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Updated: 7/14/2018

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

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W

we    wh    wi    wo    wr    wt    

wad

swelling; lump or bump under the skin; wad of something - PMP *buŋkul₁

wade

to wade, wade across - POC *tuRu₁

wade through waist-deep water - PPH *lunuy

wag

to wave, wag (tail); to stir (people) up - PAN *kiwkiw

wag, shake back and forth - PWMP *kilay

wag, shake, move repeatedly from side to side - PAN *wiŋawiŋ

wag, swing from side to side - PAN *witiwit

wager

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

stakes in gambling, wager, bet - PPH *tayáq

wages

wages, salary - PWMP *tendan

wagging

wagging of tail - *(near)

wail

howl, wail - PWMP *rauŋ

to wail, cry out in grief - PWMP *ŋulŋul₂

waist

belt; tie around the waist - PAN *bakes₁

bind the waist; band around the waist - PWMP *embej

waist, back of the waist - PMP *hawak

waist, back of the waist - PAN *Sawak

waist-deep

wade through waist-deep water - PPH *lunuy

waistline

waistline - PWMP *hawak-an

wait

lie in wait for, ambush - PMP *hipaʔ

lie in wait, set an ambush in hunting game - PPH *apat

to care for someone, wait on - PPH *alilaq

to lie in wait for an enemy or wild game - PPH *tambaŋ-an

to wait - PAN *t<um>aRah

to wait - PAN *taRah

to wait - PAN *naRa

to wait, wait for someone - POC *tari

wait - *(loan)

wait for - *(noise)

wait for, spy on - PWMP *hintay

wake

a wake for the dead, night vigil - PPH *lámay

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something; wake of a boat; the Milky Way - PMP *zalan

to awaken, wake someone up - POC *paŋun-ia

to awaken, wake someone up - PWMP *pa-baŋun

to wake up early, be early in rising - PPH *lukag

to wake up, rouse someone from sleep - POC *paŋun

wake someone, rouse someone from sleep; erect something, put something in an upright position - PMP *baŋun₂

wake up, get out of bed - PAN *baŋuN

wale

scratch or wale on the skin - PMP *balar

scratch or wale on the skin - PMP *balan

walk

follow, walk after - PWMP *ayak₁

go for a walk - PPH *talaq₂

go, walk away, depart - PMP *panaw₂

go, walk away, depart - PAN *paNaw

lame, walk with a limp - PWMP *kimpaŋ

to backpaddle a canoe; walk backwards - PEMP *suak

to be in motion; go, walk - PMP *lakaw

to follow after someone, walk behind - PAN-F *biliN

to go, to walk - PAN-F *um-uSa

to step on, walk on something (?) - PPH *lakáj-an

to step, to walk - PPH *l<um>ákaj

to step, to walk - PPH *maR-lákaj

to walk - PAN-F *s<um>akay

to walk a certain distance (?) - PPH *lakaj-en

to walk or move unsteadily, erratically - POC *tibaŋ

to walk past in a stooping posture - POC *roko-roko

walk - PAN-F *sakay₂

walk - PAN *rakat

walk about, take a walk - POC *pajale

walk in the moonlight - PWMP *b<um>ulan

walk or stand with legs wide apart - PPH *sakáqaŋ

walk over a plank or log bridge - PWMP *ma-naytay

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PWMP *aRak-aRak

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PWMP *maŋ-aRak

walk single-file; be positioned one behind the other - PMP *aRak

walk with legs wide apart - PWMP *iŋkaŋ

walk, go - PWMP *makaw

walk, go - PMP *lampaq

walk, take a step - PAN *lakat₂

walked

passageway, place where one has walked - PAN *zalan-an

walking

balanced, as a person in walking, or two weights opposite one another - PWMP *timbaŋ

cane, staff, walking stick - *-kud (root)

muddy; sound of walking in mud - *-cak₁ (root)

to lead in walking; to accompany - PPH *kuyug

to pass someone by, overtake in walking, go past - PWMP *libas₂

walking around - POC *lako lako

walking stick, cane, staff - PAN *sukud

wall

blocked, as by a wall or curtain - PAN *beŋbeŋ₁

enclosing wall - *(noise)

fence, wall - POC *qalar

fence, wall - PAN *qalad

wall of a house - POC *ridriŋ

wall of a house; partition off - PMP *diŋdiŋ₁

wall; wall in, screen off - PCMP *dindiŋ₁

wattle, bamboo plaitwork construction for walls - PWMP *sasag

walling

bamboo walling - PWMP *sawaliq

woven bamboo walling material - *(loan)

wallow

to wallow in mud - PPH *tubug

wander

wander about - PMP *lakaw lakaw

wander, stray - PWMP *regaw

want

desire, want - *(loan)

in need, in want - PWMP *sadat

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

say, want to - *(noise)

to crave, as food one wants to eat - PPH *sab(e)lek

to want, desire - PMP *pia₃

want, desire - PWMP *gemes₂

want, desire, wish or long for - PMP *pian

war

be carried off, as loot or a captive in war; what is carried off - PWMP *t<in>aban

booty, war captive; what is taken in war; elopement, captured bride - PMP *taban

captive, one taken alive in war; to spare, allow to live - PWMP *bihaR

make war on - POC *i-palu

to attack, go to war - PPH *gubát

to make war on, fight with - POC *palu₄

war - *(loan)

warehouse

warehouse - *(loan)

war-leader

hero, war-leader; dare to do - PMP *baRani

warm

broil; warm oneself or something near a fire - PAN *daŋdaŋ₁

hot, warm - PPh *ma-qinit

somewhat warm (?); very warm (?) - PCEMP *panas-panas

to heat up, warm up - PMP *panas-i

to warm by a fire - *-daŋ₂ (root)

to wrap in a blanket to keep warm - PPH *kumut

warm - *(noise)

warm oneself or something near a fire; heat or dry near a fire - PMP *daŋdaŋ₁

warm, hot - PWMP *panes

warm, hot - POC *pa-panas

warm, hot - POC *ma-panas-panas

warm, hot - PMP *ma-panas

warm, hot - PMP *panas₁

warmed

(what) was warmed by a fire - PWMP *d<in>aŋdaŋ

be heated or warmed by - PPh *qinit-en

warmth

heat, warmth - PWMP *qinit

warn

to warn, admonish - PWMP *pa-iŋat

warning

expression of warning: watch out! - PWMP *hatay

warped

curved, warped, as a board - PWMP *tikul

wart

having warts - PPh *buteliR-an

wart - PWMP *kutil

wart; cyst; non-purulent skin eruption - POC *putiR

wart; cyst; non-purulent skin eruption - PCEMP *butiR

wart; cyst; non-purulent skin eruption - PMP *buteliR

wash

rinse wash off - *(noise)

rinse, wash - PAN *ñawñaw

to rinse, wash - POC *puqi

to wash - PAN *b<um>asuq

to wash - PAN *basuq

to wash - PWMP *huRas-an

to wash - PAN *Siñaw

to wash - PMP *heñaw

to wash - PAN *Señaw

to wash, as clothes - PPh *maR-baseq

wash - *(loan)

wash - *(noise)

wash (imper.) - PWMP *huRas-i

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PEMP *uRas

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PMP *huRas

wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes) - PAN *SuRas

wash clothes - POC *pasoq

wash clothes - PAN *baseq

wash clothes by pounding on river rocks - PPH *piqpiq

wash hands, feet or face - PWMP *hiñaw

wash private parts (?) - PWMP *puqpuq₂

wash the body - PAN *ma-bañaw

wash the body - PAN *bañaw

wash the hands - POC *pulu₂

wash the hands - PMP *bulu₂

wash the hands - PMP *ma-bañaw

wash the hands - POC *paño

wash the hands - PMP *bañaw

wash the hands or face - PWMP *huñaw

wash, as the hands - PMP *puRiq

wash, as the hands - PMP *buRiq

wash, bathe, rinse - *-ñaw (root)

wash, cleanse - PPh *maR-huRas

wash, cleanse - PWMP *maŋ-huRas

wash, rinse - PMP *hawhaw

wash, rinse - PAN *SawSaw

wash, rinse off - PWMP *mem-bañaw

wet, wash - PMP *besaq

wet; wash - *-seq (root)

wet; wash clothes - PMP *baseq

wet; wash the anus after defecating - PMP *biseq

washed

be washed off - PWMP *huRas-en

clothesline, place to hang washed clothing - PMP *sampay-an

to wet, be washed - PWMP *basaq-en

washes

place where one washes - PMP *hiñaw-an

place where one washes - PAN *Siñaw-an

washing

instrument for washing - PWMP *paŋ-huRas

wasp

kind of mason bee or wasp - PWMP *hakut hakut

wasp - *(loan)

