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Updated: 7/14/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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M

me    mi    mo    mu    my    

ma-

stative marker in irrealis constructions, counterpart to *ma- in realis constructions - PAN *ka-₂

Macaca

the Formosan rock monkey: Macaca cyclopis - PAN *luCuŋ

macaque

long-tailed macaque - *(loan)

Macaranga

a tree and the tannin that it yields: probably Macaranga tanarius - PWMP *samak

a tree: Macaranga spp. - POC *pinuan

a tree: Macaranga spp., Euphorbiaceae - POC *koka

a tree; Macaranga tanarius - PPh *binuŋa

mace

clove, mace - *(loan)

machete

bolo, machete - *(loan)

bush knife, machete - PPh *eták

kind of knife or machete - PMP *pisaw

machete - PAN-F *bunuS

machete - PCMP *belas

machete, bolo; chop with a machete - PWMP *tabas

machete, bush knife - *(loan)

mackerel

a marine fish: probably the horse mackerel - PWMP *talaŋ-talaŋ

kind of mackerel: Rastrelliger spp. - PPH *tuliŋan

Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorini spp. - PMP *taŋiRi

Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorus spp. - PWMP *taŋgiRi

made

a pandanus, Pandanus odoratissimus; a mat made from the leaves of this plant - POC *kiRe

a tree: Antiaris toxicaria; poison for blowpipe darts made from the sap of this tree - PWMP *qipuq

allowed to live, given life; made captive - PPh *bihaR-en

carrying vessel made from folded palm leaf sheath - PWMP *timbalaŋ

carving, thing made by carving wood - PWMP *ukir-an

dish made of chopped meat or vegetables - PPH *t<in>adtád

fibrous material at base of coconut frond; bag or lining made from this - PPh *epit₂

field made by dibbling - PPh *hesek-án

improvised trail, trail made by passing through? - PAN *ka-zalan-an

kind of basket made of woven bamboo strips - PWMP *bakul

kind of brush made from coconut husk, used to scrub or polish a surface or to treat threads before weaving - PWMP *sikat

line, groove, mark made by cutting - PPH *getget₂

made of three parts, as triple-strand rope - PPH *t<in>elu

made, created - POC *buat-an

made, created; thing made or created - PMP *buhat-an₂

paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material - PCEMP *malaw

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something - PAN *zalan

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something; wake of a boat; the Milky Way - PMP *zalan

pitfall or trail spikes made of sharpened bamboo - POC *suca

pitfall or trail spikes made of sharpened bamboo - PMP *suja

rice straw; flute made from a rice stalk - PWMP *zaRami

shaved off, made smooth - PWMP *paras₁

sticky confection made of rice and coconut - PWMP *kalámay

string, rope, cordage made by twining fibers - PPH *lúbid

sucking noise made as a signal to another person - PMP *misik

tear apart something that one has made; undo - PPh *waswás₂

things that have been made, created objects - PWMP *paR-buhat-en

to scrape; scraper or grater made from circular bivalve shell: Asaphis spp. - POC *kasi

twine round and round; thing made by braiding - POC *piri-piri

umbrella made of palm leaves - PWMP *saeŋ

was made into rope; what was made into rope - PMP *t<in>alih

was made into rope; what was made into rope - PAN *C<in>aliS

maggot

maggot - PAN-F *sihikay

maggot - *(near)

maggot, caterpillar, larva of a metamorphosing insect - PMP *qulej

maggot, fly egg - PWMP *ias₂

magic

black magic - *(noise)

magical

carved wooden figure, charm used to provide magical protection - PMP *uduq₂

to spray spittle, etc. from the mouth for magical purposes - POC *puRuk

magnet

magnet - *(loan)

mahogany

a large tree in the mahogany family: Dysoxylum sp. - PWMP *tawa₂

maid

maid, female servant - *(loan)

maiden

maiden, virgin, girl of marriageable age - PWMP *anak daRa

maiden, virgin, unmarried girl - PWMP *da-daRa

maiden, virgin, unmarried girl - PMP *daRa₂

maidenhood

in one’s maidenhood - PWMP *d<um>aRa

mailbox

mailbox - *(loan)

maimed

maimed, amputated, of a limb - POC *kubut₁

maimed, amputated, of a limb - PMP *kumput

maimed, amputated, of a limb - POC *kubuŋ₁

maimed, amputated, of a limb - PMP *kumpuŋ

maimed (as by leprosy)

maimed (as by leprosy) - *(loan)

main

center post, main housepost - PCEMP *hadiRi bubuŋ-an

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

major

artery, major blood vessel - PWMP *uRat i daRaq

majority

majority, largest part - PPH *ka-dakel-án

make

a hole; make a hole in, perforate - PPH *lubut

a jointed creeper which yields fiber used to make cordage and fishnets - POC *kabe₁

anger; make a face - *-ŋuC (root)

anything used to make charcoal - PPh *qujiŋ-en

clap, make a clapping sound - PWMP *ti(m)bak

do something wrong, make a mistake; miss the target - PWMP *s<um>alaq

do, make - POC *pait

do, make - PCEMP *bait₂

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

draw toward oneself; annex, make subject - PWMP *kabiR

draw, make marks or designs - PEMP *tosi

draw, make marks or designs - PCEMP *tusi

firewood, what is used to make a fire - POC *papian

firewood, what is used to make a fire - PMP *pa-hapuy-an

forget a skill, make a mistake - PWMP *beluy

go to sea, make a sea voyage - POC *pa-laur

hard stone used to make tools - POC *nadi

hurt someone; make someone sick - PMP *pa-sakit

incise, make an incision in flesh - POC *tapa₂

intertwine, braid, as strands to make rope - PPH *labid

let someone choose, let someone make a choice - PWMP *pa-piliq

let something grow, make something grow - PWMP *pa-tubuq-en

let something grow, make something grow - PPh *pa-tubuq

make a booming sound - PAN *CuŋCuŋ

make a croaking sound - PMP *ekuk

make a design; tattoo - PWMP *batik₁

make a dull sound in the ears - PMP *epeŋ

make a floor, install a floor - PWMP *saleR-i

make a gurgling sound - PMP *e(ŋ)guk

make a gurgling sound in the throat, or hiccup - PWMP *seguk

make a gutter, ditch, or channel - PWMP *ŋ-abaŋ

make a harsh throaty sound - PMP *pikak

make a mistake, commit an error, be wrong about something - PWMP *maR-salaq

make a popping sound - PMP *epuk

make a rope or string, make something into rope or string - PWMP *ma-nalih

make a sound or noise - PWMP *pa-huni

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *miti-miti

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *miti

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *misi-misi

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *misi

make a thudding or popping sound - PWMP *lagetub₁

make alive, give life to - PPh *maŋ-bihaR

make amends - *(noise)

make an exploding sound - PPh *pa-betuʔ

make fire with a fireplow - POC *suka₃

make lime by burning shells - PWMP *maŋ-qapuR

make offering to spirits (?) - PMP *maŋ-qanitu

make rice wine (?) - PWMP *maŋ-asiʔ

make something deep, deepen - PWMP *pa-dalem

make something go or move - PWMP *pa-zalan

make something grow - POC *paka-tupuq

make something wither, let something wither or wilt - PWMP *pa-layu

make war on - POC *i-palu

make, create, invent - POC *buat

make, do, perform - PWMP *maR-buhat

material used to make rope - PWMP *pa-nalih

palm used to make hats and fans - PWMP *silad

paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material - PCEMP *malaw

press together, make compact, as the threads or leaves in weaving - PPH *sensén

rub two things together, create friction, as sticks to make fire, or the hands - PMP *kusu₁

scratch a line, make a long shallow cut - PWMP *turis

startled, make a startled movement - PWMP *unzet

tighten, make firm, of a binding - PWMP *maŋ-heRet

to cluck, or cackle; make a clucking or cackling sound - PWMP *ketak

to complete, make full, round out - PWMP *pa-genep

to curl, make curly - PPH *kulut-én

to cut, make an incision - POC *tapar

to cut, make an incision - PMP *tabad

to fill, make complete - PWMP *p<um>enuq

to forbid, make taboo - POC *paka-tabu

to frighten, make afraid - PWMP *pa-takut

to heap up, make a pile - PWMP *simpuk

to join with to make three - PWMP *telu-an

to make an incision to draw blood - PPH *kaldít

to make into gruel, rice porridge - PPH *lugaw-en

to make level or flat, as in levelling land - PWMP *maŋ-dataR

to make someone cry; to let someone cry - PMP *paka-taŋis

to make someone cry; to let someone cry - PMP *pa-taŋis

to make someone cry; to let someone cry - PAN *pa-Caŋis

to make someone listen - PAN-F *pa-tumaNa

to make something wind around something else - PAN *pa-litlit

to make war on, fight with - POC *palu₄

to rap, knock, make a booming sound - PAN *tekuŋ₂

to ring, make a ringing sound - POC *titiŋ

to tattoo, make designs - PAN-F *p<um>ataS

to tick, make a ticking or light knocking sound - PMP *kitik₂

to twist together, make rope - PWMP *quntay₂

to whiten, make something white - PWMP *putiq-en

to whiten, make something white - PWMP *putiq-an

tree with fiber used to make fish nets - POC *tail

tree with wood used to make fireplows - POC *qalo₂

making

Hibiscus tiliaceus, a tree the bark of which provides a fiber much used in making cordage; to lash, tie, bind - POC *paRu

