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Updated: 9/22/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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T

te    th    ti    to    tr    tu    tw    ty    

table

leaf; blade of paddle or oar; ‘table’ for eating - PMP *dahun

table - *(loan)

taboo

forbidden taboo - *(loan)

forbidden, taboo - PCEMP *tambu

forbidden, taboo - POC *tabu

formal gathering, as of chiefs, with possible connections to announcing temporary taboos - POC *ponor

taboo - POC *tabu-na

taboo - POC *pali₂

taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite - PAN *paliSi

to forbid, make taboo - POC *paka-tabu

tabooed

be tabooed - POC *tabu-ni-a

be tabooed (?) - PAN *paliSi-en

taciturn

silent, taciturn - PWMP *Renek

tack

to wind, curve, turn to the side; to tack, sail into the wind - PMP *biluk

tadpole

tadpole - *(noise)

tag

marker of a tag question - PMP *ha₁

Tahitian

a tree: Inocarpus spp., possibly the Tahitian chestnut: Inocarpus edulis - PMP *gayam

the ‘Tahitian chestnut’: Inocarpus fagiferus or I. edulis - POC *ipi₂

tail

a plant with flowers the shape of a dog's tail, used to treat abscesses - PMP *ikuR ikuR ni asu

cut short, as a bird’s tail - PWMP *puŋgu

have a tail - PWMP *maR-ikuR

long tail feathers of bird or rooster - PMP *lawi₁

short-tailed; cropped, of the tail - PPH *kibul

something that resembles a tail feather (?) - PWMP *lawi-lawi

tail - PAN *ikuR

tail - PMP *ikuŋ

tail - PPh *ipus

tail - PAN *kikuR

tail; end of something long, as a rope; tip of a leaf - POC *siku

wagging of tail - *(near)

tail-bone

tail-bone of animals - PWMP *imput

tailless

tailless (of birds or fowls), round-tailed (of fowls) - PWMP *tukuŋ

tailless, of birds - PWMP *puŋguk

tailor

a bird and its call, probably the tailor bird: Orthotomus atrogularis - PPH *tiwtiw

tainted

beginning to spoil, tainted (of food left uneaten too long) - PMP *baRiw

beginning to spoil, tainted (of food left uneaten too long) - PCEMP *baRi

taitensis

a tree: Rhus taitensis - POC *tawasi

take

able to fetch, get, take, reach - PPh *maka-alap

breath; life force, breath soul; to breathe; breathe easily, feel comfort, be at ease, have ‘breathing room’; to rest, take a break - PMP *nihawa

bring, take along - PWMP *embaq

bring, take along - PAN-F *adaS

cluster (b) == repay, return in kind; retaliate, take revenge (hence: to equalize a loss or debt) - PMP *baliw₄

come out, take out - PCMP *lesu₂

fetch, get, take - PAN *alap

fetch, get, take - PWMP *maŋ-alap

fetch, get, take - PWMP *um-alap

fetch, get, take - PWMP *alap-en

fetch, get, take - PAN *alaq₁

fetch, get, take - PWMP *maŋ-alaq₁

fetch, get, take - PAN *um-alaq

get, bring, take - POC *pa-i

get, take, bring - POC *pa₂

go around the edge, take a detour - PPH *liklík

go directly, take a shortcut - PWMP *la(n)t(e)qas

go or do something slowly, take one’s time - PPH *ananay₂

hold, get, take - POC *abit₂

lift, carry, bring; emerge, appear, begin; take a spouse - POC *puat₂

pinch, take up with the fingers - PWMP *zepit

side path, branch or fork in path or stream; take a side path or way; crossroads - PMP *simpaŋ

snatch, take away by force - PWMP *maŋ-qaRaw

snatch, take away by force, rob - PAN *qaRaw

squeeze between; pinch, take between fingers - PMP *Ri(m)pit

stop an activity, take a break, rest - PAN-F *Seked

take a long step, step over something - PWMP *akaŋ

take a side path - POC *siba₁

take a trip; commence a voyage - PPH *luás

take a woman as mistress - PPh *ba-bahi-en

take advantage of a situation or opportunity, exploit an advantage - PPH *sambut₁

take all that remains - PPH *simut

take apart, dismantle; break open - PMP *buŋkaR

take away from, dispossess - PWMP *pucut₂

take care, be careful - PWMP *maR-iŋat

take cover, hide behind - PPH *kub(e)li

take hold of, grasp - POC *abi

take hold of, grasp - POC *qabi

take hold of, grasp, touch with the hand - POC *taŋop

take in the hand, clasp, grasp - PAN *gemel

take in the hand, clasp, grasp - PMP *kemel

take off, remove (+ noun) - PAN *Su-

take one's time - PWMP *lantaŋ

take out - *(noise)

take passage, catch a ride in someone else’s boat - PWMP *tumpaŋ₂

take shelter, cover the head - PMP *teduŋ₁

take something home - PPh *i-uliq

take with fingers - *(noise)

take with hand - *(noise)

take with the fingers - PWMP *cubit

take with the hands - PWMP *maŋ-ambit

take with the hands - PWMP *maR-ambit

take, bring - *(noise)

take, get, fetch, obtain; marry - PAN *ala

to breathe; to rest, take a ‘breather’ - POC *mañawa

to fetch, get, take - PAN *um-ala

to lift, stand up, arise, emerge, begin, depart, carry; cargo; take something; take a wife - PMP *buhat₃

to notice, take note of; recognize - PWMP *ma-ŋilala

to rest, take a break from work or other activity - PAN *Ceked

to seize, take by force - PPH *ma-ñamsám

to seize, take by force - PWMP *kamkam

to seize, take by force, snatch from another’s hands; pillage - PPH *samsám

to stride, take a step - PMP *lakaj

to stride, take a step - POC *lakas

to take care of, protect - PWMP *k<um>upkup

to take root, grow roots - PWMP *maka-Ramut

walk about, take a walk - POC *pajale

walk, take a step - PAN *lakat₂

taken

be fetched, be taken - PAN *ma-ala

be snatched away, taken away by force - PPh *qaRaw-en

be taken - PAN *ma-alap

be taken - PAN *alaq-en

be taken - PAN *ala-en

booty, war captive; what is taken in war; elopement, captured bride - PMP *taban

captive, one taken alive in war; to spare, allow to live - PWMP *bihaR

fetched, gotten, taken - PWMP *ka-alap

fetched, gotten, taken - PWMP *ka-alap-an

head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?) - PAN *tabaN

taken, fetched - PWMP *ma-alaq

that which has been taken; was taken by - PAN *in-alap

what is taken (?) - PWMP *alap-an

take with fingers

pick up, take with fingers - *(loan)

taking

taking place at night - PPH *Rabi-en

to join, unite with in taking sides - PPH *k<um>ampi

visual assessment of something, as in taking aim, making a straight line, or forming an opinion - PWMP *sipat

talent

special talent - POC *bilak₂

sunrise, rising sun; to show off, be ostentatious, parade one’s talents, possessions, etc. - PPH *sikát

Talinum

plant with leaves used as a vegetable: Talinum paniculatum or Talinum triangulare - PPH *talínum

talisman

amulet, talisman - *(loan)

talisman, protective charm - *(loan)

talk

sound of chattering or loud talk - PWMP *kicaq

talk, talk about, discuss - PAN-F *kawaS₂

to speak, talk, say - PWMP *kuan₂

word; talk; conversation; language - PMP *sau₄

talking

caw, as a crow; raucous talking of people - PWMP *gakgak

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; to foam, to bubble; foam at the mouth; fond of talking; type of white bead - PMP *bujeq₂

sound of rapid talking - PPH *kata

tall

a tall forest tree which emits an unpleasant odor: Sterculia foetida - PMP *bubuR₃

a tall tree: Parkia spp. - PPH *kúpaŋ

high, tall - PAN *aCas

high, tall - PMP *atas

high, tall - PMP *laŋkaw

high, tall - *-kaw (root)

kind of tall grass: Themeda gigantea - PPH *taŋ(e)laj

tall - *(noise)

tall, high - PWMP *ma-atas

tall, of trees (especially coconut palms) - PPH *láyug

talon

claw, talon, fingernail - PAN *kuSkuS₁

claw, talon, fingernail - PMP *kukuh

claw, talon, fingernail - PAN *k<aN>uSkuS

claw, talon, fingernail - PMP *k<an>uhkuh

Talpa

Formosan blind mole: Talpa micrura insularis (Swinhoe) - PAN-F *mumu

tamarind

fruit tree, tamarind, Tamarindus indica - *(loan)

tame

accustomed to, familiar with; tame - PAN *najam

accustomed to, familiar with; tame - PAN *ma-najam

accustomed to, tame - PAN *dajam

accustomed to, tame - PAN *ma-dajam

tame, accustomed, used to - POC *lasa₁

tame, docile - PPH *ma-hamuq

tame, docile - POC *ma-nacam

tame, docile, mild-mannered - PPH *haq(e)muq

to become tame or gentle - PPH *h<um>amuq

tamed

pet animal, animal that is tamed by humans feeding it - POC *paŋan-i

tanarius

a tree and the tannin that it yields: probably Macaranga tanarius - PWMP *samak

a tree; Macaranga tanarius - PPh *binuŋa

tandem

pound rice in tandem - PPh *asúd

pound rice in tandem - PPh *maR-asúd

tang

sailfin tang: Zebrasoma veliferum - POC *piRa₂

tang of a knife, etc. which fits into the haft to attach blade and handle - PMP *utiŋ

tangled

tangled, confused, complicated - PWMP *gusut

tangled, disordered, untidy - PWMP *kusut

tannin

a tree and the tannin that it yields: probably Macaranga tanarius - PWMP *samak

tap

rap or tap lightly - PPH *tiltil

rap, tap - PWMP *tirtir₂

tap or beat lightly on - PMP *gi(n)tik

tap or flick (finger, small implement, etc.) against something - PAN *t<um>iktik

tap, beat - PPH *lab(e)tik

tap, thump - PMP *te(m)bek

tap, touch, or reach in with the finger - PWMP *kuhit

to tap lightly on a hard surface - PWMP *ma-niktik

to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface - PAN *tiktik

to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface - PMP *tiktik

to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface - POC *titik₂

touch or tap so as to draw someone's attention - PMP *kebit

tapering

tapering, attenuating to a point - PWMP *tirus

tapping

sound of patting or tapping - PAN *pikpik

sound of tapping or flicking (of finger, small implement, etc.) - PMP *tik₁

sound of tapping or flicking (of finger, small implement, etc.) against something - PAN *tik₁

sound of ticking, flipping, light tapping - PWMP *pa(n)tik

target

be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true - PMP *kena₁

do something wrong, make a mistake; miss the target - PWMP *s<um>alaq

throw something at a target; shoot with bow and arrow - PAN *panaq

taro

cultivated taro: Colocasia esculenta - PAN-F *Cali

cut, slice into pieces, as breadfruit or taro - POC *siba

pounded taro with coconut cream - POC *moñak₁

taro - POC *mwapo

taro - *(noise)

taro sp. - *(noise)

taro species - *(loan)

taro variety - *(loan)

taro: Colocasia esculenta - PMP *tales

taro: Colocasia esculenta - POC *talos

wild taro, elephant-ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - POC *piRaq₂

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - PAN *biRaq₁

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - PWMP *biRaʔ

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp.; sexual itch - PMP *biRaq₁

tarpon

a white fish, the tarpon: Megalops cyprinoides - PMP *bulan-bulan₁

a white fish, the tarpon: Megalops cyprinoides - POC *pu-pulan

tart

tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits - PWMP *sapeled

tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits - PWMP *sapelet

tartar

dirt on skin; dandruff; tartar on teeth - PMP *daki

taste

acrid or bitter taste - PWMP *pelet

astringent taste, as of unripe bananas - PWMP *peled

fat, grease; sweet taste - POC *moña-moñak

fibrous and dry to the taste - PPH *sagapsap

having an unpleasant taste - PWMP *qanta

hotness of taste, spiciness; bitterness - PAN *paqiC

saltiness, salty taste - PAN *qasiN

sip, taste slightly - PPH *timtim

sweet taste - PMP *emis₁

sweet taste - PMP *hemis

sweet taste - PEMP *emis₂

tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits - PWMP *sapeled

tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits - PWMP *sapelet

taste - PMP *ñamit

taste - *(loan)

taste of unripe banana; slightly bitter or astringent taste - PMP *apeled

taste, test, try - PMP *tepeŋ₁

taste, test, try - POC *topoŋ

tasting 'woody' or coarse; astringent taste, as of unripe bananas - PWMP *sapela

to taste - POC *ñabi

to taste, savor something - PPH *mag-námit

to taste, try - PMP *tamis

to taste, try - PAN-F *taNam

to taste, try - PMP *tamiq

to try, taste - PWMP *kiñam

try the taste of something - PWMP *taway

try, taste - PAN *tañam

tasteless

tasteless, insipid - PMP *qambaR

tasteless, insipid; powerless; antidote, as against snakebite - PWMP *tabaR

tasteless, insipit - PPH *tabeqaŋ

tasteless; neutralize something efficacious, as an antidote for poison - PWMP *tawaR₁

tasting

spicy tasting - *(noise)

strong tasting - *(noise)

tasting 'woody' or coarse; astringent taste, as of unripe bananas - PWMP *sapela

tasty

fat, grease; tasty - PWMP *tabeq

fat, oil; oily, tasty - PCMP *bura

fat; sweet, tasty - POC *moñak₂

pleasant, agreeable; tasty, delicious - PWMP *sedep₂

savory, tasty - *-ñam (root)

tasty, delicious - PWMP *ñaman

tasty, delicious - PCEMP *ñañam

tasty, delicious (?) - PAN *ñamñam

tasty, savory - PPH *ñañam

tasty, savory - PPH *ma-ñañam

tatters

tear, in tatters - PWMP *Rabak

tattoo

make a design; tattoo - PWMP *batik₁

mottled design, as of a tattoo - PMP *batek

tattoo - PAN *beCik

tattoo - PMP *betik₂

tattoo - PAN-F *pataS

to tattoo, make designs - PAN-F *p<um>ataS

wingbone of flying fox, used in tattooing; tattoo - POC *sau₃

tattooed

tattooed, marked with a design - PAN *b<in>eCik

tattooed, marked with a design - PMP *b<in>etik

tattooing

an instrument for tattooing - PAN-F *pataS-an

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

wingbone of flying fox, used in tattooing; tattoo - POC *sau₃

taught

thing pointed out, shown, or taught - PWMP *ka-tuzuq-an

taut

extended, stretched taut, put under tension - PMP *benteŋ

stretch; taut - *-teŋ₃ (root)

taut - PWMP *geteŋ

taut - *(loan)

tight, taut - *(noise)

tax

tax, toll - *(loan)

taxing

difficult, taxing (of work); serious (of illness) - PWMP *payaq

taxon

crab taxon, probably a rock crab (Grapsidae) - POC *kape₂

TOP      te    th    ti    to    tr    tu    tw    ty    

te

teach

give knowledge, teach - PAN *pa-bajaq

to point at, indicate; teach, instruct - PWMP *i-tuzuq

to point, indicate; teach, instruct - PMP *tuzuq-i

to teach - POC *paka-usuri

tear

a cereal grass with edible seeds that are also used as beads, Job’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L. - PMP *zelay