yellowjacket wasp - PMP *tabuqan

waste

spoiled, gone to waste; never realized, of potential for fertility - PPH *baqug

to waste an opportunity - PPH *sayáŋ-en

wasteful

wasteful, extravagant - PWMP *burus₂

watch

expression of warning: watch out! - PWMP *hatay

look at, watch (as a performance) - PWMP *buya

to look at, watch; look for - POC *tiro

to watch - *(noise)

watchman

guard, watchman - *(loan)

water

agitated, of water - POC *kopuR

agitated, of water - PMP *kebuR

artificially enclosed catchment for water: well, ditch - PWMP *paRigi

bail out water - PWMP *maŋa-limas

bail out water - POC *qasu

bail out water - POC *asu₃

bailer; to bail water from a canoe - POC *nima

bamboo punting pole; to pole a boat in shallow water - POC *tokon

be carried away by water - POC *tape-a

be poled forward, of a boat in shallow water - PWMP *teken-en

bob on the surface of the water; float - PPH *kataŋ-kataŋ

break through, of water - PMP *buntaŋ

bubble up, as spring water - POC *bukal₂

bubble up, as spring water - PMP *bukal₁

bubbling up, as spring water - PWMP *bukal bukal

calm, still, as the surface of water - PMP *ma-linaw

calm, still, as the surface of water - PMP *linaw

calm, still, as the surface of water - PWMP *teneŋ

calm, still, of the surface of water - POC *ma-lino

calm, tranquil, of the surface of water - PMP *linaŋ

calm, tranquil, of the surface of water - PWMP *lineŋ

calm, tranquil, of the surface of water - PMP *linuŋ

calm, tranquil, of the surface of water - PAN *liNuŋ

carry water - PAN *CaNum

clear, of water - PMP *niŋniŋ

clear, pure, of water - PMP *tin(e)qaw

dam, water barrier - PWMP *umpeŋ

deep place in river; pool of water left when a stream dries up - PPH *lib(e)tuŋ

deep place in water - *(noise)

disappear under water - PWMP *leñep

disappear under water - PWMP *leñeb

disturbed, of water agitated by fish - PPH *kambuR₂

ditch, rain channel caused by water dripping from a house roof - PWMP *paspas₃

dive; sink, disappear under water - *-Neb₁ (root)

dive; sink, disappear under water - *-ñep (root)

douse a fire, extinguish a fire with water; to hiss, as water on fire - PMP *sebuh

douse a fire, extinguish a fire with water; to hiss, as water on fire’ - PAN *sebuS

drift on a current, carried away by flowing water - PAN *qañud

earthen water jar - PPH *baŋaq₂

ebb (of water) - *(loan)

ebb tide; coral reefs and sandbanks exposed at low tide; evaporate, dry up, of water in cooking, in a river, etc. - PMP *qeti₁

ebb, of water in streams - PAN *qaCi

ebb, of water in streams; low tide - PMP *ma-qati

ebb, of water in streams; low tide - PAN *ma-qaCi

ebb, of water in streams; low tide - PMP *qati

enclosed body of water - *-naw₁ (root)

fetch water, scoop up water - PMP *qasu₁

fetch water, scoop up water - PMP *asu₂

fill the mouth with food or water - PAN *qumuR

fill with water - PMP *tanum₁

flood waters - POC *waiR pāq

flood waters - PCEMP *waiR baaq

flow through a small opening, of rushing water - PPh *bugris

flowing water, current - PWMP *seleg

fly off, of solid bits or water droplets - PAN *lecik

foam on the surface of water - PMP *bujeq ni wahiR

follow the edge of a body of water, as in going upstream - PMP *sulsul₁

fresh water - POC *ranum

fresh water - PMP *danum

fresh water - PAN *daNum

fresh water - POC *waiR

fresh water - PCEMP *waiR

fresh water; stream, river - PMP *wahiR

gush or bubble up, of spring water - PMP *bual₂

head louse; sparks from a fire; water striker (insect that walks on water) - PMP *kutu₁

heavily laden, as a boat that is low in the water - PWMP *saRad

hydropoesia, bodily swelling caused by water retention - POC *popol

hydropoesia, bodily swelling caused by water retention - PMP *belbel₂

immerse, dip in water - POC *puraq₂

immerse, dip in water - PMP *budaq₂

kind of water bird, the Oriental darter: Anhinga melanogaster - PPH *kasíli

kind of water fowl - PWMP *bintapu

large ruminant species: carabao, water buffalo (?) - PMP *qanuaŋ

large ruminant species: carabao, water buffalo (?) - PAN *qaNuaŋ

lie on a surface, of water - PMP *lama₁

mud, muddy water - PWMP *lebuR

muddy water - PWMP *lebug

murkiness, turbidity, of water that has been stirred up - PPH *liqebeR

murky, as water or other liquid - PPH *parek

murky, turbid, of water that has been stirred up - PPH *ma-liqebeR

narrow-necked water jar - PWMP *kalalaŋ

natural spring, fresh water spring - POC *tupuR

natural spring, fresh water spring - PMP *tubuR

natural spring, fresh water spring - POC *topuR

natural spring, fresh water spring - PMP *tebuR

natural spring, fresh water spring - POC *topuc

natural spring, fresh water spring - PAN *Cebuj

obstructed, of the flow of water - PMP *sepet₁

open space, expanse of land or water - PWMP *bawaŋ

place covered by shallow water - PWMP *limbuŋ

place where water flows - PMP *qaliR-an

pool, deep place in water; swamp - PCMP *tibu₁

pour water on - PWMP *ma-nanum

pour water on; to douse (as a fire) - POC *puqi puqi

pour water on; to douse (as a fire) - PCEMP *buqi₂

pour, pour out, as water or grain from a container - PMP *buqbuq

pull up, as out of a pit or out of water - PMP *bantun

purify by sprinkling with holy water - PWMP *basbas₄

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled in shallow water - PWMP *maR-tulak

push something away, shove, repel; push off, as a boat leaving shore or being poled through shallow water - PMP *tulak

rise to the surface of water - PWMP *ubal

rushing of water in a river - PWMP *awer

rushing of water; rapids, cascade - PPH *dalágan

scoop up in a net; fetch water by scooping up - PMP *saruk

scoop up water - POC *tapuq

scoop up water; water scoop or dipper - PMP *tabuq

shake something in the water - POC *luluk

shake something in the water; shake something with water in it - PMP *luglug

shake something, rinse clothes by shaking in clear water - PPh *waswás₁

sheltered water: deep place in a river; cove, harbor, lagoon - PMP *namaw

sink, disappear under water - PWMP *leñej

sink, disappear under water - PWMP *teleŋ

sink, disappear under water - PMP *telem

sink, immerse oneself in water, dive into the water; to set, of the sun - PAN *selem₁

slurp up food or water, eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *sabsab

slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down - PAN *tabtab₂

small shallow body of water - PWMP *baqeluŋ

soak, steep in water - PWMP *celep

sound of boiling water - PAN *gurgur₁

sound of gurgling water - PWMP *lagak

sound of rushing water or air - PPh *híŋak

sound of splashing water - PWMP *barasbas

sound of swishing water - PWMP *deguʔ

sound of swishing, as of hand passing through water - PPH *kisaw

splash in the water - PPH *tambúg

split, torn; opening or water passage between two capes of land - PMP *beŋat₁

spray water from the mouth - POC *puRas

spray water from the mouth - PAN *buReS

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - POC *puRa

spray water from the mouth; spray a mixture of saliva and masticated medicinal herbs on an ailing body part in curing - PMP *buRah

spring of water, source of a river - POC *mata ni waiR

spring of water, source of a river - PMP *mata nu wahiR

spring, source of fresh water - PAN *bual₁

sprinkle water on - PWMP *biqbiq₂

sprinkle water on something - PPh *bisíbis

sprinkle water on something - POC *pipis₁

sprinkle water on something - PMP *bisbis

squeeze out juice, wring out water - PPH *piRaq₁

squeeze out juice, wring out water - PAN *peReq

stream of water - *(noise)

