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Updated: 11/10/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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L

le    li    lo    lu    ly    

labial

labial circle - PMP *suŋut₂

labial circle - PWMP *simuj

labial circle - PWMP *buŋut

lachryma-jobi

a cereal grass with edible seeds that are also used as beads, Job’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L. - PMP *zelay

lackeyi

a tree: Mallotus lackeyi Elm. - PPH *lamay

lacking

lacking in salt - PWMP *taq(e)baŋ

lacking, less than - *(loan)

Lactuca

a plant: Lactuca indica Linn., and Sonchus oleraceus Linn. - PAN-F *Samaq

ladder

kind of ladder - PWMP *balatuk

notched log ladder - PEMP *aRezan

notched log ladder - PMP *haRezan

notched log ladder - PMP *ezan

rung of a ladder; runged ladder - PMP *taŋga

runged ladder; rung of a ladder - PWMP *tukad₁

single log bridge; stairs, ladder - POC *tete

step or rung of a ladder - PWMP *anak i haRezan

laden

be laden with roe, of a fish or crustacean - PAN *piRaS-an

be laden with roe, of a fish or crustacean - PMP *piRah-an

heavily laden, as a boat that is low in the water - PWMP *saRad

ladle

dipper, scoop; to scoop, ladle up - PAN *taku₂

ladle, dipper, scoop, cup - POC *kapuq

ladle, dipper, scoop, cup - PMP *kabuq

ladle, spoon - *-duk (root)

spoon, ladle - PWMP *senduk

spoon, ladle - PWMP *suduq

spoon, ladle - PWMP *tidus

spoon, ladle - PMP *si(n)duk

spoon, ladle - PAN *sidu

spoon, ladle - PWMP *sanduk

spoon, ladle - PMP *qidu

spoon, ladle - PAN *qidus

spoon, ladle - PMP *tidu

spoon, ladle, dipper - PAN *Cidu

spoon, ladle, scoop - PMP *sudu

spoon, ladle, spade, shovel - PMP *suduk

to spoon or ladle up - PPh *maŋ-qidus

Lagenaria

kind of edible squash or gourd: Lagenaria leucantha - PPH *tabayaR

the bottle gourd: Lagenaria siceraria - PWMP *labuq₂

Lagerstroemia

a tree: Lagerstroemia speciosa - PPh *banabá

lagoon

lagoon - POC *namo

pond, pool; lagoon - PPH *lebeŋ₂

sheltered water: deep place in a river; cove, harbor, lagoon - PMP *namaw

laid

what is laid, placed or put down - PWMP *t<in>aRuq

lair

lair, den of an animal - PAN-F *Nibu

nest, lair - POC *ñikut

nest, lair - PAN-F *Rubu

lake

lake - PAN *banaw

lake - POC *rano

lake - PAN *danaw

lake - *(loan)

Lambis

the spider conch: Lambis lambis - PMP *RaŋaR

lambis

Lambis

the spider conch: Lambis lambis - PMP *Raŋak

lambis

Lambis

the spider conch: Lambis lambis - PMP *Raŋa

lambis

lame

crippled, lame - PPH *piqaŋ

lame, crippled - PMP *ma-pilay

lame, crippled - PAN *ma-piNay

lame, crippled - PAN *piNay

lame, crippled - *(loan)

lame, limping; to limp - PMP *timpaŋ

lame, walk with a limp - PWMP *kimpaŋ

lame; to limp - POC *koki

paralyzed, lame - PWMP *lumpuq

was lame - PPH *na-pílay

lament

bewail, lament - *(loan)

lamp

lamp - *(loan)

lance

crab claw, lance - *(noise)

lance - *(loan)

spear, lance - PMP *tumbak

land

clear land for cultivation - PPh *talun-an

cultivated land - *(noise)

cutting, slashing, as in clearing land - PWMP *patpat

descend; go down; land from a boat - POC *sipo

earth, soil, land - PMP *taneq

earth, soil, land; down; westward - POC *tanoq

fallow land; secondary forest - PMP *talun₁

fallow land; secondary forest - PAN *CaluN

flat or level land - POC *rataR

flat, flat or level land - PAN *dataR

forest, uninhabited land - POC *wao

hummock, small rise of land - PPH *taluktuk

inhabited land, territory supporting the life of a community - PMP *banua

kind of small land crab - POC *tubaRa

land turtle, fresh-water turtle - PPh *pagquŋ

low lying land - PPH *liŋ(e)sad

mountain peak, cape of land; tip of anything - PMP *quzuŋ

open space, expanse of land or water - PWMP *bawaŋ

plain, region of level land - PAN *ka-dataR-an

split, torn; opening or water passage between two capes of land - PMP *beŋat₁

stony, as land - PWMP *batu-en

the high seas, far from land - PWMP *lahud-an

to cut, slash, as in clearing land - PPH *patpát-en

to land, settle down - POC *toko

to make level or flat, as in levelling land - PWMP *maŋ-dataR

tortoise, land turtle - PPH *baququ

uncultivated land - PAN-F *Ceme-Cemel

landslide

crumbling, eroded; landslide, cave-in - PPH *tebág

sink down, subside; landslide - POC *solo₃

land turtle

tortoise, land turtle - *(loan)

language

word, speech, language - PAN *kaRi₁

word; talk; conversation; language - PMP *sau₄

languid

droopy, languid - PPH *lupaypáy

lap

carry in front of one; hold in the lap - PWMP *paŋku

hold in the lap, as a small child - PPH *sapupu

lap - PMP *riba

put in the lap - PMP *iwa

put in the lap - PMP *iwaq

Laportea

a small stinging plant, perhaps Laportea interrupta - POC *karat₂

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - POC *silatoŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - PMP *zilateŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - PMP *zalateŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - POC *la-latoŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - PMP *la-lateŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - POC *latoŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - PMP *lateŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - PAN *laCeŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - POC *salatoŋ

lappaceum

hairy; kind of hairy fruit, rambutan: Nephelium lappaceum - PWMP *bulu-an

lard

lard, fat, greasy scum on the surface of liquids - PPH *laneb

to melt, as lard - PPH *lunag

large

a fish, large emperor: Lethrinus sp. - POC *kasika

a large marine fish, the jackfish or trevally - PMP *pilu

a large marine fish, the jackfish or trevally - PMP *bilu-bilu

a large tree in the mahogany family: Dysoxylum sp. - PWMP *tawa₂

bamboo of very large diameter, probably Dendrocalamus sp. - PAN *betuŋ₁

big, great, large - POC *lapat

big, large - POC *lapa

big, large - PMP *laba

big, large - PAN *Raya

big, large - *(loan)

big, large (in size or quantity) - PPH *dakél

bluebottle, large fly - PAN *beRŋaw

break into several large pieces - PAN *peceq₁

break into several large pieces; hatch - PMP *pesak

break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg - POC *posaq

break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg - PMP *peceq₂

horsefly, large biting fly - PWMP *piket₁

kind of large basket or fish weir held in the hand - PPH *alát

kind of large boat - PWMP *baraŋay

kind of large carrying basket - PMP *Rantaŋ

kind of large fishing net - PWMP *salambaw

kind of large knife - PAN-F *tadaw

kind of large openwork basket - PPH *kaqiŋ

kind of large red tree ant with bad bite - PWMP *alagaq

kind of large, edible marine fish - PWMP *kakap₁

kind of marine fish with large eyes - PPH *mataqan

large black ant with painful sting, probably bulldog ant - POC *kadik

large canoe - POC *tola

large catfish that lives in river estuaries: genus Arius - PWMP *tambaŋuŋu

large cooking banana or plantain variety - PPH *tinduk

large cuttlefish and squid - POC *mwamwaki

large fish, probably grouper - POC *kalia

large forest tree with edible brown, hairy fruits: Diospyros discolor - PPH *kamaguŋ

large fruit bat - PPH *kabég

large green hairless stinging caterpillar - PWMP *tatadu

large green hairless stinging caterpillar - PMP *katadu

large jar used to store rice wine - PWMP *tapay-an

large leg muscle - PWMP *keted

large lizard sp. - PWMP *haluh

large mango: Mangifera odorata - PWMP *qambawaŋ

large openwork basket - PPH *kaiŋ

large open-work basket - PPh *balúlaŋ

large pandanus sp. - POC *pwasa(rR)

large piece or chunk of meat, etc. - PWMP *la(m)paŋ

large rayfish, probably manta or eagle ray - PMP *paRih manuk

large red tree ant - POC *loRo

large ruminant species - PAN *qiNuaŋ

large ruminant species: carabao, water buffalo (?) - PMP *qanuaŋ

large ruminant species: carabao, water buffalo (?) - PAN *qaNuaŋ

large snake sp. - PMP *anipa

large stinging green caterpillar - PWMP *qantatadu

large stinging green caterpillar - PWMP *hantatadu

large, thick, bamboo sp. - PWMP *patuŋ

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu-q

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu-ŋ

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu

stomach; large intestine - PMP *bituka

type of large bamboo - PMP *qauR

type of very large bamboo - POC *potuŋ

large pot or basin

large pot or basin - *(loan)

