate; to point out, instruct - PPh *tulduq

instruction

instruction, guidance, help in getting started - PWMP *tuntun

to direct someone to something, to give instructions - PWMP *tuzuq-an

to follow instructions, follow an example; carry along, give in, allow something to happen - PWMP *tuRut

instrument

a percussive musical instrument or ensemble: the gamelan - PWMP *kulintaŋ

a person who turns or grinds something; an instrument used for rolling or grinding - PWMP *paŋ-giliŋ

an instrument for tattooing - PAN-F *pataS-an

anything used for salting, salting instrument - PWMP *paŋ-qasin

bailer, instrument used for bailing - PMP *la-limas

grinding stone, place where foods are ground up or instrument for grinding them - PWMP *giliŋ-an

hammer, mallet, instrument for pounding or hammering - PAN *palu-palu

hooked instrument or tool - PWMP *pa-ŋawit

hunting bow; bow-like instrument used to card kapok fiber - PMP *busuR

instrument for washing - PWMP *paŋ-huRas

instrument used for eating - PAN *Si-kaen

instrument used to press - PWMP *paŋ-hapit

kind of wind instrument - PWMP *pipit₁

lever, instrument for prying something up - PWMP *quŋkil

means or instrument for catching - PWMP *paŋ-alap

means or instrument for counting - PWMP *paŋ-bilaŋ

musical instrument - PWMP *huni huni

nominal prefix marking instruments, or products of an action - PWMP *paŋ-

person or instrument that grinds or sharpens - PWMP *paŋ-hasaq

to card kapok fibers with a bow-like instrument - PWMP *maŋ-busuR

to knock on something, play a musical instrument - PPH *tugtug-én

instrumental

instrumental prefix - PMP *i-

instrumental prefix, marker of the instrumental focus - PAN *Si-₁

insufficient

insufficient, half-heartedly - PWMP *alaŋ-alaŋ

insularis

Formosan blind mole: Talpa micrura insularis (Swinhoe) - PAN-F *mumu

insulation

liner, layer, insulation, padding; sleeping mat - PMP *hapin

lining, insulation, padding; underlayer, as of clothing - PPH *sapín

insure

ceremony at planting to insure the well-being of the crops - PWMP *buhat₁

integument

fibrous integument at the base of coconut fronds - POC *kaka₃

intellect

will; intellect; reasoning, intention, mental presence, mind - PPH *nákem

intelligence

intelligence, craft, scheme - *(loan)

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

intelligent

clever, intelligent - *(loan)

intend

point at, aim for; intend to do something; do something intentionally - PPH *tuyuq

intended

water not intended for drinking - *(loan)

intending

chew without intending to swallow, as betel nut; premasticate food to give to an infant; premasticated food - PMP *mamaq

intense

fierce, intense, as of appetite or temper - PAN *garaŋ₁

intense green or blue-green - POC *keja

intense sensation in teeth when eating sour fruit; for teeth to be on edge - PMP *nilu

intense, industrious - PWMP *saŋet

intensely

crave, desire, intensely - PPh *hínam

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

intensive

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

intentially

to intentially drown, cause to drown - PWMP *lemes-en

intention

intention - *(noise)

intention, purpose - *(noise)

purpose, intention - PWMP *layak

will; intellect; reasoning, intention, mental presence, mind - PPH *nákem

intentionally

point at, aim for; intend to do something; do something intentionally - PPH *tuyuq

intently

look at closely, stare intently - PWMP *sineŋ

intercourse

copulate, have sexual intercourse - PAN *qiut

copulate, have sexual intercourse - PWMP *ayut

copulate, have sexual intercourse - PWMP *ayud

copulate; copulation, sexual intercourse - POC *qait

link in a chain; joined together, as links in a chain, people in sexual intercourse or marriage; hands joined in crossing pattern in circle dance - PWMP *kawiŋ

