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Updated: 9/16/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Finderlist

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V

ve    vi    vo    vu    

vacancy

to replace someone, fill a vacancy - PPH *pulih-an

vacant

empty, vacant - PAN *quaŋ₁

vagina

vagina - *(noise)

vagina, vulva - PWMP *palaq

vulva, vagina - PWMP *bediq

vulva, vagina - PMP *betiq₂

vulva, vagina - PWMP *tilay

vulva, vagina - PMP *tila

vulva, vagina - PAN *puki

vulva, vagina - PAN-F *kuti

vulva, vagina - POC *keRe

vulva, vagina; pet name for girls - PWMP *uki

vague

vague, indistinct - PWMP *sawaŋ₁

vague, unclear - PWMP *lamuk₁

validity

indeed; interjection expressing validity to an interlocutor - PPH *ŋani

valley

ravine, glen, valley - PWMP *lebak₂

valley - PWMP *le(m)beŋ

valley, watercourse between hills - PWMP *le(m)baq

valley, watercourse between hills - PWMP *le(m)baŋ

valuable

closed bamboo internode used as a container for salt, valuables, etc. - PWMP *tubuŋ

goods, valuables - *(loan)

hardwood tree with edible fruit and valuable timber: Palaquium spp. - PMP *ñatuq

to count, calculate; hold valuable - PAN *bilaŋ

to store, put away for safekeeping, hide valuables; to place a bet in gambling; lay an egg - PMP *taRuq

value

value, cost, price of something - PWMP *beli-en

value, price - PMP *bili

value, price - POC *pili

value, price; marriage prestations, brideprice; purchase - PMP *beli

value, price; marriage prestations, brideprice; purchase - PEMP *poli

value, worth - *(loan)

valued

valued metal - PWMP *gambaŋ

vampire

evil spirit, vampire, witch - *(loan)

ghoul, vampire - *(loan)

vane

feather vane on an arrow - PPH *pulád

vanish

sink, vanish from sight - PMP *teleb

vanished

gone, vanished, terminated - PWMP *la(m)pus₁

vapor

steam, vapor - PAN-F *lahuN

vapor - PWMP *huab₁

vapor, steam - PWMP *seŋ(e)qaw

var

cooking banana: Musa sapientum Linn. var compressa. Blanco - PWMP *sabeqa

Varanus

monitor lizard, Varanus spp. (esp. V. salvator) - PWMP *bayawak

variant

prefix variant of the *qali/kali- set - PAN *qaCi-

variant of the *qali/kali- prefix - PAN *qaNi-

varied

varied, different (?) - PCEMP *kese-kese

variegated

variegated in color; spotted or speckled - PWMP *belaŋ belaŋ

varieties

small trevally varieties - POC *pilu-pilu

variety

large cooking banana or plantain variety - PPH *tinduk

nut variety - *(noise)

rattan variety - PWMP *away₄

rice variety - PPh *wagwág₁

rice variety - PPh *ípun₃

rice variety - PPH *guyud₂

rice variety (?) - PWMP *candur

various

ear; various types of bracket fungi; pectoral fins of a fish - POC *taliŋa

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

ghost, ancestral spirit; nature spirit; corpse; owl; various plants - PMP *qanitu

various creeping herbs - PWMP *qasin qasin

various drinks - PMP *inum-inum-an

various hardwood trees; heartwood of a tree - POC *toRas

various plants, etc. with a bad smell - PWMP *qetut qetut

various, miscellaneous - *(loan)

various, suitable, equal - *(loan)

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ve

vegetable

be chopped into pieces, be minced, as meat or vegetables; what is chopped up or minced - PAN *tektek-en

chopping to pieces, cutting up, as meat or vegetables - PAN *tektek₁

dish made of chopped meat or vegetables - PPH *t<in>adtád

overcooked until mushy, as rice or vegetables - PPH *lusa₂

plant with leaves used as a vegetable: Talinum paniculatum or Talinum triangulare - PPH *talínum

to chop, to mince, as meat, fish or vegetables preparatory to cooking - PWMP *sagsag₂

to cook vegetables - PPH *deŋdeŋ

to slice into thin strips, as meat or vegetables - PPH *gáyat

vegetable - *(noise)

vegetable oil - PMP *laña

vegetables - PAN *NaCeŋ

vegetables - PMP *nateŋ

vegetation

dense vegetation - *(noise)