larger

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

largest

majority, largest part - PPH *ka-dakel-án

mother, mother's sister; female animal; largest member of a set - PCEMP *ina

larva

maggot, caterpillar, larva of a metamorphosing insect - PMP *qulej

lash

Hibiscus tiliaceus, a tree the bark of which provides a fiber much used in making cordage; to lash, tie, bind - POC *paRu

lashed

rafter, diagonal bamboo poles to which thatch panels are lashed - PMP *kasaw₁

last

behind, last - PMP *ma-udehi

endure, last a long time - POC *loan

last burning bit; to snuff out a spark - PMP *latu

last compartment in a fishtrap, place where fish are caught - PWMP *bunuq-an₂

last night - PMP *ka-Rabiqi

last, come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child; west; young; outside - PCEMP *m-udi

last; come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child - PMP *udehi

the last, at the rear - PWMP *ka-udehi-an

lasting

lasting, enduring - PWMP *bantas

straightaway, immediately; get done at once; continue on, lasting - PMP *tulus

late

last, come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child; west; young; outside - PCEMP *m-udi

last; come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child - PMP *udehi

late - *(noise)

late afternoon, evening; evening meal - PAN *Rabiqi

late afternoon, evening; evening meal; yesterday - PMP *Rabiqi

later

in a little while, momentarily, later - PAN *Sauni

last, come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child; west; young; outside - PCEMP *m-udi

last; come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child - PMP *udehi

later, tomorrow, in the future - PWMP *pagi

lather

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth - PAN *bujeq₁

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth - PMP *budaq₁

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; bubble up - PCEMP *budaq₄

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; to foam, to bubble; foam at the mouth; fond of talking; type of white bead - PMP *bujeq₂

foam, froth, lather - PAN *puCaq

laths

shelf; bed frame of wooden or bamboo laths - PMP *pa(n)tar₂

latro

coconut crab: Birgus latro - PPH *tatus

coconut crab: Birgus latro - PMP *qayuyu

laugh

cackle, laugh loudly - *-kak₁ (root)

laugh - PWMP *kesiŋ

laugh - *(noise)

laugh boisterously - PWMP *bahak

laugh loudly; loud or raucous laughter - PWMP *hakhak

laugh, smile - PCEMP *malip

laugh; laughter - PPH *eŋit

sneer, laugh in derision - POC *inap

sound of a cackle, loud laugh, etc. - PAN *kak

to laugh - PWMP *maR-ka-tawa

to laugh - PPh *maka-tawa

to laugh - PMP *ma-tawa

to laugh - PAN *ma-Cawa

to laugh - PWMP *ka-tawa

to laugh - PMP *ta-tawa

to laugh - PAN *Ca-Cawa

to laugh - PMP *tawa₁

to laugh - PAN *Cawa

laughing

bare the teeth in smiling or laughing - PMP *riŋis₁

laughing, smiling - POC *mali-malip

laughter

cackling laughter - PMP *akak

laugh loudly; loud or raucous laughter - PWMP *hakhak

laugh; laughter - PPH *eŋit

shriek, as of laughter - PWMP *dekak

snicker, giggle; high-pitched laughter - PWMP *hikhik

subdued laughter; sobbing - PMP *e(ŋ)kek

launch

lower or let down, as on a rope; pay out fishline; launch a boat - PMP *huluR

motorboat, launch - *(loan)

push, launch a canoe - POC *usu

laurel

a tree: the camphor laurel: Cinnamomum spp. - PAN-F *dakeS

laurinum

putty nut: Parinari laurinum - POC *katita

the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum - POC *qatita

the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum - POC *qarita

lavatory

lavatory - *(loan)

law

be afflicted with a swollen abdomen as a result of violating customary law. - PWMP *busuŋ

law - *(loan)

swollen, of the abdomen as a result of the violation of customary law - PWMP *ma-busuŋ

lay

lay an egg - PWMP *mag-qiteluR

lay eggs - PWMP *maŋ-qateluR

lay long objects side by side; raft - PMP *Rakit

to lay down, put down, put away - PWMP *maR-taRuq

to store, put away for safekeeping, hide valuables; to place a bet in gambling; lay an egg - PMP *taRuq

to surround, lay siege to - PPH *kubkub₁

layer

cover with a thin layer - PWMP *kupkup₁

in layers, adjacent to one another - PMP *taq(e)pil

layer of cloth or clothing - PWMP *lampín

layer, stratum - *(noise)

liner, layer, insulation, padding; sleeping mat - PMP *hapin

outer layer of abaca plant - PPH *lupis₂

stacked, in layers - PWMP *pa-susun

stone slab, thin layer - PWMP *lapis

thin layer - PMP *lepit₁

thin, thin layer - PWMP *Rampis

to stack up, pile in layers - PMP *susun

lazy

be lazy, feel lazy - PPH *tamad-an

lazy, idle - *(loan)

lazy, indolent - PPH *tamád

TOP      le    li    lo    lu    ly    

le

lead

person who leads or escorts another; means of leading or escorting - PWMP *paŋ-hateD

to do or go first; to lead - PMP *(q)<um>una

to do or go first; to lead - PAN *(q)<um>uNah

to lead in walking; to accompany - PPH *kuyug

to lead the way; to follow after - POC *suRi₂

to lead, guide; leader? - POC *turaŋa

to lead, support (as a feeble person) - PPH *kabít

leader

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born - PMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - PCEMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - POC *qulu

leader - *(loan)

leader in a group - PWMP *tuqay

leader, chief - PWMP *paŋ-qulu

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu-q

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu-ŋ

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu

to lead, guide; leader? - POC *turaŋa

leading

person who leads or escorts another; means of leading or escorting - PWMP *paŋ-hateD

leaf

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root - PMP *uRat

carrying vessel made from folded palm leaf sheath - PWMP *timbalaŋ

coconut leaf basket - POC *kaso₂

fish wrapped in banana leaf and cooked over hot coals - PWMP *p<in>aqis

leaf - PAN-F *waSaw

leaf awning - PWMP *samir

leaf of a vine chewed with betel nut, betel pepper: Piper betle - PWMP *buyuq

leaf; blade of paddle or oar; ‘table’ for eating - PMP *dahun

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PEMP *raun

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PCEMP *daun

midrib of coconut leaf - PMP *palaqpaq

mid-rib of coconut leaf - POC *balapaq

palm leaf awning, usually on boats - PMP *kazaŋ₂

plaited palm leaf bag or pouch - PWMP *kampil

pulpy leaf - *(noise)

roll up a leaf, as a tobacco leaf - PPH *tustus₂

tail; end of something long, as a rope; tip of a leaf - POC *siku

tear a leaf or cloth into strips - PPH *kisay

to leaf out, sprout leaves - PWMP *maR-dahun

leafy

leafy, dense, of foliage - PWMP *ma-dahun

leak

drip, leak - PMP *tiktik₂

leak - POC *pupus-i

leak - *(loan)

leak out, of air - PWMP *hius

leak, drip - POC *turuq

leak, pour out; loose or crumbling; crumble and fall - POC *pupus

leak, spill through, stream out from a hole in a container - PMP *busbus

to drip, to leak - PPh *t<um>uduq

to leak, as a roof - PWMP *ma-nuduq

to leak, drip, as a leaky roof; a drop of water - PAN *tuduq

leaking

leaking, dripping (as a leaky roof) - PMP *ma-tuduq

leaky

to leak, drip, as a leaky roof; a drop of water - PAN *tuduq

lean

backrest, place to lean back against - PWMP *sandaR-an

flesh, lean part of meat; grain of wood - POC *pisiko

flesh, lean part of meat; grain of wood - POC *pijiko

lean against, lean or incline on - PMP *sandiR

lean against, lean or incline on - PWMP *sandeR

lean on or against - PWMP *sandaR

lean on, recline - *-daR (root)

lean or rest on - PAN *saŋeday

lean, incline - PWMP *seŋjiR

lean, incline - PPh *hírig

slant, lean over (as a tree) - POC *(bp)alalan

thin, lean - PWMP *kuru₂

to lean on or against - PWMP *sindiR

to lean on or against - PMP *sendiR

to lean on or against - PWMP *sendeR

to lean on or against - PWMP *s<um>andiR

leaning

inclination, leaning to the side - PWMP *keleŋ₂

leaning sideways, listing (as a boat) - PMP *kiliŋ

lean-to

lean-to - *(noise)

leap

jump, leap, dance - PWMP *sayaw

stamp the feet; step, leap - PWMP *tanzak

to jump, leap across - PPH *luksúh

learn

to learn, discover - PPH *tuqun₂

learned

learned knowledgeable - *(loan)

