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Updated: 7/14/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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R

re    rh    ri    ro    ru    

Rabbitfish

marine fish sp. with venomous dorsal spines, Rabbitfish: Siganus punctatus - PWMP *kiteŋ

Rabbitfish: Siganus punctatus (family siganidae) - POC *kitoŋ

rabbitfish

rabbitfish: Siganus sp. - POC *palaja

race

a race, running competition - PWMP *lumbeq

race - *(loan)

Radermachera

a tree: Radermachera gigantea - PWMP *tui₂

radiance

light, radiance - PMP *sunaR

light, radiance - PAN *suNaR

light, radiance; shine - PWMP *edaŋ

radiance - PMP *gilap

radiance - PWMP *gilaŋ

radiance, as of rising sun - PMP *banaqaR

shine; radiance - PWMP *sinaŋ

radiate

to shine, radiate light - PAN *s<um>uNaR

to shine, radiate light - PMP *s<um>unaR

radish

radish - *(loan)

raft

join along the length; raft - PMP *dakit

lay long objects side by side; raft - PMP *Rakit

rafter

one of the four principal rafters - PPh *paRbu

rafter, diagonal bamboo poles to which thatch panels are lashed - PMP *kasaw₁

rage

struggle in rage - PWMP *rabut

raid

raid, go headhunting - PWMP *ayaw₂

rain

abundance of rain - PWMP *ka-quzan

ditch, rain channel caused by water dripping from a house roof - PWMP *paspas₃

drizzle, drizzling rain - PWMP *rinis

drizzle, light rain - PPH *taRihtih

drizzle, light rain - PPH *tariktik

drizzling rain, mist; fog - PMP *Rabun

foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain - PAN-F *ma-lebleb

foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain - PAN-F *lebleb₁

get caught in the rain - PWMP *ka-quzan-an

get drenched by the rain - PPH *ma-quzan-an

head cover, protection from sun or rain - PMP *tuduŋ

rain - POC *qusan

rain - PMP *quzan

rain - PAN *quzaN

rain cloud - POC *kadapuR

rain intermittently - POC *qusan qusan

rain intermittently - PMP *quzan quzan

sheltered, as from wind, rain, or sun - PMP *duŋduŋ

sound of grating, rain pounding, etc. - PPH *kaRitkit

sound of rain on roof - PPH *taRiktik

sound of ticking, rain drops falling - PPH *tagiktik

stop, cease, of rain - PMP *hedaw

swiftly flowing, of water; heavy, of rain - PMP *deRes

to pour, of heavy rain - PAN-F *salaw

to rain - PMP *q<um>uzan

to rain - PWMP *maR-quzan

to rain - PWMP *maŋ-quzan

to rain on (something) - PMP *quzan-i

to rain; it is raining - PAN *q<um>uzaN

wind-driven rain - PWMP *ampias

rainbow

a fish, the rainbow runner: Elagatis bipinnulata - POC *kamaRi

rainbow - PWMP *duniq

rained

to be rained on - PAN *quzan-en

raining

to rain; it is raining - PAN *q<um>uzaN

rainy

north; rainy season - PPh *qamihan-an

rainy - PAN *ma-quzaN

raise

care for, raise (an animal) - PAN *pa-qudip

lift or raise up - PWMP *maŋ-atas

lift, raise up - PWMP *aŋkat-an

lift, raise, carry - PWMP *maŋ-aŋkat

lift, raise, pick up - PWMP *taR-aŋkat

lift, raise, pick up - PWMP *maR-aŋkat

lift, raise, pick up - PWMP *aŋkat

raise chickens - PWMP *maR-manuk

raise the eyebrows as a signal to another person; to furrow the brows (?) - PWMP *kindat

raise, place something upright - PWMP *baŋun-an

to bruise, raise welts - PPh *baneR

to lift, raise up - PWMP *katkat₁

to lift, raise, uncover, bare something - PCMP *silu₁

raised

raised flesh over a wound - POC *pupula

raised flooring - PWMP *pa(n)duŋ

raising

act of lifting or raising - PWMP *paŋ-aŋkat

rake

a rake - PAN-F *ka-kuRi

comb, comb-like structure; rake, harrow - PMP *sisir

rake - PAN-F *kuRi

scratch up, sweep or rake up - PPH *kaykáy

to rake - PAN-F *k<um>uRi

ram

slam down, ram down - PMP *qetak

rambutan

hairy; kind of hairy fruit, rambutan: Nephelium lappaceum - PWMP *bulu-an

ramiflora

an evergreen tree with decorative flowers: Cynometra ramiflora L. - PMP *namut

ram into

hit, ram into - *(loan)

rancid

rotten, turned rancid or mildewed - PPH *tagbák

sour, rancid - POC *masi

rank

rank, position - *(loan)

title of rank - *(loan)

ransom

redeem, ransom - PMP *tebus

rap

rap or tap lightly - PPH *tiltil

rap, tap - PWMP *tirtir₂

to hit, pound, rap on something - PWMP *latuk

to rap, knock, make a booming sound - PAN *tekuŋ₂

rapid

flutter, flap, sound of rapid wingbeats - PMP *berber₁

quick, rapid - POC *taku₁

rushing of water; rapids, cascade - PPH *dalágan

sound of rapid talking - PPH *kata

rapidly

grow rapidly, thrive, be healthy - PPH *talúbuq

move the lips rapidly, as in gnawing or nibbling on something - PPH *kútib

moving about rapidly or restlessly - PPH *kidas

puff, blow, expel air rapidly, as in using a blowgun - PWMP *putput₂

to flow, stream, move out rapidly - POC *rere₂

raptorial

kind of raptorial bird, eagle or hawk - PWMP *kaŋkaŋ₄

raptorial bird

raptorial bird - *(near)

rare

far apart, rare - PWMP *ma-laka

far apart; rare - PWMP *la(ŋ)ka

rash

flower, blossom; to flower, bear flowers; yield a benefit (as interest on a loan); first-born child; cotton; vulva (refined or evasive), skin rash, prickly heat; speckled (of fish); kidneys - PMP *buŋa

rasp

a file, rasp - POC *kikir

grater, rasp, as for coconuts - PWMP *kuDkuD-an

rasp, file - PMP *parud

rasp, file - PAN *kiRkiR

scrape, grate, rasp - PMP *kaRud

scrape, rasp - PAN *karut₁

to file, rasp - PMP *kiDkiD

to scrape, rasp, grate, as in grating coconuts - PMP *kuDkuD

rasped

be rasped or cut off (?) - PWMP *sapsap-en

raspy

hoarse, raspy (of the voice) - PWMP *gaRaw

Rastrelliger

kind of mackerel: Rastrelliger spp. - PPH *tuliŋan

'rat'

bandicoot, marsupial ‘rat’ - PCEMP *mansər

bandicoot, marsupial ‘rat’ - PCEMP *mansar

mouse, rat - *(loan)

rat - PAN *labaw₁

rat - POC *kusupe

rat - POC *kasupe

rat - PCEMP *kazupay

rat - *(loan)

rat - *(noise)

rat, mouse - POC *kalapo

rat, mouse - PCEMP *kalabaw

rat, mouse - PMP *balabaw

rat, mouse - PWMP *babaw₁

rattan

a species of rattan - PWMP *seka

gather rattan - PPh *maŋ-quay

kind of rattan - PWMP *segaʔ

kind of rattan - PWMP *apis

kind of sour edible fruit, possibly fruit of rattan - PWMP *libas₁

kind of thick rattan - PMP *naŋa₂

peel rattan, bamboo - PAN *rauC

rattan - *(noise)

rattan basket used to carry garden produce, etc. - PWMP *karanzaŋ

rattan gatherer - PPh *paŋ-quay

rattan sleeping mat - PWMP *lampit

rattan sp. - PPH *lilit

rattan sp. - PPH *parásan

rattan sp. - *(loan)

rattan sp. - *(noise)

rattan variety - PWMP *away₄

rattan, Calamus sp. - POC *que

rattan, Calamus sp. - PAN *quay

rat-weed

rat-weed, arsenic - PWMP *baraŋen₂

rat-weed, arsenic - PWMP *baraŋan₃

raucous

caw, as a crow; raucous talking of people - PWMP *gakgak

laugh loudly; loud or raucous laughter - PWMP *hakhak

raucous sound - PMP *ŋakŋak

raucous sound - PMP *ŋak

raucous throaty sound - *-gak₂ (root)

ravine

ravine, glen, valley - PWMP *lebak₂

raw

eat raw meat - PPH *kilaw₁

eat something raw - POC *qodaq

eat something raw - PCEMP *qentaq

eat something raw - PAN *qetaq

eat something raw - PAN *qataq

raw energy, animal appetite - PMP *ganas

raw, eat something raw - PAN *qamataq

raw, uncooked - PMP *ma-hataq

raw, uncooked - PWMP *hataq

raw, unripe - PAN *ma-qataq

raw, unripe - PPh *hiláw

raw, unripe, green (fruit), uncooked - PCEMP *ma-qetaq

raw, unripe, green (fruit), uncooked - PAN *ma-qetaq

raw, unripe’ - POC *mataq

to eat raw fish or meat - PPH *kilaw-en

ray

large rayfish, probably manta or eagle ray - PMP *paRih manuk

ray of light - *-NaR (or *-NagaR?) (root)

ray of light, sunbeam - PMP *sinaR

ray of light; to shine - PMP *siŋaR

rays of the sun - PWMP *inaR

tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.; rays of the sun - POC *kawe₁

tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.; rays of the sun - POC *kawe₂

rayfish

large rayfish, probably manta or eagle ray - PMP *paRih manuk

razor

razor - *(loan)

