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Updated: 5/19/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Formosan

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*k   

ke    ki    ku    

31605

*kabaR clothing

9748

PAN     *kabaR clothing [disjunct: *kabal]

Formosan
Kavalan qabarclothes, bag or coverlet made from hemp fibre
Paiwan kavaclothing
  pa-kavato clothe
  s<m>u-kavato take off clothes
  k<m>avato put on or wear clothing
Paiwan (Western) kavasnake slough

31611

*kabus₂ shrimp, lobster

9756

PAN     *kabus₂ shrimp, lobster

Formosan
Kavalan qabusshrimp (generic), lobster
Puyuma kabusshrrimp

Note:   Possibly a loan distribution, although this seems unlikely since both the Kavalan and Puyuma are in contact with the sea, and there is no obvious reason why the word for such a familiar creature would be borrowed. However, PAn *qudaŋ must be reconstructed with the same meaning based on cognates in Paiwan and many Malayo-Polynesian languages, raising questions about why two terms would coexist with the same reference.

29904

*kahuS scoop up

6571

PAN     *kahuS scoop up

Formosan
Saisiyat kahœsscooping out
Thao kaushscoop up, ladle up
  ka-kaushladle for dipping up water
Kavalan kausscoop
  sa-kaus-ana tool used to scoop up earth or grass
Paiwan kausscoop-net (for fishing or catching butterflies)

6572

PAN     *k<um>ahuS scoop up

Formosan
Saisiyat k<om>ahœsscoop out
Thao k<m>aushscoop up, ladle up
Kavalan k<m>austo scoop up earth, grass

Note:   Also Pazeh mu-haus ‘to scoop up, as noodles’. Li (1978) gives only the Actor Voice form for Saisiyat, and the base cited here is extracted without the benefit of direct attestation. This word shows -s for expected , but seems clearly to be related, and provides evidence for *h, which in general can be obtained only from reflexes in Saisiyat, Pazeh, or Amis.

29903

*kakaCu spider

6570

PAN     *kakaCu spider

Formosan
Pazeh kakasuspider
Bunun kakatuspider

Note:   Also Thao, Tsou kakatu ‘spider’, both of which appear to be loanwords from Bunun.

31894

*kaluŋkuŋ deep resounding sound

10101

PAN     *kaluŋkuŋ deep resounding sound

Formosan
Amis kaloŋkoŋthe echo of thunder
WMP
Tiruray keluŋkuŋan owl, Otus sp.

Note:   With root *-kuŋ₂ ‘deep resounding sound’. Possibly a convergent innovation from the same monosyllabic root.

30333

*kapua silk cotton, kapok

7306

PAN     *kapua silk cotton, kapok

Formosan
Pazeh kapuablanket, coverlet, quilt; sleeping mattress; cotton
Kavalan kpuacotton

Note:   The glosses for both of these languages state that the material in question is ‘cotton’, but it is clear from the ethnobotany of Taiwan that *kapua refers to the fibers of the silk-cotton tree, Ceiba pentandra, a native species on the island. Although Chen (1988) does not touch on it, other sources state that kapok was traditionally used as a lining in woven materials to keep out the cold.

29905

*kawaS₁ year, season; sky, heaven

6573

PAN     *kawaS₁ year, season; sky, heaven

Formosan
Atayal kawasyear
Seediq kawasyear
Saisiyat kawaʃsky, heaven
Pazeh kawasyear; sky, heaven
Thao kawashyear, season
Amis kawasheaven (Ferrell 1969); Kawas-God; gods; spirits, supernatural beings, ghosts’

Note:   PAn *kawaS is in competition with *CawiN ‘year’ which, however, is reflected only in southern Taiwan. It is difficult to achieve an adequate gloss for this word, as it apparently represented a concept for which there is no English equivalent, one which combined the notion ‘sky’ as the abode of deities rather than a physical domain (cf. *laŋiC ‘sky’), and at the same time related this feature of Nature to the cycling of the seasons. This word was replaced in PMP by *taqun.

30307

*kawaS₂ talk, talk about, discuss

7255

PAN     *kawaS₂ talk, talk about, discuss

Formosan
Pazeh kawasword, language; speech
  kalima-kawastalkative
  mu-kawasto speak, say, talk
  pa-kawasSay it!
Kavalan qawasdiscuss
  simsa-qawasto discuss

30245

*kaway₃ net bag used by men for carrying things on back

7118

PAN     *kaway₃ net bag used by men for carrying things on back

Formosan
Saisiyat kawaynet for carrying things on back
Pazeh kaway- ~ ta-kawaya bag (made of string) carried on a man’s back
Kavalan kawaya men’s carrying bag, net-bag (made from rattan)
  k<um>awayto carry on one’s back

Note:   Also Kavalan qaway ‘to carry a baby in a sling/cloth on the side’.

30246

*kawkaw₁ sickle for harvesting grain

7119

PAN     *kawkaw₁ sickle for harvesting grain

Formosan
Thao kawkawturn over harvested crops to allow them to dry in the sun
Amis kawkawsickle, long-blade knife with curved handle
Amis (Kiwit) kawkawsickle
Puyuma kawkawsickle
Paiwan (Western) kawkawsickle

Note:   There is some uncertainty about the PAn status of this form, given the semantic latitude that is allowed in admitting Thao kawkaw into the comparison.