strong free flow of water - PPh *busuáŋ

submerge, disappear under water - PAN *lezep

submerge, go under water - POC *lomos

sweet; insipid, as fresh water - PCEMP *ma-emis

swiftly flowing, of water; heavy, of rain - PMP *deRes

to back water with a paddle - POC *ruru

to be agitated, of water, as when fish swarm - PPH *kabuR

to be bailed out, of water - PWMP *limas-en

to boil, of water - PPH *subu

to bubble, as liquid that is starting to boil; to boil, of water - PMP *diqdiq

to cook in water, cook rice - PMP *zakan

to dive, swim under water - PAN *l<um>edep

to dive, swim under water - PAN *ledep

to fetch water - PPH *saR(e)qeb

to fetch water (for drinking) - PPH *sakedu-en

to fetch water (for drinking) - PPH *sakedú

to flow, of water - PMP *saliR

to flow, run, of water - POC *tape₁

to hiss or steam, of water touching a fire - PWMP *s<um>ebuh

to hiss or steam, of water touching a fire - PAN *s<um>ebuS

to jump, as fish in the water - PWMP *lumpat

to leak, drip, as a leaky roof; a drop of water - PAN *tuduq

to let food or hot water cool off - PPH *pa-bahaw-en

to look, gaze; water used as a mirror - POC *ti-tiro

to lower, of water level - PPh *maR-qeti

to plunge, dive into water - PWMP *sesed

to shake off water droplets - PWMP *piRpiR₂

to sow, scatter; scattered about; splash water on something - PMP *sabuR

to sprinkle, shake off water - PWMP *pispis₃

to squeeze out juice, wring out water - PWMP *ma-meRes

to squeeze out juice, wring out water - PWMP *ma-meReq

to water, irrigate - PAN *pu-daNum

to wring out, as water from wet clothes - PAN-F *pedel

vessel for fetching water from a well, objects from a pit, etc - PMP *timba

wade through waist-deep water - PPH *lunuy

water conduit - PWMP *saluD

water container - PEMP *waip

water not intended for drinking - *(loan)

water pot - *(loan)

water buffalo

water buffalo, carabao - *(loan)

watercourse

valley, watercourse between hills - PWMP *le(m)baŋ

valley, watercourse between hills - PWMP *le(m)baq

watercraft

small watercraft - *(loan)

waterfall

waterfall - PPH *besay

waterfall - PPH *sampaw

waterfall (?) - PWMP *tuRun-an

waterfall, cascade - POC *sabu

waterless

die; dead; sick; tired (of); faint, lose consciousness; eclipse; new moon; extinguished; blocked (path); paralyzed; numb, asleep (limbs); die down (wind); waterless (springs, rivers); dry up (plants); beaten (in a game); fixed (price); terminate a matter, reach an agreement; disaster; intensive, superlative; desire intensely, be deeply in love - PMP *m-atay

waterlogged

muddy, waterlogged (of ground) - PWMP *bacak

waterspout

whirlwind, waterspout - POC *pipirua

watery

soft watery mud - PWMP *lunaw₁

wattle

wattle, bamboo plaitwork construction for walls - PWMP *sasag

wave

beckon, wave - PAN *qalep

breakers, surf, waves - PAN *Nabek

full of waves - PWMP *ma-qalun

full of waves, as a stormy sea - PWMP *ma-humbak

long rolling wave, swell, billow - PMP *qalun

roar of a current, crashing waves, etc.; moan, groan (as in pain or when near death) - PMP *huRuŋ

shake, wave (hand, something in the hand) - PPh *witwít₂

swing, wave - *(noise)

to flap, flutter, wave - PWMP *kayab

to wave - POC *awe

to wave the hand, as in beckoning someone or in fanning oneself - PPH *paypáy

to wave the hand, to fan oneself - PWMP *kiap

to wave, flap - PPH *payapay

to wave, wag (tail); to stir (people) up - PAN *kiwkiw

wave - *(near)

wave at sea, sea swell - PPH *paluŋ₂

wave back and forth - PWMP *kipay

wave back and forth - PWMP *ambay

wave back and forth - *(noise)

wave back and forth (hand, flag) - PPh *wasíwas

wave the hand or arms; call by waving - PMP *kaway₁

wave, billow, swell at sea - PWMP *humbak

wave, breaker (?) - POC *ŋalu

wave, flutter (as a flag) - PAN *watawat

waves, heavy weather at sea - PWMP *bakat

wave-like

wave-like, wavy - PWMP *qalun qalun

waving

wave the hand or arms; call by waving - PMP *kaway₁

wavy

curly, wavy (as the hair) - PWMP *ikel

wave-like, wavy - PWMP *qalun qalun

wax

ear wax, cerumen - PWMP *taqi nu Caliŋa

the wax gourd: Benincasa hispida - PWMP *kunduR

the wax gourd: Benincasa hispida - PWMP *kundul

way

ambush, block the way; obstacle, hindrance - PMP *qambat

ambush, block the way; obstacle, hindrance - PMP *abaŋ₁

custom, manner, way, habit - PWMP *ugáliq

cut down small plants to clear a way - PWMP *takebas

how? In what way? - PPh *anu-en

look from side to side, turn the head in this way - PWMP *liŋaR

middle of the road, most trodden part of a path or road; guide who shows the way - PMP *mata nu zalan

obstruct, block the way - PWMP *qambeŋ

obstruct, block the way - PWMP *hambeŋ

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something - PAN *zalan

path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something; wake of a boat; the Milky Way - PMP *zalan

Way

way

path, road, way - POC *salan

side path, branch or fork in path or stream; take a side path or way; crossroads - PMP *simpaŋ

to block the way, ambush someone - PWMP *maŋ-abaŋ

to catch, receive something thrown or sent one’s way - PWMP *sambut₂

to lead the way; to follow after - POC *suRi₂

to sway, stagger, turn this way and that - PPH *talátal

way, manner - *(loan)

way, manner; melody - PWMP *lagu

ways and manner - *(loan)

TOP      we    wh    wi    wo    wr    wt    

we

we

1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we (exclusive) - PAN *k-ami

1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we (exclusive) - PAN *ami

1pl. excl. nominative, we - PAN *i-ami

1pl. excl., we - PMP *kam-ami

1pl. incl. subject prefix and possessive suffix; we (incl.); our (incl.) - POC *da₂

we (incl.) - PAN *k-ita

we (incl.) - PAN *kita

we (incl.) - PWMP *aten₃

we (incl.) - PAN *iten₃

we (incl.) - PAN *ita₁

weak

soft, weak - PWMP *lemuy

soft, weak - PWMP *lemi

soft, weak, flexible - PWMP *lemeq

soft, weak, slack - PWMP *lemaq

tender, weak - *(noise)

tired, weak, exhausted - PPH *lutuy

to grow weak or exhausted - PWMP *l<um>esu

weak - *(noise)

weak (in intensity); insipid - PWMP *lamlam₂

weak nerves - *(noise)

weak, exhausted - PAN *lutay

weak, feeble, unable to perform - PPH *ma-kápuy

weak, fragile - *(noise)

weak, frail; gentle in personality - PWMP *lemu

weak, slow - *(noise)

weak, tired, worn-out - PWMP *lumaq

weak, worn-out, second-hand - PWMP *luya₂

weakness

weakness, as from hunger - PPH *kasay

weakness, debility; feeble, unable to perform - PPH *kápuy

wealth

wealth, possessions - *(loan)

wealthy

able, capable, strong, wealthy - PWMP *kaya

be, exist, have; wealthy; not exist, not have - PMP *wada

wean

to wean a baby from breast-feeding - PPH *pusiŋ

weapon

sheath, sheath-like container; to sheathe a weapon - PWMP *saruŋ

weapon - *(loan)

wear

to wear or put on clothing - PMP *sulut

to wear something down (?) - PPH *pa-pudpud-en

to wear, as clothes; to get dressed, slip into - PPH *suq(e)lut

to wear, put on clothes, etc. - PAN *Si-₃

use, wear, dress up in finery - *(loan)

wear across the shoulder - PWMP *sandaŋ

wear the hair in a bun or topknot - PPH *puyud

weary

tired, weary; to tire, grow tired - PPh *belay

weather

dark, of weather; overcast - PAN *lemlem

foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain - PAN-F *ma-lebleb

foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain - PAN-F *lebleb₁

waves, heavy weather at sea - PWMP *bakat

weave

plait, weave - PWMP *ayam

plait, weave (mats, baskets) - PWMP *maŋ-añam

plait, weave (mats, baskets) - PWMP *ma-añam

to plait, weave (as mats, baskets) - PMP *batuR₁

to plait, weave by hand, of baskets or mats - PPH *l<um>aja

to plait, weave by hand, of baskets or mats - PWMP *laja

to weave - PAN *t<um>enun

to weave (cloth) - PAN *tenun

to weave (cloth, baskets) - PAN *tinun

to weave, as a net - POC *tia

to weave, be weaving - PPh *maR-habel

to weave, plait (as a basket, door, fence) - POC *pai₂

weave cloth - PWMP *maŋ-habel

weave cloth - PWMP *habél

weaver

weaver's sword (lath used to beat in and tighten the woof) - PMP *balija

weaver's sword (lath used to beat in and tighten the woof) - PAN *baRija

weaving

kind of brush made from coconut husk, used to scrub or polish a surface or to treat threads before weaving - PWMP *sikat

kind of weaving pattern for basketry - PPH *p<in>usej

loom for weaving cloth - PPh *habel-an

press together, make compact, as the threads or leaves in weaving - PPH *sensén

the weft thread in weaving - PMP *pakan

to start the weaving of cloth - PPH *pugiq

to weave, be weaving - PPh *maR-habel

weaving spindle - PAN *qaNi

wed

marry, wed - PWMP *maŋ-qasawa

wedding

accompany, escort, conduct, convey; send; return; escort the bride to her husband; gift of food at a wedding; send bridewealth payments - PMP *hateD

wedding - *(loan)

wedding - *(noise)

wedding, to marry - *(noise)

