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Updated: 11/17/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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S

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saccharifera

the sugar palm Arenga saccharifera, Arenga pinnata - PWMP *izuk

Saccharum

kind of reed or cane, including Saccharum spontaneum - POC *pijo

sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum - PAN *CebuS

sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum - PAN *tebuS

sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum - PMP *tebuh₂

sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum - PMP *tebuh₁

sack

burst open, as an overfilled sack - PMP *betus

netbag, sack, pocket - POC *taŋa₂

sack - *(loan)

sacred

sacred place - PWMP *tampuk₂

sacrifice

animal sacrifice - PPh *palis₃

sacrifice - *(loan)

sacrifice to the spirits - PPh *átaŋ₄

sacrificed

ritually sacrificed monkey? - PAN-F *uŋay

sad

feel sad about, deplore - PWMP *iruq

saddle

saddle - *(loan)

safekeeping

save, in safekeeping - *(loan)

something given to another for safekeeping (?) - PMP *pa-taRuq

to store, put away for safekeeping, hide valuables; to place a bet in gambling; lay an egg - PMP *taRuq

safflower: Carthamus tinctorius

safflower, Carthamus tinctorius - *(loan)

sag

sag, bend under weight - PWMP *luyut

sag, droop - PWMP *luyu

sago

dry sago branch - PMP *kumbal

extract the pith from the sago palm - PMP *saku₁

processed sago, prepared starch from the sago palm - PMP *sagu₁

rice or sago cake (used as an offering?) - PWMP *tumpiq

sago flour - PMP *palu₁

sago grub - PMP *qabated

sago grub - PMP *qabateR

sago grub - PMP *qabatiR

sago grub - POC *qapator

sago grub - POC *qapatoR

sago palm - PMP *Rambia

sago palm - PMP *Rumbia

sago palm - POC *Rabia

sago palm - *(noise)

tubular basket used to carry and store rice or sago - PWMP *basuŋ

said

it is said, people say..... - PMP *kunu₂

it is said, people say..... - PPH *kunuq

it is said, people say..... - PWMP *ken

it is said, people say..... - PWMP *kenu

what has been said/done (to cause someone to react)? - PAN *k<in>uja

sail

prop, support, as the boom of a sail - PWMP *sukuŋ

sail - PAN *layaR

sail along the coast (?) - PWMP *susuR

sail along the coast, follow the coast in voyaging - PMP *siDsiD

to sail - PCEMP *pa-layaR

to sail, set sail - PWMP *maR-layaR

to wind, curve, turn to the side; to tack, sail into the wind - PMP *biluk

unit of measure for cloth, sails, etc. - PWMP *bidaŋ

yardarm, sheet of a sail, sticks used to turn the sail - POC *jila

sailboat

kind of sailboat - PWMP *padaw

sailfin

sailfin tang: Zebrasoma veliferum - POC *piRa₂

sailfish

sailfish, swordfish - PMP *saku-layaR

sailfish: Istiophoridae - POC *piRu-piRu

sailing

kind of sailing boat - PMP *baluk₁

salary

wages, salary - PWMP *tendan

sale

merchandise for sale; to sell - PPH *lákuq

saliva

saliva - PPH *láway

saliva - PAN *ludaq

saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for - PMP *ibeR

saliva in the mouth; drool; desire, crave, lust for - POC *ipoR

saliva, drivel - PAN *ŋajay

saliva, spittle - PWMP *qizuR

saliva; to spit - PMP *dulaq

saliva; to spit - PWMP *luzaq

saliva; to spit - PWMP *zulaq

saliva; to spit - PMP *ludaq

spittle, saliva - PMP *iluR₁

spittle, saliva - PMP *suba

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - PMP *buRah

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - POC *puRa

salt

closed bamboo internode used as a container for salt, valuables, etc. - PWMP *tubuŋ

lacking in salt - PWMP *taq(e)baŋ

place where salt is found; salt beds - PPh *paŋ-qasin-an

preserve food in salt - *(loan)

put salt on - PWMP *qasin-i

salt - PAN *qasiRa

salt - PAN *timus

salt - PAN-F *timu

salt - *(loan)

salt something, put salt on - PWMP *qasiRa-i

to salt meat or fish for storing - PPH *lamuq

to salt, put salt on something - PWMP *maŋ-qasin

what has been salted; food preserved in salt - PWMP *q<in>asin

salted

anything which has been salted - PAN *qasiRa-en

be salted - PWMP *qasin-en

place salted - PWMP *qasin-an

what has been salted; food preserved in salt - PWMP *q<in>asin

saltiness

saltiness, salty taste - PAN *qasiN

salting

anything used for salting, salting instrument - PWMP *paŋ-qasin

saltwater

sea, saltwater - PMP *tasik

salty

saltiness, salty taste - PAN *qasiN

salty - PMP *ma-qasin

salty, brackish - PCEMP *maqasin

salve

salve, ointment - *(loan)

sambar

deer of the genus Cervus, either the sika deer or sambar deer - PAN-F *benan

same

elder same sex sibling - POC *tuaka

elder sibling of the same sex - PMP *teka₂

elder sibling of the same sex - POC *toka

elder sibling of the same sex - PMP *kaka₂

mate, companion, fellow; together with; alike, the same as; aligned or in good order - PWMP *sama

namesake, have the same name as someone else - PWMP *saŋay

same kind or type; fitting; well-matched; suitable - PWMP *bagay₁

same, equal, like - PWMP *pada

sibling-in-law of the same sex - POC *ipaR-

twins of the same sex - PAN *Sabij

twins of the same sex - PMP *habij

twins of the same sex - POC *apic

younger sibling of the same sex (vocative); younger parallel cousin of the same sex (vocative) - PWMP *huaji-ŋ

younger sibling of the same sex (vocative); younger parallel cousin of the same sex (vocative) - PMP *huaji-q

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PMP *huaji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PCEMP *waji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PWMP *paR-huaji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PMP *ta-huaji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - POC *taci

same-sex

same-sex sibling (?) - POC *tuRa-

sanctum

a strongly-scented plant: Ocimum sanctum L. - PWMP *kamaŋi

sand

feel with the feet, as in finding clams under the sand - PPH *sedsed₃

gather sand, use sand - PWMP *maŋ-qenay

grit, coarse sand, gravel - PMP *badas

kind of bird that buries its eggs deep in the sand - PPH *tabun₁

sand - PAN *qenay

sand - PAN *bunaj

sand - POC *qone

sand - *(loan)

sand - *(noise)

sand crab - PMP *kaRuki

sand, sandbank - POC *pika

sandbank, sand spit, shoal - PWMP *buhaŋin

to cover with earth, sand, etc. - PMP *tabun₂

sandal

sandal - *(loan)

sandbank

ebb tide; coral reefs and sandbanks exposed at low tide; evaporate, dry up, of water in cooking, in a river, etc. - PMP *qeti₁

sand, sandbank - POC *pika

sandbank, sand spit, shoal - PWMP *buhaŋin

sandbank, sandbar; shore, beach - PWMP *pantad

sandbank, shoal in river or sea - PWMP *pasiR

sandbar

sandbank, sandbar; shore, beach - PWMP *pantad

sandbar, shoal in river or sea - PWMP *pasiR-an

sandfly

gnat, sandfly - POC *nonok

gnat, sandfly, fruit fly - PMP *neknek

sandfly - PWMP *tagenek

sandfly - PMP *niknik

sandfly - PMP *niniq₂

sandfly - *(loan)

tiny biting insect: gnat, sandfly - PMP *ñikñik

Sandoricum indicum

tree with edible fruit Sandoricum indicum or Sandoricum koetjape - *(loan)

sandpaper

sandpaper - *(loan)

to sandpaper - PWMP *q<um>a(m)pelas

to sandpaper, smooth by abrasion - PWMP *maŋ-qa(m)pelas

tree or shrub with leaves used for sandpaper: Ficus sp. - PMP *qampelas

tree with leaves like sandpaper: Ficus spp. - PMP *qa(m)pelas

sandpapered

be sandpapered, smoothed by abrasion - PWMP *qa(m)pelas-en

sandpiper

a bird: the sandpiper (?) - PAN *suiq

long-legged shore-bird, the sandpiper or snipe - PPh *balalaŋ₂

shore bird: sandpiper, Pacific Golden Plover - POC *kiwiwi

sandpiper sp.

sandpiper sp., plover sp. - *(near)

sandy

creeping vine that grows on sandy beaches, the beach morning glory: Ipomoea pes-caprae - PPH *balinu

sandy - POC *qone qone

sandy soil (?) - POC *bia

sandy(?) - PMP *qenay qenay

sap

a tree: Antiaris toxicaria; poison for blowpipe darts made from the sap of this tree - PWMP *qipuq

birdlime, sticky sap of breadfruit, etc. - PMP *pulut

juice; sap; gravy; soup - PMP *zuRuq

sap of a tree or plant - PMP *liteq

sap of a tree or plant - PAN *Niteq

sap used as birdlime - PWMP *pikat

sap, gummy secretion - PWMP *geteq

sap, gummy secretion - *-teq (root)

sap, resin, sticky secretion - PWMP *gateq

sticky sap - PPH *tegek

tree with poisonous sap - PWMP *iŋas

tree with poisonous sap - PMP *butaq₂

tree with poisonous sap, (probably Antiaris toxicaria) - PMP *laji₁

sapientum

banana: Musa sapientum L. - PAN-F *beNbeN

cooking banana: Musa sapientum Linn. var compressa. Blanco - PWMP *sabeqa

Sapindus

soapberry: Sapindus mukrossi, S. saponaria - PAN-F *daqu₂

saponaria

soapberry: Sapindus mukrossi, S. saponaria - PAN-F *daqu₂

Sapotaceae

a tree: Ganua obovatifolia.(Merr.), Sapotaceae - PPH *piaŋa

sappan

a tree: Caesalpinia sappan - PWMP *sapaŋ

the sappan tree: Caesalpinia sappan L. - PPH *sibukaw

sardine

a fish: sardine spp. - PWMP *tamban

kind of small fish, probably sardine or anchovy - PMP *paya

sardine, anchovy - POC *tanipa

small marine fish: sardine or anchovy - PWMP *bilis

sarong

sarong, wrap-around waist cloth - *(near)

step into clothing, put on a sarong - PMP *saRuk

sated

glutted, sated; swollen (of the belly) - PMP *be(n)tuR

glutted, sated; swollen (of the belly) - PMP *be(n)tur

sated with - PWMP *ka-besuR-an

satiate

able to satiate, able to satisfy one's appetite - PWMP *maka-besuR

to cloy, satiate, do something to excess and so lose interest - PPH *s<um>áwaʔ

satiated

be satiated, given a full belly - PWMP *besuR-en

satiated - *(noise)

satiated, full (of the stomach) - PPh *bútil

satiated, full after eating - PPh *biaR₂

satiated, full from eating - PAN *ma-besuR

satiated, full from eating - PPh *maR-besuR

satisfied from having eaten enough, satiated - PAN *besuR

satisfied from having eaten enough, satiated - PAN *bisuR

satisfied from having eaten enough, satiated - POC *bosuR

satisfied from having eaten enough; satiated - PWMP *busuR₃

satiatiated

satiatiated, full (of the stomach after eating); fertile, bring forth plentifully, abundance of food - POC *masuR

satiation

satisfaction, satiation - PMP *ka-besuR

satisfaction

satisfaction, satiation - PMP *ka-besuR

satisfied

content, satisfied - *(loan)

satisfied from having eaten enough, satiated - PAN *besuR

satisfied from having eaten enough, satiated - PAN *bisuR

satisfied from having eaten enough, satiated - POC *bosuR

satisfied from having eaten enough; satiated - PWMP *busuR₃

satisfy

able to satiate, able to satisfy one's appetite - PWMP *maka-besuR

sativa

cucumber: Cucumis sativa L. - PMP *qatimun

sativus

cucumber: Cucumis sativus - PAN-F *baRat₂

saturated

soaked, saturated, full of liquid - POC *toRop

soaked, saturated, full of liquid; crowded or filled to overflowing - PMP *teReb

sauce

to cook fish in a rich, spicy sauce - PWMP *paŋat

save

save, in safekeeping - *(loan)

save, not use - *(noise)

save, rescue - PMP *saRep

save, rescue - POC *saRop

save, spare the life of - PMP *paka-qudip

to save, rescue - PPH *ligtas

savor

to taste, savor something - PPH *mag-námit

savory

savory, tasty - *-ñam (root)

tasty, savory - PPH *ñañam

tasty, savory - PPH *ma-ñañam

saw

fire saw; tie a tool around the hand or some other fixture - PPH *kulili

saw, tool for sawing - *(loan)

sawdust

dust, sawdust - PMP *qabuk

sawdust, wood shavings - *(loan)

say

it is said, people say..... - PMP *kunu₂

it is said, people say..... - PPH *kunuq

it is said, people say..... - PWMP *ken

it is said, people say..... - PWMP *kenu

mouth, opening; speak, say - PMP *baqbaq

say, tell - *(noise)

say, tell; speak - POC *kaRu₂

say, want to - *(noise)

speak, say something, tell - PPH *suysuy

to say - PCMP *bei

to say, tell - PCMP *beŋa₂

to speak, talk, say - PWMP *kuan₂

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sc

scab

scab - PWMP *kuRan

scab on a wound - PAN *keRan₁

scab, crust on a wound - PAN *keRaŋ₂

sore, scab - *(noise)

scabies

be affected by itching, be infected with scabies or other itchy skin disorders - PWMP *gatel-en

scurfy skin disease; scabies - PAN *kudis

scurfy skin disease; scabies - PAN *kuris₁

scad

a fish: the big-eyed scad Trachurops crumenophthalmus - PMP *qatulay

scaffolding

scaffolding, support - PWMP *pala pala₁

scald

to roast, broil; scald, sear, burn - PPH *pásuq

scalded

be scorched, scalded - PPH *ma-pásuq

scale

balance scales - PWMP *timbaŋ-an

fish scale - PAN *quSeNap

fish scales (collective?) - PMP *qunap qunap

scale for weighing, balance - *(loan)

scale of a fish - PMP *enap

scale of fish - PMP *quhenap

scale of fish, lizard or snake; shell of turtle or tortoise - PMP *siksik₂

scale of fish, shell of turtle - POC *qunap₂

scale of fish, turtle shell - PCEMP *qunap₁

scales of fish or snake - PCEMP *qunep

to scale a fish - POC *qunap-i

to scale a fish - POC *qunap-ia

scaled

to be scaled, as fish - PWMP *siksik-an

scalp

sores on the scalp; 'cradle cap' - PWMP *buduk

scaly

disease which produces scaly skin: ichthyosis - PWMP *bugis

pangolin, scaly anteater - PAN *qaRem

scandens

a vine: Entada scandens - PWMP *baluRu

scapula

scapula - PWMP *qali-peqip

scapula, shoulder blade - PWMP *balikat

scar

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

scar - PMP *balaŋ₁

scar - PPh *biklát

scar - PMP *bilat₂

scar - PMP *biras₁

scar - PMP *birat

scar - PMP *kiras

scar - PWMP *kulad

scar - PMP *pilaɁ

scar - PWMP *ulat

scar - PWMP *pilat

scar - POC *pilat₂

scar - POC *piras

scar - *-lat₂ (root)

scar - *(near)

scarecrow

scarecrow device in paddy field - *(near)

Scarus

parrot fish: Scarus spp. - PPH *mulmúl

scatter

break up, fall into pieces, scatter, disperse - PWMP *baRbaR

scatter - *(noise)

scatter to and fro - PWMP *liwed

scatter, disperse - PWMP *ampuk

scatter, disperse - PPh *watnág

scatter, strew - PWMP *imbuR

scatter, strew - PPh *warák

scatter, strew about - PWMP *buras

scatter, strew about - PPh *wákat

sow, scatter, broadcast seed - PWMP *sa(m)beR

sow, strew, scatter - PMP *ebuR

sow, strew, scatter - PWMP *sabuD

sprinkle, scatter (seed, etc.) - PMP *kambuR₁

strew, scatter - PWMP *tabuD

strew, scatter, sprinkle - PWMP *qabud

strew, scatter, sprinkle - PWMP *qambuR

to scatter wildly - PPH *sabuag

to sow, scatter; scattered about; splash water on something - PMP *sabuR

to strew, scatter, as seed - PMP *tabuR₁

to strew, scatter, as seed - POC *tabuR₁

to strew, scatter, sprinkle - POC *sapuR

scattered

scattered, strewn about - PWMP *sirak₂

to sow, scatter; scattered about; splash water on something - PMP *sabuR

scavenger

scavenger fish: Lethrinus spp. - POC *oka oka

scent

smell, odor, scent - POC *bona

scheme

intelligence, craft, scheme - *(loan)

trick, ruse, scheme, wits - *(loan)

Schizostachyum

type of slender bamboo; Schizostachyum spp. - PAN *buluq₂

type of slender bamboo; Schizostachyum spp. - POC *buluq₃

Schleichera

a tree: Schleichera trijuga - PMP *kasambiʔ

scholaris

a tree: Alstonia scholaris - PMP *ditaq₁

a tree: Alstonia scholaris - POC *sabakap

school

group, crowd, flock, school, bunch, cluster - PCEMP *butu₂

group, crowd, flock, school, bunch, cluster - POC *putu, butu

Schoutenia

tree sp.: Schoutenia ovata - PMP *kukun

scissors

scissors - *(loan)

Scomberoides

a fish: Scomberoides sp. - PMP *daRi

Scomberomorini

Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorini spp. - PMP *taŋiRi

Scomberomorus

Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorus spp. - PWMP *taŋgiRi

scoop

coconut shell bowl or water scoop - PPH *húŋut

dip net, scoop net - PMP *lawaq₁

dipper, scoop; to scoop, ladle up - PAN *taku₂

fetch water, scoop up water - PMP *asu₂

fetch water, scoop up water - PMP *qasu₁

ladle, dipper, scoop, cup - PMP *kabuq

ladle, dipper, scoop, cup - POC *kapuq

scoop up - PAN-F *kahuS

scoop up - PAN-F *k<um>ahuS

scoop up in a net; fetch water by scooping up - PMP *saruk

scoop up water - POC *tapuq

scoop up water; water scoop or dipper - PMP *tabuq

scoop up with a net; catch with snare - PPH *ma-ñiluʔ

scoop up with both hands - PMP *saRup₁

scoop up with both hands; a double handful - PWMP *aŋkup₁

scoop up, as with a fish net - PAN *kauS

scoop up, skim from the surface - PPH *saRap

scoop, scooping tool - PPH *likup₂

spoon, ladle, scoop - PMP *sudu

to catch with a net, scoop up - PPH *siluʔ-en

to scoop up, as with a fish net - PAN *k<um>auS

to scoop up, skim from the surface - PPH *s<um>aRap

scooping

scoop up in a net; fetch water by scooping up - PMP *saruk

scoop, scooping tool - PPH *likup₂

scorched

be scorched, scalded - PPH *ma-pásuq

dried up, scorched, shrivelled - POC *koRaŋ₁

score

drawn, tied, even in score - *(loan)

scorpion

scorpion - *(loan)

scour

rub, scour - *(noise)

rub, scour, scrub - PMP *isut₂

scrape, scour - *(noise)

to grate, scour, rub hard on something - PPH *ŋusŋus₂

scout

spy, scout, one who looks for possible danger ahead - PMP *mata-mata

scrape

cut chips or bits from something, scrape off - PPH *dapdáp

rub against, scrape, scratch - PMP *garut

rub, scrape against - PAN *gisgis₁

scrape - PAN *kaRus

scrape - PWMP *baRus

scrape - PWMP *gut

scrape - PWMP *kaus

scrape - PAN *kiRus

scrape - PWMP *kurud

scrape - PAN *kuSkuS₂

scrape - PMP *kuhkuh

scrape - *(noise)

scrape off - PAN *kiSkiS

scrape off - PAN *kutkut₂

scrape or rub off - PPh *hírud

scrape or scratch with the hand - *(noise)

scrape out, as meat from a coconut - PWMP *suqsuq

scrape something off a surface so as to uncover it - PPH *kuykúy₂

scrape, grate - PWMP *kerus₁

scrape, grate - POC *pari₁

scrape, grate - PWMP *kerud

scrape, grate - PPH *kagud

scrape, grate, as coconut preparatory to cooking - POC *korit

scrape, grate, rasp - PMP *kaRud

scrape, rasp - PAN *karut₁

scrape, rub - PWMP *rudrud

scrape, rub against - PWMP *saRud

scrape, scour - *(noise)

scrape, scratch - PMP *kaskas₃

scrape, scratch - PPH *kaRiskis

scrape, scratch - POC *kakas

scrape, scratch - *(near)

scrape, scratch something from a surface - PAN *k<ar>uSkuS

scrape, scratch something from a surface - PWMP *k<ar>uhkuh

scrape, shave - POC *kori

scrape, shave (as rattan) - PWMP *aRud

scratch up, scrape up - PMP *gaRuk

scratch, grate, scrape - *-kis₁ (root)

scratch, scrape - PMP *karis₁

scratch, scrape - PCEMP *erit

scratch, scrape - POC *palus

scratch, scrape - PAN *keskes₁

scratch, scrape - POC *kokos

scratch, scrape - *-rud (root)

scratch, scrape, peel - POC *orit

to brush past, rub or scrape against; draw a line - PMP *garis

to rub against, scrape, scratch - PMP *g<um>arut

to scrape - POC *paro

to scrape - PAN *k<um>uSkuS

to scrape off - PWMP *kiskis-an

to scrape off - PWMP *kiskis-en

to scrape off, peel off - POC *karasi

to scrape or scrub out, remove by scraping - PPh *kuskus-an₂

to scrape out - PWMP *kuskus₂

to scrape smooth, to plane a surface - PAN-F *RuSRuS

to scrape, as coconut meat from a shell; to grate, as coconut meat - POC *isi₄

to scrape, rasp, grate, as in grating coconuts - PMP *kuDkuD

to scrape, with motion away from body - POC *ori

to scrape; scraper or grater made from circular bivalve shell: Asaphis spp. - POC *kasi

to scratch, scrape - PWMP *karus

to scratch, scrape - POC *karis₂

to scratch, scrape - POC *kari

to scratch, scrape off - PPH *kudkud-én

to shave, scrape off - PAN *kiskis

scraped

scraped or filed down - PPh *iit

scraper

bivalve species used as a scraper - POC *kaRi₂

mussel sp. or spp. used as food grater or scraper - POC *kukur

to scrape; scraper or grater made from circular bivalve shell: Asaphis spp. - POC *kasi

scraping

sound of scraping or scratching - PMP *gerit

to scrape or scrub out, remove by scraping - PPh *kuskus-an₂

scratch

line, scratch, furrow - PPH *gúlis

line; scratch a line - PWMP *guris

rub against, scrape, scratch - PMP *garut

scrape or scratch with the hand - *(noise)

scrape, scratch - PMP *kaskas₃

scrape, scratch - PPH *kaRiskis

scrape, scratch - POC *kakas

scrape, scratch - *(near)

scrape, scratch something from a surface - PAN *k<ar>uSkuS

scrape, scratch something from a surface - PWMP *k<ar>uhkuh

scratch - PWMP *kamas

scratch - PMP *kamit

scratch - PMP *garus

scratch a line - PWMP *berit₁

scratch a line - PAN *Curis

scratch a line - PMP *taris

scratch a line - PMP *turis₂

scratch a line - *-ris₂ (root)

scratch a line - *-rit (or *-reclit?) (root)

scratch a line, make a long shallow cut - PWMP *turis

scratch mark, line - PMP *kur(e)qit

scratch or wale on the skin - PMP *balan

scratch or wale on the skin - PMP *balar

scratch the ground, as a chicken does - PWMP *kahiR

scratch the ground, as a chicken does - PWMP *kahir

scratch up the earth, as a fowl - PAN *karkar

scratch up the ground, as chickens - PWMP *kaqis

scratch up the soil - PMP *kahkah

scratch up the soil, as a chicken looking for food - PAN *kaSkaS

scratch up, scrape up - PMP *gaRuk

scratch up, sweep or rake up - PPH *kaykáy

scratch, grate - PMP *kerit

scratch, grate, scrape - *-kis₁ (root)

scratch, mark with a line - PWMP *kuRis

scratch, mark with a line - PWMP *kuris₂

scratch, rub - PMP *gusgus

scratch, scrape - PMP *karis₁

scratch, scrape - PCEMP *erit

scratch, scrape - POC *palus

scratch, scrape - PAN *keskes₁

scratch, scrape - POC *kokos

scratch, scrape - *-rud (root)

scratch, scrape, peel - POC *orit

stroke scratch - *(noise)

to rub against, scrape, scratch - PMP *g<um>arut

to scratch - PWMP *gaut

to scratch - PWMP *ma-garut

to scratch an itch - PAN *kaRaw₁

to scratch an itch - PAN *k<um>aRaw

to scratch up the earth, as a fowl - POC *kakar-i

to scratch up the ground, as chickens - PWMP *kais-an

to scratch, scrape - PWMP *karus

to scratch, scrape - POC *karis₂

to scratch, scrape - POC *kari

to scratch, scrape off - PPH *kudkud-én

to scratch; sound of scratching - PMP *gurit

scratching

dig a hole, as by scratching - PPH *kawkaw₂

have a painful feeling in the teeth, as when eating something very sour or cold, or hearing a screeching or scratching sound - PWMP *ŋilu-an

sound of scraping or scratching - PMP *gerit

sound of scratching - PMP *kaRiqit

to scratch; sound of scratching - PMP *gurit

scream

howl, shout, scream - *-ŋar (root)

scream - PMP *leŋkiq

scream of a monkey - PMP *kusik

to scream, of an animal - PWMP *ŋiqik

screech

screech, as a hawk - PWMP *kuliqik

screech, as a hawk - PWMP *kuriqik

screech, howl - *-ŋak (root)

squeal, screech, shriek, etc. - PMP *ŋik

squeal, screech, shriek, etc. - PMP *ŋikŋik

screeching

have a painful feeling in the teeth, as when eating something very sour or cold, or hearing a screeching or scratching sound - PWMP *ŋilu-an

screen

fish-corral, screen trap for fish - PWMP *banelat

to screen, conceal, cover - PWMP *tabeŋ

wall; wall in, screen off - PCMP *dindiŋ₁

scrotum

scrotum - *(noise)

scrotum and testicles - PMP *laseR

scrotum; testicles - PPh *buŋaw₂

testicles; scrotum - POC *putuq

scrub

Bismarck scrub fowl: Megapodius eremita - POC *kikau

Bismarck scrub fowl: Megapodius eremita - POC *kipau

cut down, clear away scrub - PWMP *tebas₂

kind of brush made from coconut husk, used to scrub or polish a surface or to treat threads before weaving - PWMP *sikat

remove coconut husk; scrub with coconut husk - PPh *bunut-an

remove coconut husk; scrub with coconut husk - PPh *maŋ-bunut

rub, scour, scrub - PMP *isut₂

rub, scrub - *(noise)

scrub hard to remove dirt - PPH *ludlud

to scrape or scrub out, remove by scraping - PPh *kuskus-an₂

to wipe, rub, scrub - PPH *nisnís

scrubbing

clean oneself by scrubbing - PMP *hisuq

clean oneself by scrubbing - PEMP *isug

scrub-land

scrub-land, bush - PAN *quCaN

small, wild herbaceous plants; scrub-land, bush - PMP *qutan

scruffiness

scruffiness of the skin; dirt, dregs - POC *kani-kani

scrutinize

scrutinize consider closely - *(loan)

scudding

wind-driven fragments of cloud, light scudding clouds - PMP *taqi nu haŋin

sculpture

carving, sculpture - PMP *ukir

scum

driftwood and scum (?); lit. 'refuse of the current' - PWMP *taqi qaRus

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth - PMP *budaq₁

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth - PAN *bujeq₁

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; bubble up - PCEMP *budaq₄

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; to foam, to bubble; foam at the mouth; fond of talking; type of white bead - PMP *bujeq₂

lard, fat, greasy scum on the surface of liquids - PPH *laneb

scurfy

scurfy skin disease; scabies - PAN *kudis

scurfy skin disease; scabies - PAN *kuris₁

Scyphiphora

a moderate-sized shrub: Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea - PWMP *sabasaq

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se

sea

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod - PWMP *kurapu

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PMP *kuRapu

a fish, the sea perch, giant rock cod, giant grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PWMP *kuRapuq

a sea fish, the rudderfish: Kyphosus cinerascens - PPH *hilek

a sea fish: the mullet - PWMP *balanak

body hair; fur; feather; down; antenna of insect or crustacean; spikes of sea urchin; floss on plant skins, color; type, kind - PCEMP *bulu₁

deep, of the sea; deep sea - PCEMP *laman

deep, of the sea; deep sea beyond the reef - POC *laman

downriver, toward the sea - POC *laur

downstream, toward the sea - PAN *lahud

edible marine invertebrate - probably sea cucumber - PPh *balát

edible sea animal or plant - PWMP *gamet

edible sea worm: Sipunculus spp. - POC *ibo

flood, of sea - POC *loma

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

full of waves, as a stormy sea - PWMP *ma-humbak

go to sea, make a sea voyage - POC *pa-laur

high sea or tide - *(noise)

kind of white sea bird, probably gull sp. - POC *kanawe

littoral sea, sea near the shore - PMP *daRat

marine fish: sea perch - PWMP *kaReteŋ

pig bristles; type of sea urchin with thin black spines - PMP *bulu ni babuy

put out to sea, embark on a voyage - POC *toka₃

rise and fall like the swells at sea - PWMP *humbak-humbak

rough, of a turbulent sea - POC *ñoro

sandbank, shoal in river or sea - PWMP *pasiR

sandbar, shoal in river or sea - PWMP *pasiR-an

sea coast (?) - POC *raRat

sea cucumber, sea slug - POC *pula₃

sea fish sp. - PWMP *maŋali

sea perch: Lutjanus sp. - POC *tasiwa

sea turtle - PPH *pawikan

sea urchin with long black spines - PPH *tayeŋ

sea urchin with short spines - POC *saRawaki

sea worm that attacks wood - PWMP *tambiluk

sea, ocean - PAN-F *tenem

sea, saltwater - PMP *tasik

sharp-pointed object, possibly sea urchin - PEMP *sala

spiny sea urchin - POC *salaŋ

teredo, sea worm that attacks wood - PWMP *tamiluk

the high seas, far from land - PWMP *lahud-an

tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn - PMP *hipun₁

tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn - PEMP *ipun₁

toward the sea - PCEMP *laur

wave at sea, sea swell - PPH *paluŋ₂

wave, billow, swell at sea - PWMP *humbak

waves, heavy weather at sea - PWMP *bakat

wind from the sea (?) - PAN *Si-lahud

sea-bream

a fish, the sea-bream: Sparus hasta - PWMP *bakukuŋ

seagrass

seaweed, seagrass - POC *karagwam

seahorse

crocodile; seahorse - PCEMP *buqaya

seam

edge, seam, hem - PPH *tebir

sear

to roast, broil; scald, sear, burn - PPH *pásuq

search

look over a wide area, search for something with the eyes while standing in place - PPH *nanaw

seek, search, look for - PAN-F *kiRim

to search for lice, as by parting the hair - PPH *sukáy

to seek, search, look for - PAN-F *k<um>iRim

searching

pass by, overlook something when searching; to pass by (of time) - PPH *labas

season

north; rainy season - PPh *qamihan-an

wet season - PWMP *rendeŋ

year, season - PMP *taqun

year, season; sky, heaven - PAN-F *kawaS₁

seat

belly; mind; seat of affections - POC *topwa

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

seaward

go downriver, go seaward - PMP *pa-lahud

seaweed

edible seaweed sp. - PMP *latuq

kind of seaweed used to paint canoes - POC *poma

moss, algae, seaweed - PMP *lumut

seaweed jelly - *(loan)

seaweed sp. - PMP *lamu₁

seaweed sp. - PMP *lamut

seaweed, seagrass - POC *karagwam

second

second - PAN *Sika-duSa

second - PMP *ika-duha

second - PCEMP *ka-dua

second - POC *ka-rua

second pounding of rice - PPH *deg(e)qas

second time (?) - PPH *ipi-duhá

secondary

fallow land; secondary forest - PAN *CaluN

fallow land; secondary forest - PMP *talun₁

second-hand

weak, worn-out, second-hand - PWMP *luya₂

secret

concealed, secret; to deny, hide something - PPH *liméd

hide, conceal, do in secret - PWMP *lihem

hide, conceal, do in secret - PWMP *lihim

keep secret, cover up - PMP *sekep

keep something to oneself; silent, secret - PWMP *hidem

secret place - PWMP *sulib

secret, hidden - PWMP *silib

secret; hidden - PWMP *b<in>uni

that which is hidden or kept secret - PWMP *paŋ-buni

secretion

gummy secretion - PAN *puteq

gummy secretion of the eyes - PWMP *muteq

sap, gummy secretion - PWMP *geteq

sap, gummy secretion - *-teq (root)

sap, resin, sticky secretion - PWMP *gateq

secretive

be secretive - PMP *buni-buni

be secretive - POC *puni-puni

secretly

do secretly - PWMP *suleb

section

break off a component piece of something, as twigs or branches from a tree, a banana from a bunch, a section from a fruit, etc. - PPH *sipíq

internode of bamboo; section of something - PAN *lawas₃

split, divide, break off; section of a betel nut - PMP *tebiq

to split, separate sections - PWMP *piqak

secure

fastener, thing used for fastening or making secure - *(loan)

fixed secure - *(loan)

sedan chair

sedan chair - *(loan)

sediment

limestone sediment (?) - POC *bia-bia

murky, full of sediment - PPH *ma-parek

see

able to see - PWMP *maka-kita

complete an activity, see through to completion - PPH *perper₁

look, see - PAN *Neŋ

pay a visit, drop by to see someone - PPH *dálaw

see (abstract things), foresee, know - PWMP *ila₂

see in the distance - PMP *tindaw

see, examine, look at closely - PWMP *hiliŋ

see, examine, look at closely - PWMP *iliŋ₂

see, look at, behold - POC *qiro

to see - PAN *kita₂

to see - PAN *k<um>ita

to see at a distance (?) - PWMP *tampay

to see or look at something far away - PPH *taq(e)náw

to see or look at something far away - PPH *tanɁaw-én

seed

a cereal grass with edible seeds that are also used as beads, Job’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L. - PMP *zelay

a vine and the seeds of its fruit: Abrus precatorius - PWMP *saga

coriander seed - *(loan)

dibble, plant seeds with a dibble stick - PMP *hasek₁

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

hard seed, stone of some fruits - PPH *butúl

lump, swelling; seed - PWMP *bukel

plant fiber; coconut husk, fibers of areca nuts, fibers covering mango seeds, etc. - PWMP *sabut

plant seed by sprinkling in dibble holes - PWMP *maŋ-bubud

pulpy, fleshy, as a fruit; soft flesh around the seeds of a fruit - PWMP *lunek₁

seed - *(loan)

seed - *(noise)

seed bud in a coconut - PWMP *tumbuŋ₂

seed rice - PWMP *benehiq

seed rice, rice set aside for the next planting - PAN *bineSiq

seed rice, rice set aside for the next planting - PMP *binehiq

seeds for sowing - PAN-F *Rahap

sow, scatter, broadcast seed - PWMP *sa(m)beR

sprinkle seed, sow seed in dibble holes - PWMP *bubud

sprinkle seed, sow seed in dibble holes - PMP *budbud

to dibble, plant seeds with a dibble stick - PWMP *maŋ-hasek₁

to sow seeds - PAN-F *R<um>ahap

to strew, scatter, as seed - PMP *tabuR₁

to strew, scatter, as seed - POC *tabuR₁

to strew, sow seeds - PWMP *ma-nabuR

seed-bed

seed-bed for rice - PWMP *paR-binehiq-an

seeded

breadfruit (seeded) - *(noise)

seedling

rice seedling - PAN *bunabun

rice seedling - PMP *bunubun

seedling - *(loan)

seek

seek, search, look for - PAN-F *kiRim

to look for, seek - POC *tapu

to seek, search, look for - PAN-F *k<um>iRim

seen

able to be seen, visible - PWMP *ma-kita

be seen by someone (?) - PAN *kita-en

seesaw

seesaw motion - *(loan)

seize

catch, seize - PMP *sakep

catch, seize - PWMP *tikep

catch, seize; embrace - PAN *dakep

grab, grasp, seize - PAN *za(ŋ)kuC

seize - *(loan)

seize in the mouth or beak - PMP *ceŋap

seize in the mouth or beak - PMP *sa(m)bar

seize in the mouth or beak - PCEMP *seŋap

seize with the hands - PMP *ambit

seize, catch - PMP *ta(ŋ)kep₂

seize, grasp - PMP *cekep

seize, grasp - POC *sokop

seize, grasp, embrace - *-kep₂ (root)

seize, grasp, wrap around - PWMP *Rakep

seize, grip - *(loan)

snatch, seize, rob - POC *paRo₂

snatch, seize, rob - POC *paqaRok

to seize property and run off with it; to elope - PPH *taŋaR

to seize with the teeth, hold by biting - PMP *taŋáR

to seize, hug, embrace - PWMP *kepkép₁

to seize, take by force - PWMP *kamkam

to seize, take by force - PPH *ma-ñamsám

to seize, take by force, snatch from another’s hands; pillage - PPH *samsám

wrestle, seize and throw a person to the ground - PPH *ludeg

seized

be snatched, be seized suddenly - PPH *sakmal-én

seizing

snatch with the mouth, as a dog seizing something in its mouth and running away with it - PPH *sak(e)mál

seldom

having wide intervals; seldom - PWMP *zaRaŋ

select

to choose, select, pick out - PWMP *ma-miliq

to choose, select, pick out - PWMP *maR-piliq

to choose, select, pick out - PAN *p<um>iliq

to choose, to select; to pick out - PAN *piliq

selected

be chosen, selected; what is chosen, choice - PWMP *piliq-en

self

inner self, feelings, mind - POC *loto

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

own, one’s own; self - PPH *kaniá

self - PWMP *iba₁

self, oneself - *(loan)