click or clink together, as stones in making fire - PPH *santik

device for making thread or yarn - PWMP *laway-an

herb used in making baskets: Donax cannaeformis - PWMP *benben₂

herb used in making baskets: Donax cannaeformis - PWMP *benban

hit, making a loud sound - PWMP *latak₁

pandanus sp., used in making mats - PMP *kiRay

plant sp.: Donax canniformis, used as material for making baskets - PMP *niniq

species of palm used for making spears and bows; palm-wood spear or bow - POC *bual bual

visual assessment of something, as in taking aim, making a straight line, or forming an opinion - PWMP *sipat

malaccense

the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense - POC *kapiku

the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense - POC *kapika

malaria

chills, as of malaria - PAN *ma-dajem

chills, as of malaria - PAN *dajem

Malay

small species of Malay apple - POC *sakau

the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense - POC *kapiku

the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense - POC *kapika

Malayan

the Malayan honey bear: Ursus malayanus - PWMP *biRuaŋ

the Malayan sun bear: Ursus malayanus - PWMP *baRuaŋ

malayanus

the Malayan honey bear: Ursus malayanus - PWMP *biRuaŋ

the Malayan sun bear: Ursus malayanus - PWMP *baRuaŋ

male

friend (male to male) - *(near)

male - PWMP *la-laki

male - PMP *ma-Ruqanay

male - PAN *RuqaNay

male (of animals) - PAN *baNaS

male deer, buck (?) - PMP *saladeŋ

male Eclectus Parrot: Eclectus roratus - POC *kaRa

male pig, boar - PPh *butakál

male, man - PWMP *di-laki

male, masculine; man - PMP *laki₁

man, male - PWMP *laŋkay

man, male - PEMP *tinoni

term of address to males - PWMP *azuq

the male of Swinhoe’s blue pheasant - PAN-F *RiNaS-an

male consanguine

male consanguine - *(near)

malice

(lit. 'rotten liver') full of malice - PMP *X₃ + qatay

mallet

hammer, mallet, instrument for pounding or hammering - PAN *palu-palu

Mallotus

a tree: Mallotus lackeyi Elm. - PPH *lamay

mallow

a shrub, the Jew’s mallow: Corchorus spp., fam. Malvaceae - PPH *saluyut

malodorous

malodorous insect that damages rice plants - PWMP *tanaŋaw

Malvaceae

a shrub, the Jew’s mallow: Corchorus spp., fam. Malvaceae - PPH *saluyut

mammals

civet cat and similar small predatory mammals of the family Viverridae - PMP *musaŋ

deadfall trap to catch small mammals - PAN *qaCeb

man

bachelor, young unmarried man - PPh *ulitau

effeminate, of a man - PPh *b<in>a-bahi

male, man - PWMP *di-laki

male, masculine; man - PMP *laki₁

man, male - PWMP *laŋkay

man, male - PEMP *tinoni

Mangifera

a tree: Mangifera sp. - PWMP *balunuq

large mango: Mangifera odorata - PWMP *qambawaŋ

mango tree and its fruit, probably Mangifera altissima - PMP *pahuq₁

wild mango: Mangifera minor - POC *koRa

mango

large mango: Mangifera odorata - PWMP *qambawaŋ

mango - POC *na wai, na waiwai

mango - *(loan)

mango sp. - PMP *wai

mango tree and its fruit, probably Mangifera altissima - PMP *pahuq₁

plant fiber; coconut husk, fibers of areca nuts, fibers covering mango seeds, etc. - PWMP *sabut

wild mango - PWMP *ambawaŋ

wild mango: Mangifera minor - POC *koRa

mango: Mangifera indica

mango: Mangifera indica - *(loan)

mango sp.

mango sp. - *(near)

mangrove

a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp. - PWMP *paRepat

a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp. - PWMP *paRatpat

kind of mangrove, Ceriops spp., with bark used for dyeing - PMP *teŋeR

mangrove - PWMP *bakehaw

mangrove crab - POC *qali-maŋo

mangrove crab - PMP *qali-maŋu

mangrove crab - PMP *qali-maŋaw

mangrove root - PMP *wakat

mangrove root (?) - PWMP *waket

mangrove swamp - PPH *ka-bakaw-an

Manila

Manila hemp: Musa textilis - PPh *abaká

manioc

cassava, manioc - *(loan)

manner

action, manner - *(noise)

custom, manner, way, habit - PWMP *ugáliq

manner in which an action is carried out - PWMP *ka-₆

way, manner - *(loan)

way, manner; melody - PWMP *lagu

ways and manner - *(loan)

manta

large rayfish, probably manta or eagle ray - PMP *paRih manuk

manufactured

to be manufactured, of string or rope - PWMP *talih-en

many

(for) how many days? - PAN *maka-pija

how many times? - POC *paka-pica

how many? (of people) - PAN *pa-pija

how much/how many? - PWMP *saŋ-kuja

how much?, how many? - POC *ga-pica

how much?, how many? - POC *pica

interrogative of quantity: how much?, how many?; adjective of indefinite quantity: some, several, a few - PAN *pijax

long fishing line with many hooks; to fish with such a line - PPH *kitáŋ

many - PPH *ma-dakél

many, much, plenty - PAN *Sadu

much, many, plenty - PMP *hadu

to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something - PAN *taktak₁

maple

Formosan maple: Liquidambar formosana - PAN-F *daRa₁

Maranta

a plant, the bast fibers of which are used in binding and plaiting: Maranta dichotoma - PWMP *banban

marble

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

margin

edge, margin - PWMP *simpir

marine

a large marine fish, the jackfish or trevally - PMP *pilu

a large marine fish, the jackfish or trevally - PMP *bilu-bilu

a marine fish sp. - PPH *kubalan

a marine fish, probably the silver bream - PWMP *kapas kapas

a marine fish: probably the horse mackerel - PWMP *talaŋ-talaŋ

edible marine fish - PMP *kuRaw

edible marine fish - PWMP *balaki

edible marine invertebrate - probably sea cucumber - PPh *balát

kind of edible marine clam - PMP *tuay

kind of large, edible marine fish - PWMP *kakap

kind of marine eel - PMP *haRemaŋ

kind of marine fish - PWMP *pahuq₂

kind of marine fish - PPH *talakituk

kind of marine fish - POC *koŋa

kind of marine fish - PPH *bayaŋ₂

kind of marine fish - PWMP *punti₂

kind of marine fish - PWMP *benti

kind of marine fish with large eyes - PPH *mataqan

kind of marine fish, probably gizzard shad: Anodontostoma spp. - PWMP *kabasi

kind of striped or spotted marine fish, grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PMP *keRteŋ

marine fish sp. - POC *kuRo

marine fish sp. - PWMP *ki(k)kik

marine fish sp. with venomous dorsal spines, Rabbitfish: Siganus punctatus - PWMP *kiteŋ

marine fish with thorny skin - PMP *utik

marine fish: sea perch - PWMP *kaReteŋ

marine mollusc sp. - PPH *takál

small marine fish - PPh *baranbán

small marine fish: sardine or anchovy - PWMP *bilis

mark

any natural mark on human skin: birthmark, freckle, mole - PMP *qila

appropriate, suitable, right; fit together; hit the mark - PAN *tama₁

be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true - PMP *kena₁

bruise marks - PWMP *bakelag

catch or get caught in a trap; hit mark with spear, etc. - PMP *ena

draw, make marks or designs - PEMP *tosi

draw, make marks or designs - PCEMP *tusi

line, groove, mark made by cutting - PPH *getget₂

line, mark - PPH *kurit

mark something (?) - PWMP *bekas-an

mark with a line or spot - PMP *turik

mark, line, dash - PWMP *curit

scratch mark, line - PMP *kur(e)qit

scratch, mark with a line - PWMP *kuris₂

scratch, mark with a line - PWMP *kuRis

sign, signal, mark - *(loan)

to imprint, leave a temporary mark - PWMP *gerger₂

to mark, designate - *(noise)

trace, track, mark, print (as footprint) - PMP *bekas₃

white mark - *(noise)

marked

tattooed, marked with a design - PMP *b<in>etik

tattooed, marked with a design - PAN *b<in>eCik

marker

allative marker: to, toward - POC *ki₁

causative marker - *(noise)

demonstrative marker of uncertain meaning - PMP *iaqi

future marker with words for days - PAN *nu-

generic marker of location in space or time - PAN *i₂

genitive case marker for common nouns (cf. *na, *ni) - PAN *nu₃

genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb - PAN *ni

genitive marker (cf *ni) - PMP *qi₂

instrumental prefix, marker of the instrumental focus - PAN *Si-₁

interrogative marker: which? - PAN *manu

locative case marker (probably for plural personal names; cf. *di, *du) - PAN *da

