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Updated: 9/16/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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O

ob    oc    od    of    og    oh    oi    o.    ol    om    on    oo    op    or    os    ot    ou    ov    ow    ox    oy    

oar

leaf; blade of paddle or oar; ‘table’ for eating - PMP *dahun

oath

oath, pledge; curse - PWMP *sapaq₂

oath, pledge; curse - PWMP *sumpaq

oath; curse - PWMP *kutuk₁

TOP      ob    oc    od    of    og    oh    oi    o.    ol    om    on    oo    op    or    os    ot    ou    ov    ow    ox    oy    

ob

obesity

corpulence, obesity - PWMP *ka-tabeq-an

obey

follow, obey, agree with - PPH *surut

to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight - PMP *deŋeR

to obey - PPH *s<um>unúd

to obey, follow orders - PWMP *ma-nuruʔ

object

3sg. object - PMP *-a₂

container for solid objects; package - POC *busa₃

disposal of objects, banishment of people - PWMP *paŋ-buaŋ-an

foreign object in the eye - PWMP *puliŋ₂

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

lay long objects side by side; raft - PMP *Rakit

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PCEMP *daun

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PEMP *raun

long, of objects - PWMP *a(n)duq

object of respect; distinguished or respected person - PWMP *empu-an

prefix marking possession of some object - PAN *mi-

prick or poke with a pointed object - PWMP *tulesuk

pull or drag a heavy object along, as on a sled - PWMP *guyud₃

sharp-pointed object, possibly sea urchin - PEMP *sala

sheet; flat, wide object - PPh *qelad₁

space within a concave object - *(noise)

specklike object - PWMP *pa(n)dek

strike two hard objects together to produce a spark - PPH *piŋkíq

ten, in counting certain objects - *(noise)

thick, of objects; dense, of crowds - PMP *tebel₂

thick, of solid objects - PAN *kaS(e)pal

thick, of solid objects - PWMP *ma-kapal

thin, of material objects - PWMP *ma-hiŋepis

things that have been made, created objects - PWMP *paR-buhat-en

throw at, hit, strike with a sharp object; kill; extinguish (a fire) - PMP *bunuq₂

tie together, of floating objects - PWMP *lantiŋ

to hit, strike, or hard objects colliding - PPh *beRták

vessel for fetching water from a well, objects from a pit, etc - PMP *timba

what is honored, object of honor or respect - PWMP *paŋ-empu-an

obligation

obligation, duty, commitment - *(loan)

to forfeit, lose by failure to meet an obligation - PWMP *leleb

oblique

1pl ex oblique - PAN *amen

1pl ex oblique - PWMP *ameq

1pl in oblique - PAN *iten₂

1pl in oblique - PWMP *ateq

1pl in oblique - PMP *aten₂

1sg oblique - PAN *aken

1sg oblique: to me, for me - PAN *k-aku

approach or strike from the side or at an oblique angle - PPH *sarijsij

oblique case marker for personal nouns - PAN *ki₂

oblique case marker for plural personal names - PAN *ka₃

oblique case marker for singular personal nouns - PMP *ki₂ₐ

oblique of common nouns (cf. *ki, *ka) - PAN *ku

obovata

a tree: Planchonella obovata - PPH *banisah

obovatifolia

a tree: Ganua obovatifolia.(Merr.), Sapotaceae - PPH *piaŋa

obscure

dark, obscure - PWMP *medem

dark, obscure - PPH *kanap₂

dark, obscure, cloudy - PPH *dik(e)lém

dark, obscure, cloudy - PPH *ma-diklém

dark, obscure; black - PMP *tidem

dark, overcast, visually obscure - PAN *kelem

dark; obscure - *-lem₁ (root)

dim, dark, obscure - PMP *qilem

dim, dark, obscure - PWMP *ma-qilem

obscure, dusky - PWMP *sidem

observe

notice, observe - PPh *himatún

observe closely or critically - PPH *mata-en

obsidian

obsidian spear point (?) - POC *koto

obsolete

past one’s prime, outdated, obsolete - PPH *laqús

obstacle

ambush, block the way; obstacle, hindrance - PMP *abaŋ₁

ambush, block the way; obstacle, hindrance - PMP *qambat

barrier, obstacle - PWMP *sabeD

hindrance, obstacle - PWMP *aped

hindrance, obstacle - PWMP *habed

obstacle; block, obstruct the flow - PWMP *tubeŋ

obstinate

unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn - PMP *tegel

unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn - PMP *teger

obstruct

block, hinder, obstruct - PWMP *ayum

block, obstruct - PWMP *benben₁

block, obstruct - PWMP *ta(m)beŋ

block, obstruct - POC *opoŋ

block, obstruct, dam a stream - PMP *empeŋ

block, obstruct; something which separates one area from another - PWMP *ataŋ₁

impede, obstruct, restrain - PMP *qempeŋ

obstacle; block, obstruct the flow - PWMP *tubeŋ

obstruct, block the way - PWMP *hambeŋ

obstruct, block the way - PWMP *qambeŋ

obstruct, lie across or athwart - PWMP *qalaŋ

obstruct, stretch across - *(noise)

plug, obstruct - PMP *umpaŋ

to pile up earth or rocks, heap up so as to obstruct - PWMP *t<um>ambak

obstructed

obstructed, of the flow of water - PMP *sepet₁

obstruction

dam, obstruction of flow - PWMP *tambeŋ

heaped up, as an obstruction - PWMP *ma-tambak

obstruction, barrier - PAN *qeCeŋ

obstruction, barrier - PMP *qeteŋ

open space, empty of obstruction - PWMP *tawaŋ

obtain

able to obtain - PWMP *maka-uliq₁

get, obtain - PWMP *uliq₂

prefixed to a noun means ‘to get, obtain, collect, gather’ (noun) - PAN *ki-

take, get, fetch, obtain; marry - PAN *ala

obtained

a tree, probably Dipterocarpus spp.; resinous substance obtained from this tree - PWMP *balaw₂

plant from which a dyestuff is obtained - PWMP *gamat

vine from which poison is obtained - PWMP *ziteq

obtusa

the Japanese cypress: Chamaecyparis obtusa - PAN-F *baŋun₁

TOP      ob    oc    od    of    og    oh    oi    o.    ol    om    on    oo    op    or    os    ot    ou    ov    ow    ox    oy    

oc

ocean

sea, ocean - PAN-F *tenem

Ochrosia

a tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia - PMP *pauq

a tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia - POC *paoq (ʔ)

Ocimum

a strongly-scented plant: Ocimum sanctum L. - PWMP *kamaŋi

Octomeles

a tree with very light wood: Octomeles sp. - PWMP *binuaŋ

a tree: Octomeles sp. - PWMP *benuaŋ

a tree: Octomeles spp. - PWMP *banuaŋ

a tree: probably Octomeles spp. - POC *iRimo

octopus

gall, gall bladder, octopus sepia - POC *qasu₂

octopus - PAN *guRiCa

octopus - PMP *kuRita

tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc. - PMP *kaway₂

tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc. - PMP *gaway

tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.; rays of the sun - POC *kawe₂

tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.; rays of the sun - POC *kawe₁

ocular

ocular cataract - PWMP *putik₁

TOP      ob    oc    od    of    og    oh    oi    o.    ol    om    on    oo    op    or    os    ot    ou    ov    ow    ox    oy    

od

odor

a tall forest tree which emits an unpleasant odor: Sterculia foetida - PMP *bubuR₃

acrid, pungent, of odor - PMP *seŋet₁

acrid, pungent, of odor - PMP *seŋ(e)hij

acrid, pungent, of odor - PMP *seŋ(e)hit

aromatic odor - PWMP *aŋi

fragrance, pleasant odor - PPH *baŋ(e)lu

fragrance, pleasant odor or smell - PMP *beŋi

give off an odor (?) - PWMP *bahu-an

odor - *(noise)

odor of burnt food - PMP *haŋus₂

odor, stench - PMP *bahu

odor; stench - PMP *bahuq

pungent odor, strong disagreeable smell - PWMP *saŋ(e)hid

smell, odor - PWMP *haŋut

smell, odor - POC *boi₂

smell, odor - POC *bou

smell, odor, scent - POC *bona

stench, bad odor - PPh *buŋtút

stench, musky odor of an animal - PAN *qaŋeSit

stench, odor, as of fish - PWMP *laŋ(e)qes

stench, strong unpleasant odor - PMP *imbu

unpleasant odor - PAN *laŋ(e)si

odorata

a tree with fragrant flowers: Cananga odorata - PMP *kanaŋa

large mango: Mangifera odorata - PWMP *qambawaŋ

tree sp., Cananga odorata - *(loan)

odoratissimus

a pandanus, Pandanus odoratissimus; a mat made from the leaves of this plant - POC *kiRe

a tree and its fruit: Artocarpus odoratissimus - PPH *mádaŋ

odor of urine

odor of urine - *(loan)

