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Updated: 9/22/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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P

pe    ph    pi    pl    po    pr    ps    pt    pu    py    

pace

to speed up, increase the pace of something - PPH *paspas-an₂

Pachycephala

a bird, the Golden Whistler, Pachycephala spp. - POC *sau

Pacific

shore bird: sandpiper, Pacific Golden Plover - POC *kiwiwi

pack

pack in tightly - PMP *pedet

pack in tightly (?) - PPh *maŋ-qunej

press together, pack solid - PAN *pedped₁

stuff, pack tightly - PPH *saksak₃

to stuff, pack, fill up - POC *sosok

package

bundle (as of firewood); package - PMP *beRkes

bundle, package; to wrap up - PWMP *buŋkus

bundle; package - PEMP *bokes

container for solid objects; package - POC *busa₃

packed

compact, compressed, packed in tightly - PWMP *pa(n)det

constipation; packed hard and firm - PMP *etel

packed in, compressed - *-det (root)

packed tightly - PWMP *sa(n)det

packed tightly together - PWMP *detdet

tightly packed, in space or time - PWMP *ma-seksek

packet

packet of cooked rice - *(loan)

wrapped packet of cooked rice - PWMP *lepet₃

pad

pad placed under cooking pots, loads to carry on the head, etc. - PPH *dikén

padding

liner, layer, insulation, padding; sleeping mat - PMP *hapin

lining, insulation, padding; underlayer, as of clothing - PPH *sapín

paddle

canoe paddle, paddle a canoe - PEMP *boRse

canoe paddle; paddle a canoe - PMP *beRsay

canoe paddle; paddle a canoe - POC *pose

leaf; blade of paddle or oar; ‘table’ for eating - PMP *dahun

to back water with a paddle - POC *ruru

to paddle - PAN *aluja

to paddle - PAN *pa-aluja

to paddle - POC *paluca

to paddle repeatedly, paddle about - POC *pose pose

paddy

paddy bug, foul-smelling insect that preys on rice in the field - PAN *baŋaw

paddy leech - PAN *-meCaq

paddy leech - PAN *qaNi-meCaq

paddy leech - PWMP *qali-metaq

storage container for paddy - PWMP *pitak₂

trample earth, turn into mud, as a paddy field prior to planting - PWMP *lucak

paddy field

scarecrow device in paddy field - *(near)

paid

be paid; payment - PWMP *upaq-an

one to whom tribute is paid - PPh *buhis-an

paid off, of a debt - PMP *qimpas

pail

bucket, pail - *(loan)

pain

a state of pain or difficulty; be afflicted by illness - PWMP *ka-sakit-an

arthritic or rheumatic pain - PMP *ŋulŋul₁

arthritic or rheumatic pain - POC *ŋuŋul

cry out, as in pain or fear - PMP *beŋit

emotional pain - *(near)

exclamation of pain - *(near)

exclamation of pain or surprise - PWMP *ajiq

exclamation of pain, distress, etc. - PMP *aduq

exclamation of pain, fear, excitement, etc. - PMP *qi₁

exclamation of pain; ouch! - PPH *ananay₁

exclamation of surprise, pain, etc. - PMP *iqi

exclamation of wonder, pain, etc. - PMP *inda₁

gas pains - PPH *kábag

grimace at pain - PAN *reŋiC

grimace at pain - PAN *teŋiC

grimace at pain - PMP *reŋit₂

groan, cry of pain - PPh *áŋal

howl, cry out in pain - PWMP *qeraŋ

interjection of pain, surprise, etc. - PWMP *qau

pain - *(noise)

painful; to pain - POC *ŋuŋut

smarting, stinging pain - PMP *hapejes

smarting, stinging pain - PMP *hapejis

smarting, stinging pain - PAN *Sapejiq

smarting, stinging pain - PMP *hapejiq

throb with pain or exhaustion - PPH *seŋet-seŋet

throbbing pain - PMP *ŋutŋut₂

to exclaim in pain, distress, etc. - PWMP *maŋ-aduq

to hurt, cause pain or trouble - PWMP *sakit-an

painful

become painful (?) - PWMP *s<um>akit

have a painful feeling in the teeth, as when eating something very sour or cold, or hearing a screeching or scratching sound - PWMP *ŋilu-an

large black ant with painful sting, probably bulldog ant - POC *kadik

painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour - PMP *ñilu

painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour - PAN *ŋilu

painful swelling in limbs - POC *tupa₁

painful, as of teeth on edge from eating something very sour - PAN *ma-ŋilu

painful; to pain - POC *ŋuŋut

sick, painful - PMP *sakit

sick, painful - PMP *ma-sakit

sick, painful - POC *masakit

paint

apply oil or paint to the body - POC *pani₂

kind of seaweed used to paint canoes - POC *poma

smear, paint over - POC *bubuni

to paint; smear or rub on - POC *bani₁

to paint; smear or rub on - POC *wali

pair

friend, partner; one of a pair; trading partner? - POC *soRa

pair - *(loan)

pair of boats joined by a connecting platform - PWMP *banduŋ

pair, matching part - *(loan)

pair, matching set - PMP *pasaŋ₁

smaller thing of a pair (?) - PWMP *paŋ-anak

to match, form a pair - PPH *tupáj

palanquin

litter, palanquin - PWMP *usuŋ-an

palanquin - *(loan)

Palaquium

hardwood tree with edible fruit and valuable timber: Palaquium spp. - PMP *ñatuq

palate

palate - PMP *ŋadas

palate - *(noise)

palate; canopy - PWMP *laŋit laŋit

pale

light-skinned, pale - PWMP *pudak

pale - *(loan)

pale, albino - POC *balaR₂

pale, unnaturally white - PMP *balaR₁

palisade

enclosure; palisade around a village; fence around a planted tree or cultivated field - PMP *pager

palm

a palm, probably Oncosperma sp. - PMP *qanibuŋ

a palm: Corypha spp. - PPH *silaR

a swamp palm: Nipa fruticans - PMP *nipaq

areca nut and palm; heart - POC *buaq

bag of plaited palm leaves - PWMP *bayuquŋ

blossom of the areca or coconut palm - PWMP *mayaŋ

carrying vessel made from folded palm leaf sheath - PWMP *timbalaŋ

cut or collect palm leaves for roofing - PMP *sasah

extract the pith from the sago palm - PMP *saku₁

fan palm: Licuala Rumphii - PMP *biRu

fan palm: Licuala Rumphii - POC *piRu

flower spathe of areca palm - PMP *hupiq

frond of a palm - PMP *papaq₁

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

fungus that grows on the sugar palm; tinder - PMP *baruk

heart of palm, palm-cabbage - PMP *qubud

lines in the palm of the hand - PMP *uRat i lima

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

palm flour - PWMP *natek

palm leaf awning, usually on boats - PMP *kazaŋ₂

palm of hand, sole of foot - PMP *palaj₁

palm of the hand - PAN *dapa

palm of the hand, sole of the foot - PWMP *tapak₁

palm sp. - PWMP *baŋa₁

palm sp: Corypha elata - PMP *buri

palm tree sp. - *(noise)

palm used to make hats and fans - PWMP *silad

palm wine - PMP *tuak

plaited palm leaf bag or pouch - PWMP *kampil

processed sago, prepared starch from the sago palm - PMP *sagu₁

sago palm - PMP *Rambia

sago palm - POC *Rabia

sago palm - PMP *Rumbia

sago palm - *(noise)

species of palm used for making spears and bows; palm-wood spear or bow - POC *bual bual

substance used in fermenting palm wine - *(noise)

sugar palm: Arenga spp. - PMP *qanahaw

the gebang palm: Corypha gebanga - PWMP *ibus

the sugar palm Arenga saccharifera, Arenga pinnata - PWMP *izuk

torch, probably of dried palm frond - PMP *suluq

umbrella made of palm leaves - PWMP *saeŋ

width of the palm (?) - PWMP *dapal

wild palm tree with fruit similar to areca nut: Heterospathe elata - PPH *sagisí

palm-cabbage

heart of palm, palm-cabbage - PMP *qubud

palm wine

palm wine - *(loan)

palm-wood

species of palm used for making spears and bows; palm-wood spear or bow - POC *bual bual

palolo

palolo worm - *(loan)

Palolo

Palolo worm - *(noise)

pan

potsherd used as a frying pan - POC *palaŋa

shallow earthenware cooking pot or pan - PAN *balaŋa

to stir-fry, cook in a frying pan without oil - PMP *saŋelaR

what is stir-fried or roasted in a pan without oil - PWMP *saŋelaR-en

pancreas

an internal organ, probably spleen or pancreas - PAN *paliq₁

Pandanus

Pandanus dubius - POC *pakum

pandanus

a pandanus, Pandanus odoratissimus; a mat made from the leaves of this plant - POC *kiRe

Pandanus

pandanus

kind of pandanus - PMP *bakuŋ₂

kind of pandanus - POC *pakuŋ

kind of pandanus with leaves useful for plaiting - PCEMP *ima₂

large pandanus sp. - POC *pwasa(rR)

pandanus - PAN *paŋudaN

pandanus - PMP *paŋdan

pandanus - POC *padran

pandanus sp. - POC *kiRe-kiRe

pandanus sp. - POC *poipoi

pandanus sp., used in making mats - PMP *kiRay

panel

door panel - PAN *qaNeb-an

rafter, diagonal bamboo poles to which thatch panels are lashed - PMP *kasaw₁

Pangium

a tree: Pangium edule - PWMP *paŋi

pangolin

pangolin - *(loan)

pangolin, scaly anteater - PAN *qaRem

panicle

rice panicle - PPh *quhay

paniculatum

plant with leaves used as a vegetable: Talinum paniculatum or Talinum triangulare - PPH *talínum

Panicum

broomcorn millet: Panicum miliaceum - PAN-F *baCaR

pant

blow hard; snort, pant - PMP *qembus

gasp, pant - PWMP *cuŋ(e)qab

lift up the clothes, roll up the pant legs (as when crossing shallow water) - PPH *lesles₁

pant, be out of breath - *(noise)

roll up pant legs - PPH *lenlen

sniffle, pant - PPh *eŋus

to pant, be out of breath - PAN *ŋesŋes

to roll up sleeves or pant legs - PPH *lislís

papaya

papaya - *(loan)

paper

paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material - PCEMP *malaw

papyrifera

paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material - PCEMP *malaw

parade

sunrise, rising sun; to show off, be ostentatious, parade one’s talents, possessions, etc. - PPH *sikát

parakeet

red parakeet - POC *siri

small parrot or parakeet kept as a pet - PPH *kulasísi

parallel

parallel sticks used to support a load - PPH *laŋen₂

younger sibling of the same sex (vocative); younger parallel cousin of the same sex (vocative) - PWMP *huaji-ŋ

younger sibling of the same sex (vocative); younger parallel cousin of the same sex (vocative) - PMP *huaji-q

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PMP *huaji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PCEMP *waji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PWMP *paR-huaji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PMP *ta-huaji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - POC *taci

paralyzed

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

paralyzed - PWMP *m-atay uRat

paralyzed, lame - PWMP *lumpuq

parasite

tiny parasite on the body, itch mite, chicken louse - PMP *kuman

parasitic

parasitic plant sp. - PAN *lukuC

parasol

to hold an umbrella or parasol over someone - PWMP *payuŋ-an

to use an umbrella or parasol - PWMP *ma-mayuŋ

umbrella, parasol - PWMP *payuŋ

parch

to dessicate, parch near a fire - PWMP *salay

parched

parched, bone-dry - PWMP *baRetiq

pardon

pardon, forgive - PWMP *maŋ-ampun

pardon, forgive - PWMP *maŋ-ampun-i

pardon, forgiveness - PMP *ampun

pardon, forgiveness - PWMP *ampun-an

pardon, forgiveness - *(noise)

pare

to peel, pare - PPH *tajip-an

to peel, pare - *(noise)

to peel, pare, as fruit or yam; to cut into slices - PPH *tájip

to peel, pare, as yams - PEMP *supi

parent

co-parent-in-law, the kinship tie between the parents of a married couple - PWMP *baisan

co-parent-in-law, the relationship between parents of spouses - PPh *balaqih

parent and child - PAN *maRe-anak

parent’s younger sibling, junior uncle; a young child’s term of address for his father, vocative of *ama - PMP *mama

parents - PMP *ina ama

parents' elder sibling - PMP *uaʔ

parents’ elder sibling: FeB, FeZ, MeB, Me - PMP *ua₂

parents’ elder sibling: FeB, FeZ, MeB, MeZ - PMP *uaq

parent-in-law

parent-in-law - *(noise)

Parinari

putty nut: Parinari laurinum - POC *katita

Parinarium

the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum - POC *qarita

the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum - POC *qatita

Parkia

a tall tree: Parkia spp. - PPH *kúpaŋ

Parrot

male Eclectus Parrot: Eclectus roratus - POC *kaRa

parrot

member of the parrot family - PEMP *kaRa

parrot fish: Scarus spp. - PPH *mulmúl

parrot sp. - POC *seŋa₂

parrot sp. - POC *sipi

parrot sp. - *(loan)

parrot sp., possibly Eclectus parrot - POC *kiRak

parrot, probably Trichoglossus sp. - POC *pwirip

small parrot or parakeet kept as a pet - PPH *kulasísi

parrotfish

double-headed parrotfish - POC *amatu

double-headed parrotfish - POC *kamatu

kind of parrotfish - POC *kosa

parry

defend oneself, parry a blow - PWMP *taŋgul

to parry, turn an attack or accusation aside - PWMP *taŋkis

part

answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - POC *bali₇

be divided into seven parts - PWMP *pitu-en

bend, fold, folding part of the body; curl up on the ground, of an animal - PMP *leku

bend; bending part, joint - PWMP *lekuq₁

body part - PAN *kiCiŋ

burl, knot; protuberant part - PMP *butequl

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

cover, overlapping part - PWMP *ta(ŋ)keb

disease that causes swelling of body parts - PWMP *baguq

divide into multiple parts - POC *wa(n)se wa(n)se

divide into seven parts (?) - PWMP *maR-pitu

divide into two parts - PWMP *man-duha

divided into ten parts (?) - PWMP *puluq-en

dual division, moiety == cluster (a) answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - PMP *baliw₁

external part of something - PWMP *dapuR dapuR

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

eye, focal point, center or most prominent part - PAN *maCa

flesh, lean part of meat; grain of wood - POC *pijiko

flesh, lean part of meat; grain of wood - POC *pisiko

foundation, first part? - PWMP *p<am>uqun

front, facing part - PMP *qadep

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born - PMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - PCEMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - POC *qulu

head-end, upper part - PMP *qulu-an

head-end, upper part - PAN *qulu qulu

hind part, rear, back - POC *buRit₂

hind part, rear, back - PMP *burit₁

hind part, rear, back - POC *burit₃

hind part, rear, back; base, bottom - PMP *buRit₁

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - POC *ralom

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - PMP *dalem

interior hill country, hilly or mountainous part of island - POC *solos

knock against, of body parts - PMP *ga(n)tuk

lower part of a river; tidal bore - PMP *bena

made of three parts, as triple-strand rope - PPH *t<in>elu

majority, largest part - PPH *ka-dakel-án

middle of the road, most trodden part of a path or road; guide who shows the way - PMP *mata nu zalan

part fraction - *(noise)

part of something split - PAN *belaq

part of the loom - PAN *qatip₁

part of the loom - PAN *qatip-an

part of the lower leg, possibly the ankle - PWMP *beŋil

part split off - PWMP *bilaq

part, separate, divide - PWMP *ceray

press together, press between two surfaces; part of the loom - PMP *hapit

protruding part of the lower leg - PPh *buqel

protuberant part - POC *putul₂

pull at body part; hold something dangling from the fingers - PMP *bitbit₂

pull at some part of the body - PAN *bitbit₁

rear part - PPh *íwit

rear part, stern or rudder of a boat - PMP *kama-udehi

side, part - PCEMP *balaŋ₂

side, part - POC *balaŋ₄

small protruding part - *-til (root)