green, as vegetation - PPH *lunaw₂

grow densely, of vegetation - PWMP *benes

hack a passage through vegetation, blaze a trail - PMP *bentas

push down, trample down, as vegetation - PPH *desdes₁

send out new growth, of vegetation - POC *tupul

to cut, clear vegetation - PAN *tebaS

to cut, clear vegetation - PMP *tebah

young, esp. of vegetation - PWMP *bataq

vehement

hard, strong, inflexible; vehement - PMP *keRas

vehicle

vehicle for riding - PWMP *sakay-an

veiled

covered, veiled - *(noise)

vein

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon - PAN *huRaC

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root - PMP *uRat

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; sinew; tendon; ligament; fiber; tough, sinewy - POC *uRat

full of veins or tendons - PWMP *uRat-en

tendon, ligament; prominent veins - PPH *lítid

veins, sinews (collective) - PMP *uRat uRat

vines; veins, tendons - POC *waRoc waRoc

veining

veining pattern on wood or other material - PWMP *kuray

veliferum

sailfin tang: Zebrasoma veliferum - POC *piRa₂

velvet

velvet - *(loan)

venerate

respect, venerate - PWMP *qasi₁

veneration

worship, veneration - *(noise)

veneris

node (as in bamboo or sugarcane); joint; knuckle; knot in wood; knot in string or rope; Mons veneris - PCEMP *buku

node (as in bamboo or sugarcane); joint; knuckle; knot in wood; knot in string or rope; Mons veneris - POC *buku

venom

poison, venom of a snake - PMP *upas

power, venom - *(loan)

snake venom; plant poison used on tips of arrows - PPH *ditaq₂

venom of a poisonous snake or insect - PPH *kamandag

venomous

ant sp. with venomous bite - PMP *me(n)tik

marine fish sp. with venomous dorsal spines, Rabbitfish: Siganus punctatus - PWMP *kiteŋ

venomous animal - *(noise)

venomous snake - PAN *depuŋ

Venus

the morning (evening) star: Venus - PMP *mantalaq

the morning (evening) star: Venus - PMP *talaq₁

verb

causative of stative verbs - PAN *pa-ka-

genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb - PAN *ni

marker of actor focus for intransitive verbs, and of inchoatives - PMP *<um>

no, not; negator of verbs and adjectives (cf *buken, *dian, *wada) - PAN *qazi

verb prefix - PAN *Sin-

verb prefix - PMP *hin-

verb prefix: third-party causative-command - PPh *ipa-

verbal

verbal prefix marking potential action or ability to do something - PWMP *maka-

verbal suffix marking locative focus; nominal suffix marking location - PAN *-an

verge

die in throngs; be on the verge of death - PMP *m-atay m-atay

vertically

to climb vertically (as ladder, tree) - PPH *kay(e)qat

to climb vertically (as ladder, tree) - PPH *i-kay(e)qat

to climb vertically (as ladder, tree) - PPH *k<om>ay(e)qat

to measure vertically - PMP *sukul₃

to measure vertically - POC *jukul₂

vertigo

vertigo - PAN *laŋu

very

a tree with very light wood: Octomeles sp. - PWMP *binuaŋ

bamboo of very large diameter, probably Dendrocalamus sp. - PAN *betuŋ₁

have a painful feeling in the teeth, as when eating something very sour or cold, or hearing a screeching or scratching sound - PWMP *ŋilu-an

kind of very slender bamboo - PAN-F *CekeS

old, of people; very, extremely; to die, dead (euphemism) - PMP *ma-tuqah

painful, as of teeth on edge from eating something very sour - PAN *ma-ŋilu

somewhat warm (?); very warm (?) - PCEMP *panas-panas

to fall ill, become very sick - PMP *ma-saki-sakit

type of very large bamboo - POC *potuŋ

very thick, really thick - POC *matolu-tolu

very thin - POC *manipi-nipis

vessel

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon - PAN *huRaC

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root - PMP *uRat

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; sinew; tendon; ligament; fiber; tough, sinewy - POC *uRat

artery, major blood vessel - PWMP *uRat i daRaq

bamboo vessel - PWMP *tukil

carrying vessel made from folded palm leaf sheath - PWMP *timbalaŋ

drinking vessel - PWMP *paŋ-inum-an

pour from one vessel into another; translate, interpret - PWMP *salin

to slow cook in a tightly covered vessel - PWMP *kulub₂

vessel for fetching water from a well, objects from a pit, etc - PMP *timba

vetative

no, not; vetative marker: don't! - PMP *beliq₂

vetative; don't - PMP *edaʔ

vetative; don't - PWMP *ejaʔ

vex

tease, vex, annoy - PWMP *uŋit

vex, torment - PWMP *ŋuy(e)qa

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vi

vibrate

shake, vibrate, tremble - PMP *eter

vibrate, fan - *(noise)

victory

exult, celebrate (as a victory) - *(loan)

