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Updated: 11/10/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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U

ug    um    un    up    ur    us    ut    uv    

udder

female breast; udder - PAN *susu₁

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ug

ugly

bad, evil; ugly - PWMP *zaqet

bad, evil; ugly - PMP *zaqat

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um

umbellifera

a fruit-bearing plant: Pisonia umbellifera - PMP *anuliŋ

umbilical

navel, umbilical cord - PAN-F *pujek

navel, umbilical cord - PAN-F *puja

umbilicus

navel, umbilicus - POC *pusoc

navel, umbilicus; mid-point or center of something - PMP *pusej

umbilicus, navel cord - PWMP *talih pusej

umbrella

to hold an umbrella or parasol over someone - PWMP *payuŋ-an

to use an umbrella or parasol - PWMP *ma-mayuŋ

umbrella made of palm leaves - PWMP *saeŋ

umbrella, parasol - PWMP *payuŋ

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un

unable

blocked, plugged, dammed; mute, unable to speak - PWMP *beŋbeŋ

cornered, unable to escape - POC *jukul₁

cornered, unable to escape - PMP *sukul₂

mute, unable to speak - POC *boŋol

mute, unable to speak - PCEMP *beŋel

unable to concentrate - PWMP *liŋas

weak, feeble, unable to perform - PPH *ma-kápuy

weakness, debility; feeble, unable to perform - PPH *kápuy

unbent

spread apart, as the legs or an unbent fishhook - PWMP *bukaŋkaŋ

spread apart, as the legs or an unbent fishhook - POC *pokaŋ

spread apart, as the legs, or an unbent fishhook - PWMP *bikaŋkaŋ

spread apart, as the legs, or an unbent fishhook - PMP *be(ŋ)kaŋ

unceasing

continuous, unceasing - PWMP *amat

unceremoniously

bump or bang into, collide unceremoniously - PWMP *sempuk

uncertain

demonstrative marker of uncertain meaning - PMP *iaqi

uncertainty

doubt, hesitation, uncertainty; to doubt, hesitate, be of two minds - POC *rua rua₂

doubt, hesitation, uncertainty; to doubt, hesitate, be of two minds - PMP *duha duha₂

marker of uncertainty - PAN *-nu

thing of uncertainty - PWMP *anu-anu

uncircumcised

uncircumcised - *(noise)

uncle

father, uncle, elder sibling - *(noise)

parent’s younger sibling, junior uncle; a young child’s term of address for his father, vocative of *ama - PMP *mama

uncle - PWMP *ama-en

unclean

defiled, ritually polluted, ceremonially unclean - *(loan)

unclear

vague, unclear - PWMP *lamuk₁

uncomfortable

uncomfortable feeling; feel bored, or uneasy about something - PPH *saw(e)qa

unconscious

unconscious - PPH *lunu₂

unconsumed

firebrand; unconsumed wood in a fire; charred wood - PWMP *aliten

uncontrolled

gluttony, uncontrolled appetite - PPH *sibáq

uncooked

raw, uncooked - PMP *ma-hataq

raw, uncooked - PWMP *hataq

raw, unripe, green (fruit), uncooked - PCEMP *ma-qetaq

raw, unripe, green (fruit), uncooked - PAN *ma-qetaq

uncover

loosen, undo, uncover - PPh *wakas-án

loosen, undo, uncover - PMP *wakas

open, uncover - PMP *siŋkab

open, uncover - PAN *lekab

open, uncover - PWMP *hu(ŋ)kab

open, uncover - PWMP *e(ŋ)kab

open, uncover - *-kab (root)

scrape something off a surface so as to uncover it - PPH *kuykúy₂

to lift, raise, uncover, bare something - PCMP *silu₁

to open, uncover - PWMP *likab

to open, uncover - PWMP *iŋkab

to open, uncover - PMP *bu(ŋ)kas

to open, uncover - PWMP *maŋ-bukaʔ

to open, uncover - PWMP *bukaʔ

to open, uncover - POC *puke

to open, uncover, expose - PMP *buka

uncovered

bare, uncovered - *(noise)

uncovering

to uproot, expose by uncovering - PPH *lukat₂

uncultivated

uncultivated field, open grassland; field covered with sword grass (Imperata cylindrica) - PWMP *padaŋ

uncultivated land - PAN-F *Ceme-Cemel

under

be carried under the arm - PWMP *kilik-en

below, beneath, under - POC *papaq₃

break under tension - PMP *ku(n)tus

break under tension - *-tus (root)

break under tension, as a rope - PMP *utus₁

carried under the arm or on the hip - PWMP *kilik₂

dirt under the nails - PWMP *taqi nu kuku

disappear under water - PWMP *leñep

disappear under water - PWMP *leñeb

dive; sink, disappear under water - *-Neb₁ (root)

dive; sink, disappear under water - *-ñep (root)

down, under - POC *ba₄

extended, stretched taut, put under tension - PMP *benteŋ

feathers under chin of rooster, chin whiskers - PWMP *bauk

feel with the feet, as in finding clams under the sand - PPH *sedsed₃

get a splinter or sliver under the skin or nail - PPH *salugsúg

hold or carry under the arm - PWMP *meŋ-qabin

hold or carry under the arm - PMP *qabin

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - POC *ralom

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings, liver (fig.) - PMP *dalem

lower surface, bottom; short, low; below, beneath, under - PMP *babaq₁

node, joint; knuckle; swelling under the skin - POC *buku-buku

notch, as in a tree trunk; notch-shaped area under the glans penis - PWMP *etak

pad placed under cooking pots, loads to carry on the head, etc. - PPH *dikén

press together; pressed together; carry under the arm, press between the legs - PMP *kepit