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - PMP *buRah

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - POC *puRa

to divide into three parts - PWMP *maR-telu

to quarrel, part company - PPH *suay

top part; high - PMP *umbaw

upstream part of a river - PWMP *udahik

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PAN *SuRas

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PMP *huRas

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PEMP *uRas

wash private parts (?) - PWMP *puqpuq₂

partially

suddenly appear, come into view suddenly or partially - PPH *tuq(e)maw

participate

join, participate in; accompany - PPh *báli

participle

past participle/achieved state - PMP *ka-₇

particle

affirmative particle - *(noise)

anaphoric or relative particle: there, previously mentioned place - POC *ai₁

clause-final particle - *(noise)

collective particle - PMP *paRa₂

conjunctive particle, and - PAN *ka₁

deictic particle: this - PAN-F *nay

emphatic particle - PMP *lagi

emphatic particle - PWMP *ta₂

fine particles, powder which results from pounding grains, etc.; pulverize grains - PMP *bekbek₁

food particles caught between the teeth - PAN *CiŋaS

food particles caught between the teeth - PMP *tiŋah

genitive particle - PWMP *u₁

grammatical particle - PAN *qu₂

have food particles caught between the teeth - PAN *ma-CiŋaS

hesitation particle - PAN *a₄

interrogative particle - PAN-F *qa₂

locative particle - PAN *Sa₂

locative particle - PMP *ha₃

locative particle - PAN *qa₁

particle - *(noise)

particle of doubt or interrogation - PMP *ias₁

particle used to soften questions or turn statements into rhetorical questions - PPH *taq₂

postverbal interrogative particle - PWMP *ba₅

pound into fine particles - PWMP *maŋ-bekbek

question particle - PAN *Saw

question particle - PMP *aw

particulars

details, particulars - PPH *bágay-bágay

parting

parting, separation, as in divorce - PWMP *sarak

to search for lice, as by parting the hair - PPH *sukáy

partition

division, partition, intervening space - PMP *belat₁

wall of a house; partition off - PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

partner

answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - POC *bali₇

dual division, moiety == cluster (a) answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - PMP *baliw₁

eating partner; eat together - PPH *ka-laŋlaŋ

friend, partner; one of a pair; trading partner? - POC *soRa

mate, partner, cohort - PPH *ka-₄

partridge

a bird: the Formosan bamboo partridge - PAN *tikuRas

Formosan hill partridge - PAN-F *kuNkuN

part-to-whole

genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb - PAN *ni

pass

able to pass through - PWMP *taR-selat

copy, imitate, pass on - POC *usuri

pass by or near - PWMP *qaliwat

pass by, overlook something when searching; to pass by (of time) - PPH *labas

pass close by, brush against in passing - PPH *sag(e)qid

to distribute, pass out shares (as of food) - PPH *bunuŋ

to distribute, pass out shares of food - PPH *tagtág

to let something pass by - PPH *pa-labas-en

to pass around or near someone or something - PWMP *liwet

to pass by - PPH *l<um>ábas

to pass by - PPH *labay₂

to pass by, overlook - PPH *labas-an

to pass one another in coming from opposite directions - PWMP *sulaŋ

to pass someone by, overtake in walking, go past - PWMP *libas₂

to pass through - PWMP *z<um>alan

to pass, cross over to the other side; to be past, of time for an action - PWMP *lapas

to pass, pass by - PAN *lipas

to slip through, pass through - PPH *lusút

passage

go through a narrow passage - POC *solso

hack a passage through - PWMP *maŋ-bentas

hack a passage through vegetation, blaze a trail - PMP *bentas

narrow opening or passage between two things - PWMP *selat

passage for a boat? - PCEMP *solat

split, torn; opening or water passage between two capes of land - PMP *beŋat₁

take passage, catch a ride in someone else’s boat - PWMP *tumpaŋ₂

to block passage, oppose movement; come to a temporary stop - PPH *saR(e)ked

passageway

door, gate, passageway - PWMP *lawaŋ₂

passageway, place where one has walked - PAN *zalan-an

passed

to set free, let loose, liberated; passed by, come to an end - PWMP *lepas

passengers

outrigger canoe with dugout hull; passengers in a canoe - POC *waŋka

passing

improvised trail, trail made by passing through? - PAN *ka-zalan-an

neck shackle to prevent an animal from passing through fences - PMP *pagal

pass close by, brush against in passing - PPH *sag(e)qid

sound of swishing, as of hand passing through water - PPH *kisaw

stop and visit when passing by - PMP *tuluy₂

passion

passion - *(loan)

passion, excitement - *(loan)

to relent or subside of appetite, passions, storms, etc. - PWMP *puas

passionate

passionate, quick-tempered - PWMP *Rampaŋ

passive

marker of direct passive - PAN *-en

marker of the adversative passive - PAN *ka- -an₁

passive affix - *(noise)

pass slowly

pass slowly, of time - *(loan)

past

go beyond, go over, go past - PWMP *la(m)baŋ

go past, go beyond - PCEMP *sepat

marker of past time in temporal expressions - PAN *ka-₁

past one’s prime, outdated, obsolete - PPH *laqús

past participle/achieved state - PMP *ka-₇

past tense marker - *(noise)

past, done, gone - *(loan)

past, of time - POC *waRi₂

recall or drag up disagreeable past experiences - PWMP *uŋkat

to brush past, rub or scrape against; draw a line - PMP *garis

to go past, go beyond, be excessive - PPH *lampás

to pass someone by, overtake in walking, go past - PWMP *libas₂

to pass, cross over to the other side; to be past, of time for an action - PWMP *lapas

to walk past in a stooping posture - POC *roko-roko

paste

glue, paste, plaster, caulk - PMP *dalit₁

paste - *(loan)

paste - *(noise)

paste, adhesive (probably made of overcooked rice) - PAN *dekeC

paste, adhesive (probably made of overcooked rice) - PMP *deket₁

paste, stick to - PMP *pilit₁

to stick or paste on - PAN *pa-dekeC

to stick or paste on - PMP *pa-deket

pat

pat, clap - PWMP *ampik

pat, light slap - *-pik (or *-piqik?) (root)

pat, slap lightly - PMP *tapik

pat, slap lightly - POC *tapik

slap, pat - *-bik (root)

patch

a patch, as on clothing - PAN *Capaŋ

a patch, as on clothing - PMP *tapaŋ₁

a patch, as on clothing - PMP *tapel

a patch, as on clothing - PWMP *tapal

a patch; to patch - PAN *Capel

to mend, patch - PMP *tambal

to patch - PWMP *tambel

to patch - PWMP *ma-nambel

to patch, cover with something - PPH *takúp

patches

fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin: Tinea flava or Pityriasis - PMP *panaw₁

path

animal path, trail - PMP *qenuR

follow a path - PPH *taluntún

middle of the road, most trodden part of a path or road; guide who shows the way - PMP *mata nu zalan

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something - PAN *zalan

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something; wake of a boat; the Milky Way - PMP *zalan

path, road, way - POC *salan

side path, branch or fork in path or stream; take a side path or way; crossroads - PMP *simpaŋ

small path or trail - PAN *zalan-zalan

split, forked, as a branch or path - PMP *ma-saŋa

take a side path - POC *siba₁

trim, prune, clear a path - PWMP *basbas₃

pattering

sound of rhythmic pattering - PWMP *tepak-tepak

pattern

cloth with checkered pattern - *(loan)

kind of weaving pattern for basketry - PPH *p<in>usej

link in a chain; joined together, as links in a chain, people in sexual intercourse or marriage; hands joined in crossing pattern in circle dance - PWMP *kawiŋ

mottled pattern - PWMP *patik

textile pattern - *(noise)

to cut out, as a pattern - PWMP *tabas₂

veining pattern on wood or other material - PWMP *kuray

patting

sound of patting or tapping - PAN *pikpik

paunch

paunch - *(noise)

paunchy

paunchy, big-bellied - PWMP *buyequŋ

paunchy, big-bellied - PPh *buyequŋ-an

pave

pave with stones; pile or stack up, arrange, order, put in sequence - PMP *qatuR₁

pave with stones; pile up, arrange, put in an orderly fashion - PWMP *qatuR-an

pawn

pawn - *(loan)

pledge, pawn - *(loan)

pawned

pawned, pledged in place of something else - PWMP *sanda

pay

drop by, pay a visit - PWMP *lawa₃

lower or let down, as on a rope; pay out fishline; launch a boat - PMP *huluR

lower something, pay out rope - PWMP *maŋ-huluR

pay - PMP *bayaD

pay a visit, drop by to see someone - PPH *dálaw

pay for the use of something - PWMP *maŋ-upaq

pay out a rope - PWMP *lu(m)baR

reward, pay - POC *taba₁

to pay for in advance - PPH *taŋpaq

to pay out a rope - PWMP *lumbaR

payment

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PMP *hateD

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PEMP *ated

be paid; payment - PWMP *upaq-an

money, payment, medium of commercial exchange - PCEMP *matay₂

payment for services - PPH *taŋ(e)dan

TOP      pe    ph    pi    pl    po    pr    ps    pt    pu    py    

pe

pea

bean, pea (generic) - PAN-F *qaRidaŋ

peach

peach - PAN-F *lupas₁

peak

apex, peak - PWMP *pa(n)tuk₁

mountain peak, cape of land; tip of anything - PMP *quzuŋ

peak of a mountain - PAN *qapucuk

peak, summit - PWMP *puncek

peak, summit - PPH *pantuk

peak, summit, top - PWMP *puncu

peak, top - PMP *tuŋtuŋ₂

ridge of the roof; ridge of a mountain, peak; deck of a boat; cover the ridgepole with thatch - PMP *bubuŋ₁

pearl

pearl - *(loan)

pearl - *(noise)

peck

beak of a bird; to peck - PAN *tuktuk₁

beak, bill; to peck, of birds, to bite, of a snake - PPH *tukaq

beak; to peck - PWMP *tu(ŋ)kuk

poke, prod, peck - PMP *tukik

to peck - PCMP *tetu

pectoral

ear; various types of bracket fungi; pectoral fins of a fish - POC *taliŋa

peek

peek, peep at - *(near)

peel

bark of a tree; peel off bark - PWMP *pakpak₂

bark, rind, sheath; to peel off bark - PWMP *upak₁

peel - *(near)

peel off bark - POC *babak₂

peel off, of skin; remove the bark of a tree - PMP *bakbak₁

peel off, remove bark - PWMP *bakbak-an

peel off, separate - *(noise)

peel rattan - PMP *raut

peel rattan, bamboo - PAN *rauC

person who peels; thing used to peel (?) - PWMP *pa-ŋulit

scratch, scrape, peel - POC *orit

skin, bark, peel, shell - POC *kulit

split, peel off - PWMP *hupak

to flay, peel back or off, as bark or skin - PCEMP *sisi₃

to nibble at, peel with the teeth - PPH *kutím

to open, peel off - PWMP *ruŋkáb

to peel - PCEMP *bisik₁

to peel - POC *pisik₂

to peel - *(noise)

to peel by hand - POC *pilit₂

to peel off - PWMP *lekup

to peel off skin, bark or leaves; excoriated, decorticated, defoliated - PWMP *laklak

to peel, pare - PPH *tajip-an

to peel, pare - *(noise)

to peel, pare, as fruit or yam; to cut into slices - PPH *tájip

to peel, pare, as yams - PEMP *supi

to peel, skin off - PMP *kelas

to peel, strip off - PCEMP *isi₂

to scrape off, peel off - POC *karasi

to skin or peel, remove the skin or peeling - PWMP *ma-ŋulit

to skin peel off - *-NiC (root)

peeled

peeled, skinned - PWMP *bebak₁

peeling

cracked, peeling, of skin - PWMP *kur(i)siŋ

peeling skin - *-bak₁ (root)

peeling, rind - *(noise)

rind or peeling - *(noise)

rind, peeling of fruits or tubers - PAN *kuliC

shell, peeling, skin - POC *bwala

shell, peeling, skin - POC *bwara

to skin or peel, remove the skin or peeling - PWMP *ma-ŋulit

peep

a peep, squeak, giggle - PMP *kik

baby chick; to peep, of chicks - PMP *piqek

chirp, peep - PWMP *ciap

peep, cheep - PMP *kiuk

peep, cheep - PMP *piek

peep, cheep - POC *piok

peep, peer at - PWMP *liŋliŋ

peep, twitter - PWMP *pit

to peep, spy on - PPH *siq(e)rip

to peep, spy on - PPH *siq(e)rip-en

to peep, spy on, to stalk - PWMP *subuk₁

to peep, squeak - PWMP *kihik

peep at

peek, peep at - *(near)

peeping

baby chick; peeping of chick - PMP *piak

peeping of chick - PWMP *piuk-piuk

peeping of chicks - PWMP *piqek-piqek

peer

border on, neighbor; peer, equal - PWMP *sidiŋ

peep, peer at - PWMP *liŋliŋ

peltata

a vine: Merremia peltata - POC *paliaRua

pen

cage, as for an animal; to enclose in a cage or pen - PWMP *kuruŋ

coop, as for chickens; pen, as for pigs - PPH *taŋkal

enclosure, pen for animals - PWMP *kandaŋ

fence; animal pen; fortification - POC *bala₄

fence; animal pen; fortification - POC *baRa

fence; animal pen; fortification - POC *bara₄

pen, enclosure for domesticated animals - PMP *bala₂

pen, enclosure for domesticated animals - PMP *baRa₂

pen, enclosure for domesticated animals - PMP *bara₁

pencil

pencil - *(loan)

pendant

ear pendant - PWMP *tiŋgaʔ

penetrate

enter, penetrate - PMP *dusuk

enter, penetrate - PWMP *hacuk

enter, penetrate - PAN *sejep

enter, penetrate - PMP *selep

enter, penetrate, insert - PWMP *hasuk

enter, penetrate; bold, of persons - PMP *tama₂

enter, penetrate; bold, of persons - PMP *tamaq₂

enter, penetrate; to set, of the sun - PMP *surup₁

go right through, penetrate through and through - PWMP *terus

insert, penetrate, enter - *-suk (or *suquk?) (root)

insert, pierce, penetrate - PAN *Cesek

penetrate - PMP *serep

penetrate, get attached to - PWMP *sebet

pierce, penetrate - PAN *CekCek

pierce, penetrate - PMP *tektek₂

pierce, penetrate - PMP *tesek

pierce, penetrate - PWMP *la(m)pus₂

pierce, penetrate - *(near)

pierce, penetrate - *(noise)

pierce, penetrate; insert - PAN *suksuk

press into, penetrate; enter crouching; drive in stakes - PMP *usuk

to enter, penetrate, pierce - PAN *s<um>uksuk

to pierce, penetrate, skewer - PWMP *ma-nusuk

peninsula

peninsula cape - *(loan)

penis

erect, of the penis - PPh *utúg

hernia; to slip down, slip off, pull back the foreskin of the penis - PMP *luslus

notch, as in a tree trunk; notch-shaped area under the glans penis - PWMP *etak

penis - PAN *qutiN

penis - PMP *qutin

penis - POC *na qutin

penis - POC *ule

penis - PMP *lasuq₂

penis - *(loan)

penis of a little boy - PPH *tutuy

wood; strong; stiff; penis (colloquial) - POC *kayu

pennant

banner, pennant - *(loan)

pentandra

silk cotton tree: Ceiba pentandra Linn. - PPh *buybuy

the kapok tree: Ceiba pentandra - PMP *kabu-kabu

people

carry a load between two people - PPH *tuaŋ₂

carry on a shoulder pole between two people - PWMP *ataŋ₂

caw, as a crow; raucous talking of people - PWMP *gakgak

crowded with people - PPh *ma-tau

crowded; mass of people - POC *puŋa₂

disposal of objects, banishment of people - PWMP *paŋ-buaŋ-an

it is said, people say..... - PMP *kunu₂

it is said, people say..... - PPH *kunuq

it is said, people say..... - PWMP *ken

it is said, people say..... - PWMP *kenu

link in a chain; joined together, as links in a chain, people in sexual intercourse or marriage; hands joined in crossing pattern in circle dance - PWMP *kawiŋ

old, of people - PAN *Rudaŋ

old, of people - PWMP *laki₂

old, of people - PAN *ma-tuqaS

old, of people; mature, as fruit - PMP *tuqah

old, of people; primary forest, old forest - PAN *tuqaS

old, of people; very, extremely; to die, dead (euphemism) - PMP *ma-tuqah

older people, elders - PAN *tuqaS tuqaS

older people, elders - PMP *tuqah tuqah

outsiders, alien people - PMP *qaRta

outsiders, alien people - PMP *qulun₁

someone; other people; be different - PAN *duma

thin, of people and animals - PMP *ma-niwaŋ

thinness, of people and animals - PMP *niwaŋ

to separate people, disperse a gathering - PWMP *butas₁

to separate, as two people - PAN *waray

two, of people - PAN *da-duSa

two, of people - PMP *da-duha

two, of people - POC *ra-rua

pepper

betel pepper - PWMP *Rawed

betel pepper - PPH *gawed

betel pepper - *(loan)

betel pepper: Piper betle - PMP *bu-bulu

betel pepper: Piper betle - POC *pu-pulu

fruit of the betel pepper - PAN *pudu

leaf of a vine chewed with betel nut, betel pepper: Piper betle - PWMP *buyuq

pepper; to sting, of a wound or spices in food - PMP *lajaq

pepper (black)

pepper (black) - *(loan)

perceive

to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight - PMP *deŋeR

to hear; what is heard, news; to perceive by any sense other than sight - POC *roŋoR

to know (a person), recognize, be acquainted with; to feel, perceive - PAN *kilala

perceived

unnoticed, not perceived - *(noise)

perception

mental perception - PMP *mata nu qatay

perch

a fish, the climbing perch: Anabas testudineus - PWMP *puyu₁

a fish, the climbing perch: Anabas testudineus - PWMP *puyu-puyu

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod - PWMP *kurapu

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PMP *kuRapu

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PWMP *kuRapuq

marine fish: sea perch - PWMP *kaReteŋ

perch, roosting place for chickens - PPH *hapun-an

sea perch: Lutjanus sp. - POC *tasiwa

percussive

a percussive musical instrument or ensemble: the gamelan - PWMP *kulintaŋ

perfect

to complete, perfect something - PMP *bales₂

to perfect, complete something - POC *palos

perfective

perfective marker - PAN *<in>

perforate

a hole; make a hole in, perforate - PPH *lubut

drill through, pierce, perforate - POC *paRo₁

perforated

have a hole; be perforated - POC *posu

have a hole; be perforated - PMP *pesuk

have a hole; be perforated - POC *posuk

punctured, perforated so that the contents spill out - PWMP *busbus-en

perform

do something with someone else, perform an action together - PAN *mi-da-duSa

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

do, perform - *(noise)