a tear, small hole, or rip - PPH *punit

cut or tear off - PWMP *ri(n)tas

cut or tear open stitches - PWMP *t<um>astas

cut through, tear - PMP *ra(n)tas

front teeth, incisors; gnaw, to bite or tear off with the incisors - PMP *gutgut

rip or tear open - PMP *tetas

sever, tear - PMP *Ratas

sever, tear - PMP *rutas

split tear - *(noise)

split, tear open - PAN *beriq

split, tear open - PWMP *berit₂

tear a leaf or cloth into strips - PPH *kisay

tear apart something that one has made; undo - PPh *waswás₂

tear off, break off - PWMP *gisgis₂

tear or rip off - *-pas (root)

tear, in tatters - PWMP *Rabak

tear, rip - PMP *bitas

tear, rip - PWMP *sitsit

tear, rip - *-tes (root)

tear, rip - *(noise)

tear, rip open (as cloth or stitches), snap (as string) - PMP *be(R)tas

tear, rip open, cut open - POC *potas

tear, split, cut - PMP *Risi

tear, split, cut - PMP *Risiq

tears - PWMP *wahiR ni mata

tears - PCEMP *waiR ni mata

tears - PAN *luSeq

tears - PMP *luheq

to rip, tear, shred - PWMP *testes

to shed tears, weep - PAN *maR-luSeq

to shed tears, weep - PMP *maR-luheq

to shed tears, weep - PPH *l<um>uheq

to tear - *(noise)

to tear, rip - PAN *biriC

to tear, rip - PMP *birit₁

to tear, rip (as cloth) - PPH *litas

to tear; split - POC *saRe

tearful

tearful, crying easily - PAN *ma-Caŋis

tearful, crying easily - PMP *ma-taŋis

tear into pieces

tear into pieces - *(loan)

tease

tease, vex, annoy - PWMP *uŋit

teem

teem, swarm - PWMP *daRayaʔ

teem, swarm - PWMP *kemut

teens

teens - *(loan)

teeth

angry; gnash the teeth - *-ŋeC (or *-ŋeqeC?) (root)

bare the teeth - PMP *biŋis

bare the teeth - PMP *waŋis

bare the teeth - PMP *wiŋis

bare the teeth - *-ŋis (root)

bare the teeth in smiling or laughing - PMP *riŋis₁

clean the teeth - PWMP *sugi

crush with the teeth - PMP *ŋasŋas

dirt on skin; dandruff; tartar on teeth - PMP *daki

food particles caught between the teeth - PAN *CiŋaS

food particles caught between the teeth - PMP *tiŋah

front teeth, incisors - PAN *gutgut

front teeth, incisors; gnaw, to bite or tear off with the incisors - PMP *gutgut

gnash the teeth - PAN *ŋeCŋeC

gnash the teeth in anger or impatience - PWMP *li(ŋ)get

grin widely, showing the teeth - PMP *beŋis₂

grin, show the teeth - PMP *ziziq

grin, show the teeth - PMP *ŋisŋis

grin, show the teeth - PWMP *ŋiŋi

grin, show the teeth - POC *ŋiŋis

grin, show the teeth - PMP *zizir

grin, show the teeth - POC *sisiq₂

grin, show the teeth - POC *sisir₂

have a painful feeling in the teeth, as when eating something very sour or cold, or hearing a screeching or scratching sound - PWMP *ŋilu-an

have food particles caught between the teeth - PAN *ma-CiŋaS

husk a coconut with the teeth - POC *saRi

intense sensation in teeth when eating sour fruit; for teeth to be on edge - PMP *nilu

painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour - PMP *ñilu

painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour - PAN *ŋilu

painful, as of teeth on edge from eating something very sour - PAN *ma-ŋilu

pick or clean the teeth - PWMP *sisig

picking of fruit; falling out of teeth - PPH *tipuq

show the teeth - *(noise)

show the teeth, as in grinning - POC *sisi₂

stone; testicle; kind of banana; numeral classifier for teeth (?) - PMP *batu

to grin, show the teeth - PMP *ŋisi

to grip with the teeth, as a dog in carrying something - PWMP *saŋal

to have ‘buck teeth’, project forward, of the teeth - PWMP *suŋar

to nibble at, peel with the teeth - PPH *kutím

to seize with the teeth, hold by biting - PMP *taŋáR

telescoping

telescoping basket, double basket - PPH *tampipiq

tell

divine, find by divination, tell fortunes - *(loan)

say, tell - *(noise)

say, tell; speak - POC *kaRu₂

speak, say something, tell - PPH *suysuy

tell - *(noise)

tell, inform; ask, inquire - PMP *bajaq₂

to lie, tell a lie - PMP *beliq₁

to lie, tell a lie - PWMP *buqeli

to lie, tell a lie - POC *koron

to say, tell - PCMP *beŋa₂

telling

to narrate, as in telling a story - PPH *sáysay

temper

fierce, intense, as of appetite or temper - PAN *garaŋ₁

temple

cheeks, temples - PAN *piSpiS

cheeks, temples - PMP *pihpih

hair on the temples - PAN *pispis₁

temple, side of the head - PWMP *pilis

temporal

marker of past time in temporal expressions - PAN *ka-₁

temporary

field hut; temporary shelter used when working for extended periods in fields far from the village - PAN-F *taRuqan

formal gathering, as of chiefs, with possible connections to announcing temporary taboos - POC *ponor

hut, temporary shelter - PMP *uduŋ

shelter, temporary hut - PPH *luŋáluŋ

temporary aid - *(noise)

temporary shed - PPh *pala pala₂

to block passage, oppose movement; come to a temporary stop - PPH *saR(e)ked

to imprint, leave a temporary mark - PWMP *gerger₂

ten

divided into ten parts (?) - PWMP *puluq-en

group of ten - PAN *puluq₁

linker for multiples of ten - PMP *ŋa

ten - PWMP *ma-puluq

ten - PAN *sa-puluq

ten - PMP *sa-ŋa-puluq

ten at a time (?) - PWMP *puluq-an

ten times (?) - PWMP *im-puluʔ

ten, in counting certain objects - *(noise)

tender

soft, tender - PWMP *ma-lemek

soft, tender, gentle - PMP *lumu₂

soft, tender, gentle - PMP *ma-lumu

tender, weak - *(noise)

tendon

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon - PAN *huRaC

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root - PMP *uRat

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; sinew; tendon; ligament; fiber; tough, sinewy - POC *uRat

full of veins or tendons - PWMP *uRat-en

tendon, ligament; prominent veins - PPH *lítid

vines; veins, tendons - POC *waRoc waRoc

tenon

mortise and tenon joint - PWMP *asaŋ₁

tense

past tense marker - *(noise)

tension

break under tension - PMP *ku(n)tus

break under tension - *-tus (root)

break under tension, as a rope - PMP *utus₁

extended, stretched taut, put under tension - PMP *benteŋ

snap, break, as a rope under tension - PMP *butus

stretch, put under tension - PWMP *betek₂

tension-set

trigger of a tension-set trap - PMP *baquR

tentacles

tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc. - PMP *kaway₂

tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc. - PMP *gaway

tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.; rays of the sun - POC *kawe₂

tentacles of octopus, squid, jellyfish, etc.; rays of the sun - POC *kawe₁

tentative

slow and tentative movement - PWMP *ukaŋ

tenth

tenth - PAN *Sika-puluq

tenth - PMP *ika-puluq

teredo

teredo, sea worm that attacks wood - PWMP *tamiluk

term

father's sister, possibly address term - PMP *ema₁

father's sister, possibly address term - PMP *ema-ʔ

heart (figurative); term of endearment - PMP *buaq ni qatay

nominative case marker for singular personal names or kin terms used as personal names - PAN *si₁

parent’s younger sibling, junior uncle; a young child’s term of address for his father, vocative of *ama - PMP *mama

term of address for females - *(noise)

term of address for girls - *(loan)

term of address for girls - *(noise)

term of address to girls - PWMP *enzi

term of address to girls - PWMP *enzi-q

term of address to males - PWMP *azuq

term of endearment - PWMP *buaq qatay

vocative term for boys - PWMP *utuq

young child’s term for father - POC *mama

Terminalia

a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa - PMP *talisay

a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa - POC *talise₁

terminate

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

end, terminate, finish, use up - *-bus (root)

terminated

gone, vanished, terminated - PWMP *la(m)pus₁

termite

a flying white ant or termite - PMP *dalu₁

anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’) - PMP *taneq tumbuq

anthill, termite mound (lit, ‘growing earth’) - POC *tanoq tubuq

eaten by termites, damaged by termites - PWMP *anay-en

insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant - PAN *aNay

insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant - POC *ane

termite - PAN *SayaN

termite mound - PWMP *puŋsu

termite-infested

termite-infested - PPh *ma-anay

tern

a bird, tern sp. - POC *kiRa

terrestrial

sowbug, woodlouse: terrestrial isopod of the genus Oniscus - PWMP *babuy babuy

territory

hunting ground, hunting territory - PAN *qaNup-an

hunting ground, hunting territory - PMP *qanup-an

inhabited land, territory supporting the life of a community - PMP *banua

jurisdiction, territory - PPH *sakup₂

test

taste, test, try - PMP *tepeŋ₁

taste, test, try - POC *topoŋ

test, assay, examine - PWMP *uzi

to test, try, examine - PPH *subuk₂

testicle

egg; testicle - PMP *qateluR

egg; testicle - PMP *qiteluR

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

fruit; seed; blossom; egg; nut; testicle; numeral classifier for roundish objects; to fruit, bear fruit; show first signs of pregnancy; to swell, of the sea - POC *puaq

scrotum and testicles - PMP *laseR

scrotum; testicles - PPh *buŋaw₂

stone; testicle - PAN *batux

stone; testicle; kind of banana; numeral classifier for teeth (?) - PMP *batu

testicles - PAN *buCuq

testicles - POC *lasoR

testicles of animals; castrate animals - PMP *butuq

testicles; scrotum - POC *putuq

testudineus

a fish, the climbing perch: Anabas testudineus - PWMP *puyu₁

a fish, the climbing perch: Anabas testudineus - PWMP *puyu-puyu

tethering

tethering stake; drive a stake into the ground - PPH *palpál₂

Tetrodon

puffer fish, globe fish: Tetrodon lunaris - PWMP *butiti

textile

textile pattern - *(noise)

textilis

a plant in the banana family, probably Musa textilis - PPH *qaRutay

Manila hemp: Musa textilis - PPh *abaká

texture

thinness, fineness of texture - PWMP *taRpis

TOP      te    th    ti    to    tr    tu    tw    ty    

th

that

2pl deixis and spatio-temporal reference: that; there, then - PAN *-Cu

3p deixis and spatial reference: that, there (distant?) - PMP *-di

demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there - PMP *ia₂

demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there - PAN *si ia₂

distal spatio-temporal deixis: that, there; then - PAN *-na

that - PWMP *-nan

that - PWMP *a-nan

that (2p) - PAN *i-Cu

that, there - PMP *i-na

that, there - PMP *a-di

that, there - PMP *i-di

that, there - POC *iri

that, there - PWMP *qadi

that, there (probably 2p.) - PWMP *ian₃

that, those - POC *nana

thatch

bamboo cross-lath used to hold down roof thatch - PWMP *belit₁

cover with thatch; place of thatching - PWMP *qatep-an

covered with thatch; place of thatching - PWMP *q<in>atep-an

fasten thatch to - PWMP *qatep-i

pinch, press between; fasten thatch together with slats in roofing a house - PMP *kapit

rafter, diagonal bamboo poles to which thatch panels are lashed - PMP *kasaw₁

ridge of the roof; ridge of a mountain, peak; deck of a boat; cover the ridgepole with thatch - PMP *bubuŋ₁

roof, thatch - PMP *qatep

roof, thatch - POC *qatop

to thatch a roof, put thatch on a house - PWMP *maŋ-qatep

thatched

be thatched, be roofed - PWMP *q<in>atep

thatching

cover with thatch; place of thatching - PWMP *qatep-an

covered with thatch; place of thatching - PWMP *q<in>atep-an

theft

theft - *(noise)

them

grinding stone, place where foods are ground up or instrument for grinding them - PWMP *giliŋ-an

of them, by them - PWMP *ni ida

push something to start it moving; accompany someone to help them start a journey - PPH *tulúd

they, them (cf *da) - PMP *ida

to keep someone awake, not let them sleep - PPH *puyat-en

Themeda

elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea - PAN *Caŋelaj

elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea - PMP *taŋelaj

kind of tall grass: Themeda gigantea - PPH *taŋ(e)laj

then

2pl deixis and spatio-temporal reference: that; there, then - PAN *-Cu

distal spatio-temporal deixis: that, there; then - PAN *-na

then, at that time - PMP *idi

there

2pl deixis and spatio-temporal reference: that; there, then - PAN *-Cu

3p deixis and spatial reference: that, there (distant?) - PMP *-di

anaphoric or relative particle: there, previously mentioned place - POC *ai₁

demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there - PMP *ia₂

demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there - PAN *si ia₂

distal spatio-temporal deixis: that, there; then - PAN *-na

look quickly here and there, look hastily in all directions - PPH *liŋat

negative existential: there is none - PAN-F *uka₁

over there, yonder - PAN-F *dua

that, there - PMP *i-na

that, there - PMP *a-di

that, there - PMP *i-di

that, there - POC *iri

that, there - PWMP *qadi

that, there - *(noise)

that, there (probably 2p.) - PWMP *ian₃

there - PWMP *sa-na

there (2p) - PWMP *di-tu

there (2p) - PWMP *si-tu

there (distant) - PWMP *ati₂

there, that - POC *iti

there, yonder - PWMP *sana

Thespesia

a plant yielding useful fibers: Thespesia populnea - PMP *balu₁

the Indian tulip tree: Thespesia populnea - PMP *banaRu

they

they - PMP *si ida

they three - POC *tolira

they, them (cf *da) - PMP *ida

thick

kind of thick rattan - PMP *naŋa₂

large, thick, bamboo sp. - PWMP *patuŋ

thick - POC *matolu

thick - PCEMP *təlu

thick (of fluids), viscous - *(loan)

thick (of objects) - PPH *kepal

thick or hard skin, buffalo hide, leather; callus - PWMP *balulaŋ

thick, as a plank - PWMP *kapal

thick, as a plank - PWMP *ma-kapal

thick, heavy rope - PWMP *kalat

thick, of objects; dense, of crowds - PMP *tebel₂

thick, of solid objects - PAN *kaS(e)pal

thick, of solid objects - PWMP *ma-kapal

thick, viscous - PMP *buket

very thick, really thick - POC *matolu-tolu

viscous; thick, of liquids - PPH *sap(e)nut

thief

bandit, robber, thief - *(loan)

thief - PWMP *mana-nakaw

thief - *(loan)