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - PPH *iut₂

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - POC *kiuq

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - PMP *kiuq

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - PWMP *kiut

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - PMP *kiud

interest

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

child, offspring; son, daughter; interest on a loan - PAN *aNak

interest, desire - *(near)

lose interest in doing something (?) - PPH *tantán

to cloy, satiate, do something to excess and so lose interest - PPH *s<um>áwaʔ

interior

above, in the interior - PWMP *di-daya

inside, interior; thoughts, emotions, memories - POC *ilo

interior - *(noise)

interior hill country, hilly or mountainous part of island - POC *solos

upriver, toward the interior - POC *raya

upriver, toward the interior - PAN *daya

interjection

exclamation, interjection - PMP *a₃

indeed; interjection expressing validity to an interlocutor - PPH *ŋani

interjection - *(noise)

interjection of disapproval or disgust - PMP *qis

interjection of negative emotive force - PMP *qisaq

interjection of pain, surprise, etc. - PWMP *qau

interjection or exclamation - PMP *ba₂

interjection or exclamation to call attention or answer a call - POC *oe

interjection used to call a dog - PPH *tútuq

interjection used to chase off animal - PMP *isu₂

interjection used to halt a carabao in the fields - PPH *luá

interjection, exclamation of surprise, incredulity, etc. - PAN *ai₂

interjection; to startle - POC *pa₁

interlocutor

indeed; interjection expressing validity to an interlocutor - PPH *ŋani

intermediate

medium, average, intermediate - *(loan)

intermittently

rain intermittently - POC *qusan qusan

rain intermittently - PMP *quzan quzan

internal

an internal organ, probably spleen or pancreas - PAN *paliq₁

internode

closed bamboo internode used as a container for salt, valuables, etc. - PWMP *tubuŋ

internode - *(loan)

internode (of bamboo, sugarcane, etc.) - PWMP *biqás

internode of bamboo; section of something - PAN *lawas₃

interpret

pour from one vessel into another; translate, interpret - PWMP *salin

interrogation

particle of doubt or interrogation - PMP *ias₁

interrogative

interrogative - *(noise)

interrogative marker: which? - PAN *manu

interrogative of quantity: how much?, how many?; adjective of indefinite quantity: some, several, a few - PAN *pijax

interrogative particle - PAN-F *qa₂

interrogative; probably 'when?' - PAN *ka-nu₁

postverbal interrogative particle - PWMP *ba₅

interrupta

a small stinging plant, perhaps Laportea interrupta - POC *karat₂

interrupted

interrupted of sleep - *(near)

interspace

intervene; interspace - *-let (or *-leget?) (root)

intersperse

to insert between, intersperse - PPH *saletán

to insert between, intersperse - PPH *i-salét

to insert between, intersperse - PPH *salét

interspersed

alternate, interspersed - PPH *salét-salét

intertwine

braid, intertwine - PWMP *epid

intertwine (as strands in making rope) - PWMP *bilit

intertwine, braid, as strands to make rope - PPH *labid

to braid, intertwine strands - PPH *lapid

twist together, intertwine - PWMP *bidíbid

interval

having wide intervals; seldom - PWMP *zaRaŋ

interval of space or time - PWMP *selaŋ₁

interval, intervening space - PAN *qeleC

interval, space between - PMP *qelet

intervene

intervene; interspace - *-let (or *-leget?) (root)

intervening

division, partition, intervening space - PMP *belat₁

interval, intervening space - PAN *qeleC

intervening space - PWMP *sela

intervening space - PWMP *uhaŋ

intervening space - PMP *qelaŋ

intestinal

be afflicted with intestinal worms - PWMP *bituk-en

earthworm; intestinal worm - PWMP *gelaŋ

intestinal worm - PWMP *bituk

intestinal worm - PPh *bitek

intestinal worm - PMP *biaR₁

roundworm, ascaris, intestinal worm; also earthworm? - PMP *bulati

intestine

intestines - POC *tinaqe

intestines - PMP *t<in>aqay

intestines - PWMP *qunej qunej

intestines - PWMP *isaw

small intestine - PMP *t<in>aqi

small intestine - PAN *C<in>aqi

stomach; large intestine - PMP *bituka

intevening

with intevening spaces - PWMP *qelet qelet

intimidated

to fear, be intimidated by - POC *nopo-nopo

into

appear, come into view - POC *potu₁

appear, come into view - PMP *betu

be chopped into pieces, be minced, as meat or vegetables; what is chopped up or minced - PAN *tektek-en