Wedelia

a climbing plant: Wedelia biflora - PMP *qatay qatay₁

wedge

a wedge - PPH *siŋal

insert, wedge in; prepare something for use - PWMP *pasaŋ₂

to force apart, at with a wedge; force something into someone’s mouth - PPH *tiŋal

wedge - PPH *taŋíl

wedge - *(loan)

wedge - *(noise)

weed

be overgrown with grass or weeds - PWMP *dukut-en

hoe up weeds; weed a garden - PAN-F *riSriS

pull up weeds - *(noise)

to cut grass or weeds, as in preparing a field for planting - PPH *sipsíp

to weed - POC *papo₂

to weed - *(noise)

to weed (a garden, etc.) - PMP *babaw₄

to weed, pluck, pull out - *-buC (root)

weep

cry continually, weep a lot - POC *taŋi-taŋis

to cry for, cry over, mourn, bewail, weep for the dead - PMP *taŋis-i

to shed tears, weep - PPH *l<um>uheq

to shed tears, weep - PMP *maR-luheq

to shed tears, weep - PAN *maR-luSeq

to weep continuously or incessantly - PMP *taŋis-taŋis

to weep, cry, mourn - PAN *C<um>aŋis

to weep, to cry - PMP *ma-naŋis

weep, cry; mourn - PMP *taŋis

weep, cry; mourn; to beseech - PAN *Caŋis

weevil

weevil that infests wood, bamboo, and rice; dust produced by the boring of this insect; tooth decay, dental caries - PMP *bukbuk₃

weft

the weft thread in weaving - PMP *pakan

weigh

to weigh something - PWMP *timbaŋ-en

weigh, balance, compare - PMP *imbaŋ

weighing

scale for weighing, balance - *(loan)

weight

balanced, as a person in walking, or two weights opposite one another - PWMP *timbaŋ

catty (unit of weight for foodstuffs) - *(loan)

crush between weights; press out - PPH *gimpis

gain weight, get fat(ter) - POC *tubu₃

light in weight - PMP *ma-Raqan

sag, bend under weight - PWMP *luyut

to lose weight, grow thin - PMP *sutsut₁

weight - PWMP *ka-beReqat-en

weight, heaviness, weightiness; difficult; pregnant - PMP *beReqat

weightiness

weight, heaviness, weightiness; difficult; pregnant - PMP *beReqat

weighty

heavy; weighty, important - POC *mapat

welcome

meet, run across, welcome - *(loan)

to meet or greet someone, welcome someone who is arriving - PWMP *sabat

well

artificially enclosed catchment for water: well, ditch - PWMP *paRigi

vessel for fetching water from a well, objects from a pit, etc - PMP *timba

well up - *(noise)

well, cistern; spring - PMP *bubuŋ₂

well, cistern; spring - PMP *bubun₁

well-being

ceremony at planting to insure the well-being of the crops - PWMP *buhat₁

well-filled

well-filled - PMP *ka-isiʔ

well-lit

dim, not well-lit - PPH *kulap

well-made

durable, strong, well-made - *(loan)

well-made, structurally sound - *(loan)

well-matched

same kind or type; fitting; well-matched; suitable - PWMP *bagay₁

to be well-matched - PPH *bagáy-an

welt

to bruise, raise welts - PPh *baneR

wheal, welt - *(noise)

west

last, come after or behind; late, later; future; stern of a boat; youngest child; west; young; outside - PCEMP *m-udi

westward

earth, soil, land; down; westward - POC *tanoq

wet

dripping wet - PWMP *kuyup

soaking wet - PMP *lemer

soaking wet - *(noise)

soaking wet (?); somewhat wet (?) - PWMP *ma-base-baseq

thing that gets wet - PWMP *baseq-an

to wet, be washed - PWMP *basaq-en

to wring out, as water from wet clothes - PAN-F *pedel

wet nurse (?) - PWMP *susu-an

wet season - PWMP *rendeŋ

wet, moist, damp - PMP *ma-baseq

wet, of soil - PMP *lemeŋ₁

wet, wash - PMP *besaq

wet; wash - *-seq (root)

wet; wash clothes - PMP *baseq

wet; wash the anus after defecating - PMP *biseq

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wh

whale

small whale sp. - POC *rato

whale - POC *puRa-puRas

whale? - PPh *butandiŋ

what

how? In what way? - PPh *anu-en

What

how?, How is it? What is the matter? - PMP *kua₁

what

thing whose name is unknown, avoided, or cannot be remembered: what? - PMP *a-nu

what(?) - PAN *na-nu

what? - PMP *apa₁

what? which? - PMP *apa-i

why, for what reason - PWMP *buhat apa

whatchamacallit

whatchamacallit, filler for word that cannot be recollected - PWMP *kua₂

whatever

whatever, whichever - PWMP *bara₃

whatever, whichever - PMP *bala₃

wheal

wheal - *(loan)

wheal, welt - *(noise)

when

interrogative; probably 'when?' - PAN *ka-nu₁

when? - PMP *ka-nu₂

when? - PCMP *pijan

when? - PMP *p-ijan

when? - PMP *ŋa-ijan

when? - PAN *ijan

when? (past) - POC *ana<ŋa>ican

where

location, place where one stays - PWMP *paR-ian-an

place which is unknown or cannot be remembered: where? - PAN *i-nu

where? - POC *pia

where? - PMP *pai₁

where? - PAN *inu

whet

sharp point; to whet, - PMP *tazim

to whet, grate, sharpen - PAN-F *s<um>upay

to whet, sharpen - POC *tasim

whet, sharpen - PWMP *maŋ-hasaq

whet, sharpen - PMP *hasaq

whet, sharpen - PAN *Sasaq

whetstone

whetstone - PAN-F *saNiw

whetstone - PAN-F *sa-supay-an

whetstone - PWMP *batu hasaq

whetstone, grindstone - PMP *hasaq-an

whetstone, grindstone - PAN *Sasaq-an

whetting

whetting, sharpening - PAN-F *supay

whetting, sharpening - PWMP *paŋ-hasaq-an

which

interrogative marker: which? - PAN *manu

what? which? - PMP *apa-i

whichever

whatever, whichever - PWMP *bara₃

whatever, whichever - PMP *bala₃

while

in a little while, momentarily, later - PAN *Sauni

smack the lips while eating - PCEMP *tamu₁

strain while defecating or in childbirth - PWMP *teRan

use while still ripe - PWMP *maŋ-hataq

whimper

mumble, whimper - PWMP *ŋutŋut₁

whine, whimper, as a child - PWMP *ŋuyŋuy

whine

growl, whine - PMP *ŋurut

whine - PWMP *ŋiaŋ

whine, whimper, as a child - PWMP *ŋuyŋuy

whining

whining sound - PPh *qeŋqeŋ

whip

a whip - PWMP *pecut

strike, whip, beat - PWMP *benal

to beat, whip - PAN *pitpit₃

to whip - PPh *haplít

whip - *(loan)

whip - *(noise)

whip, to whip - *-bit₂ (root)

whip; to whip

whip; to whip - *(loan)

whirl

to whirl, spin around - PPH *weswés

whirlpool

whirlpool - POC *liloq

whirlpool - PMP *lileq

whirlpool - *(noise)

whirlpool, eddy, vortex - PWMP *puseD

whirlwind

whirlwind - PAN *qali-puspus

whirlwind - PPH *qali-pugpug

whirlwind - *(loan)

whirlwind, waterspout - POC *pipirua

whirring

sound of whirring or whizzing - PMP *besbes

whiskers

feathers under chin of rooster, chin whiskers - PWMP *bauk

moustache, whiskers - PPh *beŋet₂

whisper

whisper - PWMP *bisik₃

whisper - *(loan)

whispering

whispering - PWMP *bisik bisik

whistle

chirp, whistle - PWMP *wikwik

hiss; whistle - PMP *siuk

shrill whistle or chirrup - PPh *wiwí

shrill whistle or chirrup - *(noise)

to whistle - POC *siul

to whistle - PMP *sihul

whistle - *(loan)