make, do, perform - PWMP *maR-buhat

weak, feeble, unable to perform - PPH *ma-kápuy

weakness, debility; feeble, unable to perform - PPH *kápuy

performance

deed, action, performance - PWMP *paR-buhat-an

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

perfuming

plant used for perfuming the body - POC *bubu₃

perhaps

a small stinging plant, perhaps Laportea interrupta - POC *karat₂

coastal tree, perhaps Pongamia pinnata - POC *pesi

conjunction: or, if; perhaps; because - PMP *ba₁

marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any - PMP *baraŋ₁

marker of indefiniteness: if, perhaps, hopefully; or; any - POC *baraŋ₂

maybe, perhaps, possibly - PPH *bakáq

or, because, but, perhaps - POC *ba₁

small reef fish, perhaps damselfish - POC *tokuku

period

duration of time, time period - PWMP *tagal

field hut; temporary shelter used when working for extended periods in fields far from the village - PAN-F *taRuqan

period in which a widow may not remarry - *(loan)

periodically

periodically stopping - PWMP *endaŋ endaŋ

periwinkle

small snail or periwinkle - PMP *sisi₁

permission

ask permission - *(noise)

permission - *(loan)

permission - *(noise)

permit

allow, agree, accept, permit - POC *taRamwi

to allow, permit - PWMP *tuRut-i

perplexity

confusion, perplexity - PAN *ulaw

pers

1st pers. incl. genitive; our - PAN *n-ita

persimmon

kind of ebony or persimmon tree with fruits that are pounded and used to stupefy fish: Diospyros spp. - PPH *kanúmay

persist

able to resist or persist, as rice grains that are difficult to husk - PWMP *betaq₁

persist in an endeavor - PWMP *atag

to continue, persist in something - PPH *layun

person

a person who turns or grinds something; an instrument used for rolling or grinding - PWMP *paŋ-giliŋ

bachelor; young unmarried person - POC *tau paqoRu

balanced, as a person in walking, or two weights opposite one another - PWMP *timbaŋ

bald; a bald person - POC *palala

be married, person married - PPh *qasawa-en

bottom up, as a person bent far forward toward the ground - PWMP *tuad

carry a person pick-a-back; ride pick-a-back - PAN *baba₁

carry a person pick-a-back; ride pick-a-back - PMP *baba₁

carry between two or more persons - PMP *bintiŋ

carry between two persons - PMP *qusuŋ

carry on a pole between two persons; help someone carry a load - PWMP *bulig

carry on a pole between two persons; help someone carry a load - PPh *bulig-an

enter, penetrate; bold, of persons - PMP *tama₂

enter, penetrate; bold, of persons - PMP *tamaq₂

heart of a person or animal; purple heart-shaped inflorescence of banana plant - PMP *pusuq₁

nudge, bump against another person - PWMP *da(m)pil

object of respect; distinguished or respected person - PWMP *empu-an

old, older person, elder; old stand forest - POC *matuqa

one who has died, dead person - POC *m<in>ate

person - *(loan)

person or instrument that grinds or sharpens - PWMP *paŋ-hasaq

person or place from which something is borrowed - PWMP *hinzam-an

person who leads or escorts another; means of leading or escorting - PWMP *paŋ-hateD

person who peels; thing used to peel (?) - PWMP *pa-ŋulit

person who suffers from extreme flatulence - PWMP *paŋ-qetut-an

person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so - PWMP *i-anu, si-anu

person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so - PMP *sanu

person whose name is unknown, avoided or cannot be remembered: who? - PPh *si-nu

person, human being - PAN *Cau

person, human being - PMP *tau₁

person, human being - PMP *tau-mata

protruding, of the bones of a skinny (bony) person - PWMP *ka-tuqela-tuqelaŋ

raise the eyebrows as a signal to another person; to furrow the brows (?) - PWMP *kindat

short in height, squat and compact in build, of a person - PMP *pandak

soul, spirit of a living person - PPH *ka-du-duhá

sound produced by an animal; unintelligible muttering of a person - PAN *ŋawŋaw

sucking noise made as a signal to another person - PMP *misik

thin, of persons and animals - PAN *ma-Niwaŋ

thwart, crosspiece, as one used to restrain person; lie athwart or across - PWMP *balagbag

to bend over, as a person - PMP *pikut₁

to bind, tie the hands or feet, as a person in detention, or an animal to be slaughtered; restraining rope - PMP *Rapus

to call on a person to do something - PAN *suRuq₂

was escorted or brought; person escorted, thing brought - PWMP *h<in>ateD

wrestle, seize and throw a person to the ground - PPH *ludeg

personal

2sg. personal pronoun: you - PAN *iSu

2sg. personal pronoun: you - PMP *iu₃

3sg. personal pronoun: he, she, it - PAN *si ia₁

3sg. personal pronoun: he, she; him, her, it - PAN *ia₁

genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb - PAN *ni

genitive of plural personal names - PAN *na₃

locative case marker for plural personal names - PMP *daₐ

long feathers used for personal adornment - PAN-F *RiNaS

nominative case marker for plural personal names - PAN *sa₁

nominative case marker for singular personal names or kin terms used as personal names - PAN *si₁

oblique case marker for personal nouns - PAN *ki₂

oblique case marker for plural personal names - PAN *ka₃

oblique case marker for singular personal nouns - PMP *ki₂ₐ

personal article - PAN *i₃

personality

weak, frail; gentle in personality - PWMP *lemu

perspiration

sweat, perspiration - PMP *atiŋ

sweat, perspiration - PWMP *liŋet

sweat, perspiration - PMP *qatiŋ

persuade

entice, persuade - *(noise)

pes-caprae

beach creepers, including Ipomoea grandiflora and Ipomoea pes-caprae - POC *puRe₂

creeping vine that grows on sandy beaches, the beach morning glory: Ipomoea pes-caprae - PPH *balinu

peso (unit of Spanish currency)

peso (unit of Spanish currency) - *(loan)

pestle

pestle - PAN *qaSelu

pestle - PMP *qahelu

pestle - *(loan)

rice pestle - PMP *anak i lesuŋ

rice pestle - PMP *balu₂

rice pestle - PWMP *laq(e)lu

rice pestle - PWMP *lalu₂

to pound with a pestle - PMP *lubuk₂

pet

pet animal, animal that is tamed by humans feeding it - POC *paŋan-i

small parrot or parakeet kept as a pet - PPH *kulasísi

to play; plaything, toy; pet - PWMP *qayam₃

vulva, vagina; pet name for girls - PWMP *uki

petition

request, petition - *(loan)

TOP      pe    ph    pi    pl    po    pr    ps    pt    pu    py    

ph

phalanger

cuscus, phalanger - PCEMP *kandoRa

cuscus, phalanger - POC *kadoRa

Phaseolus

lima bean: Phaseolus lunatus - PPH *pataniq

the mung bean: Phaseolus spp. - PWMP *balatuŋ

pheasant

Argus pheasant - *(loan)

the male of Swinhoe’s blue pheasant - PAN-F *RiNaS-an

pheasant-dove

kind of bird: pheasant-dove? - POC *kua kua

phenomena

power in natural phenomena; thunder, storm wind - POC *mana₂

Philippine

kind of citrus fruit, Philippine orange - PPH *kutay

Philippine cedar tree: Cedrela sp. - PPH *kalantas

phlegm

phlegm; cough up phlegm - PWMP *dahak

phosphorescent

phosphorescent centipede (?) - PWMP *andap

Phragmites

a plant, Phragmites spp. - PAN *qaReNu

TOP      pe    ph    pi    pl    po    pr    ps    pt    pu    py    

pi

pick

lift, raise, pick up - PWMP *aŋkat

lift, raise, pick up - PWMP *maR-aŋkat

lift, raise, pick up - PWMP *taR-aŋkat

pick or clean the teeth - PWMP *sisig

pick or knock down fruit with a pole - PMP *su(ŋ)kit

pick out with the fingers - PCMP *kisi

pick up - PWMP *pu(n)zut

pick up - *(noise)

pick up or carry dangling from the fingers - PWMP *maŋ-bitbit

pick up or carry dangling from the fingers - PWMP *maR-bitbit

pick up with the fingers - PWMP *pundut

pick, pluck (as fruit) - PMP *pupu₁

pick, pluck (as fruit) - PMP *puqpuq₁

pick, pluck, break off - PMP *ketuq

pinch, squeeze, press between two surfaces; pluck, pick off - PAN *pitpit₂

skewer something so as to pick it up without touching it - PPH *tuRsúk

to choose, select, pick out - PWMP *ma-miliq

to choose, select, pick out - PWMP *maR-piliq

to choose, select, pick out - PAN *p<um>iliq

to choose, to select; to pick out - PAN *piliq

to pick up with something to avoid getting dirty or burned - PAN *saput₂

to pick up with tongs or pincers - PPh *sipít-en

to pick, as fruit from a tree using a pole with a hook - PPH *su(ŋ)kit-en

to pick, pluck fruit - PWMP *putik₂

pick-a-back

carry a person pick-a-back; ride pick-a-back - PAN *baba₁

carry a person pick-a-back; ride pick-a-back - PMP *baba₁

carry pick-a-back - PPh *aba₂

pickaxe

pickaxe, mattock, hoe - *(loan)

picked

be picked up or carried dangling from the fingers - PWMP *bitbit-en

picking

picking of fruit; falling out of teeth - PPH *tipuq

pickle

pickles, to pickle - *(loan)

pickles, to pickle - *(loan)

to pickle, preserve meat or fish - PAN-F *umaS

pickled

pickled fish - *(loan)

pick up

pick up, take with fingers - *(loan)

pictum

ornamental shrub used for hedges Graptophyllum pictum - PWMP *qatay qatay₂

piece

add a piece - PWMP *timbaw₁

be chopped into pieces, be minced, as meat or vegetables; what is chopped up or minced - PAN *tektek-en

break into several large pieces - PAN *peceq₁

break into several large pieces; hatch - PMP *pesak

break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg - PMP *peceq₂

break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg - POC *posaq

break off a component piece of something, as twigs or branches from a tree, a banana from a bunch, a section from a fruit, etc. - PPH *sipíq

break to pieces - PWMP *Repak

break to pieces - PWMP *Repik

break up into small pieces - PPH *sagsag-en

break up, fall into pieces, scatter, disperse - PWMP *baRbaR

broken piece of rope or string - PWMP *butes

chop or hack into pieces - PWMP *ma-nektek

chopping to pieces, cutting up, as meat or vegetables - PAN *tektek₁

connecting piece - *(noise)

connecting piece - *(noise)

crumble, break into small pieces - PWMP *remay

cut into pieces - PMP *keleŋ₁

cut, slice into pieces, as breadfruit or taro - POC *siba

fragment, piece broken off - *(noise)

fragment, piece of something - PCEMP *ŋaŋar

fragment, split-off piece - PMP *ŋarŋar

hack, chop into pieces - PAN *saksak₁

in pieces, break open - *-ceq (root)

large piece or chunk of meat, etc. - PWMP *la(m)paŋ

moon, month; menstruation; shell disk collar piece - PMP *bulan₃

piece (of cloth...) - *(loan)

piece broken off, husk - PWMP *upek

piece of wood used for a purpose; lie athwart, as a beam - PWMP *bali(n)taŋ

piece, numeral classifier - *(loan)

slice, cut into pieces - PWMP *sayat

split apart; piece split off - PWMP *buŋkaq

to cut off a piece - PCMP *lolan

to cut off small pieces; to chip off bit by bit - PWMP *ma-ñapsap

piecemeal

transport piecemeal; tranport through repeated trips - PAN *SakuC

transport piecemeal; transport through repeated trips - PMP *hakut

transport piecemeal; transport through repeated trips - PWMP *maŋ-hakut

pierce

drill through, pierce, perforate - POC *paRo₁

insert, pierce, penetrate - PAN *Cesek

pierce or remove with a needle - PMP *sulam

pierce the ground - PAN *hesek

pierce, as wth a needle; extract by piercing - PMP *suŋkit

pierce, penetrate - PAN *CekCek

pierce, penetrate - PMP *tektek₂

pierce, penetrate - PMP *tesek

pierce, penetrate - PWMP *la(m)pus₂

pierce, penetrate - *(near)

pierce, penetrate - *(noise)

pierce, penetrate; insert - PAN *suksuk

pierce, skewer - *(noise)

pierce, skewer or string together - PMP *tusuk

pierce, stab - PMP *rusuk

pierce, stab - PAN *tebek

stab, pierce, kill - PWMP *maR-bunuq

stick with a pin, pierce - PPH *tedak

strike, beat; pierce; kill; extinguish (a fire) - POC *punuq₃

to enter, penetrate, pierce - PAN *s<um>uksuk

to pierce, penetrate, skewer - PWMP *ma-nusuk

to pierce, stab - PCMP *dodok

to pierce, to stab - PAN *t<um>ebek

to pierce, to stab - PWMP *maŋ-tebek

to poke into, pierce, insert - PWMP *ma-ñuksuk

pierced

be pierced, be stabbed - PWMP *tebek-en

ear plug, roll of leaves, etc. inserted through pierced ear - PWMP *subeŋ

was pierced, was stabbed - PWMP *t<in>ebek

piercing

pierce, as wth a needle; extract by piercing - PMP *suŋkit

piercing sound - PPH *tileŋ

piety

works of piety, charity - *(loan)

pig

coop, as for chickens; pen, as for pigs - PPH *taŋkal

domesticated pig - PMP *babuy banua

domesticated pig - PMP *babuy lebu

domesticated pig - PAN *beRek

drive pigs into a net - POC *bubuR₂

male pig, boar - PPh *butakál

mix foods, as in preparing pig’s fodder - PWMP *bahuR

pig - PAN *babuy₃

pig - POC *boRok

pig - *(loan)

pig - *(noise)

pig bristles; type of sea urchin with thin black spines - PMP *bulu ni babuy

pork, flesh of a pig - PPH *lamán

root up the ground, of a pig; uproot - PMP *sual

slurp up food or water, eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *sabsab

slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *tabtab₂

wild pig - PMP *babuy halas

pigeon

dove, pigeon - PWMP *acaŋ

kind of dove or pigeon - POC *kurukuru

pigeon or dove sp. - POC *kupuR

pigeon, dove (domesticated) - *(loan)

piggery

pigpen, pigsty, piggery - PAN *babuy-an

piggyback

carry piggyback - POC *papa₁

pigpen

pigpen - *(noise)

pigpen, pigsty, piggery - PAN *babuy-an

pigsty

pigpen, pigsty, piggery - PAN *babuy-an

pile

group, pile - PMP *hebun

heap up, pile up (as earth); dam - PMP *limbun

heap, pile - POC *opun

heap, pile - POC *upun₂

heap, pile, collection - PMP *hubun₂

heap, pile, collection - PWMP *umpuk

heap, pile, collection - PWMP *umpuk-an

heap, pile, cover with earth; collect, assemble - *-bun (or *-bequn?) (root)

heap, pile, swarm, flock; to swarm, assemble, gather - PMP *ebun

heap, pile; cover up - PWMP *tumbun

heap, pile; elevated platform used as a look-out - PWMP *paŋguŋ

pave with stones; pile or stack up, arrange, order, put in sequence - PMP *qatuR₁

pave with stones; pile up, arrange, put in an orderly fashion - PWMP *qatuR-an

pile up, arrange, put in an orderly fashion - PWMP *maŋ-qatuR

to heap up, make a pile - PWMP *simpuk

to pile up earth or rocks, heap up so as to obstruct - PWMP *t<um>ambak

to stack up, pile in layers - PMP *susun

pilfering

pilfering, filching, stealing small amounts - PPH *kúpit

piling

drive in, erect, as a piling - PMP *uzeg

pillage

to seize, take by force, snatch from another’s hands; pillage - PPH *samsám

pillar

housepost, pillar - PAN-F *qelud

post, pillar - POC *tura

post, pillar - *(loan)

post, stake, pillar - PPH *tendek₁

pillow

to rest the head against something; pillow - PPH *puŋan

wooden headrest, pillow - PMP *qalunan

pimple

pimple - PMP *gintil

to husk rice; be afflicted with pimples on the skin resembling rice grains - PWMP *beRas-en

pin

stick with a pin, pierce - PPH *tedak

pincer

pincer of crustaceans; press together, pinch, squeeze - PMP *qipit₂

pincer of crustaceans; tongs; press together, pinch, squeeze - PAN *qipit₁

pincers, tongs - PWMP *ca(R)pit

pincers, tongs - PWMP *sa(R)pit

to pick up with tongs or pincers - PPh *sipít-en

tongs, pincers - PPH *pa-nípit

tongs, pincers, claw of a crab or lobster; to pinch or squeeze - PAN *sipit

pinch

clamp, pinch together - PWMP *sapit

narrow; pinch between tongs, etc. - PAN *kipit

narrow; to pinch; tongs - PWMP *supit

pincer of crustaceans; press together, pinch, squeeze - PMP *qipit₂

pincer of crustaceans; tongs; press together, pinch, squeeze - PAN *qipit₁

pinch - PCMP *bitil₂

pinch - PMP *kunut

pinch - PWMP *kuzut

pinch - *(noise)

pinch off - PAN *ketil

pinch or squeeze between two surfaces - PPh *higpít

pinch together - PMP *atip

pinch together - PWMP *gu(m)pit

pinch together; tongs, etc. for pinching things together - PWMP *biR(e)tiŋ

pinch, nip, pluck - PMP *kinit

pinch, press between; fasten thatch together with slats in roofing a house - PMP *kapit

pinch, squeeze - POC *apit

pinch, squeeze - POC *bibit

pinch, squeeze between - PMP *gepit

pinch, squeeze, enclose - PWMP *maŋ-hapit

pinch, squeeze, press - PWMP *zapit

pinch, squeeze, press between two surfaces; pluck, pick off - PAN *pitpit₂

pinch, squeeze, press together - PMP *qatip₂

pinch, squeeze; knead - PAN *pisel

pinch, take up with the fingers - PWMP *zepit

squeeze between; pinch, take between fingers - PMP *Ri(m)pit

to pinch - PAN *geCel

to pinch - PMP *getel

to pinch - PAN *getil

to pinch - PPH *k<um>ezut

to pinch off - PPH *ketél

to pinch or squeeze, as with tongs - PWMP *s<um>ipit

to pinch someone - PWMP *kedut-en

to pinch someone or something - PWMP *ma-ŋezut

to pinch, as with the nails - PWMP *kezut₂

to pinch, as with tongs - POC *sikop

to pinch, hold between the fingers - PPH *pidut

to pinch, squeeze between - PWMP *ma-ñipit

tongs, pincers, claw of a crab or lobster; to pinch or squeeze - PAN *sipit

pinched

be pinched off - PPH *ketel-én

be pinched or squeezed by - PPh *higpit-en

be pinched, squeezed, or pressed - PAN *pitpit-en

pinching

blow the nose by pinching off one nostril - PMP *eseŋ

pinch together; tongs, etc. for pinching things together - PWMP *biR(e)tiŋ

pinching apparatus - PWMP *hapit-an

pinching apparatus - PWMP *hapit hapit

tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching - PAN *qapiC

tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching - PMP *qapit

pinching off

pinching off, shearing off - *(loan)

pine

pine tree, pitch pine - PAN *saleŋ

pineapple

pineapple - *(loan)

pinkie

little finger, pinkie - PMP *anak i lima

pinky

little finger, pinky - PMP *kiŋkiŋ₃

little finger, pinky - PWMP *kaliŋkiŋ

Pinna

bivalve mollusc, possibly Pinna sp. - POC *sapulu

pinnata

coastal tree, perhaps Pongamia pinnata - POC *pesi

kind of fruit tree: Pometia pinnata - PMP *tawan

the sugar palm Arenga saccharifera, Arenga pinnata - PWMP *izuk

pipe

smoking pipe - *(loan)

