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Updated: 7/14/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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N

ne    ni    no    nu    ny    

nail

dirt under the nails - PWMP *taqi nu kuku

get a splinter or sliver under the skin or nail - PPH *salugsúg

nail - *(loan)

to hang, as something on a nail - PPH *sad(e)qaŋ

to pinch, as with the nails - PWMP *kezut₂

wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail or dowel - PAN *pacek

wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail, dowel, or fencepost - PAN *pasek

naked

naked - PWMP *tilanzaŋ

naked - *(near)

naked, nude, undressed - PWMP *lebas

name

deep resonant sound; name of a bird with deep resonant cry - PAN *ku(ŋ)kuŋ

genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb - PAN *ni

genitive of plural personal names - PAN *na₃

locative case marker for plural personal names - PMP *daₐ

name - PWMP *paŋ-ŋaran

name - POC *ŋacan

name - PMP *ŋajan

name - PAN *ŋajan

name - POC *isa₂

name - PMP *ajan

namesake, have the same name as someone else - PWMP *saŋay

nominative case marker for plural personal names - PAN *sa₁

nominative case marker for singular personal names or kin terms used as personal names - PAN *si₁

oblique case marker for plural personal names - PAN *ka₃

person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so - PMP *sanu

person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so - PWMP *i-anu, si-anu

person whose name is unknown, avoided or cannot be remembered: who? - PPh *si-nu

thing whose name is unknown, avoided, or cannot be remembered: what? - PMP *a-nu

to give a name to someone or something - PWMP *ŋajan-an

to name, give a name to - PMP *i-pa-ŋajan

to name, give a name to - PMP *pa(ka)-ajan

to name, give a name to; to call by name - PWMP *i-ŋajan(-an)

vulva, vagina; pet name for girls - PWMP *uki

namesake

namesake (?) - PWMP *ka-ŋajan(-an)

namesake, have the same name as someone else - PWMP *saŋay

nape

nape of the neck - PWMP *teŋkuk

nape of the neck - PWMP *batuk₂

nape of the neck - PMP *teŋuq

nape of the neck - PWMP *pekuq₂

nape of the neck - *(near)

nape, back of the neck - PPH *teŋel

narrate

to narrate, as in telling a story - PPH *sáysay

narrative

chant or sung narrative - PWMP *kiduŋ

conventional story, traditional narrative - PWMP *sudsud₁

narrow

go through a narrow passage - POC *solso

narrow - POC *kibit

narrow - PMP *kiput

narrow - PWMP *sekud

narrow - PWMP *sikut₂

narrow - PWMP *sekut

narrow - PWMP *rupit

narrow - PWMP *qiqut

narrow - PMP *iput

narrow - PWMP *cupit

narrow - *(noise)

narrow bridge - PPH *t<ag>aytay

narrow opening or passage between two things - PWMP *selat

narrow, tight - PPH *piet

narrow, tight, confined - PMP *gipit

narrow; pinch between tongs, etc. - PAN *kipit

narrow; squeeze tightly - PWMP *sempit

narrow; to pinch; tongs - PWMP *supit

press, squeeze together; narrow - *-pit (root)