Whistler

a bird, the Golden Whistler, Pachycephala spp. - POC *sau

white

a flying white ant or termite - PMP *dalu₁

a white fish, the tarpon: Megalops cyprinoides - POC *pu-pulan

a white fish, the tarpon: Megalops cyprinoides - PMP *bulan-bulan₁

foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth; to foam, to bubble; foam at the mouth; fond of talking; type of white bead - PMP *bujeq₂

ginger plant with fragrant white flower - PPH *kamiá

insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant - POC *ane

insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant - PAN *aNay

kind of porous, white, round and flat coral growth - POC *buŋa₃

kind of white bird: probably gull sp. - PMP *kanaway

kind of white sea bird, probably gull sp. - POC *kanawe

pale, unnaturally white - PMP *balaR₁

to whiten, make something white - PWMP *putiq-en

to whiten, make something white - PWMP *putiq-an

to whiten; to become white - PWMP *ma-mutiq

tree with inedible white fruit and root that yields a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia L. - POC *ñoñu

tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia - PCEMP *ñəñu

tree with white fruit and roots that yield a useful dye: Morinda citrifolia - PWMP *baŋkudu

unnaturally white, albino - POC *pulaR₁

unnaturally white, albino - PMP *bulaR₂

unnaturally white, albino - POC *pulan₂

unnaturally white, albino - PMP *bulan₂

unnaturally white; albino - POC *puraq₁

unnaturally white; albino - PMP *budaq₃

white - PMP *ma-putiq

white - PMP *putiq

white - PAN-F *ma-puNi

white - POC *puso₁

white - PPh *quRis

white - *(noise)

white bird - *(noise)

white mark - *(noise)

whiteness, white color - PWMP *ka-putiq

whitish, somewhat white - PWMP *ma-putiq-putiq

whiten

to whiten, make something white - PWMP *putiq-en

to whiten, make something white - PWMP *putiq-an

to whiten; to become white - PWMP *ma-mutiq

whiteness

whiteness - PAN-F *puNi

whiteness, white color - PWMP *ka-putiq

whitish

whitish, grayish - PPH *pudaw

whitish, somewhat white - PWMP *ma-putiq-putiq

whittle

whittle, shave wood with knife - PPH *káyas

whizzing

hiss, whizzing sound - PMP *pus

sound of whirring or whizzing - PMP *besbes

whizzing sound - PAN *bes

who

person whose name is unknown, avoided or cannot be remembered: who? - PPh *si-nu

the one who is behind (?) - PWMP *udehi-an

who? - PAN *si-ima

who? - PAN *ima

whoever

whoever - PMP *sai sai

whole

eat voraciously, gulp down, swallow whole - PPH *lamun₂

wholesale

wholesale - *(loan)

whom

one to whom tribute is paid - PPh *buhis-an

whore

prostitute, whore - *(loan)

whorl

hair whorl - PAN *qali-puju-an

hair whorl - PAN *qali-puju

whose

person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so - PMP *sanu

person whose name is avoided or cannot be remembered: So-and-so - PWMP *i-anu, si-anu

person whose name is unknown, avoided or cannot be remembered: who? - PPh *si-nu

thing whose name is unknown, avoided, or cannot be remembered: what? - PMP *a-nu

whose? - PAN *ni-ima

why

why, for what reason - PWMP *buhat apa

why? - PWMP *maŋ-apa

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wi

wick

wick - *(loan)

wickerwork

to fish with a wickerwork basket trap - PWMP *maŋ-bubu

wide

broad, wide - PWMP *lawaq₃

broad, wide - PWMP *lak(e)baŋ

flat and wide - PWMP *de(m)paD

gape, open the mouth wide - POC *paŋaŋap

gape, open the mouth wide - PMP *qaŋap

gape, open the mouth wide - PMP *qaŋab

gape, open the mouth wide - *-ŋa (root)

gape, open the mouth wide - *-ŋa(q) (root)

gape, open the mouth wide - *-ŋaq (root)

gape, open the mouth wide; be dazzled, amazed - PMP *beŋaŋ₂

gape, open wide - PMP *laŋaq₁

having wide intervals; seldom - PWMP *zaRaŋ

open the eyes wide - PMP *kilat₂

open the eyes wide - POC *pilat₁

open the eyes wide - PMP *bilat₁

open the eyes wide - *-lat₁ (root)

open the eyes wide, stare with round eyes - PWMP *maŋ-bulat

open the eyes wide, stare with round eyes - POC *bulat₂

open the eyes wide, stare with round eyes - PMP *bulat₁

open the legs wide - PWMP *siŋkat

open the mouth wide - PMP *uŋap

open the mouth wide - PMP *Raŋa₁

open the mouth wide - PPh *buŋáŋaq

open the mouth wide - PMP *aŋaq

open the mouth wide, gape - PWMP *taŋaŋaq

open the mouth wide, gape; gaping; opening of a bubu fish trap, basket, etc. - PMP *ŋaŋa₃

open wide - PWMP *tiŋaqŋaq

open wide - *(noise)

outside, wide open spaces; loose - PMP *luqaR

sheet; flat, wide object - PPh *qelad₁

spread out, unroll (mats, etc.), open out, unfold (as the hand); wide - PMP *bekelaj

spread out, unroll (mats, etc.); wide - PEMP *bolaj

spread the legs wide - PWMP *kaŋkaŋ₁

spread wide apart, as the legs or any two things joined at a point - PMP *pikaŋ

spread wide open - PPH *tákaŋ

walk or stand with legs wide apart - PPH *sakáqaŋ

walk with legs wide apart - PWMP *iŋkaŋ

wide - POC *tapola

wide - PAN *lawa₁

wide - PMP *labeR₁

wide - *(loan)

wide apart (as the legs) - PWMP *rekaŋ

wide apart, as the legs - PWMP *zaŋkaŋ

wide apart, of the legs - PWMP *sikaŋ

wide open - PMP *labak

wide open - PWMP *daŋaq

wide open - POC *paŋa₂

wide open - PMP *baŋa₂

wide open - *(near)

wide open (mouth) - PWMP *eŋaq

wide open space - PPH *luaŋ₂

wide open space - PPh *waŋáwaŋ

wide open spaces - PWMP *sawaŋ₂

wide open, of the eyes - PMP *hilat

wide, broad - PAN *lawas₁

wide, broad - PWMP *ma-bekelaj

wide, broad, open (of land) - PWMP *layaŋ₂

wide, spacious - PWMP *lawaŋ₁

wide, spacious - PWMP *ruqag

widely

grin widely, showing the teeth - PMP *beŋis₂

widen

widen a hole in something - PPH *watwát

wide-open

wide-open space - *-waŋ (root)

widow

period in which a widow may not remarry - *(loan)

widow(er) - POC *ñaRo

widow(er) - POC *ñao

widow(er) - PWMP *balu balu

widow(er) - PMP *balu₄

width

width - *(near)

width of the palm (?) - PWMP *dapal

width, breadth - PWMP *babaq₂

width, extent across - PMP *beraŋ

wife

base of a tree; cause; source, origin; beginning; foot of a hill or mountain; first wife; model or example (to be copied); expression for the mother’s brother - PMP *puqun

female, woman, wife; female of animals - PMP *bahi

spouse: husband, wife - PAN *qasawa

to lift, stand up, arise, emerge, begin, depart, carry; cargo; take something; take a wife - PMP *buhat₃

wife's sister's husband - PWMP *biras₂

woman, wife - PAN *b<in>ahi

wife-giving

wife-giving lineage - PMP *anak ma-Ruqanay, anak (la)laki

wife-taking

wife-taking lineage - PMP *anak bahi, anak babahi, anak binahi

wiggle

sway, shake, wiggle - PWMP *giwaq

wild

canine tooth; tusk, as of wild boar - PPH *sauŋ

domestic chicken used as a decoy to attract a wild fowl into a trap - PPH *pa-ŋátiq

domestic fowl used as a decoy or lure to capture wild fowl - PPH *káti

domestic fowl used as a decoy or lure to capture wild fowl - PPH *kátiq

kind of wild cane with edible flower head - POC *piso₁

kind of wild lemon tree, possibly Citrus hystrix - PPH *kabuRaw

kind of wild ruminant - PWMP *tamadaw

restlessness, wild or unruly movement - PPH *garáw

small, wild herbaceous plants; scrub-land, bush - PMP *qutan

to hunt wild game - PAN *qanup

to lie in wait for an enemy or wild game - PPH *tambaŋ-an

tusk of wild boar - PAN-F *waNiS

what is hunted, wild game - PMP *qanup-en

what is hunted, wild game - PAN *qaNup-en

wild - *(loan)

wild boar - PAN-F *waNiS-an

wild duck - PMP *ŋaRaq

wild duck - PWMP *baliwis

wild duck: Dendrocygna sp. - PWMP *bariwis

wild feline - PWMP *qari-maquŋ

wild fowl, jungle fowl - PPH *talun₂

wild mango - PWMP *ambawaŋ

wild mango: Mangifera minor - POC *koRa

wild ox - *(loan)

wild palm tree with fruit similar to areca nut: Heterospathe elata - PPH *sagisí

wild pig - PMP *babuy halas

wild taro, elephant-ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - POC *piRaq₂