rock shelter, cave under a rock - PAN-F *Nihib

sag, bend under weight - PWMP *luyut

shelter, space under something - PPH *siluŋ

sink, disappear under water - PWMP *leñej

sink, disappear under water - PWMP *teleŋ

sink, disappear under water - PMP *telem

snap, break, as a rope under tension - PMP *butus

split open, burst under pressure - PMP *besiq

stretch, put under tension - PWMP *betek₂

submerge, disappear under water - PAN *lezep

submerge, go under water - POC *lomos

swelling; lump or bump under the skin - POC *buŋkul₂

swelling; lump or bump under the skin - PWMP *buŋkug

swelling; lump or bump under the skin; wad of something - PMP *buŋkul₁

to burn or set a fire under to smoke out - PPH *sunúg-en

to carry at the side or on the hip, pressed under the arm - PPH *kilít

to dive, swim under water - PAN *l<um>edep

to dive, swim under water - PAN *ledep

to immerse, put under water - PAN *teneb

under, below - PMP *ba₄

undergo

be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true - PMP *kena₁

undergrowth

cutting or clearing of undergrowth - PWMP *lidik

dense undergrowth - PWMP *samek

undergrowth - PWMP *samun

underlayer

lining, insulation, padding; underlayer, as of clothing - PPH *sapín

understand

know, understand - PAN *ma-bajaq

know, understand - PAN *ka-bajaq

know, understand; ask, inquire - PAN *bajaq₁

think, understand - POC *adom

think, understand - PMP *handem

understand, understanding - *(loan)

understanding

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

understand, understanding - *(loan)

understanding, awareness - *(loan)

underweight

skinny, thin, underweight - PAN *ma-kuliC

undo

loosen, undo, uncover - PPh *wakas-án

loosen, undo, uncover - PMP *wakas

loosen, undo, untie - PMP *bakas

loosen, undo, untie - *-kas₂ (root)

release, undo - PAN *bukas

tear apart something that one has made; undo - PPh *waswás₂

to undo stitches, pull out tying material - PPH *tastas-en

undo, untie, spring a trap - PMP *biŋkas

unravel, loosen, undo - PWMP *quray

untie, undo - PMP *beŋkas

undone

come undone, of stitches - PAN *katkat₂

undress

loosen, untie, undress; to separate - PWMP *hukas

open, undress, remove, release - PMP *lekas₁

remove the clothes, undress - PPH *luas₂

undressed

naked, nude, undressed - PWMP *lebas

undulation

coil, curl, undulation - PWMP *keluŋ₁

uneasy

uncomfortable feeling; feel bored, or uneasy about something - PPH *saw(e)qa

uneven

uneven, of edges, jagged, rough - PMP *garaŋ-gasaŋ

uneven, of edges, jagged, rough - PMP *garaŋ₂

unexpected

sudden, abrupt, unexpected - PPH *kelaqat

unfamilar

lost, as in a crowd or in an unfamilar place - PWMP *tawtaw

unfastened

unfastened, detached - PWMP *taŋgal

unfold

spread out, unroll (mats, etc.), open out, unfold (as the hand); wide - PMP *bekelaj

unfold, open up, blossom - PPh *buklad

unfold, spread out - PWMP *bitaD

unfurl

spread out, unfurl - PPh *biklaj

spread out, unfurl - PMP *barbar

ungulate

hoof, lower leg of an ungulate - PAN *kudkud

unhusked

unhusked rice grain left among the husked grains - PWMP *ataq

unicorn

unicorn fish, Naso spp. - PMP *qumi

unicorn fish, Naso spp. - PMP *qumay

unicorn fish: Acanthurus unicornis - PMP *taRaq₂

unicorn fish: Naso unicornis - POC *monoRe

unicornfish

short snouted unicornfish: Naso spp. - POC *taRa

unicornis

unicorn fish: Acanthurus unicornis - PMP *taRaq₂

unicorn fish: Naso unicornis - POC *monoRe

unident

kind of plant, unident. - PWMP *kalamuntiŋ

uniform

uniform, equal to - *(loan)

unify

to unite, unify; first cousin - PWMP *pisan

uninhabited

forest, uninhabited land - POC *wao

unintelligible

sound produced by an animal; unintelligible muttering of a person - PAN *ŋawŋaw

union

union, unity - PWMP *insan

unison

sing in unison - PMP *saRup₂

to sing in unison, as in traditional festivals - PWMP *ñañuy

unit

catty (unit of weight for foodstuffs) - *(loan)

hamlet; kin-based residential unit - PAN *kuan₁

small basket; a unit of measure for dry goods - PPH *salúp

unit of measure for cloth, sails, etc. - PWMP *bidaŋ

unit of measurement - *(loan)

unite

to join, unite with in taking sides - PPH *k<um>ampi

to unite, combine in one - PAN *paR-isa-an

to unite, unify; first cousin - PWMP *pisan

unite, do simultaneously - PMP *raŋkep₂

unite, do simultaneously - PWMP *raŋkeb

united

touching, adjacent, as fighters presenting a united front - PWMP *sundul

unity

union, unity - PWMP *insan

univalve

kind of univalve mollusk - POC *somu

unknown

person whose name is unknown, avoided or cannot be remembered: who? - PPh *si-nu

place which is unknown or cannot be remembered: where? - PAN *i-nu

thing whose name is unknown, avoided, or cannot be remembered: what? - PMP *a-nu

unmarried

bachelor, young unmarried man - PPh *ulitau

bachelor; young unmarried person - POC *tau paqoRu

loft in house where unmarried girls reside - PPH *pintuq

maiden, virgin, unmarried girl - PWMP *da-daRa

maiden, virgin, unmarried girl - PMP *daRa₂

unnamed

his/her unnamed thing: his/hers - POC *anu-ña

his/her unnamed thing: his/hers - PMP *a-nu-ni a

my unnamed thing: mine - POC *anu-ku

my unnamed thing: mine - PMP *a-nu-ku

your unnamed thing: yours - POC *anu-mu

your unnamed thing: yours - PMP *a-nu-mu

unnaturally

albino, unnaturally white - PPH *uRis

pale, unnaturally white - PMP *balaR₁

unnaturally white, albino - POC *pulaR₁

unnaturally white, albino - PMP *bulaR₂

unnaturally white, albino - POC *pulan₂

unnaturally white, albino - PMP *bulan₂

unnaturally white; albino - POC *puraq₁

unnaturally white; albino - PMP *budaq₃

unnoticed

unnoticed, not perceived - *(noise)