thigh

crotch, space between thighs - PWMP *lakaŋ

groin, inner thigh where it joins the trunk - PCMP *kelen

thigh - PAN *paqa₁

thin

cover with a thin layer - PWMP *kupkup₁

fish with a thin, elongated body: long tom - PMP *selu

pig bristles; type of sea urchin with thin black spines - PMP *bulu ni babuy

skinny, thin, underweight - PAN *ma-kuliC

stone slab, thin layer - PWMP *lapis

thin - PMP *mepis

thin (of material objects) - PAN *iŋepis

thin (of materials) - PAN *ma-Nipis

thin (of materials) - PMP *tipis

thin (of materials) - *(loan)

thin covering, eyelid - PMP *takub

thin layer - PMP *lepit₁

thin, lean - PWMP *kuru₂

thin, of liquids such as soup; to dilute - PPH *labnaw

thin, of material objects - PWMP *ma-hiŋepis

thin, of materials - PMP *mipis

thin, of materials - *-pis₂ (root)

thin, of people and animals - PMP *ma-niwaŋ

thin, of persons and animals - PAN *ma-Niwaŋ

thin, skinny (?) - PWMP *ma-Rusuk

thin, slender, skinny - *(loan)

thin, thin layer - PWMP *Rampis

to lose weight, grow thin - PMP *sutsut₁

to slice into thin strips, as meat or vegetables - PPH *gáyat

very thin - POC *manipi-nipis

thin cover to sleep on

quilt mattress thin cover to sleep on - *(loan)

thing

able to cope, able to handle things - PPH *sapal

be sharpened; thing sharpened - PWMP *hasaq-en

bunch or cluster of things; to gather - PWMP *kumpul

carving, thing made by carving wood - PWMP *ukir-an

clip used to fasten things together - PPH *siR(e)pit

compare two things - PWMP *tandiŋ

crossbar, strut, something to hold things apart - PMP *sekaŋ

divide, separate things that are joined - POC *pokaq

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

edible things, food - PAN *ka-kaen-en

goods, belongings, things, possessions - *(loan)

his/her unnamed thing: his/hers - PMP *a-nu-ni a

his/her unnamed thing: his/hers - POC *anu-ña

improvised purse or bag, folded cloth used to carry things - PWMP *puyuŋ

join two things to give added length (rope, bamboo, etc.) - PAN-F *Nutud

knock two things together with a clicking sound - PPH *sintík

made, created; thing made or created - PMP *buhat-an₂

my unnamed thing: mine - PMP *a-nu-ku

my unnamed thing: mine - POC *anu-ku

narrow opening or passage between two things - PWMP *selat

net bag used by men for carrying things on back - PAN-F *kaway₃

old, of things - PWMP *dana

old, of things; ancient times - PAN *dadaN

old, of things; ancient times - PMP *dadan

person who peels; thing used to peel (?) - PWMP *pa-ŋulit

pinch together; tongs, etc. for pinching things together - PWMP *biR(e)tiŋ

rub two things together, create friction, as sticks to make fire, or the hands - PMP *kusu₁

separate two things - PMP *elak

smaller thing of a pair (?) - PWMP *paŋ-anak

space between two things - PWMP *qelet-an

spread wide apart, as the legs or any two things joined at a point - PMP *pikaŋ

thing around which binding is wound - PWMP *bejbej-an

thing borrowed - PWMP *hinzam-en

thing of uncertainty - PWMP *anu-anu

thing pointed out, shown, or taught - PWMP *ka-tuzuq-an

thing sucked (?) - PWMP *qisep-an

thing that gets wet - PWMP *baseq-an

thing used to knock or pound - PWMP *p<um>ekpek

thing whose name is unknown, avoided, or cannot be remembered: what? - PMP *a-nu

thing; detail - PPH *bagay₂

things that have been made, created objects - PWMP *paR-buhat-en

to bind, tie tightly, probably of tying one thing which is moveable to another which is fixed - PPH *kedked

to catch, as a thing thrown - POC *sabot

to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something - PAN *taktak₁

to have one thing on top of another - PWMP *tumpaŋ₁

to hitch, tie two things together - PPH *Rakéd

to mix two or more things - PPH *i-lahúk

tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching - PAN *qapiC

tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching - PMP *qapit

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

twine round and round; thing made by braiding - POC *piri-piri

was escorted or brought; person escorted, thing brought - PWMP *h<in>ateD

what thing? - PAN-F *nema

your unnamed thing: yours - PMP *a-nu-mu

your unnamed thing: yours - POC *anu-mu

think

brood, think, be silent - PMP *sendem

consider, think - PWMP *agam

remember, think about - PWMP *maŋ-iŋat

think - PAN *nemnem

think (goal focus) - PPh *isip-en

think about, consider - PWMP *qituŋ

think about, think over - PWMP *iŋat-iŋat

think carefully about, consider - PWMP *a(ŋ)gap

think, consider; thought, idea - PPh *henaq

think, ponder, brood; remember - *-dem₂ (root)

think, ponder, brood;-remember - *-nem₂ (root)

think, ponder; brood - PWMP *qendem

think, understand - PMP *handem

think, understand - POC *adom

to think - POC *nonom

to think, ponder - POC *kana-kana

thinking

thinking, thoughts; opinion - PPh *ísip

thinness

thinness (of materials) - PMP *nipis

thinness (of materials) - PAN *Nipis

thinness, fineness of texture - PWMP *taRpis

thinness, of materials - PWMP *lipis

thinness, of materials - PWMP *lupis₁

thinness, of people and animals - PMP *niwaŋ

thinness, slenderness - PAN *Niwaŋ

third

relative of the third ascending or descending generation - PCMP *usi

relative of the third or fourth ascending or descending generation - PMP *piut

third - PAN *Sika-telu

third - PMP *ika-telu

third - POC *ika-tolu

third-party

verb prefix: third-party causative-command - PPh *ipa-

thirst

thirst - PAN *quSaw

thirst - PMP *quhaw

thirst, hunger - PWMP *laqu

thirst, thirsty - *(loan)

thirsty

thirst, thirsty - *(loan)

thirsty - PAN *quSaw-an

thirsty - PAN *ma-quSaw

thirsty - *(noise)

thirty

thirty - PMP *telu-ŋa-puluq

thirty - POC *tolu-ŋa-puluq

this

a pandanus, Pandanus odoratissimus; a mat made from the leaves of this plant - POC *kiRe

deictic particle: this - PAN-F *nay

demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there - PMP *ia₂

demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there - PAN *si ia₂

look from side to side, turn the head in this way - PWMP *liŋaR

paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material - PCEMP *malaw

proximal deictic: this - PAN *qani₁

proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here; now - PAN *-ni

that, this - *(noise)

this - PWMP *-tu

this - PMP *ieq

this, here - PAN *i-ni

this, here - PAN *-i-ti

this, proximal deictic - *(noise)

this; here - PAN *ia-ni

this; here - PAN *qa-ni

to sway, stagger, turn this way and that - PPH *talátal

thorn

hook, thorn - PPH *sibít

thorn - PAN *Cenek

thorn - PAN *suqaR

thorn - PAN *duRi

thorn in the flesh - PPH *tunay₁

thorn, spine, as on a fish - PPH *tenek₂

thorn, splinter, fish bone - PMP *duRi

thorn, splinter, fish bone - POC *suRi₁

thorn, spur, barb - PMP *beRtek

thorn, spur, barb, stinger of stingray - POC *potok

thorn; splinter; fish bone - POC *ruRi

thorn; stinger of stingray - PEMP *betek₃

thorny

a thorny tree: Caesalpinia spp. - PMP *sepaŋ

a thorny vine: Smilax spp. - PAN *baNaR

a thorny vine: Smilax spp. - PMP *banaR₁

a thorny vine: Smilax spp. - PCEMP *banaR₂

a thorny vine: Smilax spp. - PAN *baNaw

a thorny vine: Smilax spp. - PMP *banaw

marine fish with thorny skin - PMP *utik

thorny - PWMP *ma-duRi

thorny, prickly - PPH *ma-tenek

those

that, those - POC *nana

thought

inside, interior; thoughts, emotions, memories - POC *ilo

think, consider; thought, idea - PPh *henaq

thinking, thoughts; opinion - PPh *ísip

thought, opinions - PPh *ka-ísip-an

thoughts, mind - *(loan)

thoughtful

wise, thoughtful - PPh *ma-ísip

thousand

thousand - PMP *Ribu

thrash

beat, thrash - PMP *betbet

beat, thrash - PWMP *maŋ-betbet

beat, thrash - PWMP *qantem

beat, thrash - PWMP *lasaq

hit, beat, thrash - PWMP *banat

to beat, thrash - PWMP *puspus₂

thread

ball of thread; spool - PAN *puduN

bundle of thread or plant fibers - PPH *lábag

device for making thread or yarn - PWMP *laway-an

drawstring; to thread a drawstring - PAN *SuRSuR

drawstring; to thread a drawstring - PMP *huRhuR

kind of brush made from coconut husk, used to scrub or polish a surface or to treat threads before weaving - PWMP *sikat

press together, make compact, as the threads or leaves in weaving - PPH *sensén

spin cotton thread - *(loan)

spool, shuttle; thread holder (in weaving or making nets) - PWMP *sikuqan

string, twine, thread - PPH *sulid

the weft thread in weaving - PMP *pakan

thread - PAN-F *walay

thread (for weaving, sewing) - PWMP *benaŋ

thread used for sewing (?) - PAN *Ca-CaqiS

thread, yarn - PWMP *banaeŋ

thread, yarn - PWMP *labay₁

thread, yarn - PMP *laway

to thread a needle - PPH *tanúd

wind thread, etc. into a ball; spool - PMP *pudun

threaten

threaten - *(near)

threaten, confront violently - PWMP *ayat

three

all three, three together, three in total - PMP *ka-telu

be divided into three (?) - PWMP *telu-en

made of three parts, as triple-strand rope - PPH *t<in>elu

they three - POC *tolira

three - PAN *telu

three - PEMP *tolu

three (in children’s games) - PPH *telu-gan

three (of humans) - PAN *ta-telu

three (of people) - POC *ta-tolu

three each, three by three - PMP *telu-telu

three each, three by three - POC *tolu-tolu

three times - PWMP *in-telu

three times - PWMP *pin-telu

to divide into three parts - PWMP *maR-telu

to join with to make three - PWMP *telu-an

to triple, multiply by three - PMP *paka-telu

to triple, multiply by three - POC *paka-tolu

trivet, arrangement of three stones on which the cooking pot is placed - PMP *dalikan

twist together rope out of three strands - PWMP *ma-nelu

thresh

beat out, thresh - PAN *paspas₁

thresh grain by trampling - PAN *Riqek

thresh grain with the feet - PWMP *maŋ-Riqek

thresh with the feet (as rice) - PAN *iRik

thresh with the feet, as rice - PAN *qiRik

to thresh by trampling - PWMP *R<um>iqek

threshold

threshold - *(loan)

thrifty

thrifty - *(loan)

thrive

grow rapidly, thrive, be healthy - PPH *talúbuq

throat

choke, have something stuck in the throat - PWMP *bekeR₁

hiccup, produce a sound in the throat - PPH *sineqek

make a gurgling sound in the throat, or hiccup - PWMP *seguk

neck, throat - *(noise)

puffy area around the throat of some birds - PWMP *tambuluk

slit an animal's throat - PWMP *geret₂

stopped in its course, as something which sticks in the throat - PWMP *buqul

throat - PWMP *kaRuŋkuŋ

throat - PWMP *telen-an

throaty

deep throaty sound - PMP *de(ŋ)guk

deep throaty sound - PWMP *haguk

deep throaty sound - PPh *iŋguk

deep throaty sound - PMP *re(ŋ)guk

deep throaty sound - *-guk (root)

deep throaty sound - *-ŋuk (root)

dull throaty sound - PMP *tekek

dull throaty sound - *-gek (root)

harsh throaty sound - PWMP *sukak

high-pitched throaty sound - PMP *egik

make a harsh throaty sound - PMP *pikak

raucous throaty sound - *-gak₂ (root)

shrill throaty sound - *-gik (or *-giqik?) (root)

shrill throaty sound - *-kik (root)

shrill throaty sound - *-ŋik (root)

throaty sound - *(noise)

throb

beat, throb, pulse - PWMP *petuk

pound, throb - PAN *tibuk

throb with pain or exhaustion - PPH *seŋet-seŋet

throb, beat - PMP *pi(n)tik

throb, thud, clap, break - *-puk₁ (root)

throbbing

throbbing pain - PMP *ŋutŋut₂

throng

crowd, throng - *(noise)

die in throngs; be on the verge of death - PMP *m-atay m-atay

through

able to pass through - PWMP *taR-selat

bore through - *(loan)

break through, of water - PMP *buntaŋ

break, broken, cut through - PMP *pataq

complete an activity, see through to completion - PPH *perper₁

cut through - PWMP *qantas

cut through, sever - PWMP *butas₂

cut through, sever, divide by cutting - PWMP *qutas

cut through, tear - PMP *ra(n)tas

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

drill through, pierce, perforate - POC *paRo₁

drip, ooze through - PMP *tiRis

ear plug, roll of leaves, etc. inserted through pierced ear - PWMP *subeŋ

eat too much, be cloyed, overfull, tired of something through excess; bored - PWMP *sáwaq

flow through a small opening, of rushing water - PPh *bugris

go right through, penetrate through and through - PWMP *terus

go through a narrow passage - POC *solso

hack a passage through - PWMP *maŋ-bentas

hack a passage through vegetation, blaze a trail - PMP *bentas

improvised trail, trail made by passing through? - PAN *ka-zalan-an

leak, spill through, stream out from a hole in a container - PMP *busbus

lose someone through death - PMP *m-atay-an

lose someone through death (?) - PAN *ka-aCay-an

neck shackle to prevent an animal from passing through fences - PMP *pagal

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water - PMP *tulak

put something into or through an opening - PPH *súbuq

sever, cut through, rip out stitches - PWMP *tastas

sever, rip, cut through; short cut - *-tas (root)

snort, sniff; blow air through the nostrils - PWMP *eŋkus

soft through exposure to moisture; sticky - PWMP *luyak

sound of swishing, as of hand passing through water - PPH *kisaw

to fly, hurtle through the air - PWMP *lempaD

to fly, soar through the air - PWMP *layaŋ₁

to hear, listen; obey; hear about; news; fame, famous; to feel, perceive through any sense other than sight - PMP *deŋeR

to pass through - PWMP *z<um>alan

to sip, as through a straw - PAN *siRup

to slip through, pass through - PPH *lusút

transport piecemeal; tranport through repeated trips - PAN *SakuC

transport piecemeal; transport through repeated trips - PMP *hakut

transport piecemeal; transport through repeated trips - PWMP *maŋ-hakut

wade through waist-deep water - PPH *lunuy

throw

discard, throw away; banish - PMP *buqaŋ

shoot at, throw a spear at - POC *lusa

throw - PMP *tudaq

throw - *(noise)

throw at, hit with a projectile - PAN *buNuq₂

throw at, hit, strike with a sharp object; kill; extinguish (a fire) - PMP *bunuq₂