narrow-necked

narrow-necked water jar - PWMP *kalalaŋ

nasal

a cold; nasal mucus, runny nose - PPH *sip(e)qun

dried nasal mucus - PPH *kulaŋut

nasal area; snout - PAN *ŋusuq

nasal mucus - PMP *ŋuhuR

nasal mucus - PAN *ŋuSuR

nasal mucus, snot - PMP *piŋ(e)qut

nasal mucus, snot - PMP *piŋus

nasal mucus, snot - PMP *idus

nasal mucus; blow the nose - PWMP *seŋa₁

Naso

short snouted unicornfish: Naso spp. - POC *taRa

unicorn fish, Naso spp. - PMP *qumi

unicorn fish, Naso spp. - PMP *qumay

unicorn fish: Naso unicornis - POC *monoRe

native

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

natural

any natural mark on human skin: birthmark, freckle, mole - PMP *qila

natural cockspur (cf *tazi, artificial cockspur) - PMP *tada

natural sound - PAN *qiuŋ₁

natural spring, fresh water spring - POC *tupuR

natural spring, fresh water spring - PMP *tubuR

natural spring, fresh water spring - POC *topuR

natural spring, fresh water spring - PMP *tebuR

natural spring, fresh water spring - POC *topuc

natural spring, fresh water spring - PAN *Cebuj

power in natural phenomena; thunder, storm wind - POC *mana₂

to stupefy fish with natural plant poisons - PWMP *ma-nuba

nature

ghost, ancestral spirit; nature spirit; corpse; owl; various plants - PMP *qanitu

invisible nature spirit - PWMP *buni₂

nature spirit - PMP *imbuk

nature, character - PMP *k<in>a-tau-an

nature, character - PAN *k<in>a-Cau-an

Nauclea

a tree: Nauclea sp. - PMP *baŋkal

naucrates

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting - POC *komi

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting - PMP *kemi

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting’ - PMP *gemi

nausea

nausea - *(noise)

nausea, nauseated - PWMP *luya₁

nauseated

nausea, nauseated - PWMP *luya₁

nautilus

type of shell, possibly nautilus - POC *bio

navel

hypogastrium, abdomen below the navel - PPH *pusequŋ

navel - POC *pure

navel - POC *piso₂

navel - POC *bito

navel - POC *buto

navel, umbilical cord - PAN-F *pujek

navel, umbilical cord - PAN-F *puja

navel, umbilicus - POC *pusoc

navel, umbilicus; mid-point or center of something - PMP *pusej

umbilicus, navel cord - PWMP *talih pusej

TOP      ne    ni    no    nu    ny    

ne

near

broil; warm oneself or something near a fire - PAN *daŋdaŋ₁

dry near a fire - *-gaŋ (root)

dusky, twilight, as near the end of day - PWMP *peteŋ

estuary, shore near the mouth of a river - PMP *sabaŋ₁

heat or dry something near a fire - PWMP *gaŋgaŋ

littoral sea, sea near the shore - PMP *daRat

near - POC *karaŋi

near - POC *karani

near - PMP *adani

near - POC *raŋi

near - PCEMP *daŋi

near - POC *tata₂

near, close by - PWMP *hampir

near, come near; edge, border - PMP *ipit

near, nearly - *(noise)

pass by or near - PWMP *qaliwat

place something near a fire - PAN *daŋdaŋ-an

stand or be placed near to someone or something - PPH *saiŋ

to be dried near a fire or by the sun - PWMP *daŋdaŋ-en

to dessicate, parch near a fire - PWMP *salay

to pass around or near someone or something - PWMP *liwet

warm oneself or something near a fire; heat or dry near a fire - PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

nearly

near, nearly - *(noise)

necessary

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

necessary - *(loan)

neck

constriction around neck - PWMP *cekig

kind of cockatoo with red neck feathers - POC *supiri

kind of cockatoo with red neck feathers - POC *sipiri

nape of the neck - PWMP *teŋkuk

nape of the neck - PWMP *batuk₂

nape of the neck - PMP *teŋuq

nape of the neck - PWMP *pekuq₂

nape of the neck - *(near)

nape, back of the neck - PPH *teŋel

neck - POC *kadro

neck - POC *Ruqa

neck - POC *liqoR

neck - PAN *liqeR

neck - POC *kalo

neck shackle to prevent an animal from passing through fences - PMP *pagal

neck, throat - *(noise)