unpleasant

a tall forest tree which emits an unpleasant odor: Sterculia foetida - PMP *bubuR₃

having an unpleasant taste - PWMP *qanta

loud, unpleasant noise - PWMP *qiŋeR

loud, unpleasant noise - PMP *iŋaR

stench, strong unpleasant odor - PMP *imbu

unpleasant odor - PAN *laŋ(e)si

unpleasant smell - PMP *baŋ(e)qes

unravel

loosen, untie, unwrap; unravel; to clear forest (fig.?) - PWMP *bajbaj

unravel, loosen, undo - PWMP *quray

unravel, untie - *-baj (root)

untie, unravel - PPh *maR-hubád

untie, unravel - PPh *hubád

unravelled

be untied, be unravelled - PPh *hubád-en

unripe

astringent taste, as of unripe bananas - PWMP *peled

raw, unripe - POC *mataq

raw, unripe - PAN *ma-qataq

raw, unripe - PPh *hiláw

raw, unripe, green (fruit), uncooked - PCEMP *ma-qetaq

raw, unripe, green (fruit), uncooked - PAN *ma-qetaq

raw, unripe’ - POC *mataq

tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits - PWMP *sapelet

tart, acid, as the taste of certain unripe fruits - PWMP *sapeled

taste of unripe banana; slightly bitter or astringent taste - PMP *apeled

tasting 'woody' or coarse; astringent taste, as of unripe bananas - PWMP *sapela

unroll

spread out, unroll (mats, etc.), open out, unfold (as the hand); wide - PMP *bekelaj

spread out, unroll (mats, etc.); wide - PEMP *bolaj

unroll a mat, spread out a mat - PMP *hampaR

unroll a mat, spread out a mat - PAN *SapaR

unroll, spread out a mat - PAN *S<um>apaR

unruly

restlessness, wild or unruly movement - PPH *garáw

unseen

shake something to determine its unseen contents - PWMP *kutug

unstable

affected by the moon, mentally or emotionally unstable - PWMP *bulan bulan-en

affected by the moon, mentally or emotionally unstable - PWMP *bulan-en

unsteadily

to walk or move unsteadily, erratically - POC *tibaŋ

unsteady

to swing, be unsteady - PWMP *uyut₂

untainted

first of anything; first fruits; prime, new, untainted, virgin - PMP *buŋas

first of anything; first fruits; prime, new, untainted, virgin - PWMP *buŋaR

first of anything; new, untainted, virgin - PWMP *buŋaR-an

untamed

wild, untamed - POC *kila-kila

untethered

roam freely, of domesticated animals that are untethered - PMP *lambeR

roam freely, of domesticated animals that are untethered - PAN *labeR₂

untidy

tangled, disordered, untidy - PWMP *kusut

untie

loosen, undo, untie - PMP *bakas

loosen, undo, untie - *-kas₂ (root)

loosen, untie - POC *lupas₂

loosen, untie - POC *Rupas

loosen, untie - PMP *taŋkas

loosen, untie - PMP *kaskas₁

loosen, untie, set free - POC *takas

loosen, untie, undress; to separate - PWMP *hukas

loosen, untie, unwrap; unravel; to clear forest (fig.?) - PWMP *bajbaj

open, untie - PWMP *bukaq

release, loosen, untie - PWMP *pukas₂

release, loosen, untie - PWMP *hekas

remove, loosen, untie - PMP *lu(ŋ)kas

to separate, untie - PWMP *maR-hukas

undo, untie, spring a trap - PMP *biŋkas

unravel, untie - *-baj (root)

untie, undo - PMP *beŋkas

untie, unravel - PPh *maR-hubád

untie, unravel - PPh *hubád

untied

be separated, untied - PWMP *hukas-en

be untied, be unravelled - PPh *hubád-en

until

overcooked until mushy, as rice or vegetables - PPH *lusa₂

until, as far as - PWMP *haŋga

until, as far as; limit, boundary - PMP *qiŋga

up to, as far as, until - PMP *sampay₂

up to, until, as far as - PWMP *qeŋgah

untruthful

lying, deceiving, untruthful - PWMP *ma-bali₂

unwilling

averse, unwilling; reluctant - PWMP *butul

unwrap

loosen, untie, unwrap; unravel; to clear forest (fig.?) - PWMP *bajbaj

unyielding

unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn - PMP *teger

unyielding, obstinate, inflexible, stubborn - PMP *tegel

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up

up

a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers - PMP *kali₂

a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers - PAN *kalih

aligned, lined up - PPH *batuR₂

be chopped into pieces, be minced, as meat or vegetables; what is chopped up or minced - PAN *tektek-en

be chopped up or minced - PPH *tadtad-én

be gobbled up, eaten voraciously - PPH *sabsab-én

be lifted up or deposited on the beach by tide or current - POC *puRe₁

be picked up or carried dangling from the fingers - PWMP *bitbit-en

be tied up tightly - PWMP *heRet-en

be vomited up; vomit (command) - PAN *utaq-en

beat up, bruise someone - PPh *bunal

bend the limbs, curl up the body - PWMP *kulkul

bend, curl up - PPh *balikutkút

bend, fold, folding part of the body; curl up on the ground, of an animal - PMP *leku