throw away, toss away - PWMP *ka-buaŋ

throw down - *(noise)

throw down, as a burden - PWMP *qempas

throw out (of a container or enclosure) - PWMP *la(m)bug₁

throw something at a target; shoot with bow and arrow - PAN *panaq

throw, cast - PMP *lambeg

to stone, throw a stone at - PCEMP *biriŋ₂

to stone, throw a stone at - POC *piriŋ₃

to throw - PAN *batu₃

toss up, throw into the air - PWMP *talaŋ₂

wrestle, seize and throw a person to the ground - PPH *ludeg

throwing

to sweep aside, clean by throwing aside - PPH *lunlun₁

to sweep aside, clean by throwing aside - PPH *lunlun-en

thrown

be thrown away or discarded - PWMP *b<in>uaŋ

game played with thrown reeds - POC *tika

to catch, as a thing thrown - POC *sabot

to catch, receive something thrown or sent one’s way - PWMP *sambut₂

thrush

a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush - PAN *guSam

a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush - PMP *guham

have a thrush or stomatitits infection - PWMP *guam-en

thrust

inserted, thrust in - PWMP *s<al>uksuk

shove, thrust forward - PWMP *unzur

thrust downward with sharp implement - PWMP *tuzaq

thrust out, extend forward - PMP *qunzur

thrust out; extend - *-zur (root)

thud

clap, thud - PMP *tampuk₁

fall with a dull thud - PMP *tebuk₂

fall with a thud - PWMP *lepuk

knock, pound, thud - PMP *etuk

pound, thud - PWMP *debak

pound, thud - PWMP *lebak₁

pound, thud, heavy splash - *-buk₂ (root)

sound of a dull thud - PMP *buk

sound of a dull thud - POC *puk₁

sound of a thud - PWMP *gek

throb, thud, clap, break - *-puk₁ (root)

thud - PAN *Cebuk

thud - PWMP *lepak₂

thud, strike against - PMP *rumpak

to pound, thud - PWMP *lebuk

thudding

make a thudding or popping sound - PWMP *lagetub₁

thudding sound - PWMP *ebek

thumb

squeeze between thumb and finger - PWMP *pizet

squeeze between thumb and finger - PWMP *pi(n)zit

thumb - PMP *ina ni lima

thumbnail

crush lice between the thumbnails - PWMP *tedes

crush with the thumbnail (as a louse) - PWMP *tedis

thump

beat, pound, bump, thump - PAN *tutuh

hit, thump - *(noise)

tap, thump - PMP *te(m)bek

thump! - PMP *tek

thump! - POC *tok

thumping

hit, sound of hitting, clapping, thumping - PAN *tepuk

thunder

deep rumbling sound; thunder - POC *guRuŋ

distant rolling thunder - PAN *deRuŋ₁

power in natural phenomena; thunder, storm wind - POC *mana₂

roll of thunder - PWMP *deRu

thunder - PWMP *dalak

thunder - PAN *deRdeR

thunder - PMP *dudu

thunder - PWMP *duRduR

thunder - PMP *enduR

thunder - PMP *le(ŋ)gur

thunder - POC *parara

thunder - PMP *ru(ŋ)guŋ

thunder - PWMP *delek

thunder - POC *kururu₁

thunder - *(near)

thunder and lightning together - PWMP *letiq

Thunnus

yellowfin tuna: Thunnus albacares - POC *takua

thwart

thwart, crosspiece - PMP *palaŋ₁

thwart, crosspiece, as one used to restrain person; lie athwart or across - PWMP *balagbag

thwarts of a canoe - POC *ili

transverse beam, thwart - POC *sokaŋ

transverse beams that support the roof of a house; thwart or ribs of a boat - PMP *seŋkar

TOP      te    th    ti    to    tr    tu    tw    ty    

ti

tick

tick, click - PWMP *simetik

to tick, make a ticking or light knocking sound - PMP *kitik₂

ticking

sound of ticking - PWMP *hagetik

sound of ticking, flipping, light tapping - PWMP *pa(n)tik

sound of ticking, rain drops falling - PPH *tagiktik

ticking sound - *-tik₂ (root)

to tick, make a ticking or light knocking sound - PMP *kitik₂

tickle

tickle - *(loan)

to tickle - PMP *gidik

to tickle - PMP *giri

to tickle - PMP *kidi

to tickle - PMP *kirik

to tickle - PWMP *qitik₂

to tickle - PWMP *qitik qitik

to tickle - PWMP *gitik

to tickle - PMP *kilik₁

to tickle - PWMP *kitek

to tickle - PMP *kitik₁

ticklish

ticklish sensation - PWMP *gilek

tidal

high tide, tidal flow - PMP *Ruab

high tide, tidal flow - POC *Ruap

lower part of a river; tidal bore - PMP *bena

tide

be lifted up or deposited on the beach by tide or current - POC *puRe₁

dry up; low tide - PWMP *keti

ebb tide - *(near)

ebb tide; coral reefs and sandbanks exposed at low tide; evaporate, dry up, of water in cooking, in a river, etc. - PMP *qeti₁

ebb, of water in streams; low tide - PMP *qati

ebb, of water in streams; low tide - PAN *ma-qaCi

ebb, of water in streams; low tide - PMP *ma-qati

flood tide - PPh *atáb

flood tide - PWMP *pasaŋ₄

go fishing; fish at low tide (?) - PMP *qeti₂

high sea or tide - *(noise)

high tide (?) - PWMP *taeb

high tide, tidal flow - PMP *Ruab

high tide, tidal flow - POC *Ruap

low tide - PWMP *ka-qati

low, of the tide - PMP *ma-qeti

tie

Hibiscus tiliaceus, a tree the bark of which provides a fiber much used in making cordage; to lash, tie, bind - POC *paRu

belt; tie around the waist - PAN *bakes₁

bind, tie together - PWMP *biŋkis

bind, tie together by winding around - PWMP *maŋ-bejbej

co-parent-in-law, the kinship tie between the parents of a married couple - PWMP *baisan

entangle, snarl, tie up, wind around, wrap - POC *pisi₁

fasten or tie to - *(loan)

fire saw; tie a tool around the hand or some other fixture - PPH *kulili

tie a knot - *(noise)

tie an artificial spur to the leg of a fighting cock - PWMP *maŋ-bulaŋ

tie around; belt - PPh *balíkis

tie by binding - POC *kobot

tie by binding around - PMP *kebet₁

tie by winding around - PPH *labej

tie down, fasten by binding - PPH *takéd

tie or clasp together; to button - PMP *kaput₁

tie the feet together - PMP *rimpuŋ

tie together - PMP *Rakut

tie together into a bundle - PWMP *maŋ-beRkes

tie together, of floating objects - PWMP *lantiŋ

tie up - PWMP *pusuŋ₁

tie up, bind tightly - PWMP *tambej

tie up, tie by wrapping around - PWMP *kabej

tie, bind, attach to by tying - PAN *Siket

tie, bind, attach to by tying - PMP *hiket

tie, bind, wrap around - *-kis₂ (root)

tie, fasten together - PMP *sa(ŋ)kit

to bind, tie the hands or feet - PWMP *Rapus-en

to bind, tie the hands or feet, as a person in detention, or an animal to be slaughtered; restraining rope - PMP *Rapus

to bind, tie tightly, probably of tying one thing which is moveable to another which is fixed - PPH *kedked

to bind, tie up (as a person) - PPH *balud

to bind, tie up (as a person) - PPH *i-balud

to bind, tie up (as a person) - PPH *balud-en

to clasp, tie together - PWMP *ma-ŋaput

to hitch, tie two things together - PPH *Rakéd

to tie - PWMP *maR-hiket

to tie - PWMP *h<um>iket

to tie with rope, fasten with rope - PAN *C<um>aliS

to tie, bind - PCEMP *paqus₂

to tie, bind together - PWMP *maŋ-hiket

to wind, tie by winding around - PPh *bejbej-en

tied

be tied up tightly - PWMP *heRet-en

bound, tied up - PWMP *R<in>apus

drawn, tied, even in score - *(loan)

mooring place, place where a boat is tied - PWMP *talih-an

tied, bound together - PWMP *hiket-en

was tied by winding around - PWMP *b<in>ejbej

tight

hide, stay in a tight or hidden place - PPH *lukluk

narrow, tight - PPH *piet

narrow, tight, confined - PMP *gipit

squeeze, hold tight, clutch - POC *gomol

tight - PWMP *ilet

tight - PWMP *seket

tight, constricted - PAN *qeCqeC

tight, constricted - PMP *qetqet

tight, firm - PAN *ma-SeReC

tight, firm - PMP *ma-heRet

tight, taut - *(noise)

tight, tightness - PWMP *hiqepet

tighten

for the chest to tighten in excitement or fear; for the heart to pound - PPH *kebá

tighten - PPh *hiRet-an

tighten, fasten firmly - PAN *S<um>eReC

tighten, fasten firmly - PMP *h<um>eRet

tighten, make firm, of a binding - PWMP *maŋ-heRet

tighten; belt - *-ReC (root)

tighten; constriction - PPh *hiRét

tight-fitting

tight-fitting, of clothing - PWMP *sikep₃

tightly

be tied up tightly - PWMP *heRet-en

belt, anything that encircles tightly - PMP *bakes₁

bind tightly - PMP *qeRut

bind tightly - *(loan)

compact, compressed, packed in tightly - PWMP *pa(n)det

encircle tightly - PWMP *sel(e)qut

fit tightly, of clothes - PWMP *silet

hold something tightly in the fist - PWMP *maŋ-Ragem

hold tightly or firmly - POC *tabe

hold tightly, clutch to oneself - PPH *sak(e)lút

hold tightly, clutch to oneself - PPH *sak(e)lut-en

narrow; squeeze tightly - PWMP *sempit

pack in tightly - PMP *pedet

pack in tightly (?) - PPh *maŋ-qunej

packed tightly - PWMP *sa(n)det

packed tightly together - PWMP *detdet

press together, close tightly - PAN *kupit

roll up, curl up tightly - PAN-F *kuCkuC

stretched tightly - PWMP *iReteŋ

stuff, pack tightly - PPH *saksak₃

tie up, bind tightly - PWMP *tambej

tightly capped - PPH *takem

tightly packed, in space or time - PWMP *ma-seksek

to bind tightly; belt - PAN *SeReC

to bind tightly; belt - PMP *heRet

to bind, tie tightly, probably of tying one thing which is moveable to another which is fixed - PPH *kedked

to bind, to fasten tightly by tying - PPH *i-takéd

to clutch, hold tightly - PMP *kupkup₃

to clutch, hold tightly - POC *kukup

to grip, grasp tightly - PWMP *pigeŋ

to hold tightly in the arms - PPH *k<um>epkep

to slow cook in a tightly covered vessel - PWMP *kulub₂

to stretch tightly - PWMP *iReteŋ-en

wrap around tightly - PPH *tagkes

wrap firmly around, encircle tightly - PMP *likes

wrap firmly around, encircle tightly - POC *likos

wrap tightly around - PWMP *keskes₂

tightness

tight, tightness - PWMP *hiqepet

tightness, congestion - PWMP *sendet

tigthly

encircle tigthly; band or ring around something - PWMP *selut

til

still, yet, til now, first (before doing something else) - PAN *pa₁

tiliaceus

Hibiscus tiliaceus, a tree the bark of which provides a fiber much used in making cordage; to lash, tie, bind - POC *paRu

a small shore tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus - PMP *baRu

till

till the soil - *(noise)

tilt

to pour out, tilt to pour - PWMP *tuaŋ₁

timber

hardwood tree with edible fruit and valuable timber: Palaquium spp. - PMP *ñatuq

time

be stretched out, of time; old (of past crops that are still not consumed) - PWMP *laun

beat time on a drum or slitgong - POC *tutu

by hundreds, hundreds at a time - PWMP *Ratus-an

distributive; one-by-one, one at a time - PAN *isa isa

do eight times - PWMP *ka-walu

do eight times - PAN *paR-walu-en

do four times - PAN *paR-Sepat-en

do six times - PWMP *ka-enem

do six times - PAN *paR-enem-en

duration of time, time period - PWMP *tagal

eight by eight, eight at a time - PMP *walu walu

eight times - PWMP *in-walu

eight times - PMP *paka-walu

eight times (frequentative, multiplicative) - PAN *maka-walu

endure, last a long time - POC *loan

first, before, anterior in time - PMP *huna

first, before, anterior in time - PAN *(q)uNah

five times - PWMP *iŋ-lima

five times - PWMP *ka-lima

five times - PAN *maka-lima

five times - PMP *paka-lima₁

five times - POC *paka-lima₂

four at a time - PMP *epat epat

four at a time - POC *pati pati

four times - PWMP *iŋg-epat

four times - PAN *maka-Sepat

four times - PWMP *maka-epat

four times - PMP *paka-epat

four times - POC *paka-pat

generic marker of location in space or time - PAN *i₂

go or do something slowly, take one’s time - PPH *ananay₂

how many times? - POC *paka-pica

interval of space or time - PWMP *selaŋ₁

long, of time - PWMP *lambat

marker of past time in temporal expressions - PAN *ka-₁

nine times - POC *paka-siwa

old (of things), ancient times - POC *tuaRi

old, kept for a long time (as rice) - PWMP *ma-laun

old, of things; ancient times - PAN *dadaN

old, of things; ancient times - PMP *dadan

past, of time - POC *waRi₂

second time (?) - PPH *ipi-duhá

seven by seven, seven at a time - PAN *pitu pitu

seven times - PMP *ka-pitu

seven times - PMP *paka-pitu

six by six, six at a time - PMP *enem enem

six by six, six at a time - POC *onom onom

six times - PWMP *iŋg-enem

six times - PMP *paka-enem

six times - POC *paka-onom

six times (frequentative multiplicative) - PAN *maka-enem

take one's time - PWMP *lantaŋ

ten at a time (?) - PWMP *puluq-an

ten times (?) - PWMP *im-puluʔ

then, at that time - PMP *idi

three times - PWMP *in-telu

three times - PWMP *pin-telu

tightly packed, in space or time - PWMP *ma-seksek

time of birth (?) - PWMP *ka-anak-an

time of lengthening shadows; afternoon - PWMP *liŋay

to pass, cross over to the other side; to be past, of time for an action - PWMP *lapas

to roost, of chickens; time of roosting - PPh *hápun

two by two, two at a time - POC *rua rua₁

two by two, two at a time; two each - PAN *duSa duSa

two by two, two at a time; two each - PCEMP *dua-dua

two by two, two at a time; two each; both - PMP *duha duha₁

use sparingly, a little at a time - PWMP *qínut

time limit

deadline, time limit - *(loan)

timid

timid, fearful; coward - PAN *talaw

timorous

wild, timorous, shy - PMP *ilah

wild, timorous, shy - POC *ila₁

tin

tin - PWMP *timeRaq

tin - *(noise)

tin can

tin can - *(loan)