necklace

beads, necklace of beads - PAN *quNuq

necklace - PPH *kulintas

necklace - PCMP *bui₂

need

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

in need, in want - PWMP *sadat

needle

eye of a needle - PWMP *mata nu zaRum

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

needle - POC *saRum

needle - PAN *zaRum

pierce or remove with a needle - PMP *sulam

pierce, as wth a needle; extract by piercing - PMP *suŋkit

to thread a needle - PPH *tanúd

needlefish

needlefish sp. - POC *panapa

needlefish, young of Istiophorus spp. - PMP *saku₂

needy

poor, needy - PPH *lised

negation

shake the head in negation, shake the head from side-to-side - PWMP *iliŋ₃

negative

interjection of negative emotive force - PMP *qisaq

negative - PWMP *zaŋan₂

negative existential: there is none - PAN-F *uka₁

negative marker - POC *taqe₁

negative marker - PPh *baláw

negative marker - PMP *bak₂

negative marker - PMP *ati₁

negative marker: no, not - PMP *taq₃

negative marker: no, not - PAN-F *ini

negative marker: no, not - PWMP *aqa

negator

negator of nominals - PWMP *buken₁

negator of nominals; other, different - PWMP *beken

no, not; negator of verbs and adjectives (cf *buken, *dian, *wada) - PAN *qazi

neglect

ignore, neglect - *(noise)

neighbor

border on, neighbor; peer, equal - PWMP *sidiŋ

Neomyxus

fish sp.: mullet sp., Neomyxus chaptalii - PMP *qawas

neonate

neonate (lit. 'red child') - PMP *anak a ma-iRaq

Nephelium

hairy; kind of hairy fruit, rambutan: Nephelium lappaceum - PWMP *bulu-an

nephew

nephew, niece - PWMP *kam-anak-en

nerve

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon - PAN *huRaC

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root - PMP *uRat

weak nerves - *(noise)

nervosa

tree with bright yellow fruit that has dry flesh: Lucuma nervosa - PPH *tisaq

nervous

anxious, nervous - PPH *kabá

nervous spell - PWMP *badi

nest

nest - PMP *salaR

nest - *(loan)

nest, as of a bird - PPH *pugad

nest, lair - POC *ñikut

nest, lair - PAN-F *Rubu

nest, nesting place - PPH *pugad-an

nesting

nest, nesting place - PPH *pugad-an

net

casting net - PWMP *Rambat

casting net for fishing - PAN *tabukul

casting net; spread out, as a casting net - PWMP *Rambaŋ

dip net, scoop net - PMP *lawaq₁

drive pigs into a net - POC *bubuR₂

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

fine, of the mesh of a fish net - POC *mata riki

fish net - *(loan)

fish net float - POC *uton

fish net float - PEMP *utem

hunting net; net used in hunting - PPH *batéŋ

kind of fish net or trap - PWMP *tuaD

kind of fish net or trap - PWMP *siqud

kind of large fishing net - PWMP *salambaw

kind of long rectangular fishing net - POC *kupwena

mend a net - POC *qono₂

mend a net (intr.) - POC *one one

mend a net (tran.) - POC *one-a

mesh of a net - PWMP *mata nu puket

mosquito net - POC *tai ñamuk

mosquito net - POC *tau ñamuk

net bag used by men for carrying things on back - PAN-F *kaway₃

noose or net trap - POC *sariŋ

noose or net trap - PMP *zariŋ

noose, snare; net - PPH *siluq

protective covering or enclosure; mosquito net - PPH *kubuŋ₂

scoop up in a net; fetch water by scooping up - PMP *saruk

scoop up with a net; catch with snare - PPH *ma-ñiluʔ

scoop up, as with a fish net - PAN *kauS

spread out, as a net or clothes on the ground to dry - PPH *ladlad

to catch with a net, scoop up - PPH *siluʔ-en

to scoop up, as with a fish net - PAN *k<um>auS

to weave, as a net - POC *tia

tree with fiber used to make fish nets - POC *tail

netbag

netbag, sack, pocket - POC *taŋa₂

netlike

netlike appendages at the base of a coconut frond - PPH *qepis

nettle

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - POC *silatoŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - PMP *zilateŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - PMP *zalateŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - POC *la-latoŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - PMP *la-lateŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - POC *latoŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - PMP *lateŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - PAN *laCeŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - POC *salatoŋ

neutralize

tasteless; neutralize something efficacious, as an antidote for poison - PWMP *tawaR₁