be divided into four - PWMP *epat-en

be divided into seven parts - PWMP *pitu-en

be divided into three (?) - PWMP *telu-en

be divided into two - PMP *duha-en

be divided into two - PAN *duSa-en

become four, divide into four (intr.) - PWMP *maR-epat

become night, turn into night - PPH *R<um>abiqi

bent into a curve - PWMP *iŋkul

blow on or into - POC *upi-a

break into several large pieces - PAN *peceq₁

break into several large pieces; hatch - PMP *pesak

break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg - POC *posaq

break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg - PMP *peceq₂

break up into small pieces - PPH *sagsag-en

break up, fall into pieces, scatter, disperse - PWMP *baRbaR

bump or bang into, collide unceremoniously - PWMP *sempuk

chop or hack into pieces - PWMP *ma-nektek

collapse, fall into ruin - PWMP *rebas

collide, bump into - PWMP *sa(m)puk

come into view - POC *pwaka

crammed, forced into an opening, stuff full - PWMP *pelpel

crumble, break into small pieces - PWMP *remay

cut into pieces - PMP *keleŋ₁

cut, slice into pieces, as breadfruit or taro - POC *siba

divide into five - PPh *paR-lima-en

divide into five (?) - PMP *pa-lima

divide into four (?) - PMP *paR-epat-en

divide into groups of five - PWMP *maR-lima

divide into groups of five - PWMP *maŋ-lima

divide into multiple parts - POC *wa(n)se wa(n)se

divide into seven parts (?) - PWMP *maR-pitu

divide into six (?) - PMP *pa-enem

divide into two - PWMP *maR-duha

divide into two parts - PWMP *man-duha

divide into x (x = numeral) - PAN *paR-₂

divided into four (?) - PMP *ma-epat

divided into ten parts (?) - PWMP *puluq-en

domestic chicken used as a decoy to attract a wild fowl into a trap - PPH *pa-ŋátiq

drive or force into - PMP *buRsuk

drive pigs into a net - POC *bubuR₂

forced marriage; to force into marriage - PPH *pikut₂

hack, chop into pieces - PAN *saksak₁

insert, stick into a soft surface - *-sek₂ (root)

make a rope or string, make something into rope or string - PWMP *ma-nalih

numeral prefix, divide into x (x = numeral) - PMP *pa-₁

on, onto, in, into - POC *o₁

particle used to soften questions or turn statements into rhetorical questions - PPH *taq₂

place into which something is poured - PPh *buqbuq-an

plunge, dive into - PPH *tapuák

pound into fine particles - PWMP *maŋ-bekbek

pour from one vessel into another; translate, interpret - PWMP *salin

press into - PMP *u(n)sek

press into, penetrate; enter crouching; drive in stakes - PMP *usuk

push, slide or glide forward, as in pushing wood into a fire, or storming the enemy - PWMP *suruŋ

put something into a container - PWMP *dalem-en

put something into or through an opening - PPH *súbuq

roll into balls - *(noise)

roll together into a ball - *(noise)

sink, immerse oneself in water, dive into the water; to set, of the sun - PAN *selem₁

slice, cut into pieces - PWMP *sayat

squeeze into a ball - PPh *qemel

stab, stick into - PWMP *tisuk

step into clothing, put on a sarong - PMP *saRuk

stick into the ground - PWMP *tazuk

suddenly appear, come into view suddenly or partially - PPH *tuq(e)maw

tang of a knife, etc. which fits into the haft to attach blade and handle - PMP *utiŋ

tear a leaf or cloth into strips - PPH *kisay

tethering stake; drive a stake into the ground - PPH *palpál₂

tie together into a bundle - PWMP *maŋ-beRkes

to arrive, appear, come into view - POC *pura

to divide into three parts - PWMP *maR-telu

to force apart, at with a wedge; force something into someone’s mouth - PPH *tiŋal

to make into gruel, rice porridge - PPH *lugaw-en

to peel, pare, as fruit or yam; to cut into slices - PPH *tájip

to plunge, dive into water - PWMP *sesed

to poke into, pierce, insert - PWMP *ma-ñuksuk

to pound into powder, as grain - PWMP *ledek

to press into, force or cram in - PWMP *ma-ñeksek

to put food into the mouth - PPH *i-súbuq

to slice into thin strips, as meat or vegetables - PPH *gáyat

to twist into rope (?) - PMP *t<um>alih

to wear, as clothes; to get dressed, slip into - PPH *suq(e)lut

to wind, curve, turn to the side; to tack, sail into the wind - PMP *biluk

toss up, throw into the air - PWMP *talaŋ₂

touch, come into contact - PWMP *sintuk

trample earth, turn into mud, as a paddy field prior to planting - PWMP *lucak

twist fibers into twine - PPH *lubid-en

was made into rope; what was made into rope - PMP *t<in>alih

was made into rope; what was made into rope - PAN *C<in>aliS

wind thread, etc. into a ball; spool - PMP *pudun

intoxicated

drunk, intoxicated - PMP *ma-buhuk

drunk, intoxicated - PAN *ma-buSuk

intoxication

drunkenness, intoxication - PMP *buhuk

drunkenness, intoxication - PAN *buSuk

intransitive

marker of actor focus for intransitive verbs, and of inchoatives - PMP *<um>

Intsia

a hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga, Afzelia bijuga - PMP *qipil