bind up; bundle - PWMP *beRkis

bottom up, as a person bent far forward toward the ground - PWMP *tuad

bound, tied up - PWMP *R<in>apus

break up - PWMP *bugar

break up into small pieces - PPH *sagsag-en

break up, fall into pieces, scatter, disperse - PWMP *baRbaR

bubble up, as spring water - POC *bukal₂

bubble up, as spring water - PMP *bukal₁

bubbling up (as spring water) - PAN *buak

bubbling up (as spring water) - PWMP *buag

bubbling up, as spring water - PWMP *bukal bukal

bundle, package; to wrap up - PWMP *buŋkus

caught up in, carried along - PWMP *tuluy₃

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - PWMP *bulit-en

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - POC *bulit₂

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - PMP *bulit₁

chop up, as firewood - PAN-F *k<um>etun

chop up, mince - PWMP *tadtád

chop, hack, mince, cut up - POC *totok

chopping to pieces, cutting up, as meat or vegetables - PAN *tektek₁

climb up, as a vine - PPH *kalatkat

close up - PWMP *ti(ŋ)keb

closed, dammed up - POC *bonot

collect, heap up - PMP *impu₁

cover over, cover up - PMP *Ruŋkeb

curled or crumpled up - PMP *rekut

curled up - PMP *likut

cut up, cut off - *(noise)

dam, dyke, embankment; to fill a hole with earth; to heap up - PMP *tambak₂

deep place in river; pool of water left when a stream dries up - PPH *lib(e)tuŋ

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

dig up - *(noise)

dig up something buried, disinter - PWMP *hukay

dig up the ground with a digging stick - PWMP *ma-ñuqan

dig up the soil - *(noise)

dig up the soil - *(noise)

dig, dig up - *(noise)

dipper, scoop; to scoop, ladle up - PAN *taku₂

dress up, be decked out in one’s finest clothing - PWMP *kena₂

dried up, scorched, shrivelled - POC *koRaŋ₁

dried up, wilted (of plants) - PPH *lanes

dry up - PMP *ma-maja

dry up, evaporate - PMP *maja

dry up; low tide - PWMP *keti

dry, dried up - PWMP *egaŋ

dug up - PWMP *hukay-an

dust in the air, stir up dust - PPH *tapuk₂

ebb tide; coral reefs and sandbanks exposed at low tide; evaporate, dry up, of water in cooking, in a river, etc. - PMP *qeti₁

end, finish; used up, finished - PMP *upus

end, terminate, finish, use up - *-bus (root)

entangle, snarl, tie up, wind around, wrap - POC *pisi₁

entangled, caught up in, involved, embroiled - PWMP *saŋkut

evaporate, dry up - PMP *tuquR

evaporate, dry up - PPh *hebás

fetch water, scoop up water - PMP *qasu₁

fetch water, scoop up water - PMP *asu₂

finish, use up - PWMP *timpus

finished, used up - POC *qoti

finished, used up; all, every one - PWMP *qabis

finished, used up; all, every one - PWMP *qabiq

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; bubble up - PCEMP *budaq₄

foam, bubbles; bubble up - POC *puraq puraq

foam, bubbles; bubble up - POC *buraq

fold over, fold up - POC *binu

get up - PWMP *maR-baŋun

gone, used up - PMP *mampus

grinding stone, place where foods are ground up or instrument for grinding them - PWMP *giliŋ-an

gush or bubble up, of spring water - PMP *bual₂

heap up - PWMP *Ri(m)bun

heap up, pile up (as earth); dam - PMP *limbun

heap, collection; to gather, heap up - PMP *qi(m)pun

heap, pile; cover up - PWMP *tumbun

heaped up - PWMP *timbun

heaped up, as an obstruction - PWMP *ma-tambak

high up, on top - PWMP *timbaw₂

hoe up weeds; weed a garden - PAN-F *riSriS

hold up, keep aloft - PWMP *aŋkat aŋkat

hook; to hang up - PAN *saqit

hunch over, curl up (body) - POC *pokut

incite, urge on, stir up - PWMP *asag

jump up to reach something - PWMP *lunzag

keep secret, cover up - PMP *sekep

knock against, collide with, beat up - PWMP *bugbug

lever up - PWMP *qasual

lever up - PWMP *luhit

lever, instrument for prying something up - PWMP *quŋkil

levered up; uprooted - POC *puqal

levered up; uprooted - PCEMP *buqal

lie down, curl up (of animals) - PWMP *lekuq₂

lift or raise up - PWMP *maŋ-atas

lift up the clothes, roll up the pant legs (as when crossing shallow water) - PPH *lesles₁

lift up with a lever, lever up, root up - PMP *suaR₁

lift, raise up - PWMP *aŋkat-an

lift, raise, pick up - PWMP *taR-aŋkat

lift, raise, pick up - PWMP *maR-aŋkat

lift, raise, pick up - PWMP *aŋkat

line up one behind the other - PWMP *maR-aRak

lock up - *(noise)

look upward, look up to - PWMP *tiŋadaq

murkiness, turbidity, of water that has been stirred up - PPH *liqebeR

murky, turbid, of water that has been stirred up - PPH *ma-liqebeR

pave with stones; pile or stack up, arrange, order, put in sequence - PMP *qatuR₁

pave with stones; pile up, arrange, put in an orderly fashion - PWMP *qatuR-an

phlegm; cough up phlegm - PWMP *dahak

pick up - PWMP *pu(n)zut

pick up - *(noise)