Piper

betel pepper: Piper betle - PMP *bu-bulu

betel pepper: Piper betle - POC *pu-pulu

leaf of a vine chewed with betel nut, betel pepper: Piper betle - PWMP *buyuq

Pipturus

a plant: Pipturus argenteus - PMP *adamay

Pisonia

a fruit-bearing plant: Pisonia umbellifera - PMP *anuliŋ

pit

burial pit - PAN *lubaŋ₁

cavity, pit, den; to excavate a pit - PMP *baŋbaŋ₃

hole, pit - PAN *buhaŋ

hole, pit - PMP *lubaŋ₁ₐ

hole, pit - PWMP *Ruqaŋ

pit of the stomach - PWMP *qulu ni qatay

pit two opponents against each other - PWMP *sabuŋ₁

pit, deep cavity in the ground - PMP *lumbuŋ₁

pull up, as out of a pit or out of water - PMP *bantun

to bury, place in a pit or hole - PAN *l<um>ubaŋ

to dig a hole or pit - PWMP *maR-lubaŋ

vessel for fetching water from a well, objects from a pit, etc - PMP *timba

pitch

pine tree, pitch pine - PAN *saleŋ

pitfall

hole, cavern, pitfall - PPh *bítu

pitfall or trail spikes made of sharpened bamboo - PMP *suja

pitfall or trail spikes made of sharpened bamboo - POC *suca

spear; sharpened pitfall stake - POC *ona₂

pith

extract the pith from the sago palm - PMP *saku₁

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

pith - *(noise)

pith of a tree - POC *quto

pith of plants or trees; core or middle of something - PMP *qunej

pithy

pithy ball inside sprouted coconut, coconut endosperm - POC *piri

pithy; central - PPh *ma-qunej

pithy; central - PPh *qunej-en

pity

expression of pity or affection - PMP *ka-qasiq-an

mercy, pity, affection - PMP *ka-qasiq

pity, compassion - *(noise)

pity, compassion, affection, love, sympathy, forgiveness - PMP *qasiq

to pity, have mercy on, feel compassion for - PMP *ma-qasiq

too bad! it’s a pity! what a shame! - PWMP *sayaŋ

Pityriasis

fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin: Tinea flava or Pityriasis - PMP *panaw₁

TOP      pe    ph    pi    pl    po    pr    ps    pt    pu    py    

pl

pl

2p. pl. pronoun: you - PCEMP *imi

place

abode, place of residence - PMP *tahan

anaphoric or relative particle: there, previously mentioned place - POC *ai₁

animal haunt, place frequented by animals - PAN *qenuR-an₁

animal haunt, place frequented by animals - PMP *qenuR-an₂

back area, place at the back? - PAN *likud-an

backrest, place to lean back against - PWMP *sandaR-an

clothesline, place to hang washed clothing - PMP *sampay-an

come to rest in a definite place, settle down, as birds on a tree - PMP *tekas

come to shore, settle down in a place; sit, squat - POC *toka₂

cover with thatch; place of thatching - PWMP *qatep-an

covered with thatch; place of thatching - PWMP *q<in>atep-an

deep place in a river - PMP *liku₁

deep place in river; pool of water left when a stream dries up - PPH *lib(e)tuŋ

deep place in water - *(noise)

dwell, reside, live in a place - PAN *ian₂

eating place (?) - PWMP *amaq-an

elevated place - PWMP *paŋguŋ-an

fortified place; village - POC *koro₂

frighten off birds or animals from the fields; place used to frighten off birds or animals from the fields - PWMP *buRaw-an

grinding stone, place where foods are ground up or instrument for grinding them - PWMP *giliŋ-an

hearth, cooking place - PWMP *dapuR-an

hide, stay in a tight or hidden place - PPH *lukluk

last compartment in a fishtrap, place where fish are caught - PWMP *bunuq-an₂

location, place where one stays - PWMP *paR-ian-an

look over a wide area, search for something with the eyes while standing in place - PPH *nanaw

lost, as in a crowd or in an unfamilar place - PWMP *tawtaw

mooring place, place where a boat is tied - PWMP *talih-an

move, change place - PMP *aliq

nest, nesting place - PPH *pugad-an

passageway, place where one has walked - PAN *zalan-an

pawned, pledged in place of something else - PWMP *sanda

perch, roosting place for chickens - PPH *hapun-an

person or place from which something is borrowed - PWMP *hinzam-an

place covered by shallow water - PWMP *limbuŋ

place in the mountains - PWMP *bukij-an

place in the sun - PPh *qalejaw-an

place into which something is poured - PPh *buqbuq-an

place of ashes - PWMP *paR-qabu-an

place of ashes; hearth - PAN *qabu-an

place of blowing - PAN *Seyup-an

place of blowing - PMP *heyup-an

place of burning - *(noise)

place of drinking - PWMP *hiRup-an

place of killing or slaughtering - PWMP *bunuq-an₁

place of residence - PWMP *ian-an

place of residence - *(noise)

place of sewing - PAN *CaqiS-an

place of sewing - PMP *taqih-an

place salted - PWMP *qasin-an

place something near a fire - PAN *daŋdaŋ-an

place that has been dug up - PAN *k<in>alih-an

place that has been dug up - PMP *k<in>ali-an

place to dry wood - PWMP *salay-an

place where chickens are kept - PWMP *manuk-an

place where fish or meat are smoked - PWMP *tapa-an

place where one eats - PAN *ka-kaen-an

place where one eats; food - PAN *kaen-an

place where one rests the head: wooden headrest - PMP *qulun-an

place where one spends the night - PWMP *paR-beRŋi-an

place where one washes - PAN *Siñaw-an

place where one washes - PMP *hiñaw-an

place where ridgepole covering has been attached - PWMP *b<in>ubuŋ-an

place where salt is found; salt beds - PPh *paŋ-qasin-an

place where something grows or is added - PWMP *tubuq-an

place where something is fetched - PWMP *paŋ-alap-an

place where water flows - PMP *qaliR-an

place which is unknown or cannot be remembered: where? - PAN *i-nu

place, spot - *(loan)

pool, deep place in water; swamp - PCMP *tibu₁

pound together, place of pounding together - PPh *asud-án

prefix indicating place of origin (for ethnic groups) - PPH *taga-

put in place - *(noise)

raise, place something upright - PWMP *baŋun-an

sacred place - PWMP *tampuk₂

secret place - PWMP *sulib

sheltered place - PWMP *siduŋ

sheltered place (?) - PWMP *linduŋ-an

sheltered water: deep place in a river; cove, harbor, lagoon - PMP *namaw

sit, squat; come to rest; stay in a place; settle down, as birds on a tree - POC *toka₃

sleeping place; bed - PWMP *pa-tuduR-an

sleeping place; bed - PWMP *tuduR-an

stay, dwell in a place - POC *mono

step on, place one's foot on - PMP *re(n)zak

stony place, stony ground - PWMP *ka-batu-an

taking place at night - PPH *Rabi-en

the place where something is stolen (nonpast local passive) - PWMP *paŋ-takaw-an

to arrive, reach a place - PMP *dateŋ

to bury, place in a pit or hole - PAN *l<um>ubaŋ

to carry off, kidnap, loot a place - PWMP *ma-naban

to carry off, kidnap, loot a place - PWMP *maR-taban

to desert a place - PPH *layas

to place a bet - PPH *i-tayáɁ

to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely - PMP *dapet

to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely - PPH *dápat

to put something in a high place or reach a high place by climbing - PPH *saŋ(e)qát

to store, put away for safekeeping, hide valuables; to place a bet in gambling; lay an egg - PMP *taRuq

village, place of residence - *(loan)

village; place of residence - PAN *taNaS

placed

coiled base on which cooking pots are set or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *riken

coiled base on which cooking pots are set, or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *Riken

pad placed under cooking pots, loads to carry on the head, etc. - PPH *dikén

stand or be placed near to someone or something - PPH *saiŋ

trivet, arrangement of three stones on which the cooking pot is placed - PMP *dalikan

what is laid, placed or put down - PWMP *t<in>aRuq

placenta

placenta, afterbirth - PMP *tabuni₁

placenta, afterbirth - POC *tapuni

plain

coastal plain (?) - PCMP *tetun

level ground; plain - PWMP *pataR₂

plain, region of level land - PAN *ka-dataR-an

plait

plait (mats, baskets, etc.) - PMP *añam

plait a cord, twist, wrap around - PMP *pirit

plait, braid - PMP *añem

plait, weave - PWMP *ayam

plait, weave (mats, baskets) - PWMP *ma-añam

plait, weave (mats, baskets) - PWMP *maŋ-añam

to plait (as a mat) - POC *tikV

to plait, as mats or baskets - PWMP *man-laja

to plait, weave (as mats, baskets) - PMP *batuR₁

to plait, weave by hand, of baskets or mats - PWMP *laja

to plait, weave by hand, of baskets or mats - PPH *l<um>aja

to weave, plait (as a basket, door, fence) - POC *pai₂

plaited

bag of plaited palm leaves - PWMP *bayuquŋ

plaited palm leaf bag or pouch - PWMP *kampil

what has been plaited or woven - PWMP *añam-en

plaiting

a plant, the bast fibers of which are used in binding and plaiting: Maranta dichotoma - PWMP *banban

kind of pandanus with leaves useful for plaiting - PCEMP *ima₂

plaiting of a mat - POC *tiki

plaitwork

kind of plaitwork - PWMP *kalamata

wattle, bamboo plaitwork construction for walls - PWMP *sasag

plan

plan, design, project - *(noise)

Planchonella

a tree: Planchonella obovata - PPH *banisah

plane

carpenter’s plane - *(loan)

to scrape smooth, to plane a surface - PAN-F *RuSRuS

planed lumber

planed lumber - *(loan)

plank

board, plank - *(noise)

board, plank, side of canoe - POC *baban

broad, flat rock shaped like a plank - PWMP *batu papan

gunwale, side plank on canoe - *(loan)

log or plank bridge - PWMP *taytay-an

plank, board; floor boards of house - PMP *papan

side of the face, cheek; side planks of a canoe - POC *babaR

thick, as a plank - PWMP *kapal

thick, as a plank - PWMP *ma-kapal

walk over a plank or log bridge - PWMP *ma-naytay

plant

a climbing plant: Wedelia biflora - PMP *qatay qatay₁

a creeping plant: Hydrocotyle asiatica - PWMP *paŋgaga

a flowering plant: Ixora spp. - PPH *santán

a fruit-bearing plant: Pisonia umbellifera - PMP *anuliŋ

a lily-like plant: Crinum asiaticum L. - PAN *bakuŋ₁

a pandanus, Pandanus odoratissimus; a mat made from the leaves of this plant - POC *kiRe

a plant in the banana family, probably Musa textilis - PPH *qaRutay

a plant used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PMP *bunat

a plant used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - POC *punat

a plant with flowers the shape of a dog's tail, used to treat abscesses - PMP *ikuR ikuR ni asu

a plant with root used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PPH *tub(e)liq

a plant with roots that are pounded and put in rivers to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PAN *tuba

a plant with toxic properties, Erioglossum edule or Lepisanthes rubiginosa - PWMP *kalayu

a plant yielding useful fibers: Thespesia populnea - PMP *balu₁

a plant, Leea spp. - PMP *mali-mali

a plant, Phragmites spp. - PAN *qaReNu

a plant, Solanum spp. - PPH *sili-sili

a plant, sesame: Sesamum indicum - PAN-F *Samud

a plant, the bast fibers of which are used in binding and plaiting: Maranta dichotoma - PWMP *banban

a plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance) - PAN-F *tanaq

a plant: Astronia spp., Melastomataceae - PPH *tuŋaw₂

a plant: Begonia aptera (Hay) - PAN-F *qanus₁

a plant: Bixa orellana - PWMP *galugaʔ

a plant: Calamus spp. - PWMP *zariaŋaw

a plant: Cassia sp. - PWMP *asuntiŋ

a plant: Erechtites spp. - PAN-F *Sina

a plant: Falcataria Moluccana - PCEMP *bail

a plant: Falcataria Moluccana - POC *pail

a plant: Glochidion spp. - PPH *anam

a plant: Guettarda speciosa - POC *pwano-pwano

a plant: Heliconia spp. - POC *paqo

a plant: Impatiens balsamina - PPH *kamantigi

a plant: Ixora sp. - PWMP *tabuŋ

a plant: Kleinhovia hospita - POC *pau

a plant: Lactuca indica Linn., and Sonchus oleraceus Linn. - PAN-F *Samaq

a plant: Leea spp. - PMP *mali

a plant: Litsea cubea (Lour.) - PAN-F *maqaw

a plant: Lunasia amara - PPh *paqit-an

a plant: Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Reinw.) - PPH *aum

a plant: Pipturus argenteus - PMP *adamay

a plant: Rhus semialata - PAN-F *beRus₁

a plant: Sesbania grandiflora - PPH *katuday

a plant: Solanum nigrum - PAN *SameCi

a plant: Solanum nigrum - PMP *hameti

a plant: Urena lobata - PAN *puluC

a plant: Wrightia spp. - PWMP *bitaqus

a plant: Alpinia galanga - PWMP *laŋkuas

a small stinging plant, perhaps Laportea interrupta - POC *karat₂

a strongly-scented plant: Ocimum sanctum L. - PWMP *kamaŋi

a woody plant or tree: Vitex cofassus - POC *pasa(rR)

able to plant or bury - PWMP *ma-tanem

an edible plant: Amaranthus spinosus - PWMP *bayaŋ₁

any plant with hairs that sting or cause itchiness - PWMP *amiaŋ

body hair, fur, feathers, floss on plants - POC *pulu₃

body hair; fur; feather; down; antenna of insect or crustacean; spikes of sea urchin; floss on plant skins, color; type, kind - PCEMP *bulu₁

body hair; fur; feather; down; floss on plant stems; color; type, kind - PMP *bulu₁

bundle of thread or plant fibers - PPH *lábag

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

covering membrane of plants - *(noise)

cut down small plants to clear a way - PWMP *takebas

dibble, plant seeds with a dibble stick - PMP *hasek₁

drive in, as a stake; to plant (crops) - PCEMP *pasekₐ

edible sea animal or plant - PWMP *gamet

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

flattened, as plants to the ground - PMP *hapiq

food plant - *(loan)

food plant - *(noise)

ghost, ancestral spirit; nature spirit; corpse; owl; various plants - PMP *qanitu

ginger plant with fragrant white flower - PPH *kamiá

grave; to bury; to plant - PMP *tanem

hairy filaments of certain plants, husk - PMP *bulut₁

hairy filaments of certain plants, husk - POC *bulut₂

hairy; hair-like growths; plants with hair-like growths - PMP *bulu bulu

heart of a person or animal; purple heart-shaped inflorescence of banana plant - PMP *pusuq₁

hemp plant; hemp - PAN-F *keRiw

indigo plant and dye: Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) and Indigofera tinctoria L. - PMP *taRum