TOP      re    rh    ri    ro    ru    

re

reach

able to fetch, get, take, reach - PPh *maka-alap

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

jump up to reach something - PWMP *lunzag

reach across - *(noise)

reach, overtake, catch up with - PPh *qabut

tap, touch, or reach in with the finger - PWMP *kuhit

to arrive, reach a place - PMP *dateŋ

to come, arrive; reach as far as; reach a destination; to complete - PMP *teka₁

to grasp, reach for; grasping, greedy - PPH *sakém

to put something in a high place or reach a high place by climbing - PPH *saŋ(e)qát

to reach, extend to - PMP *taRus

within reach (?) - PPh *ma-qabut

reached

be reached - PPh *qabut-en

ready

eat something before it is ready to eat - PWMP *maŋ-qataq

ready, prepared - *(noise)

ripe; cooked; ready to eat - PEMP *ma-qosak

ripe; cooked; ready to eat - PMP *ma-qesak

ripe; cooked; ready to eat - PAN *qesak

real

real, genuine, true, sincere - PWMP *tunay₂

true, real - PMP *tatuqu

true, real, genuine - PEMP *molaŋ

true, real; truly, really - PMP *tuqu₂

realis

stative marker in irrealis constructions, counterpart to *ma- in realis constructions - PAN *ka-₂

realized

spoiled, gone to waste; never realized, of potential for fertility - PPH *baqug

really

true, real; truly, really - PMP *tuqu₂

truly, surely, really, in fact - PPH *talagá

very thick, really thick - POC *matolu-tolu

reap

cut something slender or soft; reap crops - PAN *keRet

reaping knife; to reap grain - PWMP *ketep₂

to harvest, reap - PPh *qanih-en

reaping

reaping knife; to reap grain - PWMP *ketep₂

rear

be at the rear - PWMP *maŋ-ikuR

hind part, rear, back - POC *burit₃

hind part, rear, back - PMP *burit₁

hind part, rear, back - POC *buRit₂

hind part, rear, back; base, bottom - PMP *buRit₁

rear end of a chicken - PMP *buntut₁

rear end of an animal - POC *buntut₂

rear part - PPh *íwit

rear part, stern or rudder of a boat - PMP *kama-udehi

rear, back, behind - *(noise)

the last, at the rear - PWMP *ka-udehi-an

rear end

rear end, posterior - *(loan)

reason

why, for what reason - PWMP *buhat apa

reasoning

will; intellect; reasoning, intention, mental presence, mind - PPH *nákem

rebound

bounce, rebound - PWMP *untul

bounce, rebound - PWMP *entul

recall

recall or drag up disagreeable past experiences - PWMP *uŋkat

recall, recollect, remember - PWMP *te(n)dem

receive

accept, receive - *(loan)

acknowledge; receive, accept - PWMP *aku-en

receive, accept - PWMP *taŋgap

to catch, receive something thrown or sent one’s way - PWMP *sambut₂

to meet, receive; greet a guest - PWMP *temu₂

recent

new, fresh; recent(ly); youth, bachelor; beautiful, in one's prime - PMP *baqeRu

new, recent; young, fresh - PEMP *baqoRu

reciprocal

prefix of reciprocal or collective action - PEMP *paRi-

reciprocal prefix - PCEMP *paRa-

reciprocate

reciprocate good or evil - PWMP *baras

to answer, retaliate; reciprocate good or evil - PAN *bales₁

reckon

reckon, calculate, count - PWMP *maŋ-bilaŋ

reckon, calculate, count - PPh *ma-bilaŋ

recline

lean on, recline - *-daR (root)

recognize

to know (a person), recognize, be acquainted with; to feel, perceive - PAN *kilala

to notice, take note of; recognize - PWMP *ma-ŋilala

recollect

recall, recollect, remember - PWMP *te(n)dem

recollected

whatchamacallit, filler for word that cannot be recollected - PWMP *kua₂

recover

living, alive; grow, flourish; fresh; heal, cure, revive, recover; vital principle, soul, spirit; flame - PMP *ma-qudip

rectangular

kind of long rectangular fishing net - POC *kupwena

rectum

rectum, anus, buttocks - PMP *buliq₂

red

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - POC *rarap

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *dapdap₁

a tree with roots that furnish a red dye: Morinda citrifolia - POC *gurat

a vine with red flower clusters, the Chinese honeysuckle, Quisqualis indica - PPH *taluluŋ

dark hue, possibly dark red - POC *piRiŋ

dark hue, possibly dark red - PMP *biRiŋ₁

dark hue, possibly dark red - PMP *biReŋ

kind of cockatoo with red neck feathers - POC *supiri

kind of cockatoo with red neck feathers - POC *sipiri

kind of large red tree ant with bad bite - PWMP *alagaq

large red tree ant - POC *loRo

red - PCEMP *meRaq

red - PAN-F *taNah

red - PMP *ma-rara

red - PMP *rara

red - PMP *ma-iRaq

red - PMP *pula₁

red - PMP *pulaq

red - PWMP *deRaŋ

red - *-Raq (root)

red - *(loan)

red - *(noise)

red parakeet - POC *siri

red, reddish - PCEMP *meRaq meRaq

red, reddish color of flames - PMP *siRa₂

red; embarrassed - PWMP *ma-iraŋ

striped with red and black - PWMP *kuriŋ

tiny red itch mite - PWMP *tuŋaw₁

trade cloth (bright red) - *(loan)

tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *depdep

redden

redden - *(loan)

redden - *(noise)

reddish

red, reddish - PCEMP *meRaq meRaq

red, reddish color of flames - PMP *siRa₂

reddish brown - POC *meRaq

reddish, color of flames - PMP *siRaq

reddish; discolored, as the skin over a bruise - PWMP *baŋbaŋ₈

redeem

redeem, ransom - PMP *tebus

redness

redness; embarrassment - PWMP *iraŋ₁

reed

game played with thrown reeds - POC *tika

kind of reed or cane, including Saccharum spontaneum - POC *pijo

reed - POC *kaso₁

reed-like

kind of reed-like plant (?) - PMP *kasaw₂

reef

coral reef - POC *papo₃

deep, of the sea; deep sea beyond the reef - POC *laman

ebb tide; coral reefs and sandbanks exposed at low tide; evaporate, dry up, of water in cooking, in a river, etc. - PMP *qeti₁

hunt for shellfish on the reef - POC *paŋoda

reef - PMP *sakaRu

small reef fish, perhaps damselfish - POC *tokuku

smaller types of reef squid - POC *nusa₂

smaller types of reef squid - POC *nuso

reel

reel, spool (in weaving) - PWMP *ulak-an

reel, spool (in weaving) - PWMP *ulak

reel, stagger - PWMP *ruyuŋ₁

reference

2pl deixis and spatio-temporal reference: that; there, then - PAN *-Cu

3p deixis and spatial reference: that, there (distant?) - PMP *-di

prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *kali-) - PAN *qali-

prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *qali-) - PAN *kali-

reflect

reflect, shine - POC *iro iro

reflection

shadow, reflection - PMP *qaninu

'shadow, reflection - PAN *qaNiŋu

shadow; reflection; soul - POC *qanunu

refresh

refresh oneself, go out for some fresh air - POC *paka-aŋin-aŋin

refreshments

refreshments taken with drink - *(loan)

refuse

deny, refuse to acknowledge - PWMP *uŋkir

dregs, refuse - *(loan)

driftwood and scum (?); lit. 'refuse of the current' - PWMP *taqi qaRus

regard

consider, regard - *(loan)

regard as a grandparent or grandchild (?) - PPh *apu-en

regarded

called or regarded as siblings (?) - PAN *Suaji-an

region

plain, region of level land - PAN *ka-dataR-an

regret

regret, remorse for something done - PWMP *selsel₂

reiterate

repeat, reiterate - *(noise)

rejoice

rejoice - *(noise)