TOP      ke    ki    ku    

ke

29906

*keRiw hemp plant; hemp

6574

PAN     *keRiw hemp plant; hemp

Formosan
Atayal (Squliq) kgiyhemp plant
Saisiyat (Taai) ka-kLiwhemp plant
  sin-kLiwhemp fiber
Pazeh kixiwhemp fiber
Bunun livhemp plant
Thao klhiwhemp plant; hemp; rope
Kavalan qRiwstring, thread; hemp plant, ramie/fiber
Amis kliwthread; the plant from which string or thread is made: China Grass-Ramie (Boehmeria frustescens)
Puyuma keriwwhite ramie: Boehmeria frustescens. keriw is used in rituals, in particular those dedicated to humans; in effect, ramie is the symbol of life

Note:   Up to the mid-twentieth century some Formosan aborigines still used hemp to weave clothing. To prepare it for weaving it was first soaked in water to soften the fibers.

29956

*ketun cut, sever

6639

PAN     *ketun cut, sever

Formosan
Thao ktuncut rope or thread
Kavalan ktunto cut up (as firewood)
  ktu-ktun-anto chop off
Amis ktoncut something long, with literal and figurative meanings (includes promises and agreements)

8245

PAN     *k<um>etun chop up, as firewood

Formosan
Thao k<un>tunto cut rope or thread
Kavalan k<um>tunchop wood, chop off

TOP      ke    ki    ku    

ki

29907

*kiRim seek, search, look for

6575

PAN     *kiRim seek, search, look for

Formosan
Saisiyat (Taai) kiLimseek, search for
Thao kilhimsearch, look for
Bunun kilimlook for, search for
  ki-kilimkeep looking for something
Saaroa u-a-ki-kirimiseek
Tsou riʔm-a <Mseek
Kavalan ki-kirim-ankeep searching, looking for
Amis kilimlook for, search for
Paiwan kimsearch for

6576

PAN     *ma-kiRim found?

Formosan
Thao ma-kilhimwill look for, will search for
Amis ma-kilimfound

6577

PAN     *k<um>iRim to seek, search, look for

Formosan
Saisiyat (Taai) k<om>iLimseek
Thao k<m>ilhimsearch for someone or something
Kanakanabu k<um>irímiseek
Kavalan k<m>irimseek, search, look for
Paiwan k<m>imto search for

6578

PAN     *kiRim-en be looked for

Formosan
Thao kilhim-inbe looked for by someone
Bunun kilim-unsearch, look for
Amis kilim-enlook for (it)

Note:   This comparison was first described by Tsuchida (1976:290).

TOP      ke    ki    ku    

ku

30324

*kuCkuC roll up, curl up tightly

7295

PAN     *kuCkuC roll up, curl up tightly

Formosan
Pazeh mu-kusukusroll up something light or thin such as paper, or sleeves
Puyuma kukuTroll up, curl up in the fetal position
  k<əm>ukuTroll into a ball to sleep

29958

*kulay₁ worm, insect

6641

PAN     *kulay₁ worm, insect

Formosan
Tsou roiinsect, worm
Kanakanabu kuláiinsect, worm
Saaroa kuliʔiinsect, worm
Siraya koureyworm

Note:   Also Thao ku-kulay ‘generic for creepy-crawly creatures, including beetles, worms, and any unidentified insect or other small terrestrial invertebrate; bug’. The Thao word is clearly borrowed, presumably from Bunun, although lexicographic resources for Bunun are inadequate to determine this with certainty. It is possible that this was a PTSo innovation that spread into both Siraya and Thao.

31681

*kumeS pubic hair

9845

PAN     *kumeS pubic hair [disjunct: *kumiS]

Formosan
Thao kumishpubic hair
Amis komespubic hair found in the groin area

30601

*kumiS pubic hair

8002

PAN     *kumiS pubic hair [disjunct: *kumeS]

Formosan
Atayal (Cʔuliʔ) kumishair (of animal), fur
Thao kumishpubic hair

Note:   Also Saisiyat romiʃ ‘beard, moustache’, Kavalan umis pubic hair. The meaning of the PAn form is based on the semantic agreement between Thao and the preceding forms, which show an irregular reflex of the initial consonant in Kavalan, and of the second vowel in Amis. The meaning of this form apparently had shifted to beard, moustache in PMP, although a PMP reconstruction for pubic hair is yet to be proposed.

29908

*kuNkuN Formosan hill partridge

6579

PAN     *kuNkuN Formosan hill partridge

Formosan
Pazeh kulukunbamboo partridge
Thao kuzkuzthe Formosan hill partridge: Arborophila crudigularis (Swinhoe), fam. Phasianidae
Paiwan kulʸkulʸsmall bird sp.

29909

*kuRi rake

6580

PAN     *kuRi rake

Formosan
Thao kulhirake (something)
Puyuma kurirake

6581

PAN     *ka-kuRi a rake

Formosan
Thao ka-kulhia rake
Puyuma ka-kuria rake

6582

PAN     *k<um>uRi to rake

Formosan
Thao k<m>ulhito rake
Puyuma k<em>urito rake

30379

*kuti vulva, vagina

7453

PAN     *kuti vulva, vagina

Formosan
Papora huci ~ kucivulva
Thao kutivulva, vagina
Bunun kutivulva, vagina
Paiwan kutjivulva

29959

*kuya defect, bad, defective

6642

PAN     *kuya₁ bad, defective

Formosan
Tsou kuzobad; not like, not want; not do gladly; sickness
Paiwan kuyadefect; rip, tear
  na-kuyabad, defective, dangerous (as a person)
  sa-kuyabad-tasting
  ma-pu-kuyaritually impure
  malʸe-kuyain disorder, broken; bad weather
  k<m>uyato damage
Paiwan (Western) na-kuya-ndisability

Note:   I have cited an exceptionally large number of affixed forms of this base in Paiwan in order to better tease out the semantic range of the concept designation by the term. Given its very limited attestation it is possible that this is a chance resemblance, but the evidence we have suggests that the comparison is valid. This form was replaced in PMP by *zaqet. This comparison was first proposed by Tsuchida (1976:175).

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 5/19/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Formosan-Index-k