kind of medicinal plant - PWMP *suma

kind of plant, unident. - PWMP *kalamuntiŋ

kind of reed-like plant (?) - PMP *kasaw₂

malodorous insect that damages rice plants - PWMP *tanaŋaw

mortar or gin for crushing plant material - PPH *lubaŋ₃

offshoot shoot of a plant - *(loan)

outer layer of abaca plant - PPH *lupis₂

parasitic plant sp. - PAN *lukuC

pith of plants or trees; core or middle of something - PMP *qunej

plant fiber; coconut husk, fibers of areca nuts, fibers covering mango seeds, etc. - PWMP *sabut

plant fibers - PMP *Runut

plant from which a dyestuff is obtained - PWMP *gamat

plant in holes in the ground - POC *asok

plant seed by sprinkling in dibble holes - PWMP *maŋ-bubud

plant shoot - PAN *Supiq

plant shoot, sprout - PWMP *taruk

plant shoot, sprout, cutting - PMP *suli₁

plant sp. - PWMP *kasep

plant sp. - PWMP *katud

plant sp. - PWMP *lambayuŋ

plant sp. - PMP *lumbu

plant sp. - PWMP *rambayuŋ

plant sp. - PWMP *tali tali

plant sp. - PWMP *tanduk tanduk

plant sp. - PWMP *taRabas

plant sp. - *(loan)

plant sp. - *(noise)

plant sp. (?) - PWMP *dilaq-dilaq

plant sp. (lit. crocodile tongue) - PWMP *dilaq ni buqaya

plant sp.: Diospyros discolor - PAN *kamaya

plant sp.: Donax canniformis, used as material for making baskets - PMP *niniq₁

plant sprout - PAN *Cubuq

plant used as fish poison - POC *(bp)una

plant used for perfuming the body - POC *bubu₃

plant with leaves used as a vegetable: Talinum paniculatum or Talinum triangulare - PPH *talínum

plant with sharp leaves - PWMP *aqedas

rice in the field; rice plant - PAN *pajay

root plant in the ginger family - PWMP *temu₃

safflower, Carthamus tinctorius - *(loan)

sap of a tree or plant - PAN *Niteq

sap of a tree or plant - PMP *liteq

small sour plant with clover-like leaves - PWMP *qalesem qalesem

small, wild herbaceous plants; scrub-land, bush - PMP *qutan

snake venom; plant poison used on tips of arrows - PPH *ditaq₂

soul of a living being; soul of the rice plant - PMP *sumaŋed

soul of the rice plant - PMP *sumaŋet nu pajay

spine on fish or plant - PWMP *siqit

sprout, plant shoot - PWMP *tunas

sprout, plant, shoot - *(noise)

sprouting tip of a plant - PWMP *pucuk

stalk or stem of a plant - PMP *paqa₂

stem of a plant, stalk - PMP *taŋkay

stem of a plant, stalk - POC *take₁

stem, stalk of a plant - PWMP *tampuk₃

the castor bean plant: Ricinus communis L. - PPH *katana

the castor oil plant: Ricinis communis - PWMP *taŋan-taŋan

to bury, to plant - PPH *i-tanem

to bury, to plant - PWMP *maR-tanem

to bury; to plant - POC *tanom

to bury; to plant - PWMP *ma-nanem

to dibble, plant seeds with a dibble stick - PWMP *maŋ-hasek₁

to flourish, of plants - PPH *lagúq

to plant - PAN *mula

to plant - PAN *t<um>anem

to plant - PWMP *suan

to plant (crops) - POC *pasok

to plant on or in - PMP *tanem-i

to plant root crops, plant cuttings - PPH *lubaŋ₂

to plant yams - POC *pasi

to plant, bury - POC *tanum₂

to stun fish with plant poison - PAN *t<um>uba

to stun fish with plant poison - PWMP *tuba-en

to stun fish with plant poisons - PMP *pa-tuba

to stupefy fish with natural plant poisons - PWMP *ma-nuba

to sway back and forth, as plant stems in the wind - PWMP *liŋgaŋ

to wilt, wither, droop, as plants; dangling, hanging loosely - PPH *layláy

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

trellis for plants to grow up - PWMP *paraq paraq

various plants, etc. with a bad smell - PWMP *qetut qetut

young plant shoot - PMP *taluk

young, immature, primarily of plants - PPH *ŋuhed

young, immature, primarily of plants - PPH *ma-ŋuhed

young, of plants - PMP *ŋuda

plantain

banana or plantain sp. - PMP *susu

large cooking banana or plantain variety - PPH *tinduk

plant: black nightshade

plant: black nightshade, Solanum nigrum - *(near)

plant chewed with betel

plant chewed with betel that invigorates - *(loan)

planted

area that is planted(?) - PAN *ka-tanem-an

area that is planted(?) - PAN *tanem-an

enclosure; palisade around a village; fence around a planted tree or cultivated field - PMP *pager

what has been planted (?) - PWMP *t<in>anem

what is buried or planted - PAN *CaNem-en

planting

ceremony at planting to insure the well-being of the crops - PWMP *buhat₁

clear forest for planting - *(noise)

clearing of a garden for planting (?) - POC *sani

end of tuber that is kept for planting - PEMP *upe

seed rice, rice set aside for the next planting - PAN *bineSiq

seed rice, rice set aside for the next planting - PMP *binehiq

sharp pointed stick used in planting crops and in husking coconuts; digging stick, coconut husking stick - POC *kojom

to cut grass or weeds, as in preparing a field for planting - PPH *sipsíp

to prepare yams for planting - POC *sopu

trample earth, turn into mud, as a paddy field prior to planting - PWMP *lucak

turn the soil over, as in removing stones prior to planting - PWMP *suŋkal

plant: Leucaena leucocephala

plant: Leucaena leucocephala - *(loan)

plant shoot

young leaf, plant shoot - *(loan)

plant sp.

plant sp., turmeric, Curcuma longa - *(loan)

plaster

glue, paste, plaster, caulk - PMP *dalit₁

to plaster over something - PWMP *pulpul₂

Platax

batfish: Platax spp. - PMP *bunaR

batfish: Platax spp. - PMP *buna

plate

dish, plate - PAN-F *piad

plate dish - *(loan)

plate, dish - *(loan)

platform

bamboo matting or platform - PWMP *lantay

bamboo platform, shelf - PPH *papag

heap, pile; elevated platform used as a look-out - PWMP *paŋguŋ

pair of boats joined by a connecting platform - PWMP *banduŋ

platform - POC *pala

platform - *(loan)

platform - *(loan)

sleeping platform - PWMP *paŋgaw

play

play a flute - PWMP *ma-nurali

play games - PWMP *sulaʔ

to knock on something, play a musical instrument - PPH *tugtug-én

to play; plaything, toy; pet - PWMP *qayam₃

played

game played with thrown reeds - POC *tika

playing

playing cards - *(loan)

plaything

to play; plaything, toy; pet - PWMP *qayam₃

pleasant

fragrance, pleasant odor - PPH *baŋ(e)lu

fragrance, pleasant odor or smell - PMP *beŋi

good, kind, pleasant - PWMP *bait₁

pleasant, agreeable - *(loan)

pleasant, agreeable; tasty, delicious - PWMP *sedep₂

Plectorhinchus

a fish, the banded sweetlips, Plectorhinchus spp. - POC *lau

pledge

oath, pledge; curse - PWMP *sumpaq

oath, pledge; curse - PWMP *sapaq₂

pledge, pawn - *(loan)

vow, pledge - *(noise)

pledged

engaged, pledged to be married - PWMP *tunaŋ

pawned, pledged in place of something else - PWMP *sanda

Pleiades

a constellation: the Pleiades - PMP *buluq₁

a constellation: the Pleiades - POC *puluq₂

a constellation: the Pleiades - PAN *buNuq₁

a constellation: the Pleiades - PCEMP *bunuq₁

a constellation: the Pleiades - POC *punuq₂

a constellation: the Seven Sisters, Pleiades - PWMP *pariama

the Pleiades (= 'seven stars') - PMP *bituqen pitu

plentifully

satiatiated, full (of the stomach after eating); fertile, bring forth plentifully, abundance of food - POC *masuR

plenty

many, much, plenty - PAN *Sadu

much, many, plenty - PMP *hadu

plop

pop!, plop!, splash! - PMP *puk₂

plot

plot evil - *(noise)

plough

harrow, plough - *(loan)

plough - PAN-F *tabi

plover

kind of plover and its cry - POC *kekekeke

Plover

shore bird: sandpiper, Pacific Golden Plover - POC *kiwiwi

plover sp.

sandpiper sp., plover sp. - *(near)

plow

plow - *(loan)

pluck

pick, pluck (as fruit) - PMP *pupu₁

pick, pluck (as fruit) - PMP *puqpuq₁

pick, pluck, break off - PMP *ketuq

pinch, nip, pluck - PMP *kinit

pinch, squeeze, press between two surfaces; pluck, pick off - PAN *pitpit₂

pluck - *(noise)

pluck (as fruit) - *(noise)

pluck (as fruit), strip off (as leaves) - POC *puput

pluck out - PWMP *ranebut

pluck out - PWMP *Ranebut

pluck, as fruit - PPh *bujas

pluck, pull out - PMP *dutdut

pluck, pull out - PAN *guCguC

pluck, pull out - PMP *Radut

pluck, pull out - PAN *ubuC

pluck, pull out - POC *rurut

pluck, pull out - PWMP *zutzut

pluck, pull out - PMP *ubut

pluck, pull up (as weeds) - PAN *SebuC

pluck, pull up (as weeds) - PMP *hebut

pluck, uproot - PMP *paRut

pull out, uproot (as plants); pluck (as hair or feathers) - POC *puput-i

pull out, uproot, pluck - PMP *butbut-i

pull up (as weeds), pluck (as feathers) - PAN *buCbuC

pull up (as weeds), pluck (as feathers) - PMP *butbut₂

to pick, pluck fruit - PWMP *putik₂

to pluck, as fruit - PPh *maŋ-bujas

to pluck, as fruit; strip off leaves - PWMP *pulpul₁

to pluck, pull out - PAN *putput₁

to pluck, pull out, uproot - PWMP *maŋ-butbut

to weed, pluck, pull out - *-buC (root)

uproot, pluck, pull out - *-dut (root)

plucked

be pulled out, be plucked; what is pulled or plucked out - PPh *butbut-en

plucky

brave, plucky - PMP *gagar

plug

cork, stopper, plug - PAN *seŋseŋ

cork, stopper, plug - POC *joŋjoŋ

ear plug, roll of leaves, etc. inserted through pierced ear - PWMP *subeŋ

insert, plug - PAN *suleN

insert, plug - PMP *sulen

insert, plug - PMP *suled

plug or dam up - PWMP *tampeŋ

plug up, dam; cover - *-peŋ (root)

plug up, stop something up, as with a cork - PWMP *suŋsuŋ₂

plug, obstruct - PMP *umpaŋ

plug, stop up - PWMP *lepet₁

plug, stopper, cork - PWMP *sumbad

plug, stopper; to cram - *-pel (root)

stopper, plug, cork - PWMP *sumpel

to insert, plug something in - PPH *i-saksák

to plug, put a stopper in a hole - PWMP *seŋseŋ-en

plugged

blocked, plugged, dammed; mute, unable to speak - PWMP *beŋbeŋ

dull, blunt; blocked, plugged; stupid - PMP *belbel₁

dull, blunt; blocked, plugged; stupid - PCEMP *bebel

plugged, stopped, blocked - PMP *ka(m)pet

plugged, stopped, closed off - *-pet (root)

stopped up, plugged - PWMP *pened₁

stopped up, plugged - POC *bonor₂

plum

a tree and its fruit, the Java plum: Syzygium cumini - PPH *luŋ(e)búy

plumage

small bird with shiny black plumage: drongo - PWMP *cawi

plunder

rob, plunder - PWMP *Rampas

to plunder, rob - PMP *raŋ(e)pas

plunge

plunge, dive into - PPH *tapuák

to plunge, dive into water - PWMP *sesed

plural

1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.) - PAN *iten₁

1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.) - PMP *aten₁

genitive of plural personal names - PAN *na₃

locative case marker for plural personal names - PMP *daₐ

nominative case marker for plural personal names - PAN *sa₁

oblique case marker for plural personal names - PAN *ka₃

plural marker - *(noise)

plurality

prenominal marker of plurality - PMP *maŋa

TOP      pe    ph    pi    pl    po    pr    ps    pt    pu    py    

po

pocket

netbag, sack, pocket - POC *taŋa₂

pocket - *(loan)

Pogostemon

kind of aromatic herb: Pogostemon cablin - PPH *kab(e)liŋ

point

barb, point; canine tooth? - PAN-F *waqit

corner, edge, point - PCEMP *buu₃

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

eye, focal point, center or most prominent part - PAN *maCa

obsidian spear point (?) - POC *koto

point at, aim for; intend to do something; do something intentionally - PPH *tuyuq

point at, point out - PMP *tuzuk

point of an arrow - PMP *mata nu panaq

point of an arrow - POC *mata ni panaq

point of the compass, direction - POC *mata ni aŋin

point of the compass, direction of the wind - PMP *mata nu haŋin

point out directions - *(noise)

point, tip - *(noise)

rising to a point - *(noise)

sharp point; to whet, - PMP *tazim

sharpen to a point - *(noise)

sharpened blade or point - PMP *tazem

spread wide apart, as the legs or any two things joined at a point - PMP *pikaŋ

tapering, attenuating to a point - PWMP *tirus

to point at, indicate - POC *dusiq

to point at, indicate - PMP *tusiq

to point at, indicate; teach, instruct - PWMP *i-tuzuq

to point at, point out, lecture or instruct, give advice - PAN *t<um>uzuq

to point at, point out, show by pointing - PWMP *ma-nuzuq

to point at, point out; give directions - PAN *tuzuq₁

to point at, point out; give directions - POC *tusuq

to point out - PAN *tudiŋ

to point out, give directions (?) - PAN *pa-tuzuq

to point out, instruct - PMP *tuzuq₂

to point, indicate; teach, instruct - PMP *tuzuq-i

to point, indicate; to point out, instruct - PPh *tulduq

pointed

be pointed at, be pointed out - PAN *tuzuq-en

pointed - *(loan)

pointed or prominent, of the nose - PPH *táŋus

prick or poke with a pointed object - PWMP *tulesuk

sharp pointed stick used in planting crops and in husking coconuts; digging stick, coconut husking stick - POC *kojom

skewer, pointed stick - PWMP *sulah

thing pointed out, shown, or taught - PWMP *ka-tuzuq-an

was pointed out (?) - PWMP *t<in>uzuq

pointed implement

pointed implement - *(loan)

pointer

pointer, index finger - PWMP *tu-tuzuq

pointing

keep pointing at - PMP *tuzu-tuzuq

to point at, point out, show by pointing - PWMP *ma-nuzuq

poison

a tree: Antiaris toxicaria; poison for blowpipe darts made from the sap of this tree - PWMP *qipuq

fish poison: Derris spp. - POC *tupa₂

plant used as fish poison - POC *(bp)una

poison - PWMP *hilu

poison - PPH *gamut

poison - *(loan)

poison, venom of a snake - PMP *upas

snake venom; plant poison used on tips of arrows - PPH *ditaq₂

tasteless; neutralize something efficacious, as an antidote for poison - PWMP *tawaR₁

to poison - PPH *gamut-en

to stun fish with plant poison - PAN *t<um>uba

to stun fish with plant poison - PWMP *tuba-en

to stun fish with plant poisons - PMP *pa-tuba

to stupefy fish with natural plant poisons - PWMP *ma-nuba

vine from which poison is obtained - PWMP *ziteq

poisoned

was poisoned by Derris root - PWMP *t<in>uba

poisonous

bitter, poisonous - POC *ŋaŋa₁

fish with poisonous dorsal spines - PMP *lepu

fish with poisonous dorsal spines - POC *lopu

fish with poisonous dorsal spines - PMP *lepuq₂

fish with poisonous dorsal spines - POC *lopu

poisonous - PWMP *ma-hilu

poisonous arthropod - PPh *átaŋ átaŋ

tree with poisonous sap - PMP *butaq₂

tree with poisonous sap - PWMP *iŋas

tree with poisonous sap, (probably Antiaris toxicaria) - PMP *laji₁

venom of a poisonous snake or insect - PPH *kamandag

poisonous insect or snake

poisonous insect or snake - *(near)

poke

poke, as with finger - PPH *tundek

poke, prod with the tip of something - PWMP *suŋkul

poke, prod, peck - PMP *tukik

prick or poke with a pointed object - PWMP *tulesuk

to poke into, pierce, insert - PWMP *ma-ñuksuk

poked

to be elbowed, nudged or poked with an elbow - PWMP *siku-en

poking

clatter of a stick poking around in something - PWMP *degaq

pole

bamboo punting pole; to pole a boat in shallow water - POC *tokon

carry on a pole between two persons; help someone carry a load - PWMP *bulig

carry on a pole between two persons; help someone carry a load - PPh *bulig-an

carry on a shoulder pole - PWMP *taŋguŋ

carry on a shoulder pole between two people - PWMP *ataŋ₂

downward pressure; bamboo punting pole - PMP *teken

mast, pole - *(loan)

pick or knock down fruit with a pole - PMP *su(ŋ)kit

pole, mast - *(noise)

rafter, diagonal bamboo poles to which thatch panels are lashed - PMP *kasaw₁

shoulder pole; carry with a shoulder pole - PAN *pasaqaN

suspend from poles - *(noise)

to carry on a shoulder pole - PCMP *lemba

to pick, as fruit from a tree using a pole with a hook - PPH *su(ŋ)kit-en

poled

be poled forward, of a boat in shallow water - PWMP *teken-en

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled in shallow water - PWMP *maR-tulak