relapse

relapse - PPh *beRnát

related

originate; related by common origin; be born - POC *pusa₁

relationship

be in a sibling relationship - PWMP *maR-huaji

co-parent-in-law, the relationship between parents of spouses - PPh *balaqih

genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb - PAN *ni

relationship between spouses of siblings - PPH *bilas

relationship between the sexes - *(noise)

relationship of father and child - PWMP *paR-ama-en

relationship of father and children - POC *paRi-tama

relationship of father and children - PWMP *paRi-amax

relative

affinal relative - *(noise)

affinal relative, probably son-in-law and daughter-in-law - PPH *ma-nuRaŋ

anaphoric or relative particle: there, previously mentioned place - POC *ai₁

collateral relative of the first ascending generation - PWMP *uaq

collateral relative of the first ascending generation - PMP *ua₂

companion, close relative, other one - PWMP *ka-ibah-an

companion, close relative, other one - PMP *ibah-an

companion, close relative, other one - PMP *ibah

companion, close relative, other one - PAN *ibaS

kinsman, relative (undefined) - POC *tuRaŋ

kinsman, relative (undefined) - PMP *tuRaŋ

relative (?) - PMP *anak buaq

relative of the third ascending or descending generation - PCMP *usi

relative of the third or fourth ascending or descending generation - PMP *piut

relatives - PWMP *daŋ-sa-anak

release

open, undress, remove, release - PMP *lekas₁

release, loosen, untie - PWMP *pukas₂

release, loosen, untie - PWMP *hekas

release, undo - PAN *bukas

relent

to relent or subside of appetite, passions, storms, etc. - PWMP *puas

religion

religion - *(loan)

religious

religious official - *(loan)

reluctant

averse, unwilling; reluctant - PWMP *butul

remainder

leftover, remainder - POC *tira

leftover, remainder - PMP *tidaq

leftover, remainder - POC *tira

leftover, remainder - PMP *tida

leftover, remainder - PAN *teda

remainder, surplus - POC *iba iba₂

remainder, surplus - PMP *iba iba₁

remaining

the remaining one - PAN *isa-ŋa

remains

take all that remains - PPH *simut

remarry

period in which a widow may not remarry - *(loan)

remember

brood, hold a grudge, remember, keep still - PAN *demdem₁

recall, recollect, remember - PWMP *te(n)dem

remember - PWMP *ta(n)dem

remember - PWMP *iŋet

remember - *(loan)

remember, think about - PWMP *maŋ-iŋat

think, ponder, brood; remember - *-dem₂ (root)

to note, remember; care, attention, caution - PMP *iŋat

to remember - PWMP *tendem

remembered

person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so - PMP *sanu

person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so - PWMP *i-anu, si-anu

person whose name is unknown, avoided or cannot be remembered: who? - PPh *si-nu

place which is unknown or cannot be remembered: where? - PAN *i-nu

thing whose name is unknown, avoided, or cannot be remembered: what? - PMP *a-nu

remnant

remnant, leftover - PAN-F *samaq

stump, remnant - PWMP *puŋpuŋ₁

remora

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting - POC *komi

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting - PMP *kemi

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting’ - PMP *gemi

remorse

regret, remorse for something done - PWMP *selsel₂

sulk; feel remorse - PPH *tampuq

remote

remote - *(loan)

remove

open, undress, remove, release - PMP *lekas₁

peel off, of skin; remove the bark of a tree - PMP *bakbak₁

peel off, remove bark - PWMP *bakbak-an

pierce or remove with a needle - PMP *sulam

remove coconut husk; scrub with coconut husk - PPh *maŋ-bunut

remove coconut husk; scrub with coconut husk - PPh *bunut-an

remove hair or feathers - PPh *hi-bulbul

remove the bones from meat or fish - PWMP *ma-nuqelaŋ

remove the clothes, undress - PPH *luas₂

remove, loosen, untie - PMP *lu(ŋ)kas

scrub hard to remove dirt - PPH *ludlud

separate, remove - PWMP *re(n)tes

solid residue left after squeezing to remove coconut oil, etc. - PPH *lunek₂

take off, remove (+ noun) - PAN *Su-

to scrape or scrub out, remove by scraping - PPh *kuskus-an₂

to skin or peel, remove the skin or peeling - PWMP *ma-ŋulit

to skin, remove the skin - PWMP *kulit-en

removed

to be skinned, have the skin removed - PWMP *kulit-an

removing

turn the soil over, as in removing stones prior to planting - PWMP *suŋkal

renowned

fame; famous, renowned - PPH *bantug

rent

rent - PWMP *abaŋ₃

repair

mend, repair, set in order - POC *tupak

return home; return something; restore, repair; repeat; motion to and fro - PMP *uliq₁

repay

cluster (b) == repay, return in kind; retaliate, take revenge (hence: to equalize a loss or debt) - PMP *baliw₄

repeat

change, exchange; repeat, return; again - PPh *baliw-an

change, exchange; repeat, return; again - PMP *baliw₅

do again, repeat - PWMP *q<um>uman

repeat - PWMP *ulit

repeat oneself monotonously - PWMP *quman-quman

repeat oneself monotonously - PAN *quman

repeat, do again - PAN *ulaŋ

repeat, reiterate - *(noise)

return home; return something; restore, repair; repeat; motion to and fro - PMP *uliq₁

repeated

prefix of repeated action - PWMP *para-

transport piecemeal; tranport through repeated trips - PAN *SakuC

transport piecemeal; transport through repeated trips - PWMP *maŋ-hakut

transport piecemeal; transport through repeated trips - PMP *hakut

repeatedly

cough repeatedly - PWMP *batuk batuk

flap the wings repeatedly - POC *kaba-kabak

jump repeatedly; knock or fillip repeatedly - POC *pitik-pitik

repeatedly - PMP *uliq uliq

shine, flash repeatedly - PMP *kila-kilat

to paddle repeatedly, paddle about - POC *pose pose

to shake repeatedly - POC *kañul-kañul

wag, shake, move repeatedly from side to side - PAN *wiŋawiŋ

wind around repeatedly - *-bej (root)

winding, curving repeatedly - PWMP *liku-likuq

wrap around repeatedly, bind by wrapping; bundle of wrapped material - PAN *bejbej₁

repel

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled in shallow water - PWMP *maR-tulak

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water - PMP *tulak

replace

to replace someone, fill a vacancy - PPH *pulih-an

replacement

replacement - PPH *puli

substitute, replacement - PPH *sulit₂

replenishment

replenishment, restoration - *(noise)

replete

complete, replete - PWMP *lekep₂

reply

answer, reply - PMP *saRut

reproduce

reproduce, multiply - PWMP *babaD

request

order, request - PPh *hi-bilín

order, request, command; message; something left for another - PWMP *bilin

request, petition - *(loan)

rescue

save, rescue - POC *saRop

save, rescue - PMP *saRep

to save, rescue - PPH *ligtas

resemble

like, similar to, resemble - PMP *buat₂

resemble - PWMP *alaq₃

something that resembles a tail feather (?) - PWMP *lawi-lawi

resembling

to husk rice; be afflicted with pimples on the skin resembling rice grains - PWMP *beRas-en

resent

resent, blame; resentment, jealousy - PAN *qijap

resentful

(lit. 'sick/hurt liver') resentful, offended - PMP *X₄ + qatay

jealous, resentful (?) - PWMP *qiRih-an

resentment

anger, resentment - PWMP *i(ŋ)git

anger, resentment - *-git (root)

resent, blame; resentment, jealousy - PAN *qijap

reserve

to hold back, keep in reserve - PWMP *taqan₂

reside

dwell, reside - PWMP *geneŋ

dwell, reside, live in a place - PWMP *ian₂

sit; stay or stop moving; reside - POC *nofo

to stay, dwell, reside - PWMP *um-ian

residence

abode, place of residence - PMP *tahan

place of residence - PWMP *ian-an

place of residence - *(noise)

village, place of residence - *(loan)

village; place of residence - PAN *taNaS

resident

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

flesh (of humans, animals, fruits, tubers); contents; blade of a knife; inhabitants, residents - PAN *isi₅

residential

hamlet; kin-based residential unit - PAN *kuan₁

residue

coconut residue - *(loan)

residue, dregs - *(loan)

solid residue left after squeezing to remove coconut oil, etc. - PPH *lunek₂

resilient

resilient, springing back when pressed down - PWMP *endut

resin

sap, resin, sticky secretion - PWMP *gateq

tree resin used in torches (?) - PAN *damaR

resinous

a tree, probably Dipterocarpus spp.; resinous substance obtained from this tree - PWMP *balaw₂

resist

able to resist or persist, as rice grains that are difficult to husk - PWMP *betaq₁

struggle against, resist - PWMP *sukul₁

resonance

dull resonance - PMP *re(ŋ)geŋ

resonant

deep resonant sound; name of a bird with deep resonant cry - PAN *ku(ŋ)kuŋ

harsh resonant sound - PWMP *raŋ

high-pitched sound of striking against something hard but not resonant - PMP *katik