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

self-important

important (of people); self-important - PWMP *raŋaq

selfish

stingy, selfish - PPh *ímut

sell

buy, sell - PAN *saliw

buy, sell - PAN-F *baliw

merchandise for sale; to sell - PPH *lákuq

sell - *(loan)

sell, give in exchange - PWMP *pa-beli

to sell - PMP *baluk₂

semen

semen, smegma - PMP *biRaq₂

semen, smegma - PMP *biRas₁

semen, smegma, grease - POC *biRaq₃

semen, smegma, grease - POC *biRas₂

semialata

a plant: Rhus semialata - PAN-F *beRus₁

semicircular

wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks - PAN *Caliŋa nu kaSiw

wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks - PMP *taliŋa nu kahiw

send

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PMP *hateD

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PEMP *ated

accompany, escort; send, return - PAN *SateD

deep resounding sound; slit-gong, hollowed tree trunk used to send messages - PAN *kuŋkuŋ₁

return, send back - PMP *pa-uliq

send - PMP *katu

send - *(loan)

send - *(noise)

send (?) - PAN *pa-SateD

send for, allow to go - PPH *tubuy

send off with a message - PWMP *tuRun₂

send on a mission, command someone to do something - PWMP *utus₂

send out new growth, of vegetation - POC *tupul

send, accompany - PWMP *maŋ-hateD

to deliver, send something to someone - PPH *tugen

to send - PAN *pa-kaCu

to send away - PAN-F *pa-uSa

senile

silly, senile, doting - PWMP *aŋu aŋu

senior

old, elder, senior - PAN *ma-tuqaS tuqaS

sensation

intense sensation in teeth when eating sour fruit; for teeth to be on edge - PMP *nilu

painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour - PMP *ñilu

painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour - PAN *ŋilu

ticklish sensation - PWMP *gilek

sense

to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight - PMP *deŋeR

to hear; what is heard, news; to perceive by any sense other than sight - POC *roŋoR

sensitive

prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *kali-) - PAN *qali-

prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *qali-) - PAN *kali-

sent

be sent; messenger - PWMP *suRuq-en

to catch, receive something thrown or sent one’s way - PWMP *sambut₂

sentinel

guard, sentinel; to stand guard - PPH *tánud

separate

block, obstruct; something which separates one area from another - PWMP *ataŋ₁

depart, separate from - PPh *ayaw₁

divide, separate things that are joined - POC *pokaq

loosen, untie, undress; to separate - PWMP *hukas

part, separate, divide - PWMP *ceray

peel off, separate - *(noise)

separate - *(loan)

separate the chaff from the grain - PMP *siji

separate two things - PMP *elak

separate, disconnect - PMP *peka

separate, disunite - PMP *le(ŋ)kaŋ

separate, remove - PWMP *re(n)tes

sift, separate by sifting - PWMP *ayak₂

sift, separate by sifting - PWMP *qayag

split off, separate - *-bak₃ (root)

to separate - *(noise)

to separate people, disperse a gathering - PWMP *butas₁

to separate, as two people - PAN *waray

to separate, untie - PWMP *maR-hukas

to split, separate sections - PWMP *piqak

separated

apart, separated - PWMP *kawaŋ

be separated, untied - PWMP *hukas-en

separated, left behind - PPh *ma-bílin

separation

parting, separation, as in divorce - PWMP *sarak

separation - *(noise)

sepia

gall, gall bladder, octopus sepia - POC *qasu₂

sequence

pave with stones; pile or stack up, arrange, order, put in sequence - PMP *qatuR₁

series

prefix of the *qali, *kali- series - PAN *buli-

serious

difficult, taxing (of work); serious (of illness) - PWMP *payaq

seriously

seriously ill - *(loan)

serow

Formosan serow, mountain goat - PAN-F *Sidi

servant

maid, female servant - *(loan)

services

payment for services - PPH *taŋ(e)dan

serving tray

serving tray - *(loan)

sesame

a plant, sesame: Sesamum indicum - PAN-F *Samud

sesame - PMP *leŋa

Sesamum

a plant, sesame: Sesamum indicum - PAN-F *Samud

Sesbania

a plant: Sesbania grandiflora - PPH *katuday

tree sp.: Sesbania grandiflora - PMP *tudiq

set

a set or group of five - PWMP *lima-an

closely spaced, set close together - PAN *ma-pizpiz

coiled base on which cooking pots are set or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *riken

coiled base on which cooking pots are set, or on which loads are placed for carrying on the head - PWMP *Riken

coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set - PAN *Reken

coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set - PAN *reken

enter, penetrate; to set, of the sun - PMP *surup₁

ignite, set aflame - PWMP *deket₂

ignite; kindle; set fire to - PPH *súlsul

kindle, light a fire, set ablaze - POC *bula₁

lie in wait, set an ambush in hunting game - PPH *apat

loosen, untie, set free - POC *takas

mend, repair, set in order - POC *tupak

mother, mother's sister; female animal; largest member of a set - PCEMP *ina

pair, matching set - PMP *pasaŋ₁

prefix variant of the *qali/kali- set - PAN *qaCi-

push with the feet; press feet against, set feet firmly to prevent being moved - PPH *sikad

seed rice, rice set aside for the next planting - PAN *bineSiq

seed rice, rice set aside for the next planting - PMP *binehiq

set a snare - PMP *taqen

set a snare - POC *taqon

set a trap - PAN *taqan₁

set adrift - PAN *pa-añud

set alight, apply fire to - PWMP *culcul

set close together, dense, luxuriant - PMP *lebet

set fire to - *(noise)

set fire to, smoke out - PMP *sunuR

set free - PMP *lumbar

set in order - *(noise)

set on fire - PWMP *maŋ-hapuy

set on fire, burn - PWMP *tutuD

set, of the sun - PWMP *si(n)dep

sink, immerse oneself in water, dive into the water; to set, of the sun - PAN *selem₁

sink, set (sun) - PMP *teñej

to bait a trap, set the bait for - PPH *paen-an

to burn or set a fire under to smoke out - PPH *sunúg-en

to ignite, set fire to - PMP *tutuŋ

to massage, set bones - PPh *hílut-en

to sail, set sail - PWMP *maR-layaR

to set (of the sun) - PMP *sedep₁

to set free, let loose, liberated; passed by, come to an end - PWMP *lepas

to set, of the sun - POC *sorop

Setaria

millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica - PAN *beCeŋ

millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica - PMP *betem

millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica - PMP *beteŋ₁

millet sp.: Setaria italica (?) - PAN *zawa₂

setting

massaging, setting of bones - PPh *hílut

settle

come to rest in a definite place, settle down, as birds on a tree - PMP *tekas

come to shore, settle down in a place; sit, squat - POC *toka₂

sit, squat; come to rest; stay in a place; settle down, as birds on a tree - POC *toka₃

to land, settle down - POC *toko

settlement

outskirts, edge of settlement - PPh *hilít

Seven

a constellation: the Seven Sisters, Pleiades - PWMP *pariama

seven

be divided into seven parts - PWMP *pitu-en

divide into seven parts (?) - PWMP *maR-pitu

seven - PAN *pitu₁

seven (of humans) - PAN *pa-pitu

seven by seven, seven at a time - PAN *pitu pitu

seven each - PAN *pi-pitu

seven hundred (700) - PMP *pitu ŋa Ratus

seven times - PMP *ka-pitu

seven times - PMP *paka-pitu

seventh

seventh - PAN *Sika-pitu

seventh - PMP *ika-pitu

seventh month (?) - PAN *ka-pitu-an

seventy

seventy - PMP *pitu ŋa puluq

sever

break, cut off, sever - POC *kutu₂

cut off, sever; ring a tree - PWMP *geleŋ

cut through, sever - PWMP *butas₂

cut through, sever, divide by cutting - PWMP *qutas

cut, sever - PAN-F *ketun

cut, sever - POC *otok

cut, sever, chop - PAN *Setek

cut, sever, chop - PMP *hetek

sever, cut through, rip out stitches - PWMP *tastas

sever, rip, cut through; short cut - *-tas (root)

sever, tear - PMP *Ratas₁

sever, tear - PMP *rutas

to cut, sever - PWMP *ketas

to sever, cut off - PAN *keret

several

a few, several (?) - POC *pica pica

break into several large pieces - PAN *peceq₁

break into several large pieces; hatch - PMP *pesak

break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg - PMP *peceq₂

break into several large pieces; to hatch, of an egg - POC *posaq

interrogative of quantity: how much?, how many?; adjective of indefinite quantity: some, several, a few - PAN *pijax

some, several - PAN *pija pija

Seville

Bitter orange Seville orange: Citrus aurantium - *(loan)

sew

to sew - PAN *CaqiS

to sew - PMP *zaqit

to sew - PCMP *sora

to sew - PMP *tahiq

to sew - POC *saqit

to sew - PPH *daqit-en

to sew - PAN *C<um>aqiS

sewing

fasten together by sewing or tying - PAN *kapit

place of sewing - PAN *CaqiS-an

place of sewing - PMP *taqih-an

thread used for sewing (?) - PAN *Ca-CaqiS

work produced by sewing or stitching - PAN *C<in>aqiS

sex

elder same sex sibling - POC *tuaka

elder sibling of the same sex - PMP *teka₂

elder sibling of the same sex - POC *toka

elder sibling of the same sex - PMP *kaka₂

sibling-in-law of the same sex - POC *ipaR-

twins of the same sex - PAN *Sabij

twins of the same sex - PMP *habij

twins of the same sex - POC *apic

younger sibling of the same sex (vocative); younger parallel cousin of the same sex (vocative) - PWMP *huaji-ŋ

younger sibling of the same sex (vocative); younger parallel cousin of the same sex (vocative) - PMP *huaji-q

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PMP *huaji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PCEMP *waji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PWMP *paR-huaji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PMP *ta-huaji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - POC *taci

sexes

relationship between the sexes - *(noise)

sexual

copulate, have sexual intercourse - PWMP *ayud

copulate, have sexual intercourse - PWMP *ayut

copulate, have sexual intercourse - PAN *qiut

copulate; copulation, sexual intercourse - POC *qait

link in a chain; joined together, as links in a chain, people in sexual intercourse or marriage; hands joined in crossing pattern in circle dance - PWMP *kawiŋ

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - PMP *kiud

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - PWMP *kiut

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - PMP *kiuq

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - PPH *iut₂

movement in coitus; sexual intercourse - POC *kiuq

sexual arousal, sexual excitement - PAN *qeCuR

sexual heat, sexual excitement - PMP *telaq₂

sexual heat, sexual excitement - POC *tolaq

sexual jealousy, suspicion - PPh *qimún

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp.; sexual itch - PMP *biRaq₁

sexually

itch, feel itchy; sexually stimulated - PMP *gatel

sexually impotent - PWMP *baciR

sexually impotent - PWMP *basiR

TOP      sc    se    sh    si    sk    sl    sm    sn    so    sp    sq    st    su    sw    sy    

sh

shabby

shabby looking, in disarray, of the feathers of fowls - PWMP *kuyut

shabby looking, in disarray, of the feathers of fowls - PWMP *kuyu

shack

hut, shack - *(loan)

shackle

neck shackle to prevent an animal from passing through fences - PMP *pagal

shackles - *(loan)

shad

kind of marine fish, probably gizzard shad: Anodontostoma spp. - PWMP *kabasi

shade

shade - PEMP *maluRu

shade, darkness - PMP *elem₁

shade, darkness, gloom - PWMP *qiem₂

shade, shadow - PMP *aluŋ

shade, shelter - PWMP *heluŋ

shelter, cover, protection; shade - PAN *liduŋ

shelter, protect; shade, shadow - *-duŋ (root)

sun hat, used to provide shade - PPH *taduŋ

to shelter, shade - *-luŋ₂ (root)

shaded

shaded, shadowy - PPH *ledem

shady, shaded, sheltered (?) - POC *maluRu maluRu

shadow

shade, shadow - PMP *aluŋ

shadow - PPh *alinaw

shadow - PAN *liŋaw₁

shadow - PWMP *qaninuŋ

shadow - PMP *qanunu

shadow, indistinct image - PPh *qaninaw

shadow, reflection - PMP *qaninu

'shadow, reflection - PAN *qaNiŋu

shadow; reflection; soul - POC *qanunu

shelter, protect; shade, shadow - *-duŋ (root)

silhouette, shadow; glimpse of something - PMP *ilap₂

time of lengthening shadows; afternoon - PWMP *liŋay

shadowy

shaded, shadowy - PPH *ledem

shady

shady, shaded, sheltered (?) - POC *maluRu maluRu

shake

brush or shake off dust or dirt - PPH *pagpág

loosely embedded, wobbly; to shake - PWMP *ugaq

shake - *(noise)

shake grains on winnowing tray - *(loan)

shake off, flick off - PPh *waksí

shake or move from side to side - PWMP *hiwal

shake out - *(noise)

shake something in the water - POC *luluk

shake something in the water; shake something with water in it - PMP *luglug

shake something to determine its unseen contents - PWMP *kutug

shake something vigorously (as a sack to remove the contents) - PPh *wagwág₂

shake something, rinse clothes by shaking in clear water - PPh *waswás₁

shake the head in negation, shake the head from side-to-side - PWMP *iliŋ₃

shake, shake something - PPh *wigwíg

shake, shiver, tremble - PAN *gerger₁

shake, shiver, tremble - *-ger (root)

shake, sway - PWMP *iuŋ

shake, sway - PWMP *guyaq

shake, sway - PWMP *guyeŋ

shake, sway - PWMP *guyuŋ

shake, sway, as the ground in an earthquake - PMP *huyuŋ

shake, sway, rock - PWMP *huyaŋ

shake, sway, stagger - PWMP *huyug

shake, sway, stagger - PWMP *kuyuŋ

shake, sway, stagger - PWMP *Ruyuŋ

shake, sway, stagger - PWMP *uyeg

shake, sway, stagger - PWMP *uyug

shake, sway, stagger - PMP *uyuR

shake, sway, swing - PWMP *hayun

shake, tremble - PAN *keRkeR

shake, tremble, rock - PMP *ninih

shake, tremble, rock - PCEMP *nini

shake, vibrate, tremble - PMP *eter

shake, wave (hand, something in the hand) - PPh *witwít₂

shake, wobble - PWMP *Ruyag

shiver, shake, tremble - PAN *birbir₂

sway, shake, wiggle - PWMP *giwaq

to brush or shake off dust or dirt - PPH *i-pagpág

to shake - PWMP *gurgur₂

to shake off water droplets - PWMP *piRpiR₂

to shake repeatedly - POC *kañul-kañul

to shake something, as an egg or coconut - PPH *kalug

to shake, as a house in an earthquake - POC *kañu-kañu

to shake, as the earth in an earthquake - POC *kañul

to shake, shiver, quiver, tremble - PWMP *tiRtiR₂

to sprinkle, shake off water - PWMP *pispis₃

wag, shake back and forth - PWMP *kilay

wag, shake, move repeatedly from side to side - PAN *wiŋawiŋ

shake hands

shake hands - *(loan)

shaken

to be shaken (as from having a rough ride in transport) - PPH *ma-tagtág

shaking

shake something, rinse clothes by shaking in clear water - PPh *waswás₁

shallow

bamboo punting pole; to pole a boat in shallow water - POC *tokon

be poled forward, of a boat in shallow water - PWMP *teken-en

place covered by shallow water - PWMP *limbuŋ

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled in shallow water - PWMP *maR-tulak

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water - PMP *tulak

scratch a line, make a long shallow cut - PWMP *turis

shallow - PWMP *babaw₂

shallow - *-baw₂ (root)

shallow earthenware cooking pot or pan - PAN *balaŋa

small shallow body of water - PWMP *baqeluŋ

shallow (of dishes)

shallow (of dishes) - *(near)

shaman

shaman (probably a transvestite or hermaphrodite), shamaness; shamanistic ceremony - PWMP *balian

shaman in ritual transvestite attire - PWMP *asug

shamaness

shaman (probably a transvestite or hermaphrodite), shamaness; shamanistic ceremony - PWMP *balian

shamanistic

shaman (probably a transvestite or hermaphrodite), shamaness; shamanistic ceremony - PWMP *balian

shame

shame - *(noise)

shame, shyness - PWMP *ka-heyaq

shyness, embarrassment; shame - PAN *Seyaq

shyness, embarrassment; shame - PMP *heyaq

too bad! it’s a pity! what a shame! - PWMP *sayaŋ

shameful

cowardly; shameful - PWMP *putiq mata

shampoo

a tree from which a sort of shampoo is derived: Albizia spp. - PWMP *laŋiR

shape

a plant with flowers the shape of a dog's tail, used to treat abscesses - PMP *ikuR ikuR ni asu

body shape - PWMP *paR-hawak-an

crushed or squeezed out of shape - PWMP *lu(q)luq

to adze, shape wood with an adze - PWMP *bala₁

shaped

broad, flat rock shaped like a plank - PWMP *batu papan

hook shaped - *-wit (root)

kind of tree with leaves shaped like butterflies - PWMP *qali-baŋbaŋ

share

a division, share - POC *wa(n)se-ŋa

a tithe, share given for help in harvesting the crops - PPH *húnus₂

divide, share; portion (as of food) - POC *boi₁

share the possession of something with someone else; co-wife (?) - PWMP *duha-i

share, portion, inheritance; to allot, divide property - PMP *baqagi

to distribute, pass out shares (as of food) - PPH *bunuŋ

to distribute, pass out shares of food - PPH *tagtág

to divide, share out - POC *tupa₃

to divide, share out (as an inheritance?) - POC *pari₂

shark

implement with curved blade: adze; hammerhead shark - PMP *biŋkuŋ

shark - PAN *qiSu

shark - POC *pakewak

shark - *(near)

shark - *(noise)

shark sp. - POC *kwarara

sharp

barbed; sharp - PWMP *ruit

plant with sharp leaves - PWMP *aqedas

sharp - PAN-F *maNaŋ

sharp - PMP *tasim

sharp (of blade or point) - PWMP *ma-tazem

sharp (of point or blade) - PAN *Cazem

sharp point; to whet, - PMP *tazim

sharp pointed stick used in planting crops and in husking coconuts; digging stick, coconut husking stick - POC *kojom

throw at, hit, strike with a sharp object; kill; extinguish (a fire) - PMP *bunuq₂

thrust downward with sharp implement - PWMP *tuzaq

sharpen

person or instrument that grinds or sharpens - PWMP *paŋ-hasaq

sharpen - PAN *t<um>azem

sharpen - *(near)

sharpen (transitive) - POC *asaq-i

sharpen to a point - *(noise)

sharpen, rub, grate - PEMP *asaq

to sharpen - PMP *tasim-i

to whet, grate, sharpen - PAN-F *s<um>upay

to whet, sharpen - POC *tasim

whet, sharpen - PAN *Sasaq

whet, sharpen - PMP *hasaq

whet, sharpen - PWMP *maŋ-hasaq

sharpened

be sharpened; thing sharpened - PWMP *hasaq-en

pitfall or trail spikes made of sharpened bamboo - PMP *suja

pitfall or trail spikes made of sharpened bamboo - POC *suca

sharpened - PWMP *t<in>azem

sharpened blade or point - PMP *tazem

spear; sharpened pitfall stake - POC *ona₂

sharpening

whetting, sharpening - PAN-F *supay

whetting, sharpening - PWMP *paŋ-hasaq-an

sharply

speak sharply or in anger - POC *boŋa

sharpness

sharpness - PWMP *ka-tazem

sharp-pointed

sharp-pointed object, possibly sea urchin - PEMP *sala

shatter

shatter - POC *poro poro

shatter, break - PMP *peta

shattered

broken, shattered - PPh *búquŋ

shave

scrape, shave - POC *kori

scrape, shave (as rattan) - PWMP *aRud

to shave, scrape off - PAN *kiskis

whittle, shave wood with knife - PPH *káyas

shaved

shaved off, made smooth - PWMP *paras₁

shavings

sawdust, wood shavings - *(loan)

shawls

cloth used for shawl - *(loan)

she

3sg. personal pronoun: he, she, it - PAN *si ia₁

3sg. personal pronoun: he, she; him, her, it - PAN *ia₁

sheaf

a sheaf or bundle of rice stalks - PPH *taq(e)nay

sheaf to which rice grains are attached - PPh *quhut

to bind together in a sheaf - PCMP *peu

shearing off

pinching off, shearing off - *(loan)

sheath

bark, rind, sheath; to peel off bark - PWMP *upak₁

carrying vessel made from folded palm leaf sheath - PWMP *timbalaŋ

sheath for bolo or knife - PPH *kaluban

sheath of a coconut? - POC *kamu₁

sheath, covering - PWMP *sambuŋ

sheath, sheath-like container; to sheathe a weapon - PWMP *saruŋ

sheathe

sheath, sheath-like container; to sheathe a weapon - PWMP *saruŋ

sheath-like

sheath, sheath-like container; to sheathe a weapon - PWMP *saruŋ

shed

canoe shed, storehouse - POC *pale

cooking shed - PWMP *baŋsal

temporary shed - PPh *pala pala₂

to molt, shed the skin - PMP *huñus

to molt, shed the skin - POC *uñus

to shed tears, weep - PAN *maR-luSeq

to shed tears, weep - PMP *maR-luheq

to shed tears, weep - PPH *l<um>uheq

to slough, shed the skin, as a snake - POC *nunu₂

shed light on

clarify, shed light on - *(loan)

sheep

sheep - *(loan)

sheet

sheet; flat, wide object - PPh *qelad₁

yardarm, sheet of a sail, sticks used to turn the sail - POC *jila

shelf

bamboo platform, shelf - PPH *papag

crosswise beam or shelf - POC *baRat, paRat

crosswise beam or shelf - POC *barat, parat

shelf - PMP *pataR₁

shelf; bed frame of wooden or bamboo laths - PMP *pa(n)tar₂

storage shelf above the hearth - POC *paRa, baRa

storage shelf; attic, loft - PAN *paRa₁

storage shelf; attic, loft - PMP *paRa paRa

to line, as a shelf or box, provide a lining for - PPH *hapin-an

shell

cateye shell - PMP *qaliliŋ

coconut shell - POC *koi

coconut shell bowl or water scoop - PPH *húŋut

coconut shell drinking cup - POC *lasa₂

conch shell trumpet - PCEMP *buu₂

conch shell trumpet - PMP *tabuRiq

conch shell trumpet - PMP *tabuRi

conch shell trumpet - POC *buu₅

conch shell trumpet - POC *tapuRiq

conch shell trumpet - POC *tapuRi

cowrie shell: Cypraea mauritiana - PMP *buliq₁

cowrie shell: Cypraea mauritiana - POC *buliq₁

cowrie shell: Cypraea spp. - PWMP *sígay

kind of shell - PWMP *kapis

kind of shellfish; eye of cateye shell - PMP *bulan₁

kind of volute shell - PMP *biŋaq

kind of volute shell - PWMP *biŋaR

make lime by burning shells - PWMP *maŋ-qapuR

moon, month; menstruation; shell disk collar piece - PMP *bulan₃

scale of fish, lizard or snake; shell of turtle or tortoise - PMP *siksik₂

scale of fish, shell of turtle - POC *qunap₂

scale of fish, turtle shell - PCEMP *qunap₁

shell - *(noise)

shell - *(noise)

shell disk used as ear-ring - POC *sabi-sabi

shell, peeling, skin - POC *bwala

shell, peeling, skin - POC *bwara

skin, bark, peel, shell - POC *kulit

the auricle or shell of the ear - PMP *dahun nu taliŋa

the auricle or shell of the ear - POC *raun ni taliŋa

to scrape, as coconut meat from a shell; to grate, as coconut meat - POC *isi₄

to scrape; scraper or grater made from circular bivalve shell: Asaphis spp. - POC *kasi

tortoise shell (?) - PPH *kara

trochus shell - PMP *lalak

type of shell, possibly nautilus - POC *bio

shellfish

edible shellfish - PMP *qibaw₁

hunt for shellfish on the reef - POC *paŋoda

kind of shellfish - POC *biŋa

kind of shellfish - POC *pulan₁

kind of shellfish, probably oyster - PPH *talaba

kind of shellfish; eye of cateye shell - PMP *bulan₁

shellfish sp. - PCEMP *bina

shellfish sp. - POC *pina

shellfish sp. - *(noise)

shelter

a shelter - POC *uruŋ

cover with a hollow container; shelter over a grave - PWMP *cuŋkub

cover with a hollow container; shelter over a grave - PWMP *suŋkub

field hut; temporary shelter used when working for extended periods in fields far from the village - PAN-F *taRuqan

hut, temporary shelter - PMP *uduŋ

rock shelter, cave under a rock - PAN-F *Nihib

shade, shelter - PWMP *heluŋ

shelter - PWMP *ci(n)duŋ

shelter - PMP *ru(n)duŋ

shelter - PMP *suluŋ₁

shelter, conceal - *(noise)

shelter, cover, protection; shade - PAN *liduŋ

shelter, protect; shade, shadow - *-duŋ (root)

shelter, space under something - PPH *siluŋ

shelter, temporary hut - PPH *luŋáluŋ

take shelter, cover the head - PMP *teduŋ₁

to cover, shelter, protect - PWMP *tiduŋ

to give shelter to - PPH *pa-siduŋ-en

to shelter, give shelter to - POC *paka-maluRu

to shelter, shade - *-luŋ₂ (root)

sheltered

shady, shaded, sheltered (?) - POC *maluRu maluRu

sheltered place - PWMP *siduŋ

sheltered place (?) - PWMP *linduŋ-an

sheltered water: deep place in a river; cove, harbor, lagoon - PMP *namaw

sheltered, as from the weather - POC *ruruŋ

sheltered, as from wind, rain, or sun - PMP *duŋduŋ

sheltering

sheltering cover - PWMP *tabiŋ

shield

^shield - PPH *keluŋ₂

shield - *(noise)

type of shield - PWMP *kalasag

type of shield - PMP *tamiŋ

shift

budge, shift, move - PMP *isud

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *ised

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *iseR

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *isuR

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *isu₁

budge, shift, move aside - PMP *icud

shift, alternate - PWMP *seli₁

shin

shin - PMP *luluj

shine

dazzle, shine - *-daŋ₁ (root)

flash, shine - PMP *ke(R)lap

flash, sparkle, shine - PMP *dilep

light, radiance; shine - PWMP *edaŋ

ray of light; to shine - PMP *siŋaR

reflect, shine - POC *iro iro

shine - *-lak (root)

shine, flash repeatedly - PMP *kila-kilat

shine, flickering or flashing light - *-laC (root)

shine, gleam - *(near)

shine, glitter - PMP *bilak₁

shine, glitter - PMP *gilak

shine, polish - PWMP *sinaw

shine, sparkle - *-naŋ (root)

shine, sparkle, twinkle - PMP *kelap₂

shine, sparkle, twinkle - PMP *kerap

shine; radiance - PWMP *sinaŋ

sparkle, shine - PMP *dilap₁

to shine - POC *silak

to shine, of heavenly bodies - PMP *cilak

to shine, of the sun - PPH *siŋgít

to shine, of the sun - PAN *saheNaR

to shine, of the sun - PMP *sanaR

to shine, of the sun - PAN *q<um>ajaw

to shine, radiate light - PAN *s<um>uNaR

to shine, radiate light - PMP *s<um>unaR

to shine; shining, bright - POC *ma-ramaR

shining

to shine; shining, bright - POC *ma-ramaR

shiny

bright, shiny - PWMP *ma-silaw

deep black, shiny black - PWMP *li(n)tem

healed, of a wound with shiny skin - PPH *luqnit

shiny (of a smooth and polished surface) - PMP *licaw

shiny, dazzling - POC *liso

small bird with shiny black plumage: drongo - PWMP *cawi

shirt

shirt, jacket - *(loan)

shiver

shake, shiver, tremble - PAN *gerger₁

shake, shiver, tremble - *-ger (root)

shiver - PMP *ge(s)ges

shiver, shake, tremble - PAN *birbir₂

shiver, tremble - PMP *berber₂

shiver, tremble - PWMP *girgir

shiver, tremble - PAN *terter

shiver, tremble - PAN *tirtir₁

shiver, tremble - PMP *gigil

shiver, tremble - *-ter (root)

to shake, shiver, quiver, tremble - PWMP *tiRtiR₂

to shiver, quiver - PWMP *keter

shivering

cold, shivering - PAN *giŋgiŋ

shoal

sandbank, sand spit, shoal - PWMP *buhaŋin

sandbank, shoal in river or sea - PWMP *pasiR

sandbar, shoal in river or sea - PWMP *pasiR-an

shoo

cry to drive away fowls: shoo! - PWMP *siuq

sound used to shoo away domestic animals - PWMP *cik

to chase away or shoo off small animals - PMP *sika

to drive away, shoo off - PPH *tabuR₂

shoot

bamboo shoot - PPH *dabuŋ

new shoots of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) - PMP *mimis₁

plant shoot - PAN *Supiq

plant shoot, sprout - PWMP *taruk

plant shoot, sprout, cutting - PMP *suli₁

shoot - *(loan)

shoot an arrow - PWMP *ma-manaq

shoot at, throw a spear at - POC *lusa

shoot up - *(noise)

shoot with a blowpipe - PWMP *ma-ñeput

shoot with a blowpipe - PWMP *ma-numpit

shoot with a bow - PAN *p<in>anaq

shoot with a bow - PAN *p<um>anaq

shoot, sound of shooting - PAN *paleCuk

sprout, plant shoot - PWMP *tunas

sprout, plant, shoot - *(noise)

throw something at a target; shoot with bow and arrow - PAN *panaq

young plant shoot - PMP *taluk

young shoot - PWMP *seli₂

shooting

shoot, sound of shooting - PAN *paleCuk

shooting star - PWMP *taqi nu bituqen

shooting star, meteor; spirit of the shooting star - PPh *bulalákaw₂

shoot of a plant

offshoot shoot of a plant - *(loan)

shore

a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa - PMP *talisay

a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa - POC *talise₁

a shore tree: Barringtonia spp. - PMP *butun

a shore tree: Barringtonia spp. - PWMP *butuŋ

a shore tree: Barringtonia spp. - POC *putun₁

a shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum - PWMP *bintaŋuR

a shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum - PMP *bitaquR

a shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum - POC *pitaquR

a shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia - PMP *aRuhu

a shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia - PMP *qaRuhu

a shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia - POC *aRu

a shore tree: Heritiera littoralis - PWMP *duŋun

a small shore tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus - PMP *baRu

beach, shore - PPh *baybáy

brink, edge, shore - *(near)

come to shore, settle down in a place; sit, squat - POC *toka₂

edge, bank, shore - PWMP *taŋepi

estuary, shore near the mouth of a river - PMP *sabaŋ₁

kind of shore bird, possibly snipe - POC *pwipipi

littoral sea, sea near the shore - PMP *daRat

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled in shallow water - PWMP *maR-tulak

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water - PMP *tulak

sandbank, sandbar; shore, beach - PWMP *pantad

shore bird: sandpiper, Pacific Golden Plover - POC *kiwiwi

slippery, as wet rocks by the shore - POC *madrali

shore-bird

long-legged shore-bird, the sandpiper or snipe - PPh *balalaŋ₂

shoreline

curved, as a shoreline - PWMP *teluk

short

cut short, as a bird’s tail - PWMP *puŋgu

cut short, bobbed; short in stature - PWMP *putut₂

lower surface, bottom; short, low; below, beneath, under - PMP *babaq₁

quick, do quickly; do in a short time - PPH *dalíq

sea urchin with short spines - POC *saRawaki

sever, rip, cut through; short cut - *-tas (root)

short - POC *boto

short - POC *tuku₂

short - *(loan)

short and stocky - PWMP *beŋkek

short in height, squat and compact in build, of a person - PMP *pandak

short snouted unicornfish: Naso spp. - POC *taRa

short, high-pitched sound - PWMP *qepik

to cut the hair short - PPH *kiskis-an

to shorten, cut short or abbreviate - PWMP *putuŋ₂

trimmed short, as grass; bare (of a field) - PWMP *palpal₁

shortcut

go directly, take a shortcut - PWMP *la(n)t(e)qas

shorten

to shorten, cut short or abbreviate - PWMP *putuŋ₂

short-necked

short-necked - *(near)

short-tailed

short-tailed; cropped, of the tail - PPH *kibul

short-tempered

short-tempered, hot-headed, quick to fight - PMP *buteŋ

should

drop off to sleep, fall asleep when one should stay awake - PWMP *ka-tuduR-en

shoulder

carry by a strap over the shoulder - POC *sape

carry in a shoulder cloth - PWMP *qawis

carry on a shoulder pole - PWMP *taŋguŋ

carry on a shoulder pole between two people - PWMP *ataŋ₂

carry on the shoulders - PMP *pasaqan

carry slung over the shoulder - PPh *qambiday

carry slung over the shoulder - PPh *qambijay

drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth - PAN *sapay

drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth - PMP *sampay₁

hang of drape over the shoulder - PWMP *salampay

scapula, shoulder blade - PWMP *balikat

shoulder - PAN *qabaRa₁

shoulder (?) - PAN *qabaRa-an

shoulder pole; carry with a shoulder pole - PAN *pasaqaN

shoulder; carry on the shoulder - PMP *qabaRa₁

shoulder; carry on the shoulder - POC *qapaRa₁

sling over the shoulder - PPh *abijay

to carry on a shoulder pole - PCMP *lemba

wear across the shoulder - PWMP *sandaŋ

shoulder pole

shoulder pole - *(loan)

shout

cry out, shout - PMP *iag

cry out, shout - PMP *iak

cry, shout - PWMP *kuriak

howl, shout, scream - *-ŋar (root)

ritual shout(?) - PWMP *pekaw

roar, shout - POC *oRoŋ

shout - *(loan)

shout at - PWMP *talu₁

shout in anger - PMP *palak

shout, exclaim - POC *pela pela

shout, yell at someone - PWMP *siŋgit

shouting; to shout - PPH *giaw

to shout, to argue with - POC *ŋeŋe

shouting

shouting; to shout - PPH *giaw

to bark, as a hunting dog; shouting - PWMP *giak

shove

push shove - *(noise)