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water - PMP *tulak

polish

kind of brush made from coconut husk, used to scrub or polish a surface or to treat threads before weaving - PWMP *sikat

shine, polish - PWMP *sinaw

polluted

defiled, ritually polluted, ceremonially unclean - *(loan)

Polyporus

bracket fungus, Polyporus spp. - PAN *kulaC

bracket fungus, Polyporus spp. - PMP *kulat₂

pomegranate

pomegranate: Punica granatum L. - *(loan)

pomelo

a citrus fruit, the pomelo - PPH *lukbán

a fruit tree, the pomelo: Citrus decumana - PPH *suháq

Pometia

kind of fruit tree: Pometia pinnata - PMP *tawan

pond

deep pool or pond - PAN-F *waCaN

pond - *(loan)

pond, pool; lagoon - PPH *lebeŋ₂

small pond(?) - PAN-F *waCa-waCaN

ponder

think, ponder, brood; remember - *-dem₂ (root)

think, ponder, brood;-remember - *-nem₂ (root)

think, ponder; brood - PWMP *qendem

to think, ponder - POC *kana-kana

Pongamia

a tree: Pongamia spp. - PPH *bani₂

coastal tree, perhaps Pongamia pinnata - POC *pesi

pool

deep place in river; pool of water left when a stream dries up - PPH *lib(e)tuŋ

deep pool or pond - PAN-F *waCaN

pond, pool; lagoon - PPH *lebeŋ₂

pool, deep place in water; swamp - PCMP *tibu₁

pool of water

mud puddle, pool of water - *(near)

poor

poor - *(noise)

poor, needy - PPH *lised

poor, of vision - PWMP *radam

run out, come to an end, of supplies; be poor - PMP *kabus₁

pop

knock; pop, burst - PWMP *pe(R)tak

pop!, plop!, splash! - PMP *puk₂

popped

popped rice - PWMP *retiq

popped rice - PWMP *Retiq

popped rice, roasted rice - PWMP *beRtiq

roasted rice, popped rice - PPh *butíq

popping

bang! loud popping sound - PMP *paŋ

make a popping sound - PMP *epuk

make a thudding or popping sound - PWMP *lagetub₁

popping or knocking sound - PWMP *lagetuk

populnea

a plant yielding useful fibers: Thespesia populnea - PMP *balu₁

the Indian tulip tree: Thespesia populnea - PMP *banaRu

porcelain

porcelain, chinaware - *(loan)

porcupine

porcupine - PWMP *landak

porcupine fish - PMP *taRutum

porcupine fish, puffer fish, Diodon sp. - PMP *taRutuŋ

porcupinefish

pufferfish, porcupinefish - POC *poto

pork

pork, flesh of a pig - PPH *lamán

porous

kind of porous, white, round and flat coral growth - POC *buŋa₃

porridge

rice gruel; rice porridge; to mix - *-buR₁ (root)

rice porridge - PPh *b<in>uRbuR

rice porridge - PPH *lúgaw

rice porridge - PPH *l<in>ugaw

rice porridge, rice gruel - PMP *buRbuR₁

to make into gruel, rice porridge - PPH *lugaw-en

portable stove

portable stove - *(loan)

portion

divide, share; portion (as of food) - POC *boi₁

share, portion, inheritance; to allot, divide property - PMP *baqagi

position

for force something open or out of its position - PPH *tu(ŋ)kab-án

in a resting position - PPH *lupasay

rank, position - *(loan)

wake someone, rouse someone from sleep; erect something, put something in an upright position - PMP *baŋun₂

positioned

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PMP *aRak

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PWMP *maŋ-aRak

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PWMP *aRak-aRak

possessed

3sg. possessor of inalienable possessed nouns - POC *-ña

possession

classifier for edible possession - POC *kana-

genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb - PAN *ni

goods, belongings, things, possessions - *(loan)

prefix marking possession of some object - PAN *mi-

share the possession of something with someone else; co-wife (?) - PWMP *duha-i

sunrise, rising sun; to show off, be ostentatious, parade one’s talents, possessions, etc. - PPH *sikát

wealth, possessions - *(loan)

possessive

1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.) - PAN *iten₁

1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.) - PMP *aten₁

1pl. incl. possessive pronoun: our - PAN *ata₁

1pl. incl. possessive suffix - POC *-da₂

1pl. incl. subject prefix and possessive suffix; we (incl.); our (incl.) - POC *da₂

1sg possessive pronoun; my - POC *-gu

possessive marker used with inalienable pronouns - POC *o₂

preposition with locative and possessive functions - PCEMP *ta₁

possessor

2sg possessor and non-subject agent - PWMP *-nu

2sg. agent/possessor - PAN *Suʔu

3sg. agent/possessor - PAN *ni-á

3sg. possessor of inalienable possessed nouns - POC *-ña

owner, possessor - PWMP *empu-ni-a

possible

formal gathering, as of chiefs, with possible connections to announcing temporary taboos - POC *ponor

spy, scout, one who looks for possible danger ahead - PMP *mata-mata

possibly

a tree: Inocarpus spp., possibly the Tahitian chestnut: Inocarpus edulis - PMP *gayam

bivalve mollusc, possibly Pinna sp. - POC *sapulu

cave, cavern, possibly submarine - PWMP *lubuk₁

dark hue, possibly dark red - PMP *biReŋ

dark hue, possibly dark red - PMP *biRiŋ₁

dark hue, possibly dark red - POC *piRiŋ

father's sister, possibly address term - PMP *ema₁

father's sister, possibly address term - PMP *ema-ʔ

fish sp., possibly murrel - PWMP *buzuk

grandparent, possibly vocative - PMP *pa-ampu

kind of shore bird, possibly snipe - POC *pwipipi

kind of snake, possibly cobra - PWMP *teduŋ₂

kind of sour edible fruit, possibly fruit of rattan - PWMP *libas₁

kind of wild lemon tree, possibly Citrus hystrix - PPH *kabuRaw

maybe, perhaps, possibly - PPH *bakáq

parrot sp., possibly Eclectus parrot - POC *kiRak

part of the lower leg, possibly the ankle - PWMP *beŋil

sharp-pointed object, possibly sea urchin - PEMP *sala

type of boat, possibly dugout with outrigger - PWMP *bilug

type of shell, possibly nautilus - POC *bio

post

center post, main housepost - PCEMP *hadiRi bubuŋ-an

post, pillar - POC *tura

post, pillar - *(loan)

post, stake, pillar - PPH *tendek₁

prop, post - PAN *tuku₁

stake, free-standing post - PMP *turus

stake, post - POC *turus

posterior

buttocks, posterior - PMP *ubet

rear end, posterior - *(loan)

postpone

put off, delay, postpone, break one’s promise - PPH *liwag

postposition

postposition of location or direction - POC *solo₁

posture

to walk past in a stooping posture - POC *roko-roko

postverbal

postverbal interrogative particle - PWMP *ba₅

pot

burnt food which adheres to the pot - PMP *epiq

burnt food which adheres to the pot - PMP *epit₁

burnt rice which adheres to the pot - PWMP *etip

clay cooking pot - PWMP *kurin

clay cooking pot - PAN *kuden

clay cooking pot - PMP *kudin

clay cooking pot - PAN *kudeŋ

coiled base on which cooking pots are set or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *riken

coiled base on which cooking pots are set, or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *Riken

coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set - PAN *Reken

coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set - PAN *reken

earthenware cooking pot - PAN *pariuk

hard crust of rice that adheres to the bottom of the cooking pot - PPh *itíp

pad placed under cooking pots, loads to carry on the head, etc. - PPH *dikén

shallow earthenware cooking pot or pan - PAN *balaŋa

trivet, arrangement of three stones on which the cooking pot is placed - PMP *dalikan

water pot - *(loan)

potato

potato yam, aerial yam: Dioscorea bulbifera - POC *pwatika

potential

spoiled, gone to waste; never realized, of potential for fertility - PPH *baqug

verbal prefix marking potential action or ability to do something - PWMP *maka-

pothole

pothole, hole in road - *(loan)

potion

give a love potion to someone - PPH *lumay-en

potsherd

broken bit of pottery, potsherd - PWMP *biqbiq₁

potsherd - PWMP *bika

potsherd used as a frying pan - POC *palaŋa

pottery

broken bit of pottery, potsherd - PWMP *biqbiq₁

pouch

basket pouch - *(noise)

carrying pouch or small basket - PWMP *uyut₁

plaited palm leaf bag or pouch - PWMP *kampil

pouch (?) - PPH *súput

small bag, pouch - PWMP *pu(n)tir

poultices

kind of tree the leaves of which are used as poultices for boils - PMP *buqaR

pound

beat, pound - PAN *CelCel

beat, pound - PWMP *seqseq

beat, pound - *(noise)

beat, pound, bump, thump - PAN *tutuh

beat, pound, hit - PAN *CegCeg

beat, pound; sound of rhythmic pounding - PMP *tugtug₂

clap, slap, pound - PWMP *upuk

for the chest to tighten in excitement or fear; for the heart to pound - PPH *kebá

hit, pound on - PMP *tambak₁

hit, pound, beat - PMP *bukbuk₂

hit, pound, chop - PMP *retuk

knock, pound on - PWMP *getuk

knock, pound, as with a hammer - PWMP *tabak₁

knock, pound, beat - PMP *tegteg

knock, pound, beat - PMP *butuk

knock, pound, beat - POC *putuk

knock, pound, beat - PMP *lambuk

knock, pound, beat - PMP *ra(m)buk

knock, pound, beat - PWMP *tugtug

knock, pound, beat - PMP *rambuk

knock, pound, beat - POC *rabuk

knock, pound, beat - *-Cuk (or *-Cuquk?) (root)

knock, pound, beat - *-tuk₂ (or *-tuquk?) (root)

knock, pound, thud - PMP *etuk

pound in a mortar - PWMP *lumpaŋ

pound into fine particles - PWMP *maŋ-bekbek

pound on, hit, beat, or crush - PWMP *pilpil

pound rice in tandem - PPh *asúd

pound rice in tandem - PPh *maR-asúd

pound together, place of pounding together - PPh *asud-án

pound, beat - PMP *dabuk₁

pound, hit - *-tug (root)

pound, throb - PAN *tibuk

pound, thud - PWMP *debak

pound, thud - PWMP *lebak₁

pound, thud, heavy splash - *-buk₂ (root)

punch, hit, pound - PMP *tumbuk

strike from above, pound - POC *qatu

thing used to knock or pound - PWMP *p<um>ekpek

to beat or pound - PWMP *ma-mekpek

to beat, pound - PWMP *ma-nutu

to beat, pound on - PWMP *tegteg

to hammer, pound (something) - PMP *tuktuk-i

to hammer, pound, beat - PAN *pukpuk

to hammer, pound, crush - PAN *tuqtuq

to hammer, pound, hit - PAN *palu₃

to hit, pound, rap on something - PWMP *latuk

to knock, pound - PMP *ketuk

to knock, pound - PWMP *kutuk₂

to knock, pound, beat - POC *tutuk₂

to knock, pound, beat - PWMP *ma-nuktuk

to knock, pound, beat; crush - PAN *tuktuk₃

to pound (rice, etc.) in a mortar - PPh *lebék

to pound into powder, as grain - PWMP *ledek

to pound rice - PAN *bayu

to pound rice - PWMP *la(m)buk

to pound with a pestle - PMP *lubuk₂

to pound, as rice - PWMP *tebuk₁

to pound, crush by pounding - PWMP *seseg

to pound, of the pulse - PWMP *embut

to pound, thud - PWMP *lebuk

pound beat

to hack, chop off, trim with a bolo; pound, beat, knock on - PWMP *tabtab₁

pounded

a plant with roots that are pounded and put in rivers to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PAN *tuba

delicacy of pounded foods - *(noise)

kind of ebony or persimmon tree with fruits that are pounded and used to stupefy fish: Diospyros spp. - PPH *kanúmay

pounded rice - PPh *b<in>eRas

pounded taro with coconut cream - POC *moñak₁

pulverized, pounded fine - *-dek₂ (root)

to be pounded, struck with force - PWMP *tutu-en

pounding

beat, pound; sound of rhythmic pounding - PMP *tugtug₂

fine particles, powder which results from pounding grains, etc.; pulverize grains - PMP *bekbek₁

hammer, mallet, instrument for pounding or hammering - PAN *palu-palu

loosen by pounding - PWMP *taltal₁

pound together, place of pounding together - PPh *asud-án

pulverize, crush by pounding - PMP *dekdek

sound of breaking or pounding - PWMP *lutuk₂

sound of grating, rain pounding, etc. - PPH *kaRitkit

sound of heavy clapping or pounding, smacking sound - PAN *bakbak₂

sound of pounding or knocking - POC *pupuk₁

to pound, crush by pounding - PWMP *seseg

wash clothes by pounding on river rocks - PPH *piqpiq

pour

decant, pour liquid out for drinking - PPH *tíqiŋ

drip or pour out - POC *pupus-a

give off smoke continuously, pour out smoke - PMP *qasu qasu

leak, pour out; loose or crumbling; crumble and fall - POC *pupus

pour - PMP *iliŋ₁

pour from one vessel into another; translate, interpret - PWMP *salin

pour out, of liquids - PWMP *buhus

pour water on - PWMP *ma-nanum

pour water on; to douse (as a fire) - PCEMP *buqi₂

pour water on; to douse (as a fire) - POC *puqi puqi

pour, pour out, as water or grain from a container - PMP *buqbuq

pour, sprinkle - PWMP *bujbuj

stream, pour - *(noise)

to pour - PCEMP *liŋi

to pour out, tilt to pour - PWMP *tuaŋ₁

to pour, of heavy rain - PAN-F *salaw

to spill out, pour out - PWMP *tumpaq

poured

place into which something is poured - PPh *buqbuq-an

powder

ash, cinder, powder - PAN *qabu

ash, hearth, cinder, powder, dust; gray - PMP *qabu

crush to powder - PWMP *maŋ-bukbuk

crush, pulverize; powder - *-mek (root)

crush, pulverize; powder - *-muk (root)

decay, crumble; powder - *-buk₁ (root)

decay, crumble; sound of breaking; powder - *-pek (or *-peqek?) (root)

decaying wood; dust, powder - PMP *Rabuk

dust, powder - PMP *ebuk

fine particles, powder which results from pounding grains, etc.; pulverize grains - PMP *bekbek₁

grind to a powder, pulverize - PWMP *begbeg

powder - PWMP *purpur

powder, face powder - *(loan)

to pound into powder, as grain - PWMP *ledek

to powder, put powder on someone - PWMP *ma-murpur

powdery

powdery substance, dust - PMP *habuk

power

power force - *(loan)

power in natural phenomena; thunder, storm wind - POC *mana₂

power, venom - *(loan)

to have spiritual power - POC *mana-mana

powerless

tasteless, insipid; powerless; antidote, as against snakebite - PWMP *tabaR

TOP      pe    ph    pi    pl    po    pr    ps    pt    pu    py    

pr

praise

praise - *(loan)

prayer

afternoon prayer - *(loan)

prayer - *(noise)

prayer, worship - *(loan)

precatorius

a vine and the seeds of its fruit: Abrus precatorius - PWMP *saga

precede

first, foremost; to precede - POC *muqa

precede, go before - PPh *unah-unah

precede, go or be first; earlier, former - PMP *unah

preceding

foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain - PAN-F *lebleb₁

foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain - PAN-F *ma-lebleb

precipice

chasm, precipice - PPh *beŋqáw

precipitous

aslant, steep, precipitous - *(noise)

precise

exact, precise - PWMP *tepet

exact, precise - *(loan)

predatory

civet cat and similar small predatory mammals of the family Viverridae - PMP *musaŋ

preeminent

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

preen

delouse; preen the feathers - PWMP *siksik₁

delouse; preen the feathers - PWMP *ma-ñiksik

preference

was chosen; what was chosen, one’s preference - PWMP *na-piliq

prefix

1pl. incl. subject prefix and possessive suffix; we (incl.); our (incl.) - POC *da₂

adjectival prefix - POC *a-

adjectival prefix for adjectives of measure - PMP *ha-₁

causative prefix - PAN *pa-₂

causative prefix - POC *paka-

derivational prefix, used to form deverbal nouns - PWMP *paR-

future prefix - PAN *ma-₂

instrumental prefix - PMP *i-

instrumental prefix, marker of the instrumental focus - PAN *Si-₁

movement prefix - PAN *mu-

nominal prefix marking instruments, or products of an action - PWMP *paŋ-

numeral prefix - POC *e

numeral prefix - PCEMP *i₄

numeral prefix, divide into x (x = numeral) - PMP *pa-₁

prefix - *(noise)