never

spoiled, gone to waste; never realized, of potential for fertility - PPH *baqug

new

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

first of anything; first fruits; prime, new, untainted, virgin - PMP *buŋas

first of anything; first fruits; prime, new, untainted, virgin - PWMP *buŋaR

first of anything; new, untainted, virgin - PWMP *buŋaR-an

new - PWMP *ma-baqeRuh

new moon, eclipse (lit. 'dead moon') - PMP *bulan matay

new, fresh; recent(ly); youth, bachelor; beautiful, in one's prime - PMP *baqeRu

new, recent; young, fresh - PEMP *baqoRu

new; bachelor - PAN *baqeRuh

news - *(loan)

send out new growth, of vegetation - POC *tupul

to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight - PMP *deŋeR

to hear; what is heard, news; to perceive by any sense other than sight - POC *roŋoR

to prune a tree; new growth from pruning - PPH *saliŋsíŋ

newborn

cry of a newborn infant - PWMP *uhaq

next

beside, next to - *(noise)

lie or sleep next to - PMP *hulij

lie or sleep next to - PAN *Sulij

next to - PWMP *pidpid

next to, in close proximity - PPH *sípiŋ

next; to follow in succession - PPH *sunúd

one who lies next to another - PWMP *ka-hulij

seed rice, rice set aside for the next planting - PMP *binehiq

seed rice, rice set aside for the next planting - PAN *bineSiq

next to

close by, next to - *(loan)

TOP      ne    ni    no    nu    ny    

ni

nibble

gnaw, nibble - PAN *ŋetŋet

gnaw, nibble at - PMP *qitqit

nibble at - PPH *simsím

nibble at, gnaw at something hard - POC *bari

nibble off, gnaw off - PAN *qiCqiC

nibble or gnaw at - PPH *kibkíb

nibble, gnaw; moth - PMP *getget₁

to gnaw, nibble - POC *ŋoŋot-(i)

to gnaw, nibble - POC *ŋoŋot-i

to nibble at, peel with the teeth - PPH *kutím

to nibble, chew at - PWMP *gitgit

nibbling

move the lips rapidly, as in gnawing or nibbling on something - PPH *kútib

nickname

nickname for youngest child - PWMP *si huaji

niece

nephew, niece - PWMP *kam-anak-en

night

a wake for the dead, night vigil - PPH *lámay

be overcome by night, benighted - POC *boŋi-a

become night, turn into night - PPH *R<um>abiqi

evening, night - PAN *Rabi-an

every night, happening every night - PPH *R<in>abiqi

every night, happening every night - PAN *Rabi-Rabi

it is getting dark, night is coming on - POC *e boŋi

last night - PMP *ka-Rabiqi

night - PAN *beRŋi-n

night - POC *boŋi

night - PMP *beRŋi

night, dark - PMP *halem

night, darkness - PWMP *malem

night, darkness - POC *buŋi

nightly, every night - PMP *beRŋi beRŋi

place where one spends the night - PWMP *paR-beRŋi-an

stay awake all night, as in a vigil for the dead - PPH *pulaw

stay overnight, spend the night - PWMP *pa-beRŋi

taking place at night - PPH *Rabi-en

night-blindness

night-blindness, nyctalopia - PAN-F *pukaw

nightly

nightly, every night - PMP *beRŋi beRŋi

nightmare

nightmare, fever - *(near)

nigrum

a plant: Solanum nigrum - PMP *SameCi

nimble

nimble, agile, quick - POC *sokas

nine

nine - PPH *siám

nine - PMP *siwa

nine - PAN *Siwa

nine (of things?) - PAN *u-Siwa

nine times - POC *paka-siwa

ninth

ninth - PPH *ika-siám

ninth - PMP *ika-siwa

ninth - PAN *Sika-Siwa

nip

pinch, nip, pluck - PMP *kinit

Nipa

a swamp palm: Nipa fruticans - PMP *nipaq

nipa shingles for roofing

nipa shingles for roofing - *(loan)