locative case marker (probably for singular personal names; cf. *da, *du) - PAN *di

locative case marker for common nouns (cf. *da, *di) - PWMP *du

locative case marker for plural personal names - PMP *daₐ

locative marker - PAN *sa₂

marker of a tag question - PMP *ha₁

marker of actor focus - PAN *<um>

marker of actor focus for intransitive verbs, and of inchoatives - PMP *<um>

marker of direct passive - PAN *-en

marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any - POC *baraŋ₂

marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any - PMP *baraŋ₁

marker of past time in temporal expressions - PAN *ka-₁

marker of the adversative passive - PAN *ka- -an₁

marker of uncertainty - PAN *-nu

negative marker - POC *taqe₁

negative marker - PPh *baláw

negative marker - PMP *bak₂

negative marker - PMP *ati₁

negative marker: no, not - PMP *taq₃

negative marker: no, not - PAN-F *ini

negative marker: no, not - PWMP *aqa

no, not; vetative marker: don't! - PMP *beliq₂

nominative case marker for common nouns - PAN *su

nominative case marker for plural personal names - PAN *sa₁

nominative case marker for singular personal names or kin terms used as personal names - PAN *si₁

oblique case marker for personal nouns - PAN *ki₂

oblique case marker for plural personal names - PAN *ka₃

oblique case marker for singular personal nouns - PMP *ki₂ₐ

past tense marker - *(noise)

perfective marker - PAN *<in>

plural marker - *(noise)

possessive marker used with inalienable pronouns - POC *o₂

prenominal marker of plurality - PMP *maŋa

stative marker in irrealis constructions, counterpart to *ma- in realis constructions - PAN *ka-₂

stative prefix marking high degree of some quality; extremely; superlative marker - PPH *ka-₃

sticks or other markers used as aids in calculation - PWMP *bilaŋ-bilaŋ

market

market - *(loan)

marking

linker marking emphatic attribution - PAN *na₂

nominal prefix marking instruments, or products of an action - PWMP *paŋ-

prefix marking possession of some object - PAN *mi-

prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action - PAN *taR-

prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action - PMP *ta-₂

stative prefix marking high degree of some quality; extremely; superlative marker - PPH *ka-₃

verbal suffix marking locative focus; nominal suffix marking location - PAN *-an

marriage

forced marriage; to force into marriage - PPH *pikut₂

link in a chain; joined together, as links in a chain, people in sexual intercourse or marriage; hands joined in crossing pattern in circle dance - PWMP *kawiŋ

value, price; marriage prestations, brideprice; purchase - PEMP *poli

value, price; marriage prestations, brideprice; purchase - PMP *beli

marriageable

maiden, virgin, girl of marriageable age - PWMP *anak daRa

marriageable - *(loan)

married

be married, person married - PPh *qasawa-en

co-parent-in-law, the kinship tie between the parents of a married couple - PWMP *baisan

engaged, pledged to be married - PWMP *tunaŋ

married couple - PPh *tala-qasawa

marry off, cause to get married - PMP *pa-qasawa

was married to - PWMP *q<in>asawa

marrow

bone marrow - PAN-F *NuqeS

brain, marrow - PAN-F *punuq₁

brain; marrow - PMP *hutek

marrow - *(noise)

marry

marry off, cause to get married - PMP *pa-qasawa

marry, wed - PWMP *maŋ-qasawa

marry; have a spouse - PWMP *maR-qasawa

take, get, fetch, obtain; marry - PAN *ala

wedding, to marry - *(noise)

marshy

marshy ground - PPH *sarebséb

marsupial

bandicoot, marsupial ‘rat’ - PCEMP *mansər

bandicoot, marsupial ‘rat’ - PCEMP *mansar

martial

a form of martial art or mock combat - PWMP *silat

masculine

male, masculine; man - PMP *laki₁

mash

to crush or mash between two hard surfaces - PMP *pipis₂

mason

kind of mason bee or wasp - PWMP *hakut hakut

mass

chewed mass of food or betel nut in the mouth - PWMP *sepaq

crowded; mass of people - POC *puŋa₂

small heap, rounded mass - PWMP *tumpuk

massage

massage - PMP *quRut

massage (imperative) - PAN *pespes-i

rub, massage - PPh *haprus

rub, massage - PPh *hapRus

squeeze out; massage - PMP *pespes

squeeze, massage - PAN *pespes

to massage - PAN *pa-pespes

to massage - PAN *p<um>espes

to massage - PWMP *maŋ-quRut

to massage, set bones - PPh *hílut-en

massaged

was massaged by someone - PAN *p<in>espes

massaging

massaging, setting of bones - PPh *hílut

masses

gather in masses, as smoke - PMP *upun₁

mast

mast, pole - *(loan)

pole, mast - *(noise)

master

grandparent, ancestor, lord, master, owner (voc.) - PPh *apu-ʔ

grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor; lord, master, owner - PMP *empu

lord, master - PWMP *pueq

master, boss - *(loan)

masticate

to chew, masticate - PWMP *ŋuyaq

to chew, masticate - PAN *ŋalŋal

masticated

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - POC *puRa

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - PMP *buRah

masturbate

to masturbate - PAN-F *SulSul

to masturbate - PPH *salsal-en

to masturbate - PPH *salsál

mat

a mat - PWMP *hapaR-an

a pandanus, Pandanus odoratissimus; a mat made from the leaves of this plant - POC *kiRe

liner, layer, insulation, padding; sleeping mat - PMP *hapin

lining, mat - *(noise)

mat - PMP *tepiR

mat - PMP *hikam

mat - PAN *Sikam

mat - PMP *lamak

mat - POC *ibe

mat - PPh *ikamen

mat - PWMP *hamak

mat - PMP *depen

mat - PWMP *a(m)bek

mat - PWMP *amak

mat - *(loan)

mat - *(noise)

pandanus sp., used in making mats - PMP *kiRay

plaiting of a mat - POC *tiki

rattan sleeping mat - PWMP *lampit

to cover, as with a cloth or mat - POC *taRu

to plait, as mats or baskets - PWMP *man-laja

to plait, weave by hand, of baskets or mats - PPH *l<um>aja

to plait, weave by hand, of baskets or mats - PWMP *laja

to roll up, as a mat - PMP *lulun

to roll up, as a mat - PAN *luluN

unroll a mat, spread out a mat - PMP *hampaR

unroll a mat, spread out a mat - PAN *SapaR

unroll, spread out a mat - PAN *S<um>apaR

woven material; mat - PWMP *tepa

match

to match, form a pair - PPH *tupáj

matching

pair, matching set - PMP *pasaŋ₁

matching part

pair, matching part - *(loan)

mate

mate, companion, fellow; together with; alike, the same as; aligned or in good order - PWMP *sama

mate, companion; like, similar to - POC *jama

mate, partner, cohort - PPH *ka-₄

material

binding material, cordage; bundle - PPh *betek₁

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - PWMP *bulit-en

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - POC *bulit₂

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - PMP *bulit₁

caulk; adhesive material - *-lit₁ (root)

chewed material - *(near)

fibrous material at base of coconut frond; bag or lining made from this - PPh *epit₂

lump or chunk of material - PMP *biŋkal

material that has been colored yellow with turmeric - PWMP *k<in>uñij-an

material used to make rope - PWMP *pa-nalih

mortar or gin for crushing plant material - PPH *lubaŋ₃

paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material - PCEMP *malaw

plant sp.: Donax canniformis, used as material for making baskets - PMP *niniq

sled or board used for dragging materials (?) - PPH *guyúd-an

stuff or fill with material - PWMP *zelzel

thin (of materials) - *(loan)

thin, of material objects - PWMP *ma-hiŋepis

thin, of materials - PMP *mipis

thin, of materials - *-pis₂ (root)

thinness, of materials - PWMP *lupis₁

thinness, of materials - PWMP *lipis

to undo stitches, pull out tying material - PPH *tastas-en

tying material - *(noise)

veining pattern on wood or other material - PWMP *kuray

woven bamboo walling material - *(loan)

woven material; mat - PWMP *tepa

wrap around repeatedly, bind by wrapping; bundle of wrapped material - PAN *bejbej₁

matter

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

how?, how is it? what is the matter? - PMP *kuja

how?, how is it? what is the matter? - PAN *kuja

how?, How is it? What is the matter? - PMP *kua₁

stench of spoiled or souring organic matter - PAN *qaŋeRu

matting

bamboo matting or platform - PWMP *lantay

mattock

hoe, mattock - *(loan)

pickaxe, mattock, hoe - *(loan)

mature

old, of people; mature, as fruit - PMP *tuqah

maturity

adulthood, maturity; old age - PWMP *ka-tuqah-an

mauritiana

cowrie shell: Cypraea mauritiana - POC *buliq₁

cowrie shell: Cypraea mauritiana - PMP *buliq₁

maybe

maybe, perhaps, possibly - PPH *bakáq

TOP      me    mi    mo    mu    my    

me

me

1sg oblique: to me, for me - PAN *k-aku

1sg., I, me - PAN *i-aku

meal

cold, of leftover food; leftovers from a meal - PMP *bahaw

cold, of leftover food; leftovers from a meal - PAN *baSaw

late afternoon, evening; evening meal - PAN *Rabiqi

late afternoon, evening; evening meal; yesterday - PMP *Rabiqi

meal, flour - *(loan)