tinctoria

a shrub with edible figs: Ficus tinctoria - POC *taŋa₃

indigo plant and dye: Indigofera suffruticosa (Mill.) and Indigofera tinctoria L. - PMP *taRum

tinder

fungus that grows on the sugar palm; tinder - PMP *baruk

tinder, punk - PWMP *lulug

tinder; start a fire - PPH *lublub

tinea

be affected by tinea - PWMP *panaw-en

Tinea

fungus infection which produces light patches on the skin: Tinea flava or Pityriasis - PMP *panaw₁

ringworm: Tinea imbricata - PMP *buqeni

ringworm: Tinea imbricata - POC *puni₃

tinkling

sound of tinkling or chiming - *(near)

tinkling sound - PMP *tiŋtiŋ

tiny

tiny biting insect - PCEMP *ñiñik

tiny biting insect: gnat, sandfly - PMP *ñikñik

tiny parasite on the body, itch mite, chicken louse - PMP *kuman

tiny red itch mite - PWMP *tuŋaw₁

tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn - PMP *hipun₁

tiny sea fish that ascends rivers in huge numbers to spawn - PEMP *ipun₁

tip

extremity, tip - PWMP *utuŋ

mountain peak, cape of land; tip of anything - PMP *quzuŋ

point, tip - *(noise)

poke, prod with the tip of something - PWMP *suŋkul

prune, cut off the tip - PWMP *puŋgal

prune, cut off the tip - PWMP *puŋgel

prune, cut off the tip - PMP *puŋgul

snake venom; plant poison used on tips of arrows - PPH *ditaq₂

sprouting tip of a plant - PWMP *pucuk

tail; end of something long, as a rope; tip of a leaf - POC *siku

tip, extremity - PMP *budu

to lever up, tip up by force - PWMP *tuas

top of a tree, tip, extremity - PWMP *lawi₂

top, tip, apex - PWMP *puntuk

trim, cut the tips off - PWMP *tiptip

tire

tired, weary; to tire, grow tired - PPh *belay

tired

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

eat too much, be cloyed, overfull, tired of something through excess; bored - PWMP *sáwaq

tired - *(loan)

tired, exhausted - PWMP *pagel

tired, weak, exhausted - PPH *lutuy

tired, weary; to tire, grow tired - PPh *belay

weak, tired, worn-out - PWMP *lumaq

tissue

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

title

title of rank - *(loan)

title of respect - PMP *puaŋ

title, yield, results - *(loan)

titter

titter, giggle - PMP *gikgik

TOP      te    th    ti    to    tr    tu    tw    ty    

to

to

at, on, in, to - POC *pa₂

preposition: at, on, in, to - PMP *ba₃

toast

a toast (in drinking); to offer a toast - PPH *tágay

roast over a fire, toast - PWMP *paŋgaŋ

tobacco

roll up a leaf, as a tobacco leaf - PPH *tustus₂

tobacco - *(loan)

toe

finger, toe - PMP *taŋan

finger, toe - POC *taŋan

toenail

fingernail, toenail, claw - PPH *sulu₂

fingernail, toenail; claw - PWMP *silu₂

together

accompany, go together with - PWMP *duluR

all three, three together, three in total - PMP *ka-telu

appropriate, suitable, right; fit together; hit the mark - PAN *tama₁

appropriate, suitable; fit together - PMP *tamaq₁

bind, tie together - PWMP *biŋkis

bind, tie together by winding around - PWMP *maŋ-bejbej

bound together - PWMP *kawil₂

bound together (?) - PWMP *paR-Rakit

braid, twist together - POC *pijir, pijir-i

braid, wind together - *-pid (root)

canoes joined together lengthwise (?) - POC *kabat₂

clamp, pinch together - PWMP *sapit

clash together - PMP *tu(m)bak

click or clink together, as stones in making fire - PPH *santik

clip used to fasten things together - PPH *siR(e)pit

close together - PAN *pijpij

close together - *(noise)

close together, compact - PPH *sunsun

closely spaced, set close together - PAN *ma-pizpiz

crowd, push together - PWMP *da(ŋ)sek

crowded; crowd together - PMP *esek

dense, close together - *(noise)

do something together with others - PWMP *sa(m)bay

do something together with others - PAN *sabay₁

do something with someone else, perform an action together - PAN *mi-da-duSa

eat together as a group - PPH *laŋlaŋ

eating partner; eat together - PPH *ka-laŋlaŋ

fasten together by sewing or tying - PAN *kapit

five each, five together - PWMP *taR-lima

flock together - PMP *tapuk₁

flow, stream together - PWMP *uluR

gather together - PMP *rempun

gather, collect together - PWMP *emuŋ

gather, flock together - *-puk₃ (root)

go together - PMP *hampil

hook together - PWMP *ra(m)bit

join together; beams used in house construction - PWMP *lipit

join, fasten together, probably lengthwise - PWMP *diq(e)pit

knead, mix together - PMP *quli

knock two things together with a clicking sound - PPH *sintík

link in a chain; joined together, as links in a chain, people in sexual intercourse or marriage; hands joined in crossing pattern in circle dance - PWMP *kawiŋ

mate, companion, fellow; together with; alike, the same as; aligned or in good order - PWMP *sama

mix together - PMP *rembur

packed tightly together - PWMP *detdet

pierce, skewer or string together - PMP *tusuk

pincer of crustaceans; press together, pinch, squeeze - PMP *qipit₂

pincer of crustaceans; tongs; press together, pinch, squeeze - PAN *qipit₁

pinch together - PMP *atip

pinch together - PWMP *gu(m)pit

pinch together; tongs, etc. for pinching things together - PWMP *biR(e)tiŋ

pinch, press between; fasten thatch together with slats in roofing a house - PMP *kapit

pinch, squeeze, press together - PMP *qatip₂

pound together, place of pounding together - PPh *asud-án

press together, close tightly - PAN *kupit

press together, make compact, as the threads or leaves in weaving - PPH *sensén

press together, pack solid - PAN *pedped₁

press together, press between two surfaces - PAN *Sapit

press together, press between two surfaces; part of the loom - PMP *hapit

press together; pressed together - PAN *kepit

press together; pressed together - POC *kobit₁

press together; pressed together; carry under the arm, press between the legs - PMP *kepit

press, squeeze together - PWMP *upit

press, squeeze together; narrow - *-pit (root)

put close together - PWMP *lapit

roll together into a ball - *(noise)

rub two things together, create friction, as sticks to make fire, or the hands - PMP *kusu₁

set close together, dense, luxuriant - PMP *lebet

sleep together, sleep with someone - PWMP *ka-tuduR

squeeze, press together - PPH *pekel

stick, adhere; join together - PWMP *liŋkit

strike together - PMP *rimpuk

strike two hard objects together to produce a spark - PPH *piŋkíq

string together, as beads - PAN *CuSuR

swarm together - PWMP *pekpek₂

thunder and lightning together - PWMP *letiq

tie or clasp together; to button - PMP *kaput₁

tie the feet together - PMP *rimpuŋ

tie together - PMP *Rakut

tie together into a bundle - PWMP *maŋ-beRkes

tie together, of floating objects - PWMP *lantiŋ

tie, fasten together - PMP *sa(ŋ)kit

tied, bound together - PWMP *hiket-en

to assemble, come together (of people); bring together (of things) - PPH *típun

to bind together in a sheaf - PCMP *peu

to clasp, tie together - PWMP *ma-ŋaput

to eat together, join others in eating - PPH *maki-kaen

to flap, clash together - PWMP *kibak

to gather, collect together - PWMP *maŋ-emuŋ

to hitch, tie two things together - PPH *Rakéd

to meet, come together - PAN-F *Cebuŋ

to mix in, mix together - PPH *l<um>ahúk

to mix together (?) - PWMP *pa-lamud

to mix together, as ingredients in cooking - PWMP *ŋa-lamud

to rub, rub together - PPH *desdes₂

to tie, bind together - PWMP *maŋ-hiket

to twist strands together (?) - PWMP *pintal

to twist together, make rope - PWMP *quntay₂

tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching - PAN *qapiC

tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching - PMP *qapit

twine together, as strands of rope - PWMP *pa-talih

twist together - POC *piro

twist together - POC *piro-a

twist together rope out of three strands - PWMP *ma-nelu

twist together, intertwine - PWMP *bidíbid

twist twine together - *-bid (root)

toil

trouble, toil, difficulty - PWMP *suker

toll

tax, toll - *(loan)

tom

fish with a thin, elongated body: long tom - PMP *selu

kind of long tom - POC *sao

tomato

tomato - *(loan)

tombstone

tombstone - *(loan)

to melt or smelt (metals)

to melt or smelt (metals) - *(loan)

tomorrow

later, tomorrow, in the future - PWMP *pagi

morning, tomorrow - *(loan)

morning; tomorrow - POC *puko

tomorrow - PPh *buás

tone

drone, droning tone - PAN *teŋteŋ₁

tongs

narrow; pinch between tongs, etc. - PAN *kipit

narrow; to pinch; tongs - PWMP *supit

pincer of crustaceans; tongs; press together, pinch, squeeze - PAN *qipit₁

pincers, tongs - PWMP *ca(R)pit

pincers, tongs - PWMP *sa(R)pit

pinch together; tongs, etc. for pinching things together - PWMP *biR(e)tiŋ

to pick up with tongs or pincers - PPh *sipít-en

to pinch or squeeze, as with tongs - PWMP *s<um>ipit

to pinch, as with tongs - POC *sikop

tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching - PAN *qapiC

tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching - PMP *qapit

tongs, pincers - PPH *pa-nípit

tongs, pincers, claw of a crab or lobster; to pinch or squeeze - PAN *sipit

tongue

clack the tongue - PMP *le(n)tak

click with the tongue - PPH *tak(e)laq

tongue - PAN *Sema

tongue - PMP *hema

tongue - POC *karamea

tongue - PCEMP *maya

tongue - POC *maya

tongue - PWMP *zelaq

tongue - PAN *lidam

tongue - *(near)

tongue; tongue of tongue-and-groove joint in carpentry - PMP *dilaq₁

tongue-and-groove

tongue; tongue of tongue-and-groove joint in carpentry - PMP *dilaq₁

too

cooled off, as cooked food that has been left to sit too long - PAN *ma-baSaw

eat too much, be cloyed, overfull, tired of something through excess; bored - PWMP *sáwaq

to become soft or overripe, as fruits that are kept too long - PPH *lúnus

too bad! it’s a pity! what a shame! - PWMP *sayaŋ

tool

adze or similar tool - PWMP *sa(ŋ)kal

fire saw; tie a tool around the hand or some other fixture - PPH *kulili

handle of a tool - *(loan)

hard stone used to make tools - POC *nadi

hooked instrument or tool - PWMP *pa-ŋawit

scoop, scooping tool - PPH *likup₂

tool for cutting with a forward digging motion - PPH *sudsud₂

tool for digging - *(near)

tool like chisel or trowel - PPH *saluksuk₁

wood-working tool: chisel - PMP *paqet

wood-working tool: chisel - POC *paqot

tool for sawing

saw, tool for sawing - *(loan)

tooth

barb, point; canine tooth? - PAN-F *waqit

canine tooth (?) - POC *bati

canine tooth; tusk, as of wild boar - PPH *sauŋ

molar tooth - PMP *bageqaŋ

molar tooth - PMP *baReqaŋ

molar tooth - POC *paRaŋ

molar tooth - PAN *beReqaŋ

molar tooth (?) - PPH *saŋi

tooth - PMP *ipen

tooth - PWMP *isi₁

tooth - PAN *lipen

tooth - POC *lipon

tooth - PAN *nipen

tooth - POC *nipon

tooth - PAN *ŋipen

tooth - POC *ŋipon

tusk, canine tooth - PMP *baŋelih

tusk; canine tooth - PAN *baŋeliS

weevil that infests wood, bamboo, and rice; dust produced by the boring of this insect; tooth decay, dental caries - PMP *bukbuk₃

toothless

toothless - PAN *ŋidaw

toothless - *(loan)

top

above, on top - PAN *i aCas

above, on top - PMP *i-atas

above, on top - PPH *ŋatu

above, on top of - PAN *i babaw

full to the top - POC *ponuq sake

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born - PMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; handle of a bladed implement; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - PCEMP *qulu

head; top part; leader, chief; headwaters; prow of a boat; first, first-born; hair of the head - POC *qulu

high up, on top - PWMP *timbaw₂

high, on top - PWMP *embaw

high; top - *-baw₁ (root)

its top - POC *atas-ña

lie in stacks, one on top of the other - PWMP *apid₂

overlapping, one on top of another - PPH *sak(e)níb

peak, summit, top - PWMP *puncu

peak, top - PMP *tuŋtuŋ₂

put something on top of something else - PPH *i-taq(e)paw

put something on top of something else - PPH *taq(e)paw-an

spin without wobbling, of a top - PWMP *ugəŋ

spinning top - PWMP *gasiŋ

spinning top - PWMP *gasiŋ-an

to have one thing on top of another - PWMP *tumpaŋ₁

top of a tree, tip, extremity - PWMP *lawi₂

top part; high - PMP *umbaw

top surface of something - PPH *taq(e)paw

top, summit, crown - PAN *tuktuk₂

top, summit, crown - *-tuk₄ (root)

top, tip, apex - PWMP *puntuk

upper surface, top, above - PMP *bawbaw

upper surface, top, above - PCEMP *bobo₂

upper surface, top; highlands; on, upon, over, above - PAN *babaw₃

topknot

wear the hair in a bun or topknot - PPH *puyud

topmost

topmost hand of banana stalk - PMP *qabaRa₂

topmost hand of banana stalk - POC *qapaRa₂

topsy-turvy

topsy-turvy - *(noise)

torch

illuminate with a torch - PWMP *s<um>uluq

torch, probably of dried palm frond - PMP *suluq

torch; illuminate - PMP *qilaw

use a torch, as in fishing - PWMP *me-ñuluq

torches

tree resin used in torches (?) - PAN *damaR

torment

torment, torture - *(loan)

vex, torment - PWMP *ŋuy(e)qa

torn

split, torn; opening or water passage between two capes of land - PMP *beŋat₁

tortoise

scale of fish, lizard or snake; shell of turtle or tortoise - PMP *siksik₂

tortoise, land turtle - PPH *baququ

tortoise, land turtle - *(loan)

torture

torment, torture - *(loan)

torture - *(noise)