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled in shallow water - PWMP *maR-tulak

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water - PMP *tulak

push, shove - POC *qusur

shove, thrust forward - PWMP *unzur

shovel

shovel - *(loan)

spoon, ladle, spade, shovel - PMP *suduk

show

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

grin, show the teeth - PMP *ziziq

grin, show the teeth - PMP *ŋisŋis

grin, show the teeth - PWMP *ŋiŋi

grin, show the teeth - PMP *zizir

grin, show the teeth - POC *ŋiŋis

grin, show the teeth - POC *sisiq₂

grin, show the teeth - POC *sisir₂

middle of the road, most trodden part of a path or road; guide who shows the way - PMP *mata nu zalan

show annoyance or irritation - PAN *ŋiCŋiC

show off - PWMP *asi₂

show the teeth - *(noise)

show the teeth, as in grinning - POC *sisi₂

sunrise, rising sun; to show off, be ostentatious, parade one’s talents, possessions, etc. - PPH *sikát

to grin, show the teeth - PMP *ŋisi

to point at, point out, show by pointing - PWMP *ma-nuzuq

to show - PAN *pa-kita

to show off - PPH *pa-sikat

to show, display - PPH *i-pa-kita

showing

grin widely, showing the teeth - PMP *beŋis₂

shown

thing pointed out, shown, or taught - PWMP *ka-tuzuq-an

shred

to rip, tear, shred - PWMP *testes

shriek

shriek, as of laughter - PWMP *dekak

shriek, creak, cluck, chuckle - *-kek (root)

squeak, shriek - PMP *ekit

squeak, shriek, shrill cry - PWMP *qikqik

squeal, screech, shriek, etc. - PMP *ŋik

squeal, screech, shriek, etc. - PMP *ŋikŋik

shrill

shrill buzz or hum; ring - *-ŋiŋ (root)

shrill cry - PMP *e(ŋ)kik

shrill cry - PWMP *kicek

shrill sound - PPh *iŋqiiŋ

shrill sound - PMP *keriqik

shrill sound - PCEMP *serik

shrill sound of an insect, probably cricket or cicada - PWMP *pispis₂

shrill throaty sound - *-gik (or *-giqik?) (root)

shrill throaty sound - *-kik (root)

shrill throaty sound - *-ŋik (root)

shrill whistle or chirrup - PPh *wiwí

shrill whistle or chirrup - *(noise)

shrill, of the voice - PMP *cerik

squeak, shriek, shrill cry - PWMP *qikqik

shrimp

antennae of shrimp (?) - PWMP *suŋu₁

catch fish or shrimp with the hands - PWMP *gamaʔ

shrimp, crayfish, lobster - PAN *qudaŋ

shrimp, crayfish, lobster - POC *quraŋ

shrimp, lobster - PAN-F *kabus₂

small shrimp - PPh *hípun₂

small shrimp sp. - PPh *balaw₁

shrink

deflate, shrink - PMP *kampis

deflate, shrink - PMP *ki(m)pes

shrink - PMP *keŋkeŋ₃

shrink - PMP *kunkun

shrink - PMP *kuŋkuŋ₃

shrink (of living things) - PMP *eRes

shrink, contract - PMP *Re(ŋ)keŋ

shrink, contract - POC *Rokoŋ

shrink, decrease - PWMP *kekes

shrink, shrivel - PWMP *ke(m)pis

shrink, shrivel - *-keŋ₄ (root)

to subside, shrink, reduce in size - PPH *keles

shrivel

shrink, shrivel - PWMP *ke(m)pis

shrink, shrivel - *-keŋ₄ (root)

shriveled

shriveled, wrinkled - PWMP *kerut

shrivelled

dried up, scorched, shrivelled - POC *koRaŋ₁

shroud

bind, bundle, wrap in cloth; death shroud; cloth(ing) - PMP *balun₅

bind, bundle; wrap in cloth; death shroud; cloth(ing) - PCEMP *balun₃

burial shroud; to enshroud a corpse - PMP *saput₁

shrub

a leguminous shrub: Leucaena glauca - PPh *ipil ipil

a moderate-sized shrub: Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea - PWMP *sabasaq

a shrub or tree: Gnetum gnemon - PWMP *baguh

a shrub with edible figs: Ficus tinctoria - POC *taŋa₃

a shrub, the Jew’s mallow: Corchorus spp., fam. Malvaceae - PPH *saluyut

a shrub: Acalypha sp. - POC *kalaqabusi

a shrub: Cordyline spp. - PWMP *sabaqaŋ

a shrub: Cordyline, Dracaena - PMP *siRi

kind of shrub - PPH *dalúpaŋ

ornamental shrub used for hedges Graptophyllum pictum - PWMP *qatay qatay₂

shrub or small tree: Abroma augusta L. - PWMP *anabu

shrub sp. - *(noise)

shrub sp., kind of shrub - POC *bele

tree or shrub with leaves used for sandpaper: Ficus sp. - PMP *qampelas

shrunken

deflated, shrunken - PPh *qepés

empty, deflated, shrunken - PMP *i(m)pes

shudder

shudder - PWMP *kilig

shudder - PWMP *kirig

shut

close, shut - PMP *qentep

close, shut - PWMP *sa(ŋ)kep

close, shut - PWMP *cakep

close, shut off - PMP *si(m)pet

close, shut; enclose - PWMP *tikup

cover, shut - *(noise)

cover, shut in - PWMP *lekep₁

cover, shut in - PWMP *lekeb

shut off - POC *boboŋ₁

to close up, shut, as a door - PPH *liŋkep

to close, shut - PWMP *iŋkem

to close, shut - PWMP *maŋ-iŋkem

to close, shut; door - PMP *qeneb₁

to close, to shut - POC *qonop

to close, to shut; door - PAN *qeNeb₁

to cover, shut - PMP *tekub

to enclose, shut in - PMP *kebkeb

to enclose, shut in’ - POC *kokop

to shut, close - PPH *keleb

shuttle

spool, shuttle; thread holder (in weaving or making nets) - PWMP *sikuqan

shy

ashamed; shy - PAN-F *Sikad

ashamed; shy; modest - PAN-F *ma-Sikad

shy - *(noise)

shy, ashamed - PWMP *ilah-an

shy, embarrassed, ashamed - PCEMP *ma-mayaq

shy, embarrassed; ashamed - PAN *ma-Seyaq

shy, embarrassed; ashamed - PMP *ma-heyaq

to shy away, of animals - PWMP *dura

wild, shy, skittish - PWMP *ma-ilah₂

wild, shy, skittish - PWMP *ma-ilah₁

wild, timorous, shy - PMP *ilah

wild, timorous, shy - POC *ila₁

shyness

shame, shyness - PWMP *ka-heyaq

shyness, embarrassment; shame - PAN *Seyaq

shyness, embarrassment; shame - PMP *heyaq

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si

sibling

be in a sibling relationship - PWMP *maR-huaji

called or regarded as siblings (?) - PAN *Suaji-an

elder same sex sibling - POC *tuaka

elder sibling - PWMP *aka

elder sibling - PAN *kaka₂

elder sibling (vocative) - PWMP *aka-ŋ

elder sibling (vocative) - PWMP *aka-q

elder sibling of the same sex - PMP *teka₂

elder sibling of the same sex - POC *toka

elder sibling of the same sex - PMP *kaka₂

father, uncle, elder sibling - *(noise)

parent’s younger sibling, junior uncle; a young child’s term of address for his father, vocative of *ama - PMP *mama

parents' elder sibling - PMP *uaʔ

parents’ elder sibling: FeB, FeZ, MeB, Me - PMP *ua₂

parents’ elder sibling: FeB, FeZ, MeB, MeZ - PMP *uaq

relationship between spouses of siblings - PPH *bilas

same-sex sibling (?) - POC *tuRa-

younger sibling - PAN *Suaji

younger sibling of the same sex (vocative); younger parallel cousin of the same sex (vocative) - PWMP *huaji-ŋ

younger sibling of the same sex (vocative); younger parallel cousin of the same sex (vocative) - PMP *huaji-q

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PMP *huaji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PCEMP *waji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PWMP *paR-huaji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - PMP *ta-huaji

younger sibling of the same sex; younger parallel cousin of the same sex - POC *taci

sibling-in-law

sibling-in-law (probably of the same sex only) - PMP *hipaR₁

sibling-in-law of the same sex - POC *ipaR-

siceraria

the bottle gourd: Lagenaria siceraria - PWMP *labuq₂

sick

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

fall ill, become sick - POC *masakit-ia

hurt someone; make someone sick - PMP *pa-sakit

hurting; sick with something, suffering from an illness - PWMP *sakit-en

sick, painful - PMP *sakit

sick, painful - PMP *ma-sakit

sick, painful - POC *masakit

sick; illness - PSHWNG *bisik₂

to be sick - PWMP *maR-sakit

to fall ill, become very sick - PMP *ma-saki-sakit

was hurt or sick - PPH *na-sakit

sickle

sickle for harvesting grain - PAN-F *kawkaw₁

sickly

sickly - *(noise)

sickness

sickness, illness - PWMP *pa-ñakit

spirit that causes sickness - PPh *abat₂

side

answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - POC *bali₇

approach or strike from the side or at an oblique angle - PPH *sarijsij

board, plank, side of canoe - POC *baban

border, side, edge - PWMP *p<al>idpid

corner; side, edge - PWMP *zuRu

dual division, moiety == cluster (a) answer, oppose, opposite side or part; partner, friend, enemy - PMP *baliw₁

flat (of things that are expected to rounded), flat on one side - PWMP *sapaD

ford a river, cross to the other side (of a river, street, etc.) - PPH *dákit

free side of canoe, opposite the outrigger - POC *katae

front side; belly (of an animal?) - POC *qarop

gunwale, side plank on canoe - *(loan)

inclination, leaning to the side - PWMP *keleŋ₂

incline one's head to the side - PAN *qipiŋ

lay long objects side by side; raft - PMP *Rakit

left side - POC *kauRi

left side or direction - PAN *wiRi

left side or direction - PAN *ka-wiRi

left side or direction - POC *mawiRi

left side or direction - PEMP *mauRi

lie on one's side - PWMP *tumbiriŋ

look from side to side, turn the head in this way - PWMP *liŋaR

on the opposite side (esp. of a river) - PWMP *di hipaR

one side, one half - PWMP *pihak

opposite side (esp. of a river) - PAN *SipaR

opposite side (esp. of a river) - PMP *hipaR₂

right hand, right side - PMP *ka-taqu₂

right side - PMP *taqu₁

right side - PWMP *tuqu₁

right side - PMP *ma-taqu₂

right side - PMP *ma-wanan

shake or move from side to side - PWMP *hiwal

side by side - PWMP *abay

side of canoe opposite the outrigger - POC *qatai

side of the face, cheek; side planks of a canoe - POC *babaR

side of the head - POC *tabal

side path, branch or fork in path or stream; take a side path or way; crossroads - PMP *simpaŋ

side, edge - PMP *bidiŋ

side, edge - PMP *biriŋ₁

side, edge - POC *piriŋ₁

side, edge - POC *piriŋ₂

side, edge, border - POC *taba₂

side, edge, border - PWMP *piRpiR₁

side, flank - PWMP *sampiŋ

side, flank - *(loan)

side, flank - *(noise)

side, go to the side - PWMP *sisiq₁

side, half - PCEMP *pali₁

side, part - PCEMP *balaŋ₂

side, part - POC *balaŋ₄

slope, mountain side - *(noise)

spicy condiment side dish with rice - *(loan)

take a side path - POC *siba₁

temple, side of the head - PWMP *pilis

to carry at the side or on the hip, pressed under the arm - PPH *kilít

to join, unite with in taking sides - PPH *k<um>ampi

to pass, cross over to the other side; to be past, of time for an action - PWMP *lapas

to wind, curve, turn to the side; to tack, sail into the wind - PMP *biluk

turn one’s head to the side to look back - PPH *liŋiq

turn to the side - PMP *liŋak

turn up at the edge, expose the bottom side - PWMP *lukab

wag, shake, move repeatedly from side to side - PAN *wiŋawiŋ

wag, swing from side to side - PAN *witiwit

work (object, instrument) from side to side - PPh *walwál

work (object, instrument) from side to side - PPH *walwáR

side-dish

protein side-dish eaten with rice (typically fish) - PPh *sidáq

side-dish (fish, meat or vegetables eaten with rice) - PWMP *qulam

side-to-side

shake the head in negation, shake the head from side-to-side - PWMP *iliŋ₃

sideways

extend both arms sideways - PPH *maR-depa

extend the arms sideways - PPH *i-depa

leaning sideways, listing (as a boat) - PMP *kiliŋ

siege

to surround, lay siege to - PPH *kubkub₁

sieve

sieve, strainer - PWMP *ayak-an

sift

sift, separate by sifting - PWMP *ayak₂

sift, separate by sifting - PWMP *qayag

to sift - PWMP *maŋ-ayak

sifting

sift, separate by sifting - PWMP *ayak₂

sift, separate by sifting - PWMP *qayag

Siganus

marine fish sp. with venomous dorsal spines, Rabbitfish: Siganus punctatus - PWMP *kiteŋ

Rabbitfish: Siganus punctatus (family siganidae) - POC *kitoŋ

rabbitfish: Siganus sp. - POC *palaja

sigh

sigh - *(loan)

sight

fade from sight - PWMP *silem

in the line of sight, clearly visible - PPH *aŋ(ə)tad

sink, vanish from sight - PMP *teleb

to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight - PMP *deŋeR

to hear; what is heard, news; to perceive by any sense other than sight - POC *roŋoR

sign

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

sign, signal, mark - *(loan)

signal

raise the eyebrows as a signal to another person; to furrow the brows (?) - PWMP *kindat

sign, signal, mark - *(loan)

sucking noise made as a signal to another person - PMP *misik

sika

deer of the genus Cervus, either the sika deer or sambar deer - PAN-F *benan

silence

deep silence - PWMP *leplep

suffer in silence, conceal an illness - PWMP *pelaqam

silent

brood, think, be silent - PMP *sendem

keep something to oneself; silent, secret - PWMP *hidem

silent, taciturn - PWMP *Renek

silhouette

silhouette, shadow; glimpse of something - PMP *ilap₂

silk

silk cotton tree: Ceiba pentandra Linn. - PPh *buybuy

silk cotton, kapok - PAN-F *kapua

silk-cotton

kapok; silk-cotton tree - PWMP *kapuk

silly

silly, senile, doting - PWMP *aŋu aŋu

stupid, silly, ignorant - PPH *taŋah

silver

a marine fish, probably the silver bream - PWMP *kapas kapas

inlay of gold or silver - PWMP *tataq

silver - *(loan)

similar

adze or similar tool - PWMP *sa(ŋ)kal

chigger or similar insect - PPH *kuykúy₁

civet cat and similar small predatory mammals of the family Viverridae - PMP *musaŋ

exude or escape, of air, gases or similar substances (?) - PMP *heŋaw

like, similar to, resemble - PMP *buat₂

mate, companion; like, similar to - POC *jama

similar; imitate - PPh *iriŋ₂

sparrow or similar bird - PAN *tutut

tree with fruit similar to breadfruit - PWMP *teRep

tree with fruit similar to breadfruit - PWMP *si teRep

wild palm tree with fruit similar to areca nut: Heterospathe elata - PPH *sagisí

simple-minded

simple-minded - PWMP *laŋaq₂

simultaneously

do something simultaneously - PWMP *maR-deŋan

unite, do simultaneously - PWMP *raŋkeb

unite, do simultaneously - PMP *raŋkep₂

sincere

real, genuine, true, sincere - PWMP *tunay₂

sinensis

the Formosan hare: Lepus sinensis formosus - PAN-F *lutuk₁

sinew

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon - PAN *huRaC

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root - PMP *uRat

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; sinew; tendon; ligament; fiber; tough, sinewy - POC *uRat

veins, sinews (collective) - PMP *uRat uRat

sinewy

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; sinew; tendon; ligament; fiber; tough, sinewy - POC *uRat

sing

sing - *(loan)

sing in unison - PMP *saRup₂

sing, song - *(noise)

sing; song - PCEMP *bubu₉

sing; song - PCEMP *wari

sing; song - POC *kanam

sing; song - POC *bubu₈

to sing in unison, as in traditional festivals - PWMP *ñañuy

to sing; song, tune, melody - PAN-F *quyaS

singe

to burn, singe - PPH *seReb

to roast; singe, cauterize - PPH *pasúq-en

to singe, burn off - PWMP *sadab

to singe, burn slightly - PPH *sajab

singing

choral singing; to blend voices in song - POC *jaRu

single

alone, single - PPh *bugtúŋ

single - *(loan)

single log bridge (?) - PMP *taytay

single log bridge; stairs, ladder - POC *tete

single-file

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PMP *aRak

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PWMP *maŋ-aRak

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PWMP *aRak-aRak

singular

genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb - PAN *ni

nominative case marker for singular personal names or kin terms used as personal names - PAN *si₁

oblique case marker for singular personal nouns - PMP *ki₂ₐ

sink

to sink something; to destroy - PWMP *ma-ŋaRem

capsize, of a boat; sink - PWMP *kaRem

dive; sink, disappear under water - *-Neb₁ (root)

dive; sink, disappear under water - *-ñep (root)

sink - PWMP *qeled

sink - PWMP *taR-benem

sink - *-lej (root)

sink - *-lem (root)

sink - *(near)

sink down, subside; landslide - POC *solo₃

sink, disappear - *-leb (root)

sink, disappear under water - PMP *telem

sink, disappear under water - PWMP *teleŋ

sink, disappear under water - PWMP *leñej

sink, drown - PMP *keñej

sink, immerse oneself in water, dive into the water; to set, of the sun - PAN *selem₁

sink, set (sun) - PMP *teñej

sink, submerge - PMP *celeb

sink, submerge - PCEMP *seleb

sink, submerge - *-lep (root)

sink, submerge; overflow - PWMP *lebleb₂

sink, vanish from sight - PMP *teleb

sink; drown - PWMP *benem₂

submerge, sink - PMP *delep

submerge, sink - PMP *le(p)lep

submerge, sink, drown - *-ñej (root)

to sink - PPH *lúnud

to sink, submerge, capsize - PPH *ma-lúnud

sinuous

sinuous, winding - PPH *kiwal

sip

sip, as soup - POC *iRup

sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl - PAN *SiRup

sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl - PMP *hiRup

sip, suck - PMP *cupcup

sip, suck - PAN *sipsip

sip, suck - PAN *qesep

sip, suck - PWMP *sedut

sip, suck - PAN *supsup

sip, suck - PAN *sepsep

sip, suck - POC *susup

sip, suck - *-sep (root)

sip, taste slightly - PPH *timtim

to sip or suck in or out - PWMP *ma-ñepsep

to sip, as through a straw - PAN *siRup

to sip, suck on - PCEMP *ñopñop

to sip, to drink - PWMP *maŋ-hiRup

to sip, to suck - PMP *sepsep-i

to sip, to suck - POC *sosop-i

to suck, sip - PAN *s<um>epsep

to suck, sip, soak up - PWMP *maŋ-qisep

sipped

was sipped by - PWMP *hiRup-en

Sipunculus

edible sea worm: Sipunculus spp. - POC *ibo

Sister

a constellation: the Seven Sisters, Pleiades - PWMP *pariama

sister

brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking) - PWMP *anak-en

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

father’s sister, father’s sister’s husband - PMP *aya₂

father's sister, possibly address term - PMP *ema₁

father's sister, possibly address term - PMP *ema-q

mother, mother's sister - PAN *ina

mother, mother's sister (address, vocative) - PMP *iná-i

mother, mother's sister (address, vocative) - PMP *iná-ŋ

mother, mother's sister (address, vocative) - PAN *iná-q

mother, mother's sister; female animal - PMP *ina

mother, mother's sister; female animal; largest member of a set - PCEMP *ina

mother's sister, father's sister - PWMP *kam-ina-en

sister (man speaking) - PMP *betaw

wife's sister's husband - PWMP *biras₂

woman; female; sister (male speaker) - POC *papine

sister-in-law

brother-in-law, sister-in-law - *(noise)

sit

brood, sit on eggs - PMP *ekep

brood, sit on eggs - POC *opi

brood, sit on eggs - PWMP *qerem

brood, sit on eggs; cover completely - PMP *ukup

come to shore, settle down in a place; sit, squat - POC *toka₂

cooled off, as cooked food that has been left to sit too long - PAN *ma-baSaw

sit cross-legged - *(loan)

sit deferentially - *(loan)

sit on the ground - PWMP *timpuhuq

sit, squat - *(near)

sit, squat; come to rest; stay in a place; settle down, as birds on a tree - POC *toka₃

sit; stay or stop moving; reside - POC *nofo

to brood, sit on eggs - PWMP *eden

to sit - PMP *tu(n)daŋ

to sit - PWMP *tujaw

to sit - PAN *ikud

to sit - PMP *iŋkud

to squat, sit on one’s heels - POC *tiko

site

clear the ground for a garden site - POC *poki

situation

take advantage of a situation or opportunity, exploit an advantage - PPH *sambut₁

six

divide into six (?) - PMP *pa-enem

do six times - PWMP *ka-enem

do six times - PAN *paR-enem-en

group of six - PPh *enem-an

six - PAN *enem

six - PEMP *onəm

six - POC *onom

six (of humans) - PAN *a-enem

six by six, six at a time - PMP *enem enem

six by six, six at a time - POC *onom onom

six times - PWMP *iŋg-enem

six times - PMP *paka-enem

six times - POC *paka-onom

six times (frequentative multiplicative) - PAN *maka-enem

sixth

sixth - POC *ika-onom

sixth (ordinal) - PMP *ika-enem

sixty

sixty - PMP *enem ŋa puluq

sixty - POC *onom ŋa puluq

size

little, small in size or amount - POC *liki

small in size or amount - PWMP *kedik

small in size or amount - PWMP *kedit

small in size or amount - PAN *kedi

swell, increase in size - PMP *beŋkak

to subside, shrink, reduce in size - PPH *keles

sizzle

hiss, sizzle - PAN *qesir

to hiss, sizzle - PPH *sagitsit

sizzling

sound of sputtering, sizzling, etc. - PMP *sit

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sk

skate

skate, stingray (generic); a constellation - PMP *paRih

skewer

pierce, skewer - *(noise)

pierce, skewer or string together - PMP *tusuk

skewer - PMP *cukcuk

skewer something so as to pick it up without touching it - PPH *tuRsúk

skewer, pointed stick - PWMP *sulah

skewer, spit for roasting - PMP *tuduk

skewer; to skewer (as meat) - PWMP *te(n)duk

to pierce, penetrate, skewer - PWMP *ma-nusuk

to string (beads, fish, etc.); to skewer (candlenuts, etc.) - POC *tuRi₁

skewered

be strung, be skewered - PAN *CuSuR-en

skewering

stringing of beads, skewering of fish, etc. - PMP *tuhuR

skill

ability, skill, knowledge how to do something - PWMP *ka-taqu₁

forget a skill, make a mistake - PWMP *beluy

knowledge, skill, intelligence - PPH *dunuŋ

skilled

skilled, knowing how (to do something) - PWMP *ka-taqu-an

to know how, be able to, be skilled at - PAN *Caqu

to know how, be able to, be skilled at - PMP *taqu₂

skillful

dextrous, agile, skillful - PWMP *sikap₂

skim

scoop up, skim from the surface - PPH *saRap

to scoop up, skim from the surface - PPH *s<um>aRap

to skim over the surface - PMP *tapis₂

skin

a skin disease: framboesia, yaws - PMP *puRu

a skin disease: ringworm - POC *lapa₂

abrasion of the skin - PWMP *laslas

animal skin, hide, leather - PAN *qaNiC

animal skin, hide, leather - PMP *qanit

any natural mark on human skin: birthmark, freckle, mole - PMP *qila

be affected by itching, be infected with scabies or other itchy skin disorders - PWMP *gatel-en

body hair; fur; feather; down; antenna of insect or crustacean; spikes of sea urchin; floss on plant skins, color; type, kind - PCEMP *bulu₁

cracked, peeling, of skin - PWMP *kur(i)siŋ

dirt on skin; dandruff - PAN *daki

dirt on skin; dandruff; tartar on teeth - PMP *daki

disease which produces scaly skin: ichthyosis - PWMP *bugis

flaky skin disease - POC *kaka₁

flower, blossom; to flower, bear flowers; yield a benefit (as interest on a loan); first-born child; cotton; vulva (refined or evasive), skin rash, prickly heat; speckled (of fish); kidneys - PMP *buŋa

fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin: Tinea flava or Pityriasis - PMP *panaw₁

get a splinter in the skin - PPH *ma-salugsug-án

get a splinter or sliver under the skin or nail - PPH *salugsúg

have dark blotches on the skin - PMP *qila-qila

healed, of a wound with shiny skin - PPH *luqnit

inflammation of the skin - POC *tubu₁

marine fish with thorny skin - PMP *utik

node, joint; knuckle; swelling under the skin - POC *buku-buku

oily, as the hair or skin - PWMP *lumek

oily, as the hair or skin - PMP *lumuk

peel off, of skin; remove the bark of a tree - PMP *bakbak₁

peeling skin - *-bak₁ (root)

reddish; discolored, as the skin over a bruise - PWMP *baŋbaŋ₈

scratch or wale on the skin - PMP *balan

scratch or wale on the skin - PMP *balar

scruffiness of the skin; dirt, dregs - POC *kani-kani

scurfy skin disease; scabies - PAN *kudis

scurfy skin disease; scabies - PAN *kuris₁

shell, peeling, skin - POC *bwala

shell, peeling, skin - POC *bwara

skin - PAN-F *baŋeS

skin disease - POC *kuli-kulit

skin disease - *(loan)

skin disease - *(noise)

skin, bark - POC *pinut

skin, bark, peel, shell - POC *kulit

skin; hide; rind; bark - PMP *kulit

sore on skin - POC *pwasa

spotted, speckled, as the skin of an animal - PAN *paCak

swelling; lump or bump under the skin - PWMP *buŋkug

swelling; lump or bump under the skin - POC *buŋkul₂

swelling; lump or bump under the skin; wad of something - PMP *buŋkul₁

thick or hard skin, buffalo hide, leather; callus - PWMP *balulaŋ

to be skinned, have the skin removed - PWMP *kulit-an

to flay, peel back or off, as bark or skin - PCEMP *sisi₃

to husk rice; be afflicted with pimples on the skin resembling rice grains - PWMP *beRas-en

to molt, shed the skin - PMP *huñus

to molt, shed the skin - POC *uñus

to peel off skin, bark or leaves; excoriated, decorticated, defoliated - PWMP *laklak

to peel, skin off - PMP *kelas

to skin an animal - PAN *q<um>aNiC

to skin an animal - PMP *q<um>anit

to skin an animal - PWMP *qanit-an

to skin or peel, remove the skin or peeling - PWMP *ma-ŋulit

to skin peel off - *-NiC (root)

to skin, flay - PAN *baNiC

to skin, flay - PWMP *panit

to skin, remove the skin - PWMP *kulit-en

to slough, shed the skin, as a snake - POC *nunu₂

to wrinkle, be wrinkled, as the skin - PPH *kuretret

wart; cyst; non-purulent skin eruption - PMP *buteliR

wart; cyst; non-purulent skin eruption - PCEMP *butiR

wart; cyst; non-purulent skin eruption - POC *putiR

wrinkled, as the skin - PWMP *kure(n)dut

wrinkled, of the skin, as from age - PPH *kubet-kubet

skinned

peeled, skinned - PWMP *bebak₁

to be skinned, have the skin removed - PWMP *kulit-an

skinny

protruding, of the bones of a skinny (bony) person - PWMP *ka-tuqela-tuqelaŋ

skinny, thin, underweight - PAN *ma-kuliC

thin, skinny (?) - PWMP *ma-Rusuk

thin, slender, skinny - *(loan)

skip

step, stride; to omit or skip over - PMP *laŋkaq₁

skipjack

a fish, the skipjack tuna or bonito - POC *qatun

skirt

apron, skirt - PWMP *tapiq₂

woman’s grass skirt - POC *nai

woman’s skirt; cloth used for clothing - PWMP *kain

skittish

wild, shy, skittish - PWMP *ma-ilah₂

wild, shy, skittish - PWMP *ma-ilah₁

wild; skittish (as animals) - POC *kila

wild; skittish; insane - PMP *gila

skull

skull - PMP *batuk₃

skull - PPH *buŋuq

skull, cranium - *(noise)

sky

atmosphere, space between earth and sky - PMP *awaŋ

atmosphere, space between earth and sky - PWMP *hawan

atmosphere, space between earth and sky - PWMP *hawan hawan

sky - PAN *laŋiC

sky - PMP *laŋit

space between earth and sky - *(noise)

year, season; sky, heaven - PAN-F *kawaS₁

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sl

slab

stone slab, thin layer - PWMP *lapis

slack

loose, slack - PWMP *kenduR

soft, weak, slack - PWMP *lemaq

slam

slam down with force - PWMP *dakdak

slam down, ram down - PMP *qetak

slam something down - PMP *la(m)bak

smack, slap, slam - PWMP *lapak

slander

gossip, slander - PWMP *buat buat

slant

slant - *(near)

slant, incline - PWMP *qiriŋ₂

slant, lean over (as a tree) - POC *(bp)alalan

slanted

slanted, of the eyes - PPH *siŋkít

slanting

askew, in a slanting direction - PMP *liliŋ₁

slanting, awry - PAN *Siwid

slanting, awry - PMP *hiwid

slanting, inclined - PWMP *sunduŋ

slanting, sloping - PMP *simpa

slanting, sloping - POC *siba₂

slap

clap, flap, slap - PWMP *epap

clap, slap, pound - PWMP *upuk

hit, slap - PWMP *lipák

loud slap - PWMP *dagepak

pat, light slap - *-pik (or *-piqik?) (root)

pat, slap lightly - PMP *tapik

pat, slap lightly - POC *tapik

slap, beat on - PMP *bebak₂

slap, clap - *-pak₁ (or *-paqak?) (root)

slap, clap - *(noise)

slap, clap on the ear - PWMP *tampar₂

slap, hit with open hand - PMP *tampek

slap, hit, beat - PWMP *upak₂

slap, pat - *-bik (root)

slap, smack - PPh *hampak

slap, sound of collision - PWMP *lagepak

slap, sound of collision - PWMP *ragepak

slap, sound of slapping or clapping - PWMP *tipak

slap, strike with the hand - PWMP *ta(m)pak

smack, slap, slam - PWMP *lapak

to slap - PWMP *repag

to slap - PMP *tepak₁

to slap hard - POC *sabak

to slap something hard - PWMP *pagpag

to slap, flap the wings - PWMP *ma-makpak

to slap, hit - POC *pwasa(r,R)

slapping

slap, sound of slapping or clapping - PWMP *tipak

sound of slapping, bubbling, etc. - PWMP *bikbik

sound of smacking or slapping - PWMP *ipak₁

slash

slash, chop away - PWMP *etas

to cut, slash, as in clearing land - PPH *patpát-en

to cut, to slash - PPH *tabtab-an

slashing

cutting, slashing, as in clearing land - PWMP *patpat

slats

pinch, press between; fasten thatch together with slats in roofing a house - PMP *kapit

slaughter

slaughter in accord with Islamic law - *(loan)

to cut up, butcher, slaughter an animal - PAN *lapaq

slaughtered

to bind, tie the hands or feet, as a person in detention, or an animal to be slaughtered; restraining rope - PMP *Rapus

slaughtering

place of killing or slaughtering - PWMP *bunuq-an₁

slave

slave - PPh *qadipen

slave - PWMP *qudipen

slave (?) - PMP *anak i qaRta

sled

pull or drag a heavy object along, as on a sled - PWMP *guyud₃

sled or board used for dragging materials (?) - PPH *guyúd-an

sledge hammer

sledge hammer - *(loan)

sleep

able to sleep - PPH *maka-tuduR

arise from sleep - PPh *b<um>aŋun

deep, of sleep - PWMP *lu(n)duq

deep, of sleep - PWMP *lunduq

drop off to sleep, fall asleep when one should stay awake - PWMP *ka-tuduR-en

lie down to sleep - PCEMP *qenəp

lie down to sleep - PAN *qinep

lie down to sleep’ - POC *qenop

lie or sleep next to - PAN *Sulij

lie or sleep next to - PMP *hulij

put someone down to sleep - PWMP *pa-tuduR

sleep - PPh *helek

sleep together, sleep with someone - PWMP *ka-tuduR

sleeping; to sleep - PMP *ma-tiduR

sleeping; to sleep - PMP *ma-tuduR

sound, of sleep - PWMP *leñab

sound, of sleep - *-nek (root)

to keep someone awake, not let them sleep - PPH *puyat-en

to sleep - PMP *tiduR

to sleep - PAN *tuduR

to sleep - POC *turuR

to sleep - POC *matiruR

to sleep - PAN *ma-tuduR

to sleep - POC *maturuR

to wake up, rouse someone from sleep - POC *paŋun

wake someone, rouse someone from sleep; erect something, put something in an upright position - PMP *baŋun₂

sleeping

liner, layer, insulation, padding; sleeping mat - PMP *hapin

rattan sleeping mat - PWMP *lampit

sleeping place; bed - PWMP *pa-tuduR-an

sleeping place; bed - PWMP *tuduR-an

sleeping platform - PWMP *paŋgaw

sleeping; to sleep - PMP *ma-tiduR

sleeping; to sleep - PMP *ma-tuduR

sleeplessness

insomnia, sleeplessness - PPH *púyat

sleepy

sleepy - PPH *ma-púyat

sleepy, drowsy - PPH *tuŋkaq

sleeves

to roll up sleeves or pant legs - PPH *lislís

slender

cut something slender - PAN *k<um>eRet

cut something slender or soft; reap crops - PAN *keRet

kind of very slender bamboo - PAN-F *CekeS

slim, slender - *(loan)

thin, slender, skinny - *(loan)

type of slender bamboo; Schizostachyum spp. - PAN *buluq₂

type of slender bamboo; Schizostachyum spp. - POC *buluq₃

slenderness

thinness, slenderness - PAN *Niwaŋ

slice

cut, carve, slice (meat or fish) - PPh *híwaq

cut, carve, slice (meat or fish) - PPh *hiwáq-an

cut, slice - PAN *disdis

cut, slice - PMP *qiris

cut, slice - PEMP *riris

cut, slice into pieces, as breadfruit or taro - POC *siba

slice - PWMP *biris

slice - *-ris₃ (root)

slice - *(noise)

slice, cut (as meat) - PPH *ilap₃

slice, cut into pieces - PWMP *sayat

split or slice off - PWMP *siqat

to cut or slice meat - PPH *maŋ-ilap

to cut, slice - PWMP *maŋ-qiris

to cut, slice (as meat) - PPH *ilap-en

to peel, pare, as fruit or yam; to cut into slices - PPH *tájip

to slice - PWMP *sayad

to slice into thin strips, as meat or vegetables - PPH *gáyat

sliced

be cut, carved, sliced (meat or fish) - PPh *hiwáq-en

slide

glide off, slide off - *(noise)