TOP      ob    oc    od    of    og    oh    oi    o.    ol    om    on    oo    op    or    os    ot    ou    ov    ow    ox    oy    

of

off

bark of a tree; peel off bark - PWMP *pakpak₂

bark, rind, sheath; to peel off bark - PWMP *upak₁

be carried off, as loot or a captive in war; what is carried off - PWMP *t<in>aban

be pinched off - PPH *ketel-én

be rasped or cut off (?) - PWMP *sapsap-en

be washed off - PWMP *huRas-en

bite off the surface of something - PAN *ŋabŋab

bite, bitten off, of food - PPH *suŋit₂

blow the nose by pinching off one nostril - PMP *eseŋ

blown off course - PWMP *babas

break off - PMP *pu(ŋ)kaq

break off - PWMP *upik

break off - PMP *pukaq

break off a component piece of something, as twigs or branches from a tree, a banana from a bunch, a section from a fruit, etc. - PPH *sipíq

break off fruit or branches - PAN *sepiq

break off with the hand - POC *baki₁

break off, chip off - *(noise)

break off, snap off - POC *pati₁

break or split off - PMP *ibak

break, crack off - PMP *lepak₁

break, cut off, sever - POC *kutu₂

break, snap off at a joint - PWMP *sepak

break, split off - PWMP *lu(m)pak

broken off, cut off - PEMP *mutu₂

brush or shake off dust or dirt - PPH *pagpág

chip off, cut off bit by bit - PWMP *sapsap₁

chop, hack off - PWMP *pated

chop, hack, cut off - PMP *etes₁

chop, hack, cut off - PMP *qetes

close, shut off - PMP *si(m)pet

cockscomb; cut off a cock’s comb - PPH *páluŋ

cooled off, as cooked food that has been left to sit too long - PAN *ma-baSaw

cut chips or bits from something, scrape off - PPH *dapdáp

cut off - PMP *hiras

cut off - POC *koRot

cut off - *(noise)

cut off with a knife - POC *tapa

cut off, prune - PWMP *eteb

cut off, sever; ring a tree - PWMP *geleŋ

cut or lop off branches - POC *paRi₃

cut or tear off - PWMP *ri(n)tas

cut up, cut off - *(noise)

deflected off course - PWMP *bias

drive away, chase off - PWMP *ka-buRaw

drive off, chase away, expel - PAN *buRaw

drive off, chase away, expel - PPh *buRaw-en

drive off, chase away, expel - PWMP *maŋ-buRaw

drive off, chase away, expel - PPh *maR-buRaw

driven away, chased off - PAN *ma-buRaw

drop off to sleep, fall asleep when one should stay awake - PWMP *ka-tuduR-en

far, far away, far off, distant - PPH *ma-adayuq

fly off, of solid bits or water droplets - PAN *lecik

fragment, piece broken off - *(noise)

frighten off birds or animals from the fields; place used to frighten off birds or animals from the fields - PWMP *buRaw-an

front teeth, incisors; gnaw, to bite or tear off with the incisors - PMP *gutgut

give off an odor (?) - PWMP *bahu-an

give off smoke continuously, pour out smoke - PMP *qasu qasu

glide off, slide off - *(noise)

gnaw meat off bones - PWMP *kilkil

hernia; to slip down, slip off, pull back the foreskin of the penis - PMP *luslus

interjection used to chase off animal - PMP *isu₂

lift off a cover, be lifted off - PMP *tikas

lop off, cut off - PWMP *ta(m)pas

marry off, cause to get married - PMP *pa-qasawa

nibble off, gnaw off - PAN *qiCqiC

paid off, of a debt - PMP *qimpas

part split off - PWMP *bilaq

peel off bark - POC *babak₂

peel off, of skin; remove the bark of a tree - PMP *bakbak₁

peel off, remove bark - PWMP *bakbak-an

peel off, separate - *(noise)

pick, pluck, break off - PMP *ketuq

piece broken off, husk - PWMP *upek

pinch off - PAN *ketil

pinch, squeeze, press between two surfaces; pluck, pick off - PAN *pitpit₂

pluck (as fruit), strip off (as leaves) - POC *puput

plugged, stopped, closed off - *-pet (root)

prune, cut off the tip - PWMP *puŋgal

prune, cut off the tip - PWMP *puŋgel

prune, cut off the tip - PMP *puŋgul

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled in shallow water - PWMP *maR-tulak

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water - PMP *tulak

put off, delay, postpone, break one’s promise - PPH *liwag

rinse wash off - *(noise)

rinse, rinse off - PPh *balñaw

rub something off - PPH *gidgíd

scrape off - PAN *kiSkiS

scrape off - PAN *kutkut₂

scrape or rub off - PPh *hírud

scrape something off a surface so as to uncover it - PPH *kuykúy₂

send off with a message - PWMP *tuRun₂

shake off, flick off - PPh *waksí

shaved off, made smooth - PWMP *paras₁

show off - PWMP *asi₂

shut off - POC *boboŋ₁

slip down or off - PWMP *rusrus₂

slip off - PAN *pelus

slip off - POC *lulus

slip off - *-lus (root)

slip off - *(noise)

slip off, slip away - PWMP *burus₁

slip or slide off - PAN *perus

slip or slide off - *-rus₂ (root)

snap off, snapping or clicking sound - PMP *li(n)tik

snap, break off (twigs, etc.) - PMP *lepik

split apart; piece split off - PWMP *buŋkaq

split off, separate - *-bak₃ (root)

split or slice off - PWMP *siqat

split, break off - PMP *baqak₁

split, break off - PWMP *hepak

split, break off - PMP *tempak

split, divide, break off - PAN *Cebiq

split, divide, break off - POC *topiq

split, divide, break off; section of a betel nut - PMP *tebiq

split, peel off - PWMP *hupak

sunrise, rising sun; to show off, be ostentatious, parade one’s talents, possessions, etc. - PPH *sikát

take off, remove (+ noun) - PAN *Su-

tear off, break off - PWMP *gisgis₂

tear or rip off - *-pas (root)

to break off, cut off - PMP *putul

to break off, cut off, as a limb - PAN *putun₂

to break, chip off - PMP *papak

to break, chip off - POC *babak

to brush or shake off dust or dirt - PPH *i-pagpág

to carry off, kidnap, loot a place - PWMP *ma-naban

to carry off, kidnap, loot a place - PWMP *maR-taban

to chase away or shoo off small animals - PMP *sika

to chew off - PWMP *ŋatŋat

to chew, chew off - POC *ŋau₁

to chirp, to crow, to sound off (birds) - PAN *S<um>uni

to chirp, to crow, to sound off (birds) - PMP *h<um>uni

to chop, hack, cut off - PAN *t<um>əktək

to cut across, cut off - PWMP *pi(n)tas

to cut off a piece - PCMP *lolan

to cut off small pieces; to chip off bit by bit - PWMP *ma-ñapsap

to cut off, prune; cut down - PWMP *tebteb

to cut, cut off - POC *koti

to distance oneself, move far off - PPH *d<um>ayuq

to drive away, shoo off - PPH *tabuR₂

to flay, peel back or off, as bark or skin - PCEMP *sisi₃

to hack, chop off, trim with a bolo; pound, beat, knock on - PWMP *tabtab₁

to let food or hot water cool off - PPH *pa-bahaw-en

to open, peel off - PWMP *ruŋkáb

to peel off - PWMP *lekup

to peel off skin, bark or leaves; excoriated, decorticated, defoliated - PWMP *laklak

to peel, skin off - PMP *kelas

to peel, strip off - PCEMP *isi₂

to pinch off - PPH *ketél

to pluck, as fruit; strip off leaves - PWMP *pulpul₁

to scrape off - PWMP *kiskis-an

to scrape off - PWMP *kiskis-en

to scrape off, peel off - POC *karasi

to scratch, scrape off - PPH *kudkud-én

to seize property and run off with it; to elope - PPH *taŋaR

to sever, cut off - PWMP *keret

to shake off water droplets - PWMP *piRpiR₂

to shave, scrape off - PAN *kiskis

to show off - PPH *pa-sikat

to singe, burn off - PWMP *sadab

to skin peel off - *-NiC (root)