pick up or carry dangling from the fingers - PWMP *maR-bitbit

pick up or carry dangling from the fingers - PWMP *maŋ-bitbit

pick up with the fingers - PWMP *pundut

pile up, arrange, put in an orderly fashion - PWMP *maŋ-qatuR

pile up, as stones - PAN *dapuR₂

pinch, take up with the fingers - PWMP *zepit

place that has been dug up - PMP *k<in>ali-an

place that has been dug up - PAN *k<in>alih-an

pluck, pull up (as weeds) - PMP *hebut

pluck, pull up (as weeds) - PAN *SebuC

plug or dam up - PWMP *tampeŋ

plug up, dam; cover - *-peŋ (root)

plug up, stop something up, as with a cork - PWMP *suŋsuŋ₂

plug, stop up - PWMP *lepet₁

project above, stick up - PPH *labaw₂

prop, support; to prop up or support - PAN *suked

pry up - *(noise)

pry up, prise up - PCMP *uli

pull up (as weeds), pluck (as feathers) - PMP *butbut₂

pull up (as weeds), pluck (as feathers) - PAN *buCbuC

pull up weeds - *(noise)

pull up, as out of a pit or out of water - PMP *bantun

pull up, root up - PMP *abut

reach, overtake, catch up with - PPh *qabut

recall or drag up disagreeable past experiences - PWMP *uŋkat

rise, climb up - PAN *sakat

roll or crumple up - PMP *lukut

roll or wrap something up - PWMP *balut₂

roll up a leaf, as a tobacco leaf - PPH *tustus₂

roll up pant legs - PPH *lenlen

roll up, curl up tightly - PAN-F *kuCkuC

roll, curl up - PMP *lekes

root up the ground, of a pig; uproot - PMP *sual

root up, lever up - PMP *suat₂

scoop up - PAN-F *k<um>ahuS

scoop up - PAN-F *kahuS

scoop up in a net; fetch water by scooping up - PMP *saruk

scoop up water - POC *tapuq

scoop up water; water scoop or dipper - PMP *tabuq

scoop up with a net; catch with snare - PPH *ma-ñiluʔ

scoop up with both hands - PMP *saRup₁

scoop up with both hands; a double handful - PWMP *aŋkup₁

scoop up, as with a fish net - PAN *kauS

scoop up, skim from the surface - PPH *saRap

scratch up the earth, as a fowl - PAN *karkar

scratch up the ground, as chickens - PWMP *kaqis

scratch up the soil - PMP *kahkah

scratch up the soil, as a chicken looking for food - PAN *kaSkaS

scratch up, scrape up - PMP *gaRuk

scratch up, sweep or rake up - PPH *kaykáy

shoot up - *(noise)

skewer something so as to pick it up without touching it - PPH *tuRsúk

slurp up food or water, eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *sabsab

slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *tabtab₂

snare, noose trap; spring up suddenly, jerk up (as a fishing line or noose trap) - POC *pintik

snare, noose trap; spring up suddenly, jerk up (as a fishing line or noose trap) - PMP *bitik₁

sniffle, sniff up mucus - PWMP *siŋ(e)hut

sniffle, snuff up; snot - PWMP *hiŋus₁

spring up; flicking motion - *-tik₁ (root)

stack up; in a row, lined up; to order, arrange - PCEMP *qatuR₂

stand up - *(noise)

stir up a fire - *(noise)

stop, end, finish, complete; finished, used up - PMP *qeti₃

stopped up - PWMP *pa(m)pet

stopped up, plugged - POC *bonor₂

stopped up, plugged - PWMP *pened₁

sucking, soaking up, absorbing - PMP *qisep

swell up - POC *pupuŋ

swell up - PMP *buŋbuŋ₄

swell up, as boiling rice; boil over - PMP *luab

tie up - PWMP *pusuŋ₁

tie up, bind tightly - PWMP *tambej

tie up, tie by wrapping around - PWMP *kabej

to ascend, rise up - POC *sake

to awaken, wake someone up - POC *paŋun-ia

to awaken, wake someone up - PWMP *pa-baŋun

to be sucked up or in - PAN *sepsep-en

to be supported, propped up - PWMP *tuked-en

to bend, coil or wind up - POC *tali₂

to bind, tie up (as a person) - PPH *balud-en

to bind, tie up (as a person) - PPH *i-balud

to bind, tie up (as a person) - PPH *balud

to block, to dam up - PMP *ubeŋ

to catch with a net, scoop up - PPH *siluʔ-en

to climb, ascend, rise up - PMP *sakay₄

to close or cover up - PMP *ta(ŋ)kub

to close up, shut, as a door - PPH *liŋkep

to coil up - PPH *lakun

to cover up - PWMP *likup-an

to cover with earth, dam up - PPh *tabún-an

to cut up, butcher, slaughter an animal - PAN *lapaq

to dig up - PCEMP *keli

to dig up, excavate, as tubers - PAN *k<um>ali

to dig, dig up - PMP *ma-ŋali

to dry up - PPH *keRaw

to evaporate, cause to dry up - PPh *maR-hebás

to finish, consume, use up - PPH *ubus

to grind, be ground up by someone - PWMP *giliŋ-en

to grow, spring up - POC *tubuq, tupuq

to hang up - POC *tau₂

to heap up, make a pile - PWMP *simpuk

to heat up, warm up - PMP *panas-i

to hoe, chop up soil - PWMP *bacuk

to lever up - PWMP *suqit

to lever up, tip up by force - PWMP *tuas

to lift, raise up - PWMP *katkat₁

to lift, stand up, arise, emerge, begin, depart, carry; cargo; take something; take a wife - PMP *buhat₃