push, slide or glide forward, as in pushing wood into a fire, or storming the enemy - PWMP *suruŋ

slide - *(near)

slide down - PWMP *durus

slide down - PWMP *ulus

slide, glide - *(noise)

slip or slide down - PWMP *lu(n)cuR

slip or slide down - PWMP *lu(ŋ)suR

slip or slide down or along - PWMP *hurus

slip or slide off - PAN *perus

slip or slide off - *-rus₂ (root)

slip, slide - *(noise)

slightly

fissured, slightly cracked - PMP *kaŋeqa

move slightly, budge - PWMP *iŋsiD

sip, taste slightly - PPH *timtim

taste of unripe banana; slightly bitter or astringent taste - PMP *apeled

to singe, burn slightly - PPH *sajab

slim

slim, slender - *(loan)

slime

slime, slimy - PWMP *banelik

slimy

slime, slimy - PWMP *banelik

sling

sling over the shoulder - PPh *abijay

sling, hurl - *(noise)

slingshot

snap, as the fingers or a slingshot - PAN *peCik

stone; slingshot - POC *maga

slip

hernia; to slip down, slip off, pull back the foreskin of the penis - PMP *luslus

insert between, slip in - PPH *luq(e)kip

insert, slip between - PWMP *sisip

insert, slip between - PPH *saluksuk₂

lose, let slip by - PWMP *luput

slip down or off - PWMP *rusrus₂

slip down, subside - PPH *kublas

slip off - PAN *pelus

slip off - POC *lulus

slip off - *-lus (root)

slip off - *(noise)

slip off, slip away - PWMP *burus₁

slip or slide down - PWMP *lu(n)cuR

slip or slide down - PWMP *lu(ŋ)suR

slip or slide down or along - PWMP *hurus

slip or slide off - PAN *perus

slip or slide off - *-rus₂ (root)

slip out or away - PWMP *pulesit

slip, slide - *(noise)

slippery; to slip - PPH *lig(e)say

squeeze out, slip out - PWMP *lecut

squirt, squeeze or slip out - *-cut (root)

to slip out, of a child in childbirth - PPH *lusad

to slip through, pass through - PPH *lusút

to wear, as clothes; to get dressed, slip into - PPH *suq(e)lut

slipmouth

fish sp., slipmouth: Leiognathus sp. - PPH *sapsap₂

slipper

slipper lobster; crayfish - POC *papaba

slippery

slippery - PWMP *lamaR

slippery - PWMP *lamas

slippery - POC *maralis

slippery - *(near)

slippery, as wet rocks by the shore - POC *madrali

slippery; to slip - PPH *lig(e)say

smooth, slippery - PMP *dalit₂

smooth, slippery - PWMP *licin

smooth, slippery - PAN *ma-dalis

smooth, slippery - PMP *ma-dalit

slit

slit an animal's throat - PAN *gereC

slit open - PPh *wíqwiq

slit, crevice - PMP *maŋaq

slitgong

beat time on a drum or slitgong - POC *tutu

deep resounding sound; slit-gong, hollowed tree trunk used to send messages - PAN *kuŋkuŋ₁

slitgong - POC *drali

sliver

get a splinter or sliver under the skin or nail - PPH *salugsúg

sliver, splinter - PMP *unay

sliver, splinter, foreign body embedded in the flesh - PAN *uNay

slope

slope of a mountain - PWMP *iraŋ₂

slope, mountain side - *(noise)

steep slope (as of riverbank or mountain) - PWMP *paŋpaŋ

sloping

gradually sloping (of terrain); soft-spoken - PWMP *la(n)day

slanting, sloping - PMP *simpa

slanting, sloping - POC *siba₂

sloping upward; to climb a mountain - PWMP *tukad₂

sloping, bent downward - PWMP *duyuŋ₁

slough

to slough, shed the skin, as a snake - POC *nunu₂

slow

slow - *(noise)

slow and tentative movement - PWMP *ukaŋ

to slow cook in a tightly covered vessel - PWMP *kulub₂

weak, slow - *(noise)

slowly

budge, move slowly - *(loan)

go or do something slowly, take one’s time - PPH *ananay₂

slug

sea cucumber, sea slug - POC *pula₃

sluggish

overgrown, clumsy, sluggish - PMP *bagal

slung

carry slung over the shoulder - PPh *qambiday

carry slung over the shoulder - PPh *qambijay

slurp

drink, slurp, suck - PMP *ñepñep

slurp up food or water, eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *sabsab

slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *tabtab₂

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sm

smack

clap! smack! - PMP *bak₁

fall with a loud smack - PMP *tebak

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *misi

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *misi-misi

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *miti

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *miti-miti

slap, smack - PPh *hampak

smack against - PMP *debek

smack against - PAN *Cebak

smack the lips - PAN *tamtam

smack the lips while eating - PCEMP *tamu₁

smack, slap, slam - PWMP *lapak

sound of a clap or smack - PMP *pak

sound of a heavy smack - *-bag (root)

sound of a heavy smack - *-bak₂ (root)

stamp or smack against - PMP *ambak

to smack - PWMP *ca(m)pak

smacking

sound of heavy clapping or pounding, smacking sound - PAN *bakbak₂

sound of light smacking - PMP *gepik

sound of smacking or slapping - PWMP *ipak₁

small

a fish, small emperor - POC *koraŋa

a small bee: Apis indica - PMP *qani-Ruan

a small bee: Apis indica - PMP *qari-ñuan

a small shore tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus - PMP *baRu

a small stinging plant, perhaps Laportea interrupta - POC *karat₂

a tear, small hole, or rip - PPH *punit

be small, become small - PMP *itek

break up into small pieces - PPH *sagsag-en

brook or small stream - PWMP *saluR

canoe hull, small outrigger canoe - PMP *katiR

canoe, small boat - PPH *lunday

carrying pouch or small basket - PWMP *uyut₁

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

civet cat and similar small predatory mammals of the family Viverridae - PMP *musaŋ

crumble, break into small pieces - PWMP *remay

cut down small plants to clear a way - PWMP *takebas

deadfall trap to catch small mammals - PAN *qaCeb

dwarfish, small (of people) - PPh *bulilít

flow through a small opening, of rushing water - PPh *bugris

hold in the lap, as a small child - PPH *sapupu

hummock, small rise of land - PPH *taluktuk

k.o. small fish - PMP *teRi

kind of small bird and its cry - PWMP *pitpit₁

kind of small bird, probably finch or sparrow - PWMP *pipiqit

kind of small fish, probably sardine or anchovy - PMP *paya

kind of small land crab - POC *tubaRa

little, few, small in amount - PAN *dikit

little, few; small amount - PWMP *etik

little, small - PWMP *isut₁

little, small - POC *rikit

little, small in size or amount - POC *liki

little, small, trifling - PMP *iut₁

pilfering, filching, stealing small amounts - PPH *kúpit

rice bird, small bird found in rice fields - PPH *máya

shrub or small tree: Abroma augusta L. - PWMP *anabu

small - PPh *ma-intek

small - *(near)

small - *(noise)

small bag, pouch - PWMP *pu(n)tir

small basket; a unit of measure for dry goods - PPH *salúp

small bird and its call - PWMP *kuŋkuŋ₅

small bird that produces a deep resounding call - PAN *kukuŋ₁

small bird with shiny black plumage: drongo - PWMP *cawi

small child - PWMP *anak anak

small drum - PCMP *tibal

small edible freshwater crab - PAN *gaRaŋ

small edible freshwater crab - PMP *kaRaŋ

small heap, rounded mass - PWMP *tumpuk

small hill, knoll - PMP *buntud

small hill, knoll - PMP *buntul

small hill, knoll - PMP *buntu

small hill, knoll - POC *putur

small hill, knoll - POC *putul₁

small hill, knoll - POC *puntu

small hill, knoll - PMP *buntul buntul

small hill, knoll - PMP *buntu buntu

small hill, knoll - POC *putul putul

small in amount - PMP *ituk

small in amount - PWMP *kitiŋ

small in quantity, few; trifling amount - PMP *emit

small in size or amount - PWMP *kedik

small in size or amount - PWMP *kedit

small in size or amount - PAN *kedi

small intestine - PAN *C<in>aqi

small intestine - PMP *t<in>aqi

small island, islet - POC *a-nusa

small knife - PAN-F *RabiS

small lizard (gecko?) - PPH *tikiq

small marine fish - PPh *baranbán

small marine fish: sardine or anchovy - PWMP *bilis

small mushroom sp. - PWMP *qibaw₂

small parrot or parakeet kept as a pet - PPH *kulasísi

small path or trail - PAN *zalan-zalan

small pond(?) - PAN-F *waCa-waCaN

small protruding part - *-til (root)

small reef fish, perhaps damselfish - POC *tokuku

small river fish - PWMP *palaw

small shallow body of water - PWMP *baqeluŋ

small shrimp - PPh *hípun₂

small shrimp sp. - PPh *balaw₁

small snail or periwinkle - PMP *sisi₁

small sour plant with clover-like leaves - PWMP *qalesem qalesem

small species of Malay apple - POC *sakau

small stones, gravel - PMP *anak i batu

small tree, probably Morinda citrifolia Linn. - PPH *apatut

small trevally varieties - POC *pilu-pilu

small whale sp. - POC *rato

small, little; few - PAN *qitik₁

small, stunted - POC *kiki₂

small, trifling - PMP *kikit

small, wild herbaceous plants; scrub-land, bush - PMP *qutan

small; few - PMP *bitiq₁

small; few - POC *bitiq₂

to chase away or shoo off small animals - PMP *sika

to cut off small pieces; to chip off bit by bit - PWMP *ma-ñapsap

to ring, of a small bell - PPH *kuliliŋ₂

type of small worm - PAN *qulej

smaller

smaller thing of a pair (?) - PWMP *paŋ-anak

smaller types of reef squid - POC *nuso

smaller types of reef squid - POC *nusa₂

smallpox

get smallpox; get swine disease - PPh *butih-en

smallpox; swine disease - PPh *butí

smart

to smart, sting - POC *soŋot

smarting

smarting, stinging pain - PMP *hapejes

smarting, stinging pain - PMP *hapejis

smarting, stinging pain - PAN *Sapejiq

smarting, stinging pain - PMP *hapejiq

smash

break, crush, smash - POC *puaR

smear

smear, paint over - POC *bubuni

to paint; smear or rub on - POC *bani₁

to paint; smear or rub on - POC *wali

smeared

smeared, smudged, dirty with - PMP *lumes

smeared, smudged, dirty with - PMP *lumeŋ

smegma

semen, smegma - PMP *biRaq₂

semen, smegma - PMP *biRas₁

semen, smegma, grease - POC *biRaq₃

semen, smegma, grease - POC *biRas₂

smell

fishy smell - PMP *laŋ(e)si

fragrance, pleasant odor or smell - PMP *beŋi

having a putrid smell - PWMP *baŋ(e)haw

pungent odor, strong disagreeable smell - PWMP *saŋ(e)hid

rotten smell, stench - PAN *baŋ(e)qeR₁

rotten smell, stench (as of stagnant water) - PMP *baŋ(e)qeR₂

smell, odor - PWMP *haŋut

smell, odor - POC *boi₂

smell, odor - POC *bou

smell, odor, scent - POC *bona

smell, sniff, kiss - PMP *hajek

smell, sniff, kiss - PEMP *ajek

smell; to smell (transitive) - PAN *Sajek

spoiled; sour smell - PPh *panuqes

stench, sour smell - PPh *panuqus

to smell - PPh *haŋut-en

to smell - POC *bou roŋoR

to smell - PAN *Sajek-en

unpleasant smell - PMP *baŋ(e)qes

various plants, etc. with a bad smell - PWMP *qetut qetut

vile smell - PMP *maŋsit

smelled

be smelled by someone - PWMP *bahu-en

smelly

smelly, stinking - PWMP *ma-bahuq

smelly, stinking - PMP *ma-bahu

smelt

melt, smelt - *(noise)

Smilax

a thorny vine: Smilax spp. - PAN *baNaR

a thorny vine: Smilax spp. - PAN *baNaw

a thorny vine: Smilax spp. - PMP *banaR₁

a thorny vine: Smilax spp. - PMP *banaw

a thorny vine: Smilax spp. - PCEMP *banaR₂

Smilax sp. - *(loan)

smile

close the lips, smile - PPh *hium

laugh, smile - PCEMP *malip

smile, to smile - PWMP *isem₁

smiling

bare the teeth in smiling or laughing - PMP *riŋis₁

laughing, smiling - POC *mali-malip

smoke

emit smoke or steam - POC *kupuk

gather in masses, as smoke - PMP *upun₁

give off smoke continuously, pour out smoke - PMP *qasu qasu

incense, ritual smoke - PWMP *asep

rise (of smoke) - *(noise)

rising of smoke or steam - PWMP *kuskus₁

set fire to, smoke out - PMP *sunuR

smoke - PWMP *anuqus

smoke - PAN *qaseb

smoke - PWMP *qasep

smoke - PAN *qebel

smoke - PAN-F *CebuN

smoke - PCMP *masu

smoke - POC *kasu

smoke - PWMP *atuk

smoke - *(noise)

smoke out bees - PWMP *puhaR

smoke, fumes, steam; to smoke (as a fire) - PMP *qasu₃

smoke, soot - PMP *asuk

to burn or set a fire under to smoke out - PPH *sunúg-en

to smoke (?), to suck (?) - PWMP *qudud

to smoke fish or meat for preservation - PAN *Capa

to smoke fish or meat for preservation - PMP *tapa₁

to smoke fish or meat for preservation - PWMP *man-tapa

to smoke, fumigate - PMP *pa(ka)-qasu

smoked

be smoked by someone, of meat or fish - PPh *tapa-en

place where fish or meat are smoked - PWMP *tapa-an

smoked fish or meat - PAN *C<in>apa

smoked fish or meat - PMP *t<in>apa

smoking~pipe

smoking pipe - *(loan)

smoky

smoky - PMP *ma-qasu

smoldering

burning brand; charred or smoldering wood - PMP *aluten

smooth

shaved off, made smooth - PWMP *paras₁

smooth - *(loan)

smooth, fine (of texture) - PWMP *linis

smooth, slippery - PMP *dalit₂

smooth, slippery - PWMP *licin

smooth, slippery - PAN *ma-dalis

smooth, slippery - PMP *ma-dalit

soft, smooth - PPH *lumúy

to sandpaper, smooth by abrasion - PWMP *maŋ-qa(m)pelas

to scrape smooth, to plane a surface - PAN-F *RuSRuS

smoothed

be sandpapered, smoothed by abrasion - PWMP *qa(m)pelas-en

smother

smother, suffocate - PMP *hemut

smothering

smothering, suffocating - PAN *Semut

smoulder

to smoulder, of a fire - PWMP *ŋutŋut₃

smudged

smeared, smudged, dirty with - PMP *lumes

smeared, smudged, dirty with - PMP *lumeŋ

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sn

snag

snag, be snagged, caught in something that prevents it from falling - PPH *saq(e)ŋit

snagged

snag, be snagged, caught in something that prevents it from falling - PPH *saq(e)ŋit

snail

edible snail - PWMP *sisuq

edible snail - PMP *susuq

edible snail sp. - PWMP *kuhul

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

small snail or periwinkle - PMP *sisi₁

snail - PMP *bekul₂

snail - *-kul₂ (root)

snail - *(loan)

species of edible snail - PPh *balilit

snake

beak, bill; to peck, of birds, to bite, of a snake - PPH *tukaq

kind of snake, possibly cobra - PWMP *teduŋ₂

large snake sp. - PMP *anipa

poison, venom of a snake - PMP *upas

scale of fish, lizard or snake; shell of turtle or tortoise - PMP *siksik₂

scales of fish or snake - PCEMP *qunep

snake - PMP *nipay

snake - PAN *SulaR

snake - POC *qumata

snake - POC *mwata

snake - PMP *hulaR

snake venom; plant poison used on tips of arrows - PPH *ditaq₂

to slough, shed the skin, as a snake - POC *nunu₂

venom of a poisonous snake or insect - PPH *kamandag

venomous snake - PAN *depuŋ

snakebite

tasteless, insipid; powerless; antidote, as against snakebite - PWMP *tabaR

snap

break off, snap off - POC *pati₁

break, snap off at a joint - PWMP *sepak₁

snap at with the mouth - PWMP *pagut

snap off, snapping or clicking sound - PMP *li(n)tik

snap the fingers; flick with the finger, fillip - PAN *betik₁

snap the fingers; the sound produced by snapping the fingers - PWMP *ketik

snap, as the fingers or a slingshot - PAN *peCik

snap, break off (twigs, etc.) - PMP *lepik

snap, break, as a rope under tension - PMP *butus

snap, break, as a string - PWMP *getus

snap, crack - PMP *depuk

tear, rip open (as cloth or stitches), snap (as string) - PMP *be(R)tas

to flick or snap - PWMP *labetik

to snap, break off - PWMP *putus₂

to snap, break off - PWMP *putut₁

to snap, break off - PPH *lipuk

to snap, break off, as a twig - PMP *getes

to snap, break off, as a twig - POC *kotos

snapped

be cut or snapped - PWMP *pated-en

snapper

a fish, the snapper: Lutjanus spp. - PWMP *bambaŋen

a fish: snapper sp. - PPH *maŋaRat

snapping

snap off, snapping or clicking sound - PMP *li(n)tik

snap the fingers; the sound produced by snapping the fingers - PWMP *ketik

snare

noose, snare; net - PPH *siluq

scoop up with a net; catch with snare - PPH *ma-ñiluʔ

set a snare - PMP *taqen

set a snare - POC *taqon

snare birds with bird lime - PWMP *mamikat

snare birds with bird lime - PWMP *mamiket

snare trap - PMP *taRin

snare, noose trap; spring up suddenly, jerk up (as a fishing line or noose trap) - PMP *bitik₁

snare, noose trap; spring up suddenly, jerk up (as a fishing line or noose trap) - POC *pintik

snarl

entangle, snarl, tie up, wind around, wrap - POC *pisi₁

snatch

snatch at, pull with a jerk - PWMP *raŋgut

snatch with the mouth, as a dog seizing something in its mouth and running away with it - PPH *sak(e)mál

snatch, grab - PAN *dakuC

snatch, seize, rob - POC *paRo₂

snatch, seize, rob - POC *paqaRok

snatch, take away by force - PWMP *maŋ-qaRaw

snatch, take away by force, rob - PAN *qaRaw

to catch, snatch, as a ball in the air - POC *sikop

to seize, take by force, snatch from another’s hands; pillage - PPH *samsám

snatched

be snatched away, taken away by force - PPh *qaRaw-en

be snatched, be seized suddenly - PPH *sakmal-én

sneer

sneer, laugh in derision - POC *inap

sneeze

sneeze - POC *asio

sneeze - PAN-F *baqeSiŋ

sneeze - *(noise)

to sneeze - PWMP *baqeñan

to sneeze - PWMP *bañen

to sneeze - PMP *beñan

to sneeze - PPH *bahen

to sneeze - POC *tise

to sneeze; a sneeze - PWMP *buresin

snicker

snicker, giggle; high-pitched laughter - PWMP *hikhik

sniff

smell, sniff, kiss - PMP *hajek

smell, sniff, kiss - PEMP *ajek

sniff at close quarters, of animals - PPH *suŋsuŋ₃

sniff, sniffle (as with a runny nose) - PAN *Siŋus

sniff, sniffle (as with a runny nose) - PMP *hiŋus₂

sniffle, sniff up mucus - PWMP *siŋ(e)hut

snort, sniff; blow air through the nostrils - PWMP *eŋkus

to sniff, kiss - POC *acok

to sniff, kiss - PWMP *meŋ-hajek

sniffle

sniff, sniffle (as with a runny nose) - PAN *Siŋus

sniff, sniffle (as with a runny nose) - PMP *hiŋus₂

sniffle - PWMP *haŋus-en

sniffle, pant - PPh *eŋus

sniffle, sniff up mucus - PWMP *siŋ(e)hut

sniffle, snore - PPh *eŋes

sniffle, snuff up; snot - PWMP *hiŋus₁

snipe

kind of shore bird, possibly snipe - POC *pwipipi

long-legged shore-bird, the sandpiper or snipe - PPh *balalaŋ₂

snore

breath loudly, snore - POC *ŋoŋok

groan, moan, snore - *-Reŋ (root)

low guttural or rumbling sound; snore, roar - PWMP *eŋker

sniffle, snore - PPh *eŋes

snore, groan, etc. - PAN *SaRuŋ

snore, groan, etc. - PMP *haRuŋ

to snore, growl, grunt - PAN *ŋusŋus₁

snort

blow hard; snort, pant - PMP *qembus

snort, sniff; blow air through the nostrils - PWMP *eŋkus

snot

nasal mucus, snot - PMP *idus

nasal mucus, snot - PMP *piŋus

nasal mucus, snot - PMP *piŋ(e)qut

sniffle, snuff up; snot - PWMP *hiŋus₁

snout

nasal area; snout - PAN *ŋusuq

snout - *-ŋus (root)

snout, beak - PWMP *uŋus

snout, beak - PWMP *suŋit₁

snout, nose - *(noise)

upper lip, snout, muzzle - PPH *suŋu₂

snouted

short snouted unicornfish: Naso spp. - POC *taRa

snow

snow - PAN-F *SuReNa

snuff

last burning bit; to snuff out a spark - PMP *latu

sniffle, snuff up; snot - PWMP *hiŋus₁

snugly

fit snugly, as bowstring in arrow notch - PMP *siŋ(e)qit

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so

so

so, so that - *(noise)

soak

soak - PPh *bábad

soak, dye - PAN *edem₂

soak, steep in water - PWMP *celep

to soak - PWMP *huqem

to steep, soak - POC *sau₂

to suck, sip, soak up - PWMP *maŋ-qisep

soaked

soaked, saturated, full of liquid - POC *toRop

soaked, saturated, full of liquid; crowded or filled to overflowing - PMP *teReb

soaking

soaking wet - PMP *lemer

soaking wet - *(noise)

soaking wet (?); somewhat wet (?) - PWMP *ma-base-baseq

sucking, soaking up, absorbing - PMP *qisep

So-and-so

person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so - PWMP *i-anu, si-anu

person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so - PMP *sanu

soapberry

soapberry: Sapindus mukrossi, S. saponaria - PAN-F *daqu₂

soar

to fly, soar through the air - PWMP *layaŋ₁

to soar, glide, hover, as birds of prey - POC *tapa₃

sob

choke, sob - PWMP *sigek

choke, sob - PPH *sigúk

gurgle, sob - *(loan)

hiccough, sob - *-dek₁ (or *-deqek?) (root)

sob, inhale suddenly - PWMP *si(n)dek

sob, mumbled complaint - PWMP *he(m)bek

sound of a sob, cackle, etc. - *-kuk₂ (root)

sound of sob - PMP *gedek

sound of sob, croak, etc. - PMP *kuk

to sob, choke, have broken respiration - PMP *sekuk

sobbing

subdued laughter; sobbing - PMP *e(ŋ)kek

social

social inferior - *(loan)

society

one quarter; designation for a division of society, probably a lineage - PMP *suku

soft

a breeze, soft wind - PWMP *bui₁

become soft or weak (of things or people) - PMP *males

cut something slender or soft; reap crops - PAN *keRet

insert, stick into a soft surface - *-sek₂ (root)

pulpy, fleshy, as a fruit; soft flesh around the seeds of a fruit - PWMP *lunek₁

soft - PAN *lemek₁

soft - PWMP *lembut

soft mud - PWMP *luyek

soft through exposure to moisture; sticky - PWMP *luyak

soft watery mud - PWMP *lunaw₁

soft, smooth - PPH *lumúy

soft, tender - PWMP *ma-lemek

soft, tender, gentle - PMP *lumu₂

soft, tender, gentle - PMP *ma-lumu

soft, weak - PWMP *lemi

soft, weak - PWMP *lemuy

soft, weak, flexible - PWMP *lemeq

soft, weak, slack - PWMP *lemaq

to become soft or overripe, as fruits that are kept too long - PPH *lúnus

soften

particle used to soften questions or turn statements into rhetorical questions - PPH *taq₂

soft-shelled

soft-shelled river turtle - PWMP *labi-labi

soft-spoken

gradually sloping (of terrain); soft-spoken - PWMP *la(n)day

soil

dig in the soil - PAN *kurkur

dig up the soil - *(noise)

dig up the soil - *(noise)

earth, soil - POC *butaq₃

earth, soil, land - PMP *taneq

earth, soil, land; down; westward - POC *tanoq

earth, soil, mud - PMP *buRtaq

fertile, of soil - PMP *lemek₂

sandy soil (?) - POC *bia

scratch up the soil - PMP *kahkah

scratch up the soil, as a chicken looking for food - PAN *kaSkaS

soil, probably clay - PAN *daReq

soil, probably clay - PAN-F *daRiq

till the soil - *(noise)

to hoe, chop up soil - PWMP *bacuk

turn the soil over, as in removing stones prior to planting - PWMP *suŋkal

wet, of soil - PMP *lemeŋ₁

Solanum

a plant, Solanum spp. - PPH *sili-sili

a plant: Solanum nigrum - PAN *SameCi

a plant: Solanum nigrum - PMP *hameti

hairy eggplant: Solanum ferox Linn. - PPH *basula

Solanum nigrum

plant: black nightshade, Solanum nigrum - *(near)

sole

halibut, sole, flounder - POC *alali

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

palm of hand, sole of foot - PMP *palaj₁

palm of the hand, sole of the foot - PWMP *tapak₁

sole of the foot - PMP *dapan

sole of the foot; footprint - PAN *dapaN

solid

container for solid objects; package - POC *busa₃

firm, solid - *(loan)

fly off, of solid bits or water droplets - PAN *lecik

hard, solid - PMP *ma-teRas

hard, solid - POC *ma-toRas

press together, pack solid - PAN *pedped₁

solid residue left after squeezing to remove coconut oil, etc. - PPH *lunek₂

thick, of solid objects - PAN *kaS(e)pal

thick, of solid objects - PWMP *ma-kapal

solidarity

particle expressing solidarity, concession, qualification, or emphasis - PPH *man

some

companion in some activity - PPh *ka-sabáy

fire saw; tie a tool around the hand or some other fixture - PPH *kulili

go out for some fresh air - PMP *pa(ka)-haŋin-haŋin

hard seed, stone of some fruits - PPH *butúl

interrogative of quantity: how much?, how many?; adjective of indefinite quantity: some, several, a few - PAN *pijax

prefix marking possession of some object - PAN *mi-

puffy area around the throat of some birds - PWMP *tambuluk

pull at some part of the body - PAN *bitbit₁

refresh oneself, go out for some fresh air - POC *paka-aŋin-aŋin

some, several - PAN *pija pija

some, some more - PMP *balu₃

some, some more - POC *palu₆

stative prefix marking high degree of some quality; extremely; superlative marker - PPH *ka-₃

someone

(lit. 'fetch the liver') capture someone's fancy - PMP *qalap qatay

accuse someone, find fault with someone (?) - PWMP *ma-ñalaq

argue with, oppose someone - PWMP *bantaq

avoid someone out of fear - PWMP *ketiR

be bought from or for someone; what one has bought - PWMP *beli-an

be eaten by someone; cooked rice - PAN *kaen-en

be in debt to someone - PWMP *qutaŋ-en

be roasted by someone - PPh *tunuh-en

be seen by someone (?) - PAN *kita-en

be smelled by someone - PWMP *bahu-en

be smoked by someone, of meat or fish - PPh *tapa-en

be woven by someone - PWMP *laláh-en

beat up, bruise someone - PPh *bunal

blame someone for something - PPh *besqel

blame someone for something - PPH *básul

carry on a pole between two persons; help someone carry a load - PWMP *bulig

carry on a pole between two persons; help someone carry a load - PPh *bulig-an

contradict someone - *(noise)

do something to someone - PWMP *maŋ-apa-i

do something with someone else, perform an action together - PAN *mi-da-duSa

force someone to do something - PPH *pilit-en

give a love potion to someone - PPH *lumay-en

give someone something to drink - PMP *pa-inum

go with, accompany someone - PWMP *man-deŋan

help someone carry a load - PPh *maR-búlig

hurt someone; make someone sick - PMP *pa-sakit

impose one’s will, force or compel someone to do something - PWMP *teRel

knock someone or something with the elbow - PMP *pa-siku

let someone choose, let someone make a choice - PWMP *pa-piliq

lose someone through death - PMP *m-atay-an

lose someone through death (?) - PAN *ka-aCay-an

mercy killing; put someone out of their misery - PWMP *húnus₁

namesake, have the same name as someone else - PWMP *saŋay

oppose, go against someone - PMP *laban₂

oppose, go against someone - PMP *laban-an

pay a visit, drop by to see someone - PPH *dálaw

push something to start it moving; accompany someone to help them start a journey - PPH *tulúd

put someone down to sleep - PWMP *pa-tuduR

return something to someone - PMP *paka-uliq

send on a mission, command someone to do something - PWMP *utus₂

share the possession of something with someone else; co-wife (?) - PWMP *duha-i

shout, yell at someone - PWMP *siŋgit

sleep together, sleep with someone - PWMP *ka-tuduR

someone else's child - PMP *anak i tau

someone; other people; be different - PAN *duma

stand or be placed near to someone or something - PPH *saiŋ

surround, encircle, as in attacking someone - PPH *liput₁

take passage, catch a ride in someone else’s boat - PWMP *tumpaŋ₂

to awaken, wake someone up - PWMP *pa-baŋun

to awaken, wake someone up - POC *paŋun-ia

to be woven by someone - PAN *tenun-en

to block the way, ambush someone - PWMP *maŋ-abaŋ

to care for someone, wait on - PPH *alilaq

to cripple, disable someone - PPH *piláy-en

to cry for someone or something - POC *taŋis-ia

to cry over something or someone - PAN *Caŋis-an

to cry over something or someone - PMP *taŋis-an

to cry over something or someone (?) - PWMP *taŋis-en

to curse someone - PPH *i-sumpaq

to deliver, send something to someone - PPH *tugen

to delouse someone - PWMP *kutu-an

to direct someone to something, to give instructions - PWMP *tuzuq-an

to divert the attention of someone - PPH *bakaŋ₂

to follow after someone, walk behind - PAN-F *biliN

to force apart, at with a wedge; force something into someone’s mouth - PPH *tiŋal

to frighten someone - PWMP *takut-en

to give a name to someone or something - PWMP *ŋajan-an

to grind, be ground up by someone - PWMP *giliŋ-en

to hang someone - PPh *maŋ-bítay

to hold an umbrella or parasol over someone - PWMP *payuŋ-an

to insist; to force, compel someone to do something - PPH *pílit

to keep someone awake, not let them sleep - PPH *puyat-en

to kiss someone - PPH *umah-an

to lodge, stay in someone else’s house - PPH *dagus₂

to make someone cry; to let someone cry - PAN *pa-Caŋis

to make someone cry; to let someone cry - PMP *pa-taŋis

to make someone cry; to let someone cry - PMP *paka-taŋis

to make someone listen - PAN-F *pa-tumaNa

to meet or greet someone who is arriving, or who one encounters by surprise - PPH *sabat-en

to meet or greet someone, welcome someone who is arriving - PWMP *sabat

to pass around or near someone or something - PWMP *liwet

to pass someone by, overtake in walking, go past - PWMP *libas₂

to pinch someone - PWMP *kedut-en

to pinch someone or something - PWMP *ma-ŋezut

to powder, put powder on someone - PWMP *ma-murpur

to praise someone - PPH *dáyaw

to replace someone, fill a vacancy - PPH *pulih-an

to spy, inform on someone - PPH *tiktík₃

to wait, wait for someone - POC *tari

to wake someone up - PWMP *pukaw₃

to wake up, rouse someone from sleep - POC *paŋun

to wave the hand, as in beckoning someone or in fanning oneself - PPH *paypáy

touch or tap so as to draw someone's attention - PMP *kebit

touch someone lightly, as to get attention - PPH *kablit

transport someone across a river (?) - PWMP *dapit

turn the back to someone - POC *ta-likur

wake someone, rouse someone from sleep; erect something, put something in an upright position - PMP *baŋun₂

was awakened by someone - PWMP *b<in>aŋun

was bought by someone - PWMP *b<in>eli

was fed by someone - PAN *p<in>a-kaen

was massaged by someone - PAN *p<in>espes

was woven by someone; what was woven - PAN *t<in>enun

what is given to someone - PWMP *huluR-an

woven; was woven by someone - PPH *l<in>ága

somersault

somersault (cf. *tuaj) - PWMP *balin-tuaj

something

to sink something; to destroy - PWMP *ma-ŋaRem

a person who turns or grinds something; an instrument used for rolling or grinding - PWMP *paŋ-giliŋ

a string of something; to string - PCMP *utuR

ability, skill, knowledge how to do something - PWMP *ka-taqu₁

be afraid of something - POC *rere₁

be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true - PMP *kena₁

be or become wound around something - PAN *ma-litlit

be stuck to by something - PWMP *deket-en

bite off the surface of something - PAN *ŋabŋab

blame someone for something - PPh *besqel

blame someone for something - PPH *básul

block, obstruct; something which separates one area from another - PWMP *ataŋ₁

break off a component piece of something, as twigs or branches from a tree, a banana from a bunch, a section from a fruit, etc. - PPH *sipíq

bring down the flat of the hand on something - PWMP *tepap

broil; warm oneself or something near a fire - PAN *daŋdaŋ₁

catch a ride, join a group, ride on something - PMP *sakay₁

chew something tough, as sugarcane - PCEMP *ŋaŋas

chew the juice from something - PWMP *ma-ñepaq

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

choke, have something stuck in the throat - PWMP *bekeR₁

chop, split, adze something - *(noise)

clatter of a stick poking around in something - PWMP *degaq

concealed, secret; to deny, hide something - PPH *liméd

construction, erection of something - PWMP *paŋ-baŋun-an

continue doing something, proceed without stopping - PWMP *tarus

continue on with doing something, do immediately, without hesitation - PPH *dágus₁

cover with something (?) - POC *okop

cover with something flat - PWMP *takelap

crossbar, strut, something to hold things apart - PMP *sekaŋ

cry about something - PPH *luheq-an

cut chips or bits from something, scrape off - PPH *dapdáp

cut something slender - PAN *k<um>eRet

cut something slender or soft; reap crops - PAN *keRet

dare to do something - PWMP *amaŋ amaŋ

dig a hole, hollow something out - PPH *kabkáb

dig up something buried, disinter - PWMP *hukay

disappear behind something that envelops or blocks the view - PAN *lipuC

do something quickly, in a hurry - PPH *paspás₄

do something simultaneously - PWMP *maR-deŋan

do something to someone - PWMP *maŋ-apa-i

do something together with others - PAN *sabay₁

do something together with others - PWMP *sa(m)bay

do something twice (?) - PMP *maka-duha

do something twice (?) - PCEMP *maka-dua

do something with someone else, perform an action together - PAN *mi-da-duSa

do something wrong, make a mistake; miss the target - PWMP *s<um>alaq

do, bring about, change something - PWMP *ka-buhat

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

eat something before it is ready to eat - PWMP *maŋ-qataq

eat something raw - PAN *qataq

eat something raw - PAN *qetaq

eat something raw - PCEMP *qentaq

eat something raw - POC *qodaq

eat too much, be cloyed, overfull, tired of something through excess; bored - PWMP *sáwaq

encircle tigthly; band or ring around something - PWMP *selut

enclose; hold something inside the mouth - PMP *qeŋkem

end or death of something (?) - PWMP *ka-p-atay-an

external part of something - PWMP *dapuR dapuR

fill a hole with earth; cover something with a heap of earth - PMP *bunbun

finish something - POC *opus

fissure, split in something - PAN *siwaq

for force something open or out of its position - PPH *tu(ŋ)kab-án

force someone to do something - PPH *pilit-en

fragment, piece of something - PCEMP *ŋaŋar

give (him, her, it) something to drink (command) - PWMP *pa-inum-en

give someone something to drink - PMP *pa-inum

go or do something slowly, take one’s time - PPH *ananay₂

handful of something - PWMP *kaup

have a painful feeling in the teeth, as when eating something very sour or cold, or hearing a screeching or scratching sound - PWMP *ŋilu-an

heat or dry something near a fire - PWMP *gaŋgaŋ

hidden behind something else - PPH *limeŋ

high-pitched sound of striking against something hard but not resonant - PMP *katik

hit something against something else - PAN *CugCug₁

hold something in the mouth - POC *qoŋkom

hold something inside the mouth - PMP *eŋgem

hold something tightly in the fist - PWMP *maŋ-Ragem

hole in something - PMP *pesu₁

homesick; long for something that is missed - PPh *íliw

hook on to something; entangle - PMP *saqebit

hurting; sick with something, suffering from an illness - PWMP *sakit-en

impose one’s will, force or compel someone to do something - PWMP *teRel

include with something else - PPH *taq(e)kip

insert, wedge in; prepare something for use - PWMP *pasaŋ₂

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - POC *ralom

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings, liver (fig.) - PMP *dalem

internode of bamboo; section of something - PAN *lawas₃

jump up to reach something - PWMP *lunzag

keep something to oneself; silent, secret - PWMP *hidem

knock someone or something with the elbow - PMP *pa-siku

lend something (?) - PPh *ipa-hedám

let something grow, make something grow - PPh *pa-tubuq

let something grow, make something grow - PWMP *pa-tubuq-en

lever, instrument for prying something up - PWMP *quŋkil

lightning that strikes something - PMP *gelap₁

look over a wide area, search for something with the eyes while standing in place - PPH *nanaw

lose interest in doing something (?) - PPH *tantán

lower something, pay out rope - PWMP *maŋ-huluR

make a mistake, commit an error, be wrong about something - PWMP *maR-salaq

make a rope or string, make something into rope or string - PWMP *ma-nalih

make something deep, deepen - PWMP *pa-dalem

make something go or move - PWMP *pa-zalan

make something grow - POC *paka-tupuq

make something wither, let something wither or wilt - PWMP *pa-layu

mark something (?) - PWMP *bekas-an

miss, crave, long for something - PWMP *kidam

move the lips rapidly, as in gnawing or nibbling on something - PPH *kútib

navel, umbilicus; mid-point or center of something - PMP *pusej

nibble at, gnaw at something hard - POC *bari

order, request, command; message; something left for another - PWMP *bilin

painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour - PMP *ñilu

painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour - PAN *ŋilu

painful, as of teeth on edge from eating something very sour - PAN *ma-ŋilu

part of something split - PAN *belaq

pass by, overlook something when searching; to pass by (of time) - PPH *labas

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something - PAN *zalan

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something; wake of a boat; the Milky Way - PMP *zalan

pawned, pledged in place of something else - PWMP *sanda

pay for the use of something - PWMP *maŋ-upaq

person or place from which something is borrowed - PWMP *hinzam-an

pith of plants or trees; core or middle of something - PMP *qunej

place into which something is poured - PPh *buqbuq-an

place something near a fire - PAN *daŋdaŋ-an

place where something grows or is added - PWMP *tubuq-an

place where something is fetched - PWMP *paŋ-alap-an

plug up, stop something up, as with a cork - PWMP *suŋsuŋ₂

point at, aim for; intend to do something; do something intentionally - PPH *tuyuq

poke, prod with the tip of something - PWMP *suŋkul

press down hard on something - PPH *mudmúd

pull at body part; hold something dangling from the fingers - PMP *bitbit₂

pull or jerk at something - PWMP *santak

pull, jerk at something - PWMP *sintak

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled in shallow water - PWMP *maR-tulak