resonant sound - PAN *tuRtuR

resound

resound - *(near)

to boom, resound - PAN *teguŋ

resounding

deep resounding sound - PAN-F *kaluŋkuŋ

deep resounding sound - PAN *guŋguŋ

deep resounding sound - PMP *buŋ

deep resounding sound - PPh *buŋbuŋ₂

deep resounding sound - *-Cuŋ (root)

deep resounding sound - *-guŋ (or *-guquŋ?) (root)

deep resounding sound - *-kuŋ₂ (root)

deep resounding sound; slit-gong, hollowed tree trunk used to send messages - PAN *kuŋkuŋ₁

dull resounding sound - PMP *geŋ

dull resounding sound - *-beŋ₃ (root)

dull resounding sound - *(noise)

hollow, resounding sound - PMP *keŋ₁

hollow, resounding sound - PAN *keŋkeŋ₁

hollow, resounding sound - *-keŋ₃ (root)

loud resounding sound - PAN *baŋbaŋ₆

resounding sound - PAN *kaŋkaŋ₂

resounding sound - PWMP *sa(ŋ)kuŋ₁

resounding sound - PAN *keRuŋ

small bird that produces a deep resounding call - PAN *kukuŋ₁

respect

object of respect; distinguished or respected person - PWMP *empu-an

respect, venerate - PWMP *qasi₁

title of respect - PMP *puaŋ

what is honored, object of honor or respect - PWMP *paŋ-empu-an

respected

object of respect; distinguished or respected person - PWMP *empu-an

respiration

to sob, choke, have broken respiration - PMP *sekuk

respond

exclamation to express surprise, call to a friend, respond to a distant call, etc. - PMP *huy

responsibility

to answer (a call, a question); to assume responsibility for, be answerable for - PPH *sagút

rest

breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break - PMP *nihawa

come to rest in a definite place, settle down, as birds on a tree - PMP *tekas

lean or rest on - PAN *saŋeday

place where one rests the head: wooden headrest - PMP *qulun-an

quiet, still, at rest - PMP *qeneŋ

rest the foot on; touch or knock with the foot - PMP *sakil

rest the head on - PMP *qulun₂

rest the head on; wooden headrest - POC *quluŋ-an

sit, squat; come to rest; stay in a place; settle down, as birds on a tree - POC *toka₃

stop an activity, take a break, rest - PAN-F *Seked

to breathe; to rest, take a ‘breather’ - POC *mañawa

to rest the head against something; pillow - PPH *puŋan

to rest, take a break from work or other activity - PAN *Ceked

resting

in a resting position - PPH *lupasay

restless

move about in restless anger - POC *ŋali-ŋali

restless - PWMP *gesaq

restless, fidgety - *(loan)

restless, impatient, annoyed - PWMP *deŋut

restlessly

moving about rapidly or restlessly - PPH *kidas

restlessness

restlessness, wild or unruly movement - PPH *garáw

restoration

replenishment, restoration - *(noise)

restore

return home; return something; restore, repair; repeat; motion to and fro - PMP *uliq₁

return something; restore - PWMP *maŋ-uliq

return, restore - *-liq (root)

restrain

impede, obstruct, restrain - PMP *qempeŋ

restraining

restraining device on animals - PAN *sakal

to bind, tie the hands or feet, as a person in detention, or an animal to be slaughtered; restraining rope - PMP *Rapus

restriction

fetter, restriction - PWMP *letak₂

taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite - PAN *paliSi

result

be afflicted with a swollen abdomen as a result of violating customary law. - PWMP *busuŋ

fine particles, powder which results from pounding grains, etc.; pulverize grains - PMP *bekbek₁

produce fruit; produce results - PPh *paŋ-búŋa

swollen, of the abdomen as a result of the violation of customary law - PWMP *ma-busuŋ

title, yield, results - *(loan)

yield, result - *(noise)

retaliate

cluster (b) == repay, return in kind; retaliate, take revenge (hence: to equalize a loss or debt) - PMP *baliw₄

to answer, retaliate; reciprocate good or evil - PAN *bales₁

retaliation

revenge, retaliation - *(loan)

retching

sound of retching - PMP *uak₂

retention

hydropoesia, bodily swelling caused by water retention - POC *popol

hydropoesia, bodily swelling caused by water retention - PMP *belbel₂

retreat

retreat - *(noise)

retreat, fall back - PWMP *undur

retreat, move backward - *(near)

retreat, move backwards - PPh *isul

to retreat, run from battle - PWMP *takaw₂

return

able to return - PPh *maka-uliq₂

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PMP *hateD

accompany, escort; send, return - PAN *SateD

change, exchange; repeat, return; again - PPh *baliw-an

change, exchange; repeat, return; again - PMP *baliw₅

cluster (b) == repay, return in kind; retaliate, take revenge (hence: to equalize a loss or debt) - PMP *baliw₄

return - PCEMP *oliq, uliq

return - PAN *baliw₂

return - *(noise)

return home - POC *m-ule

return home - PMP *um-uliq

return home; return something; restore, repair; repeat; motion to and fro - PMP *uliq₁

return something to someone - PMP *paka-uliq

return something; restore - PWMP *maŋ-uliq

return to its previous condition - PWMP *puliq

return, come back - PAN *wili

return, go back - PWMP *pulaŋ

return, go back - PAN *Cikel

return, restore - *-liq (root)

return, send back - PMP *pa-uliq

return; go back - PPh *maR-uliq

revenge

cluster (b) == repay, return in kind; retaliate, take revenge (hence: to equalize a loss or debt) - PMP *baliw₄

revenge, retaliation - *(loan)

reverberate

reverberate, of a sound - PMP *kauŋ

reverberating

deep reverberating sound - PMP *keRaŋ₁

reverberating sound - *-leŋ (root)

reverse

do wrong, do in reverse - PAN *suŋa

reverse, turn around - PMP *bali₅

reverse, turn around - PMP *balik₂

reverse, turn around - PPh *baliketád

reverse, turn over or around - PPh *balikid

to reverse, turn around - PAN *suli₂

to reverse, turn around - PMP *suliq

reversed

inverted, reversed, upside-down - PPH *tumbalik

revive

living, alive; grow, flourish; fresh; heal, cure, revive, recover; vital principle, soul, spirit; flame - PMP *ma-qudip

revived

be awakened, be revived - PWMP *baŋun-en

revolted

disgusted, revolted - PWMP *zizi

revolve

turn, revolve - PWMP *libet

turn, revolve - PMP *biliŋ₁

turn, revolve - PWMP *baliliŋ

turn, revolve, turn around - *-liŋ₃ (root)

reward

compensation, reward - PMP *upaq

reward, pay - POC *taba₁

TOP      re    rh    ri    ro    ru    

rh

rhetorical

particle used to soften questions or turn statements into rhetorical questions - PPH *taq₂

rheumatic

arthritic or rheumatic pain - PMP *ŋulŋul₁

rhinoceros

rhinoceros - *(loan)

rhinoceros beetle

rhinoceros beetle - *(near)

Rhipidura

a bird, the fantail: Rhipidura sp. - POC *takere

Rhus

a plant: Rhus semialata - PAN-F *beRus₁

a tree: Rhus taitensis - POC *tawasi

rhythmic

beat, pound; sound of rhythmic pounding - PMP *tugtug₂

sound of rhythmic pattering - PWMP *tepak-tepak

TOP      re    rh    ri    ro    ru    

ri

rib

rib (?) - PAN-F *baRaŋ

ribs - PAN *Rusuk

transverse beams that support the roof of a house; thwart or ribs of a boat - PMP *seŋkar

ribbon

ribbon - *(loan)

ribbon, band - *(loan)

ribcage

ribcage - PAN *tageRaŋ

rice

a sheaf or bundle of rice stalks - PPH *taq(e)nay

able to resist or persist, as rice grains that are difficult to husk - PWMP *betaq₁

basketlike container used to steam rice - PWMP *kuskus-an₂

be eaten by someone; cooked rice - PAN *kaen-en

boiled foods other than rice - PMP *t<in>anek

boiled foods other than rice? - PAN *t<in>aNek

boundary between adjacent rice fields - PAN-F *Naqeji

burnt rice which adheres to the pot - PWMP *etip

compressed in the fist; what is compressed in the fist, as a ball of rice - PWMP *kepel

container in which rice is stored - PAN *beRas-an

cooked rice - PMP *hemay

cooked rice - PAN *Semay

cooked rice? - PWMP *in-asi

crumbs of food, esp. rice - PPH *muhmuh

empty, of rice ears - PWMP *buqaw

fermented rice - PWMP *asiʔ

field hut in the rice fields - PMP *kubu

fish; accompaniment to rice - PPH *sedaq

growth stage of rice - *(noise)