leather

animal skin, hide, leather - PMP *qanit

animal skin, hide, leather - PAN *qaNiC

thick or hard skin, buffalo hide, leather; callus - PWMP *balulaŋ

leave

a pandanus, Pandanus odoratissimus; a mat made from the leaves of this plant - POC *kiRe

bag of plaited palm leaves - PWMP *bayuquŋ

cook fish or meat wrapped in banana leaves - PWMP *paqis

cut or collect palm leaves for roofing - PMP *sasah

ear plug, roll of leaves, etc. inserted through pierced ear - PWMP *subeŋ

foliage, leaves - POC *raun-raun

foliage, leaves - PMP *dahun-dahun

heart leaves - POC *upur

heart leaves - PWMP *buŋbuŋ₃

inner pulp or young leaves - PPH *sepet

kind of pandanus with leaves useful for plaiting - PCEMP *ima₂

kind of tree the leaves of which are used as poultices for boils - PMP *buqaR

kind of tree with leaves shaped like butterflies - PWMP *qali-baŋbaŋ

plant with leaves used as a vegetable: Talinum paniculatum or Talinum triangulare - PPH *talínum

plant with sharp leaves - PWMP *aqedas

press together, make compact, as the threads or leaves in weaving - PPH *sensén

roll of leaves or cloth - PWMP *ampin

rustling sound, as of leaves in wind - PWMP *kerus₂

small sour plant with clover-like leaves - PWMP *qalesem qalesem

step on; leave footprint - PPH *takad

strip leaves from branch - POC *sali

to have or sprout leaves - PWMP *maŋ-dahun

to imprint, leave a temporary mark - PWMP *gerger₂

to leaf out, sprout leaves - PWMP *maR-dahun

to leave on a trip, start a voyage - PPH *l<um>uas

to leave, depart - PPH *alís

to leave, depart (?) - PAN *um-aŋay

to order; leave a message - PPh *maR-bilín

to peel off skin, bark or leaves; excoriated, decorticated, defoliated - PWMP *laklak

to pluck, as fruit; strip off leaves - PWMP *pulpul₁

tree or shrub with leaves used for sandpaper: Ficus sp. - PMP *qampelas

tree with leaves like sandpaper: Ficus spp. - PMP *qa(m)pelas

umbrella made of palm leaves - PWMP *saeŋ

withered, of leaves - PWMP *puspus₃

leaving

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled in shallow water - PWMP *maR-tulak

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water - PMP *tulak

lecture

to point at, point out, lecture or instruct, give advice - PAN *t<um>uzuq

led

one who is led, one who is conducted - PWMP *in-aRak

Leea

a plant, Leea spp. - PMP *mali-mali

a plant: Leea spp. - PMP *mali

leech

jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp. - PWMP *sali-matek

jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp. - PWMP *qali-matek

jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp. - PMP *qala-matek

jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp. - PWMP *kali-matek

jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp. - PAN *qaNi-matek

jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp. - PAN *-matek

paddy leech - PWMP *qali-metaq

paddy leech - PAN *qaNi-meCaq

paddy leech - PAN *-meCaq

left

cooled off, as cooked food that has been left to sit too long - PAN *ma-baSaw

deep place in river; pool of water left when a stream dries up - PPH *lib(e)tuŋ

left side - POC *kauRi

left side or direction - PEMP *mauRi

left side or direction - POC *mawiRi

left side or direction - PAN *ka-wiRi

left side or direction - PAN *wiRi

order, request, command; message; something left for another - PWMP *bilin

separated, left behind - PPh *ma-bílin

solid residue left after squeezing to remove coconut oil, etc. - PPH *lunek₂

unhusked rice grain left among the husked grains - PWMP *ataq

left (not right)

left (not right) - *(near)

leftover

cold, of leftover food; leftovers from a meal - PMP *bahaw

cold, of leftover food; leftovers from a meal - PAN *baSaw

left over - *(loan)

leftover, remainder - POC *tira

leftover, remainder - PMP *tidaq

leftover, remainder - POC *tira

leftover, remainder - PMP *tida

leftover, remainder - PAN *teda

remnant, leftover - PAN-F *samaq

leg

back of leg - PWMP *taked₁

be spread apart, as the legs - PWMP *tikaŋ

calf of the leg - PWMP *baties

calf of the leg - POC *qate qate

calf of the leg - PWMP *butiqes

calf of the leg - PMP *buaq ni bities

calf of the leg - PCEMP *betis

calf of the leg - PAN *beties

crippled; bent or twisted, of the leg or foot - PAN *piluk₁

crotch, fork of the legs; span, fork of the fingers - POC *saŋa₁

crotch, fork of the legs; span, fork of the fingers - PEMP *saŋa₁

foot, leg - POC *waqe

foot, leg - PPH *seki

foot, leg - PPH *sikí

foot, leg - PAN *waqay

foot, leg - PAN *qaqay

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

hoof, lower leg of an ungulate - PAN *kudkud

hop on one leg - PWMP *kiŋkiŋ₂

hop on one leg, limp - POC *tige

large leg muscle - PWMP *keted

leg of a fowl (?) - PPH *sáka

leg, foot - POC *qaqe

lift up the clothes, roll up the pant legs (as when crossing shallow water) - PPH *lesles₁

lower leg (below the knee); calf of the leg - PMP *bities

lower leg, calf of the leg - PWMP *betiq₁

open the legs wide - PWMP *siŋkat

part of the lower leg, possibly the ankle - PWMP *beŋil

press together; pressed together; carry under the arm, press between the legs - PMP *kepit

protruding part of the lower leg - PPh *buqel

roll up pant legs - PPH *lenlen

spread apart, as the legs - PWMP *bi(ŋ)kaŋ

spread apart, as the legs - *-kaŋ₁ (root)

spread apart, as the legs or an unbent fishhook - PWMP *bukaŋkaŋ

spread apart, as the legs or an unbent fishhook - POC *pokaŋ

spread apart, as the legs, or an unbent fishhook - PWMP *bikaŋkaŋ

spread apart, as the legs, or an unbent fishhook - PMP *be(ŋ)kaŋ

spread open, as the legs - PWMP *u(ŋ)kaŋ

spread the legs - PWMP *ti(ŋ)kaŋ

spread the legs - PWMP *Ra(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ

spread the legs - PWMP *la(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ

spread the legs - PWMP *eŋkaŋ

spread the legs apart - PMP *waŋkaŋ

spread the legs wide - PWMP *kaŋkaŋ₁

spread wide apart, as the legs or any two things joined at a point - PMP *pikaŋ

tie an artificial spur to the leg of a fighting cock - PWMP *maŋ-bulaŋ

to bend, as an arm or leg - POC *lukun

to catch by the legs - PPH *ma-masiŋ

to catch by the legs - PPH *batiŋ

to roll up sleeves or pant legs - PPH *lislís

upper leg - PPh *hitaq

walk or stand with legs wide apart - PPH *sakáqaŋ

walk with legs wide apart - PWMP *iŋkaŋ

wide apart, as the legs - PWMP *zaŋkaŋ

wide apart, of the legs - PWMP *sikaŋ

legume

kind of legume - PWMP *hametak

legumes, beans - PMP *buay₁

leguminous

a leguminous shrub: Leucaena glauca - PPh *ipil ipil

Leiognathus

fish sp., slipmouth: Leiognathus sp. - PPH *sapsap₂

lemon

citrus tree with fruit like a lemon - PPH *kalamansiq

kind of wild lemon tree, possibly Citrus hystrix - PPH *kabuRaw

lemon grass: Cymbopogon spp. - PWMP *seray

lend

borrow, lend - PMP *hezam

borrow, lend - PAN *Sezam

borrow, lend - PPh *bulud₁

lend - PAN *pa-Sezam

lend - PAN *pa-hinzam

lend - PPh *pa-bulud

lend - PPh *ipa-bulud

lend something (?) - PPh *ipa-hedám

lend, borrow (?) - PWMP *maR-hinzam

to lend, give a loan - PPh *ipa-qútaŋ

to lend, give on credit - PWMP *pa-qutaŋ

lending

borrowing, lending - PWMP *hinzam

length

equal in height or length - PPH *tepeŋ₂

join along the length - *-kit₂ (root)

join along the length, raft - POC *rakit

join along the length; raft - PMP *dakit

join two things to give added length (rope, bamboo, etc.) - PAN-F *Nutud

joined along the length - PPh *biŋkit

touching or joined along the length - PWMP *ziŋkit

touching or joined along the length - PWMP *ri(ŋ)kit

touching or joined along the length - PWMP *diŋkit

touching or joined along the length - PMP *de(ŋ)kit

lengthening

time of lengthening shadows; afternoon - PWMP *liŋay

lengthwise

canoes joined together lengthwise (?) - POC *kabat₂

join, fasten together, probably lengthwise - PWMP *diq(e)pit

split lengthwise - POC *paqas

split lengthwise - PMP *baqas

lent

be lent to - PPh *pa-hedam-en

leopard

Formosan clouded leopard - PAN-F *lukeNaw

Lepisanthes

a plant with toxic properties, Erioglossum edule or Lepisanthes rubiginosa - PWMP *kalayu

leprosy

maimed (as by leprosy) - *(loan)