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; break up, dismantle, demolish - PWMP *bekaj

to open, as a fist; to blossom, of flowers; split open, break up, dismantle, demolish - PMP *be(ŋ)kaR

to pick up with something to avoid getting dirty or burned - PAN *saput₂

to pick up with tongs or pincers - PPh *sipít-en

to pile up earth or rocks, heap up so as to obstruct - PWMP *t<um>ambak

to prop up - PWMP *ma-nuked

to prop up, support - PWMP *maR-tuked

to provision, fill up - PWMP *penpen₁

to reach, catch up with - PPH *abut-en

to reach, catch up with - PPH *ábut

to roll up - PCMP *lunu₁

to roll up - PWMP *lulun-en

to roll up sleeves or pant legs - PPH *lislís

to roll up, as a mat - PMP *lulun

to roll up, as a mat - PAN *luluN

to scoop up, as with a fish net - PAN *k<um>auS

to scoop up, skim from the surface - PPH *s<um>aRap

to scratch up the earth, as a fowl - POC *kakar-i

to scratch up the ground, as chickens - PWMP *kais-an

to speed up, increase the pace of something - PPH *paspas-an₂

to spoon or ladle up - PPh *maŋ-qidus

to stack up - PAN *susuN

to stack up, pile in layers - PMP *susun

to stuff, pack, fill up - POC *sosok

to subside, dry up - PPh *h<um>ebás

to suck up, suck out - PMP *mismis₂

to suck, sip, soak up - PWMP *maŋ-qisep

to turn, roll over; grind up - PWMP *g<um>iliŋ

to wake someone up - PWMP *pukaw₃

to wake up early, be early in rising - PPH *lukag

to wake up, rouse someone from sleep - POC *paŋun

to wave, wag (tail); to stir (people) up - PAN *kiwkiw

to wrap up, bundle up - PWMP *maŋ-buŋkus

toss up, throw into the air - PWMP *talaŋ₂

trellis for plants to grow up - PWMP *paraq paraq

turn up at the edge, expose the bottom side - PWMP *lukab

unfold, open up, blossom - PPh *buklad

up to the knees - PPH *taRa-tuhud

up to, as far as - PWMP *taman

up to, as far as, until - PMP *sampay₂

up to, until, as far as - PWMP *qeŋgah

up, above - POC *laŋi₂

up, above - POC *laka₁

use up supplies - PWMP *seked

wake up, get out of bed - PAN *baŋuN

was chopped up - PAN *t<in>ektek

well up - *(noise)

what is ground up, what is produced by twisting around or grinding - PPH *g<in>iliŋ

wind around, roll up - PWMP *letlet

wrap up; bundle, bundle of firewood - POC *pokos

wrap, bundle up - PWMP *kabat₁

upon

attack suddenly, fall upon - *(loan)

meet, encounter, happen upon - PPH *tagbúq

to force upon, oppress - PPH *luges

upper surface, top; highlands; on, upon, over, above - PAN *babaw₃

upper

head-end, upper part - PAN *qulu qulu

head-end, upper part - PMP *qulu-an

upper arm - PWMP *beteken

upper leg - PPh *hitaq

upper lip (?) - PWMP *munuŋ

upper lip, snout, muzzle - PPH *suŋu₂

upper surface, top, above - PCEMP *bobo₂

upper surface, top, above - PMP *bawbaw

upper surface, top; highlands; on, upon, over, above - PAN *babaw₃

upright

erect, stand upright - PWMP *ma-baŋun

raise, place something upright - PWMP *baŋun-an

true, correct, upright - POC *bonor₁

upright, erect - PMP *tenzeg, te(n)dek

wake someone, rouse someone from sleep; erect something, put something in an upright position - PMP *baŋun₂

upriver

upriver, toward the interior - POC *raya

upriver, toward the interior - PAN *daya

uproot

pluck, uproot - PMP *paRut

pull out, uproot - PMP *ibut₁

pull out, uproot (as plants); pluck (as hair or feathers) - POC *puput-i

pull out, uproot, pluck - PMP *butbut-i

root up the ground, of a pig; uproot - PMP *sual

to pluck, pull out, uproot - PWMP *maŋ-butbut

to pull out, uproot - POC *saput

to uproot, expose by uncovering - PPH *lukat₂

uproot a tree - PPh *buál

uproot a tree - PPh *buág

uproot, pluck, pull out - *-dut (root)

uproot, pull out by the roots - POC *Raput

uproot, pull out by the roots - PMP *Rabut

uproot, pull out by the roots - PAN *RabuC

uprooted

levered up; uprooted - POC *puqal

levered up; uprooted - PCEMP *buqal

uprooted, of a tree - PPh *ma-buál

upset

angry, upset - PMP *qiŋet

emotionally upset - *(noise)

upside

turn over, roll over; transform; upside down - POC *buliŋ

upside-down

inverted, reversed, upside-down - PPH *tumbalik

upstream

follow the edge of a body of water, as in going upstream - PMP *sulsul₁

go upstream - PWMP *um-udahik

to go upstream, ascend a river - PPH *súbaq

upstream part of a river - PWMP *udahik

upstream; before - PMP *di qulu

upward

heave upward - PWMP *hampul

look upward - POC *tadra

look upward - POC *taŋar

look upward - PWMP *taŋaq₂

look upward - PMP *taŋad

look upward - PWMP *ŋadaq

look upward - *-ŋag (root)

look upward, look up to - PWMP *tiŋadaq

sloping upward; to climb a mountain - PWMP *tukad₂

to look upward - PPH *taŋay

to look upward - PMP *taŋada

to look upward - PWMP *t<um>iŋadaq

to look upward; face upward - POC *tadal

upward - *(noise)

