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Updated: 3/17/2019

 

Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Formosan

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*s   

se    si    su    

29999

*sakay₂ walk

6691

PAN     *sakay₂ walk

Formosan
Pazeh zakaywalk
  z<in>akaybehavior
  z<in>akay-anfootprints, traces
Kavalan saqaywalk
  pa-saqayto send (something), to deliver
  p<n>a-saqaycontagious disease, epidemic
  saqay-awanjob, work

6692

PAN     *s<um>akay to walk

Formosan
Pazeh mu-zakayto walk
Trobiawan ts<um>akaito walk
Kavalan s<m>aqayto walk

29923

*sakeC muntjac, barking deer

6598

PAN     *sakeC muntjac, barking deer

Formosan
Thao takicmuntjac, barking deer
Bunun sakutmuntjac, barking deer
Paiwan taketsmuntjac, pygmy deer
Bunun (Isbukun) sakutbarking deer

Note:   Also Pazeh maket, Tsou taʔacə, Kanakanabu sakut, Proto-Rukai *akəcə ‘muntjac, pygmy deer’. Although this word can be securely reconstructed for PAn, it shows phonological irregularities in a number of languages, and its attested distribution may be due in part to borrowing. Kanakanabu sakut is most simply explained as a loan from Bunun but loan sources for the irregular forms in Pazeh, Tsou and the Rukai languages remain unclear. Finally, as the smallest of the three species of deer native to Taiwan the muntjac is often called the ‘pygmy deer’, but in Borneo and other parts of western Indonesia it is the middle-sized member of three deer species (the smallest being the mousedeer, Tragulus kanchil), and is commonly known there as the ‘barking deer’, from its dog-like barking call.

31158

*sakut to carry, transport, move something

9158

PAN     *sakut to carry, transport, move something [disjunct: *SakuC]

Formosan
Atayal hakutcarry, bring
Kavalan saqutto move something, to carry, to transport (anything)
  ti-saqutto carry with or by
  saqut-icarry it!

9159

PAN     *s<um>akut to carry, transport, move something

Formosan
Atayal h<m>akutto carry, bring
Kavalan s<m>aqutto move something, to carry, to transport (anything)

Note:   Also Kenyah (Long Wat) sakud ‘to carry something piecemeal (in several trips)’.

31476

*salaw to pour, of heavy rain

9590

PAN     *salaw to pour, of heavy rain

Formosan
Thao mun-tarawto pour, of heavy rain; to rain ‘cats and dogs’
  un-taraw-inbe caught in a downpour
Paiwan talawfalling water
  ki-pa-talawto sit under falling water
  pa-talawput out a container in order to catch falling water
  t<m>alawto catch falling water in a container
  t<in>alawwater which has fallen

31477

*samaq remnant, leftover

9591

PAN     *samaq remnant, leftover

Formosan
Puyuma samaɁremnant (as of soil being used for a job, food left for someone)
  mi-samaɁto have remnants
Paiwan tamaqa fraction (of thing, number)

Note:   I normally avoid proposing a reconstruction that is based solely on the comparison of two geographically adjacent Formosan languages. However, in the present case significant differences in both phonological form and meaning greatly reduce the likelihood that this distribution is a product of borrowing.

31231

*saNiw whetstone

9276

PAN     *saNiw whetstone

Formosan
Amis cadiwto sharpen
  sa-cadiwinstrument used for sharpening, as a rock
Paiwan taɬiwsmall (pocket-sized) whetstone
  t<m>aɬiwto hone, to whet (as knife)

TOP      se    si    su    

se

31360

*sequŋ horn of an animal

9446

PAN     *sequŋ horn of an animal

Formosan
Saisiyat kæ-hɁœŋhorn
Paiwan tequŋhorn
  t<m>equŋto use horns (as buffalo when fighting)

Note:   Also Puyuma suqaŋ ‘horn, antler’. Li (1978:143) proposed ‘Proto-Southern Formosan’ *səq₁uŋ ‘horn’

TOP      se    si    su    

si

30296

*sihikay maggot

7231

PAN     *sihikay maggot

Formosan
Pazeh zihikaymaggot
Paiwan tikaymaggot

Note:   Also Thao dilhkay, Bunun sukað ‘maggot’, Manobo (Western Bukidnon) tagkey ‘maggot’, Maranao tagkai ‘worm’.

30015

*siRa₁ yesterday

6709

PAN     *siRa₁ yesterday

Formosan
Atayal (Cʔuliʔ) hirayesterday
Saisiyat (Taai) ka-hiLayesterday
Thao tilhayesterday
Amis (Kiwit) anu-tsilatomorrow
  cila satonext day
  ano-cilatomorrow
  ina-cilayesterday
  cila-cilafrequently

Note:   Also Atayal (Squliq) hera, Saaroa ki:ra ‘yesterday’.

TOP      se    si    su    

su

30311

*supay whetting, sharpening

7259

PAN     *supay whetting, sharpening

Formosan
Pazeh zupaywhet (a knife)
Kavalan supay-whet, sharpen
Puyuma supaysharpen in water

7260

PAN     *s<um>upay to whet, grate, sharpen

Formosan
Pazeh mu-zupayto whet (a knife), to grate (as a radish) with a grater having sharp notches
Kavalan s<m>upayto sharpen (as a knife)
Puyuma s<əm>upayto sharpen in water

7261

PAN     *sa-supay-an whetstone

Formosan
Pazeh za-zupay-enwhetstone
Kavalan supay-anwhetstone
Puyuma sa-supay-anwhetstone

Note:   There is no perfect correspondence between any two forms reflecting what I posit as *sa-supay-an ‘whetstone’. However, Pazeh and Puyuma, two languages that probably have not been in contact since the differentiation of the PAn speech community, agree in forming this word by Ca- reduplication plus a suffix (reflecting either *-en or *-an). The choice of *-an is supported by agreement between Kavalan and Puyuma, two languages with no known history of mutual contact.

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Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition
Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel
www.trussel2.com/ACD
2010: revision 3/17/2019
email: Blust (content) – Trussel (production)
Formosan-Index-s