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water - PMP *tulak

push something to start it moving; accompany someone to help them start a journey - PPH *tulúd

put something (as food) in the mouth - PPH *s<um>úbuq

put something into a container - PWMP *dalem-en

put something into or through an opening - PPH *súbuq

put something on top of something else - PPH *i-taq(e)paw

put something on top of something else - PPH *taq(e)paw-an

raise, place something upright - PWMP *baŋun-an

raw, eat something raw - PAN *qamataq

regret, remorse for something done - PWMP *selsel₂

return home; return something; restore, repair; repeat; motion to and fro - PMP *uliq₁

return something to someone - PMP *paka-uliq

return something; restore - PWMP *maŋ-uliq

roll or wrap something up - PWMP *balut₂

rub something off - PPH *gidgíd

salt something, put salt on - PWMP *qasiRa-i

scrape something off a surface so as to uncover it - PPH *kuykúy₂

scrape, scratch something from a surface - PAN *k<ar>uSkuS

scrape, scratch something from a surface - PWMP *k<ar>uhkuh

send on a mission, command someone to do something - PWMP *utus₂

shake something in the water - POC *luluk

shake something in the water; shake something with water in it - PMP *luglug

shake something to determine its unseen contents - PWMP *kutug

shake something vigorously (as a sack to remove the contents) - PPh *wagwág₂

shake something, rinse clothes by shaking in clear water - PPh *waswás₁

shake, shake something - PPh *wigwíg

share the possession of something with someone else; co-wife (?) - PWMP *duha-i

shelter, space under something - PPH *siluŋ

silhouette, shadow; glimpse of something - PMP *ilap₂

skewer something so as to pick it up without touching it - PPH *tuRsúk

slam something down - PMP *la(m)bak

snag, be snagged, caught in something that prevents it from falling - PPH *saq(e)ŋit

snatch with the mouth, as a dog seizing something in its mouth and running away with it - PPH *sak(e)mál

something given to another for safekeeping (?) - PMP *pa-taRuq

something that resembles a tail feather (?) - PWMP *lawi-lawi

something; anything; everything - PMP *apa apa

sound of tapping or flicking (of finger, small implement, etc.) against something - PAN *tik₁

speak, say something, tell - PPH *suysuy

spit something out, vomit something - POC *lua-ki

sprinkle water on something - PMP *bisbis

sprinkle water on something - PPh *bisíbis

sprinkle water on something - POC *pipis₁

stand or be placed near to someone or something - PPH *saiŋ

stare, look fixedly at something - PWMP *teŋteŋ₂

stopped in its course, as something which sticks in the throat - PWMP *buqul

strap; something wrapped around - PWMP *ambet

stretch, pull something that stretches (as a rope) - PWMP *iñat

surface on which something is spread - PWMP *bekelaj-an

swelling; lump or bump under the skin; wad of something - PMP *buŋkul₁

tail; end of something long, as a rope; tip of a leaf - POC *siku

take a long step, step over something - PWMP *akaŋ

take something home - PPh *i-uliq

tap or flick (finger, small implement, etc.) against something - PAN *t<um>iktik

tasteless; neutralize something efficacious, as an antidote for poison - PWMP *tawaR₁

tear apart something that one has made; undo - PPh *waswás₂

that --- indicating something close to the hearer - PPH *sa₄

that with which one binds something - PPh *i-bejbej

the place where something is stolen (nonpast local passive) - PWMP *paŋ-takaw-an

throw something at a target; shoot with bow and arrow - PAN *panaq

to arrest the progress of something by stopping or catching it; to support, keep from falling - PWMP *saŋgaq

to beat on something loudly - PAN *titik

to bridge or span, build a bridge across something - PPH *tulay-an

to call on a person to do something - PAN *suRuq₂

to carry, transport, move something - PAN-F *sakut

to carry, transport, move something - PAN-F *s<um>akut

to catch, receive something thrown or sent one’s way - PWMP *sambut₂

to chew or gnaw on something - PPH *ŋutŋut-en

to cloy, satiate, do something to excess and so lose interest - PPH *s<um>áwaʔ

to complete something - PWMP *genep-i

to complete, perfect something - PMP *bales₂

to continue, persist in something - PPH *layun

to cry for someone or something - POC *taŋis-ia

to cry over something or someone - PAN *Caŋis-an

to cry over something or someone - PMP *taŋis-an

to cry over something or someone (?) - PWMP *taŋis-en

to deliver, send something to someone - PPH *tugen

to direct someone to something, to give instructions - PWMP *tuzuq-an

to dissolve something in water; swish around in water - PPH *nawnáw

to dry something in the sun - PPH *kagkag

to dry something in the sun - PWMP *kaRkaR

to end, finish, complete something - PWMP *putput₃

to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something - PAN *taktak₁

to follow instructions, follow an example; carry along, give in, allow something to happen - PWMP *tuRut

to force apart, at with a wedge; force something into someone’s mouth - PPH *tiŋal

to form moss on something - PWMP *ŋa-lumut

to give a name to someone or something - PWMP *ŋajan-an

to gnaw, sound of gnawing on something - PMP *keRut

to grate, scour, rub hard on something - PPH *ŋusŋus₂

to grip with the teeth, as a dog in carrying something - PWMP *saŋal

to hang on a hook, suspend from something - PPH *i-saqebít

to hang, as something on a nail - PPH *sad(e)qaŋ

to hang, drape over something - PPH *sab(e)láy

to have had something done with it - PWMP *in-anu

to hit, pound, rap on something - PWMP *latuk

to hook something - PWMP *kawit-an

to hook something - PWMP *kawit-en

to hook, catch onto something - PWMP *s<um>abit

to insert something - PPH *i-síŋit

to insert, plug something in - PPH *i-saksák

to insist; to force, compel someone to do something - PPH *pílit

to knock on something, play a musical instrument - PPH *tugtug-én

to let something pass by - PPH *pa-labas-en

to lift, raise, uncover, bare something - PCMP *silu₁

to lift, stand up, arise, emerge, begin, depart, carry; cargo; take something; take a wife - PMP *buhat₃

to lower, let something down, as with a rope - PPH *tuntún

to make something wind around something else - PAN *pa-litlit

to mix something with something else - PPH *lahuk-án

to pass around or near someone or something - PWMP *liwet

to patch, cover with something - PPH *takúp

to perfect, complete something - POC *palos

to pick up with something to avoid getting dirty or burned - PAN *saput₂

to pinch someone or something - PWMP *ma-ŋezut

to plaster over something - PWMP *pulpul₂

to put on or over something - PPH *tuqun₁

to put something in a high place or reach a high place by climbing - PPH *saŋ(e)qát

to rest the head against something; pillow - PPH *puŋan

to roll down or over something - PPH *pulin

to run out of supplies, lack something needed - PWMP *kapus

to salt, put salt on something - PWMP *maŋ-qasin

to see or look at something far away - PPH *taq(e)náw

to see or look at something far away - PPH *tanɁaw-én

to shake something, as an egg or coconut - PPH *kalug

to slap something hard - PWMP *pagpag

to sow, scatter; scattered about; splash water on something - PMP *sabuR

to speed up, increase the pace of something - PPH *paspas-an₂

to stare, look fixedly at something - PCMP *tanaRa

to step on, walk on something (?) - PPH *lakáj-an

to step, tread on something - POC *paRas

to stick to something, adhere - PWMP *d<um>eket

to stop something in mid-course, of bodies in motion - PPH *saŋga₂

to taste, savor something - PPH *mag-námit

to wear something down (?) - PPH *pa-pudpud-en

to weigh something - PWMP *timbaŋ-en

to whiten, make something white - PWMP *putiq-an

to whiten, make something white - PWMP *putiq-en

top surface of something - PPH *taq(e)paw

try the taste of something - PWMP *taway

twice, do something twice - PAN *paka-duSa

twice, do something twice - PMP *paka-duha

twice, do something twice - POC *paka-rua

uncomfortable feeling; feel bored, or uneasy about something - PPH *saw(e)qa

value, cost, price of something - PWMP *beli-en

verbal prefix marking potential action or ability to do something - PWMP *maka-

visual assessment of something, as in taking aim, making a straight line, or forming an opinion - PWMP *sipat

wake someone, rouse someone from sleep; erect something, put something in an upright position - PMP *baŋun₂

warm oneself or something near a fire; heat or dry near a fire - PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

what is used for getting something - PWMP *paŋ-alaq

widen a hole in something - PPH *watwát

wobble, come loose, of something attached - PWMP *uteŋaq

wrap around; band around something - PWMP *hambej

wrap or wind around something - PPH *lambej

somewhat

soaking wet (?); somewhat wet (?) - PWMP *ma-base-baseq

somewhat blind; feign blindness - PWMP *buta buta₁

somewhat warm (?); very warm (?) - PCEMP *panas-panas

whitish, somewhat white - PWMP *ma-putiq-putiq

son

child, offspring; son, daughter; brother's child (man speaking), sister's child (woman speaking); young animal or plant; young; small (for its kind); dependent or component part of something larger; native, resident, inhabitant; interest on a loan - PMP *anak

child, offspring; son, daughter; interest on a loan - PAN *aNak

Sonchus

a plant: Lactuca indica Linn., and Sonchus oleraceus Linn. - PAN-F *Samaq

song

choral singing; to blend voices in song - POC *jaRu

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

sing, song - *(noise)

sing; song - PCEMP *bubu₉

sing; song - PCEMP *wari

sing; song - POC *kanam

sing; song - POC *bubu₈

song - *(noise)

to sing; song, tune, melody - PAN-F *quyaS

son-in-law

affinal relative, probably son-in-law and daughter-in-law - PPH *ma-nuRaŋ

Sonneratia

a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp. - PWMP *paRatpat

a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp. - PWMP *paRepat

sonorous

loud, sonorous, booming - PWMP *tebaR

soot

charcoal, carbon, soot - PWMP *budiŋ

smoke, soot - PMP *asuk

soot - POC *kapuru

soot - *(noise)

soothing

soothing sound of humming activity, twittering, etc. - PWMP *kicaw

sooty-colored

sooty-colored - PPh *ma-qujiŋ

sore

affected by sores, wounded - PWMP *nuka-en

fluid oozing from a wound, infected sore, or corpse - PWMP *sagu₂

have a running sore - PWMP *biRiŋ-en

running sore - PWMP *biRiŋ₂

sore on skin - POC *pwasa

sore, dermal irritation, wound - POC *lake

sore, scab - *(noise)

sores on the scalp; 'cradle cap' - PWMP *buduk

sorghum

millet or sorghum sp. (unident.) - PMP *batad

sorrow

exclamation of joy or sorrow - PCEMP *qaué

sorry

to feel sorry for (?) - PWMP *ma-sáyaŋ

sort

a tree from which a sort of shampoo is derived: Albizia spp. - PWMP *laŋiR

soul

breath, breath soul - PCEMP *ñawa

breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break - PMP *nihawa

living, alive; grow, flourish; fresh; heal, cure, revive, recover; vital principle, soul, spirit; flame - PMP *ma-qudip

shadow; reflection; soul - POC *qanunu

soul - PPH *Rimukud

soul of a living being; soul of the rice plant - PMP *sumaŋed

soul of the rice plant - PMP *sumaŋet nu pajay

soul, spirit of a living person - PPH *ka-du-duhá

sound

animal sound - PMP *gekgek

animal sound - PMP *kaŋ

animal sound - PWMP *qiem₁

animal sound - POC *kokok

bang! loud popping sound - PMP *paŋ

beat the wings, flap the wings; sound of flapping - PMP *kapak

beat, pound; sound of rhythmic pounding - PMP *tugtug₂

booming sound - PMP *betuŋ₂

booming sound - PMP *tuŋ

booming sound - *(noise)

buzzing or humming sound - PAN *buuŋ

chirp, tweet, crow, produce sound (of birds) - PMP *huni

chirping of birds; noise, sound - PAN *Suni

clanging sound - *-Raŋ (root)

clanging sound - *-taŋ (or *-taqaŋ?) (root)

clanging sound; to clang, as in beating metals - PPH *taŋtáŋ

clap, make a clapping sound - PWMP *ti(m)bak

clattering sound - PWMP *letek

clear ringing sound - *-kiŋ (root)

clear ringing sound - *-liŋ₁ (root)

clear ringing sound - *-tiŋ (root)

clicking or light knocking sound - *-tek₁ (root)

clicking sound - PWMP *patek

clicking sound - PWMP *sale(n)tek

cough; to cough; sound of coughing - PMP *ukuk

crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking - PMP *cep(e)qak

crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking - PMP *sapak

crashing sound - *(noise)

creaking sound; to creak - PWMP *kiet

decay, crumble; sound of breaking; powder - *-pek (or *-peqek?) (root)

deep booming sound - PAN *deruŋ

deep booming sound - PWMP *daRehuŋ

deep guttural sound - PMP *heqeguk

deep resonant sound; name of a bird with deep resonant cry - PAN *ku(ŋ)kuŋ

deep resounding sound - PPh *buŋbuŋ₂

deep resounding sound - PMP *buŋ

deep resounding sound - PAN *guŋguŋ

deep resounding sound - PAN-F *kaluŋkuŋ

deep resounding sound - *-Cuŋ (root)

deep resounding sound - *-guŋ (or *-guquŋ?) (root)

deep resounding sound - *-kuŋ₂ (root)

deep resounding sound; slit-gong, hollowed tree trunk used to send messages - PAN *kuŋkuŋ₁

deep reverberating sound - PMP *keRaŋ₁

deep rumbling sound; thunder - POC *guRuŋ

deep throaty sound - PPh *iŋguk

deep throaty sound - PMP *de(ŋ)guk

deep throaty sound - PWMP *haguk

deep throaty sound - PMP *re(ŋ)guk

deep throaty sound - *-guk (root)

deep throaty sound - *-ŋuk (root)

dull resounding sound - PMP *geŋ

dull resounding sound - *-beŋ₃ (root)

dull resounding sound - *(noise)

dull rustling sound - PPH *kaRuskus

dull sound - PMP *cepuk

dull sound - PWMP *ges

dull sound - PMP *peŋ

dull throaty sound - PMP *tekek

dull throaty sound - *-gek (root)

dull, muffled sound - PMP *ibuk

dull, muffled sound - *-bek₁ (root)

flick with the finger; sound of flicking - PWMP *letik

flutter, flap, sound of rapid wingbeats - PMP *berber₁

guttural sound - PMP *eŋkut

harsh loud sound - PWMP *erak

harsh resonant sound - PWMP *raŋ

harsh throaty sound - PWMP *sukak

have a painful feeling in the teeth, as when eating something very sour or cold, or hearing a screeching or scratching sound - PWMP *ŋilu-an

hiccup, produce a sound in the throat - PPH *sineqek

high-pitched sound - PMP *eliŋ

high-pitched sound - PWMP *tekik

high-pitched sound of complaint - PWMP *eŋik

high-pitched sound of striking against something hard but not resonant - PMP *katik

high-pitched sound; chirp of a gecko - PAN *tekiq

high-pitched throaty sound - PMP *egik

high-pitched vocal sound - *-kiq (root)

hiss, whizzing sound - PMP *pus

hissing sound - *-sir (root)

hit, making a loud sound - PWMP *latak₁

hit, sound of hitting, clapping, thumping - PAN *tepuk

hollow, resounding sound - PAN *keŋkeŋ₁

hollow, resounding sound - PMP *keŋ₁

hollow, resounding sound - *-keŋ₃ (root)

humming sound - PMP *beŋuŋ

inarticulate sound - PMP *ŋaŋ

inarticulate sound - PMP *ŋa(ŋ)ŋaŋ

inarticulate sound - PCEMP *ŋaŋaŋ

kind of bird and the sound of its call - PAN *kuaw

knock two things together with a clicking sound - PPH *sintík

light rustling sound - PWMP *risris

loud resounding sound - PAN *baŋbaŋ₆

loud sound; volume, loudness - PPH *tanúR

low guttural or rumbling sound; snore, roar - PWMP *eŋker

low-pitched sound - PWMP *buŋug

low-pitched sound - *-ŋur (root)

make a booming sound - PAN *CuŋCuŋ

make a croaking sound - PMP *ekuk

make a dull sound in the ears - PMP *epeŋ

make a gurgling sound - PMP *e(ŋ)guk

make a gurgling sound in the throat, or hiccup - PWMP *seguk

make a harsh throaty sound - PMP *pikak

make a popping sound - PMP *epuk

make a sound or noise - PWMP *pa-huni

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *misi

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *misi-misi

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *miti

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *miti-miti

make a thudding or popping sound - PWMP *lagetub₁

make an exploding sound - PPh *pa-betu

moaning sound - PMP *uu

muddy; sound of walking in mud - *-cak₁ (root)

muffled sound of a gasp, etc. - PMP *se(m)bek

natural sound - PAN *qiuŋ₁

noise, sound - PMP *buñi

onom. for dull sound - PWMP *desuR

onomatopoetic for dull sound - PWMP *bek

onomatopoetic for sound of fluttering, flying - PMP *ber

piercing sound - PPH *tileŋ

popping or knocking sound - PWMP *lagetuk

puffing sound - PWMP *put₁

puling sound of a bird - PAN *kiaw

purring sound - PMP *gur

raucous sound - PMP *ŋak

raucous sound - PMP *ŋakŋak

raucous sound - PCEMP *ŋaŋak

raucous throaty sound - *-gak₂ (root)

resonant sound - PAN *tuRtuR

resounding sound - PAN *keRuŋ

resounding sound - PWMP *sa(ŋ)kuŋ₁

resounding sound - PAN *kaŋkaŋ₂

reverberate, of a sound - PMP *kauŋ

reverberating sound - *-leŋ (root)

ringing sound - PAN *giRiŋ

ringing sound - PAN *kiŋkiŋ₁

ringing sound - PMP *kiŋ

ringing sound - PWMP *tiliŋ

ringing sound - PMP *tiŋ

roaring sound - POC *roRoŋ

rumbling or low murmuring sound - PWMP *geRuŋ

rumbling sound - PWMP *erut

rustling or swishing sound - PWMP *sik

rustling sound - PWMP *rusrus₁

rustling sound - PPH *kaRaskas

rustling sound - *-ris₁ (root)

rustling sound - *-rus₁ (root)

rustling sound, as of leaves in wind - PWMP *kerus₂

shoot, sound of shooting - PAN *paleCuk

short, high-pitched sound - PWMP *qepik

shrill sound - PPh *iŋqiiŋ

shrill sound - PMP *keriqik

shrill sound - PCEMP *serik

shrill sound of an insect, probably cricket or cicada - PWMP *pispis₂

shrill throaty sound - *-gik (or *-giqik?) (root)

shrill throaty sound - *-kik (root)

shrill throaty sound - *-ŋik (root)

slap, sound of collision - PWMP *lagepak

slap, sound of collision - PWMP *ragepak

slap, sound of slapping or clapping - PWMP *tipak

snap off, snapping or clicking sound - PMP *li(n)tik

snap the fingers; the sound produced by snapping the fingers - PWMP *ketik

soothing sound of humming activity, twittering, etc. - PWMP *kicaw

sound of a cackle, loud laugh, etc. - PAN *kak

sound of a clang or bang - PMP *taŋ

sound of a clap or smack - PMP *pak

sound of a dull thud - PMP *buk

sound of a dull thud - POC *puk₁

sound of a grunt, etc. - PMP *ger

sound of a heavy smack - *-bag (root)

sound of a heavy smack - *-bak₂ (root)

sound of a knock - PMP *tuk

sound of a monkey chattering - *(near)

sound of a sob, cackle, etc. - *-kuk₂ (root)

sound of a thud - PWMP *gek

sound of boiling water - PAN *gurgur₁

sound of breaking - *(loan)

sound of breaking or cracking - PMP *rupuk

sound of breaking or crunching - PCEMP *sepuk

sound of breaking or pounding - PWMP *lutuk₂

sound of breaking, etc. - PAN *bekbek₂

sound of buzzing or droning - PMP *qiuŋ₂

sound of chattering or loud talk - PWMP *kicaq

sound of cooing or barking - PMP *kuŋ

sound of cracking, splitting, knocking - *-tak₂ (or *-taqak?) (root)

sound of dull clucking - PWMP *ketek

sound of escaping air - *-pus₂ (root)

sound of escaping air, etc. - PMP *pes

sound of footfalls - PPH *tepak₂

sound of frightened cheeping - PWMP *kicak

sound of grating - PWMP *kad(e)rit

sound of grating, rain pounding, etc. - PPH *kaRitkit

sound of grinding or grating - PPH *kaRadkad

sound of groaning, moaning, roaring, etc. - PMP *deReŋ

sound of gurgling water - PWMP *lagak

sound of heavy clapping or pounding, smacking sound - PAN *bakbak₂

sound of knocking - PWMP *hagetuk

sound of knocking or bubbling - PPH *p<aR>ukpuk

sound of light knocking - PWMP *etek

sound of light smacking - PMP *gepik

sound of patting or tapping - PAN *pikpik

sound of pounding or knocking - POC *pupuk₁

sound of rain on roof - PPH *taRiktik

sound of rapid talking - PPH *kata

sound of retching - PMP *uak₂

sound of rhythmic pattering - PWMP *tepak-tepak

sound of ringing - PMP *liŋ₁

sound of ripping, etc. - *-riC₁ (root)

sound of ripping, gnawing, etc. - PAN *geriC

sound of rushing water or air - PPh *híŋak

sound of scraping or scratching - PMP *gerit

sound of scratching - PMP *kaRiqit

sound of slapping, bubbling, etc. - PWMP *bikbik

sound of smacking or slapping - PWMP *ipak₁

sound of sob - PMP *gedek

sound of sob, croak, etc. - PMP *kuk

sound of splashing water - PWMP *barasbas

sound of splashing, etc. - PWMP *ricik

sound of sputtering, sizzling, etc. - PMP *sit

sound of swishing water - PWMP *deguʔ

sound of swishing, as of hand passing through water - PPH *kisaw

sound of tapping or flicking (of finger, small implement, etc.) - PMP *tik₁

sound of tapping or flicking (of finger, small implement, etc.) against something - PAN *tik₁

sound of ticking - PWMP *hagetik

sound of ticking, flipping, light tapping - PWMP *pa(n)tik

sound of ticking, rain drops falling - PPH *tagiktik

sound of tinkling or chiming - *(near)

sound of whirring or whizzing - PMP *besbes

sound produced by an animal; unintelligible muttering of a person - PAN *ŋawŋaw

sound used to call puppies - PWMP *kuyuk

sound used to shoo away domestic animals - PWMP *cik

sound, of sleep - PWMP *leñab

sound, of sleep - *-nek (root)

sound, voice - PCMP *liRi

sound, voice - PPH *tiŋeR

sound, voice - PWMP *teneR

throaty sound - *(noise)

thudding sound - PWMP *ebek

thunder; roaring or thunderous sound - PAN *deŋdeŋ₂

ticking sound - *-tik₂ (root)

tinkling sound - PMP *tiŋtiŋ

to chirp, to crow, to sound off (birds) - PAN *S<um>uni

to chirp, to crow, to sound off (birds) - PMP *h<um>uni

to clap, flap the wings; sound of clapping or flapping - PAN *pakpak₁

to cluck, or cackle; make a clucking or cackling sound - PWMP *ketak

to crunch; sound of crunching - POC *keke₁

to gnaw, sound of gnawing on something - PMP *keRut

to hear; sound - PAN *deŋeR

to rap, knock, make a booming sound - PAN *tekuŋ₂

to ring, make a ringing sound - POC *titiŋ

to scratch; sound of scratching - PMP *gurit

to sound off, cry out - PPH *tekuk

to tick, make a ticking or light knocking sound - PMP *kitik₂

well-made, structurally sound - *(loan)

whining sound - PPh *qeŋqeŋ

whizzing sound - PAN *bes

soup

juice; broth, soup; gravy - POC *suRuq₁

juice; sap; gravy; soup - PMP *zuRuq

sip, as soup - POC *iRup

sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl - PAN *SiRup

sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl - PMP *hiRup

soup, broth - PWMP *sa(m)baw

thin, of liquids such as soup; to dilute - PPH *labnaw

sour

have a painful feeling in the teeth, as when eating something very sour or cold, or hearing a screeching or scratching sound - PWMP *ŋilu-an

intense sensation in teeth when eating sour fruit; for teeth to be on edge - PMP *nilu

kind of sour edible fruit, possibly fruit of rattan - PWMP *libas₁

painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour - PMP *ñilu

painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour - PAN *ŋilu

painful, as of teeth on edge from eating something very sour - PAN *ma-ŋilu

small sour plant with clover-like leaves - PWMP *qalesem qalesem

sour - PWMP *isem₂

sour - PWMP *esem

sour - PWMP *lasem

sour - PMP *qe(n)sem

sour - PWMP *ma-esem

sour - PWMP *ma-qalesem

sour - PMP *ma-qe(n)sem

sour fruit - *(loan)

sour, acid - PWMP *ma-qaRsem

sour, rancid - POC *masi

spoiled; sour smell - PPh *panuqes

stench, sour smell - PPh *panuqus

source

base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother - PMP *puqun

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

source, origin - PMP *punaŋ

source, origin - PMP *puna₂

source, origin - *(loan)

spring of water, source of a river - PMP *mata nu wahiR

spring of water, source of a river - POC *mata ni waiR

spring, source of fresh water - PAN *bual₁

souring

stench of spoiled or souring organic matter - PAN *qaŋeRu

sourness

sourness, acidity - PWMP *qalesem

sourness, acidity - PAN *qaRsem

soursop: Annona squamosa

soursop: Annona squamosa - *(loan)

south

south or east wind - PAN *timuR

south wind (?) - PAN *SabaRat

south, south wind - PWMP *salatan

south, south wind - PWMP *silatan

southeast

southeast monsoon - PMP *timuR

southeast trade winds - POC *marau

southeast wind (?) - *(near)

strong southeast trade wind - POC *karak₁

Southern

a constellation: The Southern Cross - POC *bubu₁

southwest

southwest monsoon - PMP *habaRat

sow

sow rice - PWMP *maŋ-binehiq

sow, scatter, broadcast seed - PWMP *sa(m)beR

sow, strew, scatter - PMP *ebuR

sow, strew, scatter - PWMP *sabuD

sprinkle seed, sow seed in dibble holes - PWMP *bubud

sprinkle seed, sow seed in dibble holes - PMP *budbud

strew, sow; sprinkle - *-buR₂ (root)

to sow seeds - PAN-F *R<um>ahap

to sow, scatter; scattered about; splash water on something - PMP *sabuR

to strew, sow seeds - PWMP *ma-nabuR

to strew, sow, sprinkle - PMP *saq(e)buR

sowbug

sowbug, woodlouse: terrestrial isopod of the genus Oniscus - PWMP *babuy babuy

sowing

seeds for sowing - PAN-F *Rahap

soy sauce

soy sauce - *(loan)

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sp

space

a cleft, space between two rocks - PEMP *mawa

atmosphere, space between earth and sky - PMP *awaŋ

atmosphere, space between earth and sky - PWMP *hawan

atmosphere, space between earth and sky - PWMP *hawan hawan

crotch, space between thighs - PWMP *lakaŋ

division, partition, intervening space - PMP *belat₁

gap, open space - POC *jiwaŋ

gap, open space, breach - PPH *giwaŋ

gap, open space; groove - PMP *siwaŋ

gap, space, void - *(noise)

generic marker of location in space or time - PAN *i₂

interval of space or time - PWMP *selaŋ₁

interval, intervening space - PAN *qeleC

interval, space between - PMP *qelet

intervening space - PMP *qelaŋ

intervening space - PWMP *sela

inttervening space - PWMP *uhaŋ

open space - PWMP *banawaŋ

open space - PWMP *liwaŋ

open space, empty of obstruction - PWMP *tawaŋ

open space, expanse of land or water - PWMP *bawaŋ

outside, wide open spaces; loose - PMP *luqaR

shelter, space under something - PPH *siluŋ

space between earth and sky - *(noise)

space between two things - PWMP *qelet-an

space outside the village - POC *natar

space within a concave object - *(noise)

tightly packed, in space or time - PWMP *ma-seksek

to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely - PMP *dapet

to place in contact with one another, come in contact, space closely - PPH *dápat

wide open space - PPh *waŋáwaŋ

wide open space - PPH *luaŋ₂

wide open spaces - PWMP *sawaŋ₂

wide-open space - *-waŋ (root)

with intevening spaces - PWMP *qelet qelet

spaced

closely spaced, set close together - PAN *ma-pizpiz

spacious

broad, spacious - PWMP *baŋbaŋ₁

open, spacious - PWMP *antad

open, spacious - PMP *beŋaŋ₃

outside; outside area; spacious, roomy - PMP *luas₁

wide, spacious - PWMP *ruqag

wide, spacious - PWMP *lawaŋ₁

spade

spade - *(loan)

spoon, ladle, spade, shovel - PMP *suduk

span

crotch, fork of the legs; span, fork of the fingers - PEMP *saŋa₁

crotch, fork of the legs; span, fork of the fingers - POC *saŋa₁

to bridge or span, build a bridge across something - PPH *tulay-an

to span with outstretched arms, measure in fathoms - PWMP *d<um>epa

Spanish

Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorini spp. - PMP *taŋiRi

Spanish mackerel, kingfish: Scomberomorus spp. - PWMP *taŋgiRi

spare

captive, one taken alive in war; to spare, allow to live - PWMP *bihaR

save, spare the life of - PMP *paka-qudip

sparingly

thrifty; to use sparingly - PWMP *inut

use sparingly - PWMP *imit

use sparingly, a little at a time - PWMP *qínut

spark

head louse; sparks from a fire; water striker (insect that walks on water) - PMP *kutu₁

last burning bit; to snuff out a spark - PMP *latu

spark, bright light - PMP *sigá

sparks from a fire - PMP *buŋa ni hapuy

sparks of fire - PWMP *anak i hapuy

sparks, burning ashes in the wind - PWMP *lalatu₂

strike two hard objects together to produce a spark - PPH *piŋkíq

sparkle

flash, sparkle - PMP *kilab

flash, sparkle - PMP *kilap

flash, sparkle - *-lap (root)

flash, sparkle, shine - PMP *dilep

flash, sparkle, twinkle - PPH *kimat

glitter, flash, sparkle - PWMP *kidelap

shine, sparkle - *-naŋ (root)

shine, sparkle, twinkle - PMP *kelap₂

shine, sparkle, twinkle - PMP *kerap

sparkle, dazzle - PMP *silap

sparkle, flash - PWMP *kizap

sparkle, flash; lustre - PWMP *kizab

sparkle, glitter - PPH *kis(e)láp

sparkle, shine - PMP *dilap₁

to flash, sparkle - PWMP *g<um>ilap

sparkling

brilliant, sparkling - PPH *lináb

sparrow

kind of small bird, probably finch or sparrow - PWMP *pipiqit

sparrow or similar bird - PAN *tutut

sparse

loose sparse roomy - *(noise)