Lepus

the Formosan hare: Lepus sinensis formosus - PAN-F *lutuk₁

lesser

lesser yam: Dioscorea sp. - PPH *tugíq

less than

lacking, less than - *(loan)

let

come on! let's go! - PWMP *ita₂

come on! let's go! - PWMP *itaq

come; toward the speaker; let’s go! - PAN *aRi

let someone choose, let someone make a choice - PWMP *pa-piliq

let something grow, make something grow - PWMP *pa-tubuq-en

let something grow, make something grow - PPh *pa-tubuq

lose, let slip by - PWMP *luput

lower or let down, as on a rope - PAN *SuluR

lower or let down, as on a rope; pay out fishline; launch a boat - PMP *huluR

make something wither, let something wither or wilt - PWMP *pa-layu

to keep someone awake, not let them sleep - PPH *puyat-en

to let food or hot water cool off - PPH *pa-bahaw-en

to let something pass by - PPH *pa-labas-en

to lower, let something down, as with a rope - PPH *tuntún

to make someone cry; to let someone cry - PMP *paka-taŋis

to make someone cry; to let someone cry - PMP *pa-taŋis

to make someone cry; to let someone cry - PAN *pa-Caŋis

to set free, let loose, liberated; passed by, come to an end - PWMP *lepas

Lethrinidae

a fish: Lethrinidae spp. - POC *kulabo

Lethrinus

a fish, large emperor: Lethrinus sp. - POC *kasika

a fish, the emperor: Lethrinus spp. - POC *surup₂

a fish, the emperor: Lethrinus spp. - POC *sabutu

a fish: Lethrinus spp. - POC *susul₁

scavenger fish: Lethrinus spp. - POC *oka oka

lets go!

come on!, lets go! - *(loan)

Leucaena

a leguminous shrub: Leucaena glauca - PPh *ipil ipil

leucantha

kind of edible squash or gourd: Lagenaria leucantha - PPH *tabayaR

level

flat or level land - POC *rataR

flat, even, level - PWMP *parpar

flat, even, level - PWMP *palpal₂

flat, flat or level land - PAN *dataR

flat, level - PMP *da(m)paD

flat, level - PWMP *ataR

flat, level - *-paD (root)

flat, level (of ground) - PWMP *pantay

flat, level, even - POC *rapaR

flat, level, even - PMP *dapaR

level ground; plain - PWMP *pataR₂

level, flat - PMP *pa(n)tar₁

plain, region of level land - PAN *ka-dataR-an

straight, direct; flat, level - POC *wane wane

to lower, of water level - PPh *maR-qeti

to make level or flat, as in levelling land - PWMP *maŋ-dataR

levelling

to make level or flat, as in levelling land - PWMP *maŋ-dataR

lever

lever (?) - PPH *suil

lever up - PWMP *qasual

lever up - PWMP *luhit

lever, instrument for prying something up - PWMP *quŋkil

lever; prop - PWMP *tuil

lift up with a lever, lever up, root up - PMP *suaR₁

root up, lever up - PMP *suat₂

to lever up - PWMP *suqit

to lever up, tip up by force - PWMP *tuas

levered

levered up; uprooted - POC *puqal

levered up; uprooted - PCEMP *buqal

TOP      le    li    lo    lu    ly    

li

liberated

to set free, let loose, liberated; passed by, come to an end - PWMP *lepas

lice

crush lice between the thumbnails - PWMP *tedes

crush lice with the fingernails - POC *tidros

crush lice with the fingernails - PMP *tindes

fine-toothed lice comb - PWMP *sujud

having lice, lice-infested - PMP *ma-kutu

infested with lice - *(near)

to have lice - PWMP *kutu-en

to search for lice, as by parting the hair - PPH *sukáy

lice-infested

having lice, lice-infested - PMP *ma-kutu

lice-infested - PWMP *k<in>utu

lichen

type of lichen - PWMP *kahiw haŋin haŋin

lick

to lick - PWMP *dilat

to lick - PWMP *dilap₂

to lick - PAN *d<um>ilaq

to lick - PAN *dilaq₁

to lick (?) - PMP *d<um>ilaq

Licuala

fan palm: Licuala Rumphii - POC *piRu

fan palm: Licuala Rumphii - PMP *biRu

lid

covering, lid - PWMP *aŋkeb

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

lid, cover - PPH *sakúb

lid, cover - PMP *taŋeb

lie

for the hair to lie down flat - PPH *kepkép₂

lie above - *(noise)

lie down - PPh *hideRáq

lie down to sleep - PAN *qinep

lie down to sleep - PCEMP *qenəp

lie down to sleep’ - POC *qenop

lie down, curl up (of animals) - PWMP *lekuq₂

lie face down - PWMP *la(ŋ)keb

lie face downward - PWMP *kureb

lie face downward - *-kem₂ (root)

lie in stacks, one on top of the other - PWMP *apid₂

lie in wait for, ambush - PMP *hipaʔ

lie in wait, set an ambush in hunting game - PPH *apat

lie on a surface, of water - PMP *lama₁

lie on one's side - PWMP *tumbiriŋ

lie or sleep next to - PMP *hulij

lie or sleep next to - PAN *Sulij

lie prone, face down - PWMP *tiŋkeb

lie prone, face-down - PWMP *leŋkeb

lie, deceive - *(loan)

lie, deception - PMP *baRiq

lie, deception - PMP *bali₄

obstruct, lie across or athwart - PWMP *qalaŋ

one who lies next to another - PWMP *ka-hulij

piece of wood used for a purpose; lie athwart, as a beam - PWMP *bali(n)taŋ

thwart, crosspiece, as one used to restrain person; lie athwart or across - PWMP *balagbag

to lie down - PPh *maR-hideRáq

to lie face down, prone - PPH *sakeb

to lie in wait for an enemy or wild game - PPH *tambaŋ-an

to lie, tell a lie - POC *koron

to lie, tell a lie - PWMP *buqeli

to lie, tell a lie - PMP *beliq₁

lie above

lie above - *(loan)

lie prone

lie prone - *(loan)

life

allowed to live, given life; made captive - PPh *bihaR-en

breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break - PMP *nihawa

inhabited land, territory supporting the life of a community - PMP *banua

life, alive - PAN *qudip₁

make alive, give life to - PPh *maŋ-bihaR

save, spare the life of - PMP *paka-qudip

lift

lift off a cover, be lifted off - PMP *tikas

lift or raise up - PWMP *maŋ-atas

lift up the clothes, roll up the pant legs (as when crossing shallow water) - PPH *lesles₁

lift up with a lever, lever up, root up - PMP *suaR₁

lift, carry - POC *puat-an₂

lift, carry, bring; emerge, appear, begin; take a spouse - POC *puat₂

lift, elevate - PWMP *maŋ-aŋkat-aŋkat

lift, raise up - PWMP *aŋkat-an

lift, raise, carry - PWMP *maŋ-aŋkat

lift, raise, pick up - PWMP *taR-aŋkat

lift, raise, pick up - PWMP *maR-aŋkat

lift, raise, pick up - PWMP *aŋkat

to lift, raise up - PWMP *katkat₁

to lift, raise, uncover, bare something - PCMP *silu₁

to lift, stand up, arise, emerge, begin, depart, carry; cargo; take something; take a wife - PMP *buhat₃

lifted

be lifted up or deposited on the beach by tide or current - POC *puRe₁

lift off a cover, be lifted off - PMP *tikas

lifted, carried - PWMP *buhat-en

lifted, carried - PMP *buhat-an₁

to be lifted - PWMP *kakat-en

lifting

act of lifting or raising - PWMP *paŋ-aŋkat

ligament

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; sinew; tendon; ligament; fiber; tough, sinewy - POC *uRat

tendon, ligament; prominent veins - PPH *lítid

ligature

ligature - POC *a

ligature - PMP *ha₂

ligature - PAN *Sa₁

ligature - PAN *a₅

light

a tree with very light wood: Octomeles sp. - PWMP *binuaŋ

beam of light - PMP *silak₁

bright light - PMP *nilaw

clicking or light knocking sound - *-tek₁ (root)

close the eyes; go out, of a light - PWMP *qezep

dark in color or from the absence of light - PWMP *lidem

day, sun, light - *(noise)

dazzled, blinded by glaring light - PWMP *siraŋ

dazzling light - PWMP *kinelaw

dazzling light - PWMP *ginelaw

dazzling light - *-law (root)