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - PWMP *biRaʔ

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp. - PAN *biRaq₁

wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp.; sexual itch - PMP *biRaq₁

wild yam: Dioscorea sp. - POC *balai₂

wild, ferocious - PWMP *buas

wild, shy, skittish - PWMP *ma-ilah₂

wild, shy, skittish - PWMP *ma-ilah₁

wild, timorous, shy - POC *ila₁

wild, timorous, shy - PMP *ilah

wild; insane - PMP *gila-gila

wild; skittish (as animals) - POC *kila

wild; skittish; insane - PMP *gila

wild chicken

wild chicken - *(loan)

wilderness

forest, wilderness, woods - PAN *Salas

forest, wilderness, woods, jungle - PMP *halas

forested area, wilderness - PWMP *halas-an

wildly

to scatter wildly - PPH *sabuag

will

impose one’s will, force or compel someone to do something - PWMP *teRel

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

will eat - PAN *kaen-ay

will eat (?) - PAN *ma-kaen

will open? - PAN *ma-taŋa

will; intellect; reasoning, intention, mental presence, mind - PPH *nákem

wilt

make something wither, let something wither or wilt - PWMP *pa-layu

to wilt, wither, droop, as plants; dangling, hanging loosely - PPH *layláy

wilt, droop, as flowers - PWMP *kulay₂

wither, wilt - PAN *layu

wither, wilt - POC *palo₂

wilted

dried up, wilted (of plants) - PPH *lanes

wilted, withered - PMP *ma-layu

win

win - *(loan)

wind

a breeze, soft wind - PWMP *bui₁

blown away by the wind - PWMP *palis₁

blown away by the wind - PWMP *palij

braid, wind together - *-pid (root)

break wind, fart - PWMP *q<um>utút

calm (of the wind) - *(noise)

cause the wind to blow - POC *paka-aŋin

entangle, snarl, tie up, wind around, wrap - POC *pisi₁

expose to the wind - PMP *pa(ka)-haŋin

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

gentle breeze; blow gently, of the wind - PWMP *sap(e)quy

go against wind or current - PWMP *suŋsuŋ₁

kind of wind instrument - PWMP *pipit₁

north wind - PMP *qamihan

north wind - PAN *qamiS

point of the compass, direction of the wind - PMP *mata nu haŋin

power in natural phenomena; thunder, storm wind - POC *mana₂

rustling sound, as of leaves in wind - PWMP *kerus₂

sheltered, as from wind, rain, or sun - PMP *duŋduŋ

south or east wind - PAN *timuR

south wind (?) - PAN *SabaRat

south, south wind - PWMP *silatan

south, south wind - PWMP *salatan

southeast wind (?) - *(near)

sparks, burning ashes in the wind - PWMP *lalatu₂

stillness (of wind) - *(loan)

stop, of the wind - *(noise)

strong southeast trade wind - POC *karak₁

struck by the wind - PWMP *ka-haŋin-an

to bend, coil or wind up - POC *tali₂

to blow, as the wind - POC *pusi

to blow, as the wind - PWMP *maR-heyup

to fart, break wind - PAN *q<um>etut

to fart, break wind - PAN *pa-qetut

to fart, break wind - PWMP *maR-qetut

to fart, break wind - PWMP *maŋ-qetut

to howl, of the wind - POC *puuŋ

to make something wind around something else - PAN *pa-litlit

to sway back and forth, as plant stems in the wind - PWMP *liŋgaŋ

to wind, curve, turn to the side; to tack, sail into the wind - PMP *biluk

to wind, tie by winding around - PPh *bejbej-en

to wind, turn - PWMP *k<um>iluq

turn, wind - PWMP *li(ŋ)keD

type of wind - POC *aura

wind - PAN-F *bali₃

wind - POC *aŋin

wind - PMP *haŋin

wind around - PWMP *Ra(m)bej

wind around - PWMP *qa(m)bej

wind around - PMP *bejbej₂

wind around - *(noise)

wind around repeatedly - *-bej (root)

wind around, bind by winding around - PAN *litlit

wind around, encircle - PWMP *ti(ŋ)kes

wind around, roll up - PWMP *letlet

wind around; bundle - *-kus (root)

wind from the northeast (?) - PCEMP *raki

wind from the sea (?) - PAN *Si-lahud

wind that blows from the north - POC *tokalaur

wind thread, etc. into a ball; spool - PMP *pudun

wind, storm - *(loan)

wind, twist - *-lit₂ (root)

wrap or wind around something - PPH *lambej

wind around

wind around - *(loan)

wind-driven

wind-driven fragments of cloud, light scudding clouds - PMP *taqi nu haŋin

wind-driven rain - PWMP *ampias

winding

bind, tie together by winding around - PWMP *maŋ-bejbej

crooked, winding - PWMP *kikuʔ

curve, bend, winding - PAN *likaw

sinuous, winding - PPH *kiwal

tie by winding around - PPH *labej

to wind, tie by winding around - PPh *bejbej-en

was tied by winding around - PWMP *b<in>ejbej

wind around, bind by winding around - PAN *litlit

winding or curving - PWMP *liku₂

winding, curving repeatedly - PWMP *liku-likuq

winding, full of curves or deviations - PWMP *kiluq kiluq

zigzag, winding or curving - PMP *likuq

window

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

windy

windy - PAN-F *ma-bali₁

windy - PPh *ma-haŋin

wine

large jar used to store rice wine - PWMP *tapay-an

make rice wine (?) - PWMP *maŋ-asiʔ

palm wine - PMP *tuak

rice wine - PWMP *paŋasih

rice wine; yeast; fermented rice; fermented rice cake - PWMP *tapay

sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl - PMP *hiRup

sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl - PAN *SiRup

substance used in fermenting palm wine - *(noise)

sugarcane wine - PPH *bási

wing

beat the wings, flap the wings; sound of flapping - PMP *kapak

beat, flap the wings - POC *kabak

flap the wings - PWMP *kipak

flap the wings - PWMP *kepek

flap the wings repeatedly - POC *kaba-kabak

flutter the wings - POC *kape₁

flutter the wings - PMP *kapay

to clap, flap the wings; sound of clapping or flapping - PAN *pakpak₁

to slap, flap the wings - PWMP *ma-makpak

to wrap, encircle, as with the arms or wings - PPH *kupkup₂

wing - PMP *panid

wing - PAN *paNid

wing - POC *kabe₂

wing - PWMP *sayap

wing - PMP *qelad₂

wing - POC *banic

wing - PAN *panij

wingbeats

flutter, flap, sound of rapid wingbeats - PMP *berber₁

wingbone

wingbone of flying fox (used in tattooing process) - POC *saRu

wingbone of flying fox, used in tattooing; tattoo - POC *sau₃

wingless

young wingless locust - PPH *luktun

wink

blink, wink - PWMP *kesap

blink, wink - PWMP *pidek₁

blink, wink - PWMP *ki(n)zep

blink, wink, close the eye briefly - PPH *kimit

blink, wink, flicker, flash - PWMP *ki(n)sap

to blink, wink, momentarily close the eye - PWMP *kezep

wink, blink - PAN *pedek

wink, blink - PWMP *izep

wink, blink - PWMP *izap

winnow

to winnow - PMP *tapi

to winnow - PMP *tahep-i₁

to winnow - PAN *tapeS-i

winnow - PMP *tahep-i₂

winnow - PMP *tahep

winnow - PAN *tapeS

winnowing

shake grains on winnowing tray - *(loan)

winnowing basket - PMP *niRu

winnowing basket - PAN *Rinu

winnowing basket - PMP *tahep-an

winnowing basket - PPh *bijaw

winter

north; winter - PAN *qamiS-an

wipe

rub (it), wipe (it) - POC *usuq-a

rub, wipe - PMP *usuq

to wipe away, wipe off - PPH *nisnis-an

to wipe clean - PWMP *sutsut₂

to wipe off or brush off; broom - PMP *sapu

to wipe, rub, scrub - PPH *nisnís

to wipe, wipe off - PWMP *ma-maʔid

wipe - *(noise)

wipe after defecating - PAN *qiluS

wipe off - PWMP *pahid

wipe off - PPh *paRhid

wipe off, wipe out - PMP *punas

wiping

wiping off - PWMP *paqid

wire

wire - *(loan)

wise

wise, thoughtful - PPh *ma-ísip

wish

fulfill a promise, comply with a wish - PPH *tupád

liver; seat of the emotions, inner self: core, mind, will, desire, feeling, intelligence, understanding; to want or wish; hollow of the palm of the hand or sole of the foot; pith, as of bamboo - PMP *qatay

want, desire, wish or long for - PMP *pian

wish, aspire - *(loan)

witch

evil spirit, vampire, witch - *(loan)

witch, banshee - *(loan)