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ur

urchin

body hair; fur; feather; down; antenna of insect or crustacean; spikes of sea urchin; floss on plant skins, color; type, kind - PCEMP *bulu₁

pig bristles; type of sea urchin with thin black spines - PMP *bulu ni babuy

sea urchin with long black spines - PPH *tayeŋ

sea urchin with short spines - POC *saRawaki

sharp-pointed object, possibly sea urchin - PEMP *sala

spiny sea urchin - POC *salaŋ

Urena

a plant: Urena lobata - PAN *puluC

urge

incite, urge on, stir up - PWMP *asag

to urge, press on insistently - PWMP *perper₂

urinary

urinary bladder - PPH *pantug

urinate

to urinate; urine - PMP *mimi

urinate - PMP *kemiq

urine, urinate - PMP *miqmiq

urine, urinate - PAN *iSiq

urine, urinate - PAN *iSeq

urine; urinate - POC *mimiq

urine; urinate - PMP *ihiq

urine

odor of urine - *(loan)

stench of urine - PPh *qaŋesu

stench of urine - PAN *qaŋeseR

to urinate; urine - PMP *mimi

urine, urinate - PMP *miqmiq

urine, urinate - PAN *iSiq

urine, urinate - PAN *iSeq

urine; urinate - POC *mimiq

urine; urinate - PMP *ihiq

urn

kind of urn for storing food - PPH *kam(e)qáw

Ursus

the Malayan honey bear: Ursus malayanus - PWMP *biRuaŋ

the Malayan sun bear: Ursus malayanus - PWMP *baRuaŋ

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us

use

a tree with edible fruit, and medicinal uses, probably Buchanania arborescens - PMP *balunuR

collect stones(?), use stones for a purpose - PWMP *ma-matu

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

end, terminate, finish, use up - *-bus (root)

finish, use up - PWMP *timpus

gather sand, use sand - PWMP *maŋ-qenay

insert, wedge in; prepare something for use - PWMP *pasaŋ₂

pay for the use of something - PWMP *maŋ-upaq

save, not use - *(noise)

thrifty; to use sparingly - PWMP *inut

to finish, consume, use up - PPH *ubus

to use an umbrella or parasol - PWMP *ma-mayuŋ

to use as bait - PPH *i-paen

use a torch, as in fishing - PWMP *me-ñuluq

use sparingly - PWMP *imit

use sparingly, a little at a time - PWMP *qínut

use up supplies - PWMP *seked

use while still ripe - PWMP *maŋ-hataq

use, get use from - PWMP *agem₂

use, wear, dress up in finery - *(loan)

used

Hibiscus tiliaceus, a tree the bark of which provides a fiber much used in making cordage; to lash, tie, bind - POC *paRu

a cereal grass with edible seeds that are also used as beads, Job’s tears: Coix lachryma-jobi L. - PMP *zelay

a jointed creeper which yields fiber used to make cordage and fishnets - POC *kabe₁

a person who turns or grinds something; an instrument used for rolling or grinding - PWMP *paŋ-giliŋ

a plant used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - POC *punat

a plant used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PMP *bunat

a plant with flowers the shape of a dog's tail, used to treat abscesses - PMP *ikuR ikuR ni asu

a plant with root used to stun fish: Derris elliptica - PPH *tub(e)liq

a plant, the bast fibers of which are used in binding and plaiting: Maranta dichotoma - PWMP *banban

anything used for salting, salting instrument - PWMP *paŋ-qasin

anything used to make charcoal - PPh *qujiŋ-en

bailer, instrument used for bailing - PMP *la-limas

bamboo cross-lath used to hold down roof thatch - PWMP *belit₁

bamboo tube used as a storage container - PWMP *buŋbuŋ₁

bamboo used as a storage container - PMP *putuŋ₁

basketlike container used to steam rice - PWMP *kuskus-an₂

bivalve species used as a scraper - POC *kaRi₂

carved wooden figure, charm used to provide magical protection - PMP *uduq₂

chopping block used to prepare food - PWMP *saŋkalan

clip used to fasten things together - PPH *siR(e)pit

closed bamboo internode used as a container for salt, valuables, etc. - PWMP *tubuŋ

cloth used for shawl - *(loan)

cloth used to carry a child on the back - PMP *haban

cloth used to carry a child on the back - PAN *SabaN

deep resounding sound; slit-gong, hollowed tree trunk used to send messages - PAN *kuŋkuŋ₁

derivational circumfix, probably used to form deverbal nouns of location - PWMP *paR- ... -an

derivational prefix, used to form deverbal nouns - PWMP *paR-

domestic chicken used as a decoy to attract a wild fowl into a trap - PPH *pa-ŋátiq

domestic fowl used as a decoy or lure to capture wild fowl - PPH *káti

domestic fowl used as a decoy or lure to capture wild fowl - PPH *kátiq

end, finish; used up, finished - PMP *upus

fern used for tying and binding - POC *qasam

field hut; temporary shelter used when working for extended periods in fields far from the village - PAN-F *taRuqan

finished, used up - POC *qoti

finished, used up; all, every one - PWMP *qabis

finished, used up; all, every one - PWMP *qabiq

firewood, what is used to make a fire - POC *papian

firewood, what is used to make a fire - PMP *pa-hapuy-an

frighten off birds or animals from the fields; place used to frighten off birds or animals from the fields - PWMP *buRaw-an