hard crust of rice that adheres to the bottom of the cooking pot - PPh *itíp

immature rice grain (?) - PWMP *ubek

infertile rice grain, husk without grain inside - PPH *lupes

insect destructive to rice - PWMP *zaŋaw

large jar used to store rice wine - PWMP *tapay-an

make rice wine (?) - PWMP *maŋ-asiʔ

malodorous insect that damages rice plants - PWMP *tanaŋaw

non-staple food eaten with rice - PPH *siraq₂

overcooked until mushy, as rice or vegetables - PPH *lusa₂

packet of cooked rice - *(loan)

paddy bug, foul-smelling insect that preys on rice in the field - PAN *baŋaw

popped rice - PWMP *Retiq

popped rice - PWMP *retiq

popped rice, roasted rice - PWMP *beRtiq

pound rice in tandem - PPh *maR-asúd

pound rice in tandem - PPh *asúd

pounded rice - PPh *b<in>eRas

protein side-dish eaten with rice (typically fish) - PPh *sidáq

rice barn, granary - PMP *lumbuŋ₂

rice between harvesting and cooking; husked rice - PMP *beRas

rice between harvesting and cooking; husked rice - PAN *beRas

rice cake - *(loan)

rice delicacy - *(loan)

rice field - PPh *ka-hemay-an

rice flour - PPH *tapuŋ

rice gruel; rice porridge; to mix - *-buR₁ (root)

rice husk - PWMP *padek

rice husk, chaff - PWMP *qepah

rice husk, rice bran - PMP *qeta

rice husk, rice bran - PAN *qeCah

rice in the field; rice plant - PAN *pajay

rice mortar - PMP *lusuŋ

rice mortar - PMP *lesuŋ

rice mortar - PMP *lusuŋ

rice mortar - PAN *Nusuŋ

rice mortar - PMP *esuŋ

rice or sago cake (used as an offering?) - PWMP *tumpiq

rice panicle - PPh *quhay

rice pestle - PWMP *lalu₂

rice pestle - PWMP *laq(e)lu

rice pestle - PMP *balu₂

rice pestle - PMP *anak i lesuŋ

rice porridge - PPH *l<in>ugaw

rice porridge - PPH *lúgaw

rice porridge - PPh *b<in>uRbuR

rice porridge, rice gruel - PMP *buRbuR₁

rice seedling - PMP *bunubun

rice seedling - PAN *bunabun

rice straw - PWMP *gaRami

rice straw - PAN *zaRami

rice straw; flute made from a rice stalk - PWMP *zaRami

rice variety - PPH *guyud₂

rice variety - PPh *ípun₃

rice variety - PPh *wagwág₁

rice variety (?) - PWMP *candur

rice wine - PWMP *paŋasih

rice wine; yeast; fermented rice; fermented rice cake - PWMP *tapay

roasted rice, popped rice - PPh *butíq

seed rice - PWMP *benehiq

seed rice, rice set aside for the next planting - PMP *binehiq

seed rice, rice set aside for the next planting - PAN *bineSiq

seed-bed for rice - PWMP *paR-binehiq-an

sheaf to which rice grains are attached - PPh *quhut

sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl - PMP *hiRup

sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl - PAN *SiRup

soul of a living being; soul of the rice plant - PMP *sumaŋed

soul of the rice plant - PMP *sumaŋet nu pajay

sow rice - PWMP *maŋ-binehiq

spicy condiment side dish with rice - *(loan)

sticky confection made of rice and coconut - PWMP *kalámay

sticky rice cake - PMP *pusuq₂

sticky rice cake - PAN-F *qemu

swell up, as boiling rice; boil over - PMP *luab

thresh with the feet, as rice - PAN *qiRik

to cook anything but rice - PMP *t<um>anek

to cook anything but rice - PAN *t<um>aNek

to cook anything but rice - PAN *taNek

to cook in water, cook rice - PMP *zakan

to husk rice; be afflicted with pimples on the skin resembling rice grains - PWMP *beRas-en

to make into gruel, rice porridge - PPH *lugaw-en

to pound rice - PWMP *la(m)buk

to pound rice - PAN *bayu

to pound, as rice - PWMP *tebuk₁

tubular basket used to carry and store rice or sago - PWMP *basuŋ

type of finch, rice bird - PWMP *apiRit

type of finch, rice bird - PWMP *ampeRij

unhusked rice grain left among the husked grains - PWMP *ataq

weevil that infests wood, bamboo, and rice; dust produced by the boring of this insect; tooth decay, dental caries - PMP *bukbuk₃

wooden rice mortar - PAN *iŋsuŋ

wrapped packet of cooked rice - PWMP *lepet₃

rice bird

rice bird - *(near)

rice bug

rice bug - *(near)

rice cake

rice cake - *(loan)

ricefield

irrigated ricefield? - PWMP *sabaq

rich

to cook fish in a rich, spicy sauce - PWMP *paŋat

Ricinis

the castor oil plant: Ricinis communis - PWMP *taŋan-taŋan

Ricinus

castor bean: Ricinus communis L. - PAN *katawa

the castor bean plant: Ricinus communis L. - PPH *katana

ride

carry a person pick-a-back; ride pick-a-back - PMP *baba₁

carry a person pick-a-back; ride pick-a-back - PAN *baba₁

catch a ride, join a group, ride on something - PMP *sakay₁

take passage, catch a ride in someone else’s boat - PWMP *tumpaŋ₂

to be jolted or knocked around on a rough ride - PPH *tagtag

ridge

edge, ridge - *(noise)

ridge of the roof - PMP *ubuŋ

ridge of the roof - POC *pupuŋan

ridge of the roof - *-buŋ (root)

ridge of the roof; ridge of a mountain, peak; deck of a boat; cover the ridgepole with thatch - PMP *bubuŋ₁

roof; ridge of the roof - PMP *bubuŋ-en

roof; ridge of the roof - PMP *bubuŋ-an

ridgepole

log or bamboo ridgepole cover - PWMP *kulub₁

place where ridgepole covering has been attached - PWMP *b<in>ubuŋ-an

ridge of the roof; ridge of a mountain, peak; deck of a boat; cover the ridgepole with thatch - PMP *bubuŋ₁

ridicule

mock, ridicule - PWMP *ulug

ridicule, derision - *(loan)

riding

vehicle for riding - PWMP *sakay-an

rifle

butt of a rifle - *(loan)

right

appropriate, suitable, right; fit together; hit the mark - PAN *tama₁

be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true - PMP *kena₁

go right through, penetrate through and through - PWMP *terus

right (side, hand, direction) - PAN *ka-wanaN

right (side, hand, direction) - PMP *wanan

right (side, hand, direction) - PAN *wanaN

right (side, hand, direction) - PMP *wanan

right (side, hand, direction) - PAN *waNan

right correct - *(loan)

right hand, right side - PMP *ka-taqu₂

right side - PMP *ma-wanan

right side - PWMP *tuqu₁

right side - PMP *ma-taqu₂

right side - PMP *taqu₁

righteous

straight; correct, proper; righteous - POC *tonuq

true, righteous, honest - PMP *bener

righteousness

truth, righteousness, honesty - PWMP *ka-bener-an

rigid

stiff, rigid; cramps - *-kaŋ₃ (root)

rigor

cramps, stiffening of the limbs, rigor mortis - PMP *kaŋkaŋ₃

rim

edge, rim - *(loan)

edge, rim, flat container - *(noise)

rim used to fortify (as on a basket) - PWMP *biŋkay

rim, edge - *-bir (root)

rim, edge, border - PWMP *su(m)bir

rim, edge, border - PMP *birbir₁

rind

bark, rind, sheath; to peel off bark - PWMP *upak₁

peeling, rind - *(noise)

rind or peeling - *(noise)

rind, peeling of fruits or tubers - PAN *kuliC

skin; hide; rind; bark - PMP *kulit

ring

cut off, sever; ring a tree - PWMP *geleŋ

encircle tigthly; band or ring around something - PWMP *selut

ring - *(loan)

shrill buzz or hum; ring - *-ŋiŋ (root)

to ring - *-Riŋ (root)

to ring, buzz, etc. - PWMP *deRiŋ

to ring, make a ringing sound - POC *titiŋ

to ring, of a small bell - PPH *kuliliŋ₂

ringing

clear ringing sound - *-kiŋ (root)

clear ringing sound - *-liŋ₁ (root)

clear ringing sound - *-tiŋ (root)

ringing of a bell - PPH *kililíŋ

ringing of a bell - PPH *kilíŋ

ringing sound - PMP *tiŋ

ringing sound - PWMP *tiliŋ

ringing sound - PMP *kiŋ

ringing sound - PAN *kiŋkiŋ₁

ringing sound - PAN *giRiŋ

sound of ringing - PMP *liŋ₁

to ring, make a ringing sound - POC *titiŋ

ringworm

a skin disease: ringworm - POC *lapa₂

have ringworm - PPh *ma-buqeni

ringworm - POC *karak₂

ringworm - PAN *kurap

ringworm: Tinea imbricata - POC *puni₃

ringworm: Tinea imbricata - PMP *buqeni

rinse

gargle, rinse the mouth - PWMP *kali-muRmuR

gargle, rinse the mouth - PMP *kumuR

gargle, rinse the mouth - PMP *muRmuR

gargle, rinse the mouth - *-muR (root)