view

appear, come into view - PMP *betu

appear, come into view - POC *potu₁

come into view - POC *pwaka

disappear behind something that envelops or blocks the view - PAN *lipuC

hidden from view - POC *boñu

suddenly appear, come into view suddenly or partially - PPH *tuq(e)maw

to arrive, appear, come into view - POC *pura

visible, in full view - PWMP *hantaD

vigil

a wake for the dead, night vigil - PPH *lámay

stay awake all night, as in a vigil for the dead - PPH *pulaw

vigor

strength, vigor, force - PAN *keseR

vigorous

strong, vigorous, energetic - PWMP *bikas

strong, vigorous, energetic - PWMP *ma-bikas

strong, vigorous, energetic, forceful - PAN *ma-keseR

vigorously

shake something vigorously (as a sack to remove the contents) - PPh *wagwág₂

vile

vile smell - PMP *maŋsit

village

cleared area around house, cleared ground in village - PMP *natad

enclosure; palisade around a village; fence around a planted tree or cultivated field - PMP *pager

field hut; temporary shelter used when working for extended periods in fields far from the village - PAN-F *taRuqan

fortified place; village - POC *koro₂

space outside the village - POC *natar

village - PAN-F *asaŋ₃

village - PMP *lipuq

village - POC *panua

village - *(loan)

village - *(noise)

village area - PWMP *lebuq

village square; dancing ground - POC *malala

village, place of residence - *(loan)

village, town - PMP *híli

village; place of residence - PAN *taNaS

villager

fellow villager - PPh *ka-hili-an

fellow villager, fellow community-member - PMP *anak i banua

vine

a hairy vine: Pueraria hirsuta - PAN *baSay

a hairy vine: Pueraria hirsuta - PMP *bahay

a thorny vine: Smilax spp. - PAN *baNaR

a thorny vine: Smilax spp. - PAN *baNaw

a thorny vine: Smilax spp. - PMP *banaR₁

a thorny vine: Smilax spp. - PMP *banaw

a thorny vine: Smilax spp. - PCEMP *banaR₂

a vine and the seeds of its fruit: Abrus precatorius - PWMP *saga

a vine with gourd or cucumber-like fruit, probably Luffa sp. - PPH *kabatíti

a vine with red flower clusters, the Chinese honeysuckle, Quisqualis indica - PPH *taluluŋ

a vine: Entada scandens - PWMP *baluRu

a vine: Flagellaria indica - PMP *huaR

a vine: Merremia peltata - POC *paliaRua

climb up, as a vine - PPH *kalatkat

creeping vine that grows on sandy beaches, the beach morning glory: Ipomoea pes-caprae - PPH *balinu

kind of vine that causes swelling and itching - PPH *lipay

leaf of a vine chewed with betel nut, betel pepper: Piper betle - PWMP *buyuq

vine - PWMP *balaRen

vine - *(noise)

vine from which poison is obtained - PWMP *ziteq

vine, creeper - PMP *waRej

vine, creeper - POC *waRoc

vine, creeper sp. - PWMP *itik₃

vines; veins, tendons - POC *waRoc waRoc

vinegar

vinegar - *(loan)

vine-like

kind of tree with bark that yields a vine-like fiber - PPH *lánut

violating

be afflicted with a swollen abdomen as a result of violating customary law. - PWMP *busuŋ

violation

swollen, of the abdomen as a result of the violation of customary law - PWMP *ma-busuŋ

violent

violent emotion - PWMP *siŋit

violently

threaten, confront violently - PWMP *ayat

violin

violin - *(loan)

virescens

green jobfish: Aprion virescens - PMP *qutun

virgin

first of anything; first fruits; prime, new, untainted, virgin - PWMP *buŋaR

first of anything; first fruits; prime, new, untainted, virgin - PMP *buŋas

first of anything; new, untainted, virgin - PWMP *buŋaR-an

maiden, virgin, girl of marriageable age - PWMP *anak daRa

maiden, virgin, unmarried girl - PMP *daRa₂

maiden, virgin, unmarried girl - PWMP *da-daRa

primary forest, virgin jungle (lit. 'big forest') - PWMP *halas Raya

viscous

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - PMP *bulit₁

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - POC *bulit₂

caulk, fill up a hole or crack with viscous material - PWMP *bulit-en

stick, adhere to; sticky, viscous - PMP *la(ŋ)ket

thick (of fluids), viscous - *(loan)

thick, viscous - PMP *buket

viscous, sticky - PMP *belit₃

viscous; thick, of liquids - PPH *sap(e)nut

visible

able to be seen, visible - PWMP *ma-kita

in the line of sight, clearly visible - PPH *aŋ(ə)tad

visible - PMP *tapak₂

visible - *(noise)