prefix for ordinal numbers - PAN *Sika-

prefix for ordinal numerals - PMP *ika-

prefix for ordinal numerals - POC *ka-

prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *kali-) - PAN *qali-

prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *qali-) - PAN *kali-

prefix indicating place of origin (for ethnic groups) - PPH *taga-

prefix marking possession of some object - PAN *mi-

prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action - PMP *ta-₂

prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action - PAN *taR-

prefix of reciprocal or collective action - PEMP *paRi-

prefix of repeated action - PWMP *para-

prefix of the *qali, *kali- series - PAN *buli-

prefix variant of the *qali/kali- set - PAN *qaCi-

reciprocal prefix - PCEMP *paRa-

stative prefix - PAN *ma-₁

stative prefix - PAN *Sa-

stative prefix - PMP *ha-₂

stative prefix marking high degree of some quality; extremely; superlative marker - PPH *ka-₃

variant of the *qali/kali- prefix - PAN *qaNi-

verb prefix - PAN *Sin-

verb prefix - PMP *hin-

verb prefix: third-party causative-command - PPh *ipa-

verbal prefix marking potential action or ability to do something - PWMP *maka-

prefixed

prefixed to a noun means ‘to get, obtain, collect, gather’ (noun) - PAN *ki-

prefix indicating ‘from a place’

prefix indicating 'from a place' - *(loan)

pregnancy

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

pregnant

bulge, as the belly of a pregnant woman, a hunchback - PPh *buktút

cravings of a pregnant woman - PWMP *ŋidam

pregnant - PPh *buqetis

pregnant - PPh *ma-buntís

pregnant - PAN *maliqi

pregnant - *(loan)

pregnant - *(noise)

pregnant (lit. ‘in the belly') - PMP *tian-an

weight, heaviness, weightiness; difficult; pregnant - PMP *beReqat

premasticate

chew without intending to swallow, as betel nut; premasticate food to give to an infant; premasticated food - PMP *mamaq

premasticate food for infant - PMP *paqpaq₁

premasticated

chew without intending to swallow, as betel nut; premasticate food to give to an infant; premasticated food - PMP *mamaq

prenominal

prenominal marker of plurality - PMP *maŋa

preparatory

scrape, grate, as coconut preparatory to cooking - POC *korit

to chop, to mince, as meat, fish or vegetables preparatory to cooking - PWMP *sagsag₂

prepare

chopping block used to prepare food - PWMP *saŋkalan

insert, wedge in; prepare something for use - PWMP *pasaŋ₂

prepare betel chew with lime - PPh *maR-qapuR

to prepare yams for planting - POC *sopu

prepared

processed sago, prepared starch from the sago palm - PMP *sagu₁

ready, prepared - *(noise)

preparing

felling of trees, as in preparing a swidden - PWMP *tebeŋ

mix foods, as in preparing pig’s fodder - PWMP *bahuR

to cut grass or weeds, as in preparing a field for planting - PPH *sipsíp

to fell trees, as in preparing a swidden - PWMP *ma-nebeŋ

preposition

preposition with locative and possessive functions - PCEMP *ta₁

preposition: at, on, in, to - PMP *ba₃

prepuce

prepuce, foreskin; pull back the prepuce - PPH *lusiq

presence

will; intellect; reasoning, intention, mental presence, mind - PPH *nákem

present

give, present gifts to; gift - PMP *beRay

presenting

touching, adjacent, as fighters presenting a united front - PWMP *sundul

preservation

to smoke fish or meat for preservation - PAN *Capa

to smoke fish or meat for preservation - PMP *tapa₁

to smoke fish or meat for preservation - PWMP *man-tapa

preserve

preserve food in salt - *(loan)

to pickle, preserve meat or fish - PAN-F *umaS

preserved

preserved meat - PWMP *pindaŋ

preserved meat or fish - PMP *kenas

preserved, protected - *(noise)

what has been salted; food preserved in salt - PWMP *q<in>asin

press

bear down, press out, as in defecation or childbirth - PMP *maŋ-qezen

crush between weights; press out - PPH *gimpis

crush, press in - PMP *picak

flatten; press down in order to squeeze in - PWMP *petpet₁

instrument used to press - PWMP *paŋ-hapit

pincer of crustaceans; press together, pinch, squeeze - PMP *qipit₂

pincer of crustaceans; tongs; press together, pinch, squeeze - PAN *qipit₁

pinch, press between; fasten thatch together with slats in roofing a house - PMP *kapit

pinch, squeeze, press - PWMP *zapit

pinch, squeeze, press between two surfaces; pluck, pick off - PAN *pitpit₂

pinch, squeeze, press together - PMP *qatip₂

press - *(noise)

press between two flat surfaces - PMP *liq(e)pit

press between two flat surfaces; to press down, crush - PMP *luqepit

press down - PMP *Reneg

press down - *(noise)

press down hard on something - PPH *mudmúd

press down on - PAN *qedet

press down, squash - PMP *qeñek

press feet against - PPH *sikád-an

press in by force - PMP *pucek

press in, cram, crowd - PMP *hasek₂

press into - PMP *u(n)sek

press into - POC *usok

press into, penetrate; enter crouching; drive in stakes - PMP *usuk

press together, close tightly - PAN *kupit

press together, make compact, as the threads or leaves in weaving - PPH *sensén

press together, pack solid - PAN *pedped₁

press together, press between two surfaces - PAN *Sapit

press together, press between two surfaces; part of the loom - PMP *hapit

press together; pressed together - PAN *kepit

press together; pressed together - POC *kobit₁

press together; pressed together; carry under the arm, press between the legs - PMP *kepit

press, cram in with force - PWMP *maŋ-hasek₂

press, cram in with force - PWMP *hasek-i

press, squeeze together - PWMP *upit

press, squeeze together; narrow - *-pit (root)

push with the feet; press feet against, set feet firmly to prevent being moved - PPH *sikad

squeeze, press between - PAN *qepit

squeeze, press down - PWMP *tepes

squeeze, press together - PPH *pekel

stuff or press in, be squeezed in - PWMP *haseg

stuff or press in, be squeezed in - PWMP *qasak

to fold, press - PMP *luqemit

to press against, crowd in on - PWMP *sulsul₂

to press down, crush - POC *lupit

to press into, force or cram in - PWMP *ma-ñeksek

to press, knead - PMP *lemiq₂

to press, knead - POC *lomiq

to squeeze or press with the hand - PPH *pisel-en

to stuff, press in by force - PWMP *maR-seksek

to urge, press on insistently - PWMP *perper₂

pressed

be pinched, squeezed, or pressed - PAN *pitpit-en

press together; pressed together - PAN *kepit

press together; pressed together - POC *kobit₁

press together; pressed together; carry under the arm, press between the legs - PMP *kepit

resilient, springing back when pressed down - PWMP *endut

to carry at the side or on the hip, pressed under the arm - PPH *kilít

pressing

bearing down, pressing out, as in defecation or childbirth - PMP *qezen

pressure

downward pressure; bamboo punting pole - PMP *teken

split open, burst under pressure - PMP *besiq

prestations

value, price; marriage prestations, brideprice; purchase - PMP *beli

value, price; marriage prestations, brideprice; purchase - PEMP *poli

pretend

feign, pretend - *(noise)

pretend - PWMP *asih

pretend - PWMP *asih asih

pretty

pretty - *(noise)

prevent

neck shackle to prevent an animal from passing through fences - PMP *pagal

push with the feet; press feet against, set feet firmly to prevent being moved - PPH *sikad

snag, be snagged, caught in something that prevents it from falling - PPH *saq(e)ŋit

previous

hurt, frightened, or discouraged by previous bad experience - PWMP *zera

return to its previous condition - PWMP *puliq

previously

anaphoric or relative particle: there, previously mentioned place - POC *ai₁

prey

paddy bug, foul-smelling insect that preys on rice in the field - PAN *baŋaw

to soar, glide, hover, as birds of prey - POC *tapa₃

price

price - *(loan)

price, worth, cost - PPH *ŋina

to bargain, haggle over the price - PWMP *tawaD

value, cost, price of something - PWMP *beli-en

value, price - PMP *bili

value, price - POC *pili

value, price; marriage prestations, brideprice; purchase - PMP *beli

value, price; marriage prestations, brideprice; purchase - PEMP *poli

prick

prick or poke with a pointed object - PWMP *tulesuk

prickly

flower, blossom; to flower, bear flowers; yield a benefit (as interest on a loan); first-born child; cotton; vulva (refined or evasive), skin rash, prickly heat; speckled (of fish); kidneys - PMP *buŋa

thorny, prickly - PPH *ma-tenek

priest

lineage priest (?) - PMP *datu

primarily

young, immature, primarily of plants - PPH *ŋuhed

young, immature, primarily of plants - PPH *ma-ŋuhed

primary

old, of people; primary forest, old forest - PAN *tuqaS

primary forest - PMP *tuqan

primary forest, primeval jungle - PMP *halas + "dark"

primary forest, virgin jungle (lit. 'big forest') - PWMP *halas Raya

prime

first of anything; first fruits; prime, new, untainted, virgin - PWMP *buŋaR

first of anything; first fruits; prime, new, untainted, virgin - PMP *buŋas

new, fresh; recent(ly); youth, bachelor; beautiful, in one's prime - PMP *baqeRu

past one’s prime, outdated, obsolete - PPH *laqús

primeval

primary forest, primeval jungle - PMP *halas + "dark"

principal

one of the four principal rafters - PPh *paRbu

principle

living, alive; grow, flourish; fresh; heal, cure, revive, recover; vital principle, soul, spirit; flame - PMP *ma-qudip

print

trace, track, mark, print (as footprint) - PMP *bekas₃

prior

notch, as in a tree that has been cut prior to felling - PWMP *baŋbaŋ₇

trample earth, turn into mud, as a paddy field prior to planting - PWMP *lucak

turn the soil over, as in removing stones prior to planting - PWMP *suŋkal

prise

pry up, prise up - PCMP *uli

prisoner

prisoner - *(loan)

private

wash private parts (?) - PWMP *puqpuq₂

probably

a bird and its call, probably the tailor bird: Orthotomus atrogularis - PPH *tiwtiw

a bird, probably the swamphen - PPH *tiuk

a dove: probably Ducula spp. - PAN *baRuj

a dove: probably Ducula spp. - PMP *baluj

a marine fish, probably the silver bream - PWMP *kapas kapas

a marine fish: probably the horse mackerel - PWMP *talaŋ-talaŋ

a palm, probably Oncosperma sp. - PMP *qanibuŋ

a plant in the banana family, probably Musa textilis - PPH *qaRutay

a tree and the tannin that it yields: probably Macaranga tanarius - PWMP *samak

a tree with edible fruit, and medicinal uses, probably Buchanania arborescens - PMP *balunuR

a tree, probably Dipterocarpus spp.; resinous substance obtained from this tree - PWMP *balaw₂

a tree: probably Octomeles spp. - POC *iRimo

a vine with gourd or cucumber-like fruit, probably Luffa sp. - PPH *kabatíti

affinal relative, probably son-in-law and daughter-in-law - PPH *ma-nuRaŋ

an evergreen tree, probably Acacia confusa - PAN-F *tuquN

an internal organ, probably spleen or pancreas - PAN *paliq₁

bamboo of very large diameter, probably Dendrocalamus sp. - PAN *betuŋ₁

bamboo, Bambusa spp., probably Bambusa spinosa - PAN *kawayan

black ant, probably sugar ant - PWMP *sejem

crab taxon, probably a rock crab (Grapsidae) - POC *kape₂

derivational circumfix, probably used to form deverbal nouns of location - PWMP *paR- ... -an

edible marine invertebrate - probably sea cucumber - PPh *balát

fruit dove, probably Treron spp. - POC *bune

heron, probably Egretta sp. - POC *kao

interrogative; probably 'when?' - PAN *ka-nu₁

join, fasten together, probably lengthwise - PWMP *diq(e)pit

kind of marine fish, probably gizzard shad: Anodontostoma spp. - PWMP *kabasi

kind of shellfish, probably oyster - PPH *talaba

kind of small bird, probably finch or sparrow - PWMP *pipiqit

kind of small fish, probably sardine or anchovy - PMP *paya

kind of white bird: probably gull sp. - PMP *kanaway

kind of white sea bird, probably gull sp. - POC *kanawe

large black ant with painful sting, probably bulldog ant - POC *kadik

large fish, probably grouper - POC *kalia

large rayfish, probably manta or eagle ray - PMP *paRih manuk

mango tree and its fruit, probably Mangifera altissima - PMP *pahuq₁

millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica - PAN *beCeŋ

millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica - PMP *beteŋ₁

millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica - PMP *betem

one quarter; designation for a division of society, probably a lineage - PMP *suku

parrot, probably Trichoglossus sp. - POC *pwirip

shrill sound of an insect, probably cricket or cicada - PWMP *pispis₂

small tree, probably Morinda citrifolia Linn. - PPH *apatut

soil, probably clay - PAN *daReq

soil, probably clay - PAN-F *daRiq

to bind, tie tightly, probably of tying one thing which is moveable to another which is fixed - PPH *kedked

torch, probably of dried palm frond - PMP *suluq

proboscis

proboscis - *(loan)

proceed

continue doing something, proceed without stopping - PWMP *tarus

processed

processed sago, prepared starch from the sago palm - PMP *sagu₁

prod

poke, prod with the tip of something - PWMP *suŋkul

poke, prod, peck - PMP *tukik

to prod or knock with the elbow - PWMP *ka-siku

to prod or knock with the elbow - PWMP *maka-siku

prod into action

incite, prod into action - *(loan)

produce

chirp, tweet, crow, produce sound (of birds) - PMP *huni

disease which produces scaly skin: ichthyosis - PWMP *bugis

fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin: Tinea flava or Pityriasis - PMP *panaw₁

hiccup, produce a sound in the throat - PPH *sineqek

produce fruit; produce results - PPh *paŋ-búŋa

rattan basket used to carry garden produce, etc. - PWMP *karanzaŋ

small bird that produces a deep resounding call - PAN *kukuŋ₁

strike two hard objects together to produce a spark - PPH *piŋkíq

to flower, produce fruit - PWMP *maŋ-búŋa

produced

insect that infests wood and bamboo; dust produced by the boring of this insect - POC *pupuk₂

snap the fingers; the sound produced by snapping the fingers - PWMP *ketik

sound produced by an animal; unintelligible muttering of a person - PAN *ŋawŋaw

the dye produced from the Morinda citrifolia - POC *kurat

weevil that infests wood, bamboo, and rice; dust produced by the boring of this insect; tooth decay, dental caries - PMP *bukbuk₃

what is ground up, what is produced by twisting around or grinding - PPH *g<in>iliŋ

work produced by sewing or stitching - PAN *C<in>aqiS

products

nominal prefix marking instruments, or products of an action - PWMP *paŋ-

proffer

proffer, offer - PWMP *e(n)zuk

profit

profit, gain - *(loan)

profit, gain, fortune, luck - *(loan)

profusely

drool profusely (?) - PWMP *ibeR ibeR

progress

to arrest the progress of something by stopping or catching it; to support, keep from falling - PWMP *saŋgaq

to progress, push forward - PWMP *su(n)duŋ

project

plan, design, project - *(noise)

project above, stick up - PPH *labaw₂

stand out, project - *(loan)

to have ‘buck teeth’, project forward, of the teeth - PWMP *suŋar

projectile

throw at, hit with a projectile - PAN *buNuq₂

prolific

fruitful, prolific - PWMP *biak

prominent

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

eye, focal point, center or most prominent part - PAN *maCa

pointed or prominent, of the nose - PPH *táŋus

tendon, ligament; prominent veins - PPH *lítid

promiscuous

easy, promiscuous (of women) - PWMP *hampaŋ

promise

fulfill a promise, comply with a wish - PPH *tupád

put off, delay, postpone, break one’s promise - PPH *liwag

prone

lie prone, face down - PWMP *tiŋkeb

lie prone, face-down - PWMP *leŋkeb

to lie face down, prone - PPH *sakeb

pronged

forked, pronged - PMP *paŋaq

pronoun

1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.) - PAN *iten₁

1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.) - PMP *aten₁

1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we (exclusive) - PAN *ami

1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we (exclusive) - PAN *k-ami