toss

throw away, toss away - PWMP *ka-buaŋ

toss about - PWMP *lindag

toss up, throw into the air - PWMP *talaŋ₂

total

all three, three together, three in total - PMP *ka-telu

number; total - PWMP *bilaŋ-an

total amount (?) - PWMP *ka-bilaŋ-an

totter

sway, totter - PWMP *luyuŋ

touch

feel, touch - PPh *hipuq

rest the foot on; touch or knock with the foot - PMP *sakil

take hold of, grasp, touch with the hand - POC *taŋop

tap, touch, or reach in with the finger - PWMP *kuhit

to move or touch in an agitated or compulsive fashion - PPH *garaw-en

to touch - POC *kobit₂

to touch - PPH *kebil

to touch or hold - PPH *kapút

to touch, come in contact with - PPH *denet

touch lightly - PWMP *kubit

touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger - PPH *kal(e)bit

touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger - PPH *kal(e)bit-en

touch or brush against - PPH *saq(e)gid

touch or tap so as to draw someone's attention - PMP *kebit

touch someone lightly, as to get attention - PPH *kablit

touch with the lips (?) - PWMP *dumul

touch, come into contact - PWMP *sintuk

touch, grasp - PMP *ibit

touch, hold - PWMP *hemel

touching

skewer something so as to pick it up without touching it - PPH *tuRsúk

to hiss or steam, of water touching a fire - PAN *s<um>ebuS

to hiss or steam, of water touching a fire - PWMP *s<um>ebuh

touching or joined along the length - PMP *de(ŋ)kit

touching or joined along the length - PWMP *diŋkit

touching or joined along the length - PWMP *ri(ŋ)kit

touching or joined along the length - PWMP *ziŋkit

touching, adjacent, as fighters presenting a united front - PWMP *sundul

tough

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; sinew; tendon; ligament; fiber; tough, sinewy - POC *uRat

chew something tough, as sugarcane - PCEMP *ŋaŋas

strong, tough, inflexible - POC *kayu kayu

tough, as meat - PWMP *lañut

tough, elastic (of flesh) - PWMP *keñat

tough, rubbery, elastic - PPH *kúñat

toward

allative marker: to, toward - POC *ki₁

away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer - PMP *a-tu

away, outward, forward, onward; towards the hearer - PMP *wa-tu

bottom up, as a person bent far forward toward the ground - PWMP *tuad

come, toward the speaker - PWMP *ari

come; toward the speaker - POC *mai

come; toward the speaker; let’s go! - PAN *aRi

downriver, toward the sea - POC *laur

downstream, toward the sea - PAN *lahud

draw toward oneself; annex, make subject - PWMP *kabiR

harbor bad feelings toward - *(noise)

pull inward or towards oneself - PWMP *paqud

toward the sea - PCEMP *laur

upriver, toward the interior - PAN *daya

upriver, toward the interior - POC *raya

town

village, town - PMP *híli

toxic

a plant with toxic properties, Erioglossum edule or Lepisanthes rubiginosa - PWMP *kalayu

toxicaria

a tree: Antiaris toxicaria; poison for blowpipe darts made from the sap of this tree - PWMP *qipuq

toy

to play; plaything, toy; pet - PWMP *qayam₃

TOP      te    th    ti    to    tr    tu    tw    ty    

tr

trace

trace, track, mark, print (as footprint) - PMP *bekas₃

Trachurops

a fish: the big-eyed scad Trachurops crumenophthalmus - PMP *qatulay

track

footprints, tracks - PPH *liqed

trace, track, mark, print (as footprint) - PMP *bekas₃

tract

a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush - PAN *guSam

a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush - PMP *guham

trade

barter, trade - POC *poli poli

cloth acquired in trade from Chinese (?) - *(loan)

strong southeast trade wind - POC *karak₁

trade - *(loan)

trade cloth

trade cloth (bright red) - *(loan)

trading

friend, partner; one of a pair; trading partner? - POC *soRa

traditional

conventional story, traditional narrative - PWMP *sudsud₁

to sing in unison, as in traditional festivals - PWMP *ñañuy

traditional dance form - PPH *tayaw

trail

animal path, trail - PMP *qenuR

animal trail - PAN *qeNuR

hack a passage through vegetation, blaze a trail - PMP *bentas

improvised trail, trail made by passing through? - PAN *ka-zalan-an

pitfall or trail spikes made of sharpened bamboo - PMP *suja

pitfall or trail spikes made of sharpened bamboo - POC *suca

small path or trail - PAN *zalan-zalan

trailing

trailing behind - PMP *ikuR ikuR

trample

push down, trample down, as vegetation - PPH *desdes₁

step on, tread on, trample - PMP *inzak

step, tread, trample - *-cak₂ (root)

step, tread, trample - *-zak (root)

step, tread, trample - *-zek (root)

trample earth, turn into mud, as a paddy field prior to planting - PWMP *lucak

trample, stomp on - PPH *sadsad

trampling

thresh grain by trampling - PAN *Riqek

to thresh by trampling - PWMP *R<um>iqek

trance

curing ritual conducted by a medium in trance - PWMP *dawak

dazed, in a trance - PWMP *pukaw₂

tranport

transport piecemeal; tranport through repeated trips - PAN *SakuC

tranquil

calm, tranquil, of the surface of water - PAN *liNuŋ

calm, tranquil, of the surface of water - PMP *linuŋ

calm, tranquil, of the surface of water - PWMP *lineŋ

calm, tranquil, of the surface of water - PMP *linaŋ

tranquillity

calmness, tranquillity - PWMP *ka-teneŋ-an

transfer

move, transfer - PMP *halin

move, transfer - PMP *lalin

transform

turn over, roll over; transform; upside down - POC *buliŋ

transitive

local transitive suffix - PMP *-i₂

transitive and imperative suffix - POC *-ia

translate

pour from one vessel into another; translate, interpret - PWMP *salin

transport

to carry, transport, move something - PAN-F *sakut

to carry, transport, move something - PAN-F *s<um>akut

transport piecemeal; tranport through repeated trips - PAN *SakuC

transport piecemeal; transport through repeated trips - PMP *hakut

transport piecemeal; transport through repeated trips - PWMP *maŋ-hakut

transport someone across a river (?) - PWMP *dapit

transverse

transverse beam or tree trunk - PWMP *bataŋ-an

transverse beam, thwart - POC *sokaŋ

transverse beams that support the roof of a house - POC *sokar

transverse beams that support the roof of a house; thwart or ribs of a boat - PMP *seŋkar

transvestite

shaman in ritual transvestite attire - PWMP *asug

trap

animal trap - *(noise)

be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true - PMP *kena₁

catch or get caught in a trap; hit mark with spear, etc. - PMP *ena

conical bamboo basket trap for fish - PAN *bubu₂

conical bamboo basket trap for fish - POC *pupu₂

conical bamboo basket trap for fish - PWMP *buʔu

cover trap for fish or crustaceans - PPH *salakeb

deadfall trap - *(loan)

deadfall trap to catch small mammals - PAN *qaCeb

domestic chicken used as a decoy to attract a wild fowl into a trap - PPH *pa-ŋátiq

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

fish-corral, screen trap for fish - PWMP *banelat

kind of fish net or trap - PWMP *siqud

kind of fish net or trap - PWMP *tuaD

kind of fish or crab trap - PWMP *bintul

kind of fish or crab trap - PWMP *bintur

kind of fish trap - PWMP *sihud

noose or net trap - PMP *zariŋ

noose or net trap - POC *sariŋ

open the mouth wide, gape; gaping; opening of a bubu fish trap, basket, etc. - PMP *ŋaŋa₃

set a trap - PAN *taqan₁

snare trap - PMP *taRin

snare, noose trap; spring up suddenly, jerk up (as a fishing line or noose trap) - PMP *bitik₁

snare, noose trap; spring up suddenly, jerk up (as a fishing line or noose trap) - POC *pintik

spring back suddenly; spring-set spear trap; the constellation Orion - PWMP *bala(n)tik

spring-set spear trap - PWMP *pale(n)tik

spring-set spear trap - PWMP *pilantik

to bait a trap, set the bait for - PPH *paen-an

to catch, as in a trap - POC *kabi

to fish with a wickerwork basket trap - PWMP *maŋ-bubu

to spring a trap - PAN *bekas₁

trap - *(noise)

trap for fish or eels - *(near)

trap for mudfish - PPH *siqid

trigger of a tension-set trap - PMP *baquR

trigger on spring trap - PMP *bauR

trigger on spring trap - PPH *baweR

undo, untie, spring a trap - PMP *biŋkas

trapped

entangled, trapped - POC *sogo

traveling

to stop by to visit when traveling - PWMP *tuli₂

tray

serving tray - *(loan)

shake grains on winnowing tray - *(loan)

tray - *(loan)

tray - *(noise)

treachery

treachery, betrayal - PPH *liput₂

tread

step on, tread on, trample - PMP *inzak

step, tread - PWMP *ti(n)zak

step, tread - *(loan)

step, tread on - PWMP *icak

step, tread on - PWMP *lanzak

step, tread, stamp on - PMP *bezak

step, tread, trample - *-cak₂ (root)

step, tread, trample - *-zak (root)

step, tread, trample - *-zek (root)

step, tread; stamp - PWMP *enzak

to step, tread on - PWMP *pizak

to step, tread on something - POC *paRas

tread, step - PMP *ki(n)zak

treat

a plant with flowers the shape of a dog's tail, used to treat abscesses - PMP *ikuR ikuR ni asu

kind of brush made from coconut husk, used to scrub or polish a surface or to treat threads before weaving - PWMP *sikat

treat like a father - PMP *pa(ka)-amax

tree

Hibiscus tiliaceus, a tree the bark of which provides a fiber much used in making cordage; to lash, tie, bind - POC *paRu

a fruit tree, the pomelo: Citrus decumana - PPH *suháq

a fruit tree: Spondias dulcis - PCEMP *quRi

a hardwood tree: Intsia bijuga, Afzelia bijuga - PMP *qipil

a large tree in the mahogany family: Dysoxylum sp. - PWMP *tawa₂

a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa - PMP *talisay

a shore tree with edible nuts: Terminalia catappa - POC *talise₁

a shore tree: Barringtonia spp. - PMP *butun

a shore tree: Barringtonia spp. - POC *putun₁

a shore tree: Barringtonia spp. - PWMP *butuŋ

a shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum - PWMP *bintaŋuR

a shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum - PMP *bitaquR

a shore tree: Calophyllum inophyllum - POC *pitaquR

a shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia - PMP *aRuhu

a shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia - POC *aRu

a shore tree: Casuarina equisetifolia - PMP *qaRuhu

a shore tree: Heritiera littoralis - PWMP *duŋun

a shrub or tree: Gnetum gnemon - PWMP *baguh

a small shore tree: Hibiscus tiliaceus - PMP *baRu

a tall forest tree which emits an unpleasant odor: Sterculia foetida - PMP *bubuR₃

a tall tree: Parkia spp. - PPH *kúpaŋ

a thorny tree: Caesalpinia spp. - PMP *sepaŋ

a tree and its edible fruit, the starfruit: Averrhoa bilimbi, Averrhoa carambola - PWMP *baliŋbiŋ

a tree and its fruit, the durian: Durio zibethinus - PWMP *duRi-an

a tree and its fruit, the Java plum: Syzygium cumini - PPH *luŋ(e)búy

a tree and its fruit: Artocarpus odoratissimus - PPH *mádaŋ

a tree and the tannin that it yields: probably Macaranga tanarius - PWMP *samak

a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp. - PWMP *paRatpat

a tree found in mangrove swamps: Sonneratia sp. - PWMP *paRepat

a tree from which a sort of shampoo is derived: Albizia spp. - PWMP *laŋiR

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *dapdap₁

a tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - POC *rarap

a tree with edible fruit, and medicinal uses, probably Buchanania arborescens - PMP *balunuR

a tree with edible fruit: Antidesma bunius - PWMP *buRnay

a tree with fragrant flowers: Cananga odorata - PMP *kanaŋa

a tree with roots that furnish a red dye: Morinda citrifolia - POC *gurat

a tree with very light wood: Octomeles sp. - PWMP *binuaŋ

a tree, probably Dipterocarpus spp.; resinous substance obtained from this tree - PWMP *balaw₂

a tree: Acalypha amentacea Roxb. - PPH *beRus₂

a tree: Alstonia scholaris - PMP *ditaq₁

a tree: Alstonia scholaris - POC *sabakap

a tree: Antiaris toxicaria; poison for blowpipe darts made from the sap of this tree - PWMP *qipuq

a tree: Aporosa spp. - PWMP *agas

a tree: Artocarpus sp. - PMP *kulu₁

a tree: Caesalpinia sappan - PWMP *sapaŋ

a tree: Calophyllum inophyllum - POC *tamanu

a tree: Cassia alata - PWMP *galiŋgaŋ

a tree: Cordia dichotoma - PMP *hanunaŋ

a tree: Cordia dichotoma - PAN *qaNuNaŋ

a tree: Cordia subcordata - POC *toRu

a tree: Cordia spp. - PMP *kanawa

a tree: Cordia spp. - PMP *kendal

a tree: Cynometra spp. - PMP *namut-namut

a tree: Diospyros spp. - PPh *talaŋ₁

a tree: Dolichandrone spathacea - PMP *tui₁

a tree: Dracontomelum edule - PAN *daqu₁

a tree: Erythrina spp. - PMP *dedap

a tree: Erythrina spp. - PPH *sabaŋ₂

a tree: Excoecaria spp. - PWMP *buta buta₂

a tree: Ficus sp. - PWMP *bunut₂

a tree: Ficus sp. - PPH *tebéR

a tree: Ficus sp. - PPH *labnuR

a tree: Ficus spp. - PMP *qaRaʔ

a tree: Ganua obovatifolia.(Merr.), Sapotaceae - PPH *piaŋa

a tree: Garcinia sp. - PWMP *kandis

a tree: Gnetum gnemon - PMP *suka₁

a tree: Inocarpus spp., possibly the Tahitian chestnut: Inocarpus edulis - PMP *gayam

a tree: Jatropha curcas L. - PWMP *kataŋan

a tree: Lagerstroemia speciosa - PPh *banabá

a tree: Litsea spp. - PWMP *bakan

a tree: Macaranga spp. - POC *pinuan

a tree: Macaranga spp., Euphorbiaceae - POC *koka

a tree: Mallotus lackeyi Elm. - PPH *lamay

a tree: Mangifera sp. - PWMP *balunuq

a tree: Melia azedarach - PAN-F *baŋaS

a tree: Morinda citrifolia - PWMP *biŋkudu

a tree: Murraya sp. - PMP *kamuniŋ

a tree: Nauclea sp. - PMP *baŋkal

a tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia - PMP *pauq

a tree: Ochrosia oppositifolia - POC *paoq (ʔ)

a tree: Octomeles sp. - PWMP *benuaŋ

a tree: Octomeles spp. - PWMP *banuaŋ

a tree: Pangium edule - PWMP *paŋi

a tree: Planchonella obovata - PPH *banisah

a tree: Pongamia spp. - PPH *bani₂

a tree: Prunus sp. - PPH *taŋa₄

a tree: Pterocarpus indica - PMP *naRah

a tree: Pterocarpus indica - PMP *nara

a tree: Pterospermum sp. - PMP *bayuR

a tree: Radermachera gigantea - PWMP *tui₂

a tree: Rhus taitensis - POC *tawasi

a tree: Schleichera trijuga - PMP *kasambiʔ

a tree: Sterculia foetida - PMP *kalumpaŋ

a tree: Trema orientalis - PMP *deRuŋ₂

a tree: Vitex pubescens - PMP *pa(m)pa

a tree: Zizyphus jujuba - PWMP *bidara

a tree: Elaeocarpus sp.? - PWMP *saŋa₂

a tree: probably Octomeles spp. - POC *iRimo

a tree: the banyan or strangler fig - PPh *balítiq

a tree: the banyan or strangler fig - PMP *nunuk

a tree: the camphor laurel: Cinnamomum spp. - PAN-F *dakeS

a tree; Grewia spp. - PMP *qanilaw

a tree; Macaranga tanarius - PPh *binuŋa

a woody plant or tree: Vitex cofassus - POC *pasa(rR)