to snap, break off - PWMP *putus₂

to snap, break off - PWMP *putut₁

to snap, break off - PPH *lipuk

to snap, break off, as a twig - PMP *getes

to snap, break off, as a twig - POC *kotos

to sound off, cry out - PPH *tekuk

to spring back, bounce off - PWMP *latiŋ

to sprinkle, shake off water - PWMP *pispis₃

to wipe away, wipe off - PPH *nisnis-an

to wipe off or brush off; broom - PMP *sapu

to wipe, wipe off - PWMP *ma-maʔid

trim, cut off excess - PWMP *Ri(ŋ)kas

trim, cut the tips off - PWMP *tiptip

wall of a house; partition off - PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

wall; wall in, screen off - PCMP *dindiŋ₁

wash, rinse off - PWMP *mem-bañaw

wipe off - PPh *paRhid

wipe off - PWMP *pahid

wipe off, wipe out - PMP *punas

wiping off - PWMP *paqid

off-balance

lopsided, off-balance - PAN *biqiR

offended

(lit. 'sick/hurt liver') resentful, offended - PMP *X₄ + qatay

offense

error, mistake; fault, offense - PWMP *ka-salaq-an

offensive

offensive to decency, immodest - PPH *law(e)qay

offer

a toast (in drinking); to offer a toast - PPH *tágay

offer - *(noise)

proffer, offer - PWMP *e(n)zuk

offering

food offering - POC *qaso

make offering to spirits (?) - PMP *maŋ-qanitu

official

religious official - *(loan)

officinarum

sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum - PAN *CebuS

sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum - PAN *tebuS

sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum - PMP *tebuh₂

sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum - PMP *tebuh₁

offshoot

offshoot shoot of a plant - *(loan)

offspring

child, offspring - PEMP *natu

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

child, offspring; son, daughter; interest on a loan - PAN *aNak

offspring, child - *(noise)

of sleep

interrupted of sleep - *(near)

of time

pass slowly, of time - *(loan)

TOP      ob    oc    od    of    og    oh    oi    o.    ol    om    on    oo    op    or    os    ot    ou    ov    ow    ox    oy    

og

ogre

ogre - *(loan)

TOP      ob    oc    od    of    og    oh    oi    o.    ol    om    on    oo    op    or    os    ot    ou    ov    ow    ox    oy    

oh

oh

exclamation: ah!, oh!, alas! - PWMP *abá

TOP      ob    oc    od    of    og    oh    oi    o.    ol    om    on    oo    op    or    os    ot    ou    ov    ow    ox    oy    

oi

oil

apply oil or paint to the body - POC *pani₂

fat, oil; oily, tasty - PCMP *bura

grease, oil, fat - PAN *SimaR

grease, oil, fat - PMP *himaR

oil - *(noise)

oil, grease - POC *lumu₁

solid residue left after squeezing to remove coconut oil, etc. - PPH *lunek₂

the castor oil plant: Ricinis communis - PWMP *taŋan-taŋan

to stir-fry, cook in a frying pan without oil - PMP *saŋelaR

vegetable oil - PMP *laña

what is stir-fried or roasted in a pan without oil - PWMP *saŋelaR-en

oily

fat, oil; oily, tasty - PCMP *bura

oily, as the hair or skin - PWMP *lumek

oily, as the hair or skin - PMP *lumuk

ointment

fat, grease; ointment - PMP *meñak

fat, grease; ointment - PMP *miñak

salve, ointment - *(loan)

TOP      ob    oc    od    of    og    oh    oi    o.    ol    om    on    oo    op    or    os    ot    ou    ov    ow    ox    oy    

ok

O.K.!

go ahead!, O.K.! - *(loan)

TOP      ob    oc    od    of    og    oh    oi    o.    ol    om    on    oo    op    or    os    ot    ou    ov    ow    ox    oy    

ol

old

adulthood, maturity; old age - PWMP *ka-tuqah-an

be stretched out, of time; old (of past crops that are still not consumed) - PWMP *laun

old - PPH *baqak₂

old (of things), ancient times - POC *tuaRi

old woman; female, of animals - PPH *bakes₂

old, ancient - PAN *daqaN

old, ancient; formerly - PPH *daqan₂

old, elder, senior - PAN *ma-tuqaS tuqaS

old, former - PAN *lama₂

old, kept for a long time (as rice) - PWMP *ma-laun

old, of people - PAN *Rudaŋ

old, of people - PWMP *laki₂

old, of people - PAN *ma-tuqaS

old, of people; mature, as fruit - PMP *tuqah

old, of people; primary forest, old forest - PAN *tuqaS

old, of people; very, extremely; to die, dead (euphemism) - PMP *ma-tuqah

old, of things - PWMP *dana

old, of things; ancient times - PAN *dadaN

old, of things; ancient times - PMP *dadan

old, older person, elder; old stand forest - POC *matuqa

old, worn out - PPH *lúmaq

older

old, older person, elder; old stand forest - POC *matuqa

older people, elders - PAN *tuqaS tuqaS

older people, elders - PMP *tuqah tuqah

oleifera

the horseradish tree: Moringa oleifera - PPH *maruŋgay

oleraceus

a plant: Lactuca indica Linn., and Sonchus oleraceus Linn. - PAN-F *Samaq

TOP      ob    oc    od    of    og    oh    oi    o.    ol    om    on    oo    op    or    os    ot    ou    ov    ow    ox    oy    

om

omen

omen bird: Alcippe spp. - PAN-F *SiSiN

omen dove - PWMP *buken₂

omen dove - PMP *muken

owl sp., bird of bad omen - PWMP *bukaw

omission

absence, omission - PPH *laŋan

omit

step, stride; to omit or skip over - PMP *laŋkaq₁

TOP      ob    oc    od    of    og    oh    oi    o.    ol    om    on    oo    op    or    os    ot    ou    ov    ow    ox    oy    

on

on

at, on, in, to - POC *pa₂

on, onto, in, into - POC *o₁

preposition: at, on, in, to - PMP *ba₃

once

once - PPh *maka-esa

straightaway, immediately; get done at once; continue on, lasting - PMP *tulus

to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something - PAN *taktak₁

to gulp, swallow all at once - PMP *teguk

Oncosperma

a palm, probably Oncosperma sp. - PMP *qanibuŋ

one

able to satiate, able to satisfy one's appetite - PWMP *maka-besuR

balanced, as a person in walking, or two weights opposite one another - PWMP *timbaŋ

be bought from or for someone; what one has bought - PWMP *beli-an

be killed; one that is killed - PWMP *bunuq-en

blind in one eye - PPh *buldíŋ

blind in one eye - PWMP *picek

block, obstruct; something which separates one area from another - PWMP *ataŋ₁

blow the nose by pinching off one nostril - PMP *eseŋ

captive, one taken alive in war; to spare, allow to live - PWMP *bihaR

carry in front of one; hold in the lap - PWMP *paŋku

catch one's breath - PWMP *ciŋap

companion, close relative, other one - PAN *ibaS

companion, close relative, other one - PMP *ibah

companion, close relative, other one - PMP *ibah-an

companion, close relative, other one - PWMP *ka-ibah-an

consider as one's child - PWMP *maka-anak

distributive; one-by-one, one at a time - PAN *isa isa

do one's utmost - *(loan)

do to one’s utmost, do completely, to the finish - PPH *lubus

dress up, be decked out in one’s finest clothing - PWMP *kena₂

drive game before one - PPH *tabug

drop off to sleep, fall asleep when one should stay awake - PWMP *ka-tuduR-en

finished, used up; all, every one - PWMP *qabiq

finished, used up; all, every one - PWMP *qabis

flat (of things that are expected to rounded), flat on one side - PWMP *sapaD

follow; drive animals before one - PWMP *maŋ-iriŋ

friend, partner; one of a pair; trading partner? - POC *soRa

go or do something slowly, take one’s time - PPH *ananay₂

gulp down food, gorge on one food to the exclusion of others - PWMP *lunlun₂

hang one's head - PMP *su(ŋ)kuk

harden one's feelings, become inured - PWMP *kalis

hop on one leg - PWMP *kiŋkiŋ₂

hop on one leg, limp - POC *tige

impose one’s will, force or compel someone to do something - PWMP *teRel

in layers, adjacent to one another - PMP *taq(e)pil

in one’s maidenhood - PWMP *d<um>aRa

in succession, one after the other - PWMP *suqud suqud

incline one's head to the side - PAN *qipiŋ

killer, one who kills - PMP *pa-bunuq

lie in stacks, one on top of the other - PWMP *apid₂

lie on one's side - PWMP *tumbiriŋ

line up one behind the other - PWMP *maR-aRak

location, place where one stays - PWMP *paR-ian-an

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu-ŋ

mother animal; leader; large one of a class - PWMP *indu-q

new, fresh; recent(ly); youth, bachelor; beautiful, in one's prime - PMP *baqeRu

one - PAN *asa₁

one - PAN *esa

one - PAN *isa₁

one - PWMP *isa-q

one - *(noise)