nipple

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

nipple of the breast - PMP *mata nu susu

nipple of the breast - PWMP *qulu ni susu

nit

nit, egg of a hair louse - PMP *lisehaq, liseqah

nit, egg of a hair louse - PAN *liseqeS

nit, egg of a louse - POC *lisa

nit, egg of a louse - PMP *leseq

nit, louse egg - PWMP *liqes

TOP      ne    ni    no    nu    ny    

no

no

negative marker: no, not - PMP *taq₃

negative marker: no, not - PAN-F *ini

negative marker: no, not - PWMP *aqa

no, not - PAN *adi

no, not - POC *qasi₂

no, not - PWMP *inda₃

no, not - PWMP *hediq

no, not - PWMP *eŋgaʔ

no, not - PMP *dian

no, not - *(noise)

no, not (probably negator of verbs and adjectives) - PWMP *hadiq

no, not; negator of verbs and adjectives (cf *buken, *dian, *wada) - PAN *qazi

no, not; vetative marker: don't! - PMP *beliq₂

with no difference, equally to both - PMP *sama-sama

nobility

nobility, member of the chiefly class - PMP *aren

nod

bow the head, nod - PWMP *tuek

nod - *-tuk₃ (root)

nod the head in drowsiness - PWMP *qantuk

nod the head in drowsiness - PWMP *kantuk

to nod the head, as in agreement - PPH *taŋuq

node

elbow, knee; joint, node - POC *pwatu

joint, node - POC *patu₁

joints, nodes - PMP *buku buku

knotty, full of knots or nodes - PPh *ma-buku

node (as in bamboo or sugarcane); joint; knuckle; knot in wood; knot in string or rope - PMP *buku

node (as in bamboo or sugarcane); joint; knuckle; knot in wood; knot in string or rope; Mons veneris - POC *buku

node (as in bamboo or sugarcane); joint; knuckle; knot in wood; knot in string or rope; Mons veneris - PCEMP *buku

node, joint; knuckle; swelling under the skin - POC *buku-buku

one joint or node (as of bamboo or sugarcane) - PWMP *sa-ŋa-buku

noise

banging noise - *-beŋ₁ (root)

become distracted or confused, as by noise - PPH *liŋáw

chirping of birds; noise, sound - PAN *Suni

confused, disoriented by loud noise - PWMP *begaw

hear; noise - *-ŋeR (root)

loud, unpleasant noise - PWMP *qiŋeR

loud, unpleasant noise - PMP *iŋaR₁

make a sound or noise - PWMP *pa-huni

noise of flatulence - PWMP *ka-qetut

noise, clamor - PMP *kuruq

noise, clamor - PAN *quriaw

noise, sound - PMP *buñi

noise, tumult - POC *guru

noise, tumult - PMP *guruq

noise, tumult - PMP *guru

stunned by great noise - PWMP *biRaw

sucking noise made as a signal to another person - PMP *misik

noisily

suck noisily - PWMP *cutcut

nominal

negator of nominals - PWMP *buken₁

negator of nominals; other, different - PWMP *beken

nominal prefix marking instruments, or products of an action - PWMP *paŋ-

verbal suffix marking locative focus; nominal suffix marking location - PAN *-an

nominative

1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we (exclusive) - PAN *k-ami

1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we (exclusive) - PAN *ami

1pl. excl. nominative, we - PAN *i-ami

1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun - POC *-da₁

1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun - PAN *ta-₁

1sg nominative; I - PAN *aku

2pl. nominative and genitive; you all, your - PMP *kamu-yu

2pl. nominative pronoun - PAN *amu

2pl. nominative, you all - PAN *kamu-yu

2pl. nominative, you all - PMP *kamu₂

2pl. nominative, you all - PAN *k-amu

nominative case marker for common nouns - PAN *su

nominative case marker for plural personal names - PAN *sa₁

nominative case marker for singular personal names or kin terms used as personal names - PAN *si₁

non-actor

genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb - PAN *ni

none

negative existential: there is none - PAN-F *uka₁

nonetheless

conjunction: despite, nonetheless - PMP *baka

non-native

non-native canoe - POC *pakaq

non-purulent

wart; cyst; non-purulent skin eruption - POC *putiR

wart; cyst; non-purulent skin eruption - PCEMP *butiR

wart; cyst; non-purulent skin eruption - PMP *buteliR

non-staple

non-staple food eaten with rice - PPH *siraq₂

non-subject

2sg possessor and non-subject agent - PWMP *-nu

noon

zenith; noon, mid-day - PPh *uRtuh

noose

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

noose or net trap - POC *sariŋ

noose or net trap - PMP *zariŋ

noose, snare; net - PPH *siluq

snare, noose trap; spring up suddenly, jerk up (as a fishing line or noose trap) - POC *pintik

snare, noose trap; spring up suddenly, jerk up (as a fishing line or noose trap) - PMP *bitik₁