inundated

overflow, be inundated - POC *lolop

inured

harden one's feelings, become inured - PWMP *kalis

invent

make, create, invent - POC *buat

invertebrate

edible marine invertebrate - probably sea cucumber - PPh *balát

inverted

inverted, reversed, upside-down - PPH *tumbalik

turned around, inverted - *(loan)

invigorates

plant chewed with betel that invigorates - *(loan)

invisible

invisible - PWMP *qali-meqes

invisible nature spirit - PWMP *buni₂

invite

invite - *(near)

involuntary

prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action - PAN *taR-

prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action - PMP *ta-₂

involved

entangled, caught up in, involved, embroiled - PWMP *saŋkut

involvement

involvement, engagement, business - PPH *labut

invulnerability

charm for invulnerability - *(loan)

invulnerable, invulnerability - PWMP *kebel

invulnerable, invulnerability - PWMP *kabal₂

invulnerable

invulnerable, invulnerability - PWMP *kebel

invulnerable, invulnerability - PWMP *kabal₂

inward

concave, curved inward - PMP *leŋkuŋ

concave, curving inward - PWMP *likuŋ

curved inward, sunken - PWMP *sa(ŋ)kuŋ₂

pull inward or towards oneself - PWMP *paqud

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ip

Ipomoea

beach creepers, including Ipomoea grandiflora and Ipomoea pes-caprae - POC *puRe₂

creeping vine that grows on sandy beaches, the beach morning glory: Ipomoea pes-caprae - PPH *balinu

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ir

iron

iron - *(loan)

iron (metal) - PAN-F *Namat

iron (metal) - *(noise)

ironwood

heartwood of a tree, hard, durable core of wood; ironwood tree - PMP *teRas

irrealis

stative marker in irrealis constructions, counterpart to *ma- in realis constructions - PAN *ka-₂

irregular

irregular behavior - *(loan)

irrigate

to irrigate - PMP *pa-danum

to irrigate - PAN *pa-daNum

to water, irrigate - PAN *pu-daNum

irrigated

irrigated ricefield? - PWMP *sabaq

irritable

moody, irritable - PMP *biŋit

irritate

to provoke, annoy or irritate - PPH *sugsúg

irritated

anger; angry, irritated, annoyed - PWMP *buŋet

angry, irritated - PWMP *gemes₁

irritated, angry - PPH *suŋet

irritated, annoyed - PWMP *suŋut₁

irritated, annoyed - PWMP *seŋit

irritation

anger, irritation - *-ŋaC (root)

anger, irritation - *-ŋiC (root)

annoyance, irritation - PMP *ŋitŋit₂

show annoyance or irritation - PAN *ŋiCŋiC

sore, dermal irritation, wound - POC *lake

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is

Islamic

slaughter in accord with Islamic law - *(loan)

Islamic law

slaughter in accord with Islamic law - *(loan)

island

channel between islands or islets - POC *mata ni cawa

channel between two islands - POC *sawaŋ₂

interior hill country, hilly or mountainous part of island - POC *solos

island - PMP *nusa₁

island - *(loan)

island - *(noise)

small island, islet - POC *a-nusa

islet

channel between islands or islets - POC *mata ni cawa

small island, islet - POC *a-nusa

isolation

alone, in isolation, independent - PWMP *taniq

isopod

sowbug, woodlouse: terrestrial isopod of the genus Oniscus - PWMP *babuy babuy

Isoptera

insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant - POC *ane

insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant - PAN *aNay

Istiophoridae

sailfish: Istiophoridae - POC *piRu-piRu

Istiophorus

needlefish, young of Istiophorus spp. - PMP *saku₂

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it

it

3sg. personal pronoun: he, she, it - PAN *si ia₁

3sg. personal pronoun: he, she; him, her, it - PAN *ia₁

a bird and its call, probably the tailor bird: Orthotomus atrogularis - PPH *tiwtiw

a bird sp. and its cry - PWMP *tuqaw

a tree and its edible fruit, the starfruit: Averrhoa bilimbi, Averrhoa carambola - PWMP *baliŋbiŋ