mean

destitute, without means of support - PPH *pugerut

mean, cruel - *(noise)

means of killing (?) - PWMP *paŋ-m-atay

means or instrument for catching - PWMP *paŋ-alap

means or instrument for counting - PWMP *paŋ-bilaŋ

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something - PAN *zalan

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something; wake of a boat; the Milky Way - PMP *zalan

person who leads or escorts another; means of leading or escorting - PWMP *paŋ-hateD

prefixed to a noun means ‘to get, obtain, collect, gather’ (noun) - PAN *ki-

meander

curve, bend, meander - POC *liko₂

meaning

demonstrative marker of uncertain meaning - PMP *iaqi

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

measure

adjectival prefix for adjectives of measure - PMP *ha-₁

dry measure for grain etc. - *(loan)

measure - *(loan)

small basket; a unit of measure for dry goods - PPH *salúp

to measure - PWMP *ma-ñukat

to measure - PWMP *sukat

to measure by gantas - PPH *salup-en

to measure by fathoms - PWMP *depa-i

to measure by fathoms - PWMP *depa-en

to measure in fathoms - PPH *man-depa

to measure vertically - POC *jukul₂

to measure vertically - PMP *sukul₃

to measure, be measured - PWMP *sukat-en

to span with outstretched arms, measure in fathoms - PWMP *d<um>epa

unit of measure for cloth, sails, etc. - PWMP *bidaŋ

measured

to measure, be measured - PWMP *sukat-en

measurement

unit of measurement - *(loan)

meat

allotment of meat after butchering an animal - PPH *sapuq

be chopped into pieces, be minced, as meat or vegetables; what is chopped up or minced - PAN *tektek-en

be smoked by someone, of meat or fish - PPh *tapa-en

chopping to pieces, cutting up, as meat or vegetables - PAN *tektek₁

cook fish or meat wrapped in banana leaves - PWMP *paqis

cut meat from the bone - PPH *laplap₂

dish made of chopped meat or vegetables - PPH *t<in>adtád

eat raw meat - PPH *kilaw₁

flesh, lean part of meat; grain of wood - POC *pisiko

flesh, lean part of meat; grain of wood - POC *pijiko

flesh, meat - PMP *hesi

flesh, meat - PAN *Sesi

flesh, meat, coconut flesh - POC *kanoŋ

food; meat - POC *k<in>an

gnaw meat off bones - PWMP *kilkil

large piece or chunk of meat, etc. - PWMP *la(m)paŋ

place where fish or meat are smoked - PWMP *tapa-an

preserved meat - PWMP *pindaŋ

preserved meat or fish - PMP *kenas

remove the bones from meat or fish - PWMP *ma-nuqelaŋ

rotten meat; addled eggs; bad character - PAN *buRuk

rotten, as meat; addled, as eggs; bad, of character - PMP *ma-buRuk

scrape out, as meat from a coconut - PWMP *suqsuq

smoked fish or meat - PMP *t<in>apa

smoked fish or meat - PAN *C<in>apa

to chop, to mince, as meat, fish or vegetables preparatory to cooking - PWMP *sagsag₂

to cut or slice meat - PPH *maŋ-ilap

to eat raw fish or meat - PPH *kilaw-en

to pickle, preserve meat or fish - PAN-F *umaS

to salt meat or fish for storing - PPH *lamuq

to scrape, as coconut meat from a shell; to grate, as coconut meat - POC *isi₄

to slice into thin strips, as meat or vegetables - PPH *gáyat

to smoke fish or meat for preservation - PWMP *man-tapa

to smoke fish or meat for preservation - PMP *tapa₁

to smoke fish or meat for preservation - PAN *Capa

tough, as meat - PWMP *lañut

meat and vegetable pastry

meat and vegetable pastry - *(loan)

medal

badge, medal - *(loan)

medicinal

a tree with edible fruit, and medicinal uses, probably Buchanania arborescens - PMP *balunuR

all kinds of medicinal herbs - PWMP *buluŋ buluŋ

kind of medicinal plant - PWMP *suma

medicinal herbs - PMP *buluŋ₂

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - POC *puRa

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - PMP *buRah

medicine

grass, herbs; medicine - PAN-F *Cemel

gunpowder, medicine - *(loan)

medicine chest - *(loan)

medium

curing ritual conducted by a medium in trance - PWMP *dawak

medium, average, intermediate - *(loan)

money, payment, medium of commercial exchange - PCEMP *matay₂

meet

meet - *(noise)

meet, come across by chance - *(noise)

meet, encounter, happen upon - PPH *tagbúq

meet, run across, welcome - *(loan)

to forfeit, lose by failure to meet an obligation - PWMP *leleb

to meet - PPH *baRat

to meet or greet someone who is arriving, or who one encounters by surprise - PPH *sabat-en

to meet or greet someone, welcome someone who is arriving - PWMP *sabat

to meet, come together - PAN-F *Cebuŋ

to meet, encounter - POC *toka₁

to meet, receive; greet a guest - PWMP *temu₂

meeting

meeting, assembly, gathering - *(loan)

Megalops

a white fish, the tarpon: Megalops cyprinoides - POC *pu-pulan

a white fish, the tarpon: Megalops cyprinoides - PMP *bulan-bulan₁

herring: Megalops cyprinoides - POC *pu-pulan

Megapodius

Bismarck scrub fowl: Megapodius eremita - POC *kipau

Bismarck scrub fowl: Megapodius eremita - POC *kikau

melanogaster

kind of water bird, the Oriental darter: Anhinga melanogaster - PPH *kasíli

Melanolepis

a plant: Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Reinw.) - PPH *aum

Melastomataceae

a plant: Astronia spp., Melastomataceae - PPH *tuŋaw₂

Melia

a tree: Melia azedarach - PAN-F *baŋaS

melody

to sing; song, tune, melody - PAN-F *quyaS

way, manner; melody - PWMP *lagu

melon

bitter melon: Momordica charantia L. - PWMP *paria

the bitter melon: Momordica charantia - PWMP *pariaq

melt

melt - *(noise)

melt, liquefy - PWMP *runaw

melt, liquefy - *-naw₂ (root)

melt, smelt - *(noise)

to melt, as lard - PPH *lunag

to melt, dissolve - PPH *tunaw-en

to melt, dissolve - PPH *túnaw

member

(human) member of a category - POC *kai

(human) member of a category - POC *ka₅

companion, member of a group (of animals or people); friend - PWMP *kaban₁

member of the parrot family - PEMP *kaRa

mother, mother's sister; female animal; largest member of a set - PCEMP *ina

nobility, member of the chiefly class - PMP *aren

membrane

covering membrane of plants - *(noise)

memories

inside, interior; thoughts, emotions, memories - POC *ilo

memorize

memorize - *(loan)

memory

sticky, adhesive; stuck in one’s memory - PWMP *leket

men

bachelor’s house, men’s house - PMP *kamaliR

net bag used by men for carrying things on back - PAN-F *kaway₃

paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material - PCEMP *malaw

mend

mend a net - POC *qono₂

mend a net (intr.) - POC *one one

mend a net (tran.) - POC *one-a

mend, repair, set in order - POC *tupak

to mend, patch - PMP *tambal

menses

menses - *(near)

menses, menstruation - PWMP *sakit bulan

menses, menstruation - *(noise)

menstrual

menstrual blood? - PAN-F *damuq

menstruate

blood; to bleed; menstruate - PAN *daRaq

bloody, bleeding; to menstruate - PAN *ma-daRaq

menstruation

menses, menstruation - PWMP *sakit bulan

menses, menstruation - *(noise)

moon, month; menstruation - PAN *bulaN

moon, month; menstruation; shell disk collar piece - PMP *bulan₃

mental

will; intellect; reasoning, intention, mental presence, mind - PPH *nákem

mentally

affected by the moon, mentally or emotionally unstable - PWMP *bulan bulan-en

affected by the moon, mentally or emotionally unstable - PWMP *bulan-en

mentally disoriented - PWMP *buŋaw₁

mentally disturbed - PWMP *ma-gila

mention

mention - *(noise)

to speak of, mention - PWMP *sa(m)bit

mentioned

anaphoric or relative particle: there, previously mentioned place - POC *ai₁

meow

meow of a cat - PWMP *ŋiaw

merchandise

merchandise for sale; to sell - PPH *lákuq

merciful

merciful - PWMP *pa-qasiq

mercury

quicksilver, mercury - *(loan)

mercy

mercy, pity, affection - PMP *ka-qasiq

to pity, have mercy on, feel compassion for - PMP *ma-qasiq

merely

just, merely, only, usual - PPH *sená

Merremia

a vine: Merremia peltata - POC *paliaRua

merriment

joy, merriment - PPH *lami

mesh

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

fine, of the mesh of a fish net - POC *mata riki

mesh of a net - PWMP *mata nu puket

message

deep resounding sound; slit-gong, hollowed tree trunk used to send messages - PAN *kuŋkuŋ₁

order, request, command; message; something left for another - PWMP *bilin

send off with a message - PWMP *tuRun₂

to order; leave a message - PPh *maR-bilín

messenger

be sent; messenger - PWMP *suRuq-en

met

to be met (?) - PPH *ma-baRat

metal

clanging sound; to clang, as in beating metals - PPH *taŋtáŋ

iron (metal) - *(noise)

metal basin - *(loan)

to beat metals - PPH *taŋtaŋ-én

valued metal - PWMP *gambaŋ

metamorphosing

maggot, caterpillar, larva of a metamorphosing insect - PMP *qulej

meteor

shooting star, meteor; spirit of the shooting star - PPh *bulalákaw₂

Mexican turnip: Pachyrrhizus erosus

Mexican turnip, Pachyrrhizus erosus - *(loan)