with

go with, accompany someone - PWMP *man-deŋan

with, in conjunction with; companion - PWMP *deŋen

with, in conjunction with; companion - POC *doŋan

with, in conjunction with; companion - PMP *deŋan

withdraw

withdraw, pull out, extract - POC *unus-i

withdraw, pull out, extract - POC *unus

withdraw, pull out, extract - PMP *hunus

withdraw, pull out, extract - PAN *SuNus

wither

make something wither, let something wither or wilt - PWMP *pa-layu

to wilt, wither, droop, as plants; dangling, hanging loosely - PPH *layláy

wither, wilt - PAN *layu

wither, wilt - POC *palo₂

withered

wilted, withered - PMP *ma-layu

withered, of leaves - PWMP *puspus₃

within

hold within (of emotions, thoughts)? - PMP *dalem qatay

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - PMP *dalem

insides, area within, inner part of something; between; below, under; deep; mind, feelings - POC *ralom

space within a concave object - *(noise)

within reach (?) - PPh *ma-qabut

without

chew without intending to swallow, as betel nut; premasticate food to give to an infant; premasticated food - PMP *mamaq

continue doing something, proceed without stopping - PWMP *tarus

destitute, without means of support - PPH *pugerut

equally, without distinction - PWMP *pada pada

infertile rice grain, husk without grain inside - PPH *lupes

skewer something so as to pick it up without touching it - PPH *tuRsúk

spin without wobbling, of a top - PWMP *ugəŋ

to stir-fry, cook in a frying pan without oil - PMP *saŋelaR

what is stir-fried or roasted in a pan without oil - PWMP *saŋelaR-en

witness

witness - *(loan)

wits

trick, ruse, scheme, wits - *(loan)

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wo

wobble

shake, wobble - PWMP *Ruyag

wobble, come loose, of something attached - PWMP *uteŋaq

wobbling

spin without wobbling, of a top - PWMP *ugəŋ

wobbly

loosely embedded, wobbly; to shake - PWMP *ugaq

woman

bulge, as the belly of a pregnant woman, a hunchback - PPh *buktút

cravings of a pregnant woman - PWMP *ŋidam

female, woman - POC *mapine

female, woman - PAN *ma-b<in>ahi

female, woman, wife; female of animals - PMP *bahi

old woman; female, of animals - PPH *bakes₂

take a woman as mistress - PPh *ba-bahi-en

woman, female - PCEMP *b<in>ai

woman, female - PAN *ba-bahi

woman, female - PCEMP *bai

woman, female - *(noise)

woman, wife - PAN *b<in>ahi

woman; female - POC *pai-p<in>ai

woman; female - PMP *ba-b<in>ahi

woman; female; sister (male speaker) - POC *papine

woman’s skirt; cloth used for clothing - PWMP *kain

womanize

to court girls; to womanize - PPh *ma-ba-bahi

womb

womb, uterus; birth canal - PWMP *paR-anak-an

womb? - PWMP *kanduŋ

women

head cover for women - PWMP *kuduŋ

head covering for women - PWMP *kulubuŋ

wonder

exclamation of wonder, disgust, etc. - PAN *i₁

exclamation of wonder, pain, etc. - PMP *inda₁

wood

a tree with very light wood: Octomeles sp. - PWMP *binuaŋ

artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon; fiber; vein of a leaf; grain of wood; strand (of thread, rope); fishing line; root - PMP *uRat

attacked by wood worms - PMP *bukbuk-an

burning brand; charred or smoldering wood - PMP *aluten

carving, thing made by carving wood - PWMP *ukir-an

crumbling, of wood - PMP *Re(m)puk

decaying wood; dust, powder - PMP *Rabuk

dry rot in wood - PMP *rebuk

eye, face, focal point, center or most prominent part; hole, aperture; doorway, window; budding part of plant; ‘eye’ of coconut; knot in wood; sun; core of a boil; blade of a knife; to awaken; operculum of a snail; mesh of a net; eye of a needle; noose of a trap; hearth; direction of the wind; head of a river; spring, source; lid, cover - PMP *mata

firebrand; unconsumed wood in a fire; charred wood - PWMP *aliten

flesh, lean part of meat; grain of wood - POC *pisiko

flesh, lean part of meat; grain of wood - POC *pijiko

forest, wilderness, woods - PAN *Salas

forest, wilderness, woods, jungle - PMP *halas

heartwood of a tree, hard, durable core of wood; ironwood tree - PMP *teRas

insect that infests wood and bamboo; dust produced by the boring of this insect - POC *pupuk₂

knot in wood - PMP *mata nu kahiw

node (as in bamboo or sugarcane); joint; knuckle; knot in wood; knot in string or rope - PMP *buku

node (as in bamboo or sugarcane); joint; knuckle; knot in wood; knot in string or rope; Mons veneris - POC *buku

node (as in bamboo or sugarcane); joint; knuckle; knot in wood; knot in string or rope; Mons veneris - PCEMP *buku

piece of wood used for a purpose; lie athwart, as a beam - PWMP *bali(n)taŋ

place to dry wood - PWMP *salay-an

push, slide or glide forward, as in pushing wood into a fire, or storming the enemy - PWMP *suruŋ

rotten to brittleness, of wood - PMP *reput

sea worm that attacks wood - PWMP *tambiluk

teredo, sea worm that attacks wood - PWMP *tamiluk

to adze wood, hew wood with an adze - PAN *t<um>aRaq

to adze, shape wood with an adze - PWMP *bala₁

to gather wood, as for fuel; gather firewood - PWMP *ma-ŋahiw

to split wood - POC *pwalaq

tree with wood used to make fireplows - POC *qalo₂

veining pattern on wood or other material - PWMP *kuray

weevil that infests wood, bamboo, and rice; dust produced by the boring of this insect; tooth decay, dental caries - PMP *bukbuk₃

whittle, shave wood with knife - PPH *káyas

wood chips - PWMP *tatal

wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks - PMP *taliŋa na kahiw

wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks - PAN *Caliŋa na kaSiw

wood worm - PMP *buRbuR₂

wood; strong; stiff; penis (colloquial) - POC *kayu

wood; tree - PCEMP *kayu

wood; tree - PMP *kahiw

wood; tree - PAN *kaSiw

woods, forest - PWMP *ka-kahiw-an

wood-boring

infested with wood-boring insects - PPh *ma-bukbuk

infested with wood-boring insects - PWMP *bukbuk-en

wooded

forest, wooded area - POC *kayu-kayu

wooded area, forest - PWMP *kahiw-an

wooded, having lots of trees - PMP *kahi-kahiw

wooded, having lots of trees - PAN *kaSi-kaSiw

wooden

carved wooden figure, charm used to provide magical protection - PMP *uduq₂

place where one rests the head: wooden headrest - PMP *qulun-an

rest the head on; wooden headrest - POC *quluŋ-an

shelf; bed frame of wooden or bamboo laths - PMP *pa(n)tar₂

wooden food bowl - POC *tabiRa

wooden headrest - POC *kalik

wooden headrest, pillow - PMP *qalunan

wooden implement - *(noise)

wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail or dowel - PAN *pacek

wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail, dowel, or fencepost - PAN *pasek

wooden rice mortar - PAN *iŋsuŋ

woodlouse

sowbug, woodlouse: terrestrial isopod of the genus Oniscus - PWMP *babuy babuy

woodpecker

a bird: the woodpecker - PAN *balalaCuk

woodpecker - PWMP *belatuk

wood shavings

sawdust, wood shavings - *(loan)

wood-working

wood-working tool: chisel - POC *paqot

wood-working tool: chisel - PMP *paqet

woody

a woody plant or tree: Vitex cofassus - POC *pasa(rR)

tasting 'woody' or coarse; astringent taste, as of unripe bananas - PWMP *sapela

word

fruit; areca palm and nut; grain; berry; seed; nut; endosperm of a sprouting coconut; kidney; heart; finger; calf of the leg; testicle; various insects; scar tissue; roe; bud; flower; blossom; bear fruit; words, speech, or songs; meaning, contents of discussion; numeral classifier for roundish objects; buttock; Adam's apple; nipple of the breast; button; marble; tattooing - PMP *buaq

future marker with words for days - PAN *nu-

prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *kali-) - PAN *qali-

prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *qali-) - PAN *kali-

state, express in words - PPh *beŋát₂

whatchamacallit, filler for word that cannot be recollected - PWMP *kua₂

word used to call chickens, etc. - PMP *kur

word used to call chickens, etc. - PMP *kuru₁

word, speech - PMP *liŋ₂

word, speech, language - PAN *kaRi₁

word; talk; conversation; language - PMP *sau₄

words, speech (?) - PPH *sahuq

work

do, make, create, perform; to work; to wager: deed; thing; creation; behavior, conduct, performance; work; a bet; because, on account of, through the action of; need, use for something; necessary; for (benefactive) - PMP *buhat₂

swiddden; work a swidden - PMP *quma

swidden, work a swidden - PAN *qumah

to help, assist with work - PWMP *saqup

to rest, take a break from work or other activity - PAN *Ceked

work - PAN *kuSa

work - *(loan)

work (object, instrument) from side to side - PPH *walwáR

work (object, instrument) from side to side - PPh *walwál

work a swidden - PWMP *maR-quma

work produced by sewing or stitching - PAN *C<in>aqiS

works of piety, charity - *(loan)

working

field hut; temporary shelter used when working for extended periods in fields far from the village - PAN-F *taRuqan

join forces, cooperate in working - PPh *abag

world

prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *kali-) - PAN *qali-

prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *qali-) - PAN *kali-

worm

attacked by wood worms - PMP *bukbuk-an

be afflicted with intestinal worms - PWMP *bituk-en

be infested with worms, worm-eaten - PMP *qulej-en

earthworm; intestinal worm - PWMP *gelaŋ

edible sea worm: Sipunculus spp. - POC *ibo

have worms - PMP *qulej-an

intestinal worm - PWMP *bituk

intestinal worm - PPh *bitek

intestinal worm - PMP *biaR₁

kind of worm - PWMP *caciŋ

lots of worms; crawling with worms, extremely wormy - PMP *qulej qulej

palolo worm - *(loan)