one (clitic form of *esa) - PAN *sa₃

one (in counting) - POC *tasa

one (of humans) - PAN *a-esa

one (of humans) - PCEMP *asa₂

one (unit) - PMP *sa-buaq

one after the other, successive - PPH *sunúd-sunúd

one by one - PMP *esa esa

one hundred - PWMP *ma-Ratus

one hundred - PMP *sa-ŋa-Ratus

one joint or node (as of bamboo or sugarcane) - PWMP *sa-ŋa-buku

one month (in duration) - PWMP *sa-ŋa-bulan

one of the four principal rafters - PPh *paRbu

one quarter; designation for a division of society, probably a lineage - PMP *suku

one side, one half - PWMP *pihak

one stem, one stalk - PMP *sa buliR

one to whom tribute is paid - PPh *buhis-an

one who gathers firewood (?) - PWMP *pa-ŋahiw

one who has died, dead person - POC *m<in>ate

one who is banished or cast out - PWMP *buaŋ-an

one who is led, one who is conducted - PWMP *in-aRak

one who lies next to another - PWMP *ka-hulij

overlapping, one on top of another - PPH *sak(e)níb

own, one’s own; self - PPH *kaniá

passageway, place where one has walked - PAN *zalan-an

past one’s prime, outdated, obsolete - PPH *laqús

place where one eats - PAN *ka-kaen-an

place where one eats; food - PAN *kaen-an

place where one rests the head: wooden headrest - PMP *qulun-an

place where one spends the night - PWMP *paR-beRŋi-an

place where one washes - PAN *Siñaw-an

place where one washes - PMP *hiñaw-an

pour from one vessel into another; translate, interpret - PWMP *salin

put off, delay, postpone, break one’s promise - PPH *liwag

round about, around, in one’s surroundings; go around - PMP *kuliliŋ

spy, scout, one who looks for possible danger ahead - PMP *mata-mata

stamp, put one's foot down - PWMP *qantak

step on, place one's foot on - PMP *re(n)zak

sticky, adhesive; stuck in one’s memory - PWMP *leket

strike one another (as fighting cocks) - PWMP *bazaw

sunrise, rising sun; to show off, be ostentatious, parade one’s talents, possessions, etc. - PPH *sikát

take one's time - PWMP *lantaŋ

tear apart something that one has made; undo - PPh *waswás₂

that with which one binds something - PPh *i-bejbej

the one who is behind (?) - PWMP *udehi-an

the remaining one - PAN *isa-ŋa

to bind, tie tightly, probably of tying one thing which is moveable to another which is fixed - PPH *kedked

to catch, receive something thrown or sent one’s way - PWMP *sambut₂

to confront one another, as in a dispute - PPH *saŋsáŋ

to crave, as food one wants to eat - PPH *sab(e)lek

to have one thing on top of another - PWMP *tumpaŋ₁

to meet or greet someone who is arriving, or who one encounters by surprise - PPH *sabat-en

to pass one another in coming from opposite directions - PWMP *sulaŋ

to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely - PMP *dapet

to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely - PPH *dápat

to squat, sit on one’s heels - POC *tiko

to unite, combine in one - PAN *paR-isa-an

turn one’s head to the side to look back - PPH *liŋiq

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PMP *aRak

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PWMP *maŋ-aRak

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PWMP *aRak-aRak

was chosen; what was chosen, one’s preference - PWMP *na-piliq

was killed; the one that was killed - PWMP *b<in>unuq

one-by-one

distributive; one-by-one, one at a time - PAN *isa isa

one-fourth

one-fourth - PWMP *paR-epat

oneself

broil; warm oneself or something near a fire - PAN *daŋdaŋ₁

clean oneself by scrubbing - PMP *hisuq

clean oneself by scrubbing - PEMP *isug

defend oneself, parry a blow - PWMP *taŋgul

dive; immerse oneself - PWMP *salem

draw toward oneself; annex, make subject - PWMP *kabiR

hide oneself - PWMP *tapuk₃

hold tightly, clutch to oneself - PPH *sak(e)lút

hold tightly, clutch to oneself - PPH *sak(e)lut-en

keep something to oneself; silent, secret - PWMP *hidem

keep to oneself - PPh *enép

keep to oneself; be different; alone - PCEMP *kese

pull inward or towards oneself - PWMP *paqud

refresh oneself, go out for some fresh air - POC *paka-aŋin-aŋin

repeat oneself monotonously - PAN *quman

repeat oneself monotonously - PWMP *quman-quman

self, oneself - *(loan)

sink, immerse oneself in water, dive into the water; to set, of the sun - PAN *selem₁

to appropriate to oneself illegally - PPH *kamkam-en

to distance oneself, move far off - PPH *d<um>ayuq

to wave the hand, as in beckoning someone or in fanning oneself - PPH *paypáy

to wave the hand, to fan oneself - PWMP *kiap

warm oneself or something near a fire; heat or dry near a fire - PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

Oniscus

sowbug, woodlouse: terrestrial isopod of the genus Oniscus - PWMP *babuy babuy

only

just, merely, only, usual - PPH *sená

only - POC *pua

only, alone - PMP *ma-isa

only, just - PCEMP *bua₂

only, just, but - PPH *lámaŋ

onom

onom. for dull sound - PWMP *desuR

onomatopoetic

onomatopoetic for dull sound - PWMP *bek

onomatopoetic for sound of fluttering, flying - PMP *ber

onto

hold onto, cling to - PPH *kapet

on, onto, in, into - POC *o₁

step onto - *(noise)

to hook, catch onto something - PWMP *s<um>abit

onward

away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer - PMP *a-tu

away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer - PMP *wa-tu

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oo

ooze

drip, ooze - PMP *titis

drip, ooze through - PMP *tiRis

to suppurate, ooze pus - PWMP *maR-nanaq

oozing

fluid oozing from a wound, infected sore, or corpse - PWMP *sagu₂

TOP      ob    oc    od    of    og    oh    oi    o.    ol    om    on    oo    op    or    os    ot    ou    ov    ow    ox    oy    

op

open

be open, as the mouth - PMP *kaŋa

be propped open - PWMP *tukaŋ-an

break open - PWMP *beta₁

break open, force open - PWMP *tu(ŋ)kab

burst open, as an overfilled sack - PMP *betus

burst open, split open - POC *poŋkaR

burst, split open - PMP *betaq₂

crack, split open - PWMP *reŋat

crack, split open (as dry ground) - PAN *betak₁

crack, split open (as the stomach of a fish) - PMP *belak

cut or tear open stitches - PWMP *t<um>astas

for force something open or out of its position - PPH *tu(ŋ)kab-án

force open - PWMP *pilak₁

force open - PMP *re(ŋ)kaq

gap, open space - POC *jiwaŋ

gap, open space, breach - PPH *giwaŋ

gap, open space; groove - PMP *siwaŋ

gape, be open - POC *paŋa₃

gape, open the mouth - PMP *ciŋaŋ

gape, open the mouth wide - PMP *qaŋab

gape, open the mouth wide - PMP *qaŋap

gape, open the mouth wide - POC *paŋaŋap

gape, open the mouth wide - *-ŋa (root)

gape, open the mouth wide - *-ŋa(q) (root)

gape, open the mouth wide - *-ŋaq (root)

gape, open the mouth wide; be dazzled, amazed - PMP *beŋaŋ₂

gape, open wide - PMP *laŋaq₁

gape, open, of the mouth - *-ŋab (root)

gasp, open the mouth to breathe - PWMP *egap

in pieces, break open - *-ceq (root)

loosen, open - PAN *hukaq

loosen, open - PMP *qukaq

open - PMP *rakaq

open - PWMP *tukas

open - PMP *u(ŋ)kaq

open - *(noise)

open forcibly - *-kaq₁ (root)

open forcibly, force apart (as the eyelids with the fingers) - PMP *bikaq₁

open space - PWMP *banawaŋ

open space - PWMP *liwaŋ

open space, empty of obstruction - PWMP *tawaŋ

open space, expanse of land or water - PWMP *bawaŋ

open the eyes - PMP *kulat₁

open the eyes wide - PMP *bilat₁

open the eyes wide - PMP *kilat₂

open the eyes wide - POC *pilat₁

open the eyes wide - *-lat₁ (root)