rinse the mouth - PAN-F *timuRmuR

rinse the mouth, gargle - PCEMP *pupuR

rinse wash off - *(noise)

rinse, rinse off - PPh *balñaw

rinse, wash - PAN *ñawñaw

shake something, rinse clothes by shaking in clear water - PPh *waswás₁

to rinse - PAN *rawraw

to rinse, wash - POC *puqi

wash, bathe, rinse - *-ñaw (root)

wash, rinse - PMP *hawhaw

wash, rinse - PAN *SawSaw

wash, rinse off - PWMP *mem-bañaw

rip

a tear, small hole, or rip - PPH *punit

rip or tear open - PMP *tetas

sever, cut through, rip out stitches - PWMP *tastas

sever, rip, cut through; short cut - *-tas (root)

split, rip open - PPh *busiq

tear or rip off - *-pas (root)

tear, rip - PWMP *sitsit

tear, rip - PMP *bitas

tear, rip - *-tes (root)

tear, rip - *(noise)

tear, rip open (as cloth or stitches), snap (as string) - PMP *be(R)tas

tear, rip open, cut open - POC *potas

to rip out stitches - PWMP *ma-nastas

to rip, tear, shred - PWMP *testes

to tear, rip - PMP *birit₁

to tear, rip - PAN *biriC

to tear, rip (as cloth) - PPH *litas

ripe

coconut growth stage 9: ripe, flesh hardened - POC *kulu₂

cooked, ripe - PWMP *ma-lutuq

cooked, ripe - POC *maosak

cooked, ripe - PMP *ma-esak

cooked, ripe - PMP *esak

ripe - PMP *tasak

ripe - PAN *luem

ripe coconut - PWMP *buntan

ripe, cooked - PWMP *ma-tasak

ripe, overripe - PCEMP *madar

ripe; cooked - PAN *ma-Sasak

ripe; cooked - PMP *hasak

ripe; cooked - PAN *Sasak

ripe; cooked; ready to eat - PEMP *ma-qosak

ripe; cooked; ready to eat - PMP *ma-qesak

ripe; cooked; ready to eat - PAN *qesak

use while still ripe - PWMP *maŋ-hataq

ripen fruit

ripen fruit - *(loan)

ripping

sound of ripping, etc. - *-riC₁ (root)

sound of ripping, gnawing, etc. - PAN *geriC

rise

hummock, small rise of land - PPH *taluktuk

rise (of smoke) - *(noise)

rise and fall like the swells at sea - PWMP *humbak-humbak

rise to the surface of water - PWMP *ubal

rise, climb up - PAN *sakat

to ascend, rise up - POC *sake

to climb, ascend, rise up - PMP *sakay₄

to rise, of the sun, moon or stars - PPH *sebaŋ

rising

radiance, as of rising sun - PMP *banaqaR

rising of smoke or steam - PWMP *kuskus₁

rising to a point - *(noise)

sunrise, rising sun; to show off, be ostentatious, parade one’s talents, possessions, etc. - PPH *sikát

to wake up early, be early in rising - PPH *lukag

rite

taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite - PAN *paliSi

ritual

curing ritual conducted by a medium in trance - PWMP *dawak

incense, ritual smoke - PWMP *asep

ritual - *(noise)

ritual shout(?) - PWMP *pekaw

shaman in ritual transvestite attire - PWMP *asug

taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite - PAN *paliSi

ritually

defiled, ritually polluted, ceremonially unclean - *(loan)

purify ritually, exorcise - PWMP *lukat₁

ritually sacrificed monkey? - PAN-F *uŋay

river

a plant with roots that are pounded and put in rivers to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PAN *tuba

bracken, edible fern that grows by rivers: Athyrium esculentum - PAN *paheku

cross a river - PWMP *etes₂

current, deep channel in the middle of a river - PMP *qaluR₂

current, deep channel in the middle of a river - PAN *qaluR₁

deep place in a river - PMP *liku₁

deep place in river; pool of water left when a stream dries up - PPH *lib(e)tuŋ

ebb tide; coral reefs and sandbanks exposed at low tide; evaporate, dry up, of water in cooking, in a river, etc. - PMP *qeti₁

estuary, mouth of a river - PMP *naŋa₁

estuary, shore near the mouth of a river - PMP *sabaŋ₁

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

ford a river, cross to the other side (of a river, street, etc.) - PPH *dákit

fresh water; stream, river - PMP *wahiR

headwaters of a river - PMP *qulu ni wahiR

large catfish that lives in river estuaries: genus Arius - PWMP *tambaŋuŋu

lower part of a river; tidal bore - PMP *bena

mouth of a river - PPh *wáwaq

mouth of a river, estuary - PMP *minaŋa

mouth of a river, estuary - PCEMP *naŋa₃

mouth of a river, estuary - PMP *binaŋa

river - *(near)

river channel - PAN *iluR₂

river otter - PAN-F *Sanaq

rushing of water in a river - PWMP *awer

sandbank, shoal in river or sea - PWMP *pasiR

sandbar, shoal in river or sea - PWMP *pasiR-an

sheltered water: deep place in a river; cove, harbor, lagoon - PMP *namaw

small river fish - PWMP *palaw

soft-shelled river turtle - PWMP *labi-labi

spring of water, source of a river - POC *mata ni waiR

spring of water, source of a river - PMP *mata nu wahiR

stream, river - PAN *sapaq₁

tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn - PEMP *ipun₁

tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn - PMP *hipun₁

to go upstream, ascend a river - PPH *súbaq

transport someone across a river (?) - PWMP *dapit

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

upstream part of a river - PWMP *udahik

wash clothes by pounding on river rocks - PPH *piqpiq

riverbank

riverbank - PPh *ka-paŋpaŋ-an

TOP      re    rh    ri    ro    ru    

ro

road

middle of the road, most trodden part of a path or road; guide who shows the way - PMP *mata nu zalan

path, road, way - POC *salan

roam

roam about - PWMP *ansaw

roam freely, of domesticated animals that are untethered - PMP *lambeR

roam freely, of domesticated animals that are untethered - PAN *labeR₂

roar

groan, moan, roar - PWMP *qereŋ

groan, moan, roar, growl - PMP *heReŋ

groan, roar - POC *uRuŋ

low guttural or rumbling sound; snore, roar - PWMP *eŋker

roar - PWMP *heRuŋ

roar of a current, crashing waves, etc.; moan, groan (as in pain or when near death) - PMP *huRuŋ

roar, moan - PWMP *quRuŋ

roar, rumble - *-Ruŋ (or *-Ruquŋ?) (root)

roar, shout - POC *oRoŋ

to groan, moan, roar - PWMP *maŋ-heReŋ

roaring

sound of groaning, moaning, roaring, etc. - PMP *deReŋ

roast

bake or roast in an earth oven - POC *qumun-a

roast food over a fire - POC *tunu tunu

roast food over a fire - POC *tunu

roast food over a fire - PMP *tunu

roast food over a fire - PAN *CuNuh

roast in hot ashes - PWMP *benem₁

roast over a fire, toast - PWMP *paŋgaŋ

to roast - PWMP *maR-tunuh

to roast - PMP *maŋ-tunuh

to roast - PAN *tunuh-an

to roast - PAN *CuNuh-an

to roast (intr.) - PMP *t<um>unuh

to roast (intr.) - PAN *C<um>uNuh

to roast, broil; scald, sear, burn - PPH *pásuq

to roast; singe, cauterize - PPH *pasúq-en

to stir-fry, dry roast - PWMP *ma-naŋelaR

roasted

be roasted (by someone) - PMP *t<in>unuh

be roasted (by someone) - PAN *C<in>uNuh

be roasted by someone - PPh *tunuh-en

food that is dry roasted - PMP *s<in>aŋelaR

popped rice, roasted rice - PWMP *beRtiq

roasted - PAN *ma-tunuh

roasted - PAN *ma-CuNuh

roasted rice, popped rice - PPh *butíq

what is stir-fried or roasted in a pan without oil - PWMP *saŋelaR-en

roasting

skewer, spit for roasting - PMP *tuduk

roast pig

roast pig - *(loan)

rob

rob, plunder - PWMP *Rampas

snatch, seize, rob - POC *paqaRok

snatch, seize, rob - POC *paRo₂

snatch, take away by force, rob - PAN *qaRaw

steal or rob - POC *tako

to plunder, rob - PMP *raŋ(e)pas

robber

bandit, robber, thief - *(loan)