a tree and its fruit, the durian: Durio zibethinus - PWMP *duRi-an

a tree and its fruit, the Java plum: Syzygium cumini - PPH *luŋ(e)búy

a tree and the tannin that it yields: probably Macaranga tanarius - PWMP *samak

a vine and the seeds of its fruit: Abrus precatorius - PWMP *saga

Adze it!, Hew it! - PAN *taRaq-i

choose it! - PAN *piliq-i

draw a bow to its full extent - PAN *biaC

drink it! (imper.) - POC *inum-ia

drink it! (imper.) - PWMP *inum-a

eat it - POC *kani-a

eat it (imper.) - PMP *kaen-a

eat it! - PAN *kaen-i

eat something before it is ready to eat - PWMP *maŋ-qataq

fill it (imper.); be filled - POC *qutup-ia

for force something open or out of its position - PPH *tu(ŋ)kab-án

groin, inner thigh where it joins the trunk - PCMP *kelen

how?, how is it? what is the matter? - PMP *kuja

how?, how is it? what is the matter? - PAN *kuja

how?, How is it? What is the matter? - PMP *kua₁

husk it! - PPh *bunut-i

it is getting dark, night is coming on - POC *e boŋi

it is said, people say..... - PWMP *kenu

it is said, people say..... - PWMP *ken

it is said, people say..... - PPH *kunuq

it is said, people say..... - PMP *kunu₂

its top - POC *atas-ña

kind of bird and the sound of its call - PAN *kuaw

kind of bird that buries its eggs deep in the sand - PPH *tabun₁

kind of citrus tree and its fruit - PMP *muntay

kind of plover and its cry - POC *kekekeke

kind of small bird and its cry - PWMP *pitpit₁

mango tree and its fruit, probably Mangifera altissima - PMP *pahuq₁

pet animal, animal that is tamed by humans feeding it - POC *paŋan-i

push something to start it moving; accompany someone to help them start a journey - PPH *tulúd

return to its previous condition - PWMP *puliq

scrape something off a surface so as to uncover it - PPH *kuykúy₂

shake something in the water; shake something with water in it - PMP *luglug

shake something to determine its unseen contents - PWMP *kutug

skewer something so as to pick it up without touching it - PPH *tuRsúk

small bird and its call - PWMP *kuŋkuŋ₅

snag, be snagged, caught in something that prevents it from falling - PPH *saq(e)ŋit

snatch with the mouth, as a dog seizing something in its mouth and running away with it - PPH *sak(e)mál

stopped in its course, as something which sticks in the throat - PWMP *buqul

submerge a container to fill it - POC *qutub

submerge a container to fill it - PEMP *qutub

to arrest the progress of something by stopping or catching it; to support, keep from falling - PWMP *saŋgaq

to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something - PAN *taktak₁

to fill; fill it! - PWMP *penuq-en

to have had something done with it - PWMP *in-anu

to rain; it is raining - PAN *q<um>uzaN

to seize property and run off with it; to elope - PPH *taŋaR

too bad! it’s a pity! what a shame! - PWMP *sayaŋ

which number is it? - PPH *ika-pija

italica

millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica - PMP *betem

millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica - PMP *beteŋ₁

millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica - PAN *beCeŋ

millet sp.: Setaria italica (?) - PAN *zawa₂

itch

chicken flea, itch mite - PWMP *kaRaw₂

itch, feel itchy - PAN *gaCel

itch, feel itchy; sexually stimulated - PMP *gatel

itch, itchy - PMP *atel

tiny parasite on the body, itch mite, chicken louse - PMP *kuman

tiny red itch mite - PWMP *tuŋaw₁

to itch, begin to itch - PWMP *g<um>atel

to scratch an itch - PAN *k<um>aRaw

to scratch an itch - PAN *kaRaw₁

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp.; sexual itch - PMP *biRaq₁

itchiness

any plant with hairs that sting or cause itchiness - PWMP *amiaŋ

itching

be affected by itching, be infected with scabies or other itchy skin disorders - PWMP *gatel-en

kind of vine that causes swelling and itching - PPH *lipay

wild taro, elephant-ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - POC *piRaq₂

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - PWMP *biRaʔ

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - PAN *biRaq₁

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp.; sexual itch - PMP *biRaq₁

itchy

be affected by itching, be infected with scabies or other itchy skin disorders - PWMP *gatel-en

become itchy - PWMP *maka-gatel

itch, feel itchy - PAN *gaCel

itch, feel itchy; sexually stimulated - PMP *gatel

itch, itchy - PMP *atel

itchy - PMP *ma-gatel

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ix

Ixora

a flowering plant: Ixora spp. - PPH *santán

a plant: Ixora sp. - PWMP *tabuŋ

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 7/20/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_i.htm