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Updated: 3/17/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Formosan

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*l   

le    li    lu    

30644

*lahuN steam, vapor

8156

PAN     *lahuN steam, vapor

Formosan
Kanakanabu aúnusteam, vapor
Amis lahodsteam, vapor

Note:   This comparison was first proposed by Tsuchida (1976: 136).

29960

*lapis flying squirrel

6643

PAN     *lapis flying squirrel

Formosan
Saisiyat (Taai) Lapisflying squirrel
Kavalan rapisflying squirrel
Paiwan la-lapita bat (animal; Western dialect)

Note:   Also Proto-Atayalic *rapit ‘flying squirrel’. It is unclear whether *lapis and *lawaR designated different types of flying squirrels, or whether there is some other explanation for the distribution of two terms, both of which require a PAn reconstruction in this meaning.

29910

*lawaR flying squirrel

6583

PAN     *lawaR flying squirrel

Formosan
Bunun havalflying squirrel
Kanakanabu láaləflying squirrel
Saaroa laarəflying squirrel
Tsou rvorəflying squirrel
Proto-Rukai *ɭavaflying squirrel
Kavalan rawarflying squirrel
Amis (ka)-lawalflying squirrel
Puyuma (Tamalakaw) RawaR <Aflying squirrel
Paiwan lavaflying squirrel

Note:   Also Thao rawaz ‘generic for flying squirrels’ (expected **rawalh).

TOP      le    li    lu    

le

30308

*lebleb₁ foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain

7256

PAN     *lebleb₁ foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain

Formosan
Pazeh reberepfoggy, misty weather
Puyuma ɭəbɭəbvery heavy fog

7265

PAN     *ma-lebleb foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain

Formosan
Pazeh ma- reberepfoggy, misty; cloudy and misty
Puyuma mə-ɭəbɭəbvery heavy fog (the horizon is completely obscured; the weather is gloomy and promises rain, which will clear the sky and enable good weather to return)

Note:   A somewhat problematic variant of this comparison was first proposed by Tsuchida (1976:177).

TOP      le    li    lu    

li

29911

*likeS mosquito

6584

PAN     *likeS mosquito

Formosan
Thao rikishmosquito
Favorlang/Babuza riesmosquito
Amis likesmosquito, fly
Siraya rikigmosquito
Paiwan la-likegnat, midge

Note:   Also Kavalan Ris ‘mosquito’.

TOP      le    li    lu    

lu

29912

*lukeNaw Formosan clouded leopard

6585

PAN     *lukeNaw Formosan clouded leopard

Formosan
Saisiyat (Taai) Loklawclouded leopard
Thao rukcawthe Formosan clouded leopard: Neofelis nebulosa brachyurus (Swinhoe)
Tsou eʔuhoclouded leopard
Kavalan ruqnawclouded leopard

Note:   Also Bunun kuknav, Proto-Rukai *ɭikolaw, Puyuma (Tamalakaw) rikulaw ‘clouded leopard’, Paiwan likulʸaw ‘tiger cat: Felix chinensis’. Saisiyat (Taai) lʸoklaw is assum. The latter three forms may reflect a doublet *likeNaw, or show a borrowing relationhip. Saisiyat lʸoklaw is assumed to show metathesis of the syllable-initial consonants. Thao rukcaw ([rukθaw]) for expected **rukzaw ([rukðaw]) is due to voicing assimilation or mishearing.

30294

*lupas₁ peach

7229

PAN     *lupas₁ peach

Formosan
Kavalan rupaspeach
Puyuma ɭupaspeach, apricot

Note:   Also Amis lopas ‘a peach tree and its fruit’. Possibly a loan distribution. The Kavalan and Puyuma forms support *lupas, but Amis lopas indicates *lupaS. Both the Kavalan and Amis words can reflect *lupaS, but this form would then be assigned to Proto-East Formosan, not to PAn, and it would be irregular in Puyuma, suggesting possible borrowing from Amis.

29913

*lutuk₁ the Formosan hare: Lepus sinensis formosus

6586

PAN     *lutuk₁ the Formosan hare: Lepus sinensis formosus

Formosan
Saisiyat Lotokrabbit
Saisiyat (Taai) Lotokrabbit
Papora ludúhrabbit
Siraya rutokrabbit, hare
Proto-Rukai *lotokorabbit
Rukai (Budai) Lotokorabbit, hare
Rukai (Tona) otokorabbit, hare
Paiwan lutjukrabbit, hare
Tsou eutukarabbit, hare

Note:   Also Kanakanabu, Saaroa lituka ‘hare, wild rabbit’.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 3/17/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Formosan-Index-l