1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun - PAN *ta-₁

1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun - POC *-da₁

1pl. incl. possessive pronoun: our - PAN *ata₁

1sg possessive pronoun; my - POC *-gu

2dl. pronoun - POC *koro₁

2p pronoun: you - PAN *Simu

2p pronoun: you - PMP *imu

2p. pl. pronoun: you - PCEMP *imi

2pl. nominative pronoun - PAN *amu

2sg. personal pronoun: you - PAN *iSu

2sg. personal pronoun: you - PMP *iu₃

2sg. subject pronoun - PMP *huʔu

2sg. subject pronoun - PEMP *u₂

2sg. subject pronoun - PMP *ka₄

3sg. personal pronoun: he, she, it - PAN *si ia₁

3sg. personal pronoun: he, she; him, her, it - PAN *ia₁

demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there - PMP *ia₂

demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there - PAN *si ia₂

genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb - PAN *ni

possessive marker used with inalienable pronouns - POC *o₂

proof

proof - *(loan)

prop

lever; prop - PWMP *tuil

prop, post - PAN *tuku₁

prop, support - PMP *teked

prop, support - PAN *tuked

prop, support - PAN *tukud

prop, support - PWMP *sekad

prop, support - *-kad (root)

prop, support, as the boom of a sail - PWMP *sukuŋ

prop, support, boom of a sail - *(loan)

prop, support; staff - PWMP *tu(ŋ)kad

prop, support; staff - *-ked (root)

prop, support; to prop up or support - PAN *suked

prop, supporting beam in house - PPH *tukal

to prop half-open - PMP *tukaŋ

to prop up - PWMP *ma-nuked

to prop up, support - PWMP *maR-tuked

proper

correct, proper - PWMP *tuman

proper, fitting, appropriate - *(loan)

straight; correct, proper; righteous - POC *tonuq

properties

a plant with toxic properties, Erioglossum edule or Lepisanthes rubiginosa - PWMP *kalayu

property

property - *(loan)

share, portion, inheritance; to allot, divide property - PMP *baqagi

to seize property and run off with it; to elope - PPH *taŋaR

propped

be propped open - PWMP *tukaŋ-an

to be supported, propped up - PWMP *tuked-en

prostitute

prostitute - PPH *pampám

prostitute, whore - *(loan)

protect

shelter, protect; shade, shadow - *-duŋ (root)

surrround in order to confine or protect - PWMP *kuŋkuŋ₄

to cover, shelter, protect - PWMP *tiduŋ

to take care of, protect - PWMP *k<um>upkup

protected

preserved, protected - *(noise)

protection

carved wooden figure, charm used to provide magical protection - PMP *uduq₂

head cover, protection from sun or rain - PMP *tuduŋ

shelter, cover, protection; shade - PAN *liduŋ

protective

protective covering or enclosure; mosquito net - PPH *kubuŋ₂

talisman, protective charm - *(loan)

protein

protein side-dish eaten with rice (typically fish) - PPh *sidáq

protruding

protruding part of the lower leg - PPh *buqel

protruding, of the bones of a skinny (bony) person - PWMP *ka-tuqela-tuqelaŋ

small protruding part - *-til (root)

to bend backward, protruding the abdomen - PWMP *liad

protuberances

have joints, have protuberances - POC *buku-an

protuberant

burl, knot; protuberant part - PMP *butequl

protuberant part - POC *putul₂

proud

(lit. 'big liver') brave, courageous; proud, arrogant - PMP *X₁ + qatay

proud - *(loan)

proud, boast - *-gak₁ (root)

proud, boastful - PPh *hambúg

proud, haughty - PWMP *ambuŋ

provide

Hibiscus tiliaceus, a tree the bark of which provides a fiber much used in making cordage; to lash, tie, bind - POC *paRu

carved wooden figure, charm used to provide magical protection - PMP *uduq₂

sun hat, used to provide shade - PPH *taduŋ

to line, as a shelf or box, provide a lining for - PPH *hapin-an

provided

provided that, in spite of - *(noise)

provided~that

origin, cause, provided that - *(loan)

provision

provisions for a journey - PWMP *balun₂

provisions for a journey - PWMP *bekel

provisions for a journey - POC *qoso

provisions, food for a journey - POC *tamaji

to provision, fill up - PWMP *penpen₁

provoke

provoke a fight - PWMP *atis

provoke fear (?) - PWMP *pa-nakut

to provoke, annoy or irritate - PPH *sugsúg

prow

face; front; prow of canoe - POC *nago

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born - PMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - PCEMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - POC *qulu

prow of a canoe - PWMP *duluŋ

proximal

proximal deictic: this - PAN *qani₁

proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here; now - PAN *-ni

this, proximal deictic - *(noise)

proximity

next to, in close proximity - PPH *sípiŋ

prune

cut off, prune - PWMP *eteb

prune, cut off the tip - PWMP *puŋgal

prune, cut off the tip - PWMP *puŋgel

prune, cut off the tip - PMP *puŋgul

prune, trim - *(loan)

prune, trim branches - PWMP *tutuq

prune; graze - *-teb (root)

to cut off, prune; cut down - PWMP *tebteb

to prune a tree; new growth from pruning - PPH *saliŋsíŋ

trim, prune, clear a path - PWMP *basbas₃

pruning

to prune a tree; new growth from pruning - PPH *saliŋsíŋ

Prunus

a tree: Prunus sp. - PPH *taŋa₄

pry

pry open - PMP *qu(ŋ)kaq

pry up - *(noise)

pry up, prise up - PCMP *uli

to gouge or pry out - PWMP *lugit

prying

lever, instrument for prying something up - PWMP *quŋkil

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ps

Pseudobalistes

brown triggerfish: Pseudobalistes fuscus - POC *lio-lio

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pt

Pterocarpus

a tree: Pterocarpus indica - PMP *naRah

a tree: Pterocarpus indica - PMP *nara

Pteropus

fruit bat, flying fox: Pteropus spp. - PMP *paniki

Pterospermum

a tree: Pterospermum sp. - PMP *bayuR

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pu

pubescens

a tree: Vitex pubescens - PMP *pa(m)pa

pubic

pubic hair - PAN-F *qubiS

pubic hair - PAN-F *kumiS

pubic hair - PAN-F *kumeS

pubic hair - POC *koRo

public

public building, community house, guest house - PMP *balay

Pueraria

a hairy vine: Pueraria hirsuta - PAN *baSay

a hairy vine: Pueraria hirsuta - PMP *bahay

puff

puff (O) - *-put (root)

puff, blow suddenly - PWMP *eput

puff, blow, expel air rapidly, as in using a blowgun - PMP *putput₂

puffer

porcupine fish, puffer fish, Diodon sp. - PMP *taRutuŋ

puffer fish sp. - PMP *buntal

puffer fish sp. - POC *puntal

puffer fish, globe fish: Tetrodon lunaris - PWMP *butiti

pufferfish

pufferfish - *(near)

pufferfish, porcupinefish - POC *poto

puffing

puffing sound - PWMP *put₁

puffy

puffy area around the throat of some birds - PWMP *tambuluk

puling

puling sound of a bird - PAN *kiaw

pull

bend or pull down (as a branch) - PMP *tekuk

drag, pull - PWMP *hilah

drag, pull - PWMP *batak

drag, pull - *(loan)

hernia; to slip down, slip off, pull back the foreskin of the penis - PMP *luslus

pluck, pull out - PMP *dutdut

pluck, pull out - PAN *guCguC

pluck, pull out - PMP *Radut

pluck, pull out - PAN *ubuC

pluck, pull out - POC *rurut

pluck, pull out - PWMP *zutzut

pluck, pull out - PMP *ubut

pluck, pull up (as weeds) - PAN *SebuC

pluck, pull up (as weeds) - PMP *hebut

prepuce, foreskin; pull back the prepuce - PPH *lusiq

pull - *(loan)

pull at body part; hold something dangling from the fingers - PMP *bitbit₂

pull at some part of the body - PAN *bitbit₁

pull back and forth - PMP *buis

pull inward or towards oneself - PWMP *paqud

pull or drag a heavy object along, as on a sled - PWMP *guyud₃

pull or jerk at something - PWMP *santak

pull out with force - PMP *cabut

pull out, extract - PAN *beNuC

pull out, extract - PMP *benut₂

pull out, uproot - PMP *ibut₁

pull out, uproot (as plants); pluck (as hair or feathers) - POC *puput-i

pull out, uproot, pluck - PMP *butbut-i

pull up (as weeds), pluck (as feathers) - PAN *buCbuC

pull up (as weeds), pluck (as feathers) - PMP *butbut₂

pull up weeds - *(noise)

pull up, as out of a pit or out of water - PMP *bantun

pull up, root up - PMP *abut

pull with a jerk - *-gut₂ (root)

pull, draw - PAN *SuRut

pull, draw, drag - PWMP *irid₂

pull, jerk at something - PWMP *sintak

snatch at, pull with a jerk - PWMP *raŋgut

stretch, pull something that stretches (as a rope) - PWMP *iñat

suck, pull at with the lips - PWMP *ñutñut

to hold or pull with a hook - PMP *kaqit

to pluck, pull out - PAN *putput₁

to pluck, pull out, uproot - PWMP *maŋ-butbut

to pull back the foreskin - PPH *lusiq-en

to pull out, as hair - PPH *bagut

to pull out, as hair - PPH *bagut-en

to pull, draw, drag - PWMP *ŋ-irid

to pull, haul, drag - PCMP *dada

to undo stitches, pull out tying material - PPH *tastas-en

to weed, pluck, pull out - *-buC (root)

touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger - PPH *kal(e)bit

touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger - PPH *kal(e)bit-en

uproot, pluck, pull out - *-dut (root)

uproot, pull out by the roots - PAN *RabuC

uproot, pull out by the roots - PMP *Rabut

uproot, pull out by the roots - POC *Raput

withdraw, pull out, extract - PAN *SuNus

withdraw, pull out, extract - PMP *hunus

withdraw, pull out, extract - POC *unus

withdraw, pull out, extract - POC *unus-i

pull~up

pull up - *(loan)

pulled

be pulled or dragged along - PPH *guyúd-en

be pulled or drawn - PAN *SuRut-en

be pulled out, be plucked; what is pulled or plucked out - PPh *butbut-en

pulley

pulley - *(loan)

pulp

inner pulp or young leaves - PPH *sepet

pulpy

pulpy leaf - *(noise)

pulpy, fleshy, as a fruit; soft flesh around the seeds of a fruit - PWMP *lunek₁

pulse

beat, throb, pulse - PWMP *petuk

beating of the heart; pulse - PWMP *keteg

to pound, of the pulse - PWMP *embut

pulverize

crush, pulverize; crumble - PMP *Remek

crush, pulverize; crumble - PMP *remek

crush, pulverize; powder - *-mek (root)

crush, pulverize; powder - *-muk (root)

fine particles, powder which results from pounding grains, etc.; pulverize grains - PMP *bekbek₁

grind to a powder, pulverize - PWMP *begbeg

pulverize, crush by pounding - PMP *dekdek

pulverize; crumble - PAN *Cumek

pulverized

dust, pulverized stone - PAN *bulbul

pulverized, pounded fine - *-dek₂ (root)

rotten, crumbling, pulverized - *-bek₂ (root)

was crushed or pulverized; what is crushed or pulverized - PWMP *b<in>ekbek

pumice

pumice - PPh *búgaq

pump

pump - *(loan)

pump, pumping motion - PWMP *umbak umbak

pumping

pump, pumping motion - PWMP *umbak umbak

pumpkin

gourd, pumpkin - *(noise)

punch

punch, hit, pound - PMP *tumbuk

to punch - PPH *suntúk

punctatus

marine fish sp. with venomous dorsal spines, Rabbitfish: Siganus punctatus - PWMP *kiteŋ

Rabbitfish: Siganus punctatus (family siganidae) - POC *kitoŋ

punctured

punctured, having a hole - PWMP *lesu₁

punctured, perforated so that the contents spill out - PWMP *busbus-en

pungent

acrid, pungent, of odor - PMP *seŋet₁

acrid, pungent, of odor - PMP *seŋ(e)hij

acrid, pungent, of odor - PMP *seŋ(e)hit

pungent odor, strong disagreeable smell - PWMP *saŋ(e)hid

punish

judge, punish - *(loan)

punish - *(loan)

to blame, accuse of error or fault; to punish - PMP *pa(ka)-salaq

punishment

suffer from an inflated abdomen as punishment for wrongdoing - PWMP *busuŋ-en

punk

tinder, punk - PWMP *lulug

punting

bamboo punting pole; to pole a boat in shallow water - POC *tokon

downward pressure; bamboo punting pole - PMP *teken

pupil

human effigy; pupil of the eye - PMP *tau tau

pupil of the eye - PMP *anak i mata

pupil of the eye - PAN *CaCaw

pupil of the eye (‘child of the eye’) - PMP *anak nu mata

pupil of the eye (‘person of the eye’) - PAN *Cau nu maCa

pupil of the eye (‘person of the eye’) - PMP *tau nu mata

puppies

sound used to call puppies - PWMP *kuyuk

puppy

puppy - PMP *titu

puppy (?) - PWMP *u(ŋ)kuq

puppy; young animal in general? - PAN *titu

purchase

to barter, purchase by exchange - POC *poli-a

value, price; marriage prestations, brideprice; purchase - PMP *beli

value, price; marriage prestations, brideprice; purchase - PEMP *poli

pure

clear, pure, of water - PMP *tin(e)qaw

pure - *(loan)

pure - *(noise)

pure-hearted

(lit. 'white liver') pure-hearted - PMP *X₆ + qatay

purify

purify by sprinkling with holy water - PWMP *basbas₄

purify ritually, exorcise - PWMP *lukat₁

purifying

taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite - PAN *paliSi

purple

heart of a person or animal; purple heart-shaped inflorescence of banana plant - PMP *pusuq₁

purple - *(loan)

purpose

collect stones(?), use stones for a purpose - PWMP *ma-matu

for the purpose of; in order to - POC *puat₃

intention, purpose - *(noise)

piece of wood used for a purpose; lie athwart, as a beam - PWMP *bali(n)taŋ

purpose, intention - PWMP *layak

species of climber used for decorative purposes - POC *bua bua

to spray spittle, etc. from the mouth for magical purposes - POC *puRuk

purr

purr, rumble - *-gur (root)

purring

purring sound - PMP *gur

purse

improvised purse or bag, folded cloth used to carry things - PWMP *puyuŋ

purse, money belt - *(loan)

pursue

chase, pursue - PPH *hápaR

pursue - *(noise)

pursue, chase - PWMP *maŋ-usiR

pursue, chase - PWMP *um-usiR

pursue, chase - *(noise)

pursued

be chased, pursued - PPH *hapáR-en

pursuit

pursuit (as of enemies or game) - PAN *qusiR

pus

having pus - PWMP *nanaq-an

pus - PAN *naNaq

pus - PMP *nanaq

to suppurate, ooze pus - PWMP *maR-nanaq

push

crowd, push together - PWMP *da(ŋ)sek

push - PAN *sulud₂

push - *(loan)

push aside - *(noise)

push aside, move aside, step aside - PWMP *siaq

push away - PWMP *tupelak

push down, trample down, as vegetation - PPH *desdes₁

push shove - *(noise)

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled in shallow water - PWMP *maR-tulak

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water - PMP *tulak

push something to start it moving; accompany someone to help them start a journey - PPH *tulúd

push with the feet; press feet against, set feet firmly to prevent being moved - PPH *sikad

push, launch a canoe - POC *usu

push, shove - POC *qusur

push, slide or glide forward, as in pushing wood into a fire, or storming the enemy - PWMP *suruŋ

to elbow; to push or jab with the elbow - PAN *s<um>iku

to progress, push forward - PWMP *su(n)duŋ

to push - PAN *s<um>ulud

to push - PPH *suRud

to push - PPH *i-tulúd

pushing

push, slide or glide forward, as in pushing wood into a fire, or storming the enemy - PWMP *suruŋ

put

a plant with roots that are pounded and put in rivers to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PAN *tuba

arrange, put in order - *(loan)

cover with ashes, put ashes on - PWMP *maŋ-qabu

curse, put a curse on - PWMP *saraw

extended, stretched taut, put under tension - PMP *benteŋ

fall forward; put face low down - PWMP *subsub

insert, put or drive in - PWMP *ra(ŋ)suk

pave with stones; pile or stack up, arrange, order, put in sequence - PMP *qatuR₁

pave with stones; pile up, arrange, put in an orderly fashion - PWMP *qatuR-an

pile up, arrange, put in an orderly fashion - PWMP *maŋ-qatuR

put close together - PWMP *lapit

put in a straight line - PPH *taraytay

put in or over a fire - PWMP *alub

put in place - *(noise)

put in the lap - PMP *iwaq

put in the lap - PMP *iwa

put off, delay, postpone, break one’s promise - PPH *liwag

put on clothing, wrap around body - PMP *suluŋ₂

put out to sea, embark on a voyage - POC *toka₃

put salt on - PWMP *qasin-i

put someone down to sleep - PWMP *pa-tuduR

put something (as food) in the mouth - PPH *s<um>úbuq

put something into a container - PWMP *dalem-en

put something into or through an opening - PPH *súbuq

put something on top of something else - PPH *i-taq(e)paw

put something on top of something else - PPH *taq(e)paw-an

salt something, put salt on - PWMP *qasiRa-i

stamp, put one's foot down - PWMP *qantak

step into clothing, put on a sarong - PMP *saRuk

stretch, put under tension - PWMP *betek₂

strew with flowers, put flowers on - PWMP *buŋa-i

to lay down, put down, put away - PWMP *maR-taRuq

to plug, put a stopper in a hole - PWMP *seŋseŋ-en

to powder, put powder on someone - PWMP *ma-murpur

to put above - PPH *sapat₁

to put food into the mouth - PPH *i-súbuq

to put on or over something - PPH *tuqun₁

to put something in a high place or reach a high place by climbing - PPH *saŋ(e)qát

to salt, put salt on something - PWMP *maŋ-qasin

to store, put away for safekeeping, hide valuables; to place a bet in gambling; lay an egg - PMP *taRuq

to string, put on a string - PMP *tuRa

to thatch a roof, put thatch on a house - PWMP *maŋ-qatep

to wear or put on clothing - PMP *sulut

to wear, put on clothes, etc. - PAN *Si-₃

wake someone, rouse someone from sleep; erect something, put something in an upright position - PMP *baŋun₂

what is laid, placed or put down - PWMP *t<in>aRuq

putrid

decayed, rotten, putrid; stinking - PMP *busuk

having a putrid smell - PWMP *baŋ(e)haw

putrid - *(noise)

putty

putty nut: Parinari laurinum - POC *katita

the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum - POC *qarita

the putty nut: Parinarium laurinum - POC *qatita

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py

python

python - PMP *sawa

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/22/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_p.htm