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Updated: 1/12/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Formosan

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*R   

Ri    Ru    

30279

*RabiS small knife

7190

PAN     *RabiS small knife

Formosan
Saisiyat Labiʃsmall knife
Kavalan Rabisa pocket knife

30645

*Rahap seeds for sowing

8157

PAN     *Rahap seeds for sowing

Formosan
Atayal gahapseeds for sowing
Seediq (Truku) gəxapseeds for sowing
Saaroa taru-arapəto sow
Tsou mi-rapoto sow
  hio-raposeeds for sowing

8158

PAN     *R<um>ahap to sow seeds

Formosan
Atayal g<əm>ahapto sow
Kanakanabu r<um>a-ráapəto sow

Note:   Also Seediq (Truku) gəxak ‘seeds for sowing’. This comparison was first proposed by Tsuchida (1976: 136).

29920

*RameC root

6594

PAN     *RameC root   [doublet: *RamiS]

Formosan
Saisiyat Lamesroot
Pazeh xamessmall roots
Thao lhamicroot of tree or grass
Trobiawan lametroot

Note:   Also Amis lamit ‘root (with literal and figurative meanings). Possibly identical to PMP *Ramut ‘root’, with an irregular change of the last vowel.

29970

*RamiS root

6654

PAN     *RamiS root   [doublet: *RameC]

Formosan
Bunun lamisroot
Tsou rmisiroot
Puyuma ramisubterranean root
Paiwan amishair-root (of plant); rough hemp cord

Note:   Also Atayal gamil ‘root’, Amis (Central) lamit ‘root’.

TOP      Ri    Ru    

Ri

29996

*Ribawa swell; swelling, tumor

6688

PAN     *Ribawa swell; swelling, tumor

Formosan
Saisiyat ma-Lbawaswelling
  bawalump
Thao lh<um>fawaswollen from contusion (not water retention)
  lh<m><im>fawawas swollen
Amis lifawaswell, be swollen; tumor

Note:   Also Amis (Kiwit) ma-lu-vawa (= ma-luvawa?). Saisiyat bawaʔ probably is a product of analogical wrong division which resulted from reanalyzing the prefix *ma + stem-initial *R as the common active verb prefix maL-.

29997

*Rimeja sword grass: Imperata cylindrica

6689

PAN     *Rimeja sword grass: Imperata cylindrica

Formosan
Seediq (Tkdaya) gmeyasword grass: Imperata cylindrica
Saisiyat ləmzæsmall miscanthus
Thao lhimza <Msword grass, a dominant opportunistic colonist of former farmland traditionally used as roofing material on houses and granaries: Imperata cylindrica

Note:   This comparison was first pointed out by Li (1994).

29921

*RiNaS long feathers used for personal adornment

6595

PAN     *RiNaS long feathers used for personal adornment

Formosan
Thao lhizashlong feathers of a bird or fowl, whether wing pinions or tail feathers
Bunun (Isbukun) ɬinaspheasant
Kavalan rinasfeather (long and beautiful)

6596

PAN     *RiNaS-an the male of Swinhoe’s blue pheasant

Formosan
Thao lhizash-anthe male of Swinhoe’s blue pheasant, a chicken-sized bird with blue and white tail feathers and a red face: Lophura swinhoii Gould

Note:   Given the clear morphological connection between these forms it is reasonable to assume that *RiNaS referred in particular to the tail feathers of the male Swinhoe’s blue pheasant, since these are particularly long and striking, with their peacock-like patterns of ocelli. Within historical times such feathers were highly valued in the traditional cultures of several Formosan aboriginal groups. This term is striking in that the name of the animal from which the natural product comes is derived by suffixation with *-an ‘locative’ (male Swinhoe’s blue pheasant lit. = ‘source of long tail feathers’). The correctness of this interpretation is confirmed by a parallel usage with *waNiS ‘tusk of wild boar’ : *waNiS-an ‘wild boar’, where the name for the wild boar is literally ‘source of tusks’, another natural product that was traditionally valued for its decorative uses among the Formosan aborigines.

29949

*Ritu loquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa

6629

PAN     *Ritu loquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa

Formosan
Atayal (Squliq) gituevergreen tree with yellow plumlike fruit: the loquat: Eriobotrya deflexa
Seediq gituloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa
Saisiyat (Taai) LituɁloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa
Bunun lituloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa
Tsou rtuuloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa
Kanakanabu rítuloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa
Saaroa rituloquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa
Paiwan itjuloquat, fruit of Eriobotrya deflexa

Note:   This comparison was first noted by Li (1994).

TOP      Ri    Ru    

Ru

29922

*Rubu nest, lair

6597

PAN     *Rubu nest, lair   [doublet: *Nibu]

Formosan
Pazeh xubunest (of bird); sheath (of sword)
Kavalan rubuden, animal lair; beehive, ant nest
Puyuma rubunest
Paiwan (Tjuabu) ruvua nest
Paiwan (Western) ruvu-ruvunest; prison

Note:   Also Kavalan Rupu ‘pen, corral (as for pigs), enclosure; pigpen, chicken house; bird nest, ant nest’.

30326

*RuSRuS to scrape smooth, to plane a surface

7297

PAN     *RuSRuS to scrape smooth, to plane a surface

Formosan
Pazeh mu-xusuxusto plane (a board)
  x<a>usuxusto scrape bamboo knots
Kavalan luslusto plane; to grate; plane (tool)
  m-luslusto plane, to grate
  ni-luslus-anplaned board

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 1/12/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Formosan-Index-R