TOP      me    mi    mo    mu    my    

mi

micrura

Formosan blind mole: Talpa micrura insularis (Swinhoe) - PAN-F *mumu

mid-course

to stop something in mid-course, of bodies in motion - PPH *saŋga₂

mid-day

zenith; noon, mid-day - PPh *uRtuh

middle

bind the middle - PWMP *embet

current, deep channel in the middle of a river - PMP *qaluR₂

current, deep channel in the middle of a river - PAN *qaluR₁

middle - *(noise)

middle of the road, most trodden part of a path or road; guide who shows the way - PMP *mata nu zalan

middle, center - PWMP *taŋaq₄

middle, center; half - PMP *teŋaq

middle, middling, average - PPH *taliwájaq

pith of plants or trees; core or middle of something - PMP *qunej

middling

middle, middling, average - PPH *taliwájaq

midge

gnat, midge - PWMP *reŋit

mid-point

navel, umbilicus; mid-point or center of something - PMP *pusej

midrib

midrib of a coconut frond - POC *sasaRi

midrib of coconut frond - PMP *paqpaq₂

midrib of coconut leaf - PMP *palaqpaq

mid-rib of coconut leaf - POC *balapaq

midwife

midwife - *(loan)

mildew

mold mildew - *(noise)

mildewed

decayed, rotten, moldy, mildewed (of wood) - PWMP *lapuk

rotten, turned rancid or mildewed - PPH *tagbák

mild-mannered

tame, docile, mild-mannered - PPH *haq(e)muq

miliaceum

broomcorn millet: Panicum miliaceum - PAN-F *baCaR

milk

milk - PMP *Rataq

milkfish

fish sp.: the milkfish, Chanos chanos - PMP *qawa₁

fish sp.: the milkfish, Chanos chanos - PMP *qawan

the milkfish: Chanos chanos - PMP *qawaʔ

Milky

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something; wake of a boat; the Milky Way - PMP *zalan

mill

mill or grind - PWMP *gariŋ

millet

broomcorn millet: Panicum miliaceum - PAN-F *baCaR

millet or sorghum sp. (unident.) - PMP *batad

millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica - PMP *betem

millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica - PMP *beteŋ₁

millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica - PAN *beCeŋ

millet sp.: Setaria italica (?) - PAN *zawa₂

milt

milt, spleen - *(loan)

mimic

to copy, mimic, imitate - POC *toa

mince

chop up, mince - PWMP *tadtád

chop, hack, mince, cut up - POC *totok

to chop, to mince, as meat, fish or vegetables preparatory to cooking - PWMP *sagsag₂

minced

be chopped into pieces, be minced, as meat or vegetables; what is chopped up or minced - PAN *tektek-en

be chopped up or minced - PPH *tadtad-én

mind

belly; mind; seat of affections - POC *topwa

conscience, mind, insight - *(loan)

doubt, hesitation, uncertainty; to doubt, hesitate, be of two minds - POC *rua rua₂

doubt, hesitation, uncertainty; to doubt, hesitate, be of two minds - PMP *duha duha₂

heart; mind - PAN-F *ajem

inner self, feelings, mind - POC *loto

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - PMP *dalem

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - POC *ralom

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

thoughts, mind - *(loan)

what is kept in mind - PWMP *iŋat-an

will; intellect; reasoning, intention, mental presence, mind - PPH *nákem

mindful

mindful, careful, attentive - PWMP *ma-iŋat

mine

my unnamed thing: mine - POC *anu-ku

my unnamed thing: mine - PMP *a-nu-ku

mingle

to mix, mingle - PWMP *kahug

minor

wild mango: Mangifera minor - POC *koRa

mirror

to look, gaze; water used as a mirror - POC *ti-tiro

misbehaving

misbehaving - *(noise)

Miscanthus

cane grass, Miscanthus sp. - PAN *biRaSu

miscanthus

elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea - PMP *taŋelaj

elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea - PAN *Caŋelaj

miscellaneous

various, miscellaneous - *(loan)

mischief

mischief - *(loan)

misfortune

misfortune, catastrophe - PWMP *geraq

miss

do something wrong, make a mistake; miss the target - PWMP *s<um>alaq

miss, crave, long for something - PWMP *kidam

wrong, in error (of behavior); miss (a target); mistake, error, fault - PMP *salaq₁

missed

homesick; long for something that is missed - PPh *íliw

missed (as a target); blamed - PWMP *s<in>alaq

mission

send on a mission, command someone to do something - PWMP *utus₂

mist

dew, mist, fog - PWMP *qembun

dew, mist, fog - PWMP *ambun

drizzling rain, mist; fog - PMP *Rabun

fog, haze, mist - POC *kaput₂

fog, haze, mist; indistinct, blurry - PMP *kabut

fog, mist - POC *oke

fog, mist - POC *oka₁

low cloud, mist, fog - POC *kopu

mistake

do something wrong, make a mistake; miss the target - PWMP *s<um>alaq

error, mistake; fault, offense - PWMP *ka-salaq-an

forget a skill, make a mistake - PWMP *beluy

make a mistake, commit an error, be wrong about something - PWMP *maR-salaq

wrong, in error (of behavior); miss (a target); mistake, error, fault - PMP *salaq₁

mistaken

get wrong, be mistaken; forget - PWMP *liŋu

mistress

keep a mistress (?) - PPH *kubut₂

lover, mistress - *(loan)

take a woman as mistress - PPh *ba-bahi-en

misty

cloudy, misty, hazy - PWMP *ma-Rabun

foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain - PAN-F *ma-lebleb

foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain - PAN-F *lebleb₁

misunderstand

misunderstand, fail to grasp - PWMP *baliŋ₁

mite

chicken flea, itch mite - PWMP *kaRaw₂

tiny parasite on the body, itch mite, chicken louse - PMP *kuman

tiny red itch mite - PWMP *tuŋaw₁

mix

knead, mix together - PMP *quli

mix - PMP *kambur

mix - POC *balut

mix - PMP *balut₁

mix - POC *balun₄

mix - PEMP *balun₁

mix - *-huR (root)

mix - *(near)

mix foods - PWMP *labuR

mix foods, as in preparing pig’s fodder - PWMP *bahuR

mix together - PMP *rembur

rice gruel; rice porridge; to mix - *-buR₁ (root)

stir, mix - PWMP *garu

stir, mix - PMP *galu

to mix - PWMP *lamud

to mix - PAN *lamuj

to mix in, mix together - PPH *l<um>ahúk

to mix something with something else - PPH *lahuk-án

to mix together (?) - PWMP *pa-lamud

to mix together, as ingredients in cooking - PWMP *ŋa-lamud

to mix two or more things - PPH *i-lahúk

to mix, blend - PCMP *balik₁

to mix, mingle - PWMP *kahug

to mix, stir in - POC *solo₂

to mix; a mixture - PPH *sahuR

to mix; mixture - PAN *samuR

to stir, mix in - PPH *kiwkiw-en

to stir, mix in - PPH *kiwkiw₂

mixed

be mixed, mixture - PWMP *bahuR-an

mixed with - PWMP *maR-bahuR

mixed, as foods - PWMP *lahuk

mixture

be mixed, mixture - PWMP *bahuR-an

ingredient in a mixture - PPH *ka-lahúk

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - POC *puRa

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - PMP *buRah

to mix; a mixture - PPH *sahuR

to mix; mixture - PAN *samuR

TOP      me    mi    mo    mu    my    

mo

moan

groan, moan - PAN *daRiŋ

groan, moan, roar - PWMP *qereŋ

groan, moan, roar, growl - PMP *heReŋ

groan, moan, snore - *-Reŋ (root)

grunt, moan, etc. - PMP *ŋukŋuk

grunt, moan, etc. - PMP *ŋuk

moan or groan - PMP *iŋus

moan, groan - PPh *hendek

moan, growl - PPh *úŋur

moan, hum, howl - PMP *eŋkeŋ

roar of a current, crashing waves, etc.; moan, groan (as in pain or when near death) - PMP *huRuŋ