North

North - *(loan)

north

north wind - PMP *qamihan

north wind - PAN *qamiS

north; rainy season - PPh *qamihan-an

north; winter - PAN *qamiS-an

wind that blows from the north - POC *tokalaur

northeast

wind from the northeast (?) - PCEMP *raki

nose

a cold; nasal mucus, runny nose - PPH *sip(e)qun

bamboo nose flute - PWMP *turali

bamboo nose flute - PMP *tulali

bamboo nose flute - PAN *tulani

blow the nose - POC *paŋusi

blow the nose - *(noise)

blow the nose by pinching off one nostril - PMP *eseŋ

bridge of the nose - PWMP *bataŋ qijuŋ

cover nose and mouth with hand - PWMP *penpen₂

nasal mucus; blow the nose - PWMP *seŋa₁

nose - PMP *ŋijuŋ

nose - PAN *ujuŋ

nose - PMP *ijuŋ

nose - PWMP *e(ŋ)juŋ

nose - *(noise)

pointed or prominent, of the nose - PPH *táŋus

snout, nose - *(noise)

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

nosebleed

nosebleed - PAN-F *ŋuSuN

nostril

blow the nose by pinching off one nostril - PMP *eseŋ

snort, sniff; blow air through the nostrils - PWMP *eŋkus

not

be, exist, have; not be, not have - PWMP *wada-i

be, exist, have; not exist, not have - PWMP *wada-q

be, exist, have; wealthy; not exist, not have - PMP *wada

dim, not well-lit - PPH *kulap

hesitate, not able to act - PPH *taka

high-pitched sound of striking against something hard but not resonant - PMP *katik

negative marker: no, not - PMP *taq₃

negative marker: no, not - PAN-F *ini

negative marker: no, not - PWMP *aqa

no, not - PAN *adi

no, not - POC *qasi₂

no, not - PWMP *inda₃

no, not - PWMP *hediq

no, not - PWMP *eŋgaʔ

no, not - PMP *dian

no, not - *(noise)

no, not (probably negator of verbs and adjectives) - PWMP *hadiq

no, not; negator of verbs and adjectives (cf *buken, *dian, *wada) - PAN *qazi

no, not; vetative marker: don't! - PMP *beliq₂

save, not use - *(noise)

to keep someone awake, not let them sleep - PPH *puyat-en

unnoticed, not perceived - *(noise)

notch

fit snugly, as bowstring in arrow notch - PMP *siŋ(e)qit

notch cut in a tree - PAN *qabaS

notch, as in a tree that has been cut prior to felling - PWMP *baŋbaŋ₇

notch, as in a tree trunk; notch-shaped area under the glans penis - PWMP *etak

notch, groove - PMP *geret₁

notch; notched - PMP *epaŋ

notched

notch; notched - PMP *epaŋ

notched log ladder - PEMP *aRezan

notched log ladder - PMP *haRezan

notched log ladder - PMP *ezan

notch-shaped

notch, as in a tree trunk; notch-shaped area under the glans penis - PWMP *etak

note

to note, remember; care, attention, caution - PMP *iŋat

to notice, take note of; recognize - PWMP *ma-ŋilala

nothing

nothing - PWMP *NEG + apa apa

notice

notice, observe - PPh *himatún

to notice, take note of; recognize - PWMP *ma-ŋilala

noun

3sg. possessor of inalienable possessed nouns - POC *-ña

common noun article - PMP *na₁

derivational circumfix, probably used to form deverbal nouns of location - PWMP *paR- ... -an