open the eyes wide, stare with round eyes - PMP *bulat₁

open the eyes wide, stare with round eyes - POC *bulat₂

open the eyes wide, stare with round eyes - PWMP *maŋ-bulat

open the legs wide - PWMP *siŋkat

open the mouth - PWMP *baŋaq₁

open the mouth - PMP *beŋaq

open the mouth - PMP *beŋa₁

open the mouth - PAN *ŋaŋa₂

open the mouth wide - PMP *aŋaq

open the mouth wide - PPh *buŋáŋaq

open the mouth wide - PMP *Raŋa₁

open the mouth wide - PMP *uŋap

open the mouth wide, gape - PWMP *taŋaŋaq

open the mouth wide, gape; gaping; opening of a bubu fish trap, basket, etc. - PMP *ŋaŋa₃

open the mouth, gape - PWMP *ŋaqŋaq

open wide - PWMP *tiŋaqŋaq

open wide - *(noise)

open, of the eyes - PMP *bidak

open, of the mouth; gaping - *-ŋap (root)

open, spacious - PWMP *antad

open, spacious - PMP *beŋaŋ₃

open, uncover - PWMP *e(ŋ)kab

open, uncover - PWMP *hu(ŋ)kab

open, uncover - PAN *lekab

open, uncover - PMP *siŋkab

open, uncover - *-kab (root)

open, undress, remove, release - PMP *lekas₁

open, untie - PWMP *bukaq

outside, wide open spaces; loose - PMP *luqaR

pry open - PMP *qu(ŋ)kaq

rip or tear open - PMP *tetas

slap, hit with open hand - PMP *tampek

slit open - PPh *wíqwiq

split open - PPh *busiqsiq

split open - PWMP *sibak

split open, burst under pressure - PMP *besiq

split, crack open - PMP *bekaq

split, crack open - PMP *beka

split, rip open - PPh *busiq

split, tear open - PAN *beriq

split, tear open - PWMP *berit₂

spread open, as the legs - PWMP *u(ŋ)kaŋ

spread out, unroll (mats, etc.), open out, unfold (as the hand); wide - PMP *bekelaj

spread wide open - PPH *tákaŋ

stand open - *(noise)

stretch open or apart - PMP *pekaŋ

stretch open, dilate - PPh *biŋát

take apart, dismantle; break open - PMP *buŋkaR

tear, rip open (as cloth or stitches), snap (as string) - PMP *be(R)tas

tear, rip open, cut open - POC *potas

to open - PWMP *buŋkal

to open - PAN *taŋa₂

to open - PWMP *maŋ-hukab

to open - PWMP *maŋ-buka

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; break up, dismantle, demolish - PWMP *bekaj

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; split open, break up, dismantle, demolish - PMP *be(ŋ)kaR

to open, as a flower - PPh *beskag

to open, as a flower - PPh *beskaj

to open, break open - PMP *su(ŋ)kab

to open, peel off - PWMP *ruŋkáb

to open, uncover - PWMP *bukaʔ

to open, uncover - PWMP *iŋkab

to open, uncover - PWMP *likab

to open, uncover - POC *puke

to open, uncover - PWMP *maŋ-bukaʔ

to open, uncover - PMP *bu(ŋ)kas

to open, uncover, expose - PMP *buka

to split open - PMP *le(ŋ)kaq

to split open - PMP *siraq₁

uncultivated field, open grassland; field covered with sword grass (Imperata cylindrica) - PWMP *padaŋ

unfold, open up, blossom - PPh *buklad

wide open - PMP *baŋa₂

wide open - PWMP *daŋaq

wide open - PMP *labak

wide open - POC *paŋa₂

wide open - *(near)

wide open (mouth) - PWMP *eŋaq

wide open space - PPh *waŋáwaŋ

wide open space - PPH *luaŋ₂

wide open spaces - PWMP *sawaŋ₂

wide open, of the eyes - PMP *hilat

wide, broad, open (of land) - PWMP *layaŋ₂

will open? - PAN *ma-taŋa

open-air

open-air; outdoors - PAN *CaSaw

opened

be opened - PWMP *buka-en

be opened - PWMP *hukab-en

opened, having a gap or opening - PPh *ma-siwáŋ

open-eyed

open-eyed (?) - PAN *m<in>aCa

open-eyed (?) - PMP *m<in>ata

opening

circular opening - PWMP *lauR

crammed, forced into an opening, stuff full - PWMP *pelpel

door opening - *(noise)

flow through a small opening, of rushing water - PPh *bugris

gate, opening - PWMP *gawaŋ

mouth, opening; speak, say - PMP *baqbaq

narrow opening or passage between two things - PWMP *selat

open the mouth wide, gape; gaping; opening of a bubu fish trap, basket, etc. - PMP *ŋaŋa₃

opened, having a gap or opening - PPh *ma-siwáŋ

opening - *(noise)

opening, gap - PPH *tiwaŋwáŋ

put something into or through an opening - PPH *súbuq

split, torn; opening or water passage between two capes of land - PMP *beŋat₁

open wide

dilate, open wide - *(near)

openwork

kind of large openwork basket - PPH *kaqiŋ

large openwork basket - PPH *kaiŋ

large open-work basket - PPh *balúlaŋ

operculum

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

opinion

thinking, thoughts; opinion - PPh *ísip

thought, opinions - PPh *ka-ísip-an

visual assessment of something, as in taking aim, making a straight line, or forming an opinion - PWMP *sipat

opium

opium - *(loan)

opponents

pit two opponents against each other - PWMP *sabuŋ₁

opportunity

take advantage of a situation or opportunity, exploit an advantage - PPH *sambut₁

to waste an opportunity - PPH *sayáŋ-en

oppose

answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - POC *bali₇

argue with, oppose someone - PWMP *bantaq

dual division, moiety == cluster (a) answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - PMP *baliw₁

go against the current, oppose, go in the opposite direction - PPH *sudsud₃

oppose, attack - PWMP *suleŋ

oppose, contradict - *(near)

oppose, dispute with - PWMP *cakaq

oppose, go against someone - PMP *laban₂

oppose, go against someone - PMP *laban-an

to block passage, oppose movement; come to a temporary stop - PPH *saR(e)ked

to oppose, go against - PPH *sudsud-en

opposed

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something - PAN *zalan

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something; wake of a boat; the Milky Way - PMP *zalan

opposite

answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - POC *bali₇

balanced, as a person in walking, or two weights opposite one another - PWMP *timbaŋ

dual division, moiety == cluster (a) answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - PMP *baliw₁

free side of canoe, opposite the outrigger - POC *katae

go against the current, oppose, go in the opposite direction - PPH *sudsud₃

on the opposite side (esp. of a river) - PWMP *di hipaR

opposite side (esp. of a river) - PAN *SipaR

opposite side (esp. of a river) - PMP *hipaR₂

side of canoe opposite the outrigger - POC *qatai

to pass one another in coming from opposite directions - PWMP *sulaŋ

oppositifolia

a tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia - PMP *pauq

a tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia - POC *paoq (ʔ)

oppress

to force upon, oppress - PPH *luges

oppressed

feel oppressed - PWMP *siqir

oppression

injustice, oppression - *(loan)

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or

or

marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any - PMP *baraŋ₁

marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any - POC *baraŋ₂

oral

a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush - PAN *guSam

a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush - PMP *guham

orange

Bitter orange Seville orange: Citrus aurantium - *(loan)

kind of citrus fruit, Philippine orange - PPH *kutay

orangutan: Simia satyrus

orangutan: Simia satyrus - *(loan)

orchard

garden, orchard - PWMP *parelak

orchid sp.