an evergreen tree with decorative flowers: Cynometra ramiflora L. - PMP *namut

an evergreen tree, probably Acacia confusa - PAN-F *tuquN

bare (of trees) - *(loan)

bare, of trees - *(noise)

bark of a tree; peel off bark - PWMP *pakpak₂

base of a tree; beginning; origin - POC *puna₁

base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother - PMP *puqun

blossom of a fruit tree - PMP *buŋa na kahiw

branch of a tree - PMP *daqan kahiw

branch of a tree - POC *raqan kayu

break off a component piece of something, as twigs or branches from a tree, a banana from a bunch, a section from a fruit, etc. - PPH *sipíq

burl on a tree - PWMP *buŋkul kahiw

calabash tree: Crescentia spp. - PMP *bila₁

citrus tree with fruit like a lemon - PPH *kalamansiq

coastal tree, perhaps Pongamia pinnata - POC *pesi

come to rest in a definite place, settle down, as birds on a tree - PMP *tekas

cut off, sever; ring a tree - PWMP *geleŋ

deep resounding sound; slit-gong, hollowed tree trunk used to send messages - PAN *kuŋkuŋ₁

ear; kind of tree fungus - PMP *taliŋa

enclosure; palisade around a village; fence around a planted tree or cultivated field - PMP *pager

felling of trees, as in preparing a swidden - PWMP *tebeŋ

flower, blossom of fruit tree - PPH *sabuŋ₂

fruit tree - PWMP *baraŋan₂

fruit-bearing bush or tree - PAN *qanibuŋ

hardwood tree with edible fruit and valuable timber: Palaquium spp. - PMP *ñatuq

heartwood of a tree, hard, durable core of wood; ironwood tree - PMP *teRas

kapok; silk-cotton tree - PWMP *kapuk

kind of citrus tree and fruit - PAN *dalayap

kind of citrus tree and its fruit - PMP *muntay

kind of ebony or persimmon tree with fruits that are pounded and used to stupefy fish: Diospyros spp. - PPH *kanúmay

kind of fruit tree: Pometia pinnata - PMP *tawan

kind of hardwood tree - PPH *lawaqan

kind of large red tree ant with bad bite - PWMP *alagaq

kind of tree - PWMP *parawan

kind of tree the leaves of which are used as poultices for boils - PMP *buqaR

kind of tree with bark that yields a vine-like fiber - PPH *lánut

kind of tree with leaves shaped like butterflies - PWMP *qali-baŋbaŋ

kind of wild lemon tree, possibly Citrus hystrix - PPH *kabuRaw

large forest tree with edible brown, hairy fruits: Diospyros discolor - PPH *kamaguŋ

large red tree ant - POC *loRo

loquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa - PAN-F *Ritu

mango tree and its fruit, probably Mangifera altissima - PMP *pahuq₁

mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta) - PAN *taNiud

notch cut in a tree - PAN *qabaS

notch, as in a tree that has been cut prior to felling - PWMP *baŋbaŋ₇

notch, as in a tree trunk; notch-shaped area under the glans penis - PWMP *etak

palm tree sp. - *(noise)

paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material - PCEMP *malaw

peel off, of skin; remove the bark of a tree - PMP *bakbak₁

Philippine cedar tree: Cedrela sp. - PPH *kalantas

pine tree, pitch pine - PAN *saleŋ

pith of a tree - POC *quto

pith of plants or trees; core or middle of something - PMP *qunej

sap of a tree or plant - PAN *Niteq

sap of a tree or plant - PMP *liteq

shrub or small tree: Abroma augusta L. - PWMP *anabu

silk cotton tree: Ceiba pentandra Linn. - PPh *buybuy

sit, squat; come to rest; stay in a place; settle down, as birds on a tree - POC *toka₃

small tree, probably Morinda citrifolia Linn. - PPH *apatut

straight, as tree limbs - PPH *tánus

tall, of trees (especially coconut palms) - PPH *láyug

the almasiga tree: Agathis celebica (Koord.) - PPH *gala

the candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana - PMP *kamiri

the candlenut tree: Aleurites moluccana - PEMP *tuRi₂

the horseradish tree: Moringa oleifera - PPH *maruŋgay

the Indian tulip tree: Thespesia populnea - PMP *banaRu

the kapok tree: Ceiba pentandra - PMP *kabu-kabu

the sappan tree: Caesalpinia sappan L. - PPH *sibukaw

to fell trees - PMP *tebaŋ

to fell trees, as in preparing a swidden - PWMP *ma-nebeŋ

to pick, as fruit from a tree using a pole with a hook - PPH *su(ŋ)kit-en

to prune a tree; new growth from pruning - PPH *saliŋsíŋ

top of a tree, tip, extremity - PWMP *lawi₂

transverse beam or tree trunk - PWMP *bataŋ-an

tree - *(noise)

tree (lit. ‘foundation/origin of wood’) - PMP *puqun nu kahiw

tree bark - PWMP *ubak

tree fern - PMP *apuni

tree fern - PMP *puni₁

tree or shrub with leaves used for sandpaper: Ficus sp. - PMP *qampelas

tree resin used in torches (?) - PAN *damaR

tree sp. - PWMP *amaRa

tree sp. - PWMP *balalantiʔ

tree sp. - POC *(bp)alu

tree sp. - PPh *baniákaw

tree sp. - PWMP *banuay

tree sp. - PPh *banútan

tree sp. - PPh *barat₂

tree sp. - PWMP *barayaŋ

tree sp. - PPh *barayeŋ

tree sp. - PWMP *baŋkiriŋ

tree sp. - PWMP *bintaŋ

tree sp. - PWMP *bintenu

tree sp. - PPh *biu

tree sp. - PAN *buŋuR

tree sp. - PMP *kanarum

tree sp. - PWMP *kenduŋ

tree sp. - PWMP *Rihuq

tree sp. - PWMP *hapuy hapuy₂

tree sp. - POC *ake

tree sp. - POC *seasea

tree sp. - PMP *katapaŋ

tree sp. - PMP *katimun

tree sp. - *(loan)

tree sp. - *(noise)

tree sp., Cananga odorata - *(loan)

tree sp., Casuarina equisetifolia - *(loan)

tree sp.: Barringtonia - *(noise)

tree sp.: Erythrina indica - *(noise)

tree sp.: Schoutenia ovata - PMP *kukun

tree sp.: Sesbania grandiflora - PMP *tudiq

tree stump; stubble - PAN *tuqed

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

tree with bright yellow fruit that has dry flesh: Lucuma nervosa - PPH *tisaq

tree with dense clusters of red flowers, the Indian coral tree, Erythrina indica - PMP *depdep

tree with edible fruit Sandoricum indicum or Sandoricum koetjape - *(loan)

tree with edible hairy brown fruit: Diospyros discolor - *(loan)

tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune - PMP *kanari

tree with edible nut, the Canarium almond: Canarium commune - POC *kaŋaRi

tree with fiber used to make fish nets - POC *tail

tree with fruit similar to breadfruit - PWMP *teRep

tree with fruit similar to breadfruit - PWMP *si teRep

tree with inedible white fruit and root that yields a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia L. - POC *ñoñu

tree with leaves like sandpaper: Ficus spp. - PMP *qa(m)pelas

tree with poisonous sap - PMP *butaq₂

tree with poisonous sap - PWMP *iŋas

tree with poisonous sap, (probably Antiaris toxicaria) - PMP *laji₁

tree with sticky fruits: Cordia spp. - PAN *quNuNaŋ

tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia - PWMP *baŋkudu

tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia - PCEMP *ñəñu

tree with wood used to make fireplows - POC *qalo₂

tree, Glochidion spp. - *(near)

tree, Terminalia spp. - *(near)

tree, Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea - *(near)

trees in the genus Barringtonia - PMP *putat

uproot a tree - PPh *buág

uproot a tree - PPh *buál

uprooted, of a tree - PPh *ma-buál

various hardwood trees; heartwood of a tree - POC *toRas

visible tree roots above the ground - PWMP *paŋkal

wild palm tree with fruit similar to areca nut: Heterospathe elata - PPH *sagisí

wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks - PAN *Caliŋa na kaSiw

wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks - PMP *taliŋa na kahiw

wood; tree - PAN *kaSiw

wood; tree - PMP *kahiw

wood; tree - PCEMP *kayu

wooded, having lots of trees - PAN *kaSi-kaSiw

wooded, having lots of trees - PMP *kahi-kahiw

young tree, sprout - PMP *anak i kahiw

tree and its fruit: Lansium domesticum

tree and its fruit: Lansium domesticum - *(loan)

tree: Litsea sp.

tree: Litsea sp. - *(near)

tree: Memecylon paniculatum

tree: Memecylon paniculatum - *(near)

tree: Shorea spp.

tree: Shorea spp. - *(loan)

trellis

trellis for plants to grow up - PWMP *paraq paraq

Trema

a tree: Trema orientalis - PMP *deRuŋ₂

tremble

shake, shiver, tremble - PAN *gerger₁

shake, shiver, tremble - *-ger (root)

shake, tremble - PAN *keRkeR

shake, tremble, rock - PMP *ninih

shake, tremble, rock - PCEMP *nini

shake, vibrate, tremble - PMP *eter

shiver, shake, tremble - PAN *birbir₂

shiver, tremble - PMP *berber₂

shiver, tremble - PWMP *girgir

shiver, tremble - PAN *terter

shiver, tremble - PAN *tirtir₁

shiver, tremble - PMP *gigil

shiver, tremble - *-ter (root)

to shake, shiver, quiver, tremble - PWMP *tiRtiR₂

to tremble or quiver - PWMP *ma-gigil

tremble - *(noise)

tremble, quiver - *-tir (root)

Treron

fruit dove, probably Treron spp. - POC *bune

trevally

a large marine fish, the jackfish or trevally - PMP *bilu-bilu

a large marine fish, the jackfish or trevally - PMP *pilu

small trevally varieties - POC *pilu-pilu

triangulare

plant with leaves used as a vegetable: Talinum paniculatum or Talinum triangulare - PPH *talínum

tribute

one to whom tribute is paid - PPh *buhis-an

tribute - PWMP *buhís

Trichoglossus

parrot, probably Trichoglossus sp. - POC *pwirip

trick

trick, ruse, scheme, wits - *(loan)

tricked

induced, tricked - *(loan)

trickle

drizzle, trickle - *(noise)

Tridacna

giant clam, Tridacna gigas - PMP *kima

trident

trident harpoon or fish spear - PWMP *sarapaŋ

trifling

little, small, trifling - PMP *iut₁

small in quantity, few; trifling amount - PMP *emit

small, trifling - PMP *kikit

trigger

touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger - PPH *kal(e)bit

touch lightly, nudge; pull trigger - PPH *kal(e)bit-en

trigger fish: Balistes sp. - POC *bubu₇

trigger of a tension-set trap - PMP *baquR

trigger on spring trap - PMP *bauR

trigger on spring trap - PPH *baweR

triggerfish

brown triggerfish: Pseudobalistes fuscus - POC *lio-lio

triggerfish - PWMP *peget

triggerfish, Balistidae - POC *sumu

trijuga

a tree: Schleichera trijuga - PMP *kasambiʔ

trim

prune, trim - *(loan)

prune, trim branches - PWMP *tutuq

to hack, chop off, trim with a bolo; pound, beat, knock on - PWMP *tabtab₁

trim, cut off excess - PWMP *Ri(ŋ)kas

trim, cut the tips off - PWMP *tiptip

trim, prune, clear a path - PWMP *basbas₃

trimmed

trimmed short, as grass; bare (of a field) - PWMP *palpal₁

trip

take a trip; commence a voyage - PPH *luás

to leave on a trip, start a voyage - PPH *l<um>uas

transport piecemeal; tranport through repeated trips - PAN *SakuC

transport piecemeal; transport through repeated trips - PMP *hakut

transport piecemeal; transport through repeated trips - PWMP *maŋ-hakut

triple

to triple, multiply by three - PMP *paka-telu

to triple, multiply by three - POC *paka-tolu

triple-strand

made of three parts, as triple-strand rope - PPH *t<in>elu

trivet

trivet - *(loan)

trivet, arrangement of three stones on which the cooking pot is placed - PMP *dalikan

trochus

trochus shell - PMP *lalak

trodden

middle of the road, most trodden part of a path or road; guide who shows the way - PMP *mata nu zalan

trophy

head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?) - PAN *tabaN

trouble

to hurt, cause pain or trouble - PWMP *sakit-an

trouble, toil, difficulty - PWMP *suker

trouble, worry, difficulty - *(loan)

trough

feeding trough - PWMP *paluŋ₁

feeding trough - PWMP *paluŋ-an

feeding trough - PWMP *paluŋ-en

trowel

tool like chisel or trowel - PPH *saluksuk₁

true

be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true - PMP *kena₁

real, genuine, true, sincere - PWMP *tunay₂

true - *(loan)

true, believable, correct - POC *tuna

true, correct, upright - POC *bonor₁

true, real - PMP *tatuqu

true, real, genuine - PEMP *molaŋ

true, real; truly, really - PMP *tuqu₂

true, righteous, honest - PMP *bener

true, truly - PMP *tuqu-tuqu

truly

true, real; truly, really - PMP *tuqu₂

true, truly - PMP *tuqu-tuqu

truly, surely, really, in fact - PPH *talagá

trumpet

conch shell trumpet - PCEMP *buu₂

conch shell trumpet - POC *buu₅

conch shell trumpet - PMP *tabuRiq

conch shell trumpet - POC *tapuRiq

conch shell trumpet - PMP *tabuRi

conch shell trumpet - POC *tapuRi

trunk

deep resounding sound; slit-gong, hollowed tree trunk used to send messages - PAN *kuŋkuŋ₁

groin, inner thigh where it joins the trunk - PCMP *kelen

notch, as in a tree trunk; notch-shaped area under the glans penis - PWMP *etak

transverse beam or tree trunk - PWMP *bataŋ-an

tree trunk, fallen tree, log; stem of a plant; body; corpse; self; bridge of the nose; most important or preeminent thing; main course of a river; mushroom or bracket fungus that grows on tree trunks or decaying logs - PMP *bataŋ

wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks - PAN *Caliŋa na kaSiw

wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks - PMP *taliŋa na kahiw

trust

trust, confidence (in lending money) - *(loan)