Sparus

a fish, the sea-bream: Sparus hasta - PWMP *bakukuŋ

spasmodically

twist spasmodically, wriggle - PMP *kiseg

twist spasmodically, wriggle - POC *kisog

spathacea

a tree: Dolichandrone spathacea - PMP *tui₁

spathe

flower spathe of areca palm - PMP *hupiq

spatial

3p deixis and spatial reference: that, there (distant?) - PMP *-di

spatio-temporal

2pl deixis and spatio-temporal reference: that; there, then - PAN *-Cu

distal spatio-temporal deixis: that, there; then - PAN *-na

proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here; now - PAN *-ni

spatter

fly out, splash, spatter - *-cik (root)

spatter, fly out in all directions - PMP *becik

splash spatter - *(near)

splash, spatter - PWMP *peRcik

splash, spatter - PPH *tal(e)sík

splash, spatter - PWMP *lagecik

splash, spatter - PWMP *ragecik

splash, spatter, splatter - PMP *bicik

splash, spatter, splatter - POC *bisik

spawn

tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn - PMP *hipun₁

tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn - PEMP *ipun₁

speak

blocked, plugged, dammed; mute, unable to speak - PWMP *beŋbeŋ

mouth, opening; speak, say - PMP *baqbaq

mute, unable to speak - PCEMP *beŋel

mute, unable to speak - POC *boŋol

say, tell; speak - POC *kaRu₂

speak - *(loan)

speak sharply or in anger - POC *boŋa

speak, converse - *(loan)

speak, say something, tell - PPH *suysuy

to speak clearly and deliberately - PMP *tutur₁

to speak of, mention - PWMP *sa(m)bit

to speak, talk, say - PWMP *kuan₂

speaker

away from speaker - PMP *atu

come, toward the speaker - PWMP *ari

come; toward the speaker - POC *mai

come; toward the speaker; let’s go! - PAN *aRi

spear

a spear; to spear - POC *sua₁

barbless spear - PWMP *baŋkaw

catch or get caught in a trap; hit mark with spear, etc. - PMP *ena

goat hair decoration on a spear or staff - PMP *bandaŋan

hit with a spear - POC *ona₁

hunting spear - PAN *gayaŋ

obsidian spear point (?) - POC *koto

shoot at, throw a spear at - POC *lusa

spear - POC *iu₂

spear - POC *io

spear, harpoon - PWMP *balabeg

spear, harpoon - POC *jaot

spear, lance - PMP *tumbak

spear, to spear - PMP *saet

spear; sharpened pitfall stake - POC *ona₂

species of palm used for making spears and bows; palm-wood spear or bow - POC *bual bual

spring back suddenly; spring-set spear trap; the constellation Orion - PWMP *bala(n)tik

spring-set spear trap - PWMP *pale(n)tik

spring-set spear trap - PWMP *pilantik

to spear, stab with a spear - POC *soka

trident harpoon or fish spear - PWMP *sarapaŋ

special

crave special foods (of pregnant women) - PWMP *qidam

special talent - POC *bilak₂

to crave special foods - PWMP *maŋ-qidam

species

a species of rattan - PWMP *seka

bivalve species used as a scraper - POC *kaRi₂

large ruminant species - PAN *qiNuaŋ

large ruminant species: carabao, water buffalo (?) - PAN *qaNuaŋ

large ruminant species: carabao, water buffalo (?) - PMP *qanuaŋ

small species of Malay apple - POC *sakau

species of climber used for decorative purposes - POC *bua bua

species of edible snail - PPh *balilit

species of palm used for making spears and bows; palm-wood spear or bow - POC *bual bual

speciosa

a plant: Guettarda speciosa - POC *pwano-pwano

a tree: Lagerstroemia speciosa - PPh *banabá

speckled

flower, blossom; to flower, bear flowers; yield a benefit (as interest on a loan); first-born child; cotton; vulva (refined or evasive), skin rash, prickly heat; speckled (of fish); kidneys - PMP *buŋa

speckled - PWMP *burik

speckled, stained - PMP *recik

spotted, dappled, speckled - PPh *butik

spotted, speckled - PWMP *curik

spotted, speckled, as the skin of an animal - PAN *paCak

variegated in color; spotted or speckled - PWMP *belaŋ belaŋ

specklike

specklike object - PWMP *pa(n)dek

speech

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

word, speech - PMP *liŋ₂

word, speech, language - PAN *kaRi₁

words, speech (?) - PPH *sahuq

speechless

speechless, dumb, mute - PMP *umel

speed

speed - *(loan)

to speed up, increase the pace of something - PPH *paspas-an₂

speedy

swift, fast, speedy - PPH *kaskas₂

spell

nervous spell - PWMP *badi

spelling

spelling - *(loan)

spend

place where one spends the night - PWMP *paR-beRŋi-an

stay overnight, spend the night - PWMP *pa-beRŋi

spew

spit out (food, substances alien to the body), to spew - PMP *luaq

spherical

round, spherical; rounded - PWMP *buled₂

spice

pepper; to sting, of a wound or spices in food - PMP *lajaq

spice - *(loan)

spices, condiments - PWMP *palapaq

spiciness

hotness of taste, spiciness; bitterness - PAN *paqiC

spicy

spicy condiment side dish with rice - *(loan)

spicy tasting - *(noise)

to cook fish in a rich, spicy sauce - PWMP *paŋat

spider

kind of house spider - POC *koko

spider - PWMP *kawa

spider - PAN-F *kakaCu

spider - PWMP *lawa₂

spider - PWMP *kakawa₁

spider - PMP *ka-lawaq

spider - PWMP *kala-lawaʔ

spider; spiderweb - PAN *lawaq₂

spider; spiderweb - PMP *lawaq₂

spider; spiderweb - PMP *lawaq-lawaq

the spider conch: Lambis lambis - PMP *Raŋa

the spider conch: Lambis lambis - PMP *Raŋak

the spider conch: Lambis lambis - PMP *RaŋaR

spiderweb

spider; spiderweb - PAN *lawaq₂

spider; spiderweb - PMP *lawaq₂

spider; spiderweb - PMP *lawaq-lawaq

spiderweb - PWMP *la-lawaq

spikes

body hair; fur; feather; down; antenna of insect or crustacean; spikes of sea urchin; floss on plant skins, color; type, kind - PCEMP *bulu₁

pitfall or trail spikes made of sharpened bamboo - PMP *suja

pitfall or trail spikes made of sharpened bamboo - POC *suca

spill

leak, spill through, stream out from a hole in a container - PMP *busbus

punctured, perforated so that the contents spill out - PWMP *busbus-en

spill out - *(noise)

to spill out, pour out - PWMP *tumpaq

spilt

spilt - POC *ta-liŋi

spin

spin around - *-siŋ (root)

spin cotton thread - *(loan)

spin without wobbling, of a top - PWMP *ugəŋ

to whirl, spin around - PPH *weswés

spindle

weaving spindle - PAN *qaNi

spine

fish with poisonous dorsal spines - PMP *lepu

fish with poisonous dorsal spines - PMP *lepuq₂

fish with poisonous dorsal spines - POC *lopu

marine fish sp. with venomous dorsal spines, Rabbitfish: Siganus punctatus - PWMP *kiteŋ

pig bristles; type of sea urchin with thin black spines - PMP *bulu ni babuy

sea urchin with long black spines - PPH *tayeŋ

sea urchin with short spines - POC *saRawaki

spine on fish or plant - PWMP *siqit

spur or spine on an animal - PMP *betek₃

thorn, spine, as on a fish - PPH *tenek₂

spinning

spinning top - PWMP *gasiŋ

spinning top - PWMP *gasiŋ-an

spinosa

bamboo, Bambusa spp., probably Bambusa spinosa - PAN *kawayan

spinosus

an edible plant: Amaranthus spinosus - PWMP *bayaŋ₁

spiny

spiny sea urchin - POC *salaŋ

spiral

spiral or circle round - PWMP *baliŋ baliŋ

spirit

body; spirit; spirit being - POC *tupuqa

call (v.), summon (spirits) - *(loan)

communicate with spirits (?) - PWMP *maR-qanitu

evil spirit, vampire, witch - *(loan)

ghost, ancestral spirit; nature spirit; corpse; owl; various plants - PMP *qanitu

ghost, spirit of the dead; owl - PAN *qaNiCu

invisible nature spirit - PWMP *buni₂

living, alive; grow, flourish; fresh; heal, cure, revive, recover; vital principle, soul, spirit; flame - PMP *ma-qudip

make offering to spirits (?) - PMP *maŋ-qanitu

nature spirit - PMP *imbuk

prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *kali-) - PAN *qali-

prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *qali-) - PAN *kali-

sacrifice to the spirits - PPh *átaŋ₄

shooting star, meteor; spirit of the shooting star - PPh *bulalákaw₂

soul, spirit of a living person - PPH *ka-du-duhá

spirit dangerous to children - PWMP *m-atay anak

spirit that causes sickness - PPh *abat₂

to call, summon; chant to call the spirits - PWMP *tawaR₂

spirited

spirited, energetic - PMP *la(ŋ)kas

spiritual

to have spiritual power - POC *mana-mana

spit

saliva; to spit - PMP *dulaq

saliva; to spit - PWMP *luzaq

saliva; to spit - PWMP *zulaq

saliva; to spit - PMP *ludaq

sandbank, sand spit, shoal - PWMP *buhaŋin

skewer, spit for roasting - PMP *tuduk

spit - *(noise)

spit out (food, substances alien to the body), to spew - PMP *luaq

spit something out, vomit something - POC *lua-ki

spit, spit out - PAN *lupaS

spittle; to spit - POC *kamisu

spittle; to spit (intr.) - PEMP *kanus

spittle; to spit (intr.) - POC *qanus₂

to spit - POC *kusu₂

to spit - PAN *l<um>udaq

to spit (trans.) - PEMP *kanus-i

to spit (trans.) - POC *qanus-i

to spit at (as an insult?) - PEMP *kanisu

to spit at (as an insult?) - POC *qanusi

to spit out chewed betel quid - PPH *sapaq-en

to spit, expectorate - PMP *supaq

to spit; spittle - POC *aŋusu

spite

provided that, in spite of - *(noise)

spittle

saliva, spittle - PWMP *qizuR

spittle - PAN *tiR(e)peS

spittle, saliva - PMP *iluR₁

spittle, saliva - PMP *suba

spittle; to spit - POC *kamisu

spittle; to spit (intr.) - PEMP *kanus

spittle; to spit (intr.) - POC *qanus₂

to spit; spittle - POC *aŋusu

to spray spittle, etc. from the mouth for magical purposes - POC *puRuk

splash

fly out, splash, spatter - *-cik (root)

pop!, plop!, splash! - PMP *puk₂

pound, thud, heavy splash - *-buk₂ (root)

splash in the water - PPH *tambúg

splash spatter - *(near)

splash, spatter - PWMP *peRcik

splash, spatter - PPH *tal(e)sík

splash, spatter - PWMP *lagecik

splash, spatter - PWMP *ragecik

splash, spatter, splatter - PMP *bicik

splash, spatter, splatter - POC *bisik

splash, spray, sprinkle - PMP *picik

to sow, scatter; scattered about; splash water on something - PMP *sabuR

splashing

sound of splashing water - PWMP *barasbas

sound of splashing, etc. - PWMP *ricik

splatter

splash, spatter, splatter - PMP *bicik

splash, spatter, splatter - POC *bisik

spleen

an internal organ, probably spleen or pancreas - PAN *paliq₁

milt, spleen - *(loan)

splint

brace, splint - PMP *kaq(e)pi

splinter

get a splinter in the skin - PPH *ma-salugsug-án

get a splinter or sliver under the skin or nail - PPH *salugsúg

sliver, splinter - PMP *unay

sliver, splinter, foreign body embedded in the flesh - PAN *uNay

thorn, splinter, fish bone - POC *suRi₁

thorn, splinter, fish bone - PMP *duRi

thorn; splinter; fish bone - POC *ruRi

split

bamboo which has been split and flattened - PAN *saqsaq

be split, in two - PAN *ma-belaq

break or split off - PMP *ibak

break, crack, split - PWMP *epak

break, crack, split - *-pak₂ (root)

break, split - PMP *bitak₁

break, split - POC *pintak

break, split off - PWMP *lu(m)pak

burst open, split open - POC *poŋkaR

burst, split open - PMP *betaq₂

chop, split, adze something - *(noise)

cleave, split - PWMP *gatak

cleave, split - PWMP *getak

crack, split - PMP *kelaq

crack, split - PCEMP *sepak₂

crack, split open - PWMP *reŋat

crack, split open (as dry ground) - PAN *betak₁

crack, split open (as the stomach of a fish) - PMP *belak

crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking - PMP *cep(e)qak

crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking - PMP *sapak

crack, split, fissure - PAN *Celaq

fissure, split in something - PAN *siwaq

part of something split - PAN *belaq

part split off - PWMP *bilaq

split - PMP *bikaq₂

split - PMP *biqak

split - PWMP *ipak₂

split - PMP *kakaq

split - PWMP *pekaq

split - PMP *pi(n)tak

split - PMP *riqas

split - PAN *silaq

split - PWMP *sila₂

split - PMP *wakaq

split - PMP *pitak₃

split - *-ka (root)

split - *-kaq₂ (root)

split - *-laq (root)

split - *(noise)

split apart; piece split off - PWMP *buŋkaq

split down the center - *(noise)

split in two - POC *polaq

split lengthwise - PMP *baqas

split lengthwise - POC *paqas

split off, separate - *-bak₃ (root)

split open - PPh *busiqsiq

split open - PWMP *sibak

split open, burst under pressure - PMP *besiq

split or cleaved - PWMP *siqelak

split or slice off - PWMP *siqat

split tear - *(noise)

split, break off - PMP *baqak₁

split, break off - PWMP *hepak

split, break off - PMP *tempak

split, cleave - PWMP *lu(ŋ)ka

split, cleave - PWMP *pisik₁

split, cleave - PMP *betak₂

split, cleave, divide - POC *potak

split, crack - PWMP *letak₁

split, crack - PWMP *ripak

split, crack - PMP *tela

split, crack - PWMP *Ripak

split, crack (intr.) - PWMP *Retak

split, crack open - PMP *bekaq

split, crack open - PMP *beka

split, crack, fissure - PMP *telaq₁

split, divide - PWMP *balaq

split, divide, break off - PAN *Cebiq

split, divide, break off - POC *topiq

split, divide, break off; section of a betel nut - PMP *tebiq

split, forked, as a branch or path - PMP *ma-saŋa

split, peel off - PWMP *hupak

split, rip open - PPh *busiq

split, spread apart - PWMP *lasaŋ₂

split, tear open - PAN *beriq

split, tear open - PWMP *berit₂

split, torn; opening or water passage between two capes of land - PMP *beŋat₁

spread apart, split - PMP *bakaq

tear, split, cut - PMP *Risi

tear, split, cut - PMP *Risiq

to have been split, cloven in two - PAN *b<in>elaq

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; split open, break up, dismantle, demolish - PMP *be(ŋ)kaR

to split - PMP *biseqak

to split - POC *kakas(-i)

to split - PWMP *pisaq

to split - PMP *biqaŋ₃

to split - PCEMP *bisak

to split - POC *pisak₁

to split apart (of wood) - PPh *busqák

to split open - PMP *le(ŋ)kaq

to split open - PMP *siraq₁

to split wood - POC *pwalaq

to split, cleave in two - PWMP *maŋ-belaq

to split, separate sections - PWMP *piqak

to tear; split - POC *saRe

split-off

fragment, split-off piece - PMP *ŋarŋar

splitting

crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking - PMP *cep(e)qak

crack, split, break; sound of cracking, splitting, breaking - PMP *sapak

sound of cracking, splitting, knocking - *-tak₂ (or *-taqak?) (root)

spoil

beginning to spoil, tainted (of food left uneaten too long) - PMP *baRiw

beginning to spoil, tainted (of food left uneaten too long) - PCEMP *baRi

spoiled

spoiled coconut - PPh *bulalákaw₁

spoiled, gone to waste; never realized, of potential for fertility - PPH *baqug

spoiled; sour smell - PPh *panuqes

stench of spoiled or souring organic matter - PAN *qaŋeRu

spoiling

stench of spoiling fish - PAN *qaŋeRiS

stench of spoiling fish - PMP *qaŋeRih

spoilt

rotten, spoilt - PWMP *bucek

Spondias

a fruit tree: Spondias dulcis - PCEMP *quRi

sponge

coral sponge - PMP *buŋa na batu

sponge - PCEMP *budeq

sponge - POC *puro₁

sponge - *(noise)

spontaneous

prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action - PMP *ta-₂

prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action - PAN *taR-

spontaneum

kind of reed or cane, including Saccharum spontaneum - POC *pijo

spool

ball of thread; spool - PAN *puduN

reel, spool (in weaving) - PWMP *ulak

reel, spool (in weaving) - PWMP *ulak-an

spool, shuttle; thread holder (in weaving or making nets) - PWMP *sikuqan

wind thread, etc. into a ball; spool - PMP *pudun

spoon

ladle, spoon - *-duk (root)

spoon, ladle - PMP *si(n)duk

spoon, ladle - PAN *qidus

spoon, ladle - PMP *qidu

spoon, ladle - PWMP *sanduk

spoon, ladle - PAN *sidu

spoon, ladle - PWMP *tidus

spoon, ladle - PWMP *suduq

spoon, ladle - PWMP *senduk

spoon, ladle - PMP *tidu

spoon, ladle, dipper - PAN *Cidu

spoon, ladle, scoop - PMP *sudu

spoon, ladle, spade, shovel - PMP *suduk

to spoon or ladle up - PPh *maŋ-qidus

spot

mark with a line or spot - PMP *turik

place, spot - *(loan)

spot freckle - *-rik (root)

spot, dot - PWMP *pe(n)tik

spotted

kind of striped or spotted marine fish, grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PMP *keRteŋ

mottled, spotted - *-Cik (root)

spotted - PWMP *palaŋ₂

spotted - POC *kotik

spotted, dappled - PMP *belaŋ₂

spotted, dappled - PWMP *pantek

spotted, dappled - PPH *kabaŋ

spotted, dappled, speckled - PPh *butik

spotted, speckled - PWMP *curik

spotted, speckled, as the skin of an animal - PAN *paCak

spotted, streaked - PWMP *baleŋ

spotted, striped - PMP *getik

spotted, striped - *(loan)

spotted, striped, multi-colored - PWMP *balaŋ₃

variegated in color; spotted or speckled - PWMP *belaŋ belaŋ

spouse

cluster (c) == don mourning apparel; mourn for a deceased spouse - PMP *baliw₃

co-parent-in-law, the relationship between parents of spouses - PPh *balaqih

lift, carry, bring; emerge, appear, begin; take a spouse - POC *puat₂

marry; have a spouse - PWMP *maR-qasawa

relationship between spouses of siblings - PPH *bilas

spouse - POC *wati₂

spouse: husband, wife - PAN *qasawa

sprained

sprained, twisted, as the ankle - PWMP *ta-piluk

spray

splash, spray, sprinkle - PMP *picik

spray - *(loan)

spray water from the mouth - PAN *buReS

spray water from the mouth - POC *puRas

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - PMP *buRah

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - POC *puRa

to spray spittle, etc. from the mouth for magical purposes - POC *puRuk

sprayed

be sprayed from the mouth - PMP *buRah-an

spraying

sprinkling or spraying - PPH *wisik

spread

be spread apart, as the legs - PWMP *tikaŋ

be spread out; what is spread out - PWMP *bekelaj-en

casting net; spread out, as a casting net - PWMP *Rambaŋ

split, spread apart - PWMP *lasaŋ₂

spread all over - PAN *qeNeb₂

spread all over - PMP *qeneb₂

spread apart, as the legs - PWMP *bi(ŋ)kaŋ

spread apart, as the legs - *-kaŋ₁ (root)

spread apart, as the legs or an unbent fishhook - PWMP *bukaŋkaŋ

spread apart, as the legs or an unbent fishhook - POC *pokaŋ

spread apart, as the legs, or an unbent fishhook - PMP *be(ŋ)kaŋ

spread apart, as the legs, or an unbent fishhook - PWMP *bikaŋkaŋ

spread apart, split - PMP *bakaq

spread open, as the legs - PWMP *u(ŋ)kaŋ

spread out - *(loan)

spread out - *(noise)

spread out in the sun to dry - PMP *bilaj

spread out on ground - PPH *latag

spread out, as a net or clothes on the ground to dry - PPH *ladlad

spread out, unfurl - PMP *barbar

spread out, unfurl - PPh *biklaj

spread out, unroll (mats, etc.), open out, unfold (as the hand); wide - PMP *bekelaj

spread out, unroll (mats, etc.); wide - PEMP *bolaj

spread the legs - PWMP *eŋkaŋ

spread the legs - PWMP *la(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ

spread the legs - PWMP *Ra(ŋ)k(e)qaŋ

spread the legs - PWMP *ti(ŋ)kaŋ

spread the legs apart - PMP *waŋkaŋ

spread the legs wide - PWMP *kaŋkaŋ₁

spread wide apart, as the legs or any two things joined at a point - PMP *pikaŋ

spread wide open - PPH *tákaŋ

spread, like wildfire or a disease - *(near)

surface on which something is spread - PWMP *bekelaj-an

to spread - POC *polac

to spread out - PWMP *maŋ-bekelaj

unfold, spread out - PWMP *bitaD

unroll a mat, spread out a mat - PAN *SapaR

unroll a mat, spread out a mat - PMP *hampaR

unroll, spread out a mat - PAN *S<um>apaR

was spread out - PWMP *b<in>ekelaj

spreading

contagious, spreading by contact - PWMP *za(ŋ)kit

spring

bubble up, as spring water - PMP *bukal₁

bubble up, as spring water - POC *bukal₂

bubbling up, as spring water - PWMP *bukal bukal

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

fresh-water spring - PWMP *buak-an

gush or bubble up, of spring water - PMP *bual₂

natural spring, fresh water spring - PAN *Cebuj

natural spring, fresh water spring - PMP *tebuR

natural spring, fresh water spring - PMP *tubuR

natural spring, fresh water spring - POC *topuc

natural spring, fresh water spring - POC *topuR

natural spring, fresh water spring - POC *tupuR

snare, noose trap; spring up suddenly, jerk up (as a fishing line or noose trap) - PMP *bitik₁

snare, noose trap; spring up suddenly, jerk up (as a fishing line or noose trap) - POC *pintik

spring back suddenly; spring-set spear trap; the constellation Orion - PWMP *bala(n)tik

spring of water - PMP *tebej

spring of water, source of a river - PMP *mata nu wahiR

spring of water, source of a river - POC *mata ni waiR

spring of water, spring water - PAN *Cebej

spring up; flicking motion - *-tik₁ (root)

spring, fountain - PWMP *umbul

spring, source of fresh water - PAN *bual₁

to grow, spring up - POC *tubuq, tupuq

to spring a trap - PAN *bekas₁

to spring back, bounce off - PWMP *latiŋ

trigger on spring trap - PMP *bauR

trigger on spring trap - PPH *baweR

undo, untie, spring a trap - PMP *biŋkas

well, cistern; spring - PMP *bubun₁

well, cistern; spring - PMP *bubuŋ₂

spring-gun

spring-spear, spring-gun - PWMP *paletik

springing

resilient, springing back when pressed down - PWMP *endut

spring roll

spring roll - *(loan)

spring-set

spring back suddenly; spring-set spear trap; the constellation Orion - PWMP *bala(n)tik

spring-set spear trap - PWMP *pale(n)tik

spring-set spear trap - PWMP *pilantik

spring-spear

spring-spear, spring-gun - PWMP *paletik

sprinkle

pour, sprinkle - PWMP *bujbuj

splash, spray, sprinkle - PMP *picik

sprinkle - PAN *basbas₂

sprinkle seed, sow seed in dibble holes - PWMP *bubud

sprinkle seed, sow seed in dibble holes - PMP *budbud

sprinkle water on - PWMP *biqbiq₂

sprinkle water on something - PMP *bisbis

sprinkle water on something - PPh *bisíbis

sprinkle water on something - POC *pipis₁

sprinkle, scatter (seed, etc.) - PMP *kambuR₁

strew, scatter, sprinkle - PWMP *qabud

strew, scatter, sprinkle - PWMP *qambuR

strew, sow; sprinkle - *-buR₂ (root)

to sprinkle - PMP *simbuR

to sprinkle - POC *sibuR

to sprinkle, shake off water - PWMP *pispis₃

to strew, scatter, sprinkle - POC *sapuR

to strew, sow, sprinkle - PMP *saq(e)buR

sprinkling

plant seed by sprinkling in dibble holes - PWMP *maŋ-bubud

purify by sprinkling with holy water - PWMP *basbas₄

sprinkling or spraying - PPH *wisik

sprout

grow, germinate, sprout - PMP *tubuq, tumbuq

plant shoot, sprout - PWMP *taruk

plant shoot, sprout, cutting - PMP *suli₁

plant sprout - PAN *Cubuq

sprout, plant shoot - PWMP *tunas

sprout, plant, shoot - *(noise)

to have or sprout leaves - PWMP *maŋ-dahun

to leaf out, sprout leaves - PWMP *maR-dahun

to sprout, begin to grow - PAN *tukul

to sprout, to grow - PAN *C<um>ubuq

to sprout, to grow - PMP *t<um>ubuq

young tree, sprout - PMP *anak i kahiw

sprouted

coconut growth stage 12: sprouted - POC *tabwa

pithy ball inside sprouted coconut, coconut endosperm - POC *piri

sprouting

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

sprouting tip of a plant - PWMP *pucuk

spume

foam, spume, froth - PPH *lútab

spur

incite, spur to action - PMP *asuŋ

spur or spine on an animal - PMP *betek₃

thorn, spur, barb - PMP *beRtek

thorn, spur, barb, stinger of stingray - POC *potok

tie an artificial spur to the leg of a fighting cock - PWMP *maŋ-bulaŋ

spurt

spurt or gush out - PMP *puRcit

spurt out - PMP *pucut₁

sputtering

sound of sputtering, sizzling, etc. - PMP *sit

spy

cunning; spy on, examine - PPH *sikap₁

spy on - *(loan)

spy, scout, one who looks for possible danger ahead - PMP *mata-mata

to peep, spy on - PPH *siq(e)rip

to peep, spy on - PPH *siq(e)rip-en

to peep, spy on, to stalk - PWMP *subuk₁

to spy, inform on someone - PPH *tiktík₃

wait for, spy on - PWMP *hintay

TOP      sc    se    sh    si    sk    sl    sm    sn    so    sp    sq    st    su    sw    sy    

sq

squamosa

sugar apple: Anona squamosa - *(loan)

square

village square; dancing ground - POC *malala

squash

kind of edible squash or gourd: Lagenaria leucantha - PPH *tabayaR

press down, squash - PMP *qeñek

squat

come to shore, settle down in a place; sit, squat - POC *toka₂

short in height, squat and compact in build, of a person - PMP *pandak

sit, squat - *(near)

sit, squat; come to rest; stay in a place; settle down, as birds on a tree - POC *toka₃

to squat - POC *tike

to squat, sit on one’s heels - POC *tiko

squawk

cluck, squawk - PMP *qiuk

squawk - PMP *kek

squawk - PWMP *petak

to squawk, as a frightened chicken - PMP *kiak

squeak

a peep, squeak, giggle - PMP *kik

chirp, squeak - PMP *pikik

creak, squeak - PWMP *kuRiat

creak, squeak - PWMP *kuRiut

squeak, giggle - PWMP *qi(ŋ)kik

squeak, shriek - PMP *ekit

squeak, shriek, shrill cry - PWMP *qikqik

to peep, squeak - PWMP *kihik

to squeak, as a mouse; to giggle - PMP *kikik

squeaky

have a squeaky voice - PWMP *re(ŋ)kik

squeal

squeal, as in excitement - POC *koŋe

squeal, screech, shriek, etc. - PMP *ŋik

squeal, screech, shriek, etc. - PMP *ŋikŋik

to squeal - PPh *íwik

squeeze

flatten; press down in order to squeeze in - PWMP *petpet₁

grasp, grip, squeeze - PMP *mesmes

grip, compress, squeeze - PMP *kemes

knead, squeeze - POC *mo(nn)o

narrow; squeeze tightly - PWMP *sempit

pincer of crustaceans; press together, pinch, squeeze - PMP *qipit

pincer of crustaceans; tongs; press together, pinch, squeeze - PAN *qipit

pinch or squeeze between two surfaces - PPh *higpít

pinch, squeeze - POC *bibit

pinch, squeeze - POC *apit

pinch, squeeze between - PMP *gepit

pinch, squeeze, enclose - PWMP *maŋ-hapit

pinch, squeeze, press - PWMP *zapit

pinch, squeeze, press between two surfaces; pluck, pick off - PAN *pitpit₂

pinch, squeeze, press together - PMP *qatip₂

pinch, squeeze; knead - PAN *pisel

press, squeeze together - PWMP *upit

press, squeeze together; narrow - *-pit (root)

squeeze between thumb and finger - PWMP *pizet

squeeze between thumb and finger - PWMP *pi(n)zit

squeeze between; pinch, take between fingers - PMP *Ri(m)pit

squeeze into a ball - PPh *qemel

squeeze or squirt out - PWMP *lucut

squeeze out - PMP *picit

squeeze out - POC *popos

squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing - PAN *peRes

squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing - POC *poRos

squeeze out juice, wring out water - PAN *peReq

squeeze out juice, wring out water - PPH *piRaq₁

squeeze out juice; squirt out - PAN-F *peSiq

squeeze out, slip out - PWMP *lecut

squeeze out, squirt out - PMP *lecit

squeeze out, squirt out - PWMP *lesit

squeeze out; massage - PMP *pespes

squeeze to extract juice - POC *pite

squeeze with the hand - PWMP *pecel

squeeze, hold tight, clutch - POC *gomol

squeeze, knead - PAN *Rames

squeeze, massage - PAN *pespes

squeeze, press between - PAN *qepit

squeeze, press down - PWMP *tepes

squeeze, press together - PPH *pekel

squeeze, squirt out - PMP *becit

squeeze, squirt out - PMP *pe(R)cit

squeeze, squirt out - POC *posit₁

squeeze, squirt out - POC *posit₂

squirt, squeeze or slip out - *-cut (root)

to pinch or squeeze, as with tongs - PWMP *s<um>ipit

to pinch, squeeze between - PWMP *ma-ñipit

to squeeze or press with the hand - PPH *pisel-en

to squeeze out juice, wring out water - PWMP *ma-meReq

to squeeze out juice, wring out water - PWMP *ma-meRes

to wring, squeeze out by twisting or wringing - PMP *lesles₂

tongs, pincers, claw of a crab or lobster; to pinch or squeeze - PAN *sipit

wring, squeeze out (trans.) - POC *lolos-i

squeezed

be pinched or squeezed by - PPh *higpit-en

be pinched, squeezed, or pressed - PAN *pitpit-en

crushed or squeezed out of shape - PWMP *lu(q)luq

stuff or press in, be squeezed in - PWMP *haseg

stuff or press in, be squeezed in - PWMP *qasak

squeezing

solid residue left after squeezing to remove coconut oil, etc. - PPH *lunek₂

squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing - PAN *peRes

squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing - POC *poRos

wringing, squeezing - POC *lolos

squid

large cuttlefish and squid - POC *mwamwaki

smaller types of reef squid - POC *nuso

smaller types of reef squid - POC *nusa₂

squid - PMP *nues

squid - PPH *pusít

squid, cuttlefish - PWMP *kanuqus

squid, cuttlefish - PMP *nus

tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc. - PMP *kaway₂

tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc. - PMP *gaway

tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.; rays of the sun - POC *kawe₂

tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.; rays of the sun - POC *kawe₁

squint

cross-eyed; squint - PWMP *zeliŋ

squirrel

flying squirrel - PAN-F *lawaR

flying squirrel - PAN-F *lapis

squirrel - PAN *buhet

squirrel - *(noise)

squirrelfish

squirrelfish: Holocentrus spp. - PMP *taRaqan

squirt

squeeze or squirt out - PWMP *lucut

squeeze out juice; squirt out - PAN-F *peSiq

squeeze out, squirt out - PMP *lecit

squeeze out, squirt out - PWMP *lesit

squeeze, squirt out - PMP *becit

squeeze, squirt out - PMP *pe(R)cit

squeeze, squirt out - POC *posit₁

squeeze, squirt out - POC *posit₂

squirt out - *-cit (root)

squirt, squeeze or slip out - *-cut (root)

to squirt, of liquids; diarrhoea - PWMP *cirit

squirt out

fly off, squirt out - *(near)