orchid sp. - *(loan)

order

arrange, put in order - *(loan)

fifth in order - PWMP *kuma-lima

flatten; press down in order to squeeze in - PWMP *petpet₁

for the purpose of; in order to - POC *puat₃

hit, beat with hand or club in order to kill - PPH *palpál₁

insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant - PAN *aNay

insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant - POC *ane

mate, companion, fellow; together with; alike, the same as; aligned or in good order - PWMP *sama

mend, repair, set in order - POC *tupak

order, request - PPh *hi-bilín

order, request, command; message; something left for another - PWMP *bilin

pave with stones; pile or stack up, arrange, order, put in sequence - PMP *qatuR₁

set in order - *(noise)

stack up; in a row, lined up; to order, arrange - PCEMP *qatuR₂

surrround in order to confine or protect - PWMP *kuŋkuŋ₄

to obey, follow orders - PWMP *ma-nuruʔ

to order; leave a message - PPh *maR-bilín

orderly

orderly rule-governed - *(noise)

pave with stones; pile up, arrange, put in an orderly fashion - PWMP *qatuR-an

pile up, arrange, put in an orderly fashion - PWMP *maŋ-qatuR

ordinal

prefix for ordinal numbers - PAN *Sika-

prefix for ordinal numerals - PMP *ika-

prefix for ordinal numerals - POC *ka-

orellana

a plant: Bixa orellana - PWMP *galugaʔ

organ

an internal organ, probably spleen or pancreas - PAN *paliq₁

organic

stench of spoiled or souring organic matter - PAN *qaŋeRu

Oriental

kind of water bird, the Oriental darter: Anhinga melanogaster - PPH *kasíli

orientalis

a tree: Trema orientalis - PMP *deRuŋ₂

origin

base of a tree; beginning; origin - POC *puna₁

base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother - PMP *puqun

origin, cause, provided that - *(loan)

originate; related by common origin; be born - POC *pusa₁

prefix indicating place of origin (for ethnic groups) - PPH *taga-

source, origin - PMP *punaŋ

source, origin - PMP *puna₂

source, origin - *(loan)

originate

originate from, come from - PAN *Si-₂

originate from, come from - PMP *hi-

originate; related by common origin; be born - POC *pusa₁

Orion

spring back suddenly; spring-set spear trap; the constellation Orion - PWMP *bala(n)tik

ornament

ear ornament - PWMP *sumpiŋ₂

ornamental

ornamental shrub used for hedges Graptophyllum pictum - PWMP *qatay qatay₂

orphan

orphan - PWMP *ulila

orphan; orphaned - PWMP *ilu

orphaned

orphan; orphaned - PWMP *ilu

orthopterus

orthopterus insect: cicada or grasshopper - POC *sisi(rR)

Orthotomus

a bird and its call, probably the tailor bird: Orthotomus atrogularis - PPH *tiwtiw

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os

oscillate

swing, oscillate - PWMP *tayug

to swing, oscillate - PWMP *ayun

ostentatious

sunrise, rising sun; to show off, be ostentatious, parade one’s talents, possessions, etc. - PPH *sikát

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ot

other

another, other; different, distinct - PPH *iba

be affected by itching, be infected with scabies or other itchy skin disorders - PWMP *gatel-en

boiled foods other than rice - PMP *t<in>anek

boiled foods other than rice? - PAN *t<in>aNek

companion, close relative, other one - PAN *ibaS

companion, close relative, other one - PMP *ibah

companion, close relative, other one - PMP *ibah-an

companion, close relative, other one - PWMP *ka-ibah-an

do something together with others - PAN *sabay₁

do something together with others - PWMP *sa(m)bay

except, other than; another, different - PPH *sabáliq

fire saw; tie a tool around the hand or some other fixture - PPH *kulili

ford a river, cross to the other side (of a river, street, etc.) - PPH *dákit

gulp down food, gorge on one food to the exclusion of others - PWMP *lunlun₂

in succession, one after the other - PWMP *suqud suqud

lie in stacks, one on top of the other - PWMP *apid₂

line up one behind the other - PWMP *maR-aRak

murky, as water or other liquid - PPH *parek

negator of nominals; other, different - PWMP *beken

one after the other, successive - PPH *sunúd-sunúd

other, to change - *(noise)

pit two opponents against each other - PWMP *sabuŋ₁

someone; other people; be different - PAN *duma

sticks or other markers used as aids in calculation - PWMP *bilaŋ-bilaŋ

summon others to join an activity - PWMP *azak

to eat together, join others in eating - PPH *maki-kaen

to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight - PMP *deŋeR

to hear; what is heard, news; to perceive by any sense other than sight - POC *roŋoR

to hurt or injure others - PWMP *ma-ñakit

to pass, cross over to the other side; to be past, of time for an action - PWMP *lapas

to rest, take a break from work or other activity - PAN *Ceked

veining pattern on wood or other material - PWMP *kuray

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PMP *aRak

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PWMP *maŋ-aRak

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PWMP *aRak-aRak

otter

river otter - PAN-F *Sanaq

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ou

ouch

exclamation of pain; ouch! - PPH *ananay₁

our

1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.) - PAN *iten₁

1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.) - PMP *aten₁

1pl. excl. genitive, our - PMP *m-ami

1pl. excl. genitive, our - PAN *n-ami

1pl. incl. possessive pronoun: our - PAN *ata₁

1pl. incl. subject prefix and possessive suffix; we (incl.); our (incl.) - POC *da₂

1st pers. incl. genitive; our - PAN *n-ita

out

avoid someone out of fear - PWMP *ketiR

bail out a canoe - PMP *limas

bail out water - POC *asu₃

bail out water - POC *qasu

bail out water - PWMP *maŋa-limas

be pointed at, be pointed out - PAN *tuzuq-en

be pulled out, be plucked; what is pulled or plucked out - PPh *butbut-en

be spread out; what is spread out - PWMP *bekelaj-en

be stretched out, of time; old (of past crops that are still not consumed) - PWMP *laun

be stretched, be straightened out - PPh *uñat-en

bear down, press out, as in defecation or childbirth - PMP *maŋ-qezen

bearing down, pressing out, as in defecation or childbirth - PMP *qezen

beat out, thresh - PAN *paspas₁

blow out, force out - PMP *leput

break out in boils - PPh *apúy

burst out - *(noise)

casting net; spread out, as a casting net - PWMP *Rambaŋ

close the eyes; go out, of a light - PWMP *qezep

come out, take out - PCMP *lesu₂

crooked, out of alignment - PWMP *biqaŋ₂

crush between weights; press out - PPH *gimpis

crushed or squeezed out of shape - PWMP *lu(q)luq

cry out, as in pain or fear - PMP *beŋit

cry out, clamor - PWMP *Riaw

cry out, shout - PMP *iag

cry out, shout - PMP *iak

decant, pour liquid out for drinking - PPH *tíqiŋ

dig a hole, hollow something out - PPH *kabkáb

distribute, deal out - PPh *wáras

dress up, be decked out in one’s finest clothing - PWMP *kena₂

dried out - POC *(bp)ala₁

drip or drain out - PAN *SuqSuq

drip or drain out - PAN *SuSuq

drip or drain out - PMP *huqhuq

drip or drain out - PMP *huhuq

drip or pour out - POC *pupus-a

dry out, become dry - PMP *asat

dug out, excavated - *(noise)

empty out - PWMP *Ruaq

expression of warning: watch out! - PWMP *hatay

fall out - *(noise)

fly out, splash, spatter - *-cik (root)

for force something open or out of its position - PPH *tu(ŋ)kab-án

germinate, burst out - *(noise)

give off smoke continuously, pour out smoke - PMP *qasu qasu

go out for some fresh air - PMP *pa(ka)-haŋin-haŋin

howl, cry out in pain - PWMP *qeraŋ

last burning bit; to snuff out a spark - PMP *latu

leak out, of air - PWMP *hius

leak, pour out; loose or crumbling; crumble and fall - POC *pupus

leak, spill through, stream out from a hole in a container - PMP *busbus

lower or let down, as on a rope; pay out fishline; launch a boat - PMP *huluR

lower something, pay out rope - PWMP *maŋ-huluR

manner in which an action is carried out - PWMP *ka-₆

old, worn out - PPH *lúmaq

one who is banished or cast out - PWMP *buaŋ-an

out of breath - PMP *heŋak

pant, be out of breath - *(noise)

pay out a rope - PWMP *lu(m)baR

pick out with the fingers - PCMP *kisi

picking of fruit; falling out of teeth - PPH *tipuq

pluck out - PWMP *ranebut

pluck out - PWMP *Ranebut

pluck, pull out - PAN *guCguC

pluck, pull out - PMP *Radut

pluck, pull out - PAN *ubuC

pluck, pull out - PWMP *zutzut

pluck, pull out - PMP *dutdut

pluck, pull out - POC *rurut

pluck, pull out - PMP *ubut

point at, point out - PMP *tuzuk

point out directions - *(noise)

pour out, of liquids - PWMP *buhus

pour, pour out, as water or grain from a container - PMP *buqbuq

pull out with force - PMP *cabut

pull out, extract - PAN *beNuC

pull out, extract - PMP *benut₂

pull out, uproot - PMP *ibut₁

pull out, uproot (as plants); pluck (as hair or feathers) - POC *puput-i

pull out, uproot, pluck - PMP *butbut-i

pull up, as out of a pit or out of water - PMP *bantun

punctured, perforated so that the contents spill out - PWMP *busbus-en

put out to sea, embark on a voyage - POC *toka₃

refresh oneself, go out for some fresh air - POC *paka-aŋin-aŋin

run out, come to an end, of supplies; be poor - PMP *kabus₁

scrape out, as meat from a coconut - PWMP *suqsuq

send out new growth, of vegetation - POC *tupul

set fire to, smoke out - PMP *sunuR

sever, cut through, rip out stitches - PWMP *tastas

shake out - *(noise)