roar, moan - PWMP *quRuŋ

to groan, moan, roar - PWMP *maŋ-heReŋ

to moan, groan, grunt - POC *ŋuRuR

moaning

moaning sound - PMP *uu

sound of groaning, moaning, roaring, etc. - PMP *deReŋ

mock

a form of martial art or mock combat - PWMP *silat

mock, ridicule - PWMP *ulug

model

base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother - PMP *puqun

model, exemplar - PWMP *tulad-an

moderate-sized

a moderate-sized shrub: Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea - PWMP *sabasaq

modest

ashamed; shy; modest - PAN-F *ma-Sikad

moiety

dual division, moiety - PCEMP *bali₈

dual division, moiety == cluster (a) answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - PMP *baliw₁

moist

damp, moist - PWMP *emeg

damp, moist - *(loan)

moist - *(loan)

wet, moist, damp - PMP *ma-baseq

moist and slippery

moist and slippery - *(loan)

moisture

soft through exposure to moisture; sticky - PWMP *luyak

molar

molar tooth - PAN *beReqaŋ

molar tooth - POC *paRaŋ

molar tooth - PMP *baReqaŋ

molar tooth - PMP *bageqaŋ

molar tooth (?) - PPH *saŋi

mold

mold mildew - *(noise)

moldy

decayed, rotten, moldy, mildewed (of wood) - PWMP *lapuk

mole

any natural mark on human skin: birthmark, freckle, mole - PMP *qila

dark mole - PMP *taqi nu lalej

Formosan blind mole: Talpa micrura insularis (Swinhoe) - PAN-F *mumu

mollusc

bivalve mollusc, possibly Pinna sp. - POC *sapulu

marine mollusc sp. - PPH *takál

mollusk

bivalve mollusk sp., lucine clam - POC *bibi₂

bivalve mollusk sp., lucine clam - PMP *bibi₁

kind of univalve mollusk - POC *somu

mollusk sp. - PMP *baran

molt

to molt, shed the skin - POC *uñus

to molt, shed the skin - PMP *huñus

molting

molting, losing hair or feathers - PWMP *ka-butbut-an

Moluccana

a plant: Falcataria Moluccana - POC *pail

a plant: Falcataria Moluccana - PCEMP *bail

moluccana

the candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana - PEMP *tuRi₂

the candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana - PMP *kamiri

moment

a moment ago, in a moment - *(noise)

momentarily

in a little while, momentarily, later - PAN *Sauni

to blink, wink, momentarily close the eye - PWMP *kezep

to feel light-headed; to faint, lose consciousness momentarily - PPH *lipeŋ

Momordica

bitter melon: Momordica charantia L. - PWMP *paria

the bitter melon: Momordica charantia - PWMP *pariaq

monetary

monetary support - *(loan)

money

cut of gambling money - *(loan)

money - *(loan)

money, payment, medium of commercial exchange - PCEMP *matay₂

purse, money belt - *(loan)

monitor

monitor lizard, Varanus spp. (esp. V. salvator) - PWMP *bayawak

monkey

chattering, crying of monkeys - PAN *keriq

cry of a monkey - PMP *akerahaq

monkey - *(noise)

monkey sp. - PWMP *ayuŋ₁

monkey sp. - *(loan)

ritually sacrificed monkey? - PAN-F *uŋay

scream of a monkey - PMP *kusik

sound of a monkey chattering - *(near)

the Formosan rock monkey: Macaca cyclopis - PAN *luCuŋ

monotonously

repeat oneself monotonously - PWMP *quman-quman

repeat oneself monotonously - PAN *quman

Mons

node (as in bamboo or sugarcane); joint; knuckle; knot in wood; knot in string or rope; Mons veneris - POC *buku

node (as in bamboo or sugarcane); joint; knuckle; knot in wood; knot in string or rope; Mons veneris - PCEMP *buku

monsoon

east monsoon - *(near)

southeast monsoon - PMP *timuR

southwest monsoon - PMP *habaRat

month

each month, every month, monthly; for months - PMP *bulan-bulan₂

month of expected childbirth (?) - PPh *ka-bulan-an

monthly, by the month - PWMP *bulan-an

moon, month - PAN-F *qiNaS

moon, month - POC *pulan₃

moon, month; menstruation - PAN *bulaN

moon, month; menstruation; shell disk collar piece - PMP *bulan₃

one month (in duration) - PWMP *sa-ŋa-bulan

seventh month (?) - PAN *ka-pitu-an

monthly

each month, every month, monthly; for months - PMP *bulan-bulan₂

monthly, by the month - PWMP *bulan-an

moo

to low, moo - *(noise)

moody

moody, having radical mood swings - *(loan)

moody, irritable - PMP *biŋit

moody; capricious behavior

moody, capricious behavior - *(loan)

moon

affected by the moon, mentally or emotionally unstable - PWMP *bulan bulan-en

affected by the moon, mentally or emotionally unstable - PWMP *bulan-en

die; dead; eclipse of sun or moon - PAN *ma-aCay

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

moon, month - PAN-F *qiNaS

moon, month - POC *pulan₃

moon, month; menstruation - PAN *bulaN

moon, month; menstruation; shell disk collar piece - PMP *bulan₃

new moon, eclipse (lit. 'dead moon') - PMP *bulan matay

to rise, of the sun, moon or stars - PPH *sebaŋ

moonlight

walk in the moonlight - PWMP *b<um>ulan

moor

stop by, to moor a boat - *(noise)

mooring

mooring place, place where a boat is tied - PWMP *talih-an

mop

mop - *(loan)

morass

swamp, morass - PWMP *rawaq

more

carry between two or more persons - PMP *bintiŋ

excess; more than; surpass - PMP *labi

more (intensive), even more, moreso; surplus - PWMP *laluq

more (intensive), even more, moreso; surplus; to worsen (as an illness) - PWMP *lalu₁

some, some more - POC *palu₆

some, some more - PMP *balu₃

to mix two or more things - PPH *i-lahúk

moreso

more (intensive), even more, moreso; surplus - PWMP *laluq

more (intensive), even more, moreso; surplus; to worsen (as an illness) - PWMP *lalu₁

Morinda

a tree with roots that furnish a red dye: Morinda citrifolia - POC *gurat

a tree: Morinda citrifolia - PWMP *biŋkudu

small tree, probably Morinda citrifolia Linn. - PPH *apatut

the dye produced from the Morinda citrifolia - POC *kurat

tree with inedible white fruit and root that yields a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia L. - POC *ñoñu

tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia - PCEMP *ñəñu

tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia - PWMP *baŋkudu

Moringa

the horseradish tree: Moringa oleifera - PPH *maruŋgay

morning

creeping vine that grows on sandy beaches, the beach morning glory: Ipomoea pes-caprae - PPH *balinu

daylight; morning sunshine - PWMP *siaŋ

morning star? - POC *gama

morning, tomorrow - *(loan)

morning; tomorrow - POC *puko

the morning (evening) star: Venus - PMP *talaq₁

the morning (evening) star: Venus - PMP *mantalaq

mortar

mortar - PWMP *li(ŋ)suŋ

mortar or gin for crushing plant material - PPH *lubaŋ₃

mortar, caulking - *(loan)

pound in a mortar - PWMP *lumpaŋ

rice mortar - PMP *lusuŋ

rice mortar - PMP *lesuŋ

rice mortar - PMP *lusuŋ

rice mortar - PAN *Nusuŋ

rice mortar - PMP *esuŋ

to pound (rice, etc.) in a mortar - PPh *lebék

wooden rice mortar - PAN *iŋsuŋ

mortis

cramps, stiffening of the limbs, rigor mortis - PMP *kaŋkaŋ₃

mortise

mortise and tenon joint - PWMP *asaŋ₁

Morus

mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta) - PAN *taNiud

mosquito

be caught in a mosquito swarm, be overwhelmed by mosquitos - PPH *ñamuk-en

mosquito - PPH *tenek₁

mosquito - PMP *ñamuk

mosquito - PMP *lamuk₂

mosquito - PAN-F *likeS

mosquito net - POC *tai ñamuk

mosquito net - POC *tau ñamuk

protective covering or enclosure; mosquito net - PPH *kubuŋ₂

mosquito coil

mosquito coil - *(loan)

mosquito net

mosquito net - *(loan)

moss

covered with moss - PWMP *lumut-en

covered with moss - PMP *lumut-an

moss - PMP *lumut-lumut

moss, algae - PMP *limut

moss, algae, seaweed - PMP *lumut

to form moss on something - PWMP *ŋa-lumut

most

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

eye, focal point, center or most prominent part - PAN *maCa

middle of the road, most trodden part of a path or road; guide who shows the way - PMP *mata nu zalan