dazzling, of light - PMP *silaw

dim, of light - PWMP *kelep

dim, of light - PWMP *kelap₁

drizzle, light rain - PPH *taRihtih

drizzle, light rain - PPH *tariktik

fighting cock with greenish feathers on light background - PWMP *hizaw

flash of light - PMP *binaR

fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin: Tinea flava or Pityriasis - PMP *panaw₁

kindle, light a fire, set ablaze - POC *bula₁

light in weight - PMP *ma-Raqan

light rustling sound - PWMP *risris

light, bright - PMP *sindar

light, luminosity - POC *ramaR

light, radiance - PMP *sunaR

light, radiance - PAN *suNaR

light, radiance; shine - PWMP *edaŋ

luminous, brilliant, full of light - PWMP *kilaw₂

outpouring of light - PMP *sila₁

outpouring of light - PMP *sirak₁

outpouring of light - PMP *silaq

pat, light slap - *-pik (or *-piqik?) (root)

ray of light - PWMP *sinar

ray of light - *-NaR (or *-NagaR?) (root)

ray of light, sunbeam - PMP *sinaR

ray of light; to shine - PMP *siŋaR

shine, flickering or flashing light - *-laC (root)

sound of light knocking - PWMP *etek

sound of light smacking - PMP *gepik

sound of ticking, flipping, light tapping - PWMP *pa(n)tik

spark, bright light - PMP *sigá

to illuminate, cast light on - PWMP *suluq-i

to light a fire - PPH *temtem

to shine, radiate light - PAN *s<um>uNaR

to shine, radiate light - PMP *s<um>unaR

to tick, make a ticking or light knocking sound - PMP *kitik₂

wind-driven fragments of cloud, light scudding clouds - PMP *taqi nu haŋin

young (of fruits); immature; light (of colors) - PMP *muda

lighten

to lighten, to flash, of lightning - PWMP *k<um>ilat

light-headed

to feel light-headed; to faint, lose consciousness momentarily - PPH *lipeŋ

lighting

flash of lighting - POC *LapaR₂

lightly

graze, strike lightly against - PMP *tiŋkuq

knock lightly - PWMP *ŋ-etek

pat, slap lightly - POC *tapik

pat, slap lightly - PMP *tapik

rap or tap lightly - PPH *tiltil

tap or beat lightly on - POC *kidik

tap or beat lightly on - PMP *gi(n)tik

to tap lightly on a hard surface - PWMP *ma-niktik

to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface - POC *titik₂

to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface - PMP *tiktik₁

to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface - PAN *tiktik₁

touch lightly - PWMP *kubit

touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger - PPH *kal(e)bit-en

touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger - PPH *kal(e)bit

touch someone lightly, as to get attention - PPH *kablit

lightness

lightness (weight) - PMP *Raqan

lightning

lightning - POC *pitik₂

lightning - PCEMP *bitik₂

lightning - PWMP *kidelat

lightning - POC *bila₂

lightning - PMP *kilat₁

lightning - PAN *likaC

lightning - PWMP *sal(e)qit

lightning - POC *qusila

lightning that strikes something - PMP *gelap₁

thunder and lightning together - PWMP *letiq

to flash, of lightning - PWMP *maR-kilat

to flash, of lightning - POC *pilak₂

to flash, of lightning - *(noise)

to lighten, to flash, of lightning - PWMP *k<um>ilat

light-skinned

light-skinned, pale - PWMP *pudak

light tap

light tap - *(near)

like

broad, flat rock shaped like a plank - PWMP *batu papan

citrus tree with fruit like a lemon - PPH *kalamansiq

eat voraciously, eat like an animal - PPH *lamun-en

kind of tree with leaves shaped like butterflies - PWMP *qali-baŋbaŋ

like, similar to, resemble - PMP *buat₂

mate, companion; like, similar to - POC *jama

rise and fall like the swells at sea - PWMP *humbak-humbak

same, equal, like - PWMP *pada

slurp up food or water, eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *sabsab

slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *tabtab₂

tool like chisel or trowel - PPH *saluksuk₁

treat like a father - PMP *pa(ka)-amax

tree with leaves like sandpaper: Ficus spp. - PMP *qa(m)pelas

like wildfire or a disease

spread, like wildfire or a disease - *(near)

lily-like

a lily-like plant: Crinum asiaticum L. - PAN *bakuŋ₁

lima

lima bean: Phaseolus lunatus - PPH *pataniq

limb

bend the limbs, curl up the body - PWMP *kulkul

cramps, stiffening of limbs - *-keŋ₁ (root)

cramps, stiffening of the limbs - PWMP *kukuŋ

cramps, stiffening of the limbs - PMP *keŋkeŋ₂

cramps, stiffening of the limbs, rigor mortis - PMP *kaŋkaŋ₃

crooked, of limbs; bone fracture - PWMP *lepuq₁

maimed, amputated, of a limb - POC *kubut₁

maimed, amputated, of a limb - PMP *kumput

maimed, amputated, of a limb - POC *kubuŋ₁

maimed, amputated, of a limb - PMP *kumpuŋ

numb; 'fall asleep', of a limb - PPh *banhéd

painful swelling in limbs - POC *tupa₁

straight, as tree limbs - PPH *tánus

straighten out, of a limb, etc. - PMP *keteŋ

to break off, cut off, as a limb - PAN *putun₂

to twist, as a limb - PMP *liut₂

lime

lime container - PWMP *qapuR-an

lime container - PWMP *paR-qapuR-an

lime container - PWMP *paŋ-qapuR-an

lime, calcium - PAN *qapuR

lime, calcium carbonate - PMP *kapuR

lime, citrus fruit - PWMP *limaw

lime, coral limestone - POC *kau₁

make lime by burning shells - PWMP *maŋ-qapuR

prepare betel chew with lime - PPh *maR-qapuR

snare birds with bird lime - PWMP *mamiket

snare birds with bird lime - PWMP *mamikat

limestone

branching coral; coral limestone - POC *laje

coral, limestone - PMP *karaŋ

lime, coral limestone - POC *kau₁

limestone sediment (?) - POC *bia-bia

limit

until, as far as; limit, boundary - PMP *qiŋga

limp

hop on one leg, limp - POC *tige

lame, limping; to limp - PMP *timpaŋ

lame, walk with a limp - PWMP *kimpaŋ

lame; to limp - POC *koki

limpid

clear, limpid - *-niŋ (root)

limping

lame, limping; to limp - PMP *timpaŋ

line

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root - PMP *uRat

drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth - PAN *sapay

drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth - PMP *sampay₁

draw a line - PWMP *bad(e)ris

file, line, row - *(loan)

fishing line - POC *apon

fishing line - PEMP *apen

fishing line - PMP *hapen

hook and line fishing - PWMP *pa-ŋawil

in the line of sight, clearly visible - PPH *aŋ(ə)tad

line up one behind the other - PWMP *maR-aRak

line, groove, mark made by cutting - PPH *getget₂

line, mark - PPH *kurit

line, scratch, furrow - PPH *gúlis

line, stripe - PMP *burit₂

line; scratch a line - PWMP *guris

lines in the palm of the hand - PMP *uRat i lima

long fishing line with many hooks; to fish with such a line - PPH *kitáŋ

mark with a line or spot - PMP *turik

mark, line, dash - PWMP *curit

put in a straight line - PPH *taraytay

row, line - *(loan)

scratch a line - PMP *taris

scratch a line - PMP *turis₂

scratch a line - PAN *Curis

scratch a line - PWMP *berit₁

scratch a line - *-ris₂ (root)

scratch a line - *-rit (or *-reclit?) (root)

scratch a line, make a long shallow cut - PWMP *turis

scratch mark, line - PMP *kur(e)qit

scratch, mark with a line - PWMP *kuris₂

scratch, mark with a line - PWMP *kuRis

stripe, streak, line - PPH *urit

stroke, stripe, line - PMP *qurit

to brush past, rub or scrape against; draw a line - PMP *garis

to fish with hook and line - PWMP *ma-ŋawil

to line, as a shelf or box, provide a lining for - PPH *hapin-an

visual assessment of something, as in taking aim, making a straight line, or forming an opinion - PWMP *sipat

lineage

lineage priest (?) - PMP *datu

lineage, genealogy? - PWMP *ka-puqun

one quarter; designation for a division of society, probably a lineage - PMP *suku

wife-giving lineage - PMP *anak ma-Ruqanay, anak (la)laki

wife-taking lineage - PMP *anak bahi, anak babahi, anak binahi

lined

aligned, lined up - PPH *batuR₂

be lined by - PPh *hapin-en

stack up; in a row, lined up; to order, arrange - PCEMP *qatuR₂

linen

linen, flax - *(loan)

liner

liner, layer, insulation, padding; sleeping mat - PMP *hapin

lining

fibrous material at base of coconut frond; bag or lining made from this - PPh *epit₂