TOP      sc    se    sh    si    sk    sl    sm    sn    so    sp    sq    st    su    sw    sy    

st

stab

pierce, stab - PMP *rusuk

pierce, stab - PAN *tebek

stab - *(loan)

stab, pierce, kill - PWMP *maR-bunuq

stab, stick into - PWMP *tisuk

to pierce, stab - PCMP *dodok

to pierce, to stab - PAN *t<um>ebek

to pierce, to stab - PWMP *maŋ-tebek

to spear, stab with a spear - POC *soka

to stab - PCMP *tubak

stabbed

be pierced, be stabbed - PWMP *tebek-en

was pierced, was stabbed - PWMP *t<in>ebek

stabilize

wedge, piece used to stabilize surfaces - PPH *taŋen

stack

lie in stacks, one on top of the other - PWMP *apid₂

pave with stones; pile or stack up, arrange, order, put in sequence - PMP *qatuR₁

stack up; in a row, lined up; to order, arrange - PCEMP *qatuR₂

to stack up - PAN *susuN

to stack up, pile in layers - PMP *susun

stacked

stacked, in layers - PWMP *pa-susun

staff

cane, staff, walking stick - *-kud (root)

goat hair decoration on a spear or staff - PMP *bandaŋan

prop, support; staff - PWMP *tu(ŋ)kad

prop, support; staff - *-ked (root)

walking stick, cane, staff - PAN *sukud

stage

coconut growth stage 12: sprouted - POC *tabwa

coconut growth stage 6: green drinking coconut - POC *karut₂

coconut growth stage 9: ripe, flesh hardened - POC *kulu₂

growth stage of rice - *(noise)

immature stage of coconut or areca nut (?) - POC *piras

young growth stage of mullet - PMP *qaRuas

stagger

reel, stagger - PWMP *ruyuŋ₁

shake, sway, stagger - PWMP *huyug

shake, sway, stagger - PWMP *kuyuŋ

shake, sway, stagger - PWMP *Ruyuŋ

shake, sway, stagger - PWMP *uyeg

shake, sway, stagger - PWMP *uyug

shake, sway, stagger - PMP *uyuR

to sway, stagger, turn this way and that - PPH *talátal

stained

speckled, stained - PMP *recik

stains

blackened, as the teeth with betel stains - PPH *deket₃

stairs

single log bridge; stairs, ladder - POC *tete

stone stairs - PMP *haRezan na batu

stake

drive in, as a stake; to plant (crops) - PCEMP *pasekₐ

post, stake, pillar - PPH *tendek₁

press into, penetrate; enter crouching; drive in stakes - PMP *usuk

spear; sharpened pitfall stake - POC *ona₂

stake a bet in gambling - PWMP *pasaŋ₃

stake, free-standing post - PMP *turus

stake, post - POC *turus

stakes in gambling, wager, bet - PPH *tayáq

tethering stake; drive a stake into the ground - PPH *palpál₂

stalk

(entire) stalk of bananas; ear of grain - PMP *buliR

a sheaf or bundle of rice stalks - PPH *taq(e)nay

one stem, one stalk - PMP *sa buliR

rice straw; flute made from a rice stalk - PMP *zaRami

stalk - *(noise)

stalk or cluster of fruit - POC *kada

stalk or stem of a plant - PMP *paqa₂

stem of a plant, stalk - PMP *taŋkay

stem of a plant, stalk - POC *take₁

stem, stalk of a plant - PWMP *tampuk₃

to cut down a stalk of bananas - PPH *tebáq

to detach a hand, or bunch of bananas from the stalk - PPH *sapád-en

to peep, spy on, to stalk - PWMP *subuk₁

topmost hand of banana stalk - PMP *qabaRa₂

topmost hand of banana stalk - POC *qapaRa₂

stammer

stammer - PMP *gapgap

stammer - PMP *uduq₁

stammer, stutter - POC *kakap₂

stamp

stamp - *(near)

stamp on - PMP *qentek

stamp or smack against - PMP *ambak

stamp the feet - PWMP *anzak

stamp the feet; step, leap - PWMP *tanzak

stamp, put one's foot down - PWMP *qantak

step, tread, stamp on - PMP *bezak

step, tread; stamp - PWMP *enzak

to stamp the feet - PWMP *tandak

stanch

stanch the flow, as of blood - PWMP *ampet

stand

be attentive, stand guard - *(loan)

erect, stand upright - PWMP *ma-baŋun

guard, sentinel; to stand guard - PPH *tánud

old, older person, elder; old stand forest - POC *matuqa

stand - PWMP *ta(n)zeg

stand apart - *(noise)

stand erect - PMP *ti(n)zeg

stand erect - *-zeg (root)

stand erect - *-zer (root)

stand on - *-deR (root)

stand open - *(noise)

stand or be placed near to someone or something - PPH *saiŋ

stand up - *(noise)

to lift, stand up, arise, emerge, begin, depart, carry; cargo; take something; take a wife - PMP *buhat₃

to stand - PAN *diRi

to stand - PMP *tuquD

to stand - POC *turu₂

to stand - POC *tuqur

to stand, be standing - PMP *ma-diRi

to stand, be standing - PEMP *ma-riRi

to stand; straighten out - PMP *kezeŋ

to stand; stretch out, as the body - PMP *kedeŋ

walk or stand with legs wide apart - PPH *sakáqaŋ

standing

look over a wide area, search for something with the eyes while standing in place - PPH *nanaw

to stand, be standing - PMP *ma-diRi

to stand, be standing - PEMP *ma-riRi

stand out

stand out, project - *(loan)

staple

staple food (?) - POC *kuta

star

morning star? - POC *gama

shooting star - PWMP *taqi nu bituqen

shooting star, meteor; spirit of the shooting star - PPh *bulalákaw₂

star - PAN *bituqen

star - POC *pituqun

star - *(loan)

the morning (evening) star: Venus - PMP *mantalaq

the morning (evening) star: Venus - PMP *talaq₁

to rise, of the sun, moon or stars - PPH *sebaŋ

starch

processed sago, prepared starch from the sago palm - PMP *sagu₁

stare

look at closely, stare intently - PWMP *sineŋ

open the eyes wide, stare with round eyes - PMP *bulat₁

open the eyes wide, stare with round eyes - POC *bulat₂

open the eyes wide, stare with round eyes - PWMP *maŋ-bulat

stare at - POC *otoŋ

stare, fix the eyes on - PWMP *maŋmaŋ

stare, look at with fixed expression - PWMP *bulalak

stare, look fixedly - PWMP *nuŋnuŋ

stare, look fixedly - PAN *NeŋNeŋ

stare, look fixedly - *-Neŋ (root)

stare, look fixedly - *-teŋ₂ (root)

stare, look fixedly at - PMP *e(n)teŋ

stare, look fixedly at something - PWMP *teŋteŋ₂

to stare, look fixedly at something - PCMP *tanaRa

stare at

look hard at, gaze, stare at - *(loan)

starfish

starfish - PMP *saŋa-saŋa

starfruit

a tree and its edible fruit, the starfruit: Averrhoa bilimbi, Averrhoa carambola - PWMP *baliŋbiŋ

starling

starling: Aplonis spp. - POC *pusiRa

start

fuel for fire, anything used to start a fire - PPH *hátuŋ

push something to start it moving; accompany someone to help them start a journey - PPH *tulúd

start a fire - PWMP *epan

tinder; start a fire - PPH *lublub

to begin, start at the beginning - PPH *sapul

to leave on a trip, start a voyage - PPH *l<um>uas

to start the weaving of cloth - PPH *pugiq

to start, jump when startled - PMP *kezut₁

started

instruction, guidance, help in getting started - PWMP *tuntun

starting

to bubble, as liquid that is starting to boil; to boil, of water - PMP *diqdiq

startle

interjection; to startle - POC *pa₁

startled

jerk, startled - PWMP *kezet

startled - PWMP *seŋaŋ

startled - PWMP *kezat

startled, make a startled movement - PWMP *unzet

to jerk suddenly, jump when startled - PAN *kezuC

to start, jump when startled - PMP *kezut₁

starve

hungry; starve - PMP *bitil₁

state

a state of pain or difficulty; be afflicted by illness - PWMP *ka-sakit-an

be struck by fear; a state of fear or worry - PWMP *ka-takut-an

past participle/achieved state - PMP *ka-₇

state explicitly, stipulate - PWMP *tandes

state, express in words - PPh *beŋát₂

statements

particle used to soften questions or turn statements into rhetorical questions - PPH *taq₂

stative

causative of stative verbs - PAN *pa-ka-

stative marker in irrealis constructions, counterpart to *ma- in realis constructions - PAN *ka-₂

stative prefix - PAN *ma-₁

stative prefix - PAN *Sa-

stative prefix - PMP *ha-₂

stative prefix marking high degree of some quality; extremely; superlative marker - PPH *ka-₃

statue

graven image, statue - *(loan)

stature

cut short, bobbed; short in stature - PWMP *putut₂

stay

drop off to sleep, fall asleep when one should stay awake - PWMP *ka-tuduR-en

hide, stay in a tight or hidden place - PPH *lukluk

location, place where one stays - PWMP *paR-ian-an

sit, squat; come to rest; stay in a place; settle down, as birds on a tree - POC *toka₃

sit; stay or stop moving; reside - POC *nofo

stay awake all night, as in a vigil for the dead - PPH *pulaw

stay overnight, spend the night - PWMP *pa-beRŋi

stay with, accompany - PPh *antábay

stay, dwell in a place - POC *mono

to lodge, stay in someone else’s house - PPH *dagus₂

to stay, dwell, reside - PWMP *um-ian

steadfast

steadfast, firm - *(loan)

steadfast, firm - *(noise)

steady

constant, steady - *(noise)

firm, steady, strong - PWMP *pageq

steal

steal - PAN *Cakaw

steal - PMP *nakaw

steal - PMP *takaw₁

steal - PWMP *ma-nakaw

steal - PMP *pa-nakaw

steal - POC *panako

steal - POC *painako

steal - POC *penako

steal or rob - POC *tako

to steal - PAN *ma-Cakaw

stealing

pilfering, filching, stealing small amounts - PPH *kúpit

steam

basketlike container used to steam rice - PWMP *kuskus-an₂

emit smoke or steam - POC *kupuk

rising of smoke or steam - PWMP *kuskus₁

smoke, fumes, steam; to smoke (as a fire) - PMP *qasu₃

steam, vapor - PAN-F *lahuN

to hiss or steam, of water touching a fire - PAN *s<um>ebuS

to hiss or steam, of water touching a fire - PWMP *s<um>ebuh

vapor, steam - PWMP *seŋ(e)qaw

steamroller

steamroller - *(loan)

steep

aslant, steep, precipitous - *(noise)

soak, steep in water - PWMP *celep

steep angle - PWMP *tazek

steep slope (as of riverbank or mountain) - PWMP *paŋpaŋ

to steep, soak - POC *sau₂

steer

rudder; steer (a boat) - PMP *qulin

rudder; steer (a boat) - PMP *quliŋ

steer a boat - POC *palo₁

to steer (a boat) - PWMP *maŋ-qulin

stem

body hair; fur; feather; down; floss on plant stems; color; type, kind - PMP *bulu₁

one stem, one stalk - PMP *sa buliR

stalk or stem of a plant - PMP *paqa₂

stem of a plant, stalk - PMP *taŋkay

stem of a plant, stalk - POC *take₁

stem, stalk of a plant - PWMP *tampuk₃

to sway back and forth, as plant stems in the wind - PWMP *liŋgaŋ

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

stench

fart; stench - PWMP *bentut

odor, stench - PMP *bahu

odor; stench - PMP *bahuq

rotten smell, stench - PAN *baŋ(e)qeR₁

rotten smell, stench (as of stagnant water) - PMP *baŋ(e)qeR₂

stench - PMP *aŋ(e)lem

stench - PWMP *ceŋis

stench - PWMP *baŋsit

stench - POC *aŋom

stench - PWMP *ka-bahu-an

stench - *(noise)

stench of burning substances - PAN *qaŋeliC

stench of fish or blood - *(noise)

stench of spoiled or souring organic matter - PAN *qaŋeRu

stench of spoiling fish - PAN *qaŋeRiS

stench of spoiling fish - PMP *qaŋeRih

stench of sweaty armpits - PWMP *aŋ(e)cej

stench of sweaty armpits - PWMP *aŋ(e)ceŋ

stench of urine - PAN *qaŋeseR

stench of urine - PPh *qaŋesu

stench, as of burning hair - PPh *qaŋetej

stench, bad odor - PPh *buŋtút

stench, musky odor of an animal - PAN *qaŋeSit

stench, odor, as of fish - PWMP *laŋ(e)qes

stench, sour smell - PPh *panuqus

stench, strong unpleasant odor - PMP *imbu

sweaty armpits, stench of sweaty armpits - PWMP *qaŋesej

step

a step, a stride - PWMP *tekaŋ

push aside, move aside, step aside - PWMP *siaq

stamp the feet; step, leap - PWMP *tanzak

step - *(near)

step - *(noise)

step into clothing, put on a sarong - PMP *saRuk

step on, place one's foot on - PMP *re(n)zak

step on, push with the foot - PWMP *tinzak

step on, tread on, trample - PMP *inzak

step on; leave footprint - PPH *takad

step onto - *(noise)

step or rung of a ladder - PWMP *anak i haRezan

step, stride - PWMP *izig

step, stride; to omit or skip over - PMP *laŋkaq₁

step, tread - PWMP *ti(n)zak

step, tread - *(loan)

step, tread on - PWMP *icak

step, tread on - PWMP *lanzak

step, tread, stamp on - PMP *bezak

step, tread, trample - *-cak₂ (root)

step, tread, trample - *-zak (root)

step, tread, trample - *-zek (root)

step, tread; stamp - PWMP *enzak

take a long step, step over something - PWMP *akaŋ

to step on - PWMP *tuzak

to step on - PWMP *maŋ-inzak

to step on, walk on something (?) - PPH *lakáj-an

to step, to walk - PPH *maR-lákaj

to step, to walk - PPH *l<um>ákaj

to step, tread on - PWMP *pizak

to step, tread on something - POC *paRas

to stride, take a step - PMP *lakaj

to stride, take a step - POC *lakas

tread, step - PMP *ki(n)zak

walk, take a step - PAN *lakat₂

stepfather

stepfather - PWMP *ama ama

stepmother

foster mother, stepmother - PWMP *ina ina

Sterculia

a tall forest tree which emits an unpleasant odor: Sterculia foetida - PMP *bubuR₃

a tree: Sterculia foetida - PMP *kalumpaŋ

sterile

sterile, barren, childless - PWMP *tamanaŋ

stern

after, behind, stern of canoe - POC *muri

last, come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child; west; young; outside - PCEMP *m-udi

last; come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child - PMP *udehi

rear part, stern or rudder of a boat - PMP *kama-udehi

stew

fish stew - *(loan)

stick

adhere, stick to - PWMP *ta(ŋ)ket

beating stick; to hit, beat (esp. clothes in washing them) - PAN *balbal₁

cane, staff, walking stick - *-kud (root)

clatter of a stick poking around in something - PWMP *degaq

dibble stick - PWMP *tugal

dibble, plant seeds with a dibble stick - PMP *hasek₁

dig up the ground with a digging stick - PWMP *ma-ñuqan

digging stick - PMP *suqan

digging stick - PAN *ka-kalih

digging stick - PMP *ka-kali

digging stick (?) - PWMP *pa-ŋali

grasshopper or stick insect - POC *sakwa

hit with a stick - PWMP *pukul

insert, stick into a soft surface - *-sek₂ (root)

parallel sticks used to support a load - PPH *laŋen₂

paste, stick to - PMP *pilit₁

project above, stick up - PPH *labaw₂

rub two things together, create friction, as sticks to make fire, or the hands - PMP *kusu₁

sharp pointed stick used in planting crops and in husking coconuts; digging stick, coconut husking stick - POC *kojom

skewer, pointed stick - PWMP *sulah

stab, stick into - PWMP *tisuk

stick into the ground - PWMP *tazuk

stick to, adhere firmly - PMP *kukuq

stick with a pin, pierce - PPH *tedak

stick, adhere - PWMP *dulit

stick, adhere - PWMP *eket

stick, adhere to - PMP *da(ŋ)ket

stick, adhere to - PMP *si(ŋ)ket

stick, adhere to; sticky, viscous - PMP *la(ŋ)ket

stick, adhere; join together - PWMP *liŋkit

stick, cling to - PWMP *puket₂

sticks or other markers used as aids in calculation - PWMP *bilaŋ-bilaŋ

sticks that connect the float to the booms of an outrigger canoe - PEMP *patoto

sticky, stick to - PMP *ca(ŋ)ket

sticky, stick to - PCEMP *saket

stopped in its course, as something which sticks in the throat - PWMP *buqul

to adhere, stick to - PMP *kampit

to adhere, stick to - POC *kabit₂

to dibble, plant seeds with a dibble stick - PWMP *maŋ-hasek₁

to dig with a digging stick, to husk coconuts with a husking stick - POC *kojom-i

to stick or paste on - PAN *pa-dekeC

to stick or paste on - PMP *pa-deket

to stick to something, adhere - PWMP *d<um>eket

to stick, adhere - POC *rago

to stick, adhere - PPH *i-deket

walking stick, cane, staff - PAN *sukud

yardarm, sheet of a sail, sticks used to turn the sail - POC *jila

sticking

sticking out or turned forward, of ears - PWMP *kupiŋ

sticking to, attached to, joined - PMP *pikit

sticky

adhesive, sticky - *-keC (root)

birdlime, sticky sap of breadfruit, etc. - PMP *pulut

clay, sticky earth - PMP *taneq pulut

clay, sticky earth - POC *tanoq pulut

muddy; sticky, as mud - PMP *litek

sap, resin, sticky secretion - PWMP *gateq

soft through exposure to moisture; sticky - PWMP *luyak

stick, adhere to; sticky, viscous - PMP *la(ŋ)ket

sticky confection made of rice and coconut - PWMP *kalámay

sticky rice cake - PAN-F *qemu

sticky rice cake - PMP *pusuq₂

sticky sap - PPH *tegek

sticky substance - PAN *diteq

sticky, adhesive - PAN *dikeC

sticky, adhesive - PMP *liket

sticky, adhesive - PMP *niket

sticky, adhesive - PWMP *piReket

sticky, adhesive - PMP *raket

sticky, adhesive - PMP *ña(ŋ)ket

sticky, adhesive - PWMP *piket₂

sticky, adhesive - PMP *peket

sticky, adhesive - PMP *diket

sticky, adhesive; stuck in one’s memory - PWMP *leket

sticky, gluey - POC *ñakot

sticky, glutinous, adhesive - PPH *dayket

sticky, stick to - PMP *ca(ŋ)ket

sticky, stick to - PCEMP *saket

tree with sticky fruits: Cordia spp. - PAN *quNuNaŋ

viscous, sticky - PMP *belit₃

stiff

have a stiff or bent arm - PMP *si(ŋ)kuk₁

stiff - PMP *ekeŋ

stiff, as a corpse - PMP *keŋ₂

stiff, rigid; cramps - *-kaŋ₃ (root)

wood; strong; stiff; penis (colloquial) - POC *kayu

stiffening

cramps, stiffening of limbs - *-keŋ₁ (root)

cramps, stiffening of the limbs - PMP *keŋkeŋ₂

cramps, stiffening of the limbs - PWMP *kukuŋ

cramps, stiffening of the limbs, rigor mortis - PMP *kaŋkaŋ₃

stifle

stifle, suffocate; drown - PMP *lemes

still

become quiet or still - PWMP *q<um>eneŋ

brood, hold a grudge, remember, keep still - PAN *demdem₁

calm, still, as the surface of water - PWMP *teneŋ

calm, still, as the surface of water - PMP *linaw

calm, still, as the surface of water - PMP *ma-linaw

calm, still, of the surface of water - POC *ma-lino

calm, still, quiet - PPH *linak

calm, still, windless - POC *marapu

quiet, still, at rest - PMP *qeneŋ

still, calm - *(noise)

still, calm, quiet - PWMP *anteŋ

still, yet - *(noise)

still, yet, til now, first (before doing something else) - PAN *pa₁

to brood, keep still - POC *rodrom₂

use while still ripe - PWMP *maŋ-hataq

stillness

stillness (of wind) - *(loan)

stilts

long; stilts (?) - PWMP *kazaŋ₁

stilts - PPH *kadaŋ-kádaŋ

stimulated

itch, feel itchy; sexually stimulated - PMP *gatel

sting

any plant with hairs that sting or cause itchiness - PWMP *amiaŋ

large black ant with painful sting, probably bulldog ant - POC *kadik

pepper; to sting, of a wound or spices in food - PMP *lajaq

sting - PWMP *siŋ(e)het

to smart, sting - POC *soŋot

to sting or bite, of an insect - PAN *seŋet₂

stinger

stinger of an insect - PWMP *seRed

thorn, spur, barb, stinger of stingray - POC *potok

thorn; stinger of stingray - PEMP *betek₃

stinging

a small stinging plant, perhaps Laportea interrupta - POC *karat₂

large green hairless stinging caterpillar - PMP *katadu

large green hairless stinging caterpillar - PWMP *tatadu

large stinging green caterpillar - PWMP *hantatadu

large stinging green caterpillar - PWMP *qantatadu

smarting, stinging pain - PMP *hapejes

smarting, stinging pain - PMP *hapejis

smarting, stinging pain - PAN *Sapejiq

smarting, stinging pain - PMP *hapejiq

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - PAN *laCeŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - PMP *zalateŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - PMP *zilateŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - PMP *lateŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - POC *silatoŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - POC *latoŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - PMP *la-lateŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - POC *la-latoŋ

stinging nettle: Laportea spp. - POC *salatoŋ

stingray

skate, stingray (generic); a constellation - PMP *paRih

stingray - PAN *paRiS

stingray - PCEMP *paRi

stingray - POC *paRi

thorn, spur, barb, stinger of stingray - POC *potok

thorn; stinger of stingray - PEMP *betek₃

stingy

stingy, selfish - PPh *ímut

stink

stink - *(noise)

stinking

decayed, rotten, putrid; stinking - PMP *busuk

rotten, stinking - PPh *buyúk

smelly, stinking - PWMP *ma-bahuq

smelly, stinking - PMP *ma-bahu

stipulate

state explicitly, stipulate - PWMP *tandes

stir

dust in the air, stir up dust - PPH *tapuk₂

incite, urge on, stir up - PWMP *asag

stir up a fire - *(noise)

stir, mix - PMP *galu

stir, mix - PWMP *garu

stir, mix - POC *kalu

to mix, stir in - POC *solo₂

to stir - PMP *kalu

to stir - PEMP *sua₂

to stir, mix in - PPH *kiwkiw₂

to stir, mix in - PPH *kiwkiw-en

to wave, wag (tail); to stir (people) up - PAN *kiwkiw

stir-fried

what is stir-fried or roasted in a pan without oil - PWMP *saŋelaR-en

stir-fry

to stir-fry, cook in a frying pan without oil - PMP *saŋelaR

to stir-fry, dry roast - PWMP *ma-naŋelaR

stirred

murkiness, turbidity, of water that has been stirred up - PPH *liqebeR

murky, turbid, of water that has been stirred up - PPH *ma-liqebeR

stitch

stitch, join - PWMP *rajup

stitches

come undone, of stitches - PAN *katkat₂

cut or tear open stitches - PWMP *t<um>astas

sever, cut through, rip out stitches - PWMP *tastas

to rip out stitches - PWMP *ma-nastas

to undo stitches, pull out tying material - PPH *tastas-en

stitching

work produced by sewing or stitching - PAN *C<in>aqiS

stockage

cage; stockage - PWMP *kuruŋ-an

stocky

short and stocky - PWMP *beŋkek

stout, stocky - *(noise)

stolen

be stolen - PWMP *takaw-en

be stolen (nonpast direct passive) - PWMP *paŋ-takaw-en

stolen - PMP *ma-takaw

stolen goods (?) - PWMP *takaw-an

stolen; stolen goods - PWMP *t<in>akaw

the place where something is stolen (nonpast local passive) - PWMP *paŋ-takaw-an

what is stolen, stolen goods; was stolen (past tense of direct passive) - PAN *C<in>akaw

Stolephorus

anchovy: Stolephorus spp. - PPh *bulínaw

stomach

bulging, as the stomach - PWMP *tambuk

fart, stomach gas - PCMP *pesu₂

lower stomach, bladder - PWMP *kempuŋ

lower stomach, bladder - PMP *kambu

pit of the stomach - PWMP *qulu ni qatay

stomach - PAN *biCuka

stomach - *(noise)

stomach (internal organ) - POC *tobwa₂

stomach of an animal - POC *kabuŋ

stomach of an animal - *(loan)

stomach; large intestine - PMP *bituka

stomatitits

have a thrush or stomatitits infection - PWMP *guam-en

stomp

trample, stomp on - PPH *sadsad

stone

click or clink together, as stones in making fire - PPH *santik

collect stones(?), use stones for a purpose - PWMP *ma-matu

dust, pulverized stone - PAN *bulbul

grinding stone, place where foods are ground up or instrument for grinding them - PWMP *giliŋ-an

hard seed, stone of some fruits - PPH *butúl

hard stone used to make tools - POC *nadi

kind of useful stone - PPH *kamaŋa

pave with stones; pile or stack up, arrange, order, put in sequence - PMP *qatuR₁

pave with stones; pile up, arrange, put in an orderly fashion - PWMP *qatuR-an

pile up, as stones - PAN *dapuR₂

round stone (?) - PMP *buaq na batu

small stones, gravel - PMP *anak i batu

stone - POC *patu

stone slab, thin layer - PWMP *lapis

stone stairs - PMP *haRezan na batu

stone wall - PAN *atuR

stone; slingshot - POC *maga

stone; testicle - PAN *batux

stone; testicle; kind of banana; numeral classifier for teeth (?) - PMP *batu

strike, chip stone - POC *babak₁

strike, chip stone - POC *babak₃

to stone, throw a stone at - PCEMP *biriŋ₂

to stone, throw a stone at - POC *piriŋ₃

to turn, rotate; to grind with a stone roller - PWMP *maŋ-giliŋ

trivet, arrangement of three stones on which the cooking pot is placed - PMP *dalikan

turn the soil over, as in removing stones prior to planting - PWMP *suŋkal

stonefish

stonefish - PMP *nepuq

stonefish - POC *nopuq

stonefish - PMP *ñepuq

stonefish - POC *ñopuq

stonelike

become hard or stonelike, harden - PWMP *b<um>atu

stony

rocky, stony - PWMP *ma-batu

stony place, stony ground - PWMP *ka-batu-an

stony, as land - PWMP *batu-en

stony, gravel - PMP *batu-batu

stoop

bend over, stoop - PMP *zuŋkuk

bend over, stoop - PMP *dukuq

bend over, stoop - POC *rukuq

bend, stoop over - POC *oŋkol

stoop, bow, bend over - POC *roko

stooped

bent, stooped - PMP *eŋkel

stooped, bent (as the back) - PWMP *su(ŋ)kuŋ

stooping

to walk past in a stooping posture - POC *roko-roko

stoop-shouldered

hunchbacked, stoop-shouldered - PPH *kubuq

hunched over, stoop-shouldered - PAN *SekuC

hunched over, stoop-shouldered - PMP *hekut

stop

block, stop, dam - *-beŋ₂ (root)

plug up, stop something up, as with a cork - PWMP *suŋsuŋ₂

plug, stop up - PWMP *lepet₁

sit; stay or stop moving; reside - POC *nofo

stop an activity, take a break, rest - PAN-F *Seked

stop and visit when passing by - PMP *tuluy₂

stop by, to moor a boat - *(noise)

stop for - *(noise)

stop, cease - *(noise)

stop, cease, of rain - PMP *hedaw

stop, come to a stop - PWMP *endaŋ

stop, end, finish, complete; finished, used up - PMP *qeti₃

stop, of the wind - *(noise)

to block passage, oppose movement; come to a temporary stop - PPH *saR(e)ked

to stop by to visit when traveling - PWMP *tuli₂

to stop something in mid-course, of bodies in motion - PPH *saŋga₂

stopped

plugged, stopped, blocked - PMP *ka(m)pet

plugged, stopped, closed off - *-pet (root)

stopped in its course, as something which sticks in the throat - PWMP *buqul

stopped up - PWMP *pa(m)pet

stopped up, plugged - PWMP *pened₁

stopped up, plugged - POC *bonor₂

stopper

cork, stopper - *(loan)

cork, stopper, plug - PAN *seŋseŋ

cork, stopper, plug - POC *joŋjoŋ

plug, stopper, cork - PWMP *sumbad

plug, stopper; to cram - *-pel (root)

stopper, plug, cork - PWMP *sumpel

to plug, put a stopper in a hole - PWMP *seŋseŋ-en

stopping

continue doing something, proceed without stopping - PWMP *tarus

periodically stopping - PWMP *endaŋ endaŋ

to arrest the progress of something by stopping or catching it; to support, keep from falling - PWMP *saŋgaq

storage

bamboo tube used as a storage container - PWMP *buŋbuŋ₁

bamboo used as a storage container - PMP *putuŋ₁

storage chest - PWMP *kaban₂

storage container for paddy - PWMP *pitak₂

storage shelf above the hearth - POC *paRa, baRa

storage shelf; attic, loft - PAN *paRa₁

storage shelf; attic, loft - PMP *paRa paRa

store

large jar used to store rice wine - PWMP *tapay-an

to store, put away for safekeeping, hide valuables; to place a bet in gambling; lay an egg - PMP *taRuq

tubular basket used to carry and store rice or sago - PWMP *basuŋ

stored

container in which rice is stored - PAN *beRas-an

storehouse

canoe shed, storehouse - POC *pale

storing

kind of urn for storing food - PPH *kam(e)qáw

to salt meat or fish for storing - PPH *lamuq

storm

power in natural phenomena; thunder, storm wind - POC *mana₂

storm - PMP *ribut

storm, darkness - PWMP *gelap₂

to relent or subside of appetite, passions, storms, etc. - PWMP *puas

wind, storm - *(loan)

storming

push, slide or glide forward, as in pushing wood into a fire, or storming the enemy - PWMP *suruŋ

stormy

full of waves, as a stormy sea - PWMP *ma-humbak

story

conventional story, traditional narrative - PWMP *sudsud₁

story - *(loan)

to narrate, as in telling a story - PPH *sáysay

stout

stout, stocky - *(noise)

stove

portable stove - *(loan)

straight

go straight; straighten - POC *kodos

put in a straight line - PPH *taraytay

straight - POC *oto

straight - PMP *lurus

straight - POC *kodo

straight - PWMP *tuq(e)lid

straight - POC *mwanene

straight, as tree limbs - PPH *tánus

straight, direct; flat, level - POC *wane wane

straight; correct, proper; righteous - POC *tonuq

straight; to straighten - POC *kodoŋ

visual assessment of something, as in taking aim, making a straight line, or forming an opinion - PWMP *sipat

straightaway

straightaway, immediately; get done at once; continue on, lasting - PMP *tulus

straighten

go straight; straighten - POC *kodos

straight; to straighten - POC *kodoŋ

straighten out, of a limb, etc. - PMP *keteŋ

to stand; straighten out - PMP *kezeŋ

to stretch, straighten out - PPh *huñat

to stretch, straighten out - PPh *uñat

straightened

be stretched, be straightened out - PPh *uñat-en

stretched, straightened - PPh *ma-uñat

straightforward

clear, straightforward - PMP *tegas

strain

strain while defecating or in childbirth - PWMP *teRan

to strain, filter - PWMP *tapis₃

strainer

sieve, strainer - PWMP *ayak-an

strand

a strand creeper, convolvulus - POC *pula₂

a strand, as of rope - PWMP *idas₂

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root - PMP *uRat

intertwine, braid, as strands to make rope - PPH *labid

to braid, intertwine strands - PPH *lapid

to twist strands together (?) - PWMP *pintal

twine together, as strands of rope - PWMP *pa-talih

twist together rope out of three strands - PWMP *ma-nelu

stranded

stranded - *(loan)

stranger

horizon (lit. ‘foundation/beginning of the sky’); stranger, foreigner - PMP *puqun nu laŋit

stranger, foreigner; guest - PPH *dáyu

stranger; enemy - PAN-F *qaNa

stranger; visitor; guest - PWMP *sakay₃

strangle

choke, strangle - PMP *cekel

choke, strangle - POC *sokol

strangler

a tree: the banyan or strangler fig - PPh *balítiq

a tree: the banyan or strangler fig - PMP *nunuk

banyan, strangler fig - PEMP *qayawan

strap

belly strap - PWMP *amben

carry by a strap over the shoulder - POC *sape

strap; something wrapped around - PWMP *ambet

stratum

layer, stratum - *(noise)

straw

rice straw - PAN *zaRami

rice straw - PWMP *gaRami

rice straw; flute made from a rice stalk - PMP *zaRami

to sip, as through a straw - PAN *siRup

stray

wander, stray - PWMP *regaw

streak

stripe, streak, line - PPH *urit

striped, having stripes or streaks of different color - PWMP *garit

streaked

spotted, streaked - PWMP *baleŋ

striped, streaked - PMP *barik

stream

a dam; to dam a stream - PMP *embeŋ

block, obstruct, dam a stream - PMP *empeŋ

brook or small stream - PWMP *saluR

catch fish by damming a stream - PPH *sáRep

deep place in river; pool of water left when a stream dries up - PPH *lib(e)tuŋ

dry stream bed - PWMP *laqaD

ebb, of water in streams - PAN *qaCi

ebb, of water in streams; low tide - PMP *qati

ebb, of water in streams; low tide - PAN *ma-qaCi

ebb, of water in streams; low tide - PMP *ma-qati

flow, stream together - PWMP *uluR

fresh water; stream, river - PMP *wahiR

leak, spill through, stream out from a hole in a container - PMP *busbus

side path, branch or fork in path or stream; take a side path or way; crossroads - PMP *simpaŋ

stream of water - *(noise)

stream, pour - *(noise)

stream, river - PAN *sapaq₁

to flow, stream, move out rapidly - POC *rere₂

stream of water

stream of water - *(loan)

strength

exert strength or effort - PWMP *elet₂

hardness, strength (of materials) - PWMP *tuqa₃

strength, vigor, force - PAN *keseR

stretch

obstruct, stretch across - *(noise)

stretch - PWMP *bañat

stretch - PPh *behñat

stretch - PWMP *binat

stretch - PWMP *eñat

stretch - PWMP *heñat

stretch - PPh *hikñat

stretch - *-ñat (root)

stretch open or apart - PMP *pekaŋ

stretch open, dilate - PPh *biŋát

stretch out - POC *sau₁

stretch out - *(noise)

stretch, pull something that stretches (as a rope) - PWMP *iñat

stretch, put under tension - PWMP *betek₂

stretch; taut - *-teŋ₃ (root)

to stand; stretch out, as the body - PMP *kedeŋ

to stretch tightly - PWMP *iReteŋ-en

to stretch, straighten out - PPh *huñat

to stretch, straighten out - PPh *uñat

stretched

be stretched by - PPh *iñát-en

be stretched out, of time; old (of past crops that are still not consumed) - PWMP *laun

be stretched, be straightened out - PPh *uñat-en

extended, stretched taut, put under tension - PMP *benteŋ

stretched tightly - PWMP *iReteŋ

stretched, straightened - PPh *ma-uñat

stretches

stretch, pull something that stretches (as a rope) - PWMP *iñat

stretchy

stretchy; elastic - *-ñut (root)

strew

disseminate, strew around - *(noise)

scatter, strew - PWMP *imbuR

scatter, strew - PPh *warák

scatter, strew about - PWMP *buras

scatter, strew about - PPh *wákat

sow, strew, scatter - PMP *ebuR

sow, strew, scatter - PWMP *sabuD

strew with flowers, put flowers on - PWMP *buŋa-i

strew, scatter - PWMP *tabuD

strew, scatter, sprinkle - PWMP *qabud

strew, scatter, sprinkle - PWMP *qambuR

strew, sow; sprinkle - *-buR₂ (root)

to strew, scatter, as seed - PMP *tabuR₁

to strew, scatter, as seed - POC *tabuR₁

to strew, scatter, sprinkle - POC *sapuR

to strew, sow seeds - PWMP *ma-nabuR

to strew, sow, sprinkle - PMP *saq(e)buR

strewn

scattered, strewn about - PWMP *sirak₂

strictly

strictly forbidden - POC *tapu-tapu

stride

a step, a stride - PWMP *tekaŋ

step, stride - PWMP *izig

step, stride; to omit or skip over - PMP *laŋkaq₁

to stride, take a step - PMP *lakaj

to stride, take a step - POC *lakas

strike

approach or strike from the side or at an oblique angle - PPH *sarijsij

collide, hit, strike - *(loan)

collide, hit, strike - *(noise)

graze, strike lightly against - PMP *tiŋkuq

hit, strike - PAN *basbas₁

hit, strike - PWMP *puqpuq₃

hit, strike a heavy blow - PMP *sambak

hit, strike hard - PWMP *batbat

lightning that strikes something - PMP *gelap₁

slap, strike with the hand - PWMP *ta(m)pak

strike against - PWMP *bida

strike against - PWMP *paŋkaq

strike against - POC *bak

strike from above, pound - POC *qatu

strike one another (as fighting cocks) - PWMP *bazaw

strike together - PMP *rimpuk

strike two hard objects together to produce a spark - PPH *piŋkíq

strike, beat - *-pag (root)

strike, beat; kill - POC *punuq-a

strike, beat; kill - POC *punuq-i

strike, beat; pierce; kill; extinguish (a fire) - POC *punuq₃

strike, break - PMP *ra(m)bek

strike, chip stone - POC *babak₁

strike, chip stone - POC *babak₃

strike, hit - PWMP *le(m)pag

strike, whip, beat - PWMP *benal

throw at, hit, strike with a sharp object; kill; extinguish (a fire) - PMP *bunuq₂

thud, strike against - PMP *rumpak

to hit, strike - POC *ŋau₃

to hit, strike, or hard objects colliding - PPh *beRták

to hit, to strike - PWMP *ma-ŋena

to knock, strike against - PAN *pa(n)tuk₂

to strike, beat, hit - PWMP *ma-mukpuk

to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface - PAN *tiktik₁

to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface - PMP *tiktik₁

to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface - POC *titik₂

striker

head louse; sparks from a fire; water striker (insect that walks on water) - PMP *kutu₁

striking

high-pitched sound of striking against something hard but not resonant - PMP *katik

string

a string of something; to string - PCMP *utuR

broken piece of rope or string - PWMP *butes

make a rope or string, make something into rope or string - PWMP *ma-nalih

node (as in bamboo or sugarcane); joint; knuckle; knot in wood; knot in string or rope - PMP *buku

node (as in bamboo or sugarcane); joint; knuckle; knot in wood; knot in string or rope; Mons veneris - PCEMP *buku

node (as in bamboo or sugarcane); joint; knuckle; knot in wood; knot in string or rope; Mons veneris - POC *buku

pierce, skewer or string together - PMP *tusuk

rope, cord, twine, string - PAN *CaliS

rope, cord, twine, string - PMP *talih

rope, string, cord - POC *tali₁

snap, break, as a string - PWMP *getus

string together, as beads - PAN *CuSuR

string, rope, cordage made by twining fibers - PPH *lúbid

string, twine, thread - PPH *sulid

to be manufactured, of string or rope - PWMP *talih-en

to string (beads, fish, etc.); to skewer (candlenuts, etc.) - POC *tuRi₁

to string beads, etc. - PAN *C<um>uSuR

to string fish, etc. - *(noise)