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

mote

get a mote in the eye - PMP *buta-en mata

get a mote in the eye - PAN *buCa-en maCa

mote in the eye; blind; blindness - PMP *buta₁

mote in the eye; blind; blindness - PAN *buCa

moth

butterfly, moth - PAN *baŋbaŋ₂

butterfly, moth; butterfly fish - PMP *baŋbaŋ₂

nibble, gnaw; moth - PMP *getget₁

mother

base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother - PMP *puqun

foster mother, stepmother - PWMP *ina ina

mother - POC *pe-

mother - PWMP *inda₂

mother - PMP *ra-ina

mother - *(loan)

mother (ref.) - PMP *t-ina

mother (ref.) - PAN *ta-ina

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu-q

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu-ŋ

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu

mother, mother's sister - PAN *ina

mother, mother's sister (address, vocative) - PAN *iná-q

mother, mother's sister (address, vocative) - PMP *iná-ŋ

mother, mother's sister (address, vocative) - PMP *iná-i

mother, mother's sister; female animal - PMP *ina

mother, mother's sister; female animal; largest member of a set - PCEMP *ina

mother's sister, father's sister - PWMP *kam-ina-en

to be mother and child - PAN *maR-ina

motion

causative of motion - PAN-F *pu-

pump, pumping motion - PWMP *umbak umbak

return home; return something; restore, repair; repeat; motion to and fro - PMP *uliq₁

seesaw motion - *(loan)

spring up; flicking motion - *-tik₁ (root)

to be in motion; go, walk - PMP *lakaw

to scrape, with motion away from body - POC *ori

to stop something in mid-course, of bodies in motion - PPH *saŋga₂

tool for cutting with a forward digging motion - PPH *sudsud₂

vortical design or motion - PWMP *puyu₂

motorboat

motorboat, launch - *(loan)

mottled

mottled brown and grey (of the feathers of cocks) - PWMP *baRunbun

mottled design, as of a tattoo - PMP *batek

mottled pattern - PWMP *patik

mottled, spotted - *-Cik (root)

mound

anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’) - POC *tanoq tubuq

anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’) - PMP *taneq tumbuq

termite mound - PWMP *puŋsu

mountain

area of forested mountains - PPh *ka-bukij-an

base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother - PMP *puqun

Formosan serow, mountain goat - PAN-F *Sidi

hill, mountain - POC *puŋa-puŋa

mountain - PCEMP *qili

mountain - PMP *qilih

mountain - PWMP *bulud₂

mountain - PMP *bulud₃

mountain - PAN *buled₁

mountain peak, cape of land; tip of anything - PMP *quzuŋ

mountain, hill - POC *oro

mountain, hilltop - POC *koro₃

mountain; forested inland mountain areas - PAN *bukij

peak of a mountain - PAN *qapucuk

place in the mountains - PWMP *bukij-an

ridge of the roof; ridge of a mountain, peak; deck of a boat; cover the ridgepole with thatch - PMP *bubuŋ₁

slope of a mountain - PWMP *iraŋ₂

slope, mountain side - *(noise)

sloping upward; to climb a mountain - PWMP *tukad₂

mountainous

interior hill country, hilly or mountainous part of island - POC *solos

mountainous area - PPh *ka-bulud-an

mountainous area - PPh *bulud-an

mounting

embrace from behind, copulate by mounting from behind (of animals, or coarsely of humans) - PPH *takbá

mourn

cluster (c) == don mourning apparel; mourn for a deceased spouse - PMP *baliw₃

mourn the dead - POC *paluq

mourn the dead - PMP *baluq

to cry for, cry over, mourn, bewail, weep for the dead - PMP *taŋis-i

to weep, cry, mourn - PAN *C<um>aŋis

weep, cry; mourn - PMP *taŋis

weep, cry; mourn; to beseech - PAN *Caŋis

mourn; dress in black mourning clothes

mourn; dress in black mourning clothes - *(loan)

mournful

mournful howl of a dog - PMP *quŋal

mourning

cluster (c) == don mourning apparel; mourn for a deceased spouse - PMP *baliw₃

mouse

mouse, rat - *(loan)

rat, mouse - POC *kalapo

rat, mouse - PCEMP *kalabaw

rat, mouse - PMP *balabaw

rat, mouse - PWMP *babaw₁

to squeak, as a mouse; to giggle - PMP *kikik

mousedeer

mousedeer - *(loan)

moustache

beard, moustache - PWMP *sumpiŋ₁

moustache - PMP *kumi

moustache - PWMP *sumit

moustache, beard - PMP *kumis

moustache, beard - PWMP *gumis

moustache, beard - PWMP *gumi

moustache, whiskers - PPh *beŋet₂

mouth

be open, as the mouth - PMP *kaŋa

be sprayed from the mouth - PMP *buRah-an

chew, move to and fro in the mouth - POC *kamu₃

chewed mass of food or betel nut in the mouth - PWMP *sepaq

close the mouth - PWMP *buŋkem

cover nose and mouth with hand - PWMP *penpen₂

enclose; hold something inside the mouth - PMP *qeŋkem

estuary, mouth of a river - PMP *naŋa₁

estuary, shore near the mouth of a river - PMP *sabaŋ₁

fill the mouth with food or water - PAN *qumuR

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; to foam, to bubble; foam at the mouth; fond of talking; type of white bead - PMP *bujeq₂

gape, open the mouth - PMP *ciŋaŋ

gape, open the mouth wide - POC *paŋaŋap

gape, open the mouth wide - PMP *qaŋap

gape, open the mouth wide - PMP *qaŋab

gape, open the mouth wide - *-ŋa (root)

gape, open the mouth wide - *-ŋa(q) (root)

gape, open the mouth wide - *-ŋaq (root)

gape, open the mouth wide; be dazzled, amazed - PMP *beŋaŋ₂

gape, open, of the mouth - *-ŋab (root)

gargle, rinse the mouth - PWMP *kali-muRmuR

gargle, rinse the mouth - PMP *kumuR

gargle, rinse the mouth - PMP *muRmuR

gargle, rinse the mouth - *-muR (root)

gasp, open the mouth to breathe - PWMP *egap

hold by biting carry in the mouth - *(near)

hold in the closed mouth - PAN *qemqem

hold in the mouth - POC *gomu

hold in the mouth - PAN *umuR

hold in the mouth - PWMP *luqum

hold in the mouth - POC *oŋkom

hold in the mouth - PMP *emuR

hold in the mouth and suck - PMP *mulmul

hold in the mouth, hold with the mouth - PWMP *uRem

hold something in the mouth - POC *qoŋkom

hold something inside the mouth - PMP *eŋgem

mouth - POC *qawa₂

mouth - PMP *beqbeq

mouth - POC *papaq₂

mouth - PMP *bahaq₁

mouth (of an animal) - PWMP *mu(n)cuŋ

mouth of a river - PPh *wáwaq

mouth of a river, estuary - PMP *minaŋa

mouth of a river, estuary - PCEMP *naŋa₃

mouth of a river, estuary - PMP *binaŋa

mouth, opening; speak, say - PMP *baqbaq

open the mouth - PAN *ŋaŋa₂

open the mouth - PMP *beŋa₁

open the mouth - PMP *beŋaq

open the mouth - PWMP *baŋaq₁

open the mouth wide - PMP *uŋap

open the mouth wide - PMP *Raŋa₁

open the mouth wide - PPh *buŋáŋaq

open the mouth wide - PMP *aŋaq

open the mouth wide, gape - PWMP *taŋaŋaq

open the mouth wide, gape; gaping; opening of a bubu fish trap, basket, etc. - PMP *ŋaŋa₃

open the mouth, gape - PWMP *ŋaqŋaq

open, of the mouth; gaping - *-ŋap (root)

put something (as food) in the mouth - PPH *s<um>úbuq

rinse the mouth - PAN-F *timuRmuR

rinse the mouth, gargle - PCEMP *pupuR

saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for - POC *ipoR

saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for - PMP *ibeR

seize in the mouth or beak - PMP *sa(m)bar

seize in the mouth or beak - PMP *ceŋap

snap at with the mouth - PWMP *pagut

snatch with the mouth, as a dog seizing something in its mouth and running away with it - PPH *sak(e)mál

spray water from the mouth - POC *puRas

spray water from the mouth - PAN *buReS

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - POC *puRa

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - PMP *buRah

stuff mouth with food - *(near)

to force apart, at with a wedge; force something into someone’s mouth - PPH *tiŋal

to hold liquid in the mouth; to gargle - POC *gomuR

to hold liquid in the mouth; to gargle - PMP *kemuR

to put food into the mouth - PPH *i-súbuq

to spray spittle, etc. from the mouth for magical purposes - POC *puRuk

tumor in the mouth of an animal - PPh *hábas

move

budge, move a bit - *-suD (root)

budge, move slowly - *(loan)

budge, shift, move - PMP *isud

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *isu₁

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *isuR

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *iseR

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *ised

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *icud

chew, move to and fro in the mouth - POC *kamu₃

go, move - POC *pana

make something go or move - PWMP *pa-zalan

move - PWMP *uit₁

move about in restless anger - POC *ŋali-ŋali

move along - PMP *qunus qunus

move along - PMP *qunus

move around in a circling fashion - PWMP *liliŋ-liliŋ

move on a current - PWMP *q<um>añud

move slightly, budge - PWMP *iŋsiD

move the lips rapidly, as in gnawing or nibbling on something - PPH *kútib

move, change place - PMP *aliq

move, transfer - PMP *lalin

move, transfer - PMP *halin

movement; to move - PPH *gunay

push aside, move aside, step aside - PWMP *siaq

retreat, move backwards - PPh *isul

shake or move from side to side - PWMP *hiwal

sway, move - *(noise)