lining, insulation, padding; underlayer, as of clothing - PPH *sapín

lining, mat - *(noise)

to line, as a shelf or box, provide a lining for - PPH *hapin-an

link

link in a chain; joined together, as links in a chain, people in sexual intercourse or marriage; hands joined in crossing pattern in circle dance - PWMP *kawiŋ

linker

linker for multiples of ten - PMP *ŋa

linker marking emphatic attribution - PAN *na₂

Linn

a plant: Lactuca indica Linn., and Sonchus oleraceus Linn. - PAN-F *Samaq

cooking banana: Musa sapientum Linn. var compressa. Blanco - PWMP *sabeqa

hairy eggplant: Solanum ferox Linn. - PPH *basula

silk cotton tree: Ceiba pentandra Linn. - PPh *buybuy

small tree, probably Morinda citrifolia Linn. - PPH *apatut

yam: Dioscorea alata Linn. - PMP *qubi

lion

lion - *(loan)

lip

close the lips, smile - PPh *hium

lip - POC *pipiR

lip - PAN *biRbiR

lower lip - PMP *bibiR

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *miti-miti

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *miti

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *misi-misi

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *misi

move the lips rapidly, as in gnawing or nibbling on something - PPH *kútib

smack the lips - PAN *tamtam

smack the lips while eating - PCEMP *tamu₁

suck, pull at with the lips - PWMP *ñutñut

touch with the lips (?) - PWMP *dumul

twitch, jerk; keep moving the lips - PWMP *kimut kimut

upper lip (?) - PWMP *munuŋ

upper lip, snout, muzzle - PPH *suŋu₂

liquefy

melt, liquefy - PWMP *runaw

melt, liquefy - *-naw₂ (root)

liquid

clear, of liquid free of impurities - PPH *tenaw

container for liquids - POC *ibu

decant, pour liquid out for drinking - PPH *tíqiŋ

drop of liquid - PWMP *itik₁

fill with liquid - POC *qutup-i

fluid, liquid - *(noise)

lard, fat, greasy scum on the surface of liquids - PPH *laneb

murky, as water or other liquid - PPH *parek

pour out, of liquids - PWMP *buhus

soaked, saturated, full of liquid - POC *toRop

soaked, saturated, full of liquid; crowded or filled to overflowing - PMP *teReb

squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing - POC *poRos

squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing - PAN *peRes

thin, of liquids such as soup; to dilute - PPH *labnaw

to bubble, as liquid that is starting to boil; to boil, of water - PMP *diqdiq

to dip in liquid - PPH *sawsáw

to hold liquid in the mouth; to gargle - POC *gomuR

to hold liquid in the mouth; to gargle - PMP *kemuR

to squirt, of liquids; diarrhoea - PWMP *cirit

viscous; thick, of liquids - PPH *sap(e)nut

Liquidambar

Formosan maple: Liquidambar formosana - PAN-F *daRa₁

liquor

alcohol, distilled liquor - *(loan)

distilled liquor - *(loan)

listen

listen - PMP *tiŋi

listen to, heed - PWMP *maR-deŋeR

to hear, listen - PAN-F *t<um>imaNa

to hear, listen - PAN-F *timaNa

to hear, listen - PWMP *liŋa₂

to hear, listen - PAN-F *t<um>umaNa

to hear, listen - PAN-F *tumaNa

to hear, listen - PMP *diŋa

to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight - PMP *deŋeR

to listen to - PPH *deŋeR-en

to make someone listen - PAN-F *pa-tumaNa

listing

leaning sideways, listing (as a boat) - PMP *kiliŋ

lit

driftwood and scum (?); lit. 'refuse of the current' - PWMP *taqi qaRus

Litsea

a plant: Litsea cubea (Lour.) - PAN-F *maqaw

a tree: Litsea spp. - PWMP *bakan

litter

litter, brood - PPh *saŋa-anak

litter, palanquin - PWMP *usuŋ-an

little

a little bit - PWMP *sa-etik

in a little while, momentarily, later - PAN *Sauni

little - PWMP *ma-isut

little bit - PWMP *ka-isut

little by little - PWMP *dikit dikit

little finger - PWMP *k<al>iŋkiŋ

little finger - PWMP *iŋkiŋ

little finger, pinkie - PMP *anak i lima

little finger, pinky - PWMP *kaliŋkiŋ

little finger, pinky - PMP *kiŋkiŋ₃

little, few, small in amount - PAN *dikit

little, few; small amount - PWMP *etik

little, small - POC *rikit

little, small - PWMP *isut₁

little, small in size or amount - POC *liki

little, small, trifling - PMP *iut₁

penis of a little boy - PPH *tutuy

small, little; few - PAN *qitik₁

to move aside; make room for, as by moving a little - PPH *denden

use sparingly, a little at a time - PWMP *qínut

littoral

littoral sea, sea near the shore - PMP *daRat

littoralis

a shore tree: Heritiera littoralis - PWMP *duŋun

live

allowed to live, given life; made captive - PPh *bihaR-en

captive, one taken alive in war; to spare, allow to live - PWMP *bihaR

dwell, reside, live in a place - PAN *ian₂

large catfish that lives in river estuaries: genus Arius - PWMP *tambaŋuŋu

live, be alive; be captive - PPh *ma-bihaR

livelihood

livelihood - PAN *ka-qudip-an

liver

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings, liver (fig.) - PMP *dalem

liver - PAN *qaCay

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

living

living, alive - PPh *quyag

living, alive; grow, flourish; fresh; heal, cure, revive, recover; vital principle, soul, spirit; flame - PMP *ma-qudip

soul of a living being; soul of the rice plant - PMP *sumaŋed

soul, spirit of a living person - PPH *ka-du-duhá

lizard

gecko, house lizard - PWMP *cikcek

gecko, house lizard - PWMP *cekcek

gecko, house lizard - PPh *butikíq

gecko, house lizard (onom.) - PAN *tektek₂

large lizard sp. - PWMP *haluh

lizard sp. - PAN *bulilik

monitor lizard, Varanus spp. (esp. V. salvator) - PWMP *bayawak

scale of fish, lizard or snake; shell of turtle or tortoise - PMP *siksik₂

small lizard (gecko?) - PPH *tikiq

TOP      le    li    lo    lu    ly    

lo

load

cargo, load (on a boat) - PMP *Rujan

cargo; load a canoe - PMP *ujan

cargo; load a canoe - PMP *lujan

carry a load between two people - PPH *tuaŋ₂

carry on a pole between two persons; help someone carry a load - PPh *bulig-an

carry on a pole between two persons; help someone carry a load - PWMP *bulig

coiled base on which cooking pots are set or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *riken

coiled base on which cooking pots are set, or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *Riken

crop, load of fruit - POC *puat-an₁

help someone carry a load - PPh *maR-búlig

load, cargo, freight - POC *ucan

pad placed under cooking pots, loads to carry on the head, etc. - PPH *dikén

parallel sticks used to support a load - PPH *laŋen₂

to load, as cargo on a boat - POC *Rucan

loaded

was done, was loaded - PWMP *b<in>uhat-an

loan

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

child, offspring; son, daughter; interest on a loan - PAN *aNak

to lend, give a loan - PPh *ipa-qútaŋ

lobata

a plant: Urena lobata - PAN *puluC

lobster

shrimp, crayfish, lobster - POC *quraŋ

shrimp, crayfish, lobster - PAN *qudaŋ

shrimp, lobster - PAN-F *kabus₂

slipper lobster; crayfish - POC *papaba

tongs, pincers, claw of a crab or lobster; to pinch or squeeze - PAN *sipit

local

local transitive suffix - PMP *-i₂

location

causative of location - PAN-F *pi-

derivational circumfix, probably used to form deverbal nouns of location - PWMP *paR- ... -an

formative for nouns of location - PAN *ka- -an₂

generic marker of location in space or time - PAN *i₂

location, place where one stays - PWMP *paR-ian-an

place, location, direction - PPH *dapít

postposition of location or direction - POC *solo₁

to move, change location - PWMP *pindaq

verbal suffix marking locative focus; nominal suffix marking location - PAN *-an

locative

locative case marker (probably for plural personal names; cf. *di, *du) - PAN *da

locative case marker (probably for singular personal names; cf. *da, *du) - PAN *di

locative case marker for common nouns (cf. *da, *di) - PWMP *du

locative case marker for plural personal names - PMP *daₐ

locative marker - PAN *sa₂

locative particle - PMP *ha₃

locative particle - PAN *Sa₂

locative particle - PAN *qa₁

preposition with locative and possessive functions - PCEMP *ta₁

verbal suffix marking locative focus; nominal suffix marking location - PAN *-an

lock

bolt lock - *(loan)

lock of hair - *(noise)

lock up - *(noise)