slip out or away - PWMP *pulesit

smoke out bees - PWMP *puhaR

spatter, fly out in all directions - PMP *becik

spill out - *(noise)

spit out (food, substances alien to the body), to spew - PMP *luaq

spit something out, vomit something - POC *lua-ki

spit, spit out - PAN *lupaS

spread out - *(noise)

spread out in the sun to dry - PMP *bilaj

spread out on ground - PPH *latag

spread out, as a net or clothes on the ground to dry - PPH *ladlad

spread out, unfurl - PMP *barbar

spread out, unfurl - PPh *biklaj

spread out, unroll (mats, etc.), open out, unfold (as the hand); wide - PMP *bekelaj

spread out, unroll (mats, etc.); wide - PEMP *bolaj

spurt or gush out - PMP *puRcit

spurt out - PMP *pucut₁

squeeze or squirt out - PWMP *lucut₁

squeeze out - PMP *picit

squeeze out - POC *popos

squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing - PAN *peRes

squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing - POC *poRos

squeeze out juice, wring out water - PAN *peReq

squeeze out juice, wring out water - PPH *piRaq₁

squeeze out juice; squirt out - PAN-F *peSiq

squeeze out, slip out - PWMP *lecut

squeeze out, squirt out - PMP *lecit

squeeze out, squirt out - PWMP *lesit

squeeze out; massage - PMP *pespes

squeeze, squirt out - PMP *becit

squeeze, squirt out - PMP *pe(R)cit

squeeze, squirt out - POC *posit₁

squeeze, squirt out - POC *posit₂

squirt out - *-cit (root)

squirt, squeeze or slip out - *-cut (root)

sticking out or turned forward, of ears - PWMP *kupiŋ

straighten out, of a limb, etc. - PMP *keteŋ

stretch out - POC *sau₁

stretch out - *(noise)

swollen, filled out - PMP *kembuŋ

take out - *(noise)

thing pointed out, shown, or taught - PWMP *ka-tuzuq-an

throw out (of a container or enclosure) - PWMP *la(m)bug₁

thrust out, extend forward - PMP *qunzur

thrust out; extend - *-zur (root)

to bail out completely - PWMP *limas-an

to be bailed out, of water - PWMP *limas-en

to burn or set a fire under to smoke out - PPH *sunúg-en

to choose, select, pick out - PWMP *ma-miliq

to choose, select, pick out - PWMP *maR-piliq

to choose, select, pick out - PAN *p<um>iliq

to choose, to select; to pick out - PAN *piliq

to complete, make full, round out - PWMP *pa-genep

to cut out, as a pattern - PWMP *tabas₂

to distribute, pass out shares (as of food) - PPH *bunuŋ

to distribute, pass out shares of food - PPH *tagtág

to divide, share out - POC *tupa₃

to divide, share out (as an inheritance?) - POC *pari₂

to flow, stream, move out rapidly - POC *rere₂

to gouge or pry out - PWMP *lugit

to leaf out, sprout leaves - PWMP *maR-dahun

to pant, be out of breath - PAN *ŋesŋes

to pay out a rope - PWMP *lumbaR

to pluck, pull out - PAN *putput₁

to pluck, pull out, uproot - PWMP *maŋ-butbut

to point at, point out, lecture or instruct, give advice - PAN *t<um>uzuq

to point at, point out, show by pointing - PWMP *ma-nuzuq

to point at, point out; give directions - PAN *tuzuq₁

to point at, point out; give directions - POC *tusuq

to point out - PAN *tudiŋ

to point out, give directions (?) - PAN *pa-tuzuq

to point out, instruct - PMP *tuzuq₂

to point, indicate; to point out, instruct - PPh *tulduq

to pour out, tilt to pour - PWMP *tuaŋ₁

to pull out, as hair - PPH *bagut

to pull out, as hair - PPH *bagut-en

to rip out stitches - PWMP *ma-nastas

to scrape or scrub out, remove by scraping - PPh *kuskus-an₂

to scrape out - PWMP *kuskus₂

to sip or suck in or out - PWMP *ma-ñepsep

to slip out, of a child in childbirth - PPH *lusad

to sound off, cry out - PPH *tekuk

to spill out, pour out - PWMP *tumpaq

to spit out chewed betel quid - PPH *sapaq-en

to spread out - PWMP *maŋ-bekelaj

to squeeze out juice, wring out water - PWMP *ma-meReq

to squeeze out juice, wring out water - PWMP *ma-meRes

to stand; straighten out - PMP *kezeŋ

to stand; stretch out, as the body - PMP *kedeŋ

to stretch, straighten out - PPh *huñat

to stretch, straighten out - PPh *uñat

to suck up, suck out - PMP *mismis₂

to undo stitches, pull out tying material - PPH *tastas-en

to wail, cry out in grief - PWMP *ŋulŋul₂

to weed, pluck, pull out - *-buC (root)

to wring out, as water from wet clothes - PAN-F *pedel

to wring, squeeze out by twisting or wringing - PMP *lesles₂

twist together rope out of three strands - PWMP *ma-nelu

twitter, call out (bird) - PWMP *ciak

unfold, spread out - PWMP *bitaD

unroll a mat, spread out a mat - PAN *SapaR

unroll a mat, spread out a mat - PMP *hampaR

unroll, spread out a mat - PAN *S<um>apaR

uproot, pluck, pull out - *-dut (root)

uproot, pull out by the roots - PAN *RabuC

uproot, pull out by the roots - PMP *Rabut

uproot, pull out by the roots - POC *Raput

wake up, get out of bed - PAN *baŋuN

was pointed out (?) - PWMP *t<in>uzuq

was spread out - PWMP *b<in>ekelaj

wipe off, wipe out - PMP *punas

withdraw, pull out, extract - PAN *SuNus

withdraw, pull out, extract - PMP *hunus

withdraw, pull out, extract - POC *unus

withdraw, pull out, extract - POC *unus-i

worn out - *(noise)

worn out by overuse; broken; blunt - PPH *pudpud

worn out, decaying - POC *Rapuk

worn out, worn down, as by overuse - PPH *ma-pudpud

wring, squeeze out (trans.) - POC *lolos-i

outdated

past one’s prime, outdated, obsolete - PPH *laqús

outdoors

open-air; outdoors - PAN *CaSaw

outdoors, outside - PMP *tahaw

outer

outer corner of the eye - PMP *ikuR ni mata

outer layer of abaca plant - PPH *lupis₂

outpouring

outpouring of light - PMP *silaq

outpouring of light - PMP *sirak₁

outpouring of light - PMP *sila₁

outrigger

(small) outrigger canoe or canoe hull - POC *katiR

canoe hull, small outrigger canoe - PMP *katiR

cross-stick for outrigger - *(loan)

free side of canoe, opposite the outrigger - POC *katae

outrigger boom - POC *kiajo

outrigger boom - POC *kayajo

outrigger canoe with dugout hull - PEMP *waŋka

outrigger canoe with dugout hull; passengers in a canoe - POC *waŋka

outrigger float - PMP *saRman

outrigger float - POC *saman

side of canoe opposite the outrigger - POC *qatai

sticks that connect the float to the booms of an outrigger canoe - PEMP *patoto

type of boat, possibly dugout with outrigger - PWMP *bilug

outside

above; outside - POC *papo₁

last, come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child; west; young; outside - PCEMP *m-udi

outdoors, outside - PMP *tahaw

outside - PAN *NataD

outside - PMP *luqar

outside - PWMP *luqaq

outside - PPH *líwan

outside, wide open spaces; loose - PMP *luqaR

outside; outside area; spacious, roomy - PMP *luas₁

space outside the village - POC *natar

outsiders

outsiders, alien people - PMP *qaRta

outsiders, alien people - PMP *qulun₁

outskirts

outskirts, edge of settlement - PPh *hilít

outstretched

to span with outstretched arms, measure in fathoms - PWMP *d<um>epa

outward

away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer - PMP *a-tu

away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer - PMP *wa-tu

swollen, expanding outward - PWMP *kembaŋ

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ov

ovary

ovary of an an oviparous animal - PMP *natuq

ovata

tree sp.: Schoutenia ovata - PMP *kukun

oven

bake or roast in an earth oven - POC *qumun-a

cook in an earth oven - POC *papi

cook in an earth oven - POC *qumun-i

cook in earth oven - POC *taqo

earth oven - PMP *qumun

oven - *(loan)