to carry, transport, move something - PAN-F *s<um>akut

to carry, transport, move something - PAN-F *sakut

to distance oneself, move far off - PPH *d<um>ayuq

to flow, stream, move out rapidly - POC *rere₂

to move or touch in an agitated or compulsive fashion - PPH *garaw-en

to move, change location - PWMP *pindaq

to walk or move unsteadily, erratically - POC *tibaŋ

wag, shake, move repeatedly from side to side - PAN *wiŋawiŋ

moveable

moveable (?) - PWMP *ka-aŋkat

to bind, tie tightly, probably of tying one thing which is moveable to another which is fixed - PPH *kedked

move backward

retreat, move backward - *(near)

moved

push with the feet; press feet against, set feet firmly to prevent being moved - PPH *sikad

movement

back and forth movement - POC *puis

jounce, jouncing movement - PWMP *undak-undak

jounce, jouncing movement - PWMP *qundak

movement in coitus - POC *kiur

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - PPH *iut₂

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - POC *kiuq

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - PMP *kiuq

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - PWMP *kiut

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - PMP *kiud

movement prefix - PAN *mu-

movement; to move - PPH *gunay

restlessness, wild or unruly movement - PPH *garáw

slow and tentative movement - PWMP *ukaŋ

startled, make a startled movement - PWMP *unzet

to block passage, oppose movement; come to a temporary stop - PPH *saR(e)ked

move rhythmically

move rhythmically - *(loan)

moving

moving about rapidly or restlessly - PPH *kidas

push something to start it moving; accompany someone to help them start a journey - PPH *tulúd

sit; stay or stop moving; reside - POC *nofo

twitch, jerk; keep moving the lips - PWMP *kimut kimut

TOP      me    mi    mo    mu    my    

mu

much

Hibiscus tiliaceus, a tree the bark of which provides a fiber much used in making cordage; to lash, tie, bind - POC *paRu

eat too much, be cloyed, overfull, tired of something through excess; bored - PWMP *sáwaq

how much/how many? - PWMP *saŋ-kuja

how much?, how many? - POC *ga-pica

how much?, how many? - POC *pica

interrogative of quantity: how much?, how many?; adjective of indefinite quantity: some, several, a few - PAN *pijax

many, much, plenty - PAN *Sadu

much, many, plenty - PMP *hadu

mucus

a cold; nasal mucus, runny nose - PPH *sip(e)qun

dried mucus on the eyelid - PWMP *mismis

dried nasal mucus - PPH *kulaŋut

nasal mucus - PMP *ŋuhuR

nasal mucus - PAN *ŋuSuR

nasal mucus, snot - PMP *piŋ(e)qut

nasal mucus, snot - PMP *piŋus

nasal mucus, snot - PMP *idus

nasal mucus; blow the nose - PWMP *seŋa₁

sniffle, sniff up mucus - PWMP *siŋ(e)hut

mud

earth, soil, mud - PMP *buRtaq

mud - PWMP *latak₂

mud - PPH *lutek

mud - PPH *putik₃

mud - PPh *pitek

mud - PMP *pitak₁

mud - PWMP *butak

mud - PCEMP *bitak₂

mud - *-tek₂ (root)

mud, ground, earth - PPH *lutáq

mud, muddy - PWMP *luñaw

mud, muddy water - PWMP *lebuR

mud; earth, ground - *-tak₁ (root)

mud; earth, ground - *-taq (root)

muddy; sound of walking in mud - *-cak₁ (root)

muddy; sticky, as mud - PMP *litek

soft mud - PWMP *luyek

soft watery mud - PWMP *lunaw₁

to wallow in mud - PPH *tubug

trample earth, turn into mud, as a paddy field prior to planting - PWMP *lucak

muddy

mud, muddy - PWMP *luñaw

mud, muddy water - PWMP *lebuR

muddy - PPH *pisak₂

muddy - PWMP *lutak

muddy - PWMP *bicak

muddy - *(loan)

muddy water - PWMP *lebug

muddy, waterlogged (of ground) - PWMP *bacak

muddy; sound of walking in mud - *-cak₁ (root)

muddy; sticky, as mud - PMP *litek

mudfish

mudfish - *(loan)

mudfish, murrel - PPH *dalág

trap for mudfish - PPH *siqid

mud puddle

mud puddle, pool of water - *(near)

muffled

dull, muffled sound - PMP *ibuk

dull, muffled sound - *-bek₁ (root)

muffled sound of a gasp, etc. - PMP *se(m)bek

mukrossi

soapberry: Sapindus mukrossi, S. saponaria - PAN-F *daqu₂

mulberry

mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta) - PAN *taNiud

paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material - PCEMP *malaw

mullet

a fish: the mullet - PAN *kaNasay

a sea fish: the mullet - PWMP *balanak

fish sp.: mullet sp., Neomyxus chaptalii - PMP *qawas

young growth stage of mullet - PMP *qaRuas

Mullidae

goatfish, family Mullidae - POC *tiqo

goatfish, family Mullidae - PMP *tiqaw₂

multi-colored

spotted, striped, multi-colored - PWMP *balaŋ₃

multiglandulosa

a plant: Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Reinw.) - PPH *aum

multiple

divide into multiple parts - POC *wa(n)se wa(n)se

linker for multiples of ten - PMP *ŋa

multiple debts - PWMP *qutaŋ qutaŋ

multiply

reproduce, multiply - PWMP *babaD

to triple, multiply by three - POC *paka-tolu

to triple, multiply by three - PMP *paka-telu

mumble

mumble angrily, grumble - PWMP *uŋut

mumble, etc. - PMP *ŋekŋek

mumble, grumble - PWMP *temud

mumble, murmur, mutter - *-ŋut (root)

mumble, whimper - PWMP *ŋutŋut₁

mumbled

sob, mumbled complaint - PWMP *he(m)bek

mung

the mung bean: Phaseolus spp. - PWMP *balatuŋ

muntjac

muntjac, barking deer - PAN-F *sakeC

murderer

murderer - PWMP *paŋ-bunuq

murkiness

murkiness, turbidity, of water that has been stirred up - PPH *liqebeR

murky

murky, as water or other liquid - PPH *parek

murky, clouded, turbid - PMP *libuR

murky, full of sediment - PPH *ma-parek

murky, turbid, of water that has been stirred up - PPH *ma-liqebeR

murmur

mumble, murmur, mutter - *-ŋut (root)

murmuring

rumbling or low murmuring sound - PWMP *geRuŋ

Murraya

a tree: Murraya sp. - PMP *kamuniŋ

murrel

fish sp., possibly murrel - PWMP *buzuk

mudfish, murrel - PPH *dalág

Musa

a plant in the banana family, probably Musa textilis - PPH *qaRutay

banana: Musa sapientum L. - PAN-F *beNbeN

cooking banana: Musa sapientum Linn. var compressa. Blanco - PWMP *sabeqa

Manila hemp: Musa textilis - PPh *abaká

muscle

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon - PAN *huRaC

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root - PMP *uRat

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; sinew; tendon; ligament; fiber; tough, sinewy - POC *uRat

large leg muscle - PWMP *keted

mushroom

edible mushroom - PMP *quhuŋ

edible mushroom (generic) - PAN *quSuŋ

edible mushroom sp. - PAN-F *bajiw

mushroom - *(noise)

mushroom sp. - PPh *bunuj

small mushroom sp. - PWMP *qibaw₂

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

mushy

overcooked until mushy, as rice or vegetables - PPH *lusa₂

musical

a percussive musical instrument or ensemble: the gamelan - PWMP *kulintaŋ

musical instrument - PWMP *huni huni

to knock on something, play a musical instrument - PPH *tugtug-én

musky

stench, musky odor of an animal - PAN *qaŋeSit

mussel

mussel sp. or spp. used as food grater or scraper - POC *kukur

mussel sp.

mussel sp. - *(loan)

mute

blocked, plugged, dammed; mute, unable to speak - PWMP *beŋbeŋ

dumb, mute - PWMP *gagu

mute - *(loan)

mute, unable to speak - POC *boŋol

mute, unable to speak - PCEMP *beŋel

speechless, dumb, mute - PMP *umel

mutter

mumble, murmur, mutter - *-ŋut (root)

muttering

sound produced by an animal; unintelligible muttering of a person - PAN *ŋawŋaw

muzzle

upper lip, snout, muzzle - PPH *suŋu₂

TOP      me    mi    mo    mu    my    

my

my

1sg possessive pronoun; my - POC *-gu

my unnamed thing: mine - POC *anu-ku

my unnamed thing: mine - PMP *a-nu-ku

mydas

the green turtle, Chelonia mydas - POC *poñu

the green turtle, Chelonia mydas - PMP *peñu

mythical creature that leads people astray

mythical creature that leads people astray - *(loan)

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 7/14/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_m.htm