locust

grasshopper, locust - PPh *dúdun

grasshopper, locust - PWMP *balalaŋ₁

young wingless locust - PPH *luktun

lodge

to lodge, stay in someone else’s house - PPH *dagus₂

loft

loft in house where unmarried girls reside - PPH *pintuq

loft, attic - PWMP *pagu

storage shelf; attic, loft - PMP *paRa paRa

storage shelf; attic, loft - PAN *paRa₁

lofty

high, lofty - POC *apo

high, lofty - PWMP *ambuq

high, lofty - PMP *abaw

log

log or bamboo ridgepole cover - PWMP *kulub₁

log or plank bridge - PWMP *taytay-an

notched log ladder - PEMP *aRezan

notched log ladder - PMP *haRezan

notched log ladder - PMP *ezan

single log bridge (?) - PMP *taytay

single log bridge; stairs, ladder - POC *tete

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

walk over a plank or log bridge - PWMP *ma-naytay

loincloth

loincloth - POC *tipi

loincloth - PMP *bahaR

loincloth - *(loan)

loincloth (?) - PAN *tapis₁

paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material - PCEMP *malaw

loins

loins - *(noise)

lonely

alone, lonely - PWMP *buleŋ

lonely - PWMP *dukut₁

lonely, forlorn - PWMP *puŋaw

lonely, quiet, deserted - PWMP *sepi

long

cooled off, as cooked food that has been left to sit too long - PAN *ma-baSaw

endure, last a long time - POC *loan

fish with a thin, elongated body: long tom - PMP *selu

homesick; long for something that is missed - PPh *íliw

kind of long fishnet - PMP *lawan₁

kind of long rectangular fishing net - POC *kupwena

kind of long tom - POC *sao

lay long objects side by side; raft - PMP *Rakit

long (of objects) - PMP *anaduq

long (of objects) - PWMP *adaduq

long (of objects) - PWMP *abuat

long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying - PMP *habit

long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying - PAN *Sabit

long duration - *(noise)

long feathers used for personal adornment - PAN-F *RiNaS

long fishing line with many hooks; to fish with such a line - PPH *kitáŋ

long rolling wave, swell, billow - PMP *qalun

long tail feathers of bird or rooster - PMP *lawi₁

long, of objects - PWMP *a(n)duq

long, of time - PWMP *lambat

long; stilts (?) - PWMP *kazaŋ₁

miss, crave, long for something - PWMP *kidam

old, kept for a long time (as rice) - PWMP *ma-laun

scratch a line, make a long shallow cut - PWMP *turis

sea urchin with long black spines - PPH *tayeŋ

tail; end of something long, as a rope; tip of a leaf - POC *siku

take a long step, step over something - PWMP *akaŋ

to become soft or overripe, as fruits that are kept too long - PPH *lúnus

want, desire, wish or long for - PMP *pian

longa

turmeric: Curcuma longa - POC *aŋo

turmeric: Curcuma longa - PMP *kunij

longing

constant longing - PWMP *ka-ibeR ibeR

longing, yearning - *(loan)

long-legged

long-legged shore-bird, the sandpiper or snipe - PPh *balalaŋ₂

long-tailed macaque

long-tailed macaque - *(loan)

look

face, looks, appearance - PWMP *paras₂

face, looks, appearance - *(loan)

glance, look at quickly - PPH *sirap

look askance - PMP *sileŋ

look at - POC *ilo₂

look at (a reflection, etc.) - PMP *ilaw

look at closely, stare intently - PWMP *sineŋ

look at, watch (as a performance) - PWMP *buya

look from side to side, turn the head in this way - PWMP *liŋaR

look over a wide area, search for something with the eyes while standing in place - PPH *nanaw

look quickly here and there, look hastily in all directions - PPH *liŋat

look upward - POC *tadra

look upward - POC *taŋar

look upward - PWMP *taŋaq₂

look upward - PMP *taŋad

look upward - PWMP *ŋadaq

look upward - *-ŋag (root)

look upward, look up to - PWMP *tiŋadaq

look, see - PAN *Neŋ

see, examine, look at closely - PWMP *iliŋ₂

see, examine, look at closely - PWMP *hiliŋ

see, look at, behold - POC *qiro

seek, search, look for - PAN-F *kiRim

spy, scout, one who looks for possible danger ahead - PMP *mata-mata

stare, look at with fixed expression - PWMP *bulalak

stare, look fixedly - PWMP *nuŋnuŋ

stare, look fixedly - PAN *NeŋNeŋ

stare, look fixedly - *-Neŋ (root)

stare, look fixedly - *-teŋ₂ (root)

stare, look fixedly at - PMP *e(n)teŋ

stare, look fixedly at something - PWMP *teŋteŋ₂

to look at, watch; look for - POC *tiro

to look for, seek - POC *tapu

to look upward - PPH *taŋay

to look upward - PMP *taŋada

to look upward - PWMP *t<um>iŋadaq

to look upward; face upward - POC *tadal

to look, gaze; water used as a mirror - POC *ti-tiro

to look, look for - POC *tiro-tiro

to see or look at something far away - PPH *tanɁaw-én

to see or look at something far away - PPH *taq(e)náw

to seek, search, look for - PAN-F *k<um>iRim

to stare, look fixedly at something - PCMP *tanaRa

turn one’s head to the side to look back - PPH *liŋiq

turn the head to look back - PPH *liŋaw₂

looked

be looked for - PAN-F *kiRim-en

look hard at

look hard at, gaze, stare at - *(loan)

looking

scratch up the soil, as a chicken looking for food - PAN *kaSkaS

shabby looking, in disarray, of the feathers of fowls - PWMP *kuyu

shabby looking, in disarray, of the feathers of fowls - PWMP *kuyut

look-out

heap, pile; elevated platform used as a look-out - PWMP *paŋguŋ

loom

batten of a loom - PWMP *li(ŋ)ji

breast beam of a back loom - PMP *qatip₁

loom - PAN *tenun-an

loom - PAN *ta-tenun-an

loom for weaving cloth - PPh *habel-an

part of the loom - PAN *qatip-an

part of the loom - PAN *qatip₁

press together, press between two surfaces; part of the loom - PMP *hapit

loose

free, on the loose - *(noise)

leak, pour out; loose or crumbling; crumble and fall - POC *pupus

loose - *(loan)

loose (as of clothing) - PAN *laplap₁

loose sparse roomy - *(noise)

loose, slack - PWMP *kenduR

outside, wide open spaces; loose - PMP *luqaR

to come loose, as a belt - PPH *hulhul₂

to set free, let loose, liberated; passed by, come to an end - PWMP *lepas

wobble, come loose, of something attached - PWMP *uteŋaq

loosely

dangle, hang down loosely - PPh *waywáy

dangle, hang down loosely - PWMP *quntay₁

loosely embedded, wobbly; to shake - PWMP *ugaq

to wilt, wither, droop, as plants; dangling, hanging loosely - PPH *layláy

loosen

loosen by pounding - PWMP *taltal₁

loosen, open - PMP *qukaq

loosen, open - PAN *hukaq

loosen, undo, uncover - PPh *wakas-án

loosen, undo, uncover - PMP *wakas

loosen, undo, untie - PMP *bakas

loosen, undo, untie - *-kas₂ (root)

loosen, untie - POC *lupas₂

loosen, untie - POC *Rupas

loosen, untie - PMP *taŋkas

loosen, untie - PMP *kaskas₁

loosen, untie, set free - POC *takas

loosen, untie, undress; to separate - PWMP *hukas

loosen, untie, unwrap; unravel; to clear forest (fig.?) - PWMP *bajbaj

release, loosen, untie - PWMP *pukas₂

release, loosen, untie - PWMP *hekas

remove, loosen, untie - PMP *lu(ŋ)kas

unravel, loosen, undo - PWMP *quray

loot

be carried off, as loot or a captive in war; what is carried off - PWMP *t<in>aban

to carry off, kidnap, loot a place - PWMP *maR-taban

to carry off, kidnap, loot a place - PWMP *ma-naban

lop

cut or lop off branches - POC *paRi₃

lop off, cut off - PWMP *ta(m)pas

lopsided

lopsided, off-balance - PAN *biqiR

loquacious

talkative, loquacious - PPH *daldál

loquat

loquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa - PAN-F *Ritu

lord

grandparent, ancestor, lord, master, owner (voc.) - PPh *apu-ʔ

grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor; lord, master, owner - PMP *empu

lord, master - PWMP *pueq

lose

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

lose consciousness - *(noise)

lose hair or feathers - *(noise)

lose interest in doing something (?) - PPH *tantán

lose someone through death - PMP *m-atay-an

lose someone through death (?) - PAN *ka-aCay-an

lose, disappear, be lost (as possessions) - PMP *qilaŋ

lose, let slip by - PWMP *luput

to cloy, satiate, do something to excess and so lose interest - PPH *s<um>áwaʔ

to feel light-headed; to faint, lose consciousness momentarily - PPH *lipeŋ

to forfeit, lose by failure to meet an obligation - PWMP *leleb

to lose - *(noise)