rock

a cleft, space between two rocks - PEMP *mawa

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod - PWMP *kurapu

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PWMP *kuRapuq

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PMP *kuRapu

broad, flat rock shaped like a plank - PWMP *batu papan

crab taxon, probably a rock crab (Grapsidae) - POC *kape₂

rock cod, grouper - POC *kalika

rock cod, grouper sp. - POC *kawa-kawa

rock or hover back and forth - PWMP *kindaŋ-kindaŋ

rock shelter, cave under a rock - PAN-F *Nihib

shake, sway, rock - PWMP *huyaŋ

shake, tremble, rock - PCEMP *nini

shake, tremble, rock - PMP *ninih

swing, sway, rock - PMP *ayuŋ₂

the Formosan rock monkey: Macaca cyclopis - PAN *luCuŋ

to pile up earth or rocks, heap up so as to obstruct - PWMP *t<um>ambak

to turn over, to dig by turning over, as rocks - POC *kili

turn over, rock back and forth, swing - POC *pui pui

turn over, rock back and forth, swing - POC *pui₂

wash clothes by pounding on river rocks - PPH *piqpiq

rocky

rocky, stony - PWMP *ma-batu

roe

be laden with roe, of a fish or crustacean - PAN *piRaS-an

be laden with roe, of a fish or crustacean - PMP *piRah-an

fish eggs, roe - PPh *bujiq

fish eggs, roe - PWMP *bihed

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

roe, eggs of fish or crustacean - POC *biRa

roe, eggs of fish or crustacean - PMP *piRah

roe, eggs of fish or crustacean - PAN *piRaS

roe, eggs of fish or crustacean - POC *piRa₁

roe, fish eggs - PAN *biRaS

roll

crush, roll over - PWMP *li(ŋ)gis

crush, roll over - PWMP *li(n)dis

ear plug, roll of leaves, etc. inserted through pierced ear - PWMP *subeŋ

lift up the clothes, roll up the pant legs (as when crossing shallow water) - PPH *lesles₁

roll into balls - *(noise)

roll of leaves or cloth - PWMP *ampin

roll of thunder - PWMP *deRu

roll or crumple up - PMP *lukut

roll or wrap something up - PWMP *balut₂

roll together into a ball - *(noise)

roll up a leaf, as a tobacco leaf - PPH *tustus₂

roll up pant legs - PPH *lenlen

roll up, curl up tightly - PAN-F *kuCkuC

roll, curl up - PMP *lekes

to roll - POC *biliŋ₂

to roll down or over something - PPH *pulin

to roll over and over - PWMP *ligid

to roll up - PCMP *lunu₁

to roll up - PWMP *lulun-en

to roll up sleeves or pant legs - PPH *lislís

to roll up, as a mat - PMP *lulun

to roll up, as a mat - PAN *luluN

to roll, roll over - POC *puri

to turn, roll over; grind up - PWMP *g<um>iliŋ

turn over, roll over; transform; upside down - POC *buliŋ

wind around, roll up - PWMP *letlet

roller

rollers for beaching a canoe - POC *luŋan

rollers for beaching a canoe - POC *laŋon

rollers for beaching a canoe - PMP *laŋen₁

to turn, rotate; to grind with a stone roller - PWMP *maŋ-giliŋ

rolling

a person who turns or grinds something; an instrument used for rolling or grinding - PWMP *paŋ-giliŋ

distant rolling thunder - PAN *deRuŋ₁

long rolling wave, swell, billow - PMP *qalun

to grind, as by rolling over - PMP *giliŋ

roll with fingers

roll with fingers - *(near)

roof

bamboo cross-lath used to hold down roof thatch - PWMP *belit₁

borderline, edge, as of roof or garment - PPH *sanipa

ditch, rain channel caused by water dripping from a house roof - PWMP *paspas₃

flat roof - *(noise)

have a roof - PWMP *maR-qatep

ridge of the roof - PMP *ubuŋ

ridge of the roof - POC *pupuŋan

ridge of the roof - *-buŋ (root)

ridge of the roof; ridge of a mountain, peak; deck of a boat; cover the ridgepole with thatch - PMP *bubuŋ₁

roof covering - *(noise)

roof, thatch - POC *qatop

roof, thatch - PMP *qatep

roof; ridge of the roof - PMP *bubuŋ-en

roof; ridge of the roof - PMP *bubuŋ-an

sound of rain on roof - PPH *taRiktik

to leak, as a roof - PWMP *ma-nuduq

to leak, drip, as a leaky roof; a drop of water - PAN *tuduq

to thatch a roof, put thatch on a house - PWMP *maŋ-qatep

transverse beams that support the roof of a house - POC *sokar

transverse beams that support the roof of a house; thwart or ribs of a boat - PMP *seŋkar

what is used to roof - PWMP *paŋ-qatep

roofed

be thatched, be roofed - PWMP *q<in>atep

roofing

cut or collect palm leaves for roofing - PMP *sasah

pinch, press between; fasten thatch together with slats in roofing a house - PMP *kapit

room

breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break - PMP *nihawa

room - PMP *bilik

roomy

loose sparse roomy - *(noise)

outside; outside area; spacious, roomy - PMP *luas₁

roost

to roost, of chickens; time of roosting - PPh *hápun

rooster

cock, rooster - PMP *laluŋ

crowing of a rooster - PPH *taraquk

feathers under chin of rooster, chin whiskers - PWMP *bauk

long tail feathers of bird or rooster - PMP *lawi₁

rooster, cock - *(near)

strut as rooster around hen - *(near)

to crow, of a rooster - PPH *tuRauk

to crow, of a rooster - PPH *taRaquk

roosting

perch, roosting place for chickens - PPH *hapun-an

to roost, of chickens; time of roosting - PPh *hápun

root

a plant with root used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PPH *tub(e)liq

a plant with roots that are pounded and put in rivers to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PAN *tuba

a tree with roots that furnish a red dye: Morinda citrifolia - POC *gurat

aerial root - *(loan)

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root - PMP *uRat

buttress root - POC *ralic

buttress root - PWMP *daliŋ

buttress root - PMP *dalij

buttress root - PPH *dalig

fibrous roots, as of grass - PMP *Ramut

kind of root - PCEMP *wakir

lift up with a lever, lever up, root up - PMP *suaR₁

mangrove root - PMP *wakat

mangrove root (?) - PWMP *waket

pull up, root up - PMP *abut

root - PAN-F *RamiS

root - PAN-F *RameC

root - PEMP *wakaR-i

root - POC *wakaR-a

root - PMP *wakaR

root - PWMP *lakat₁

root - PMP *akaR

root plant in the ginger family - PWMP *temu₃

root up the ground, of a pig; uproot - PMP *sual

root up, lever up - PMP *suat₂

to plant root crops, plant cuttings - PPH *lubaŋ₂

to take root, grow roots - PWMP *maka-Ramut

tree with inedible white fruit and root that yields a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia L. - POC *ñoñu

tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia - PCEMP *ñəñu

tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia - PWMP *baŋkudu

uproot, pull out by the roots - POC *Raput

uproot, pull out by the roots - PMP *Rabut

uproot, pull out by the roots - PAN *RabuC

visible tree roots above the ground - PWMP *paŋkal

was poisoned by Derris root - PWMP *t<in>uba

rope

a strand, as of rope - PWMP *idas₂

break under tension, as a rope - PMP *utus₁

broken piece of rope or string - PWMP *butes

coil around, wrap with rope - PWMP *libej

fasten with a rope - POC *sau(rR)

intertwine, braid, as strands to make rope - PPH *labid

lower or let down, as on a rope - PAN *SuluR

lower or let down, as on a rope; pay out fishline; launch a boat - PMP *huluR

lower something, pay out rope - PWMP *maŋ-huluR

made of three parts, as triple-strand rope - PPH *t<in>elu

make a rope or string, make something into rope or string - PWMP *ma-nalih

material used to make rope - PWMP *pa-nalih

node (as in bamboo or sugarcane); joint; knuckle; knot in wood; knot in string or rope - PMP *buku

node (as in bamboo or sugarcane); joint; knuckle; knot in wood; knot in string or rope; Mons veneris - POC *buku

node (as in bamboo or sugarcane); joint; knuckle; knot in wood; knot in string or rope; Mons veneris - PCEMP *buku

pay out a rope - PWMP *lu(m)baR

rope, cord, twine, string - PMP *talih

rope, cord, twine, string - PAN *CaliS

rope, string, cord - POC *tali₁

snap, break, as a rope under tension - PMP *butus

string, rope, cordage made by twining fibers - PPH *lúbid

tail; end of something long, as a rope; tip of a leaf - POC *siku

thick, heavy rope - PWMP *kalat

to be manufactured, of string or rope - PWMP *talih-en

to bind, tie the hands or feet, as a person in detention, or an animal to be slaughtered; restraining rope - PMP *Rapus