visible defect of the eyes - PPh *paqliŋ

visible tree roots above the ground - PWMP *paŋkal

visible, in full view - PWMP *hantaD

vision

blurred, of vision - PMP *balabuR

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - PAN *bulaR₁

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - PWMP *buleheR

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - PPh *bulág

cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision - POC *pulaR₂

dim, of vision - PCMP *balabu

dim, of vision - PAN-F *ma-pukaw

poor, of vision - PWMP *radam

visit

drop by, pay a visit - PWMP *lawa₃

pay a visit, drop by to see someone - PPH *dálaw

stop and visit when passing by - PMP *tuluy₂

to stop by to visit when traveling - PWMP *tuli₂

visitor

stranger; visitor; guest - PWMP *sakay₃

visual

visual assessment of something, as in taking aim, making a straight line, or forming an opinion - PWMP *sipat

visually

dark, overcast, visually obscure - PAN *kelem

vital

living, alive; grow, flourish; fresh; heal, cure, revive, recover; vital principle, soul, spirit; flame - PMP *ma-qudip

Vitex

a tree: Vitex pubescens - PMP *pa(m)pa

a woody plant or tree: Vitex cofassus - POC *pasa(rR)

Viverridae

civet cat and similar small predatory mammals of the family Viverridae - PMP *musaŋ

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vo

vocal

high-pitched vocal sound - *-kiq (root)

vocative

grandparent, possibly vocative - PMP *pa-ampu

parent’s younger sibling, junior uncle; a young child’s term of address for his father, vocative of *ama - PMP *mama

vocative term for boys - PWMP *utuq

voice

choral singing; to blend voices in song - POC *jaRu

genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb - PAN *ni

have a squeaky voice - PWMP *re(ŋ)kik

hoarse, husky, of the voice - PPH *paqus₁

hoarse, husky, of the voice - PWMP *peRaw

loud, of the voice; voice - PCEMP *iŋaR₂

shrill, of the voice - PMP *cerik

sound, voice - PCMP *liRi

sound, voice - PWMP *teneR

sound, voice - PPH *tiŋeR

voice - PCEMP *liqə

voice - POC *liqo

voice - POC *leqo

void

gap, space, void - *(noise)

volcanic

cauldron; caldera, volcanic crater (?) - PWMP *kawaq

volcanic ash (?) - PWMP *lahar

volume

loud sound; volume, loudness - PPH *tanúR

volute

kind of volute shell - PMP *biŋaq

kind of volute shell - PWMP *biŋaR

vomit

be vomited up; vomit (command) - PAN *utaq-en

cause to vomit - PAN *pa-utaq

spit something out, vomit something - POC *lua-ki

to vomit - PPH *suka₂

to vomit - PWMP *maŋ-utaq

to vomit - POC *mu-mutaq

to vomit - PAN *um-utaq

to vomit - PCEMP *mutaq

vomit - PAN *utaq

vomit (imperative) - PAN *utaq-an

vomited

be vomited up; vomit (command) - PAN *utaq-en

voraciously

be gobbled up, eaten voraciously - PPH *sabsab-én

eat voraciously, eat like an animal - PPH *lamun-en

eat voraciously, gulp down, swallow whole - PPH *lamun₂

vortex

whirlpool, eddy, vortex - PWMP *puseD

vortical

vortical design or motion - PWMP *puyu₂

vote

vote - *(loan)

vow

vow, pledge - *(noise)

voyage

go to sea, make a sea voyage - POC *pa-laur

put out to sea, embark on a voyage - POC *toka₃

take a trip; commence a voyage - PPH *luás

to leave on a trip, start a voyage - PPH *l<um>uas

voyaging

sail along the coast, follow the coast in voyaging - PMP *siDsiD

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vu

vulgare

anise, aniseed, fennel: Foeniculum vulgare - PWMP *hadas

vulva

female genitalia, vulva - PWMP *pukak

flower, blossom; to flower, bear flowers; yield a benefit (as interest on a loan); first-born child; cotton; vulva (refined or evasive), skin rash, prickly heat; speckled (of fish); kidneys - PMP *buŋa

vagina, vulva - PWMP *palaq

vulva - *(noise)

vulva, vagina - PWMP *bediq

vulva, vagina - PMP *betiq₂

vulva, vagina - PWMP *tilay

vulva, vagina - PMP *tila

vulva, vagina - PAN *puki

vulva, vagina - PAN-F *kuti

vulva, vagina - POC *keRe

vulva, vagina; pet name for girls - PWMP *uki

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 9/16/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_v.htm