to lose weight, grow thin - PMP *sutsut₁

to lose, be defeated - PMP *talu₂

lose (in a business transaction)

lose (in a business transaction) - *(loan)

losing

molting, losing hair or feathers - PWMP *ka-butbut-an

lost

lose, disappear, be lost (as possessions) - PMP *qilaŋ

lost, as in a crowd or in an unfamilar place - PWMP *tawtaw

lot

brood, flock, lots of children - PPh *hin-anak-an

cry continually, weep a lot - POC *taŋi-taŋis

hairy, have lots of hair - PWMP *ma-buhek

hairy, have lots of hair - PWMP *buhek-en

lots of worms; crawling with worms, extremely wormy - PMP *qulej qulej

wooded, having lots of trees - PMP *kahi-kahiw

wooded, having lots of trees - PAN *kaSi-kaSiw

loud

bang! loud popping sound - PMP *paŋ

confused, disoriented by loud noise - PWMP *begaw

fall with a loud smack - PMP *tebak

harsh cry, bellow, loud cry - PMP *uak₁

harsh loud sound - PWMP *erak

hit, making a loud sound - PWMP *latak₁

kind of loud frog - PPH *tukák

laugh loudly; loud or raucous laughter - PWMP *hakhak

loud resounding sound - PAN *baŋbaŋ₆

loud slap - PWMP *dagepak

loud sound; volume, loudness - PPH *tanúR

loud, of the voice; voice - PCEMP *iŋaR

loud, sonorous, booming - PWMP *tebaR

loud, unpleasant noise - PWMP *qiŋeR

loud, unpleasant noise - PMP *iŋaR

sound of a cackle, loud laugh, etc. - PAN *kak

sound of chattering or loud talk - PWMP *kicaq

loudly

breath loudly, snore - POC *ŋoŋok

cackle, laugh loudly - *-kak₁ (root)

complain loudly - POC *ŋara

complain loudly - PMP *eŋut

cry loudly - PWMP *ŋiak

laugh loudly; loud or raucous laughter - PWMP *hakhak

to beat on something loudly - PAN *titik

loudness

loud sound; volume, loudness - PPH *tanúR

loud noise

loud noise - *(near)

louse

chicken louse - *(near)

clothes louse; body louse - PCEMP *tuma

clothes louse; body louse - PMP *tumah

clothes louse; body louse - PAN *CumeS

head louse - PAN *kuCux

head louse; sparks from a fire; water striker (insect that walks on water) - PMP *kutu₁

louse - POC *ŋutu

nit, egg of a hair louse - PMP *lisehaq, liseqah

nit, egg of a hair louse - PAN *liseqeS

nit, egg of a louse - POC *lisa

nit, egg of a louse - PMP *leseq

nit, louse egg - PWMP *liqes

tiny parasite on the body, itch mite, chicken louse - PMP *kuman

love

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

give a love potion to someone - PPH *lumay-en

love charm, aphrodisiac - PPH *lumay

pity, compassion, affection, love, sympathy, forgiveness - PMP *qasiq

lover

lover, mistress - *(loan)

low

dry up; low tide - PWMP *keti

ebb tide; coral reefs and sandbanks exposed at low tide; evaporate, dry up, of water in cooking, in a river, etc. - PMP *qeti₁

ebb, of water in streams; low tide - PMP *ma-qati

ebb, of water in streams; low tide - PAN *ma-qaCi

ebb, of water in streams; low tide - PMP *qati

fall forward; put face low down - PWMP *subsub

go fishing; fish at low tide (?) - PMP *qeti₂

heavily laden, as a boat that is low in the water - PWMP *saRad

low cloud, mist, fog - POC *kopu

low guttural or rumbling sound; snore, roar - PWMP *eŋker

low lying land - PPH *liŋ(e)sad

low rumble - *(noise)

low tide - PWMP *ka-qati

low, of the tide - PMP *ma-qeti

lower surface, bottom; short, low; below, beneath, under - PMP *babaq₁

rumbling or low murmuring sound - PWMP *geRuŋ

to low, moo - *(noise)

tray or low table - PPH *dulaŋ

lower

bow, lower the head - PMP *tutuk₁

conquered, subdued; lower, inferior - PWMP *saur₂

descend, lower - PWMP *ma-huluR

forearm, lower arm - PMP *leŋen

hoof, lower leg of an ungulate - PAN *kudkud

lower leg (below the knee); calf of the leg - PMP *bities

lower leg, calf of the leg - PWMP *betiq₁

lower lip - PMP *bibiR

lower or let down, as on a rope - PAN *SuluR

lower or let down, as on a rope; pay out fishline; launch a boat - PMP *huluR

lower part of a river; tidal bore - PMP *bena

lower something, pay out rope - PWMP *maŋ-huluR

lower stomach, bladder - PMP *kambu

lower stomach, bladder - PWMP *kempuŋ

lower surface, bottom; short, low; below, beneath, under - PMP *babaq₁

lower the head, bow or bend down - PWMP *tukuk

lower, drop - PPh *i-huluR

part of the lower leg, possibly the ankle - PWMP *beŋil

protruding part of the lower leg - PPh *buqel

to descend, go down; to lower - PMP *tuRun₁

to hang down, to lower - PPH *tustus₁

to lower - PPh *maR-huluR

to lower, let something down, as with a rope - PPH *tuntún

to lower, of water level - PPh *maR-qeti

low-pitched

low-pitched sound - PWMP *buŋug

low-pitched sound - *-ŋur (root)

loyal

loyal, faithful, devoted - *(loan)

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lu

lucine

bivalve mollusk sp., lucine clam - POC *bibi₂

bivalve mollusk sp., lucine clam - PMP *bibi₁

luck

bad luck - PWMP *palis₂

luck - PMP *nuRuq

luck, fortune - PWMP *palaj₂

luck, fortune - *(loan)

luck, fortune, fate - *(loan)

luck, good fortune - PWMP *tuaq

profit, gain, fortune, luck - *(loan)

lucky

lucky - PMP *ma-nuRuq

Lucuma

tree with bright yellow fruit that has dry flesh: Lucuma nervosa - PPH *tisaq

Luffa

a vine with gourd or cucumber-like fruit, probably Luffa sp. - PPH *kabatíti

lumber

board, lumber, beam in house construction - PPH *tapiq₁

planed lumber - *(loan)

luminosity

light, luminosity - POC *ramaR

luminous

gleaming, luminous - PWMP *gilaw

luminous, brilliant, full of light - PWMP *kilaw₂

lump

bump, hump, lump - PWMP *buŋkul-an

knot, lump - PPh *buknul

lump or chunk of material - PMP *biŋkal

lump, clod - PWMP *gempal

lump, clod, as of earth - POC *ke(m)pal

lump, lumpy - PWMP *kimpal

lump, swelling; seed - PWMP *bukel

lumpy, full of lumps - PPh *bukul bukul

lumpy, in lumps - PWMP *kimpal kimpal

swelling; lump or bump under the skin - POC *buŋkul₂

swelling; lump or bump under the skin - PWMP *buŋkug

swelling; lump or bump under the skin; wad of something - PMP *buŋkul₁

lumpy

lump, lumpy - PWMP *kimpal

lumpy, full of lumps - PPh *bukul bukul

lumpy, in lumps - PWMP *kimpal kimpal

lunaris

puffer fish, globe fish: Tetrodon lunaris - PWMP *butiti

Lunasia

a plant: Lunasia amara - PPh *paqit-an

lunatus

lima bean: Phaseolus lunatus - PPH *pataniq

lung

lung - POC *paRaq₂

lung - PAN *baRaq₁

lure

domestic fowl used as a decoy or lure to capture wild fowl - PPH *káti

domestic fowl used as a decoy or lure to capture wild fowl - PPH *kátiq

lust

saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for - POC *ipoR

saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for - PMP *ibeR

lustre

overcast; dull lustre - PWMP *ma-edem

overcast; dull lustre - PWMP *edem₁

sparkle, flash; lustre - PWMP *kizab

Lutjanus

a fish, the snapper: Lutjanus spp. - PWMP *bambaŋen

sea perch: Lutjanus sp. - POC *tasiwa

luxuriant

luxuriant, flourishing (of plants) - PPH *ma-laguq

set close together, dense, luxuriant - PMP *lebet

luxury

luxury - *(loan)

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ly

lychee fruit

lychee fruit - *(loan)

lye

lye, caustic soda - *(loan)

Lygodium

a climbing fern: Lygodium circinatum - PWMP *ituq

a fern: Lygodium spp. - PMP *nituq

lying

low lying land - PPH *liŋ(e)sad

lying, deceiving, untruthful - PWMP *ma-bali₂

lyre

lyre - *(loan)

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/10/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_l.htm