fuel for fire, anything used to start a fire - PPH *hátuŋ

gone, used up - PMP *mampus

hard stone used to make tools - POC *nadi

heap, pile; elevated platform used as a look-out - PWMP *paŋguŋ

herb used in making baskets: Donax cannaeformis - PWMP *benben₂

herb used in making baskets: Donax cannaeformis - PWMP *benban

hunting bow; bow-like instrument used to card kapok fiber - PMP *busuR

hunting net; net used in hunting - PPH *batéŋ

improvised purse or bag, folded cloth used to carry things - PWMP *puyuŋ

instrument used for eating - PAN *Si-kaen

instrument used to press - PWMP *paŋ-hapit

interjection used to call a dog - PPH *tútuq

interjection used to chase off animal - PMP *isu₂

interjection used to halt a carabao in the fields - PPH *luá

join together; beams used in house construction - PWMP *lipit

kind of brush made from coconut husk, used to scrub or polish a surface or to treat threads before weaving - PWMP *sikat

kind of ebony or persimmon tree with fruits that are pounded and used to stupefy fish: Diospyros spp. - PPH *kanúmay

kind of mangrove, Ceriops spp., with bark used for dyeing - PMP *teŋeR

kind of seaweed used to paint canoes - POC *poma

kind of tree the leaves of which are used as poultices for boils - PMP *buqaR

knapsack, bag used when on journeys - PWMP *buntil

large jar used to store rice wine - PWMP *tapay-an

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PEMP *raun

leaf; head hair; classifier used in counting certain types of objects - PCEMP *daun

long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying - PMP *habit

long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying - PAN *Sabit

long feathers used for personal adornment - PAN-F *RiNaS

material used to make rope - PWMP *pa-nalih

mussel sp. or spp. used as food grater or scraper - POC *kukur

net bag used by men for carrying things on back - PAN-F *kaway₃

nominative case marker for singular personal names or kin terms used as personal names - PAN *si₁

ornamental shrub used for hedges Graptophyllum pictum - PWMP *qatay qatay₂

palm used to make hats and fans - PWMP *silad

pandanus sp., used in making mats - PMP *kiRay

paper mulberry tree: Brousonnetia papyrifera, used to make bark cloth; men’s loincloth made from this material - PCEMP *malaw

parallel sticks used to support a load - PPH *laŋen₂

particle used to soften questions or turn statements into rhetorical questions - PPH *taq₂

person who peels; thing used to peel (?) - PWMP *pa-ŋulit

piece of wood used for a purpose; lie athwart, as a beam - PWMP *bali(n)taŋ

plant sp.: Donax canniformis, used as material for making baskets - PMP *niniq₁

plant used as fish poison - POC *(bp)una

plant used for perfuming the body - POC *bubu₃

plant with leaves used as a vegetable: Talinum paniculatum or Talinum triangulare - PPH *talínum

possessive marker used with inalienable pronouns - POC *o₂

potsherd used as a frying pan - POC *palaŋa

rattan basket used to carry garden produce, etc. - PWMP *karanzaŋ

rim used to fortify (as on a basket) - PWMP *biŋkay

sap used as birdlime - PWMP *pikat

sharp pointed stick used in planting crops and in husking coconuts; digging stick, coconut husking stick - POC *kojom

shell disk used as ear-ring - POC *sabi-sabi

sled or board used for dragging materials (?) - PPH *guyúd-an

snake venom; plant poison used on tips of arrows - PPH *ditaq₂

sound used to call puppies - PWMP *kuyuk

sound used to shoo away domestic animals - PWMP *cik

species of climber used for decorative purposes - POC *bua bua

species of palm used for making spears and bows; palm-wood spear or bow - POC *bual bual

sticks or other markers used as aids in calculation - PWMP *bilaŋ-bilaŋ

stop, end, finish, complete; finished, used up - PMP *qeti₃

substance used in fermenting palm wine - *(noise)

sun hat, used to provide shade - PPH *taduŋ

tame, accustomed, used to - POC *lasa₁

thing used to knock or pound - PWMP *p<um>ekpek

thread used for sewing (?) - PAN *Ca-CaqiS

thwart, crosspiece, as one used to restrain person; lie athwart or across - PWMP *balagbag

to look, gaze; water used as a mirror - POC *ti-tiro

tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching - PMP *qapit

tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching - PAN *qapiC

tree or shrub with leaves used for sandpaper: Ficus sp. - PMP *qampelas

tree resin used in torches (?) - PAN *damaR

tree with fiber used to make fish nets - POC *tail

tree with wood used to make fireplows - POC *qalo₂

tubular basket used to carry and store rice or sago - PWMP *basuŋ

wedge, piece used to stabilize surfaces - PPH *taŋen

what is used for getting something - PWMP *paŋ-alaq

what is used to roof - PWMP *paŋ-qatep

wingbone of flying fox, used in tattooing; tattoo - POC *sau₃

woman’s skirt; cloth used for clothing - PWMP *kain

word used to call chickens, etc. - PMP *kur

word used to call chickens, etc. - PMP *kuru₁

yardarm, sheet of a sail, sticks used to turn the sail - POC *jila

useful

a plant yielding useful fibers: Thespesia populnea - PMP *balu₁

kind of pandanus with leaves useful for plaiting - PCEMP *ima₂

kind of useful stone - PPH *kamaŋa

tree with inedible white fruit and root that yields a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia L. - POC *ñoñu

tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia - PCEMP *ñəñu

tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia - PWMP *baŋkudu

using

puff, blow, expel air rapidly, as in using a blowgun - PMP *putput₂

to pick, as fruit from a tree using a pole with a hook - PPH *su(ŋ)kit-en

usual

just, merely, only, usual - PPH *sená

usually

palm leaf awning, usually on boats - PMP *kazaŋ₂

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ut

utensils

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PEMP *uRas

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PMP *huRas

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PAN *SuRas

uterus

womb, uterus; birth canal - PWMP *paR-anak-an

utmost

do one's utmost - *(loan)

do to one’s utmost, do completely, to the finish - PPH *lubus

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uv

uvula

uvula - PWMP *anak nu dilaq

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 11/10/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_u.htm