to string, as fish or beads - PPH *tuhuk

to string, put on a string - PMP *tuRa

stringing

stringing of beads, skewering of fish, etc. - PMP *tuhuR

strip

kind of basket made of woven bamboo strips - PWMP *bakul

pluck (as fruit), strip off (as leaves) - POC *puput

strip leaves from branch - POC *sali

tear a leaf or cloth into strips - PPH *kisay

to peel, strip off - PCEMP *isi₂

to pluck, as fruit; strip off leaves - PWMP *pulpul₁

to slice into thin strips, as meat or vegetables - PPH *gáyat

stripe

line, stripe - PMP *burit₂

stripe - *(noise)

stripe, streak, line - PPH *urit

striped, having stripes or streaks of different color - PWMP *garit

stripes, striped - POC *polos₂

stroke, stripe, line - PMP *qurit

striped

kind of striped or spotted marine fish, grouper: Epinephelus spp. - PMP *keRteŋ

spotted, striped - PMP *getik

spotted, striped - *(loan)

spotted, striped, multi-colored - PWMP *balaŋ₃

striped - *-laŋ₂ (root)

striped with red and black - PWMP *kuriŋ

striped, having stripes or streaks of different color - PWMP *garit

striped, in bands of different color - PWMP *patelaŋ

striped, of animals - PWMP *buriŋ

striped, streaked - PMP *barik

stripes, striped - POC *polos₂

stroke

stroke (as in swimming) - *(noise)

stroke scratch - *(noise)

stroke, stripe, line - PMP *qurit

strong

able, capable, strong, wealthy - PWMP *kaya

durable, strong, well-made - *(loan)

firm, steady, strong - PWMP *pageq

hard, strong - PWMP *ma-tuqa

hard, strong, inflexible; vehement - PMP *keRas

pungent odor, strong disagreeable smell - PWMP *saŋ(e)hid

quick, energetic, strong - PMP *lakas

quick, energetic, strong - POC *lagas

stench, strong unpleasant odor - PMP *imbu

strong - *(near)

strong emotion - PMP *rawan

strong free flow of water - PPh *busuáŋ

strong southeast trade wind - POC *karak₁

strong tasting - *(noise)

strong, tough, inflexible - POC *kayu kayu

strong, vigorous, energetic - PWMP *bikas

strong, vigorous, energetic - PWMP *ma-bikas

strong, vigorous, energetic, forceful - PAN *ma-keseR

swift, agile, strong, energetic - *-kas₃ (root)

swift, strong, energetic, fast - PMP *bakas

to abate, of strong feelings - PMP *puqas

wood; strong; stiff; penis (colloquial) - POC *kayu

strongly-scented

a strongly-scented plant: Ocimum sanctum L. - PWMP *kamaŋi

struck

be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true - PMP *kena₁

be struck by fear; a state of fear or worry - PWMP *ka-takut-an

struck by the wind - PWMP *ka-haŋin-an

to be pounded, struck with force - PWMP *tutu-en

structurally

well-made, structurally sound - *(loan)

structure

comb, comb-like structure; rake, harrow - PMP *sisir

covering structure - POC *takup₂

fork of a branch; any forked structure; bifurcation - PAN *paŋa₁

struggle

choke, gasp, struggle for breath - PMP *e(ŋ)kak

choke, gasp, struggle for breath - PMP *qekak

choke, gasp, struggle for breath - PWMP *eŋkak-eŋkak

struggle against, resist - PWMP *sukul₁

struggle in rage - PWMP *rabut

wrestle, struggle with - *(loan)

strung

be strung, be skewered - PAN *CuSuR-en

strut

crossbar, strut, something to hold things apart - PMP *sekaŋ

strut as rooster around hen - *(near)

stub

stump, stub; finish, complete - PMP *epus

stubble

tree stump; stubble - PAN *tuqed

stubborn

stubborn - PMP *qulu ni batu

unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn - PMP *tegel

unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn - PMP *teger

stuck

be stuck to by something - PWMP *deket-en

choke, have something stuck in the throat - PWMP *bekeR₁

sticky, adhesive; stuck in one’s memory - PWMP *leket

stuff

crammed, forced into an opening, stuff full - PWMP *pelpel

stuff mouth with food - *(near)

stuff or fill with material - PWMP *zelzel

stuff or press in, be squeezed in - PWMP *haseg

stuff or press in, be squeezed in - PWMP *qasak

stuff, pack tightly - PPH *saksak₃

to cram, stuff in - PPH *i-seksek

to insert, cram, stuff - PMP *suksuk-i

to stuff, cram in; be crowded - PAN *seksek₁

to stuff, pack, fill up - POC *sosok

to stuff, press in by force - PWMP *maR-seksek

stuffed

stuffed, crowded; blocked, clogged - PWMP *petpet₂

stump

stump, remnant - PWMP *puŋpuŋ₁

stump, stub; finish, complete - PMP *epus

tree stump; stubble - PAN *tuqed

stun

a plant used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PMP *bunat

a plant used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - POC *punat

a plant with root used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PPH *tub(e)liq

a plant with roots that are pounded and put in rivers to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PAN *tuba

to stun fish with plant poison - PAN *t<um>uba

to stun fish with plant poison - PWMP *tuba-en

to stun fish with plant poisons - PMP *pa-tuba

stunned

stunned by great noise - PWMP *biRaw

stunted

small, stunted - POC *kiki₂

stupefy

kind of ebony or persimmon tree with fruits that are pounded and used to stupefy fish: Diospyros spp. - PPH *kanúmay

to stupefy fish with natural plant poisons - PWMP *ma-nuba

stupid

dull, blunt; blocked, plugged; stupid - PMP *belbel₁

dull, blunt; blocked, plugged; stupid - PCEMP *bebel

dull-witted, stupid - PWMP *balbal₂

stupid - *(loan)

stupid - *(noise)

stupid - *(noise)

stupid, idiotic - *(loan)

stupid, silly, ignorant - PPH *taŋah

stupidly

to gape stupidly, gawk - PMP *taŋa

stutter

stammer, stutter - POC *kakap₂

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su

subcordata

a tree: Cordia subcordata - POC *toRu

subdued

conquered, subdued; lower, inferior - PWMP *saur₂

subdued laughter; sobbing - PMP *e(ŋ)kek

subject

1pl. incl. subject prefix and possessive suffix; we (incl.); our (incl.) - POC *da₂

2sg. subject pronoun - PMP *ka₄

2sg. subject pronoun - PMP *huʔu

2sg. subject pronoun - PEMP *u₂

draw toward oneself; annex, make subject - PWMP *kabiR

subjunctive

subjunctive suffix - PAN *-a₃

submarine

cave, cavern, possibly submarine - PWMP *lubuk₁

submarine cave (?) - PPH *rawaŋ

submerge

classifier for edible possession - *(loan)

dive submerge - *-ñeb (root)

immerse, submerge - PWMP *ceñeb

sink, submerge - PMP *celeb

sink, submerge - PCEMP *seleb

sink, submerge - *-lep (root)

sink, submerge; overflow - PWMP *lebleb₂

submerge - PAN-F *tenep

submerge a container to fill it - PEMP *qutub

submerge a container to fill it - POC *qutub

submerge, disappear under water - PAN *lezep

submerge, go under water - POC *lomos

submerge, sink - PMP *delep

submerge, sink - PMP *le(p)lep

submerge, sink, drown - *-ñej (root)

to dive, submerge - PWMP *tilem₂

to sink, submerge, capsize - PPH *ma-lúnud

submerged

submerged rock or coral reef - POC *mʷaloq

sunken, submerged - PMP *eñep

submit

submit, humble oneself - *(loan)

to bend, bow, submit - PWMP *tunduk

subside

deflate, subside (of a swelling) - PWMP *impes

sink down, subside; landslide - POC *solo₃

slip down, subside - PPH *kublas

to relent or subside of appetite, passions, storms, etc. - PWMP *puas

to subside, dry up - PPh *h<um>ebás

to subside, of a swelling - PPH *kebet₂

to subside, shrink, reduce in size - PPH *keles

substance

a tree, probably Dipterocarpus spp.; resinous substance obtained from this tree - PWMP *balaw₂

exude or escape, of air, gases or similar substances (?) - PMP *heŋaw

powdery substance, dust - PMP *habuk

stench of burning substances - PAN *qaŋeliC

sticky substance - PAN *diteq

substance used in fermenting palm wine - *(noise)

substitute

substitute, replacement - PPH *sulit₂

succession

in succession, one after the other - PWMP *suqud suqud

next; to follow in succession - PPH *sunúd

successive

one after the other, successive - PPH *sunúd-sunúd

such

long fishing line with many hooks; to fish with such a line - PPH *kitáŋ

thin, of liquids such as soup; to dilute - PPH *labnaw

such-and-such

do such-and-such (action unspecified) - PWMP *maŋ-anu

suck

breast; suck the breast - PMP *titi

breast; suck the breast - PMP *titiq

drink, slurp, suck - PMP *ñepñep

hold in the mouth and suck - PMP *mulmul

sip, suck - PMP *cupcup

sip, suck - PAN *sipsip

sip, suck - PAN *qesep

sip, suck - PWMP *sedut

sip, suck - PAN *supsup

sip, suck - PAN *sepsep

sip, suck - POC *susup

sip, suck - *-sep (root)

suck - PAN *q<um>esep

suck - POC *sosop

suck - *(noise)

suck noisily - PWMP *cutcut

suck, inhale - PAN *hisep

suck, inhale - POC *isop

suck, pull at with the lips - PWMP *ñutñut

to sip or suck in or out - PWMP *ma-ñepsep

to sip, suck on - PCEMP *ñopñop

to sip, to suck - PMP *sepsep-i

to sip, to suck - POC *sosop-i

to smoke (?), to suck (?) - PWMP *qudud

to suck - POC *topo

to suck - POC *ñoñop

to suck at the breast, suckle - PWMP *ma-ñusu

to suck up, suck out - PMP *mismis₂

to suck, sip - PAN *s<um>epsep

to suck, sip, soak up - PWMP *maŋ-qisep

to suckle, suck at the breast - PAN *s<um>usu

sucked

thing sucked (?) - PWMP *qisep-an

to be sucked up or in - PAN *sepsep-en

suckerfish

suckerfish, remora - POC *komi

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting - PMP *kemi

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting - POC *komi

suckerfish, remora: Echineis naucrates; hold on by biting’ - PMP *gemi

sucking

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *misi

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *misi-misi

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *miti

make a sucking sound, smack the lips - POC *miti-miti

sucking noise made as a signal to another person - PMP *misik

sucking, soaking up, absorbing - PMP *qisep

suckle

to suck at the breast, suckle - PWMP *ma-ñusu

to suckle, suck at the breast - PAN *s<um>usu

sudden

sudden, abrupt, unexpected - PPH *kelaqat

suddenly

attack suddenly, fall upon - *(loan)

be snatched, be seized suddenly - PPH *sakmal-én

puff, blow suddenly - PWMP *eput

snare, noose trap; spring up suddenly, jerk up (as a fishing line or noose trap) - PMP *bitik₁

snare, noose trap; spring up suddenly, jerk up (as a fishing line or noose trap) - POC *pintik

sob, inhale suddenly - PWMP *si(n)dek

spring back suddenly; spring-set spear trap; the constellation Orion - PWMP *bala(n)tik

suddenly - PPh *bigláq

suddenly appear, come into view suddenly or partially - PPH *tuq(e)maw

to jerk suddenly, jump when startled - PAN *kezuC

suds

foam, suds - PMP *busa₁

foam, suds - POC *busa₂

suffer

be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true - PMP *kena₁

person who suffers from extreme flatulence - PWMP *paŋ-qetut-an

suffer from an inflated abdomen as punishment for wrongdoing - PWMP *busuŋ-en

suffer illness - PWMP *haŋin-en

suffer in silence, conceal an illness - PWMP *pelaqam

suffer, bear hardships - PWMP *hidap

suffering

hurting; sick with something, suffering from an illness - PWMP *sakit-en

sufficient

sufficient, enough - PPH *sapat₂

suffix

1pl. incl. genitive suffix - PAN *-ta

1pl. incl. possessive suffix - POC *-da₂

1pl. incl. subject prefix and possessive suffix; we (incl.); our (incl.) - POC *da₂

imperative suffix - PAN *-a₁

imperative suffix - PAN *-i₁

local transitive suffix - PMP *-i₂

numeral suffix - *(noise)

subjunctive suffix - PAN *-a₃

transitive and imperative suffix - POC *-ia

verbal suffix marking locative focus; nominal suffix marking location - PAN *-an

suffocate

smother, suffocate - PMP *hemut

stifle, suffocate; drown - PMP *lemes

suffocating

smothering, suffocating - PAN *Semut

suffruticosa

indigo plant and dye: Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) and Indigofera tinctoria L. - PMP *taRum

sugar

black ant, probably sugar ant - PWMP *sejem

fungus that grows on the sugar palm; tinder - PMP *baruk

sugar palm: Arenga spp. - PMP *qanahaw

the sugar palm Arenga saccharifera, Arenga pinnata - PWMP *izuk

sugar~apple

sugar apple: Anona squamosa - *(loan)

sugarcane

be chewed on, of sugarcane - PWMP *ququs-en

chew something tough, as sugarcane - PCEMP *ŋaŋas

chewing on sugarcane - PMP *ququs

sugarcane - POC *na topu

sugarcane - *(loan)

sugarcane wine - PPH *bási

sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum - PAN *CebuS

sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum - PAN *tebuS

sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum - PMP *tebuh₂

sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum - PMP *tebuh₁

to boil sugarcane to make sugarcane wine - PPH *abuyu

to chew on sugarcane - PWMP *maŋ-ququs

suicide

commit suicide by hanging - POC *liko₁

kill; commit suicide - POC *paka-mate

kill; commit suicide (?) - PMP *pa(ka)-m-atay

suitable

appropriate, suitable, right; fit together; hit the mark - PAN *tama₁

appropriate, suitable; fit together - PMP *tamaq₁

same kind or type; fitting; well-matched; suitable - PWMP *bagay₁

various, suitable, equal - *(loan)

sulk

sulk; feel remorse - PPH *tampuq

sulphur

sulphur - PMP *maliraŋ

sulphur - *(loan)

summit

peak, summit - PWMP *puncek

peak, summit - PPH *pantuk

peak, summit, top - PWMP *puncu

top, summit, crown - PAN *tuktuk₂

top, summit, crown - *-tuk₄ (root)

summon

call (v.), summon (spirits) - *(loan)

summon others to join an activity - PWMP *azak

to call, summon; chant to call the spirits - PWMP *tawaR₂

sun

day, sun, light - *(noise)

day; sun; dry in the sun - PAN *waRi₁

die; dead; eclipse of sun or moon - PAN *ma-aCay

enter, penetrate; to set, of the sun - PMP *surup₁

expose to the heat of a fire or the sun - PPH *i-da(ŋ)dáŋ

expose to the heat of a fire or the sun - PWMP *maŋ-daŋdaŋ

expose to the sun, dry in the sun - PPh *belaj

exposed to the sun - POC *bilac

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

head cover, protection from sun or rain - PMP *tuduŋ

overcast, darkened, as the sun - POC *kurom

place in the sun - PPh *qalejaw-an

radiance, as of rising sun - PMP *banaqaR

rays of the sun - PPH *inaR

set, of the sun - PWMP *si(n)dep

sheltered, as from wind, rain, or sun - PMP *duŋduŋ

sink, immerse oneself in water, dive into the water; to set, of the sun - PAN *selem₁

spread out in the sun to dry - PMP *bilaj

sun - POC *qalo₁

sun - PAN *siNaR

sun (‘eye of the day’) - PAN *mata nu qalejaw

sun hat, used to provide shade - PPH *taduŋ

sunrise, rising sun; to show off, be ostentatious, parade one’s talents, possessions, etc. - PPH *sikát

tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.; rays of the sun - POC *kawe₂

tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.; rays of the sun - POC *kawe₁

the Malayan sun bear: Ursus malayanus - PWMP *baRuaŋ

to be dried near a fire or by the sun - PWMP *daŋdaŋ-en

to dry something in the sun - PPH *kagkag

to dry something in the sun - PWMP *kaRkaR

to rise, of the sun, moon or stars - PPH *sebaŋ

to set, of the sun - POC *sorop

to shine, of the sun - PPH *siŋgít

to shine, of the sun - PAN *saheNaR

to shine, of the sun - PMP *sanaR

to shine, of the sun - PAN *q<um>ajaw

sunbeam

ray of light, sunbeam - PMP *sinaR

sun-dried

sun-dried fish - *(loan)

sung

chant or sung narrative - PWMP *kiduŋ

sunken

curved inward, sunken - PWMP *sa(ŋ)kuŋ₂

sunken, submerged - PMP *eñep

sunlight

sunlight - PWMP *benaR

sunny

sunny, hot - PAN *ma-qajaw

sunrise

sunrise, rising sun; to show off, be ostentatious, parade one’s talents, possessions, etc. - PPH *sikát

sunshine

daylight; morning sunshine - PWMP *siaŋ

superlative

big, huge; superlative - PCEMP *tinana

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

stative prefix marking high degree of some quality; extremely; superlative marker - PPH *ka-₃

supplement

add to, increase; addition, supplement - PWMP *tambaq

supplies

run out, come to an end, of supplies; be poor - PMP *kabus₁

to run out of supplies, lack something needed - PWMP *kapus

use up supplies - PWMP *seked

support

destitute, without means of support - PPH *pugerut

hilt of knife or bolo; to support - PWMP *saŋga₁

monetary support - *(loan)

parallel sticks used to support a load - PPH *laŋen₂

prop, support - PMP *teked

prop, support - PAN *tukud

prop, support - PAN *tuked

prop, support - PWMP *sekad

prop, support - *-kad (root)

prop, support, as the boom of a sail - PWMP *sukuŋ

prop, support, boom of a sail - *(loan)

prop, support; staff - PWMP *tu(ŋ)kad

prop, support; staff - *-ked (root)

prop, support; to prop up or support - PAN *suked

scaffolding, support - PWMP *pala pala₁

support beams in a house - PMP *bara₂

support beams in a house - PMP *barabara₁

support from below - *(noise)

to arrest the progress of something by stopping or catching it; to support, keep from falling - PWMP *saŋgaq

to lead, support (as a feeble person) - PPH *kabít

to prop up, support - PWMP *maR-tuked

transverse beams that support the roof of a house - POC *sokar

transverse beams that support the roof of a house; thwart or ribs of a boat - PMP *seŋkar

supported

to be supported, propped up - PWMP *tuked-en

supporting

crossbeam supporting floor - *(noise)

give a supporting hand - PWMP *abat₁

inhabited land, territory supporting the life of a community - PMP *banua

prop, supporting beam in house - PPH *tukal

supposition

supposition - *(noise)

suppurate

to suppurate, of a wound - PWMP *nanaq-en

to suppurate, ooze pus - PWMP *maR-nanaq

surely

truly, surely, really, in fact - PPH *talagá

surf

breakers, surf, waves - PAN *Nabek

breakers, surf, waves - PMP *nabek

breakers, surf, waves - POC *napok

surface

a cover; to cover with a flat surface - PAN *tekep

bite off the surface of something - PAN *ŋabŋab

bob on the surface of the water; float - PPH *kataŋ-kataŋ

calm, still, as the surface of water - PWMP *teneŋ

calm, still, as the surface of water - PMP *linaw

calm, still, as the surface of water - PMP *ma-linaw

calm, still, of the surface of water - POC *ma-lino

calm, tranquil, of the surface of water - PAN *liNuŋ

calm, tranquil, of the surface of water - PWMP *lineŋ

calm, tranquil, of the surface of water - PMP *linaŋ

calm, tranquil, of the surface of water - PMP *linuŋ

come to the surface - PPH *kápaw

come to the surface, appear from below - PWMP *timbul

flat surface - *(near)

foam on the surface of water - PMP *bujeq ni wahiR

insert, stick into a soft surface - *-sek₂ (root)

kind of brush made from coconut husk, used to scrub or polish a surface or to treat threads before weaving - PWMP *sikat

lard, fat, greasy scum on the surface of liquids - PPH *laneb

lie on a surface, of water - PMP *lama₁

lower surface, bottom; short, low; below, beneath, under - PMP *babaq₁

pinch or squeeze between two surfaces - PPh *higpít

pinch, squeeze, press between two surfaces; pluck, pick off - PAN *pitpit₂

press between two flat surfaces - PMP *liq(e)pit

press between two flat surfaces; to press down, crush - PMP *luqepit

press together, press between two surfaces - PAN *Sapit

press together, press between two surfaces; part of the loom - PMP *hapit

rise to the surface of water - PWMP *ubal

scoop up, skim from the surface - PPH *saRap

scrape something off a surface so as to uncover it - PPH *kuykúy₂

scrape, scratch something from a surface - PAN *k<ar>uSkuS

scrape, scratch something from a surface - PWMP *k<ar>uhkuh

surface on which something is spread - PWMP *bekelaj-an

to crush or mash between two hard surfaces - PMP *pipis₂

to scoop up, skim from the surface - PPH *s<um>aRap

to scrape smooth, to plane a surface - PAN-F *RuSRuS

to skim over the surface - PMP *tapis₂

to tap lightly on a hard surface - PWMP *ma-niktik

to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface - PAN *tiktik₁

to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface - PMP *tiktik₁

to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface - POC *titik₂

top surface of something - PPH *taq(e)paw

upper surface, top, above - PMP *bawbaw

upper surface, top, above - PCEMP *bobo₂

upper surface, top; highlands; on, upon, over, above - PAN *babaw₃

wedge, piece used to stabilize surfaces - PPH *taŋen

surgeonfish

surgeonfish - *(near)

surgeonfish: Acanthurus spp. - PMP *qapaliR

surgical operation

surgical operation - *(loan)

surpass

exceed, surpass, go beyond - PWMP *lalaw

excess; more than; surpass - PMP *labi

surpass, exceed - PMP *liu₁

surpass, exceed, overdo - PPH *lepaw₃

surpassing

surpassing in age (?) - PWMP *ka-tuqah

surplus

abundance, surplus - PWMP *labeŋ

excess, surplus - PAN *labiq

excess, surplus - PWMP *lebiq

extra, surplus, in addition to - PWMP *kapin

in excess, overabundant; surplus - PPH *saway

more (intensive), even more, moreso; surplus - PWMP *laluq

more (intensive), even more, moreso; surplus; to worsen (as an illness) - PWMP *lalu₁

remainder, surplus - PMP *iba iba₁

remainder, surplus - POC *iba iba₂

surprise

ambush, surprise attack - PPH *tambáŋ

exclamation of acknowledgement, surprise, etc. - PMP *qu₁

exclamation of annoyance, surprise, etc. - PAN *aya₁

exclamation of pain or surprise - PWMP *ajiq

exclamation of surprise - POC *awa

exclamation of surprise, etc. - PMP *ihi

exclamation of surprise, etc. - PAN *ua₁

exclamation of surprise, pain, etc. - PMP *iqi

exclamation to express surprise, call attention, etc. - PMP *uy

exclamation to express surprise, call to a friend, respond to a distant call, etc. - PMP *huy

expression, as of displeasure or surprise - PPh *ata₂

interjection of pain, surprise, etc. - PWMP *qau

interjection, exclamation of surprise, incredulity, etc. - PAN *ai₂

to meet or greet someone who is arriving, or who one encounters by surprise - PPH *sabat-en

surprised

surprised, amazed - PMP *beŋap

surround

go around, envelop, surround - PWMP *l<um>iput

surround, besiege - PWMP *kepuŋ

surround, encircle - PWMP *pa-libut

surround, encircle - *-kub₂ (root)

surround, encircle, as game - PWMP *libut

surround, encircle, as in attacking someone - PPH *liput₁

to encircle, surround - PPH *lukúb

to surround, encircle - PWMP *li(ŋ)kub

to surround, hedge in, besiege - PPH *k<um>ubkub

to surround, lay siege to - PPH *kubkub₁

surrounded

be surrounded, hedged in, besieged - PPH *kubkub-en

surrounding

all around, surrounding - PMP *temu₁

round about, around, in one’s surroundings; go around - PMP *kuliliŋ

surrround

surrround in order to confine or protect - PWMP *kuŋkuŋ₄

suspect

guess, suspect - PPh *antap

guess, suspect - *(noise)

suspend

hang, suspend - PPh *bítin

hang, suspend - PPh *bítin-bítin

suspend from poles - *(noise)

to hang on a hook, suspend from something - PPH *i-saqebít

to hang, suspend - POC *saur₁

to hang, suspend - POC *kukut

suspended

be hung, suspended - PPh *bitay-en

suspension

suspension bridge - PWMP *kitey

suspension bridge - PMP *titey

suspension bridge - *-tay (root)

suspicion

sexual jealousy, suspicion - PPh *qimún

suspicious

cautious, suspicious - PWMP *elem₂

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sw

swallow

a bird, the swallow - PWMP *pini

a bird, the swallow - PWMP *pinis

a bird, the swallow - PWMP *kala-pini

chew without intending to swallow, as betel nut; premasticate food to give to an infant; premasticated food - PMP *mamaq

eat voraciously, gulp down, swallow whole - PPH *lamun₂

gulp, swallow - PWMP *leq(e)guk

to gulp, swallow all at once - PMP *teguk

to swallow - PCEMP *belen

to swallow - PMP *tilen

to swallow - PWMP *tuñen

to swallow - POC *sonom

to swallow - PMP *telen

to swallow - POC *toñom

to swallow - PMP *teñen

to swallow - POC *toloŋ

to swallow - POC *toŋol

to swallow - POC *polon

to swallow - POC *toñon

to swallow - *-len (root)

to swallow - *(noise)

swamp

a swamp palm: Nipa fruticans - PMP *nipaq

a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp. - PWMP *paRatpat

a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp. - PWMP *paRepat

mangrove swamp - PPH *ka-bakaw-an

pool, deep place in water; swamp - PCMP *tibu₁

swamp - POC *pasa

swamp - *(loan)

swamp grass - PMP *lamun₁

swamp, morass - PWMP *rawaq

swamphen

a bird, probably the swamphen - PPH *tiuk

swampy

swidden farm in swampy ground - PWMP *latiq

swarm

be attracted to, swarm around, as ants do on finding food - PPH *dapu

be caught in a mosquito swarm, be overwhelmed by mosquitos - PPH *ñamuk-en

gather, collect; swarm around - PMP *quruŋ

group, company, collection, swarm - PMP *baban

heap, pile, swarm, flock; to swarm, assemble, gather - PMP *ebun

swarm around - PWMP *gurumut

swarm together - PWMP *pekpek₂

teem, swarm - PWMP *daRayaʔ

teem, swarm - PWMP *kemut

to be agitated, of water, as when fish swarm - PPH *kabuR

sway

shake, sway - PWMP *iuŋ

shake, sway - PWMP *guyaq

shake, sway - PWMP *guyeŋ

shake, sway - PWMP *guyuŋ

shake, sway, as the ground in an earthquake - PMP *huyuŋ

shake, sway, rock - PWMP *huyaŋ

shake, sway, stagger - PWMP *huyug

shake, sway, stagger - PWMP *kuyuŋ

shake, sway, stagger - PWMP *Ruyuŋ

shake, sway, stagger - PWMP *uyeg

shake, sway, stagger - PWMP *uyug

shake, sway, stagger - PMP *uyuR

shake, sway, swing - PWMP *hayun

sway - *(loan)

sway - *(noise)

sway - *(noise)

sway, move - *(noise)

sway, shake, wiggle - PWMP *giwaq

sway, totter - PWMP *luyuŋ

swing, sway, rock - PMP *ayuŋ₂

to sway back and forth, as plant stems in the wind - PWMP *liŋgaŋ

to sway, stagger, turn this way and that - PPH *talátal

to sway, swing (as a cradle) - PMP *buqay

sweat

sweat, perspiration - PMP *atiŋ

sweat, perspiration - PWMP *liŋet

sweat, perspiration - PMP *qatiŋ

sweaty

stench of sweaty armpits - PWMP *aŋ(e)cej

stench of sweaty armpits - PWMP *aŋ(e)ceŋ

sweaty armpits, stench of sweaty armpits - PWMP *qaŋesej

sweep

broom, to sweep - POC *salap

broom, to sweep - POC *salap-i

scratch up, sweep or rake up - PPH *kaykáy

sweep - PWMP *payupas

sweep - PAN-F *Capuh

sweep away - *(noise)

to sweep - PAN-F *C<um>apu

to sweep aside, clean by throwing aside - PPH *lunlun₁

to sweep aside, clean by throwing aside - PPH *lunlun-en

to sweep with a broom - PWMP *ma-ñapu

sweet

fat, grease; sweet taste - POC *moña-moñak

fat; sweet, tasty - POC *moñak₂

sweet - PMP *taq(e)mis

sweet - PMP *ma-hemis

sweet - *(loan)

sweet taste - PMP *emis₁

sweet taste - PMP *hemis

sweet taste - PEMP *emis₂

sweet, fresh (of water) - POC *mamis

sweet; insipid, as fresh water - PCEMP *ma-emis

sweetlips

a fish, the banded sweetlips, Plectorhinchus spp. - POC *lau

sweet-smelling

fragrant, sweet-smelling - POC *manoŋi

fragrant, sweet-smelling - PPH *ma-baŋlu

Sweetsop

Sweetsop: Annona squamosa - *(loan)

sweet soybean dish

sweet soybean dish - *(loan)

swell

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

long rolling wave, swell, billow - PMP *qalun

rise and fall like the swells at sea - PWMP *humbak-humbak

swell up - PMP *buŋbuŋ₄

swell up - POC *pupuŋ

swell up, as boiling rice; boil over - PMP *luab

swell, increase in size - PMP *beŋkak

swell; swelling, tumor - PAN-F *Ribawa

to billow, swell (of waves at sea) - PWMP *maŋ-qalun

to swell, boil - POC *paRaq₁

to swell; swollen - PAN-F *bunuR₁

to swell; swollen - PAN-F *ma-bunuR

wave at sea, sea swell - PPH *paluŋ₂

wave, billow, swell at sea - PWMP *humbak

swelling

abscess, boil, swelling on the body - PAN *baReq

bulge, swelling - POC *potu₂

disease that causes swelling of body parts - PWMP *baguq

hydropoesia, bodily swelling caused by water retention - PMP *belbel₂

hydropoesia, bodily swelling caused by water retention - POC *popol

kind of vine that causes swelling and itching - PPH *lipay

lump, swelling; seed - PWMP *bukel

node, joint; knuckle; swelling under the skin - POC *buku-buku

painful swelling in limbs - POC *tupa₁

swell; swelling, tumor - PAN-F *Ribawa

swelling - *(loan)

swelling of the body - PAN *bedul

swelling of the body - PMP *bendul

swelling; lump or bump under the skin - PWMP *buŋkug

swelling; lump or bump under the skin - POC *buŋkul₂

swelling; lump or bump under the skin; wad of something - PMP *buŋkul₁

to subside, of a swelling - PPH *kebet₂

swept

swept away - PWMP *s<in>apu

swerve

turn aside, swerve to avoid a collision - PWMP *tipas

swiddden

swiddden; work a swidden - PMP *quma

swidden

clear a swidden - PWMP *maŋ-quma

felling of trees, as in preparing a swidden - PWMP *tebeŋ

swiddden; work a swidden - PMP *quma

swidden - *(loan)

swidden farm in swampy ground - PWMP *latiq

swidden, work a swidden - PAN *qumah

to fell trees, as in preparing a swidden - PWMP *ma-nebeŋ

work a swidden - PWMP *maR-quma

swift

agile, quick, swift, energetic - PMP *ta(ŋ)kas

quick, swift - PMP *cekas

swift, agile, strong, energetic - *-kas₃ (root)

swift, energetic - PMP *ti(ŋ)kas

swift, fast - PAN *bekas₂

swift, fast, speedy - PPH *kaskas₂

swift, strong, energetic, fast - PMP *bakas

swiftly

flow swiftly - POC *tape-tape

swiftly flowing, of water; heavy, of rain - PMP *deRes

swim

bathe, swim - POC *loso-loso

to dive, swim under water - PAN *ledep

to dive, swim under water - PAN *l<um>edep

to swim - PWMP *daŋuy

to swim - PWMP *laŋuy

to swim - PAN *Naŋuy

to swim - PWMP *taŋuy

to swim - POC *kaRu₁

to swim - PWMP *l<um>aŋuy

to swim - PMP *naŋuy

to swim - PAN *N<um>aŋuy

swimming

stroke (as in swimming) - *(noise)

swine

get smallpox; get swine disease - PPh *butih-en

smallpox; swine disease - PPh *butí

swing

a swing; to swing - PMP *bui₃

a swing; to swing - PMP *bui bui

shake, sway, swing - PWMP *hayun

swing - PWMP *tayun

swing the arms - PWMP *kayaŋ

swing, oscillate - PWMP *tayug

swing, sway, rock - PMP *ayuŋ₂

swing, wave - *(noise)

to sway, swing (as a cradle) - PMP *buqay

to swing, be unsteady - PWMP *uyut₂

to swing, oscillate - PWMP *ayun

turn over, rock back and forth, swing - POC *pui₂

turn over, rock back and forth, swing - POC *pui pui

wag, swing from side to side - PAN *witiwit

swinging

swinging cradle for an infant - PPH *dúyan

Swinhoe

the male of Swinhoe’s blue pheasant - PAN-F *RiNaS-an

swish

to dissolve something in water; swish around in water - PPH *nawnáw

swishing

rustling or swishing sound - PWMP *sik

sound of swishing water - PWMP *deguʔ

sound of swishing, as of hand passing through water - PPH *kisaw

swollen

be afflicted with a swollen abdomen as a result of violating customary law. - PWMP *busuŋ

bloated, swollen - PWMP *buntuR

bloated, swollen (of the belly) - PMP *buntuʔ

glutted, sated; swollen (of the belly) - PMP *be(n)tuR

glutted, sated; swollen (of the belly) - PMP *be(n)tur

swollen - POC *kobuŋ

swollen - *(noise)

swollen belly - PWMP *bentis

swollen, distended, of the belly - PWMP *buntuD

swollen, expanding outward - PWMP *kembaŋ

swollen, filled out - PMP *kembuŋ

swollen, of the abdomen as a result of the violation of customary law - PWMP *ma-busuŋ

swollen, of the flesh - PPh *butúy

to swell; swollen - PAN-F *bunuR₁

to swell; swollen - PAN-F *ma-bunuR

sword

cleaver, sword - PMP *ladiŋ

cutlass, sword - *(loan)

handle of a knife or sword - PWMP *daŋanan

sword - PAN-F *takis

sword - *(loan)

sword grass, Imperata cylindrica - PMP *guRun

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - PCEMP *bitu

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - PAN *eRiq

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - PAN *Riaq

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - PAN-F *Rimeja

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - POC *pitu₂

sword grass: Imperata cylindrica - POC *guRun

sword or sword-like appendage - PPH *tabák

uncultivated field, open grassland; field covered with sword grass (Imperata cylindrica) - PWMP *padaŋ

weaver's sword (lath used to beat in and tighten the woof) - PAN *baRija

weaver's sword (lath used to beat in and tighten the woof) - PMP *balija

swordfish

sailfish, swordfish - PMP *saku-layaR

sword-kris

sword, kris, bolo - *(loan)

sword-like

sword or sword-like appendage - PPH *tabák

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sy

sympathy

pity, compassion, affection, love, sympathy, forgiveness - PMP *qasiq

synchronized

in harmony, synchronized - *(loan)

syrup or sauce of coconut milk

syrup or sauce of coconut milk - *(loan)

Syzygium

a tree and its fruit, the Java plum: Syzygium cumini - PPH *luŋ(e)búy

the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense - POC *kapika

the Malay apple: Syzygium malaccense - POC *kapiku

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/17/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_s.htm