truth

truth, righteousness, honesty - PWMP *ka-bener-an

try

taste, test, try - PMP *tepeŋ₁

taste, test, try - POC *topoŋ

to taste, try - PMP *tamis

to taste, try - PAN-F *taNam

to taste, try - PMP *tamiq

to test, try, examine - PPH *subuk₂

to try, taste - PWMP *kiñam

try the taste of something - PWMP *taway

try, taste - PAN *tañam

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tu

tube

bamboo tube used as a storage container - PWMP *buŋbuŋ₁

cook in a tube of green bamboo - PWMP *lemeŋ₂

tuber

a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers - PAN *kalih

a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers - PMP *kali₂

end of tuber that is kept for planting - PEMP *upe

kind of edible tuber - PWMP *buga

kind of tuber: Dioscorea spp. - PWMP *gaduŋ

rind, peeling of fruits or tubers - PAN *kuliC

to dig up, excavate, as tubers - PAN *k<um>ali

tuber - *(loan)

tubular

tubular basket used to carry and store rice or sago - PWMP *basuŋ

tuck

insert, tuck in - PPH *suq(e)kip

tulip

the Indian tulip tree: Thespesia populnea - PMP *banaRu

tumor

swell; swelling, tumor - PAN-F *Ribawa

tumor in the mouth of an animal - PPh *hábas

tumult

noise, tumult - PMP *guru

noise, tumult - PMP *guruq

noise, tumult - POC *guru

tuna

a fish, the skipjack tuna or bonito - POC *qatun

fish sp.: tuna - *(loan)

yellowfin tuna: Thunnus albacares - POC *takua

tune

to sing; song, tune, melody - PAN-F *quyaS

turbid

murky, clouded, turbid - PMP *libuR

murky, turbid, of water that has been stirred up - PPH *ma-liqebeR

turbid - PWMP *la(m)bug₂

turbid - *-buR₃ (root)

turbid - *(loan)

turbid - *(noise)

turbidity

murkiness, turbidity, of water that has been stirred up - PPH *liqebeR

turbulent

rough, of a turbulent sea - POC *ñoro

turkey

turkey - *(loan)

turmeric

material that has been colored yellow with turmeric - PWMP *k<in>uñij-an

turmeric: Curcuma longa - POC *aŋo

turmeric: Curcuma zedoaria - PWMP *tamu₂

turmeric: Curcuma longa - PMP *kunij

turmeric: Curcuma longa

plant sp., turmeric, Curcuma longa - *(loan)

turn

a person who turns or grinds something; an instrument used for rolling or grinding - PWMP *paŋ-giliŋ

become night, turn into night - PPH *R<um>abiqi

bend, turn - PMP *pi(ŋ)keR

look from side to side, turn the head in this way - PWMP *liŋaR

particle used to soften questions or turn statements into rhetorical questions - PPH *taq₂

reverse, turn around - PPh *baliketád

reverse, turn around - PMP *balik₂

reverse, turn around - PMP *bali₅

reverse, turn over or around - PPh *balikid

to parry, turn an attack or accusation aside - PWMP *taŋkis

to reverse, turn around - PMP *suliq

to reverse, turn around - PAN *suli₂

to sway, stagger, turn this way and that - PPH *talátal

to turn - PMP *putaR

to turn - PWMP *ma-mutaR

to turn - PWMP *puteR

to turn around, as a boat - PPH *kábig

to turn around, as a boat - PPH *kabíg-en

to turn over, to dig by turning over, as rocks - POC *kili

to turn, roll over; grind up - PWMP *g<um>iliŋ

to turn, rotate; to grind with a stone roller - PWMP *maŋ-giliŋ

to wind, curve, turn to the side; to tack, sail into the wind - PMP *biluk

to wind, turn - PWMP *k<um>iluq

trample earth, turn into mud, as a paddy field prior to planting - PWMP *lucak

turn - *(noise)

turn (as the prow of a boat) - PMP *paliŋ

turn around, change direction - POC *li-liu

turn around, turn back - POC *bulos

turn around, turn back - POC *ta-bulos

turn around, turn over - POC *liliu

turn aside, swerve to avoid a collision - PWMP *tipas

turn one’s head to the side to look back - PPH *liŋiq

turn over, rock back and forth, swing - POC *pui₂

turn over, rock back and forth, swing - POC *pui pui

turn over, roll over; transform; upside down - POC *buliŋ

turn round, rotate - PMP *puliŋ₁

turn the back on - PMP *ta-likud

turn the back to someone - POC *ta-likur

turn the head aside - PWMP *liŋeR

turn the head aside - PWMP *liŋus

turn the head to look back - PPH *liŋaw₂

turn the soil over, as in removing stones prior to planting - PWMP *suŋkal

turn to the side - PMP *liŋak

turn up at the edge, expose the bottom side - PWMP *lukab

turn, go around - PAN *taliuk

turn, revolve - PWMP *baliliŋ

turn, revolve - PMP *biliŋ₁

turn, revolve - PWMP *libet

turn, revolve, turn around - *-liŋ₃ (root)

turn, rotate - PMP *ileŋ

turn, rotate - PWMP *liget

turn, wind - PWMP *li(ŋ)keD

yardarm, sheet of a sail, sticks used to turn the sail - POC *jila

turned

rotten, turned rancid or mildewed - PPH *tagbák

sticking out or turned forward, of ears - PWMP *kupiŋ

turned around, inverted - *(loan)

turning

to turn over, to dig by turning over, as rocks - POC *kili

turnip

Mexican turnip, Pachyrrhizus erosus - *(loan)

turtle

hawksbill turtle: Chelonia imbricata - PCEMP *keRa

hawksbill turtle: Chelonia imbricata - PCEMP *keRan₂

land turtle, fresh-water turtle - PPh *pagquŋ

scale of fish, lizard or snake; shell of turtle or tortoise - PMP *siksik₂

scale of fish, shell of turtle - POC *qunap₂

scale of fish, turtle shell - PCEMP *qunap₁

sea turtle - PPH *pawikan

soft-shelled river turtle - PWMP *labi-labi

the green turtle - PAN *peñu

the green turtle, Chelonia mydas - PMP *peñu

the green turtle, Chelonia mydas - POC *poñu

tortoise, land turtle - PPH *baququ

tortoise, land turtle - *(loan)

turtle - *(near)

turtle sp. - PAN *qaCipa

turtle sp. - PWMP *qantipa

turtle sp. - *(noise)

turtledove

coo; turtledove - PWMP *bekur

coo; turtledove - *-kur (root)

tusk

canine tooth; tusk, as of wild boar - PPH *sauŋ

tusk of wild boar - PAN-F *waNiS

tusk, canine tooth - PMP *baŋelih

tusk; canine tooth - PAN *baŋeliS

tusks of a boar - PMP *quntu

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tw

tweak

twist or tweak the ear - PWMP *biŋbiŋ₂

tweet

chirp, tweet, crow, produce sound (of birds) - PMP *huni

twenty

twenty - PAN-F *ma-puSaN

twice

do something twice (?) - PMP *maka-duha

do something twice (?) - PCEMP *maka-dua

twice - PAN-F *puSaN

twice - PWMP *in-duha

twice - PCEMP *paka-dua

twice, do something twice - PAN *paka-duSa

twice, do something twice - PMP *paka-duha

twice, do something twice - POC *paka-rua

twig

branch, twig - PMP *daŋkeq

break off a component piece of something, as twigs or branches from a tree, a banana from a bunch, a section from a fruit, etc. - PPH *sipíq

to snap, break off, as a twig - PMP *getes

to snap, break off, as a twig - POC *kotos

twilight

dimness, twilight - PAN *Sulem

dimness, twilight - PMP *hulem

dusky, twilight, as near the end of day - PWMP *peteŋ

overcast, twilight - PAN *beNelem

twin

twin - PMP *anak apij

twin - *(noise)

twins - *(loan)

twins of the same sex - PAN *Sabij

twins of the same sex - POC *apic

twins of the same sex - PMP *habij

twins; double banana - PMP *apij

twine

braid, twine - PAN *qapid

rope, cord, twine, string - PAN *CaliS

rope, cord, twine, string - PMP *talih

string, twine, thread - PPH *sulid

twine around - PMP *pulit

twine round and round; thing made by braiding - POC *piri-piri

twine together, as strands of rope - PWMP *pa-talih

twist fibers into twine - PPH *lubid-en

twist twine together - *-bid (root)

twining

string, rope, cordage made by twining fibers - PPH *lúbid

twinkle

flash, sparkle, twinkle - PPH *kimat

shine, sparkle, twinkle - PMP *kelap₂

shine, sparkle, twinkle - PMP *kerap

twinkle - *(noise)

twist

braid, twist together - POC *pijir, pijir-i

plait a cord, twist, wrap around - PMP *pirit

to twist into rope (?) - PMP *t<um>alih

to twist or wring - PWMP *ma-mules

to twist strands together (?) - PWMP *pintal

to twist together, make rope - PWMP *quntay₂

to twist, as a limb - PMP *liut₂

to twist, braid - PWMP *tabíd

twist - PMP *wirit

twist around - PMP *belit₂

twist around - POC *polit

twist around - *-lut (root)

twist fibers into twine - PPH *lubid-en

twist or tweak the ear - PWMP *biŋbiŋ₂

twist spasmodically, wriggle - PMP *kiseg

twist spasmodically, wriggle - POC *kisog

twist together - POC *piro

twist together - POC *piro-a

twist together rope out of three strands - PWMP *ma-nelu

twist together, intertwine - PWMP *bidíbid

twist twine together - *-bid (root)

twist, wring - PMP *pulis

twist, wring - PMP *pules

wind, twist - *-lit₂ (root)

twisted

bent, crooked, twisted - PMP *ma-kiluq

bent, twisted - PWMP *baliŋ₂

bent, twisted - POC *biko

crippled; bent or twisted, of the leg or foot - PAN *piluk₁

crooked, twisted (of the mouth) - PWMP *hiwiʔ

sprained, twisted, as the ankle - PWMP *ta-piluk

twisting

to wring, squeeze out by twisting or wringing - PMP *lesles₂

what is ground up, what is produced by twisting around or grinding - PPH *g<in>iliŋ

twitch

twitch - *(near)

twitch, jerk; keep moving the lips - PWMP *kimut kimut

twitter

peep, twitter - PWMP *pit

twitter, call out (bird) - PWMP *ciak

twittering

soothing sound of humming activity, twittering, etc. - PWMP *kicaw

two

a cleft, space between two rocks - PEMP *mawa

balanced, as a person in walking, or two weights opposite one another - PWMP *timbaŋ

be divided into two - PAN *duSa-en

be divided into two - PMP *duha-en

be split, in two - PAN *ma-belaq

carry a load between two people - PPH *tuaŋ₂

carry between two or more persons - PMP *bintiŋ

carry between two persons - PMP *qusuŋ

carry on a pole between two persons; help someone carry a load - PWMP *bulig

carry on a pole between two persons; help someone carry a load - PPh *bulig-an

carry on a shoulder pole between two people - PWMP *ataŋ₂

channel between two islands - POC *sawaŋ₂

compare two things - PWMP *tandiŋ

divide into two - PWMP *maR-duha

divide into two parts - PWMP *man-duha

doubt, hesitation, uncertainty; to doubt, hesitate, be of two minds - PMP *duha duha₂

doubt, hesitation, uncertainty; to doubt, hesitate, be of two minds - POC *rua rua₂

join two things to give added length (rope, bamboo, etc.) - PAN-F *Nutud

knock two things together with a clicking sound - PPH *sintík

narrow opening or passage between two things - PWMP *selat

pinch or squeeze between two surfaces - PPh *higpít

pinch, squeeze, press between two surfaces; pluck, pick off - PAN *pitpit₂

pit two opponents against each other - PWMP *sabuŋ₁

press between two flat surfaces - PMP *liq(e)pit

press between two flat surfaces; to press down, crush - PMP *luqepit

press together, press between two surfaces - PAN *Sapit

press together, press between two surfaces; part of the loom - PMP *hapit

rub two things together, create friction, as sticks to make fire, or the hands - PMP *kusu₁

separate two things - PMP *elak

space between two things - PWMP *qelet-an

split in two - POC *polaq

split, torn; opening or water passage between two capes of land - PMP *beŋat₁

spread wide apart, as the legs or any two things joined at a point - PMP *pikaŋ

strike two hard objects together to produce a spark - PPH *piŋkíq

to crush or mash between two hard surfaces - PMP *pipis₂

to have been split, cloven in two - PAN *b<in>elaq

to hitch, tie two things together - PPH *Rakéd

to mix two or more things - PPH *i-lahúk

to separate, as two people - PAN *waray

to split, cleave in two - PWMP *maŋ-belaq

two - PAN *duSa

two - PMP *duha

two - POC *rua

two by two, two at a time - POC *rua rua₁

two by two, two at a time; two each - PAN *duSa duSa

two by two, two at a time; two each - PCEMP *dua-dua

two by two, two at a time; two each; both - PMP *duha duha₁

two each? - PWMP *taR-duha

two, of people - PAN *da-duSa

two, of people - PMP *da-duha

two, of people - POC *ra-rua

TOP      te    th    ti    to    tr    tu    tw    ty    

ty

tying

fasten together by sewing or tying - PAN *kapit

fern used for tying and binding - POC *qasam

tie, bind, attach to by tying - PAN *Siket

tie, bind, attach to by tying - PMP *hiket

to bind, tie tightly, probably of tying one thing which is moveable to another which is fixed - PPH *kedked

to bind, to fasten tightly by tying - PPH *i-takéd

to undo stitches, pull out tying material - PPH *tastas-en

tying material - *(noise)

type

body hair; fur; feather; down; antenna of insect or crustacean; spikes of sea urchin; floss on plant skins, color; type, kind - PCEMP *bulu₁

body hair; fur; feather; down; floss on plant stems; color; type, kind - PMP *bulu₁

canoe type - POC *mona

ear; various types of bracket fungi; pectoral fins of a fish - POC *taliŋa

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; to foam, to bubble; foam at the mouth; fond of talking; type of white bead - PMP *bujeq₂

inferior type of betel nut - PMP *burun

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PCEMP *daun

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PEMP *raun

pig bristles; type of sea urchin with thin black spines - PMP *bulu ni babuy

same kind or type; fitting; well-matched; suitable - PWMP *bagay₁

smaller types of reef squid - POC *nuso

smaller types of reef squid - POC *nusa₂

type of basket - PWMP *ba(ŋ)kat

type of boat, possibly dugout with outrigger - PWMP *bilug

type of canoe - PWMP *alud

type of coconut - POC *lama₃

type of finch, rice bird - PWMP *ampeRij

type of finch, rice bird - PWMP *apiRit

type of ginger - PMP *panas₂

type of headcloth - PWMP *sampir

type of large bamboo - PMP *qauR

type of lichen - PWMP *kahiw haŋin haŋin

type of rice - PPH *mímis₂

type of shell, possibly nautilus - POC *bio

type of shield - PWMP *kalasag

type of shield - PMP *tamiŋ

type of slender bamboo; Schizostachyum spp. - PAN *buluq₂

type of slender bamboo; Schizostachyum spp. - POC *buluq₃

type of small worm - PAN *qulej

type of very large bamboo - POC *potuŋ

type of wind - POC *aura

type of yam (?) - PWMP *qubi kahiw

typhoon

typhoon - PAN *baRiuS

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/22/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_t.htm