Palolo worm - *(noise)

roundworm, ascaris, intestinal worm; also earthworm? - PMP *bulati

sea worm that attacks wood - PWMP *tambiluk

teredo, sea worm that attacks wood - PWMP *tamiluk

type of small worm - PAN *qulej

wood worm - PMP *buRbuR₂

worm - PWMP *ulay

worm - *(noise)

worm (= earthworm?) - POC *sulati

worm sp. - *(noise)

worm, insect - PAN-F *kulay₁

worm-eaten

be infested with worms, worm-eaten - PMP *qulej-en

worm-eaten - PPh *b<in>ukbuk

wormy

lots of worms; crawling with worms, extremely wormy - PMP *qulej qulej

worn

old, worn out - PPH *lúmaq

worn out - *(noise)

worn out by overuse; broken; blunt - PPH *pudpud

worn out, worn down, as by overuse - PPH *ma-pudpud

worn-out

weak, tired, worn-out - PWMP *lumaq

weak, worn-out, second-hand - PWMP *luya₂

worry

be struck by fear; a state of fear or worry - PWMP *ka-takut-an

trouble, worry, difficulty - *(loan)

worsen

more (intensive), even more, moreso; surplus; to worsen (as an illness) - PWMP *lalu₁

worship

prayer, worship - *(loan)

worship, veneration - *(noise)

worth

price, worth, cost - PPH *ŋina

value, worth - *(loan)

wound

be or become wound around something - PAN *ma-litlit

fluid oozing from a wound, infected sore, or corpse - PWMP *sagu₂

healed, of a wound with shiny skin - PPH *luqnit

pepper; to sting, of a wound or spices in food - PMP *lajaq

raised flesh over a wound - POC *pupula

scab on a wound - PAN *keRan₁

scab, crust on a wound - PAN *keRaŋ₂

sore, dermal irritation, wound - POC *lake

thing around which binding is wound - PWMP *bejbej-an

to heal, as a wound - POC *mapo

to suppurate, of a wound - PWMP *nanaq-en

wound - PMP *luka

wound - PWMP *suRat

wound - PMP *nuka

wound - PWMP *paliq₂

wound - PAN *Nuka

wound - *(noise)

wound, to wound - PCEMP *abat₃

wounded

affected by sores, wounded - PMP *nuka-en

wounded - PWMP *ma-suRat

wounded - PAN *ma-Nuka

woven

be woven - PWMP *habel-en

be woven by someone - PWMP *laláh-en

kind of basket made of woven bamboo strips - PWMP *bakul

to be woven by someone - PAN *tenun-en

was woven by someone; what was woven - PAN *t<in>enun

what has been plaited or woven - PWMP *añam-en

woven bamboo walling material - *(loan)

woven cloth - PAN *t<in>enun-an

woven container - *(noise)

woven material; mat - PWMP *tepa

woven; was woven by someone - PPH *l<in>ága

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wr

wrap

bind, bundle, wrap in cloth; death shroud; cloth(ing) - PMP *balun₅

bind, bundle; wrap in cloth; death shroud; cloth(ing) - PCEMP *balun₃

bundle, package; to wrap up - PWMP *buŋkus

coil around, wrap with rope - PWMP *libej

encircle, wrap around - PPh *balíkes

encircle, wrap firmly around - *-kes (root)

entangle, snarl, tie up, wind around, wrap - POC *pisi₁

plait a cord, twist, wrap around - PMP *pirit

put on clothing, wrap around body - PMP *suluŋ₂

roll or wrap something up - PWMP *balut₂

seize, grasp, wrap around - PWMP *Rakep

tie, bind, wrap around - *-kis₂ (root)

to wrap - PAN-F *C<um>abu

to wrap - PAN-F *Cabu

to wrap - PCMP *bilu₂

to wrap around; embrace, hug - PAN *takes

to wrap in a blanket to keep warm - PPH *kumut

to wrap up, bundle up - PWMP *maŋ-buŋkus

to wrap, encircle, as with the arms or wings - PPH *kupkup₂

wrap - *(noise)

wrap around repeatedly, bind by wrapping; bundle of wrapped material - PAN *bejbej₁

wrap around tightly - PPH *tagkes

wrap around, encircle - PAN *ta(R)kes

wrap around; band around something - PWMP *hambej

wrap around; hug - PPH *hagkes

wrap firmly around, encircle tightly - POC *likos

wrap firmly around, encircle tightly - PMP *likes

wrap or wind around something - PPH *lambej

wrap tightly around - PWMP *keskes₂

wrap up; bundle, bundle of firewood - POC *pokos

wrap, bundle up - PWMP *kabat₁

wrap-around waist cloth

sarong, wrap-around waist cloth - *(near)

wrapped

cook fish or meat wrapped in banana leaves - PWMP *paqis

fish wrapped in banana leaf and cooked over hot coals - PWMP *p<in>aqis

long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying - PMP *habit

long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying - PAN *Sabit

strap; something wrapped around - PWMP *ambet

wrap around repeatedly, bind by wrapping; bundle of wrapped material - PAN *bejbej₁

wrapped packet of cooked rice - PWMP *lepet₃

wrapping

bandage, wrapping - PWMP *barut

clothing; wrapping - PMP *qules₂

cover, wrapping - PAN *lakup

tie up, tie by wrapping around - PWMP *kabej

wrap around repeatedly, bind by wrapping; bundle of wrapped material - PAN *bejbej₁

wrasse

a fish: wrasse spp. - PMP *mamin

wrasse, Cheilinus spp. - POC *taŋapa

wrestle

wrestle, grapple with - PWMP *gumul

wrestle, seize and throw a person to the ground - PPH *ludeg

wrestle, struggle with - *(loan)

wriggle

twist spasmodically, wriggle - POC *kisog

twist spasmodically, wriggle - PMP *kiseg

Wrightia

a plant: Wrightia spp. - PWMP *bitaqus

wring

squeeze out juice, wring out water - PPH *piRaq₁

squeeze out juice, wring out water - PAN *peReq

to squeeze out juice, wring out water - PWMP *ma-meRes

to squeeze out juice, wring out water - PWMP *ma-meReq

to twist or wring - PWMP *ma-mules

to wring out, as water from wet clothes - PAN-F *pedel

to wring, squeeze out by twisting or wringing - PMP *lesles₂

twist, wring - PMP *pules

twist, wring - PMP *pulis

wring, squeeze out (trans.) - POC *lolos-i

wringing

to wring, squeeze out by twisting or wringing - PMP *lesles₂

wringing, squeezing - POC *lolos

wrinkle

fold, wrinkle - *(noise)

to wrinkle, be wrinkled, as the skin - PPH *kuretret

wrinkled

shriveled, wrinkled - PWMP *kerut

to wrinkle, be wrinkled, as the skin - PPH *kuretret

wrinkled, as the skin - PWMP *kure(n)dut

wrinkled, of the skin, as from age - PPH *kubet-kubet

wrinkled; frown - PMP *reŋut

wrist

wrist bone - POC *buku ni lima

wrist bone - PCEMP *buku ni lima

write

write - *(loan)

wrong

do something wrong, make a mistake; miss the target - PWMP *s<um>alaq

do wrong, do in reverse - PAN *suŋa

get wrong, be mistaken; forget - PWMP *liŋu

make a mistake, commit an error, be wrong about something - PWMP *maR-salaq

wrong, in error (of behavior); miss (a target); mistake, error, fault - PMP *salaq₁

wrongdoing

suffer from an inflated abdomen as punishment for wrongdoing - PWMP *busuŋ-en

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wt

wth

pierce, as wth a needle; extract by piercing - PMP *suŋkit

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 7/14/2018
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
D:\Users\Stephen\Documents\Visual Studio 2008\Projects\prjACD\prjACD\bin\Debug\acd-ak_w.htm