to lower, let something down, as with a rope - PPH *tuntún

to pay out a rope - PWMP *lumbaR

to tie with rope, fasten with rope - PAN *C<um>aliS

to twist into rope (?) - PMP *t<um>alih

to twist together, make rope - PWMP *quntay₂

twine together, as strands of rope - PWMP *pa-talih

twist together rope out of three strands - PWMP *ma-nelu

was made into rope; what was made into rope - PMP *t<in>alih

was made into rope; what was made into rope - PAN *C<in>aliS

roratus

male Eclectus Parrot: Eclectus roratus - POC *kaRa

rose-myrtle

rose-myrtle - *(near)

rot

dry rot in wood - PMP *rebuk

over-ripe, beginning to rot - PPH *tupúk

rot; rotten - POC *popok

rotate

to turn, rotate; to grind with a stone roller - PWMP *maŋ-giliŋ

turn round, rotate - PMP *puliŋ₁

turn, rotate - PWMP *liget

turn, rotate - PMP *ileŋ

rotten

decayed, rotten, moldy, mildewed (of wood) - PWMP *lapuk

decayed, rotten, putrid; stinking - PMP *busuk

rot; rotten - POC *popok

rotten - POC *pusa₂

rotten - *(noise)

rotten meat; addled eggs; bad character - PAN *buRuk

rotten smell, stench - PAN *baŋ(e)qeR₁

rotten smell, stench (as of stagnant water) - PMP *baŋ(e)qeR₂

rotten to brittleness, of wood - PMP *reput

rotten, as meat; addled, as eggs; bad, of character - PMP *ma-buRuk

rotten, crumbling - PWMP *Rapuq

rotten, crumbling, pulverized - *-bek₂ (root)

rotten, spoilt - PWMP *bucek

rotten, stinking - PPh *buyúk

rotten, turned rancid or mildewed - PPH *tagbák

to have become rotten - PAN *b<in>uRuk

rough

rough, of a turbulent sea - POC *ñoro

to be jolted or knocked around on a rough ride - PPH *tagtag

uneven, of edges, jagged, rough - PMP *garaŋ-gasaŋ

uneven, of edges, jagged, rough - PMP *garaŋ₂

round

circle round, circumvent - PMP *liu₂

kind of porous, white, round and flat coral growth - POC *buŋa₃

open the eyes wide, stare with round eyes - PWMP *maŋ-bulat

open the eyes wide, stare with round eyes - POC *bulat₂

open the eyes wide, stare with round eyes - PMP *bulat₁

round - PMP *bunteR

round - *(loan)

round (holes) - *(noise)

round about, around, in one’s surroundings; go around - PMP *kuliliŋ

round dance - *(noise)

round stone (?) - PMP *buaq na batu

round, spherical; rounded - PWMP *buled₂

spiral or circle round - PWMP *baliŋ baliŋ

to complete, make full, round out - PWMP *pa-genep

turn round, rotate - PMP *puliŋ₁

twine round and round; thing made by braiding - POC *piri-piri

rounded

round, spherical; rounded - PWMP *buled₂

small heap, rounded mass - PWMP *tumpuk

roundish

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

round-tailed

tailless (of birds or fowls), round-tailed (of fowls) - PWMP *tukuŋ

roundworm

roundworm, ascaris, intestinal worm; also earthworm? - PMP *bulati

rouse

to wake up, rouse someone from sleep - POC *paŋun

wake someone, rouse someone from sleep; erect something, put something in an upright position - PMP *baŋun₂

row

file, line, row - *(loan)

row - *(loan)

row - *(noise)

row, line - *(loan)

stack up; in a row, lined up; to order, arrange - PCEMP *qatuR₂

Roxb

a tree: Acalypha amentacea Roxb. - PPH *beRus₂

TOP      re    rh    ri    ro    ru    

ru

rub

rub (it), wipe (it) - POC *usuq-a

rub against, scrape, scratch - PMP *garut

rub on - POC *bubu₅

rub something off - PPH *gidgíd

rub two things together, create friction, as sticks to make fire, or the hands - PMP *kusu₁

rub, abrade - PWMP *gasgas

rub, massage - PPh *haprus

rub, massage - PPh *hapRus

rub, scour - *(noise)

rub, scour, scrub - PWMP *isut₂

rub, scrape against - PAN *gisgis₁

rub, scrub - *(noise)

rub, wipe - PMP *usuq

scrape or rub off - PPh *hírud

scrape, rub - PWMP *rudrud

scrape, rub against - PWMP *saRud

scratch, rub - PWMP *gusgus

sharpen, rub, grate - PEMP *asaq

to brush past, rub or scrape against; draw a line - PMP *garis

to paint; smear or rub on - POC *wali

to paint; smear or rub on - POC *bani₁

to rub against, scrape, scratch - PMP *g<um>arut

to rub the eyes - PAN *ledled

to rub, rub together - PPH *desdes₂

to wipe, rub, scrub - PPH *nisnís

rubbery

tough, rubbery, elastic - PPH *kúñat

rubbish

rubbish - *(noise)

rubbish - *(noise)

rubiginosa

a plant with toxic properties, Erioglossum edule or Lepisanthes rubiginosa - PWMP *kalayu

rudder

rear part, stern or rudder of a boat - PMP *kama-udehi

rudder - *(loan)

rudder; steer (a boat) - PMP *quliŋ

rudder; steer (a boat) - PMP *qulin

rudderfish

a sea fish, the rudderfish: Kyphosus cinerascens - PPH *hilek

rude

bold, rude; brave - PPH *tapaŋ₂

ruin

collapse, fall into ruin - PWMP *rebas

rule-governed

orderly rule-governed - *(noise)

rumble

low rumble - *(noise)

purr, rumble - *-gur (root)

roar, rumble - *-Ruŋ (or *-Ruquŋ?) (root)

rumbling

deep rumbling sound; thunder - POC *guRuŋ

low guttural or rumbling sound; snore, roar - PWMP *eŋker

rumbling or low murmuring sound - PWMP *geRuŋ

rumbling sound - PWMP *erut

ruminant

kind of wild ruminant - PWMP *tamadaw

large ruminant species - PAN *qiNuaŋ

large ruminant species: carabao, water buffalo (?) - PMP *qanuaŋ

large ruminant species: carabao, water buffalo (?) - PAN *qaNuaŋ

rumor

gust, draft, current of air; rumor - PMP *haŋin-haŋin

rumphii

a cycad: Cycas rumphii - PMP *patuRu

Rumphii

fan palm: Licuala Rumphii - POC *piRu

fan palm: Licuala Rumphii - PMP *biRu

run

attack, run amuck - PMP *hamuk

run amuck - POC *lilim

run away, flee; flight, escape; fugitive - PMP *pa-laRiw

run out, come to an end, of supplies; be poor - PMP *kabus₁

run, run away, flee - PAN *ma-laRiw

run, run away, flee, escape - PAN *laRiw

to flow, run, of water - POC *tape₁

to retreat, run from battle - PWMP *takaw₂

to seize property and run off with it; to elope - PPH *taŋaR

run across

meet, run across, welcome - *(loan)

rung

rung of a ladder; runged ladder - PMP *taŋga

runged ladder; rung of a ladder - PWMP *tukad₁

step or rung of a ladder - PWMP *anak i haRezan

runged

rung of a ladder; runged ladder - PMP *taŋga

runged ladder; rung of a ladder - PWMP *tukad₁

runner

a fish, the rainbow runner: Elagatis bipinnulata - POC *kamaRi

running

a race, running competition - PWMP *lumbeq

have a running sore - PWMP *biRiŋ-en

running sore - PWMP *biRiŋ₂

running, running away, flight - PWMP *pa-laRiw-an

snatch with the mouth, as a dog seizing something in its mouth and running away with it - PPH *sak(e)mál

runny

a cold; nasal mucus, runny nose - PPH *sip(e)qun

ruse

trick, ruse, scheme, wits - *(loan)

rush

kind of grass or rush - PWMP *sedsed₁

rush forward, charge - PPH *sugud

to rush forward - PPH *s<um>ugud

rushing

flow through a small opening, of rushing water - PPh *bugris

rushing of water in a river - PWMP *awer

rushing of water; rapids, cascade - PPH *dalágan

sound of rushing water or air - PPh *híŋak

rust

rust - PWMP *karat₁

rust - PAN-F *diNaŋ

rustling

dull rustling sound - PPH *kaRuskus

light rustling sound - PWMP *risris

rustling or swishing sound - PWMP *sik

rustling sound - PPH *kaRaskas

rustling sound - PWMP *rusrus₁

rustling sound - *-ris₁ (root)

rustling sound - *-rus₁ (root)

rustling sound, as of leaves in wind - PWMP *kerus₂

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 7/14/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_r.htm