over

bend over, stoop - PMP *duku

bend over, stoop - PMP *zuŋkuk

bend over, stoop - PWMP *dukuq

bend over, stoop - POC *ruku

bend over, stoop - POC *rukuq

bend, stoop over - POC *oŋkol

bent over, hunched - PWMP *ukuq

carry by a strap over the shoulder - POC *sape

carry slung over the shoulder - PPh *qambiday

carry slung over the shoulder - PPh *qambijay

cook over a fire - PMP *baŋi₂

cover over, cover up - PMP *Ruŋkeb

cover with a hollow container; shelter over a grave - PWMP *cuŋkub

cover with a hollow container; shelter over a grave - PWMP *suŋkub

cover; fold over - *-kep₁ (root)

crush, roll over - PWMP *li(n)dis

crush, roll over - PWMP *li(ŋ)gis

drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth - PAN *sapay

drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth - PMP *sampay₁

fish wrapped in banana leaf and cooked over hot coals - PWMP *p<in>aqis

fold over - POC *pinu

fold over, fold up - POC *binu

fold the arms over the chest; fold the wings, of a bird - PWMP *kumkum

go beyond, go over, go past - PWMP *la(m)baŋ

go over and beyond - PPH *lápus

go over and beyond - PPH *l<um>ápus

hand over - *(noise)

hang of drape over the shoulder - PWMP *salampay

hunch over, curl up (body) - POC *pokut

hunched over - PMP *bikut

hunched over - PMP *duŋkuk

hunched over, bent - *-kut (root)

hunched over, bowed (as with age) - PAN *qukut

hunched over, bowed (as with age) - PMP *quŋkut

hunched over, stoop-shouldered - PAN *SekuC

hunched over, stoop-shouldered - PMP *hekut

hunched, bent over - PWMP *hukuq

jump over or across - PPH *lak(e)táw

jump over or across - PPH *lik(e)taw

look over a wide area, search for something with the eyes while standing in place - PPH *nanaw

over there, yonder - PAN-F *dua

put in or over a fire - PWMP *alub

raised flesh over a wound - POC *pupula

reddish; discolored, as the skin over a bruise - PWMP *baŋbaŋ₈

reverse, turn over or around - PPh *balikid

roast food over a fire - PAN *CuNuh

roast food over a fire - PMP *tunu

roast food over a fire - POC *tunu

roast food over a fire - POC *tunu tunu

roast over a fire, toast - PWMP *paŋgaŋ

slant, lean over (as a tree) - POC *(bp)alalan

sling over the shoulder - PPh *abijay

smear, paint over - POC *bubuni

spread all over - PAN *qeNeb₂

spread all over - PMP *qeneb₂

step, stride; to omit or skip over - PMP *laŋkaq₁

stoop, bow, bend over - POC *roko

swell up, as boiling rice; boil over - PMP *luab

take a long step, step over something - PWMP *akaŋ

think about, think over - PWMP *iŋat-iŋat

to bargain, haggle over the price - PWMP *tawaD

to bend over, as a person - PMP *pikut₁

to cry for, cry over, mourn, bewail, weep for the dead - PMP *taŋis-i

to cry over something or someone - PAN *Caŋis-an

to cry over something or someone - PMP *taŋis-an

to cry over something or someone (?) - PWMP *taŋis-en

to fold over - PPH *lapi

to fold over, double - PMP *ta(ŋ)kep₁

to fold, fold over - PAN *lipet

to grind, as by rolling over - PMP *giliŋ

to hang, drape over something - PPH *sab(e)láy

to hold an umbrella or parasol over someone - PWMP *payuŋ-an

to pass, cross over to the other side; to be past, of time for an action - PWMP *lapas

to plaster over something - PWMP *pulpul₂

to put on or over something - PPH *tuqun₁

to roll down or over something - PPH *pulin

to roll over and over - PWMP *ligid

to roll, roll over - POC *puri

to skim over the surface - PMP *tapis₂

to turn over, to dig by turning over, as rocks - POC *kili

to turn, roll over; grind up - PWMP *g<um>iliŋ

turn around, turn over - POC *liliu

turn over, rock back and forth, swing - POC *pui₂

turn over, rock back and forth, swing - POC *pui pui

turn over, roll over; transform; upside down - POC *buliŋ

turn the soil over, as in removing stones prior to planting - PWMP *suŋkal

upper surface, top; highlands; on, upon, over, above - PAN *babaw₃

walk over a plank or log bridge - PWMP *ma-naytay

overabundant

in excess, overabundant; surplus - PPH *saway

overcast

dark, of weather; overcast - PAN *lemlem

dark, overcast, cloudy - PWMP *gelem

dark, overcast, gloomy - PAN *ma-demdem

dark, overcast, visually obscure - PAN *kelem

dark; overcast - *-dem₁ (root)

darkened by clouds, overcast - PAN *kudem

dim, overcast - PWMP *ludem

foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain - PAN-F *lebleb₁

foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain - PAN-F *ma-lebleb

gloom, darkness; dark, overcast, gloomy - PAN *demdem₂

overcast - PWMP *agem₃

overcast, darkened - PMP *gu(n)dem

overcast, twilight - PAN *beNelem

overcast; dull lustre - PWMP *edem₁

overcast; dull lustre - PWMP *ma-edem

overcome

be overcome by darkness, be benighted - PPH *ma-Rabi-an

be overcome by night, benighted - POC *boŋi-a

defeat, overcome - PWMP *maŋ-alaq₂

overcome by darkness, benighted - PWMP *ka-beRŋi-an

overcooked

overcooked until mushy, as rice or vegetables - PPH *lusa₂

overcrowd

overcrowd - PMP *beŋbeŋ₃

overcrowd - POC *boboŋ₂

overdo

surpass, exceed, overdo - PPH *lepaw₃

overfilled

burst open, as an overfilled sack - PMP *betus

overflow

a flood; to overflow, be in flood - PAN *baSaq

a flood; to overflow, be in flood - PMP *bahaq₂

overflow, be inundated - POC *lolop

sink, submerge; overflow - PWMP *lebleb₂

overflowing

soaked, saturated, full of liquid; crowded or filled to overflowing - PMP *teReb

overfull

eat too much, be cloyed, overfull, tired of something through excess; bored - PWMP *sáwaq

overgrown

be overgrown with grass or weeds - PWMP *dukut-en

overgrown, clumsy, sluggish - PMP *bagal

overland

go overland, hike - PPH *t<um>aneq

overlapping

cover, overlapping part - PWMP *ta(ŋ)keb

overlapping, one on top of another - PPH *sak(e)níb

overlook

pass by, overlook something when searching; to pass by (of time) - PPH *labas

to pass by, overlook - PPH *labas-an

overnight

stay overnight, spend the night - PWMP *pa-beRŋi

over-ripe

over-ripe, beginning to rot - PPH *tupúk

ripe, overripe - PCEMP *madar

to become soft or overripe, as fruits that are kept too long - PPH *lúnus

overtake

reach, overtake, catch up with - PPh *qabut

to pass someone by, overtake in walking, go past - PWMP *libas₂

overuse

worn out by overuse; broken; blunt - PPH *pudpud

worn out, worn down, as by overuse - PPH *ma-pudpud

overwhelmed

be caught in a mosquito swarm, be overwhelmed by mosquitos - PPH *ñamuk-en

overwhem

overwhem in numbers? - PMP *penuq sakay

oviparous

ovary of an an oviparous animal - PMP *natuq

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ow

owe

be in debt, owe - PMP *ma-qutaŋ

owl

ghost, ancestral spirit; nature spirit; corpse; owl; various plants - PMP *qanitu

ghost, spirit of the dead; owl - PAN *qaNiCu

owl - PAN *qekuŋ

owl - POC *druru

owl - PWMP *puek

owl - *(near)

owl sp. - PWMP *butbut₁

owl sp. - POC *kururu₂

owl sp. - *(noise)

owl sp., bird of bad omen - PWMP *bukaw

own

own, one’s own; self - PPH *kaniá

owner

grandparent, ancestor, lord, master, owner (voc.) - PPh *apu-ʔ

grandparent/grandchild (recipr.); ancestor; lord, master, owner - PMP *empu

owner, possessor - PWMP *empu-ni-a

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ox

ox

wild ox - *(loan)

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oy

oyster

kind of shellfish, probably oyster - PPH *talaba

oyster - PMP *tiRem

oyster - POC *tiRom

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/16/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_o.htm