derivational prefix, used to form deverbal nouns - PWMP *paR-

formative for abstract nouns (often deverbal) - PAN *ka- -an₃

formative for abstract nouns of quality - PAN *ka-₅

formative for nouns of location - PAN *ka- -an₂

genitive case marker for common nouns (cf. *na, *ni) - PAN *nu₃

locative case marker for common nouns (cf. *da, *di) - PWMP *du

nominative case marker for common nouns - PAN *su

oblique case marker for personal nouns - PAN *ki₂

oblique case marker for singular personal nouns - PMP *ki₂ₐ

oblique of common nouns (cf. *ki, *ka) - PAN *ku

prefixed to a noun means ‘to get, obtain, collect, gather’ (noun) - PAN *ki-

nourish

food; to feed, nourish - PMP *p<in>aŋan

now

now (?) - PWMP *ka-i-ni

proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here; now - PAN *-ni

still, yet, til now, first (before doing something else) - PAN *pa₁

TOP      ne    ni    no    nu    ny    

nu

nude

naked, nude, undressed - PWMP *lebas

nude - *(noise)

nudge

nudge, bump against another person - PWMP *da(m)pil

touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger - PPH *kal(e)bit-en

touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger - PPH *kal(e)bit

nudged

to be elbowed, nudged or poked with an elbow - PWMP *siku-en

was elbowed, was nudged with an elbow - PWMP *s<in>iku

nudity

nudity, exposure of the body - PWMP *pukas₁

numb

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

numb - PPh *bened

numb; 'fall asleep', of a limb - PPh *banhéd

number

number; total - PWMP *bilaŋ-an

overwhem in numbers? - PMP *penuq sakay

prefix for ordinal numbers - PAN *Sika-

tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn - PEMP *ipun₁

tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn - PMP *hipun₁

which number is it? - PPH *ika-pija

number between 20 and 30

number between 20 and 30 - *(loan)

numeral

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

numeral prefix - PCEMP *i₄

numeral prefix - POC *e

numeral prefix, divide into x (x = numeral) - PMP *pa-₁

numeral suffix - *(noise)

prefix for ordinal numerals - POC *ka-

prefix for ordinal numerals - PMP *ika-

stone; testicle; kind of banana; numeral classifier for teeth (?) - PMP *batu

numeral classifier

piece, numeral classifier - *(loan)

numeral classifier for flat objects

numeral classifier for flat objects - *(loan)

nurse

give the breast to, nurse a child - PAN *pa-susu

to nurse, give a child the breast (to be sucked) - PAN *pa-susu-en

wet nurse (?) - PWMP *susu-an

nut

a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa - POC *talise₁

a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa - PMP *talisay

areca nut and palm; heart - POC *buaq

areca nut cutter - *(loan)

betel nut case - PWMP *salapa

betel nut case - PWMP *calapaʔ

betel nut: nut of Areca catechu - PAN-F *Sawiki

chew without intending to swallow, as betel nut; premasticate food to give to an infant; premasticated food - PMP *mamaq

chewed mass of food or betel nut in the mouth - PWMP *sepaq

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

immature stage of coconut or areca nut (?) - POC *piras

inferior type of betel nut - PMP *burun

leaf of a vine chewed with betel nut, betel pepper: Piper betle - PWMP *buyuq

nut variety - *(noise)

plant fiber; coconut husk, fibers of areca nuts, fibers covering mango seeds, etc. - PWMP *sabut

putty nut: Parinari laurinum - POC *katita

split, divide, break off; section of a betel nut - PMP *tebiq

the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum - POC *qatita

the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum - POC *qarita

tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune - POC *kaŋaRi

tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune - PMP *kanari

wild palm tree with fruit similar to areca nut: Heterospathe elata - PPH *sagisí

nutmeg

nutmeg - *(loan)

TOP      ne    ni    no    nu    ny    

ny

nyctalopia

night-blindness, nyctalopia - PAN-F *pukaw

nymph

nymph - *(loan)

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 7/14/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_n.htm